WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous musical training

  1. Music training, cognition, and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrigall, Kathleen A; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Misura, Nicole M

    2013-01-01

    Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1) and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2). We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1) individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2) personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3) future correlational studies of links between music training and non-musical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  2. Music training, cognition, and personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen A Corrigall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although most studies that examined associations between music training and cognitive abilities had correlational designs, the prevailing bias is that music training causes improvements in cognition. It is also possible, however, that high-functioning children are more likely than other children to take music lessons, and that they also differ in personality. We asked whether individual differences in cognition and personality predict who takes music lessons and for how long. The participants were 118 adults (Study 1 and 167 10- to 12-year-old children (Study 2. We collected demographic information and measured cognitive ability and the Big Five personality dimensions. As in previous research, cognitive ability was associated with musical involvement even when demographic variables were controlled statistically. Novel findings indicated that personality was associated with musical involvement when demographics and cognitive ability were held constant, and that openness-to-experience was the personality dimension with the best predictive power. These findings reveal that: (1 individual differences influence who takes music lessons and for how long, (2 personality variables are at least as good as cognitive variables at predicting music training, and (3 future correlational studies of links between music training and nonmusical ability should account for individual differences in personality.

  3. Musical training, neuroplasticity and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Loureiro, Maurício Alves; Caramelli, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    The influence of music on the human brain has been recently investigated in numerous studies. Several investigations have shown that structural and functional cerebral neuroplastic processes emerge as a result of long-term musical training, which in turn may produce cognitive differences between musicians and non-musicians. Musicians can be considered ideal cases for studies on brain adaptation, due to their unique and intensive training experiences. This article presents a review of recent findings showing positive effects of musical training on non-musical cognitive abilities, which probably reflect plastic changes in brains of musicians.

  4. Advanced Music Therapy Supervision Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    supervision training excerpts live in the workshop will be offered. The workshop will include demonstrating a variety of supervision methods and techniques used in A) post graduate music therapy training programs b) a variety of work contexts such as psychiatry and somatic music psychotherapy. The workshop......The presentation will illustrate training models in supervision for experienced music therapists where transference/counter transference issues are in focus. Musical, verbal and body related tools will be illustrated from supervision practice by the presenters. A possibility to experience small...

  5. Music Training and Working Memory: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elyse M.; Coch, Donna

    2011-01-01

    While previous research has suggested that music training is associated with improvements in various cognitive and linguistic skills, the mechanisms mediating or underlying these associations are mostly unknown. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that previous music training is related to improved working memory. Using event-related potentials…

  6. Short-term Music Training Enhances Complex, Distributed Neural Communication during Music and Linguistic Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Sarah M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is frequently associated with benefits to linguistic abilities, and recent focus has been placed on possible benefits of bilingualism to lifelong executive functions; however, the neural mechanisms for such effects are unclear. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the whole-brain functional effects of music and second-language training that could support such previously observed cognitive transfer effects. We conducted a 28-day longitudinal study of monolingual English-speaking 4- to 6-year-old children randomly selected to receive daily music or French language training, excluding weekends. Children completed passive EEG music note and French vowel auditory oddball detection tasks before and after training. Brain signal complexity was measured on source waveforms at multiple temporal scales as an index of neural information processing and network communication load. Comparing pretraining with posttraining, musical training was associated with increased EEG complexity at coarse temporal scales during the music and French vowel tasks in widely distributed cortical regions. Conversely, very minimal decreases in complexity at fine scales and trends toward coarse-scale increases were displayed after French training during the tasks. Spectral analysis failed to distinguish between training types and found overall theta (3.5-7.5 Hz) power increases after all training forms, with spatially fewer decreases in power at higher frequencies (>10 Hz). These findings demonstrate that musical training increased diversity of brain network states to support domain-specific music skill acquisition and music-to-language transfer effects.

  7. Music and speech distractors disrupt sensorimotor synchronization: effects of musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białuńska, Anita; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2017-12-01

    Humans display a natural tendency to move to the beat of music, more than to the rhythm of any other auditory stimulus. We typically move with music, but rarely with speech. This proclivity is apparent early during development and can be further developed over the years via joint dancing, singing, or instrument playing. Synchronization of movement to the beat can thus improve with age, but also with musical experience. In a previous study, we found that music perturbed synchronization with a metronome more than speech fragments; music superiority disappeared when distractors shared isochrony and the same meter (Dalla Bella et al., PLoS One 8(8):e71945, 2013). Here, we examined if the interfering effect of music and speech distractors in a synchronization task is influenced by musical training. Musicians and non-musicians synchronized by producing finger force pulses to the sounds of a metronome while music and speech distractors were presented at one of various phase relationships with respect to the target. Distractors were familiar musical excerpts and fragments of children poetry comparable in terms of beat/stress isochrony. Music perturbed synchronization with the metronome more than speech did in both groups. However, the difference in synchronization error between music and speech distractors was smaller for musicians than for non-musicians, especially when the peak force of movement is reached. These findings point to a link between musical training and timing of sensorimotor synchronization when reacting to music and speech distractors.

  8. Music teacher training in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses views of early childhood music teachers and conservatory teachers on relations between theory and practice and between teacher training and teaching practice. Tentative conclusions were a.o. that teachers and even more educators tend to value practical over theoretical...... knowledge; educators tend to understand teacher training in terms of apprenticeship rather than acquisition of theoretical as well as practical based professional competence in teaching; teacher training is in effect vocational rather than professional, though it is claimed to be so....

  9. Music training and speech perception: a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Claims of beneficial side effects of music training are made for many different abilities, including verbal and visuospatial abilities, executive functions, working memory, IQ, and speech perception in particular. Such claims assume that music training causes the associations even though children who take music lessons are likely to differ from other children in music aptitude, which is associated with many aspects of speech perception. Music training in childhood is also associated with cognitive, personality, and demographic variables, and it is well established that IQ and personality are determined largely by genetics. Recent evidence also indicates that the role of genetics in music aptitude and music achievement is much larger than previously thought. In short, music training is an ideal model for the study of gene-environment interactions but far less appropriate as a model for the study of plasticity. Children seek out environments, including those with music lessons, that are consistent with their predispositions; such environments exaggerate preexisting individual differences. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Music training alters the course of adolescent auditory development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam T.; Krizman, Jennifer; Kraus, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes in brain structure and function during adolescence are well-characterized, but the extent to which experience modulates adolescent neurodevelopment is not. Musical experience provides an ideal case for examining this question because the influence of music training begun early in life is well-known. We investigated the effects of in-school music training, previously shown to enhance auditory skills, versus another in-school training program that did not focus on development of auditory skills (active control). We tested adolescents on neural responses to sound and language skills before they entered high school (pretraining) and again 3 y later. Here, we show that in-school music training begun in high school prolongs the stability of subcortical sound processing and accelerates maturation of cortical auditory responses. Although phonological processing improved in both the music training and active control groups, the enhancement was greater in adolescents who underwent music training. Thus, music training initiated as late as adolescence can enhance neural processing of sound and confer benefits for language skills. These results establish the potential for experience-driven brain plasticity during adolescence and demonstrate that in-school programs can engender these changes. PMID:26195739

  11. The Effects of Musical Aptitude and Musical Training on Phonological Production in Foreign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhengwei; Wu, Yidi; Xiang, Xiaocui; Qian, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates 128 Chinese college students to examine the effects of their musical aptitude and musical training on phonological production in four foreign languages. Results show that musically-trained students remarkably possessed stronger musical aptitude than those without musical training and performed better than their counterpart…

  12. Training the non-specialist music teacher: insights from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Training the non-specialist music teacher: insights from a Zimbabwean case study. ... music education in primary schools is taught by general classroom teachers, who ... JOURNAL OF THE MUSICAL ARTS IN AFRICA VOLUME 7 2010, 1–15 ...

  13. Influence of musical expertise and musical training on pitch processing in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Mireille; Schön, Daniele; Moreno, Sylvain; Santos, Andréia; Magne, Cyrille

    2007-01-01

    We review a series of experiments aimed at studying pitch processing in music and speech. These studies were conducted with musician and non musician adults and children. We found that musical expertise improved pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Demonstrating transfer of training between music and language has interesting applications for second language learning. We also addressed the issue of whether the positive effects of musical expertise are linked with specific predispositions for music or with extensive musical practice. Results of longitudinal studies argue for the later. Finally, we also examined pitch processing in dyslexic children and found that they had difficulties discriminating strong pitch changes that are easily discriminate by normal readers. These results argue for a strong link between basic auditory perception abilities and reading abilities. We used conjointly the behavioral method (Reaction Times and error rates) and the electrophysiological method (recording of the changes in brain electrical activity time-locked to stimulus presentation, Event-Related brain Potentials or ERPs). A set of common processes may be responsible for pitch processing in music and in speech and these processes are shaped by musical practice. These data add evidence in favor of brain plasticity and open interesting perspectives for the remediation of dyslexia using musical training.

  14. University Vocal Training and Vocal Health of Music Educators and Music Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Vicki D.; Cohen, Nicki

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the university vocal training and vocal health of music educators and music therapists. The participants (N = 426), music educators (n = 351) and music therapists (n = 75), completed a survey addressing demographics, vocal training, voice usage, and vocal health. Both groups reported singing at least 50%…

  15. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberg, E Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A; Dys, Sebastian P; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills.

  16. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Glenn Schellenberg

    Full Text Available We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect was limited to children who had poor prosocial skills before the lessons began. The effect was evident even when the lessons were compulsory, which minimized the role of self-selection. The results suggest that group music training facilitates the development of prosocial skills.

  17. Group Music Training and Children's Prosocial Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Corrigall, Kathleen A.; Dys, Sebastian P.; Malti, Tina

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if group music training in childhood is associated with prosocial skills. Children in 3rd or 4th grade who attended 10 months of music lessons taught in groups were compared to a control group of children matched for socio-economic status. All children were administered tests of prosocial skills near the beginning and end of the 10-month period. Compared to the control group, children in the music group had larger increases in sympathy and prosocial behavior, but this effect w...

  18. Influence of musical and psychoacoustical training on pitch discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheyl, Christophe; Delhommeau, Karine; Perrot, Xavier; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2006-09-01

    This study compared the influence of musical and psychoacoustical training on auditory pitch discrimination abilities. In a first experiment, pitch discrimination thresholds for pure and complex tones were measured in 30 classical musicians and 30 non-musicians, none of whom had prior psychoacoustical training. The non-musicians' mean thresholds were more than six times larger than those of the classical musicians initially, and still about four times larger after 2h of training using an adaptive two-interval forced-choice procedure; this difference is two to three times larger than suggested by previous studies. The musicians' thresholds were close to those measured in earlier psychoacoustical studies using highly trained listeners, and showed little improvement with training; this suggests that classical musical training can lead to optimal or nearly optimal pitch discrimination performance. A second experiment was performed to determine how much additional training was required for the non-musicians to obtain thresholds as low as those of the classical musicians from experiment 1. Eight new non-musicians with no prior training practiced the frequency discrimination task for a total of 14 h. It took between 4 and 8h of training for their thresholds to become as small as those measured in the classical musicians from experiment 1. These findings supplement and qualify earlier data in the literature regarding the respective influence of musical and psychoacoustical training on pitch discrimination performance.

  19. Benefits of Music Training for Perception of Emotional Speech Prosody in Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Arla; Gordon, Karen A; Papsin, Blake C; Nespoli, Gabe; Hopyan, Talar; Peretz, Isabelle; Russo, Frank A

    Children who use cochlear implants (CIs) have characteristic pitch processing deficits leading to impairments in music perception and in understanding emotional intention in spoken language. Music training for normal-hearing children has previously been shown to benefit perception of emotional prosody. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether deaf children who use CIs obtain similar benefits from music training. We hypothesized that music training would lead to gains in auditory processing and that these gains would transfer to emotional speech prosody perception. Study participants were 18 child CI users (ages 6 to 15). Participants received either 6 months of music training (i.e., individualized piano lessons) or 6 months of visual art training (i.e., individualized painting lessons). Measures of music perception and emotional speech prosody perception were obtained pre-, mid-, and post-training. The Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Musical Abilities was used to measure five different aspects of music perception (scale, contour, interval, rhythm, and incidental memory). The emotional speech prosody task required participants to identify the emotional intention of a semantically neutral sentence under audio-only and audiovisual conditions. Music training led to improved performance on tasks requiring the discrimination of melodic contour and rhythm, as well as incidental memory for melodies. These improvements were predominantly found from mid- to post-training. Critically, music training also improved emotional speech prosody perception. Music training was most advantageous in audio-only conditions. Art training did not lead to the same improvements. Music training can lead to improvements in perception of music and emotional speech prosody, and thus may be an effective supplementary technique for supporting auditory rehabilitation following cochlear implantation.

  20. Benefits of Music Training for Perception of Emotional Speech Prosody in Deaf Children With Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Karen A.; Papsin, Blake C.; Nespoli, Gabe; Hopyan, Talar; Peretz, Isabelle; Russo, Frank A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Children who use cochlear implants (CIs) have characteristic pitch processing deficits leading to impairments in music perception and in understanding emotional intention in spoken language. Music training for normal-hearing children has previously been shown to benefit perception of emotional prosody. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether deaf children who use CIs obtain similar benefits from music training. We hypothesized that music training would lead to gains in auditory processing and that these gains would transfer to emotional speech prosody perception. Design: Study participants were 18 child CI users (ages 6 to 15). Participants received either 6 months of music training (i.e., individualized piano lessons) or 6 months of visual art training (i.e., individualized painting lessons). Measures of music perception and emotional speech prosody perception were obtained pre-, mid-, and post-training. The Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Musical Abilities was used to measure five different aspects of music perception (scale, contour, interval, rhythm, and incidental memory). The emotional speech prosody task required participants to identify the emotional intention of a semantically neutral sentence under audio-only and audiovisual conditions. Results: Music training led to improved performance on tasks requiring the discrimination of melodic contour and rhythm, as well as incidental memory for melodies. These improvements were predominantly found from mid- to post-training. Critically, music training also improved emotional speech prosody perception. Music training was most advantageous in audio-only conditions. Art training did not lead to the same improvements. Conclusions: Music training can lead to improvements in perception of music and emotional speech prosody, and thus may be an effective supplementary technique for supporting auditory rehabilitation following cochlear implantation. PMID:28085739

  1. Effects of Koto Performance Seminar on Music Teacher Training

    OpenAIRE

    伊藤, 真; 平山, 裕基

    2017-01-01

    Music teachers need to have wide range of knowledge and teaching skills. This includes knowledge of world music such as Japanese traditional music, methods of instruction and performance skill. The department of Music Culture Education in Hiroshima University provides a variety of lectures and seminars on Japanese traditional music as a part of music teacher training, of which playing the koto (a long Japanese zither with 13 strings) is especially stressed as a continuous learning opportunity...

  2. The "silent" imprint of musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Carina; Liem, Franziskus; Hänggi, Jürgen; Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2016-02-01

    Playing a musical instrument at a professional level is a complex multimodal task requiring information integration between different brain regions supporting auditory, somatosensory, motor, and cognitive functions. These kinds of task-specific activations are known to have a profound influence on both the functional and structural architecture of the human brain. However, until now, it is widely unknown whether this specific imprint of musical practice can still be detected during rest when no musical instrument is used. Therefore, we applied high-density electroencephalography and evaluated whole-brain functional connectivity as well as small-world topologies (i.e., node degree) during resting state in a sample of 15 professional musicians and 15 nonmusicians. As expected, musicians demonstrate increased intra- and interhemispheric functional connectivity between those brain regions that are typically involved in music perception and production, such as the auditory, the sensorimotor, and prefrontal cortex as well as Broca's area. In addition, mean connectivity within this specific network was positively related to musical skill and the total number of training hours. Thus, we conclude that musical training distinctively shapes intrinsic functional network characteristics in such a manner that its signature can still be detected during a task-free condition. Hum Brain Mapp 37:536-546, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Music for little digital ears - Music training with preschool children using cochlear implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Hardgrove Hansen, Roberta; Beyer, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Little is known about music perception of early implanted deaf children with CIs. This study aimed to examine the effects of a music training program on the musical and linguistic skills of pediatric CI users. Methods: Ten pediatric CI-users received multi-disciplinary music training for 3...... environment and substantial listening practice and may support long-term musical, linguistic, and cultural development of these children....

  4. Musical Training and Late-Life Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F; Abner, Erin L; Jicha, Gregory A; Kryscio, Richard J; Schmitt, Fredrick A

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups' longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that high-knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to low-knowledge participants. The ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early- to midlife musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve. © The Author(s) 2013.

  5. Comparison of Two Music Training Approaches on Music and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christina D; Galvin, John J; Maat, Bert; Başkent, Deniz; Free, Rolien H

    2018-01-01

    In normal-hearing (NH) adults, long-term music training may benefit music and speech perception, even when listening to spectro-temporally degraded signals as experienced by cochlear implant (CI) users. In this study, we compared two different music training approaches in CI users and their effects on speech and music perception, as it remains unclear which approach to music training might be best. The approaches differed in terms of music exercises and social interaction. For the pitch/timbre group, melodic contour identification (MCI) training was performed using computer software. For the music therapy group, training involved face-to-face group exercises (rhythm perception, musical speech perception, music perception, singing, vocal emotion identification, and music improvisation). For the control group, training involved group nonmusic activities (e.g., writing, cooking, and woodworking). Training consisted of weekly 2-hr sessions over a 6-week period. Speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, vocal emotion identification, MCI, and quality of life (QoL) were measured before and after training. The different training approaches appeared to offer different benefits for music and speech perception. Training effects were observed within-domain (better MCI performance for the pitch/timbre group), with little cross-domain transfer of music training (emotion identification significantly improved for the music therapy group). While training had no significant effect on QoL, the music therapy group reported better perceptual skills across training sessions. These results suggest that more extensive and intensive training approaches that combine pitch training with the social aspects of music therapy may further benefit CI users.

  6. Music training for the development of auditory skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2010-08-01

    The effects of music training in relation to brain plasticity have caused excitement, evident from the popularity of books on this topic among scientists and the general public. Neuroscience research has shown that music training leads to changes throughout the auditory system that prime musicians for listening challenges beyond music processing. This effect of music training suggests that, akin to physical exercise and its impact on body fitness, music is a resource that tones the brain for auditory fitness. Therefore, the role of music in shaping individual development deserves consideration.

  7. Musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Belenkaya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to justify theoretically the need for musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports. Material & Methods: theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature, pedagogical supervision. Results: the main directions of musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports were reviewed. It was discovered that in these types of sports coaches must have specific musical and rhythmic motor skills involving the use of musical accompaniment as a methodological technique for training sessions. The means of music and rhythmic education, which facilitate effective musical training of coaches in aesthetic-oriented sports, were determined. Conclusions: the necessity of improving the teaching methods of the subject "music and rhythmic education" as part of the musical training of coaches in aesthetic-orientated sports, was theoretically justified.

  8. Comparison of Two Music Training Approaches on Music and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuller, Christina D; Galvin, John J; Maat, Bert; Başkent, Deniz; Free, Rolien H

    2018-01-01

    In normal-hearing (NH) adults, long-term music training may benefit music and speech perception, even when listening to spectro-temporally degraded signals as experienced by cochlear implant (CI) users. In this study, we compared two different music training approaches in CI users and their effects

  9. Influence of musical training on sensitivity to temporal fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R; Raj, Swapna

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the findings that temporal fine structure encoding is altered in musicians by examining sensitivity to temporal fine structure (TFS) in an alternative (non-Western) musician model that is rarely adopted--Indian classical music. The sensitivity to TFS was measured by the ability to discriminate two complex tones that differed in TFS but not in envelope repetition rate. Sixteen South Indian classical (Carnatic) musicians and 28 non-musicians with normal hearing participated in this study. Musicians have significantly lower relative frequency shift at threshold in the TFS task compared to non-musicians. A significant negative correlation was observed between years of musical experience and relative frequency shift at threshold in the TFS task. Test-retest repeatability of thresholds in the TFS tasks was similar for both musicians and non-musicians. The enhanced performance of the Carnatic-trained musicians suggests that the musician advantage for frequency and harmonicity discrimination is not restricted to training in Western classical music, on which much of the previous research on musical training has narrowly focused. The perceptual judgments obtained from non-musicians were as reliable as those of musicians.

  10. Music makes the world go round: The impact of musical training on non-musical cognitive functions—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eBenz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training is becoming increasingly popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree musical experience generalizes to cognitive functions unrelated to music abilities in healthy humans. In general, it seems that musical training is associated with enhancing effects, even if sometimes only restricted to the auditory domain, on various cognitive functions spanning from executive control to creativity. We conclude that musical engagement may be a useful cognitive training to promote cognitive enhancement, but more research using longitudinal studies and taking into account individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits.

  11. Music Makes the World Go Round: The Impact of Musical Training on Non-musical Cognitive Functions-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benz, Sarah; Sellaro, Roberta; Hommel, Bernhard; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2015-01-01

    Musical training is becoming increasingly popular as a topic for scientific research. Here we review the available studies investigating whether and to which degree musical experience generalizes to cognitive functions unrelated to music abilities in healthy humans. In general, it seems that musical training is associated with enhancing effects, even if sometimes only restricted to the auditory domain, on various cognitive functions spanning from executive control to creativity. We conclude that musical engagement may be a useful cognitive training to promote cognitive enhancement, but more research using longitudinal studies and taking into account individual differences is necessary to determine actual benefits.

  12. Neurophysiological Influence of Musical Training on Speech Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin, Antoine J.

    2011-01-01

    Does musical training affect our perception of speech? For example, does learning to play a musical instrument modify the neural circuitry for auditory processing in a way that improves one’s ability to perceive speech more clearly in noisy environments? If so, can speech perception in individuals with hearing loss, who struggle in noisy situations, benefit from musical training? While music and speech exhibit some specialization in neural processing, there is evidence suggesting that skill...

  13. Music training for the development of reading skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    The beneficial effects of musical training are not limited to enhancement of musical skills, but extend to language skills. Here, we review evidence that musical training can enhance reading ability. First, we discuss five subskills underlying reading acquisition-phonological awareness, speech-in-noise perception, rhythm perception, auditory working memory, and the ability to learn sound patterns-and show that each is linked to music experience. We link these five subskills through a unifying biological framework, positing that they share a reliance on auditory neural synchrony. After laying this theoretical groundwork for why musical training might be expected to enhance reading skills, we review the results of longitudinal studies providing evidence for a role for musical training in enhancing language abilities. Taken as a whole, these findings suggest that musical training can provide an effective developmental educational strategy for all children, including those with language learning impairments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Music training and working memory: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Elyse M; Coch, Donna

    2011-04-01

    While previous research has suggested that music training is associated with improvements in various cognitive and linguistic skills, the mechanisms mediating or underlying these associations are mostly unknown. Here, we addressed the hypothesis that previous music training is related to improved working memory. Using event-related potentials (ERPs) and a standardized test of working memory, we investigated both neural and behavioral aspects of working memory in college-aged, non-professional musicians and non-musicians. Behaviorally, musicians outperformed non-musicians on standardized subtests of visual, phonological, and executive memory. ERPs were recorded in standard auditory and visual oddball paradigms (participants responded to infrequent deviant stimuli embedded in lists of standard stimuli). Electrophysiologically, musicians demonstrated faster updating of working memory (shorter latency P300s) in both the auditory and visual domains and musicians allocated more neural resources to auditory stimuli (larger amplitude P300), showing increased sensitivity to the auditory standard/deviant difference and less effortful updating of auditory working memory. These findings demonstrate that long-term music training is related to improvements in working memory, in both the auditory and visual domains and in terms of both behavioral and ERP measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Music training improves verbal but not visual memory: cross-sectional and longitudinal explorations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yim-Chi; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S

    2003-07-01

    The hypothesis that music training can improve verbal memory was tested in children. The results showed that children with music training demonstrated better verbal but not visual memory than did their counterparts without such training. When these children were followed up after a year, those who had begun or continued music training demonstrated significant verbal memory improvement. Students who discontinued the training did not show any improvement. Contrary to the differences in verbal memory between the groups, their changes in visual memory were not significantly different. Consistent with previous findings for adults (A. S. Chan, Y. Ho, & M. Cheung, 1998), the results suggest that music training systematically affects memory processing in accordance with possible neuroanatomical modifications in the left temporal lobe.

  16. Comparison of psychomotor function between music students and students participating in music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansirinukor, Wunpen; Khemthong, Supalak

    2014-07-01

    To compare psychomotor function between a music student group who had music education and a non-music student group who participated in music training. Consecutive sampling was used for completing questionnaires, testing reaction times (visual, auditory, and tactile system), measuring electromyography of upper trapezius muscles both sides and taking photos of the Craniovertebral (CV) angle in the sitting position. Data collection was made twice for each student group: the music students at one-hour intervals for resting and conducting nonmusic activities, the non-music students at two-day intervals, 20 minutes/session, and performed music training (by a manual of keyboard notation). The non-music students (n = 65) improved reaction times, but responded slower than the music students except for the tactile system. The music students (n = 28) showed faster reaction times and higher activities of the trapezius muscle than the non-music students at post-test. In addition, the CV angle of the non-music students was significantly improved. The level of musical ability may influence the psychomotor function. Significant improvement was observed in visual, auditory and tactile reaction time, and CV angle in the non-music students. However upper trapezius muscle activities between both student groups were unchanged.

  17. Neurophysiological influence of musical training on speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Antoine J

    2011-01-01

    Does musical training affect our perception of speech? For example, does learning to play a musical instrument modify the neural circuitry for auditory processing in a way that improves one's ability to perceive speech more clearly in noisy environments? If so, can speech perception in individuals with hearing loss (HL), who struggle in noisy situations, benefit from musical training? While music and speech exhibit some specialization in neural processing, there is evidence suggesting that skills acquired through musical training for specific acoustical processes may transfer to, and thereby improve, speech perception. The neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the influence of musical training on speech processing and the extent of this influence remains a rich area to be explored. A prerequisite for such transfer is the facilitation of greater neurophysiological overlap between speech and music processing following musical training. This review first establishes a neurophysiological link between musical training and speech perception, and subsequently provides further hypotheses on the neurophysiological implications of musical training on speech perception in adverse acoustical environments and in individuals with HL.

  18. Benefits of music training in child development: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Benítez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are evidences that establish that from early childhood musical education has a positive effect on the cognitive development of the child, as well as different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor, emotional and social skills. The musical processing is a complex issue. From a cognitive point of view production, music perception and aspects of the musical discourse, such as timbre, intensity, pace, and tonality, are processed in different parts of the brain and their structure may vary from one person to another, depending on their musical experience. Throughout this review, we will present the background related to the benefits of musical training in cognitive development of children during early childhood, emphasizing differences that involves receptive training compared to active, extending the effects to the field of music therapy and the use of techniques with therapeutic purposes.

  19. Musical training software for children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nardo, W; Schinaia, L; Anzivino, R; De Corso, E; Ciacciarelli, A; Paludetti, G

    2015-10-01

    Although the voice in a free field has an excellent recruitment by a cochlear implant (CI), the situation is different for music because it is a much more complex process, where perceiving the pitch discrimination becomes important to appreciate it. The aim of this study is to determine the music perception abilities among children with Cis and to verify the benefit of a training period for specific musical frequency discrimination. Our main goals were to prepare a computer tool for pitch discrimination training and to assess musical improvements. Ten children, aged between 5 and 12 years, with optimal phoneme recognition in quiet and with no disabilities associated with deafness, were selected to join the training. Each patient received, before training period, two types of exams: a pitch discrimination test, consisting of discovering if two notes were different or not; and a music test consisting of two identification tasks (melodic and full version) of one music-item among 5 popular childhood songs. After assessment, a music training software was designed and utilised individually at home for a period of six months. The results following complete training showed significantly higher performance in the task of frequency discrimination. After a proper musical training identification, frequency discrimination performance was significantly higher (p musical enhancement and to achieve improvements in frequency discrimination, following pitch discrimination training.

  20. MUSIC APPRECIATION AND TRAINING FOR COCHLEAR IMPLANT RECIPIENTS: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Valerie; Gfeller, Kate; Driscoll, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in music perception of cochlear implant (CI) recipients, and a growing body of research conducted in this area. The majority of these studies have examined perceptual accuracy for pitch, rhythm, and timbre. Another important, but less commonly studied aspect of music listening is appreciation, or appraisal. Despite the ongoing research into potential technological improvements that may improve music perception for recipients, both perceptual accuracy and appreciation generally remain poor for most recipients. Whilst perceptual accuracy for music is important, appreciation and enjoyment also warrants research as it also contributes to clinical outcomes and perceived benefits. Music training is being shown to offer excellent potential for improving music perception and appreciation for recipients. Therefore, the primary topics of this review are music appreciation and training. However, a brief overview of the psychoacoustic, technical, and physiological factors associated with a recipient’s perception of music is provided, as these are important factors in understanding the listening experience for CI recipients. The purpose of this review is to summarize key papers that have investigated these issues, in order to demonstrate that i) music enjoyment and appraisal is an important and valid consideration in evaluating music outcomes for recipients, and ii) that music training can improve music listening for many recipients, and is something that can be offered to persons using current technology. PMID:23459244

  1. Music Training Can Improve Music and Speech Perception in Pediatric Mandarin-Speaking Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoting; Liu, Yangwenyi; Shu, Yilai; Tao, Duo-Duo; Wang, Bing; Yuan, Yasheng; Galvin, John J; Fu, Qian-Jie; Chen, Bing

    2018-01-01

    Due to limited spectral resolution, cochlear implants (CIs) do not convey pitch information very well. Pitch cues are important for perception of music and tonal language; it is possible that music training may improve performance in both listening tasks. In this study, we investigated music training outcomes in terms of perception of music, lexical tones, and sentences in 22 young (4.8 to 9.3 years old), prelingually deaf Mandarin-speaking CI users. Music perception was measured using a melodic contour identification (MCI) task. Speech perception was measured for lexical tones and sentences presented in quiet. Subjects received 8 weeks of MCI training using pitch ranges not used for testing. Music and speech perception were measured at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after training was begun; follow-up measures were made 4 weeks after training was stopped. Mean baseline performance was 33.2%, 76.9%, and 45.8% correct for MCI, lexical tone recognition, and sentence recognition, respectively. After 8 weeks of MCI training, mean performance significantly improved by 22.9, 14.4, and 14.5 percentage points for MCI, lexical tone recognition, and sentence recognition, respectively ( p music and speech performance. The results suggest that music training can significantly improve pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI users' music and speech perception.

  2. The Effects of Musical Training on Verbal Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Michael S.; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Yip, Chun-Yu; Jonides, John; Rattray, Katie; Moher, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies suggest a link between musical training and general cognitive abilities. Despite some positive results, there is disagreement about which abilities are improved. One line of research leads to the hypothesis that verbal abilities in general, and verbal memory in particular, are related to musical training. In the present…

  3. Examining the relationship between skilled music training and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Ossher, Lynn; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    While many aspects of cognition have been investigated in relation to skilled music training, surprisingly little work has examined the connection between music training and attentional abilities. The present study investigated the performance of skilled musicians on cognitively demanding sustained attention tasks, measuring both temporal and visual discrimination over a prolonged duration. Participants with extensive formal music training were found to have superior performance on a temporal discrimination task, but not a visual discrimination task, compared to participants with no music training. In addition, no differences were found between groups in vigilance decrement in either type of task. Although no differences were evident in vigilance per se, the results indicate that performance in an attention-demanding temporal discrimination task was superior in individuals with extensive music training. We speculate that this basic cognitive ability may contribute to advantages that musicians show in other cognitive measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fast Brain Plasticity during Word Learning in Musically-Trained Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Chobert, Julie; Ziegler, Johannes C; Besson, Mireille

    2017-01-01

    Children learn new words every day and this ability requires auditory perception, phoneme discrimination, attention, associative learning and semantic memory. Based on previous results showing that some of these functions are enhanced by music training, we investigated learning of novel words through picture-word associations in musically-trained and control children (8-12 year-old) to determine whether music training would positively influence word learning. Results showed that musically-trained children outperformed controls in a learning paradigm that included picture-sound matching and semantic associations. Moreover, the differences between unexpected and expected learned words, as reflected by the N200 and N400 effects, were larger in children with music training compared to controls after only 3 min of learning the meaning of novel words. In line with previous results in adults, these findings clearly demonstrate a correlation between music training and better word learning. It is argued that these benefits reflect both bottom-up and top-down influences. The present learning paradigm might provide a useful dynamic diagnostic tool to determine which perceptive and cognitive functions are impaired in children with learning difficulties.

  5. Fast Brain Plasticity during Word Learning in Musically-Trained Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Dittinger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Children learn new words every day and this ability requires auditory perception, phoneme discrimination, attention, associative learning and semantic memory. Based on previous results showing that some of these functions are enhanced by music training, we investigated learning of novel words through picture-word associations in musically-trained and control children (8–12 year-old to determine whether music training would positively influence word learning. Results showed that musically-trained children outperformed controls in a learning paradigm that included picture-sound matching and semantic associations. Moreover, the differences between unexpected and expected learned words, as reflected by the N200 and N400 effects, were larger in children with music training compared to controls after only 3 min of learning the meaning of novel words. In line with previous results in adults, these findings clearly demonstrate a correlation between music training and better word learning. It is argued that these benefits reflect both bottom-up and top-down influences. The present learning paradigm might provide a useful dynamic diagnostic tool to determine which perceptive and cognitive functions are impaired in children with learning difficulties.

  6. Percussion use and training: a survey of music therapy clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffel, Stephanie; Matney, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Percussion instruments are commonly used in music therapy practice; however, the body of published literature regarding music therapy-related percussion training and practice is limited. The purpose of our survey study was to describe: (a) clinician perspectives of their academic percussion training; (b) use of percussion testing during academic training; (c) clinician perspectives on relevance, adequacy, and importance of academic percussion training; (d) clinician perspectives of their nonacademic percussion training; and (e) current use of percussion in clinical practice. Through comparisons of these parameters, we sought to provide information that may inform future percussion use and training. Participants were selected using an email list from the Certification Board for Music Therapists. Board-certified music therapists (MT-BC) were provided with a researcher-created survey about academic percussion training, nonacademic percussion training, and use of percussion in clinical practice. Survey response rate was 14.4% (611/4234). We used demographic data to address potential nonresponse error and ensure population representation for region of residence and region of academic training. Results revealed concerns about perceived adequacy of percussion training received during music therapy education (14.6% reported receiving no academic percussion training; 40.6% reported training was not adequate), and absence of percussion-specific proficiency exams. Of the training received, 62.8% indicated that training was relevant; however, a majority (76.5%) recommended current music therapy students receive more percussion training on instruments and skills most relevant to clinical practice. Comparisons between academic training, perceived needs in academic training, and clinical usage may inform future training and clinical competency. We provide suggestions for developing future training, as well as for furthering clinical implementation and research. © the American

  7. Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation:Two Musical Training Disciplines within Music Therapy Education and their theoretical Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    1999-01-01

    Describes subjects existing at Aalborg University since the middle eighties. "Intuitive Music" trains free improvisation through exercises including group-dynamic exercises, awareness exercises and parameter exercises. Students also create open compositions. "Graphic notation"concerns aural scores. Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language the...

  8. Music training and semantic clustering in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, David E; Huesman, Thomas

    2008-12-01

    College students with 5 or more years of music training recalled significantly more words from a 16-item word list than did students with 0-4 years of training. The superior recall of the extensively trained students linked to better application of a semantic-clustering strategy across a series of 3 test trials. Music education and language experience may have similar influences on the development of verbal memory.

  9. INTRODUCTION TOTHE RUSSIAN MUSIC CULTURE AS A WAY OF CHINESE MUSIC TEACHERS TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Таgiltseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article purpose – to open the ways of introduction of the Chinese students who are trained in Chinese pedagogical higher education institutions to musical culture of Russia.Methods. The paper is based on ideas of extrapolation of the Russian and Chinese teachers about interrelation of arts and types of art activity of children in the process of vocational performing cello training of future music teachers at pedagogical universities of China; the traditional methods and means of music education that proved the efficiency in pedagogics of professional music education in Russia. The research methods involve the analysis, generalization of literature, the analysis of a condition of modern process of professional pedagogical education of future music teachers at universities of China and Russia.Results: The methods and means of introduction of the Chinese students – future music teachers to cello musical culture of Russia are shown on the basis of interrelation of arts and different means of art activities, and mastering at cello fingering techniques. It is noted that such means and ways serve mutual enrichment of national cultures, and strengthening of international relations.Scientific novelty. The most effective methods of vocational training of music teachers are revealed: polyart education that is based on comparison of different types of art (music, poetry, dance, theater, the fine arts and search of their crossing for deeper penetration into plasticity of intonations of a piece of music; the method of a retrospective and prospect consisting in the comparative analysis of the classical, borrowed from an arsenal recognized masters and modern manners of performance and ways of training at fingering and playing the chosen musical instrument; the method of the Russian teacher, musician and composer D. B. Kabalevsky based on perception and reflection about music, expanding ideas of the range of bag, opportunities of interpretation of a piece of

  10. The relationship between the age of onset of musical training and rhythm synchronization performance: validation of sensitive period effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer A; Penhune, Virginia B

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive period associated with musical training has been proposed, suggesting the influence of musical training on the brain and behavior is strongest during the early years of childhood. Experiments from our laboratory have directly tested the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by comparing musicians who began their training prior to age seven with those who began their training after age seven, while matching the two groups in terms of musical experience (Watanabe et al., 2007; Bailey and Penhune, 2010, 2012). Using this matching paradigm, the early-trained groups have demonstrated enhanced sensorimotor synchronization skills and associated differences in brain structure (Bailey et al., 2013; Steele et al., 2013). The current study takes a different approach to investigating the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by examining a single large group of unmatched musicians (N = 77) and exploring the relationship between age of onset of musical training as a continuous variable and performance on the Rhythm Synchronization Task (RST), a previously used auditory-motor RST. Interestingly, age of onset was correlated with task performance for those who began training earlier, however, no such relationship was observed among those who began training in their later childhood years. In addition, years of formal training showed a similar pattern. However, individual working memory scores were predictive of task performance, regardless of age of onset of musical training. Overall, these results support the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training and suggest a non-linear relationship between age of onset of musical training and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization abilities, such that a relationship exists early in childhood but then plateaus later on in development, similar to maturational growth trajectories of brain regions implicated in playing music.

  11. The relationship between the age of onset of musical training and rhythm synchronization performance: Validation of sensitive period effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Anne Bailey

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive period associated with musical training has been proposed, suggesting the influence of musical training on the brain and behaviour is strongest during the early childhood years. Experiments from our laboratory have directly tested the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by comparing musicians who began their training before age seven with those who began their training after age seven, while matching the two groups in terms of musical experience (Bailey & Penhune, 2010; 2012; Watanabe, Savion-Lemieux, & Penhune, 2007. Using this matching paradigm, the early-trained groups have demonstrated enhanced sensorimotor synchronization skills and associated differences in brain structure (Bailey, Zatorre, & Penhune, under review; Steele, Bailey, Zatorre, & Penhune, 2013. The current study takes a different approach to investigating the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training by examining a single large group of unmatched musicians (N=77 and exploring the relationship between age of onset of musical training as a continuous variable and performance on the Rhythm Synchronization Task (RST, a previously used auditory-motor rhythm synchronization task. Interestingly, age of onset was correlated with task performance for those who began training earlier; however, no such relationship was observed among those who began training in their later childhood years. In addition, years of formal training showed a similar pattern. However, individual working memory scores were predictive of task performance, regardless of age of onset of musical training. Overall, these results support the sensitive period hypothesis for musical training and suggest a non-linear relationship between age of onset of musical training and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization abilities, such that a relationship exists early in childhood but then plateaus later on in development, similar to maturational growth trajectories of brain regions implicated in

  12. Music and dyslexia: A new musical training method to improve reading and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eHabib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous arguments in the recent neuroscientific literature support the use of musical training as a therapeutic tool among the arsenal already available to therapists and educators for treating children with dyslexia. In the present study, we tested the efficacy of a specially-designed Cognitivo-Musical Training (CMT protocol based upon three principles : 1- music-language analogies : training dyslexics with music could contribute to improve brain circuits which are common to music and language processes; 2 – the temporal and rhythmic features of music, which could exert a positive effect on the multiple dimensions of the temporal deficit characteristic of dyslexia; and 3- cross-modal integration, based on converging evidence of impaired connectivity in dyslexia and related disorders. Accordingly, we developed a series of musical exercises involving jointly and simultaneously sensory (visual, auditory, somatosensory and motor systems, with special emphasis on rhythmic perception and production in addition to intensive training of various features of the musical auditory signal. Two separate studies were carried out, one in which dyslexic children received intensive musical exercises concentrated over 18 hours during three consecutive days, and the other in which the 18 hours of musical training were spread over six weeks. Both studies showed significant improvements in some untrained, linguistic and non-linguistic variables. The first one yielded significant improvement in categorial perception and auditory perception of temporal components of speech. The second study revealed additional improvements in auditory attention, phonological awareness (syllable fusion, reading abilities and repetition of pseudo-words. Importantly, most improvements persisted after an untrained period of 6 weeks. These results provide new additional arguments for using music as part of systematic therapeutic and instructional practice for dyslexic children.

  13. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe N. Moreno-Gómez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and deteriorated speech intelligibility. Music impairments in presbycusis subjects can be attributed to the normal aging processes and to presbycusis neuropathological changes. However, whether presbycusis further impairs music perception remains controversial. Here, we developed a computerized version of the Montreal battery of evaluation of amusia (MBEA and assessed music perception in 175 Chilean adults aged between 18 and 90 years without hearing complaints and in symptomatic presbycusis patients. We give normative data for MBEA performance in a Latin-American population, showing age and educational effects. In addition, we found that symptomatic presbycusis was the most relevant factor determining global MBEA accuracy in aged subjects. Moreover, we show that melodic impairments in presbycusis individuals were diminished by music training, while the performance in temporal tasks were affected by the educational level and music training. We conclude that music training and education are important factors as they can slow the deterioration of music perception produced by age-related hearing loss.

  14. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N; Véliz, Guillermo; Rojas, Marcos; Martínez, Cristián; Olmedo, Rubén; Panussis, Felipe; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Delgado, Carolina; Delano, Paul H

    2017-01-01

    The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss and deteriorated speech intelligibility. Music impairments in presbycusis subjects can be attributed to the normal aging processes and to presbycusis neuropathological changes. However, whether presbycusis further impairs music perception remains controversial. Here, we developed a computerized version of the Montreal battery of evaluation of amusia (MBEA) and assessed music perception in 175 Chilean adults aged between 18 and 90 years without hearing complaints and in symptomatic presbycusis patients. We give normative data for MBEA performance in a Latin-American population, showing age and educational effects. In addition, we found that symptomatic presbycusis was the most relevant factor determining global MBEA accuracy in aged subjects. Moreover, we show that melodic impairments in presbycusis individuals were diminished by music training, while the performance in temporal tasks were affected by the educational level and music training. We conclude that music training and education are important factors as they can slow the deterioration of music perception produced by age-related hearing loss.

  15. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation. PMID:28358852

  16. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chun Cheung

    Full Text Available Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group. The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation.

  17. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W Y

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation.

  18. Music training for the development of speech segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Chobert, Julie; Besson, Mireille; Schön, Daniele

    2013-09-01

    The role of music training in fostering brain plasticity and developing high cognitive skills, notably linguistic abilities, is of great interest from both a scientific and a societal perspective. Here, we report results of a longitudinal study over 2 years using both behavioral and electrophysiological measures and a test-training-retest procedure to examine the influence of music training on speech segmentation in 8-year-old children. Children were pseudo-randomly assigned to either music or painting training and were tested on their ability to extract meaningless words from a continuous flow of nonsense syllables. While no between-group differences were found before training, both behavioral and electrophysiological measures showed improved speech segmentation skills across testing sessions for the music group only. These results show that music training directly causes facilitation in speech segmentation, thereby pointing to the importance of music for speech perception and more generally for children's language development. Finally these results have strong implications for promoting the development of music-based remediation strategies for children with language-based learning impairments.

  19. Celebrating Musical Diversity: Training Culturally Responsive Music Educators in Multiracial Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    This article explores outcomes of research into the role and place of cultural diversity in primary music classes at five government schools in Singapore. The study highlights the ways in which a variety of factors such as specialist music training, government policy, curriculum documents, and professional development influence teacher practice.…

  20. Influence of musical training on perception of L2 speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadakata, M.; Zanden, L.D.T. van der; Sekiyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study reports specific cases in which a positive transfer of perceptual ability from the music domain to the language domain occurs. We tested whether musical training enhances discrimination and identification performance of L2 speech sounds (timing features, nasal consonants and

  1. Harmonizing the Writing Process with Music Training Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecken, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Can music help students become better thinkers and writers? Over the past three years, the author has incorporated some basic music training techniques in her classrooms to help her teach the writing process to students who would otherwise click her off. The students have developed clearer thinking and organizational skills, and have increased…

  2. Explaining the Association between Music Training and Reading in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Venkatesan, Kirthika

    2018-01-01

    We sought to clarify whether the positive association between music lessons and reading ability is explained better by shared resources for processing pitch and temporal information, or by general cognitive abilities. Participants were native and nonnative speakers of English with varying levels of music training. We measured reading ability…

  3. Does Music Training Enhance Literacy Skills? A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reyna L.; Fehd, Hilda M.; McCandliss, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Children's engagement in music practice is associated with enhancements in literacy-related language skills, as demonstrated by multiple reports of correlation across these two domains. Training studies have tested whether engaging in music training directly transfers benefit to children's literacy skill development. Results of such studies, however, are mixed. Interpretation of these mixed results is made more complex by the fact that a wide range of literacy-related outcome measures are used across these studies. Here, we address these challenges via a meta-analytic approach. A comprehensive literature review of peer-reviewed music training studies was built around key criteria needed to test the direct transfer hypothesis, including: (a) inclusion of music training vs. control groups; (b) inclusion of pre- vs. post-comparison measures, and (c) indication that reading instruction was held constant across groups. Thirteen studies were identified (n = 901). Two classes of outcome measures emerged with sufficient overlap to support meta-analysis: phonological awareness and reading fluency. Hours of training, age, and type of control intervention were examined as potential moderators. Results supported the hypothesis that music training leads to gains in phonological awareness skills. The effect isolated by contrasting gains in music training vs. gains in control was small relative to the large variance in these skills (d = 0.2). Interestingly, analyses revealed that transfer effects for rhyming skills tended to grow stronger with increased hours of training. In contrast, no significant aggregate transfer effect emerged for reading fluency measures, despite some studies reporting large training effects. The potential influence of other study design factors were considered, including intervention design, IQ, and SES. Results are discussed in the context of emerging findings that music training may enhance literacy development via changes in brain mechanisms that

  4. Plasticity of the human auditory cortex related to musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantev, Christo; Herholz, Sibylle C

    2011-11-01

    During the last decades music neuroscience has become a rapidly growing field within the area of neuroscience. Music is particularly well suited for studying neuronal plasticity in the human brain because musical training is more complex and multimodal than most other daily life activities, and because prospective and professional musicians usually pursue the training with high and long-lasting commitment. Therefore, music has increasingly been used as a tool for the investigation of human cognition and its underlying brain mechanisms. Music relates to many brain functions like perception, action, cognition, emotion, learning and memory and therefore music is an ideal tool to investigate how the human brain is working and how different brain functions interact. Novel findings have been obtained in the field of induced cortical plasticity by musical training. The positive effects, which music in its various forms has in the healthy human brain are not only important in the framework of basic neuroscience, but they also will strongly affect the practices in neuro-rehabilitation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Musical training and empathy positively impact adults’ sensitivity to infant distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Parsons

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crying is the most powerful auditory signal of infant need. Adults’ ability to perceive and respond to crying is important for infant survival and in the provision of care. This study investigated a number of listener variables that might impact on adults’ perception of infant cry distress, namely parental status, musical training and empathy. Sensitivity to infant distress was tested using a previously validated task, which experimentally manipulated distress by varying the pitch of infant cries. Parents with musical training showed a significant advantage on this task when compared with parents without. The extent of the advantage was correlated with the amount of self-reported musical training. For non-parents, individual differences in empathy were associated with task performance, with higher empathy scores corresponding to greater sensitivity to infant distress. We suggest that sensitivity to infant distress can be impacted by a number of listener variables, and may be amenable to training.

  6. Trained Musical Performers' and Musically Untrained College Students' Ability to Discriminate Music Instrument Timbre as a Function of Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dennis Alan

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of trained musicians and musically untrained college students to discriminate music instrument timbre as a function of duration. Specific factors investigated were the thresholds for timbre discrimination as a function of duration, musical ensemble participation as training, and the relative discrimination abilities of vocalists and instrumentalists. The subjects (N = 126) were volunteer college students from intact classes from various disciplines separated into musically untrained college students (N = 43) who had not participated in musical ensembles and trained musicians (N = 83) who had. The musicians were further divided into instrumentalists (N = 51) and vocalists (N = 32). The Method of Constant Stimuli, using a same-different response procedure with 120 randomized, counterbalanced timbre pairs comprised of trumpet, clarinet, or violin, presented in durations of 20 to 100 milliseconds in a sequence of pitches, in two blocks was used for data collection. Complete, complex musical timbres were recorded digitally and presented in a sequence of changing pitches to more closely approximate an actual music listening experience. Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the threshold for timbre discrimination as a function of duration is at or below 20 ms. Even though trained musicians tended to discriminate timbre better than musically untrained college students, musicians cannot discriminate timbre significantly better then those subjects who have not participated in musical ensembles. Additionally, instrumentalists tended to discriminate timbre better than vocalists, but the discrimination is not significantly different. Recommendations for further research include suggestions for a timbre discrimination measurement tool that takes into consideration the multidimensionality of timbre and the relationship of timbre discrimination to timbre source, duration, pitch, and loudness.

  7. Effect of "developmental speech and language training through music" on speech production in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2010-01-01

    The study compared the effect of music training, speech training and no-training on the verbal production of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Participants were 50 children with ASD, age range 3 to 5 years, who had previously been evaluated on standard tests of language and level of functioning. They were randomly assigned to one of three 3-day conditions. Participants in music training (n = 18) watched a music video containing 6 songs and pictures of the 36 target words; those in speech training (n = 18) watched a speech video containing 6 stories and pictures, and those in the control condition (n = 14) received no treatment. Participants' verbal production including semantics, phonology, pragmatics, and prosody was measured by an experimenter designed verbal production evaluation scale. Results showed that participants in both music and speech training significantly increased their pre to posttest verbal production. Results also indicated that both high and low functioning participants improved their speech production after receiving either music or speech training; however, low functioning participants showed a greater improvement after the music training than the speech training. Children with ASD perceive important linguistic information embedded in music stimuli organized by principles of pattern perception, and produce the functional speech.

  8. Effects of musical training on the auditory cortex in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Shahin, Antoine; Roberts, Larry E

    2003-11-01

    Several studies of the effects of musical experience on sound representations in the auditory cortex are reviewed. Auditory evoked potentials are compared in response to pure tones, violin tones, and piano tones in adult musicians versus nonmusicians as well as in 4- to 5-year-old children who have either had or not had extensive musical experience. In addition, the effects of auditory frequency discrimination training in adult nonmusicians on auditory evoked potentials are examined. It was found that the P2-evoked response is larger in both adult and child musicians than in nonmusicians and that auditory training enhances this component in nonmusician adults. The results suggest that the P2 is particularly neuroplastic and that the effects of musical experience can be seen early in development. They also suggest that although the effects of musical training on cortical representations may be greater if training begins in childhood, the adult brain is also open to change. These results are discussed with respect to potential benefits of early musical training as well as potential benefits of musical experience in aging.

  9. Cognitive flexibility modulates maturation and music-training-related changes in neural sound discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarikivi, Katri; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2016-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that musicians show superior neural sound discrimination when compared to non-musicians, and that these changes emerge with accumulation of training. Our aim was to investigate whether individual differences in executive functions predict training-related changes in neural sound discrimination. We measured event-related potentials induced by sound changes coupled with tests for executive functions in musically trained and non-trained children aged 9-11 years and 13-15 years. High performance in a set-shifting task, indexing cognitive flexibility, was linked to enhanced maturation of neural sound discrimination in both musically trained and non-trained children. Specifically, well-performing musically trained children already showed large mismatch negativity (MMN) responses at a young age as well as at an older age, indicating accurate sound discrimination. In contrast, the musically trained low-performing children still showed an increase in MMN amplitude with age, suggesting that they were behind their high-performing peers in the development of sound discrimination. In the non-trained group, in turn, only the high-performing children showed evidence of an age-related increase in MMN amplitude, and the low-performing children showed a small MMN with no age-related change. These latter results suggest an advantage in MMN development also for high-performing non-trained individuals. For the P3a amplitude, there was an age-related increase only in the children who performed well in the set-shifting task, irrespective of music training, indicating enhanced attention-related processes in these children. Thus, the current study provides the first evidence that, in children, cognitive flexibility may influence age-related and training-related plasticity of neural sound discrimination. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: working memory and inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Annalise A; Moradzadeh, Linda; Wiseheart, Melody

    2018-01-01

    The current study investigated whether long-term experience in music or a second language is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning. Early studies suggested the possibility of a cognitive advantage from musical training and bilingualism but have failed to be replicated by recent findings. Further, each form of expertise has been independently investigated leaving it unclear whether any benefits are specifically caused by each skill or are a result of skill learning in general. To assess whether cognitive benefits from training exist, and how unique they are to each training domain, the current study compared musicians and bilinguals to each other, plus to individuals who had expertise in both skills, or neither. Young adults ( n = 153) were categorized into one of four groups: monolingual musician; bilingual musician; bilingual non-musician; and monolingual non-musician. Multiple tasks per cognitive ability were used to examine the coherency of any training effects. Results revealed that musically trained individuals, but not bilinguals, had enhanced working memory. Neither skill had enhanced inhibitory control. The findings confirm previous associations between musicians and improved cognition and extend existing evidence to show that benefits are narrower than expected but can be uniquely attributed to music compared to another specialized auditory skill domain. The null bilingual effect despite a music effect in the same group of individuals challenges the proposition that young adults are at a performance ceiling and adds to increasing evidence on the lack of a bilingual advantage on cognition.

  11. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kathryn Abel

    Full Text Available Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  12. Audiovisual Interval Size Estimation Is Associated with Early Musical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Mary Kathryn; Li, H Charles; Russo, Frank A; Schlaug, Gottfried; Loui, Psyche

    2016-01-01

    Although pitch is a fundamental attribute of auditory perception, substantial individual differences exist in our ability to perceive differences in pitch. Little is known about how these individual differences in the auditory modality might affect crossmodal processes such as audiovisual perception. In this study, we asked whether individual differences in pitch perception might affect audiovisual perception, as it relates to age of onset and number of years of musical training. Fifty-seven subjects made subjective ratings of interval size when given point-light displays of audio, visual, and audiovisual stimuli of sung intervals. Audiovisual stimuli were divided into congruent and incongruent (audiovisual-mismatched) stimuli. Participants' ratings correlated strongly with interval size in audio-only, visual-only, and audiovisual-congruent conditions. In the audiovisual-incongruent condition, ratings correlated more with audio than with visual stimuli, particularly for subjects who had better pitch perception abilities and higher nonverbal IQ scores. To further investigate the effects of age of onset and length of musical training, subjects were divided into musically trained and untrained groups. Results showed that among subjects with musical training, the degree to which participants' ratings correlated with auditory interval size during incongruent audiovisual perception was correlated with both nonverbal IQ and age of onset of musical training. After partialing out nonverbal IQ, pitch discrimination thresholds were no longer associated with incongruent audio scores, whereas age of onset of musical training remained associated with incongruent audio scores. These findings invite future research on the developmental effects of musical training, particularly those relating to the process of audiovisual perception.

  13. Is working memory training in older adults sensitive to music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Meneghetti, Chiara; Carbone, Elena; Vincenzi, Margherita; Madonna, Jessica Cira; Grassi, Massimo; Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola

    2017-12-19

    Evidence in the literature suggests that listening to music can improve cognitive performance. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the short- and long-term gains of a working memory (WM) training in older adults could be enhanced by music listening-the Mozart's Sonata K448 and the Albinoni's Adagio in G minor-which differ in tempo and mode. Seventy-two healthy older adults (age range: 65-75 years) participated in the study. They were divided into four groups. At each training session, before starting the WM training activities, one group listened to Mozart (Mozart group, N = 19), one to Albinoni (Albinoni group, N = 19), one to white noise (White noise group, N = 16), while one served as an active control group involved in other activities and was not exposed to any music (active control group, N = 18). Specific training gains on a task like the one used in the training, and transfer effects on visuo-spatial abilities, executive function and reasoning measures were assessed. Irrespective of listening condition (Mozart, Albinoni, White noise), trained groups generally outperformed the control group. The White noise group never differed from the two music groups. However, the Albinoni group showed larger specific training gains in the criterion task at short-term and transfer effects in the reasoning task at both short-and long term compared to the Mozart group. Overall the present findings suggest caution when interpreting the effects of music before a WM training, and are discussed according to aging and music effect literature.

  14. Cortical plasticity induced by short-term multimodal musical rhythm training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Lappe

    Full Text Available Performing music is a multimodal experience involving the visual, auditory, and somatosensory modalities as well as the motor system. Therefore, musical training is an excellent model to study multimodal brain plasticity. Indeed, we have previously shown that short-term piano practice increase the magnetoencephalographic (MEG response to melodic material in novice players. Here we investigate the impact of piano training using a rhythmic-focused exercise on responses to rhythmic musical material. Musical training with non musicians was conducted over a period of two weeks. One group (sensorimotor-auditory, SA learned to play a piano sequence with a distinct musical rhythm, another group (auditory, A listened to, and evaluated the rhythmic accuracy of the performances of the SA-group. Training-induced cortical plasticity was evaluated using MEG, comparing the mismatch negativity (MMN in response to occasional rhythmic deviants in a repeating rhythm pattern before and after training. The SA-group showed a significantly greater enlargement of MMN and P2 to deviants after training compared to the A- group. The training-induced increase of the rhythm MMN was bilaterally expressed in contrast to our previous finding where the MMN for deviants in the pitch domain showed a larger right than left increase. The results indicate that when auditory experience is strictly controlled during training, involvement of the sensorimotor system and perhaps increased attentional recources that are needed in producing rhythms lead to more robust plastic changes in the auditory cortex compared to when rhythms are simply attended to in the auditory domain in the absence of motor production.

  15. Differentiating maturational and training influences on fMRI activation during music processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert J; Norton, Andrea C; Overy, Katie; Winner, Ellen; Alsop, David C; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2012-04-15

    Two major influences on how the brain processes music are maturational development and active musical training. Previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating music processing have typically focused on either categorical differences between "musicians versus nonmusicians" or "children versus adults." In the present study, we explored a cross-sectional data set (n=84) using multiple linear regression to isolate the performance-independent effects of age (5 to 33 years) and cumulative duration of musical training (0 to 21,000 practice hours) on fMRI activation similarities and differences between melodic discrimination (MD) and rhythmic discrimination (RD). Age-related effects common to MD and RD were present in three left hemisphere regions: temporofrontal junction, ventral premotor cortex, and the inferior part of the intraparietal sulcus, regions involved in active attending to auditory rhythms, sensorimotor integration, and working memory transformations of pitch and rhythmic patterns. By contrast, training-related effects common to MD and RD were localized to the posterior portion of the left superior temporal gyrus/planum temporale, an area implicated in spectrotemporal pattern matching and auditory-motor coordinate transformations. A single cluster in right superior temporal gyrus showed significantly greater activation during MD than RD. This is the first fMRI which has distinguished maturational from training effects during music processing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Musical training increases functional connectivity, but does not enhance mu suppression.

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    Wu, C Carolyn; Hamm, Jeff P; Lim, Vanessa K; Kirk, Ian J

    2017-09-01

    Musical training provides an ideal platform for investigating action representation for sound. Learning to play an instrument requires integration of sensory and motor perception-action processes. Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated that listening to trained music can result in the activity in premotor areas, even after a short period of training. These studies suggest that action representation systems are heavily dependent on specific sensorimotor experience. However, others suggest that because humans naturally move to music, sensorimotor training is not necessary and there is a more general action representation for music. We previously demonstrated that EEG mu suppression, commonly implemented to demonstrate mirror-neuron-like action representation while observing movements, can also index action representations for sounds in pianists. The current study extends these findings to a group of non-musicians who learned to play randomised sequences on a piano, in order to acquire specific sound-action mappings for the five fingers of their right hand. We investigated training-related changes in neural dynamics as indexed by mu suppression and task-related coherence measures. To test the specificity of training effects, we included sounds similar to those encountered in the training and additionally rhythm sequences. We found no effect of training on mu suppression between pre- and post-training EEG recordings. However, task-related coherence indexing functional connectivity between electrodes over audiomotor areas increased after training. These results suggest that long-term training in musicians and short-term training in novices may be associated with different stages of audiomotor integration that can be reflected in different EEG measures. Furthermore, the changes in functional connectivity were specifically found for piano tones, and were not apparent when participants listened to rhythms, indicating some degree of specificity related to training

  17. Art and Science: How Musical Training Shapes the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Chan Barrett

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available What makes a musician? In this review, we discuss innate and experience-dependent factors that mold the musician brain in addition to presenting new data in children that indicate that some neural enhancements in musicians unfold with continued training over development. We begin by addressing effects of training on musical expertise, presenting neural, perceptual and cognitive evidence to support the claim that musicians are shaped by their musical training regimes. For example, many musician-advantages in the neural encoding of sound, auditory perception, and auditory-cognitive skills correlate with their extent of musical training, are not observed in young children just initiating musical training, and differ based on the type of training pursued. Even amidst innate characteristics that contribute to the biological building blocks that make up the musician, musicians demonstrate further training-related enhancements through extensive education and practice. We conclude by reviewing evidence from neurobiological and epigenetic approaches to frame biological markers of musicianship in the context of interactions between genetic and experience-related factors.

  18. A preliminary report of music-based training for adult cochlear implant users: rationales and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Guthe, Emily; Driscoll, Virginia; Brown, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper provides a preliminary report of a music-based training program for adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Included in this report are descriptions of the rationale for music-based training, factors influencing program development, and the resulting program components. Methods Prior studies describing experience-based plasticity in response to music training, auditory training for persons with hearing impairment, and music training for cochlear implant recipients were reviewed. These sources revealed rationales for using music to enhance speech, factors associated with successful auditory training, relevant aspects of electric hearing and music perception, and extant evidence regarding limitations and advantages associated with parameters for music training with CI users. This information formed the development of a computer-based music training program designed specifically for adult CI users. Results Principles and parameters for perceptual training of music, such as stimulus choice, rehabilitation approach, and motivational concerns were developed in relation to the unique auditory characteristics of adults with electric hearing. An outline of the resulting program components and the outcome measures for evaluating program effectiveness are presented. Conclusions Music training can enhance the perceptual accuracy of music, but is also hypothesized to enhance several features of speech with similar processing requirements as music (e.g., pitch and timbre). However, additional evaluation of specific training parameters and the impact of music-based training on speech perception of CI users are required. PMID:26561884

  19. Effects of musical training and hearing loss on pitch discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santurette, Sébastien; Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    content of the sound and whether the harmonics are resolved by the auditory frequency analysis operated by cochlear processing. F0DLs are also heavily influenced by the amount of musical training received by the listener and by the spectrotemporal auditory processing deficits that often accompany...... sensorineural hearing loss. This paper reviews the latest evidence for how musical training and hearing loss affect pitch discrimination performance, based on behavioral F0DL experiments with complex tones containing either resolved or unresolved harmonics, carried out in listeners with different degrees...... of hearing loss and musicianship. A better understanding of the interaction between these two factors is crucial to determine whether auditory training based on musical tasks or targeted towards specific auditory cues may be useful to hearing-impaired patients undergoing hearing rehabilitation....

  20. Music training and inhibitory control: a multidimensional model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Farzan, Faranak

    2015-03-01

    Training programs aimed to improve cognitive skills have either yielded mixed results or remain to be validated. The limited benefits of such regimens are largely attributable to weak understanding of (1) how (and which) interventions provide the most cognitive improvements; and (2) how brain networks and neural mechanisms that underlie specific cognitive abilities can be modified selectively. Studies indicate that music training leads to robust and long-lasting benefits to behavior. Importantly, behavioral advantages conferred by music extend beyond perceptual abilities to even nonauditory functions, such as inhibitory control (IC) and its neural correlates. Alternative forms of arts engagement or brain training do not appear to yield such enhancements, which suggests that music uniquely taps into brain networks subserving a variety of auditory as well as domain-general mechanisms such as IC. To account for such widespread benefits of music training, we propose a framework of transfer effects characterized by three dimensions: level of processing, nature of the transfer, and involvement of executive functions. We suggest that transfer of skills is mediated through modulation of general cognitive processes, in particular IC. We believe that this model offers a viable framework to test the extent and limitations of music-related changes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Music training improves speech-in-noise perception: Longitudinal evidence from a community-based music program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Skoe, Erika; Strait, Dana L; O'Connell, Samantha; Thompson, Elaine; Kraus, Nina

    2015-09-15

    Music training may strengthen auditory skills that help children not only in musical performance but in everyday communication. Comparisons of musicians and non-musicians across the lifespan have provided some evidence for a "musician advantage" in understanding speech in noise, although reports have been mixed. Controlled longitudinal studies are essential to disentangle effects of training from pre-existing differences, and to determine how much music training is necessary to confer benefits. We followed a cohort of elementary school children for 2 years, assessing their ability to perceive speech in noise before and after musical training. After the initial assessment, participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: one group began music training right away and completed 2 years of training, while the second group waited a year and then received 1 year of music training. Outcomes provide the first longitudinal evidence that speech-in-noise perception improves after 2 years of group music training. The children were enrolled in an established and successful community-based music program and followed the standard curriculum, therefore these findings provide an important link between laboratory-based research and real-world assessment of the impact of music training on everyday communication skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Listening level of music through headphones in train car noise environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokura, Ryota; Soeta, Yoshiharu

    2012-09-01

    Although portable music devices are useful for passing time on trains, exposure to music using headphones for long periods carries the risk of damaging hearing acuity. The aim of this study is to examine the listening level of music through headphones in the noisy environment of a train car. Eight subjects adjusted the volume to an optimum level (L(music)) in a simulated noisy train car environment. In Experiment I, the effects of noise level (L(train)) and type of train noise (rolling, squealing, impact, and resonance) were examined. Spectral and temporal characteristics were found to be different according to the train noise type. In Experiment II, the effects of L(train) and type of music (five vocal and five instrumental music) were examined. Each music type had a different pitch strength and spectral centroid, and each was evaluated by φ(1) and W(φ(0)), respectively. These were classified as factors of the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the music. Results showed that L(music) increased as L(train) increased in both experiments, while the type of music greatly influenced L(music). The type of train noise, however, only slightly influenced L(music). L(music) can be estimated using L(train) and the ACF factors φ(1) and W(φ(0)).

  3. Short-Term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…

  4. Music Games: Potential Application and Considerations for Rhythmic Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégel, Valentin; Di Loreto, Ines; Seilles, Antoine; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic skills are natural and widespread in the general population. The majority can track the beat of music and move along with it. These abilities are meaningful from a cognitive standpoint given their tight links with prominent motor and cognitive functions such as language and memory. When rhythmic skills are challenged by brain damage or neurodevelopmental disorders, remediation strategies based on rhythm can be considered. For example, rhythmic training can be used to improve motor performance (e.g., gait) as well as cognitive and language skills. Here, we review the games readily available in the market and assess whether they are well-suited for rhythmic training. Games that train rhythm skills may serve as useful tools for retraining motor and cognitive functions in patients with motor or neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., Parkinson's disease, dyslexia, or ADHD). Our criteria were the peripheral used to capture and record the response, the type of response and the output measure. None of the existing games provides sufficient temporal precision in stimulus presentation and/or data acquisition. In addition, games do not train selectively rhythmic skills. Hence, the available music games, in their present form, are not satisfying for training rhythmic skills. Yet, some features such as the device used, the interface or the game scenario provide good indications for devising efficient training protocols. Guidelines are provided for devising serious music games targeting rhythmic training in the future.

  5. Music Games: Potential Application and Considerations for Rhythmic Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bégel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhythmic skills are natural and widespread in the general population. The majority can track the beat of music and move along with it. These abilities are meaningful from a cognitive standpoint given their tight links with prominent motor and cognitive functions such as language and memory. When rhythmic skills are challenged by brain damage or neurodevelopmental disorders, remediation strategies based on rhythm can be considered. For example, rhythmic training can be used to improve motor performance (e.g., gait as well as cognitive and language skills. Here, we review the games readily available in the market and assess whether they are well-suited for rhythmic training. Games that train rhythm skills may serve as useful tools for retraining motor and cognitive functions in patients with motor or neurodevelopmental disorders (e.g., Parkinson’s disease, dyslexia, or ADHD. Our criteria were the peripheral used to capture and record the response, the type of response and the output measure. None of the existing games provides sufficient temporal precision in stimulus presentation and/or data acquisition. In addition, games do not train selectively rhythmic skills. Hence, the available music games, in their present form, are not satisfying for training rhythmic skills. Yet, some features such as the device used, the interface or the game scenario provide good indications for devising efficient training protocols. Guidelines are provided for devising serious music games targeting rhythmic training in the future.

  6. Music Training for Severely and Profoundly Retarded Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Buford; Richmond, Bert O.

    Investigated were the effects of sex, ability and training method on the musical instrument playing ability of 16 institutionalized severely and profoundly retarded persons ages 7 to 20 years. Ss were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, and the time required to reach criterion playing a familiar tune was recorded. Data indicated…

  7. INSTRUMENTAL TRAINING OF THE BACHELOR DEGREE STUDENTS IN MUSIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Zerrate Rubio.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is presented by the research team “Instrumental Didactic”, from the Faculty of Arts of the Universidad Pedagógica Nacional de Colombia, and brings out an analysis on the current instrumental training of its students in the bachelor degree in music. In the course of this research project, the team has specified some terms and topics such as “meaningful learning”, “didactic”, and “teaching-learning processes”. Then, using data-collection instruments such as audio and video recording and interviews, the pedagogical practices of the team’s teachers were analyzed. The key question for the research was: What sort of instrumental training might better enhance meaningful learning about pedagogy and musical didactics for the bachelor degree students in music at the UPN?The process of investigation allowed the group of teachers to strengthen the interaction inside of it as a research team, confirming, at the same time, the importance of instrumental didactics in the training of the bachelor degree students in music. Furthermore, the teachers as a team recognized the need of careful thought all along the research process, in order to clarify the knowledge that guides pedagogical action, and identified practical difficulties related to meaningful learning among the students, thus providing referents for the teacher’s didactic action in the instrumental training, such as the identification of widespread and common technical and attitudinal mistakes amidst the bachelor degree students.

  8. The association of noise sensitivity with music listening, training, and aptitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliuchko, Marina; Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja; Monacis, Lucia; Gold, Benjamin P; Heikkilä, Kauko V; Spinosa, Vittoria; Tervaniemi, Mari; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    After intensive, long-term musical training, the auditory system of a musician is specifically tuned to perceive musical sounds. We wished to find out whether a musician's auditory system also develops increased sensitivity to any sound of everyday life, experiencing them as noise. For this purpose, an online survey, including questionnaires on noise sensitivity, musical background, and listening tests for assessing musical aptitude, was administered to 197 participants in Finland and Italy. Subjective noise sensitivity (assessed with the Weinstein's Noise Sensitivity Scale) was analyzed for associations with musicianship, musical aptitude, weekly time spent listening to music, and the importance of music in each person's life (or music importance). Subjects were divided into three groups according to their musical expertise: Nonmusicians (N = 103), amateur musicians (N = 44), and professional musicians (N = 50). The results showed that noise sensitivity did not depend on musical expertise or performance on musicality tests or the amount of active (attentive) listening to music. In contrast, it was associated with daily passive listening to music, so that individuals with higher noise sensitivity spent less time in passive (background) listening to music than those with lower sensitivity to noise. Furthermore, noise-sensitive respondents rated music as less important in their life than did individuals with lower sensitivity to noise. The results demonstrate that the special sensitivity of the auditory system derived from musical training does not lead to increased irritability from unwanted sounds. However, the disposition to tolerate contingent musical backgrounds in everyday life depends on the individual's noise sensitivity.

  9. Relationships between music training, speech processing, and word learning: a network perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, Stefan; Jäncke, Lutz

    2018-03-15

    Numerous studies have documented the behavioral advantages conferred on professional musicians and children undergoing music training in processing speech sounds varying in the spectral and temporal dimensions. These beneficial effects have previously often been associated with local functional and structural changes in the auditory cortex (AC). However, this perspective is oversimplified, in that it does not take into account the intrinsic organization of the human brain, namely, neural networks and oscillatory dynamics. Therefore, we propose a new framework for extending these previous findings to a network perspective by integrating multimodal imaging, electrophysiology, and neural oscillations. In particular, we provide concrete examples of how functional and structural connectivity can be used to model simple neural circuits exerting a modulatory influence on AC activity. In addition, we describe how such a network approach can be used for better comprehending the beneficial effects of music training on more complex speech functions, such as word learning. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. Sensitive periods in human development: evidence from musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penhune, Virginia B

    2011-10-01

    One of the primary goals of cognitive neuroscience is to understand the interaction between genes, development and specific experience. A particularly fascinating example of this interaction is a sensitive period - a time during development when experience has a differential effect on behavior and the brain. Behavioral and brain imaging studies in musicians have provided suggestive evidence for a possible sensitive period for musical training; showing that musicians who began training early show better task performance and greater changes in auditory and motor regions of the brain. However, these studies have not controlled for likely differences between early- (ET) and late-trained (LT) musicians in the number of years of musical experience. This review presents behavioral work from our laboratory comparing the performance of ET (before age seven) and LT musicians who were matched for years of experience on the ability to tap in synchrony with auditory and visual rhythms. The results demonstrate the existence of a possible sensitive period for musical training that has its greatest impact on measures of sensorimotor integration. Work on motor learning in children and how this might relate to the observed sensitive period effect is also reviewed. These studies are described in the context of what is currently known about sensitive periods in animals and humans; drawing on evidence from anatomy and physiology, studies of deafness, as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies in trained musicians. The possible mechanisms underlying sensitive periods for musical training are discussed based on current theories describing the influence of both low-level features of sensory experience and higher-level cognitive processing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  11. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, L; Tiller, NB; Karageorghis, CI

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on ac...

  12. Behavioral and Neurological Responses to Musical Features in Adolescent Cochlear Implant Users Before and After an Intensive Musical Training Program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn

    a session of behavioral tests and EEG recordings. CI users significantly improved their overall behavioral perception of music and, in particular, their discrimination of melodic contour and rhythm. Though smaller and later compared to normal-hearing controls, CI-users showed significant mismatch negativity......This study aimed to investigate perception and processing of musical features in prelingually deaf adolescent CI-users and examine whether this is influenced by music training. Eleven adolescent CI-users received intensive music training for two weeks. Before and after training they completed...... responses for timbre, intensity and rhythm but not for pitch. No effect of training was found in the MMN responses. The findings indicate that despite congenital deafness and late implantation, young CI users are able to discriminate details in music. Furthermore, the behavioral advances suggest that...

  13. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Kuchenbuch

    Full Text Available Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  14. Audio-tactile integration and the influence of musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at functional and structural levels, affecting a network of brain areas. In the present study we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how audio-tactile perception is integrated in the human brain and if musicians show enhancement of the corresponding activation compared to non-musicians. Using a paradigm that allowed the investigation of combined and separate auditory and tactile processing, we found a multisensory incongruency response, generated in frontal, cingulate and cerebellar regions, an auditory mismatch response generated mainly in the auditory cortex and a tactile mismatch response generated in frontal and cerebellar regions. The influence of musical training was seen in the audio-tactile as well as in the auditory condition, indicating enhanced higher-order processing in musicians, while the sources of the tactile MMN were not influenced by long-term musical training. Consistent with the predictive coding model, more basic, bottom-up sensory processing was relatively stable and less affected by expertise, whereas areas for top-down models of multisensory expectancies were modulated by training.

  15. Music Games: Potential Application and Considerations for Rhythmic Training

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin Bégel; Valentin Bégel; Ines Di Loreto; Antoine Seilles; Simone Dalla Bella; Simone Dalla Bella; Simone Dalla Bella; Simone Dalla Bella

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic skills are natural and widespread in the general population. The majority can track the beat of music and move along with it. These abilities are meaningful from a cognitive standpoint given their tight links with prominent motor and cognitive functions such as language and memory. When rhythmic skills are challenged by brain damage or neurodevelopmental disorders, remediation strategies based on rhythm can be considered. For example, rhythmic training can be used to improve motor pe...

  16. Audio-Tactile Integration and the Influence of Musical Training

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchenbuch, Anja; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Herholz, Sibylle C.; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    Perception of our environment is a multisensory experience; information from different sensory systems like the auditory, visual and tactile is constantly integrated. Complex tasks that require high temporal and spatial precision of multisensory integration put strong demands on the underlying networks but it is largely unknown how task experience shapes multisensory processing. Long-term musical training is an excellent model for brain plasticity because it shapes the human brain at function...

  17. 14 CFR 121.406 - Credit for previous CRM/DRM training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for previous CRM/DRM training. 121... previous CRM/DRM training. (a) For flightcrew members, the Administrator may credit CRM training received before March 19, 1998 toward all or part of the initial ground CRM training required by § 121.419. (b...

  18. Musical training influences linguistic abilities in 8-year-old children: more evidence for brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos; Santos, Andreia; Santos, Manuela; Castro, São Luís; Besson, Mireille

    2009-03-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study with 32 nonmusician children over 9 months to determine 1) whether functional differences between musician and nonmusician children reflect specific predispositions for music or result from musical training and 2) whether musical training improves nonmusical brain functions such as reading and linguistic pitch processing. Event-related brain potentials were recorded while 8-year-old children performed tasks designed to test the hypothesis that musical training improves pitch processing not only in music but also in speech. Following the first testing sessions nonmusician children were pseudorandomly assigned to music or to painting training for 6 months and were tested again after training using the same tests. After musical (but not painting) training, children showed enhanced reading and pitch discrimination abilities in speech. Remarkably, 6 months of musical training thus suffices to significantly improve behavior and to influence the development of neural processes as reflected in specific pattern of brain waves. These results reveal positive transfer from music to speech and highlight the influence of musical training. Finally, they demonstrate brain plasticity in showing that relatively short periods of training have strong consequences on the functional organization of the children's brain.

  19. STRUCTURAL AND FUNCTIONAL MODEL OF FORMING FUTURE MUSIC TEACHER’S CREATIVE THINKING IN INSTRUMENTAL AND PERFORMING TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Lavrentieva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the article conceptual bases of forming students’ creative thinking in the instrumental and performing activities are revealed, taking current training trends into account. The contradictions between the requirements of society to create favorable conditions to realize future music teachers’ creative potential and current directions of a higher educational establishment to ‘a result”, which causes a specific system of promotion and support students’ value orientations and encourages students to master existing knowledge, algorithms, and performing models, depict the relevant problems of making out the system of the future music teachers’ instrumental and performing training that is aimed at developing their creative thinking. It is noted that while defining such phenomena as creative thinking and cognitive work a great number of scientists emphasizes on the word “create” which means finding and creating something that hasn’t been found in the previous individual or social experience. The aim of the article is to disclose the content and stages of implementing structural and functional model of forming future music teachers’ creative thinking The model is formed as an alternative to information and reproductive approach to training future specialists. The concept model is based on the target of forming future music teachers’ creative and methodological thinking, professional competence, activity and approaches to the students’ training to complete fulfillment of modern needs of professional and music education. The author specifies criteria of structural model of future music teachers’ creative thinking. They are value and motivational, cognitive and educational, action and technological, creative and modulating ones The effectiveness of the future music teachers’ creative thinking in instrumental and performing training depends on the level of forming clear science-based system that has a certain conceptual

  20. Training Endogenous Task Shifting Using Music Therapy: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Colleen; LaGasse, A Blythe

    2016-01-01

    People with acquired brain injury (ABI) are highly susceptible to disturbances in executive functioning (EF), and these effects are pervasive. Research studies using music therapy for cognitive improvement in this population are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a Musical Executive Function Training (MEFT) intervention to address task-shifting skills in adults with ABI and to obtain preliminary evidence of intervention effect on task shifting. Fourteen participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: a music therapy intervention group (MTG), a singing group (SG), or the no-intervention control group (CG). The SG and MTG met for one hour a day for five days. Feasibility measures included participant completion rates and intervention fidelity. Potential benefits were measured using the Trail Making Test and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task as a pre- and posttest measure. Participant completion rates and interventionist fidelity to the protocol supported feasibility. One-way ANOVA of the pre- and posttest group differences revealed a trend toward improvement in the MTG over the SG. Feasibility and effect size data support a larger trial of the MEFT protocol. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Perception of Music and Speech in Adolescents with Cochlear Implants – A Pilot Study on Effects of Intensive Musical Ear Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Pedersen, Ellen Raben

    measures of rehabilitation are important throughout adolescence. Music training may provide a beneficial method of strengthening not only music perception, but also linguistic skills, particularly prosody. The purpose of this study was to examine perception of music and speech and music engagement...... of adolescent CI users and the potential effects of an intensive musical ear training program. METHODS Eleven adolescent CI users participated in a short intensive training program involving music making activities and computer based listening exercises. Ten NH agemates formed a reference group, who followed...... their standard school schedule and received no music training. Before and after the intervention period, both groups completed a set of tests for perception of music, speech and emotional prosody. In addition, the participants filled out a questionnaire which examined music listening habits and enjoyment...

  2. A Rationale for Music Training to Enhance Executive Functions in Parkinson’s Disease: An Overview of the Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Lesiuk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation, and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC. Due to decreases in dopamine responsible for the disruption of the BGTC network in adults with PD, it is hypothesized that rhythmic auditory cues assist patients through recruiting an alternate network, the CTC, which extends to the supplementary motor areas (SMA and the frontal cortices. In piano training, fine motor finger movements activate the cerebellum and SMA, thereby exercising the CTC network. We hypothesize that exercising the CTC network through music training will contribute to enhanced executive functions. Previous research suggested that music training enhances cognitive performance (i.e., working memory and processing speed in healthy adults and adults with cognitive impairments. This review and rationale provides support for the use of music training to enhance cognitive outcomes in patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD.

  3. A Rationale for Music Training to Enhance Executive Functions in Parkinson's Disease: An Overview of the Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesiuk, Teresa; Bugos, Jennifer A; Murakami, Brea

    2018-04-22

    Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC). Due to decreases in dopamine responsible for the disruption of the BGTC network in adults with PD, it is hypothesized that rhythmic auditory cues assist patients through recruiting an alternate network, the CTC, which extends to the supplementary motor areas (SMA) and the frontal cortices. In piano training, fine motor finger movements activate the cerebellum and SMA, thereby exercising the CTC network. We hypothesize that exercising the CTC network through music training will contribute to enhanced executive functions. Previous research suggested that music training enhances cognitive performance (i.e., working memory and processing speed) in healthy adults and adults with cognitive impairments. This review and rationale provides support for the use of music training to enhance cognitive outcomes in patients with Parkinson’s Disease (PD).

  4. Statistical learning and auditory processing in children with music training: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandikal Vasuki, Pragati Rao; Sharma, Mridula; Ibrahim, Ronny; Arciuli, Joanne

    2017-07-01

    The question whether musical training is associated with enhanced auditory and cognitive abilities in children is of considerable interest. In the present study, we compared children with music training versus those without music training across a range of auditory and cognitive measures, including the ability to detect implicitly statistical regularities in input (statistical learning). Statistical learning of regularities embedded in auditory and visual stimuli was measured in musically trained and age-matched untrained children between the ages of 9-11years. In addition to collecting behavioural measures, we recorded electrophysiological measures to obtain an online measure of segmentation during the statistical learning tasks. Musically trained children showed better performance on melody discrimination, rhythm discrimination, frequency discrimination, and auditory statistical learning. Furthermore, grand-averaged ERPs showed that triplet onset (initial stimulus) elicited larger responses in the musically trained children during both auditory and visual statistical learning tasks. In addition, children's music skills were associated with performance on auditory and visual behavioural statistical learning tasks. Our data suggests that individual differences in musical skills are associated with children's ability to detect regularities. The ERP data suggest that musical training is associated with better encoding of both auditory and visual stimuli. Although causality must be explored in further research, these results may have implications for developing music-based remediation strategies for children with learning impairments. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Music training and child development: a review of recent findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Damasio, Antonio; Ilari, Beatriz; Elliott Sachs, Matthew; Damasio, Hanna

    2018-03-06

    Evidence suggests that learning to play music enhances musical processing skills and benefits other cognitive abilities. Furthermore, studies of children and adults indicate that the brains of musicians and nonmusicians are different. It has not been determined, however, whether such differences result from pre-existing traits, musical training, or an interaction between the two. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on children's brain and cognitive development. The target group of children was compared with two groups of children, one involved in sports and another not enrolled in any systematic afterschool training. Two years after training, we observed that children in the music group had better performance than comparison groups in musically relevant auditory skills and showed related brain changes. For nonmusical skills, children with music training, compared with children without music or with sports training, showed stronger neural activation during a cognitive inhibition task in regions involved in response inhibition despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No such differences were found between music and sports groups. We conclude that music training induces brain and behavioral changes in children, and those changes are not attributable to pre-existing biological traits. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Structural and functional plasticity specific to musical training with wind instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uk-Su eChoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown structural and functional changes resulting from musical training. Among these studies, changes in primary sensory areas are mostly related to motor functions. In this study, we looked for some similar functional and structural changes in other functional modalities, such as somatosensory function, by examining the effects of musical training with wind instruments. We found significant changes in two aspects of neuroplasticity, cortical thickness and resting-state neuronal networks. A group of subjects with several years of continuous musical training and who are currently playing in university wind ensembles showed differences in cortical thickness in lip- and tongue-related brain areas versus non-music playing subjects. Cortical thickness in lip-related brain areas was significantly thicker and that in tongue-related areas was significantly thinner in the music playing group compared with that in the non-music playing group. Association analysis of lip-related areas in the music playing group showed that the increase in cortical thickness was caused by musical training. In addition, seed-based correlation analysis showed differential activation in the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor areas between the music and non-music playing groups. These results suggest that high-intensity training with specific musical instruments could induce structural changes in related anatomical areas and could also generate a new functional neuronal network in the brain.

  7. A Longitudinal Study on Children's Music Training Experience and Academic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Ma, Weiyi; Gong, Diankun; Hu, Jiehui; Yao, Dezhong

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between long-term music training and child development based on 250 Chinese elementary school students' academic development of first language (L1), second language (L2), and mathematics. We found that musician children outperformed non-musician children only on musical achievement and second language development. Additionally, although music training appeared to be correlated with children's final academic development of L1, L2, and mathematics, it did not independently contribute to the development of L1 or mathematical skills. Our findings suggest caution in interpreting the positive findings on the non-musical cognitive benefits of music learning. PMID:25068398

  8. Benefits of music training are widespread and lifelong: a bibliographic review of their non-musical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, William J

    2014-06-01

    Recent publications indicate that musical training has effects on non-musical activities, some of which are lifelong. This study reviews recent publications collected from the Performing Arts Medicine Association bibliography. Music training, whether instrumental or vocal, produces beneficial and long-lasting changes in brain anatomy and function. Anatomic changes occur in brain areas devoted to hearing, speech, hand movements, and coordination between both sides of the brain. Functional benefits include improved sound processing and motor skills, especially in the upper extremities. Training benefits extend beyond music skills, resulting in higher IQs and school grades, greater specialized sensory and auditory memory/recall, better language memory and processing, heightened bilateral hand motor functioning, and improved integration and synchronization of sensory and motor functions. These changes last long after music training ends and can minimize or prevent age-related loss of brain cells and some mental functions. Early institution of music training and prolonged duration of training both appear to contribute to these positive changes.

  9. MOTIVATIONAL AND ADAPTATIVE ASPECT OF PROSPECTIVE MUSIC TEACHERS’ VOCAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with motivational and adaptive direction of vocal training of the Art Faculty students of the Pedagogical University. Motivational and adaptive phase consisted in identifying the real state of prospective music teachers’ readiness to work with educational vocal choirs. The criterion of formation of motivational and adaptive component is defined as personal motivation in acquiring high-quality vocal and choral training. The author developed an experimental technique that involves a number of empirical research methods: special and long-term monitoring of the content and progress of the educational process; analysis, control and objectivity of teaching methods; testing; perform creative tasks; test activities; conversations and interviews that were conducted among students, faculty and trainers professional disciplines teaching practice.The mentioned criterion implies that Chinese students have sustained professional focus on improving their own vocal and choral training, awareness of the importance and prospects of this profession in their practical activities in educational conditions in China. Motivation in learning vocal and choral activities, Chinese students made the so-called "immunity" to the difficulties related with the new learning environment in universities Ukraine increases the desire to intensify and optimize the process of conducting and choral training, there is awareness of the need for new development knowledge, skills, new experience and carry it into practice national music and teacher education.

  10. Neural correlates of accelerated auditory processing in children engaged in music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Cahn, B Rael; Damasio, Antonio; Damasio, Hanna

    2016-10-01

    Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have shown that music training is associated with brain differences. It is unknown, however, whether these differences result from lengthy musical training, from pre-existing biological traits, or from social factors favoring musicality. As part of an ongoing 5-year longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of a music training program on the auditory development of children, over the course of two years, beginning at age 6-7. The training was group-based and inspired by El-Sistema. We compared the children in the music group with two comparison groups of children of the same socio-economic background, one involved in sports training, another not involved in any systematic training. Prior to participating, children who began training in music did not differ from those in the comparison groups in any of the assessed measures. After two years, we now observe that children in the music group, but not in the two comparison groups, show an enhanced ability to detect changes in tonal environment and an accelerated maturity of auditory processing as measured by cortical auditory evoked potentials to musical notes. Our results suggest that music training may result in stimulus specific brain changes in school aged children. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. INNOVATIVE TENDENCIES OF FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ SINGING TRAINING IN THE PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Daofen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the innovative tendencies of singing training of Art institutes students at pedagogical universities is presented. The issue introduced in the article is relevant as processes of modernization of higher art and pedagogical education require implementing new scientific approaches and innovative technologies into future music teachers’ training to ensure the comprehensive development of a young generation in modern conditions. So the aim of the article is to disclose the main features of implementing innovative technologies into future music teachers’ training. The analysis of pedagogical and psychological literature shows that the main features of methodological training to work with schoolchildren are the following: mastering professional knowledge, taking into account characteristics of adults’ and children’s phonation; considering aesthetical and value qualities of vocal sound according to modern standards of singers’ training; comprehensive development of vocal, melodic and harmonic hearing; an ability to get schoolchildren’s correct vocal sound; developing skills of methodological analysis of singing process. Due to analysis of scientific works by V. Antoniuk, N. Hrebeniuk, V. Morozov it is reported that efficiency of students and singers’ performance depends on their readiness to make independent decisions in practical creative and performing process, that is a general tendency in the singing training. That’s why one of the main objectives of future music teacher training to performing activities during the years of study is thought to be developing singers’ independence. Among the most effective innovative technologies of future music teachers’ singing training the author proposes technologies of vocal and choral performance by V. Yemelianova, V. Morozova, H. Struve. It is proved that none of innovative concepts, discussed in the article, cannot be mechanically implemented in current national conditions

  12. Music-supported motor training after stroke reveals no superiority of synchronization in group therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vugt, Floris T.; Ritter, Juliane; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2014-01-01

    Background: Music-supported therapy has been shown to be an effective tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. A unique feature of music performance is that it is inherently social: music can be played together in synchrony. Aim: The present study explored the potential of synchronized music playing during therapy, asking whether synchronized playing could improve fine motor rehabilitation and mood. Method: Twenty-eight patients in neurological early rehabilitation after stroke with no substantial previous musical training were included. Patients learned to play simple finger exercises and familiar children's songs on the piano for 10 sessions of half an hour. Patients first received three individual therapy sessions and then continued in pairs. The patient pairs were divided into two groups. Patients in one group played synchronously (together group) whereas the patients in the other group played one after the other (in-turn group). To assess fine motor skill recovery the patients performed standard clinical tests such as the nine-hole-pegboard test (9HPT) and index finger-tapping speed and regularity, and metronome-paced finger tapping. Patients' mood was established using the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Results: Both groups showed improvements in fine motor control. In metronome-paced finger tapping, patients in both groups improved significantly. Mood tests revealed reductions in depression and fatigue in both groups. During therapy, patients in the in-turn group rated their partner as more sympathetic than the together-group in a visual-analog scale. Conclusions: Our results suggest that music-supported stroke rehabilitation can improve fine motor control and mood not only individually but also in patient pairs. Patients who were playing in turn rather than simultaneously tended to reveal greater improvement in fine motor skill. We speculate that patients in the former group may benefit from the opportunity to learn from observation. PMID

  13. Ear Advantage for Musical Location and Relative Pitch: Effects of Musical Training and Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Joanna L; Hubbard, Timothy L; Hubbard, Nicholas A; Rypma, Bart

    2017-06-01

    Trained musicians have been found to exhibit a right-ear advantage for high tones and a left-ear advantage for low tones. We investigated whether this right/high, left/low pattern of musical processing advantage exists in listeners who had varying levels of musical experience, and whether such a pattern might be modulated by attentional strategy. A dichotic listening paradigm was used in which different melodic sequences were presented to each ear, and listeners attended to (a) the left ear or the right ear or (b) the higher pitched tones or the lower pitched tones. Listeners judged whether tone-to-tone transitions within each melodic sequence moved upward or downward in pitch. Only musically experienced listeners could adequately judge the direction of successive pitch transitions when attending to a specific ear; however, all listeners could judge the direction of successive pitch transitions within a high-tone stream or a low-tone stream. Overall, listeners exhibited greater accuracy when attending to relatively higher pitches, but there was no evidence to support a right/high, left/low bias. Results were consistent with effects of attentional strategy rather than an ear advantage for high or low tones. Implications for a potential performer/audience paradox in listening space are considered.

  14. The association of noise sensitivity with music listening, training, and aptitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Kliuchko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After intensive, long-term musical training, the auditory system of a musician is specifically tuned to perceive musical sounds. We wished to find out whether a musician′s auditory system also develops increased sensitivity to any sound of everyday life, experiencing them as noise. For this purpose, an online survey, including questionnaires on noise sensitivity, musical background, and listening tests for assessing musical aptitude, was administered to 197 participants in Finland and Italy. Subjective noise sensitivity (assessed with the Weinstein′s Noise Sensitivity Scale was analyzed for associations with musicianship, musical aptitude, weekly time spent listening to music, and the importance of music in each person′s life (or music importance. Subjects were divided into three groups according to their musical expertise: Nonmusicians (N = 103, amateur musicians (N = 44, and professional musicians (N = 50. The results showed that noise sensitivity did not depend on musical expertise or performance on musicality tests or the amount of active (attentive listening to music. In contrast, it was associated with daily passive listening to music, so that individuals with higher noise sensitivity spent less time in passive (background listening to music than those with lower sensitivity to noise. Furthermore, noise-sensitive respondents rated music as less important in their life than did individuals with lower sensitivity to noise. The results demonstrate that the special sensitivity of the auditory system derived from musical training does not lead to increased irritability from unwanted sounds. However, the disposition to tolerate contingent musical backgrounds in everyday life depends on the individual′s noise sensitivity.

  15. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska; Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska; Wiebke Johanna Trost

    2014-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musi...

  16. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables

    OpenAIRE

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A.; Trost, Wiebke J.

    2014-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musi...

  17. Moderating variables of music training-induced neuroplasticity: a review and discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Louise Merrett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A large body of literature now exists to substantiate the long-held idea that musicians' brains differ structurally and functionally from nonmusicians' brains. These differences include changes in volume, morphology, density, connectivity, and function across many regions of the brain. In addition to the extensive literature that investigates these differences cross-sectionally by comparing musicians and nonmusicians, longitudinal studies have demonstrated the causal influence of music training on the brain across the lifespan. However, there is a large degree of inconsistency in the findings, with discordance between studies, laboratories, and techniques. A review of this literature highlights a number of variables that appear to moderate the relationship between music training and brain structure and function. These include age at commencement of training, sex, absolute pitch, type of training, and instrument of training. These moderating variables may account for previously unexplained discrepancies in the existing literature, and we propose that future studies carefully consider research designs and methodologies that control for these variables.

  18. An Explorative Study Examining Augmentative and Alternative Communication Training in the Field of Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadberry, Anita L; Sweeney, Alison

    2017-07-01

    Music therapists work with many people who require Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). As communication goals are central to music therapy practice, many music therapists would benefit from training in AAC. The purpose of this survey study was to determine the state of AAC education for music therapists at the university level, how AAC is being used in music therapy sessions, and how practicing music therapists are trained in AAC. Music therapy faculty and credentialed music therapists in North America and Europe were invited to complete an online survey. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze survey data from each group of respondents. With regard to training in AAC at the university level, results indicate that almost half of music therapy faculty (44.66%) provided some training. The primary reason given for not providing training was a lack of educator knowledge in this area. Results indicate that a majority (81.77%) of music therapy clinicians are familiar with AAC and slightly over half (55.08%) reported that they work with clients who use AAC. Sixty-two percent of music therapists reported using AAC to promote expressive language, and 49% to increase receptive language. Over 80% of clinicians stated they would benefit from additional AAC training. Although a majority of music therapists are familiar with ACC, results indicate that ACC competency could be enhanced through university-level instruction and continuing professional development courses. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Rhythmic abilities and musical training in Parkinson's disease: do they help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochen De Cock, V; Dotov, D G; Ihalainen, P; Bégel, V; Galtier, F; Lebrun, C; Picot, M C; Driss, V; Landragin, N; Geny, C; Bardy, B; Dalla Bella, S

    2018-01-01

    Rhythmic auditory cues can immediately improve gait in Parkinson's disease. However, this effect varies considerably across patients. The factors associated with this individual variability are not known to date. Patients' rhythmic abilities and musicality (e.g., perceptual and singing abilities, emotional response to music, and musical training) may foster a positive response to rhythmic cues. To examine this hypothesis, we measured gait at baseline and with rhythmic cues in 39 non-demented patients with Parkinson's disease and 39 matched healthy controls. Cognition, rhythmic abilities and general musicality were assessed. A response to cueing was qualified as positive when the stimulation led to a clinically meaningful increase in gait speed. We observed that patients with positive response to cueing ( n  = 17) were more musically trained, aligned more often their steps to the rhythmic cues while walking, and showed better music perception as well as poorer cognitive flexibility than patients with non-positive response ( n  = 22). Gait performance with rhythmic cues worsened in six patients. We concluded that rhythmic and musical skills, which can be modulated by musical training, may increase beneficial effects of rhythmic auditory cueing in Parkinson's disease. Screening patients in terms of musical/rhythmic abilities and musical training may allow teasing apart patients who are likely to benefit from cueing from those who may worsen their performance due to the stimulation.

  20. MODELLING THE FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ READINESS TO PERFORMING AND INTERPRETIVE ACTIVITY DURING INSTRUMENTAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenj Bo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the main fields of training future music teachers in Ukrainian system of higher education is instrumental music one, such as skills of performing and interpretive activities. The aim of the article is to design a model of the future music teachers’ readiness to performing and interpretive activities in musical and instrumental training. The process of modelling is based on several interrelated scientific approaches, including systemic, personality-centered, reflective, competence, active and creative ones. While designing a model of music future teachers’ readinesses to musical interpretive activities, its philosophical, informative, interactive, hedonistic, creative functions are taken into account. Important theoretical and methodological factors are thought to be principles of musical and pedagogical education: culture correspondence and reflection; unity of emotional and conscious, artistic and technical items in musical education; purposeful interrelations and art and pedagogical communication between teachers and students; intensification of music and creative activity. Above-mentioned pedagogical phenomenon is subdivided into four components: motivation-oriented, cognitive-evaluating, performance-independent, creative and productive. For each component relevant criteria and indicators are identified. The stages of future music teachers’ readiness to performing interpretative activity are highlighted: information searching one, which contributes to the implementation of complex diagnostic methods (surveys, questionnaires, testing; regulative and performing one, which is characterized by future music teachers’ immersion into music performing and interpretative activities; operational and reflective stage, which involves activation of mechanisms of future music teachers’ self-knowledge, self-realization, formation of skills of independent artistic and expressive various music genres and styles interpretation; projective and

  1. The Nigerian Art Music Composer, His Training, Vocal Compositions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The music arena has undergone some changes within the past decades in Nigeria; partly due to contact of Nigerians with music of the other world cultures and due to intercultural borrowings within Nigeria. This trend has been a masterminding force in the shaping of the musical arena in Nigeria with the art music composer ...

  2. The effects of musical training on structural brain development: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Krista L; Lerch, Jason; Norton, Andrea; Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Evans, Alan C; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-07-01

    Long-term instrumental music training is an intense, multisensory and motor experience that offers an ideal opportunity to study structural brain plasticity in the developing brain in correlation with behavioral changes induced by training. Here, for the first time, we demonstrate structural brain changes after only 15 months of musical training in early childhood, which were correlated with improvements in musically relevant motor and auditory skills. These findings shed light on brain plasticity, and suggest that structural brain differences in adult experts (whether musicians or experts in other areas) are likely due to training-induced brain plasticity.

  3. The Effects of Training on Recognition of Musical Instruments by Adults with Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Virginia D

    2012-11-01

    This study examines the efficiency and effectiveness of three types of training on recognition of musical instruments by adults with cochlear implants (CI). Seventy-one adults with CIs were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions: feedback on response accuracy, feedback-plus (response accuracy plus correct answer), and direct instruction. Each participant completed three training sessions per week over a five-week time period in which they listened to recorded excerpts of eight different musical instruments. Results showed significant pre-to-posttest improvement in music instrument recognition accuracy for all three training conditions (22.9-25.7%, p types of auditory rehabilitation for persons who use CIs.

  4. Benefits of music training in child development: a systematic review.

    OpenAIRE

    María Angélica Benítez; Veronika Mariana Diaz Abrahan; Nadia Romina Justel

    2018-01-01

    There are evidences that establish that from early childhood musical education has a positive effect on the cognitive development of the child, as well as different musical components contribute to the development of psychomotor, emotional and social skills. The musical processing is a complex issue. From a cognitive point of view production, music perception and aspects of the musical discourse, such as timbre, intensity, pace, and tonality, are processed in different parts of the brain and ...

  5. Sensorimotor synchronization and perception of timing: effects of music training and task experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H

    2010-04-01

    To assess individual differences in basic synchronization skills and in perceptual sensitivity to timing deviations, brief tests made up of isochronous auditory sequences containing phase shifts or tempo changes were administered to 31 college students (most of them with little or no music training) and nine highly trained musicians (graduate students of music performance). Musicians showed smaller asynchronies, lower tapping variability, and greater perceptual sensitivity than college students, on average. They also showed faster phase correction following a tempo change in the pacing sequence. Unexpectedly, however, phase correction following a simple phase shift was unusually quick in both groups, especially in college students. It emerged that some of the musicians, who had previous experience with laboratory synchronization tasks, showed a much slower corrective response to phase shifts than did the other musicians. When these others were retested after having gained some task experience, their phase correction was slower than previously. These results show (1) that instantaneous phase correction in response to phase perturbations is more common than was previously believed, and suggest that (2) gradual phase correction is not a shortcoming but reflects a reduction in the strength of sensorimotor coupling afforded by practice.

  6. PROJECT AND ACTON STAGE OD DESIGNING FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ ETHNOCULTURAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Jiayu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the issue of developing future music teachers’ ethnocultural training in the process of their professional training is revealed. The author emphasizes on the relevance of the issue as future music teachers’ ethnocultural training contributes to, on the one hand, completing mastering the national system of cultural values of native people by students of higher musical educational institutions and, on the other hand, involving perception and understanding of other nations’ cultural values, allowing future music teachers to transmit values expressed by the young generation to their professional activity. It is reported that the main feature of future music teachers’ ethnocultural training is a system of ethnic and cultural values which is the background of musical and psychological-pedagogical and art training; it is actively engaged as value tools musical folk art and national art. Value methods that are involved in the process of training are methods of traditional pedagogy, as well as the basis of pedagogical communication – people’s ethics. It is noted that developing future music teachers’ ethnocultural training requires designing the special methodology. The constant items of this methodology are thought to be the forms, methods, techniques and means of pedagogical and ethnopedagogical impacts as tools for developing students’ ethnopedagogical thinking in the process of musical and pedagogical activities; the system of controlling future music teachers’ ethnopedagogical, ethnological, ethnomusical knowledge and skills as a combination of methods that enables an opportunity to compare the level of mastering the knowledge and skills at different stages of educational process; to organize tuition using innovative technologies. The special attention is paid to professional and active component of this methodology. The diagnostic tests according to the criterion of “a degree of professional effectiveness in

  7. Effects of musical training on sound pattern processing in high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjung; Staffaroni, Laura; Reid, Errold; Steinschneider, Mitchell; Sussman, Elyse

    2009-05-01

    Recognizing melody in music involves detection of both the pitch intervals and the silence between sequentially presented sounds. This study tested the hypothesis that active musical training in adolescents facilitates the ability to passively detect sequential sound patterns compared to musically non-trained age-matched peers. Twenty adolescents, aged 15-18 years, were divided into groups according to their musical training and current experience. A fixed order tone pattern was presented at various stimulus rates while electroencephalogram was recorded. The influence of musical training on passive auditory processing of the sound patterns was assessed using components of event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The mismatch negativity (MMN) ERP component was elicited in different stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) conditions in non-musicians than musicians, indicating that musically active adolescents were able to detect sound patterns across longer time intervals than age-matched peers. Musical training facilitates detection of auditory patterns, allowing the ability to automatically recognize sequential sound patterns over longer time periods than non-musical counterparts.

  8. A Study of Music Instruction in Preschool Education Training : Part II

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 京子; Kyoko, Maruyama

    2001-01-01

    Last year, the author and others studied music instruction in preschool education training. In that paper, we learn what was required to become successful preschool teacher and the relationship between kindergarten children and preschool education major students. Based on the results of that study, the author has come to realize the importance of music instruction and music performance in childhood development in the preschool curriculum.

  9. Perception of Music and Speech in Adolescents with Cochlear Implants – A Pilot Study on Effects of Intensive Musical Ear Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Sørensen, Stine Derdau; Pedersen, Ellen Raben

    their standard school schedule and received no music training. Before and after the intervention period, both groups completed a set of tests for perception of music, speech and emotional prosody. In addition, the participants filled out a questionnaire which examined music listening habits and enjoyment....... RESULTS CI users significantly improved their overall music perception and discrimination of melodic contour and rhythm in particular. No effect of the music training was found on discrimination of emotional prosody or speech. The CI users described levels of music engagement and enjoyment that were...... combined with their positive feedback suggests that music training could form part of future rehabilitation programs as a strong, motivational and beneficial method of improving auditory skills in adolescent CI users....

  10. Why would musical training benefit the neural encoding of speech? The OPERA hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniruddh D. Patel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that musical training benefits the neural encoding of speech. This paper offers a hypothesis specifying why such benefits occur. The OPERA hypothesis proposes that such benefits are driven by adaptive plasticity in speech-processing networks, and that this plasticity occurs when five conditions are met. These are: 1 Overlap: there is anatomical overlap in the brain networks that process an acoustic feature used in both music and speech (e.g., waveform periodicity, amplitude envelope, 2 Precision: music places higher demands on these shared networks than does speech, in terms of the precision of processing, 3 Emotion: the musical activities that engage this network elicit strong positive emotion, 4 Repetition: the musical activities that engage this network are frequently repeated, and 5 Attention: the musical activities that engage this network are associated with focused attention. According to the OPERA hypothesis, when these conditions are met neural plasticity drives the networks in question to function with higher precision than needed for ordinary speech communication. Yet since speech shares these networks with music, speech processing benefits. The OPERA hypothesis is used to account for the observed superior subcortical encoding of speech in musically trained individuals, and to suggest mechanisms by which musical training might improve linguistic reading abilities.

  11. Why would Musical Training Benefit the Neural Encoding of Speech? The OPERA Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aniruddh D

    2011-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that musical training benefits the neural encoding of speech. This paper offers a hypothesis specifying why such benefits occur. The "OPERA" hypothesis proposes that such benefits are driven by adaptive plasticity in speech-processing networks, and that this plasticity occurs when five conditions are met. These are: (1) Overlap: there is anatomical overlap in the brain networks that process an acoustic feature used in both music and speech (e.g., waveform periodicity, amplitude envelope), (2) Precision: music places higher demands on these shared networks than does speech, in terms of the precision of processing, (3) Emotion: the musical activities that engage this network elicit strong positive emotion, (4) Repetition: the musical activities that engage this network are frequently repeated, and (5) Attention: the musical activities that engage this network are associated with focused attention. According to the OPERA hypothesis, when these conditions are met neural plasticity drives the networks in question to function with higher precision than needed for ordinary speech communication. Yet since speech shares these networks with music, speech processing benefits. The OPERA hypothesis is used to account for the observed superior subcortical encoding of speech in musically trained individuals, and to suggest mechanisms by which musical training might improve linguistic reading abilities.

  12. Music therapy as specific and complementary training for adults after cochlear implantation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Argstatter, H; Grapp, M; Plinkert, P K

    2015-09-01

    Although cochlear implant (CI) users achieve good speech comprehension, they experience difficulty perceiving music and prosody in speech. As the provision of music training in rehabilitation is limited, a novel concept of music therapy for rehabilitation of adult CI users was developed and evaluated in this pilot study. Twelve unilaterally implanted, postlingually deafened CI users attended ten sessions of individualized and standardized training. The training started about 6 weeks after the initial activation of the speech processor. Before and after therapy, psychological and musical tests were applied in order to evaluate the effects of music therapy. CI users completed the musical tests in two conditions: bilateral (CI + contralateral, unimplanted ear) and unilateral (CI only). After therapy, improvements were observed in the subjective sound quality (Hearing Implant Sound Quality Index) and the global score on the self-concept questionnaire (Multidimensional Self-Concept Scales) as well as in the musical subtests for melody recognition and for timbre identification in the unilateral condition. Discussion Preliminary results suggest improvements in subjective hearing and music perception, with an additional increase in global self-concept and enhanced daily listening capacities. The novel concept of individualized music therapy seems to provide an effective treatment option in the rehabilitation of adult CI users. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate effects in the area of prosody perception and to separate therapy effects from general learning effects in CI rehabilitation.

  13. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals – both young and old – encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in noisy environments and reading, pointing to an intersection between hearing and cognition. Musical experience, amplification, and software-based training can improve these biological signals. These findings of biological plasticity, in a variety of subject populations, relate to attention and auditory memory, and represent an integrated auditory system influenced by both sensation and cognition. Learning outcomes The reader will (1) understand that the auditory system is malleable to experience and training, (2) learn the ingredients necessary for auditory learning to successfully be applied to communication, (3) learn that the auditory brainstem response to complex sounds (cABR) is a window into the integrated auditory system, and (4) see examples of how cABR can be used to track the outcome of experience and training. PMID:22789822

  14. Effects of training on recognition of musical instruments presented through cochlear implant simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driscoll, Virginia D; Oleson, Jacob; Jiang, Dingfeng; Gfeller, Kate

    2009-01-01

    The simulation of the CI (cochlear implant) signal presents a degraded representation of each musical instrument, which makes recognition difficult. To examine the efficiency and effectiveness of three types of training on recognition of musical instruments as presented through simulations of the sounds transmitted through a CI. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three training conditions: repeated exposure, feedback, and direct instruction. Sixty-six adults with normal hearing. Each participant completed three training sessions per week, over a five-week time period, in which they listened to the CI simulations of eight different musical instruments. Analyses on percent of instruments identified correctly showed statistically significant differences between recognition accuracy of the three training conditions (p different types of training are differentially effective with regard to improving recognition of musical instruments presented through a degraded signal, which has practical implications for the auditory rehabilitation of persons who use cochlear implants.

  15. Pitch and Time Processing in Speech and Tones: The Effects of Musical Training and Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sares, Anastasia G.; Foster, Nicholas E. V.; Allen, Kachina; Hyde, Krista L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Musical training is often linked to enhanced auditory discrimination, but the relative roles of pitch and time in music and speech are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether pitch and time processing are correlated across individuals and how they may be affected by attention. This study aimed to examine pitch and time processing in…

  16. Benefits of Music Training in Mandarin-Speaking Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J., III; Wang, Xiaosong; Wu, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess young (5- to 10-year-old) Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users' musical pitch perception and to assess the benefits of computer-based home training on performance. Method: Melodic contour identification (MCI) was used to assess musical pitch perception in 14 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI…

  17. The Effects of Musical Training on the Decoding Skills of German-Speaking Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the results of a long-term study of 159 German-speaking primary school children. The correlations between musical skills (perception and differentiation of rhythmical and tonal/melodic patterns) and decoding skills, and the effects of musical training on word-level reading abilities were investigated. Cognitive skills and…

  18. Turning Experience into Learning: Educational Contributions of Collaborative Peer Songwriting during Music Therapy Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Felicity; Krout, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study of 21 Australian and United States (US) tertiary/university students involved in training to become professional music therapists. The study aimed to identify the learning outcomes--musical, professional, and personal--that occurred when students participated in collaborative peer songwriting experiences. Student…

  19. Music and Creative Movement: Arizona HSST/CDA Competency Based Training Module #23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownrigg, Carolyn

    The purpose of this Child Development Associate (CDA) training module is to help the CDA intern increase musical experiences in his or her classroom. Objectives are presented along with suggested activities for achieving each objective, and an assessment checklist. Also provided is a study guide emphasizing the values of musical activities in the…

  20. Teacher Training: Music Methods for an Internationalized Approach to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanAlstine, Sharri

    2016-01-01

    How can music teachers and students connect with music and cultures in an honest and meaningful manner? Can music instruction increase intercultural skills and international-mindedness? If these initiatives are important, pre-service teachers need to know how to address these issues in their classroom content and pedagogy. In an effort to assist…

  1. Influence of previous experience on resistance training on reliability of one-repetition maximum test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Avelar, Ademar; Salvador, Emanuel Péricles; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2011-05-01

    The 1-repetition maximum test (1RM) has been widely used to assess maximal strength. However, to improve accuracy in assessing maximal strength, several sessions of the 1RM test are recommended. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of previous resistance training experience on the reliability of 1RM test. Thirty men were assigned to the following 2 groups according to their previous resistance training experience: no previous resistance training experience (NOEXP) and more than 24 months of resistance training experience (EXP). All subjects performed the 1RM tests in bench press and squat in 4 sessions on distinct days. There was a significant session × group effect in bench press (F = 3.09; p reliability of the 1RM test is influenced by the subject's previous experience in resistance training. Subjects without experience in resistance training require more practice and familiarization and show greater increases in maximal strength between sessions than subjects with previous experience in resistance training.

  2. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties.

  3. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miendlarzewska, Ewa A; Trost, Wiebke J

    2013-01-01

    Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  4. How musical training affects cognitive development: rhythm, reward and other modulating variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Aurelia Miendlarzewska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Musical training has recently gained additional interest in education as increasing neuroscientific research demonstrates its positive effects on brain development. Neuroimaging revealed plastic changes in the brains of adult musicians but it is still unclear to what extent they are the product of intensive music training rather than of other factors, such as preexisting biological markers of musicality. In this review, we synthesize a large body of studies demonstrating that benefits of musical training extend beyond the skills it directly aims to train and last well into adulthood. For example, children who undergo musical training have better verbal memory, second language pronunciation accuracy, reading ability and executive functions. Learning to play an instrument as a child may even predict academic performance and IQ in young adulthood. The degree of observed structural and functional adaptation in the brain correlates with intensity and duration of practice. Importantly, the effects on cognitive development depend on the timing of musical initiation due to sensitive periods during development, as well as on several other modulating variables. Notably, we point to motivation, reward and social context of musical education, which are important yet neglected factors affecting the long-term benefits of musical training. Further, we introduce the notion of rhythmic entrainment and suggest that it may represent a mechanism supporting learning and development of executive functions. It also hones temporal processing and orienting of attention in time that may underlie enhancements observed in reading and verbal memory. We conclude that musical training uniquely engenders near and far transfer effects, preparing a foundation for a range of skills, and thus fostering cognitive development.

  5. Childhood Music Training Induces Change in Micro and Macroscopic Brain Structure: Results from a Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Damasio, Antonio; Ilari, Beatriz; Veiga, Ryan; Joshi, Anand A; Leahy, Richard M; Haldar, Justin P; Varadarajan, Divya; Bhushan, Chitresh; Damasio, Hanna

    2017-11-08

    Several studies comparing adult musicians and nonmusicians have shown that music training is associated with structural brain differences. It is not been established, however, whether such differences result from pre-existing biological traits, lengthy musical training, or an interaction of the two factors, or if comparable changes can be found in children undergoing music training. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on the developmental trajectory of children's brain structure, over two years, beginning at age 6. We compared these children with children of the same socio-economic background but either involved in sports training or not involved in any systematic after school training. We established at the onset that there were no pre-existing structural differences among the groups. Two years later we observed that children in the music group showed (1) a different rate of cortical thickness maturation between the right and left posterior superior temporal gyrus, and (2) higher fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, specifically in the crossing pathways connecting superior frontal, sensory, and motor segments. We conclude that music training induces macro and microstructural brain changes in school-age children, and that those changes are not attributable to pre-existing biological traits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Music

    OpenAIRE

    Deinert, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    The musical ending [of Goethe's Novelle] recalls the fascination with "music as metaphor", "the power of music", among recent and contemporary poets from Pope and Dryden and Collins to E.T.A. Hoffmann and Kleist and, of course to Goethe himself. Music saves Faust's life on Easter morning at the end of a dreadful night, and we'll encounter a similar role of music in his Trilogie der Leidenschaft which we'll read in this context.

  7. Training infant education teachers in the understanding and didactic use of music in Galicia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles López de la Calle Sampedro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a wider investigation on the inclusion and use of music at infant schools (3-6 years of Galicia (Spain. It presents the main findings and conclusions as regards the training of the teachers at these schools in the understanding of music and its didactic use. This study has allowed us to extract relevant conclusions about the preparation that the teachers have on music and its teaching as well as to determine their specific training needs. The conclusions drawn should, from our point of view, be necessarily born in mind in the design of the future Infant Education Teacher Training degree, which should lead to a suitable professional training for the integration of the music in the curriculum.

  8. Training early literacy related skills: To which degree does a musical training contribute to phonological awareness development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kempert

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Well-developed phonological awareness skills are a core prerequisite for early literacy development. Although effective phonological awareness training programs exist, children at risk often do not reach similar levels of phonological awareness after the intervention as children with normally developed skills. Based on theoretical considerations and first promising results the present study explores effects of an early musical training in combination with a conventional phonological training in children with weak phonological awareness skills. Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design and measurements across a period of two years, we tested the effects of two interventions: a consecutive combination of a musical and a phonological training and a phonological training alone. The design made it possible to disentangle effects of the musical training alone as well the effects of its combination with the phonological training. The outcome measures of these groups were compared with the control group with multivariate analyses, controlling for a number of background variables. The sample included N = 424 German-speaking children aged 4 to 5 years at the beginning of the study. We found a positive relationship between musical abilities and phonological awareness. Yet, whereas the well-established phonological training produced the expected effects, adding a musical training did not contribute significantly to phonological awareness development. Training effects were partly dependent on the initial level of phonological awareness. Possible reasons for the lack of training effects in the musical part of the combination condition as well as practical implications for early literacy education are discussed.

  9. Enhanced learning of proportional math through music training and spatial-temporal training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, A B; Peterson, M; Shaw, G L

    1999-03-01

    It was predicted, based on a mathematical model of the cortex, that early music training would enhance spatial-temporal reasoning. We have demonstrated that preschool children given six months of piano keyboard lessons improved dramatically on spatial-temporal reasoning while children in appropriate control groups did not improve. It was then predicted that the enhanced spatial-temporal reasoning from piano keyboard training could lead to enhanced learning of specific math concepts, in particular proportional math, which is notoriously difficult to teach using the usual language-analytic methods. We report here the development of Spatial-Temporal Math Video Game software designed to teach fractions and proportional math, and its strikingly successful use in a study involving 237 second-grade children (age range six years eight months-eight years five months). Furthermore, as predicted, children given piano keyboard training along with the Math Video Game training scored significantly higher on proportional math and fractions than children given a control training along with the Math Video Game. These results were readily measured using the companion Math Video Game Evaluation Program. The training time necessary for children on the Math Video Game is very short, and they rapidly reach a high level of performance. This suggests that, as predicted, we are tapping into fundamental cortical processes of spatial-temporal reasoning. This spatial-temporal approach is easily generalized to teach other math and science concepts in a complementary manner to traditional language-analytic methods, and at a younger age. The neural mechanisms involved in thinking through fractions and proportional math during training with the Math Video Game might be investigated in EEG coherence studies along with priming by specific music.

  10. Influence of musical training on understanding voiced and whispered speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Dorea R; Freyman, Richard L; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the previously reported advantage of musicians over non-musicians in understanding speech in noise arises from more efficient or robust coding of periodic voiced speech, particularly in fluctuating backgrounds. Speech intelligibility was measured in listeners with extensive musical training, and in those with very little musical training or experience, using normal (voiced) or whispered (unvoiced) grammatically correct nonsense sentences in noise that was spectrally shaped to match the long-term spectrum of the speech, and was either continuous or gated with a 16-Hz square wave. Performance was also measured in clinical speech-in-noise tests and in pitch discrimination. Musicians exhibited enhanced pitch discrimination, as expected. However, no systematic or statistically significant advantage for musicians over non-musicians was found in understanding either voiced or whispered sentences in either continuous or gated noise. Musicians also showed no statistically significant advantage in the clinical speech-in-noise tests. Overall, the results provide no evidence for a significant difference between young adult musicians and non-musicians in their ability to understand speech in noise.

  11. Music Training Increases Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills in Developmental Dyslexia: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugnacco, Elena; Lopez, Luisa; Terribili, Chiara; Montico, Marcella; Zoia, Stefania; Schön, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873). After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24) performed better than the control group (N = 22) in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873

  12. Music Training Increases Phonological Awareness and Reading Skills in Developmental Dyslexia: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Flaugnacco

    Full Text Available There is some evidence for a role of music training in boosting phonological awareness, word segmentation, working memory, as well as reading abilities in children with typical development. Poor performance in tasks requiring temporal processing, rhythm perception and sensorimotor synchronization seems to be a crucial factor underlying dyslexia in children. Interestingly, children with dyslexia show deficits in temporal processing, both in language and in music. Within this framework, we test the hypothesis that music training, by improving temporal processing and rhythm abilities, improves phonological awareness and reading skills in children with dyslexia. The study is a prospective, multicenter, open randomized controlled trial, consisting of test, rehabilitation and re-test (ID NCT02316873. After rehabilitation, the music group (N = 24 performed better than the control group (N = 22 in tasks assessing rhythmic abilities, phonological awareness and reading skills. This is the first randomized control trial testing the effect of music training in enhancing phonological and reading abilities in children with dyslexia. The findings show that music training can modify reading and phonological abilities even when these skills are severely impaired. Through the enhancement of temporal processing and rhythmic skills, music might become an important tool in both remediation and early intervention programs.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02316873

  13. Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, David; Unrau, Andrea; Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random assignment to 6 months of active participatory musical experience beginning at 6 months of age accelerates acquisition of culture-specific knowledge of Western tonality in comparison to a similar amount of passive exposure to music. Furthermore, infants assigned to the active musical experience showed superior development of prelinguistic communicative gestures and social behaviour compared to infants assigned to the passive musical experience. These results indicate that (1) infants can engage in meaningful musical training when appropriate pedagogical approaches are used, (2) active musical participation in infancy enhances culture-specific musical acquisition, and (3) active musical participation in infancy impacts social and communication development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF STUDYING THE PROBLEM OF PERCEPTION IN FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ PROFESSIONAL TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the methodological analysis of problem of perception in future music teachers’ professional training is presented. The author of the article analyses works of outstanding scientists in philosophy, psychology, and art education. The hierarchical system of musical perception options is revealed. A methodological foundation is supported by consideration of the following modern research in specialty – a theory and methodology of musical study that gives proper appearance and circumstantiality to the presented material. Studying the vocal and choral researches in the field of forming the valued music art perception by future music teachers, an author sets an aim to present the methodological analysis of the problem of perception in future music teachers’ professional training. Realization of the system approach to updating the problem of forming the valued music art perception of future music teachers while being trained to vocal and choral work with senior pupils extends their artistic awareness; contributes to distinguishing art works, phenomena; to seeing their properties; to providing orientation in the informative content of music art works. The special attention is paid to revealing methodological principles of perception of category research in the aspect of the valued understanding images of music art works. As a result of analysing scientific sources on the issue of voice production the author of the article finds out that perception is densely related to transformation of external information, conditioning for forming images, operating category attention, memory, thinking, and emotions. The features of perception of maintaining vocal and choral studies and students’ extrapolation are analysed in the process of future professional activity with senior pupils in the aspects of perception and transformation of musical and intonation information, analysis, object perception, and interpretation in accordance with future

  15. Long-term music training modulates the recalibration of audiovisual simultaneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jicol, Crescent; Proulx, Michael J; Pollick, Frank E; Petrini, Karin

    2018-07-01

    To overcome differences in physical transmission time and neural processing, the brain adaptively recalibrates the point of simultaneity between auditory and visual signals by adapting to audiovisual asynchronies. Here, we examine whether the prolonged recalibration process of passively sensed visual and auditory signals is affected by naturally occurring multisensory training known to enhance audiovisual perceptual accuracy. Hence, we asked a group of drummers, of non-drummer musicians and of non-musicians to judge the audiovisual simultaneity of musical and non-musical audiovisual events, before and after adaptation with two fixed audiovisual asynchronies. We found that the recalibration for the musicians and drummers was in the opposite direction (sound leading vision) to that of non-musicians (vision leading sound), and change together with both increased music training and increased perceptual accuracy (i.e. ability to detect asynchrony). Our findings demonstrate that long-term musical training reshapes the way humans adaptively recalibrate simultaneity between auditory and visual signals.

  16. Treino musical e capacidade da memória operacional em crianças iniciantes, veteranas e sem conhecimentos musicais Musical training and working memory span in beginners, veterans and with no musical knowledge children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Silva Ribeiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A memória operacional e a atividade musical ativam áreas encefálicas recíprocas e homólogas, contudo não há evidências se o treino musical pode ampliar a capacidade da memória operacional. Objetivo: Avaliar o desempenho do treino musical sob a memória operacional em crianças de 9 e 10 anos de idade, praticantes de treino musical e sem experiência musical. PARTICIPANTES: Crianças Iniciantes (n=20, Veteranas (n=20 e Grupo Controle (n=20. MATERIAIS: Instrumentos computadorizados para avaliação da memória operacional. RESULTADOS: Crianças veteranas apresentaram melhores pontuações no BCPR (Teste de Repetição de Pseudopalavras para crianças brasileiras e em subtestes da AWMA (Avaliação Automatizada da Memória Operacional. CONCLUSÃO: O treino musical parece ter contribuído para o desenvolvimento da memória operacional em crianças veteranas no programa de treino musical.Working memory and musical activity activate reciprocal and homologues brain areas. However, there is a lack of evidence if musical training can amplify the working memory span. Objective: To assess the performance of musical training on working memory in children aged 9 and 10 years old who regularly have musical training or with no musical training at all. PARTICIPANTS: Beginners (n=20, Veterans (n=20 and a Control Group (n=20. MATERIALS: Computerized instruments to assess working memory. RESULTS: Veteran children presented higher scores in BCPR (Brazilian Children's Test of Pseudoword Repetition and in specific tasks of AWMA (Automated Working Memory Assessment. CONCLUSION: Musical training seems to have contributed for working memory development in veteran children under musical training programs.

  17. Age, training, and previous experience predict race performance in long-distance inline skaters, not anthropometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2012-02-01

    The association of characteristics of anthropometry, training, and previous experience with race time in 84 recreational, long-distance, inline skaters at the longest inline marathon in Europe (111 km), the Inline One-eleven in Switzerland, was investigated to identify predictor variables for performance. Age, duration per training unit, and personal best time were the only three variables related to race time in a multiple regression, while none of the 16 anthropometric variables were related. Anthropometric characteristics seem to be of no importance for a fast race time in a long-distance inline skating race in contrast to training volume and previous experience, when controlled with covariates. Improving performance in a long-distance inline skating race might be related to a high training volume and previous race experience. Also, doing such a race requires a parallel psychological effort, mental stamina, focus, and persistence. This may be reflected in the preparation and training for the event. Future studies should investigate what motivates these athletes to train and compete.

  18. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional, and cognitive deficits observed in patients with non-communicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favor the idea that the structural, multimodal, and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  19. MUSICAL TRAINING AS AN ALTERNATIVE AND EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR NEURO-EDUCATION AND NEURO-REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eFrançois

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional and cognitive deficits observed in patients with noncommunicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favour the idea that the structural, multimodal and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  20. Psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery from high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Leighton; Tiller, Nicholas B; Karageorghis, Costas I

    2017-03-01

    Numerous studies have examined the multifarious effects of music applied during exercise but few have assessed the efficacy of music as an aid to recovery. Music might facilitate physiological recovery via the entrainment of respiratory rhythms with music tempo. High-intensity exercise training is not typically associated with positive affective responses, and thus ways of assuaging negative affect warrant further exploration. This study assessed the psychophysiological effects of music on acute recovery and prevalence of entrainment in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. Thirteen male runners (M age =20.2±1.9years; BMI=21.7±1.7; V̇O 2 max=61.6±6.1mL·kg·min -1 ) completed three exercise sessions comprising 5×5-min bouts of high-intensity intervals interspersed with 3-min periods of passive recovery. During recovery, participants were administered positively-valenced music of a slow-tempo (55-65bpm), fast-tempo (125-135bpm), or a no-music control. A range of measures including affective responses, RPE, cardiorespiratory indices (gas exchange and pulmonary ventilation), and music tempo-respiratory entrainment were recorded during exercise and recovery. Fast-tempo, positively-valenced music resulted in higher Feeling Scale scores throughout recovery periods (pmusic-moderated differences in cardiorespiratory responses. In conclusion, fast-tempo, positively-valenced music applied during recovery periods engenders a more pleasant experience. However, there is limited evidence that music expedites cardiorespiratory recovery in between bouts of high-intensity exercise. These findings have implications for athletic training strategies and individuals seeking to make high-intensity exercise sessions more pleasant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Old Comedy was a musical experience of great variety. Accompanied by the piper, both choruses and actors sang frequently during the performance. Music in Old comedy reflects to some extend the importance of music in Athenian everyday life, but as Greek Comedy evolved and detached it self more...... and more from the everyday topics, music similarly lost part of its importance within the plays themselves....

  2. Online Distance Learning and Music Training: Benefits, Drawbacks and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsoupidou, Theano

    2014-01-01

    This study examines online distance learning (ODL) as applied in music and music education programmes at different educational levels with a special focus on the digital tools employed in such programmes. It aims to provide an up-to-date snapshot of the current online courses focusing on the potential benefits and drawbacks of ODL from the…

  3. Music Therapy and Spiritual Care in End-of-Life: A Qualitative Inquiry into Ethics and Training Issues Identified by Chaplains and Music Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masko, Meganne K

    2016-01-01

    Music therapists are increasingly employed by hospices. As such, they are often called upon to provide additional spiritual care to patients receiving end-of-life care. However, researchers have not yet examined the appropriateness of music therapists providing spiritual care as part of the hospice team, or ethics and training issues related to music therapist-led spiritual care. The purpose of this study was to explore the thoughts and attitudes of hospice chaplains and music therapists (MTs) about ethics and training issues related to music therapists providing spiritual care as part of the hospice interdisciplinary team. The study used semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of music therapists and chaplains specializing in hospice care as part of a larger exploratory mixed methods study. Each interview was recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using a two-step process including both a modified phenomenological inductive approach and thematic analysis. Participants discussed ethics and training issues related to the provision of music therapist-led spiritual care as part of the hospice team. These issues included scope of practice, cultural competence and maintaining personal boundaries, and spiritual care training topics such as educational content and educational methods. While it was clear that both chaplains and music therapists felt it was appropriate for music therapists to provide spiritual care as part of the hospice team, there is a need for formal and informal spiritual care training for music therapists doing this type of work. Training should potentially include information about comparative religions, cultural competence, scope of practice, and maintaining personal boundaries. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  5. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF FUTURE MUSIC ART TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR SINGING ACTIVITY OF COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL SENIOR STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the functional analysis of future music art teachers’ training for singing activity of comprehensive school senior students is depicted. This issue is very important because improving educators and musicians’ training contributes not only to professional selfactualisation, but also to young generation’s encouraging for thorough learning music art works and their creative development in the process of group music tuitions. Extracurricular singing activity also plays an important part. It reveals art images to students, enriching creativity experience, forms the spiritual world, develops independent thinking, awakens creativity. The author points out the main functions of future music art teachers’ training. They are system and value, information, communication, creative and transformative, projective functions. The special attention is paid to characterizing the features of each function. The author claims that system and value function relates to the necessity to analyze the results of the educational process that contributes to productive solving problems by students and main tasks of music training. Information function is a subject background of art music teachers’ and pedagogical activities. Communicative function is realized in a teacher’s ability to develop the student’ initiative to plan cooperative activities, to be able to distribute duties, to carry out instructions, to coordinate cooperative activities, to create special situations for the implementation of educational influence. The analysis of pedagogical and methodological literature shows that The creative and transformative function is manifested in the creative use of pedagogical and methodological ideas in specific pedagogical conditions. The projective function is thought to promote the most complete realization of content of comprehensive and art education. Functional analysis of students’ training of art faculties at pedagogical universities to

  6. Autogenic Feedback Training (Body FORTRAN) for Musically Gifted Students at Bonita Vista High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John M.

    1982-01-01

    The Gifted Self-Understanding Assessment Battery (GSAB) was given to 34 (27 females, 7 males) music students (aged 15-17) at Bonita Vista High School in Chula Vista (California). Biofeedback training and assessment were followed by individual counseling for Autogenic Feedback Training (AFT) to achieve improvement of the individual's own well…

  7. Perceptual Training of Second-Language Vowels: Does Musical Ability Play a Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarvand Mokari, Payam; Werner, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    The present study attempts to extend the research on the effects of phonetic training on the production and perception of second-language (L2) vowels. We also examined whether success in learning L2 vowels through high-variability intensive phonetic training is related to the learners' general musical abilities. Forty Azerbaijani learners of…

  8. Can you hear me now? Musical training shapes functional brain networks for selective auditory attention and hearing speech in noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L Strait

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Even in the quietest of rooms, our senses are perpetually inundated by a barrage of sounds, requiring the auditory system to adapt to a variety of listening conditions in order to extract signals of interest (e.g., one speaker’s voice amidst others. Brain networks that promote selective attention are thought to sharpen the neural encoding of a target signal, suppressing competing sounds and enhancing perceptual performance. Here, we ask: does musical training benefit cortical mechanisms that underlie selective attention to speech? To answer this question, we assessed the impact of selective auditory attention on cortical auditory-evoked response variability in musicians and nonmusicians. Outcomes indicate strengthened brain networks for selective auditory attention in musicians in that musicians but not nonmusicians demonstrate decreased prefrontal response variability with auditory attention. Results are interpreted in the context of previous work from our laboratory documenting perceptual and subcortical advantages in musicians for the hearing and neural encoding of speech in background noise. Musicians’ neural proficiency for selectively engaging and sustaining auditory attention to language indicates a potential benefit of music for auditory training. Given the importance of auditory attention for the development of language-related skills, musical training may aid in the prevention, habilitation and remediation of children with a wide range of attention-based language and learning impairments.

  9. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  10. Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: Common Processing, Attention, and Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Besson, Mireille; Chobert, Julie; Marie, Céline

    2011-01-01

    After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic processing in the other domain, results can be interpreted as common acoustic processing. But when long-te...

  11. Functional Connectivity of the Precuneus in Female University Students with Long-Term Musical Training

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Conceiving concrete mental imagery is critical for skillful musical expression and performance. The precuneus, a core component of the default mode network (DMN), is a hub of mental image processing that participates in functions such as episodic memory retrieval and imagining future events. The precuneus connects with many brain regions in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term musical training on the resting-sta...

  12. Planning music-based amelioration and training in infancy and childhood based on neural evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huotilainen, Minna; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2018-05-04

    Music-based amelioration and training of the developing auditory system has a long tradition, and recent neuroscientific evidence supports using music in this manner. Here, we present the available evidence showing that various music-related activities result in positive changes in brain structure and function, becoming helpful for auditory cognitive processes in everyday life situations for individuals with typical neural development and especially for individuals with hearing, learning, attention, or other deficits that may compromise auditory processing. We also compare different types of music-based training and show how their effects have been investigated with neural methods. Finally, we take a critical position on the multitude of error sources found in amelioration and training studies and on publication bias in the field. We discuss some future improvements of these issues in the field of music-based training and their potential results at the neural and behavioral levels in infants and children for the advancement of the field and for a more complete understanding of the possibilities and significance of the training. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N.; Véliz, Guillermo; Rojas, Marcos; Martínez, Cristián; Olmedo, Rubén; Panussis, Felipe; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Delgado, Carolina; Delano, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss...

  14. Exposure Influences Expressive Timing Judgments in Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honing, Henkjan; Ladinig, Olivia

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening experiment in which listeners with a wide range of…

  15. Exposure influences expressive timing judgments in music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.; Ladinig, O.

    2009-01-01

    This study is concerned with the question whether, and to what extent, listeners' previous exposure to music in everyday life, and expertise as a result of formal musical training, play a role in making expressive timing judgments in music. This was investigated by using a Web-based listening

  16. Consolidation of an extinction memory depends on the unconditioned stimulus magnitude previously experienced during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollhoff, Nicola; Eisenhardt, Dorothea

    2009-07-29

    Here, we examine the role of the magnitude of the unconditioned stimulus (US) during classical conditioning in consolidation processes after memory retrieval. We varied the US durations during training and we test the impact of these variations on consolidation after memory retrieval with one or two conditioned stimulus-only trials. We found that the consolidation of an extinction memory depends on US duration during training and ruled out the possibility that this effect is attributable to differences in satiation after conditioning. We conclude that consolidation of an extinction memory is triggered only when the duration of the US reaches a critical threshold. This demonstrates that memory consolidation cannot be regarded as an isolated process depending solely on training conditions. Instead, it depends on the animal's previous experience as well.

  17. Older adults benefit from music training early in life: biological evidence for long-term training-driven plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schwoch, Travis; Woodruff Carr, Kali; Anderson, Samira; Strait, Dana L; Kraus, Nina

    2013-11-06

    Aging results in pervasive declines in nervous system function. In the auditory system, these declines include neural timing delays in response to fast-changing speech elements; this causes older adults to experience difficulty understanding speech, especially in challenging listening environments. These age-related declines are not inevitable, however: older adults with a lifetime of music training do not exhibit neural timing delays. Yet many people play an instrument for a few years without making a lifelong commitment. Here, we examined neural timing in a group of human older adults who had nominal amounts of music training early in life, but who had not played an instrument for decades. We found that a moderate amount (4-14 years) of music training early in life is associated with faster neural timing in response to speech later in life, long after training stopped (>40 years). We suggest that early music training sets the stage for subsequent interactions with sound. These experiences may interact over time to sustain sharpened neural processing in central auditory nuclei well into older age.

  18. Formation of Various Competencies in the Process of Training the Future Music Teachers at the Present Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Dmitry A.; Khussainova, Gulzada A.; Balagazova, Svetlana T.; Zhankul, Tamarasar

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to professional training of future music teachers. Based on the analysis of domestic and foreign studies, the authors proved the importance of studying this problem and focusing on different pedagogical aspects. The study of this topic in general shows that the process of training the future music teachers has its own…

  19. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Matthew; Kaplan, Jonas; Der Sarkissian, Alissa; Habibi, Assal

    2017-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67) were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85) and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05). During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  20. Increased engagement of the cognitive control network associated with music training in children during an fMRI Stroop task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sachs

    Full Text Available Playing a musical instrument engages various sensorimotor processes and draws on cognitive capacities collectively termed executive functions. However, while music training is believed to associated with enhancements in certain cognitive and language abilities, studies that have explored the specific relationship between music and executive function have yielded conflicting results. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, we investigated the effects of music training on executive function using fMRI and several behavioral tasks, including the Color-Word Stroop task. Children involved in ongoing music training (N = 14, mean age = 8.67 were compared with two groups of comparable general cognitive abilities and socioeconomic status, one involved in sports ("sports" group, N = 13, mean age = 8.85 and another not involved in music or sports ("control" group, N = 17, mean age = 9.05. During the Color-Word Stroop task, children with music training showed significantly greater bilateral activation in the pre-SMA/SMA, ACC, IFG, and insula in trials that required cognitive control compared to the control group, despite no differences in performance on behavioral measures of executive function. No significant differences in brain activation or in task performance were found between the music and sports groups. The results suggest that systematic extracurricular training, particularly music-based training, is associated with changes in the cognitive control network in the brain even in the absence of changes in behavioral performance.

  1. Relaxation Training and Postoperative Music Therapy for Adolescents Undergoing Spinal Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kirsten; Adamek, Mary; Kleiber, Charmaine

    2017-02-01

    Spinal fusion for idiopathic scoliosis is one of the most painful surgeries experienced by adolescents. Music therapy, utilizing music-assisted relaxation with controlled breathing and imagery, is a promising intervention for reducing pain and anxiety for these patients. It can be challenging to teach new coping strategies to post-operative patients who are already in pain. This study evaluated the effects of introducing music-assisted relaxation training to adolescents before surgery. Outcome measures were self-reported pain and anxiety, recorded on 0-10 numeric rating scale, and observed behavioral indicators of pain and relaxation. The training intervention was a 12-minute video about music-assisted relaxation with opportunities to practice before surgery. Forty-four participants between the ages of 10 and 19 were enrolled. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental group that watched the video at the preoperative visit or to the control group that did not watch the video. All subjects received a music therapy session with a board certified music therapist on post-operative day 2 while out of bed for the first time. Pain and anxiety were significantly reduced from immediately pre-therapy to post-therapy (paired t-test; p). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. UPDATING THE BASIC PRINCIPLES OF PROJECT EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY IN FUTURE MUSIC TEACHERS’ VOCAL AND CHORAL TRAINING

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    Liang Haiye

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to characterizing features of implementing project technology into future music teachers’ vocal and choral training. The analysis of scientific papers of outstanding scientists in philosophy, psychology, and art education, which deal with modern directions of using project technology, highlight its role in art education process. A methodological base is supported by considering contemporary scientific researches, in particular the theory and methodology of musical studies in accordance with forming students’ independence in the process of solving educational problems by means of project technology; developing principles of students’ professional training optimization on the basis of project activity; innovative development of future music teachers’ professional training that gives to the presented material novelty and presentable appearance. Studying future music teachers’ vocal and choral training as a process of constructing that has a special purpose of improving the quality descriptions of educational vocal and choral collective sound functioning, the author of the article discloses the basic principles of implementing project technology into future music teachers’ vocal and choral training. The author of the article pays the special attention to revealing specific features and maintenance of project technology in vocal and choral training of future leaders of child's art groups. An emphasis is made on the following basic factors that influence development of students’ creative individuality: constructing projects of their own becoming; setting aims, tasks, strategies and facilities of vocal and choral work; directing to the result; independent creative activity; presentation, reflection and correction of a project. On the basis of the obtained data the following principles of project technology are put forward in future music teachers’ vocal and choral training: principle of independence; principle of

  3. A Descriptive Analysis of the Educational Perceptions, Professional Identity, and Professional Practices of Dual-Trained Music Therapists as Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Emily E; Jones, Jennifer D; Myers, Charles E

    2017-11-01

    Given the rise in music therapy master's programs that offer dual degrees in music therapy and counseling or programs that satisfy state mental health counseling licensure laws, the professional counseling field is playing an increased role in the advanced education and professional practices of music therapists. To identify factors that lead music therapists to pursue advanced education with an emphasis in professional counseling, perceptions about benefits and drawbacks for three advanced degree options (i.e., music therapy, counseling, and music therapy/counseling dual degree), and describe the professional practices and identity of dual-trained music therapists as counselors. A convenience sample of music therapists (n = 123) who held board certification, and held a master's degree or higher that emphasized professional counseling, completed an online survey. We used descriptive statistics to analyze categorical and numeric survey data. Eligibility for licensure as a professional counselor was the most important decisional factor in selecting a specific master's degree program. Respondents also reported favorable perceptions of the dual degree in music therapy and counseling. With regard to professional practice and identity, respondents reported high use of verbal processing techniques alongside music therapy interventions, and dual-trained music therapists retained their professional identity as a music therapist. The reported view of licensure in a related field as beneficial and frequent use of verbal processing techniques warrants future study into the role of counseling in the advanced training of music therapists. Given contradictory findings across studies, we recommend investigators also explore how a degree in a related field affects career longevity of music therapists. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Evaluation ofmemory in children with and without musical training

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Raquel de Oliveira; Jéssica Bruna Santana Silva; Thabita da Silva Sousa; Eveline Silva Holanda Lima; Emerson Diógenes de Medeiros; Paloma Cavalcante Bezerra de Medeiros

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the memory of children running musical activities. The subjects were 32 children, ranging from 7-1 2 year; 1 6 had music lessons (Experimental Condition, M = 9.81 , SD = 0.84) and the other 1 6 had not (control condition, M = 9.63; SD = 1 ,82). We used Pictorial Test of Memory (TEPIC-M) and a social-demographic questionnaire. Descriptive analyzes and t-Student test for independent samples were applied. Experimental condition presented higher mean rate ...

  5. A developmental study of the effect of music training on timed movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thenille eBraun Janzen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When people clap to music, sing, play a musical instrument, or dance, they engage in temporal entrainment. We examined the effect of music training on the precision of temporal entrainment in 57 children aged 10 to 14 years (31 musicians, 26 nonmusicians. Performance was examined for two tasks: self-paced finger tapping (discrete movements and circle drawing (continuous movements. For each task, participants synchronized their movements with a steady pacing signal and then continued the movement at the same rate in the absence of the pacing signal. Analysis of movements during the continuation phase revealed that musicians were more accurate than nonmusicians at finger tapping and, to a lesser extent, circle drawing. Performance on the finger-tapping task was positively associated with the number of years of formal music training, whereas performance on the circle-drawing task was positively associated with the age of participants. These results indicate that music training and maturation of the motor system reinforce distinct skills of timed movement.

  6. Previous exercise training has a beneficial effect on renal and cardiovascular function in a model of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiton Augusto dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Exercise training (ET is an important intervention for chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM. However, it is not known whether previous exercise training intervention alters the physiological and medical complications of these diseases. We investigated the effects of previous ET on the progression of renal disease and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced DM. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. All groups were followed for 15 weeks. Trained control and trained diabetic rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training, whereas previously trained diabetic rats underwent 14 weeks of exercise training. Renal function, proteinuria, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and the echocardiographic parameters autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS were evaluated. In the previously trained group, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced compared with the sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. Additionally, RSNA was normalized in the trained diabetic and previously trained diabetic animals (p<0.05. The ejection fraction was increased in the previously trained diabetic animals compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05, and the myocardial performance index was improved in the previously trained diabetic group compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. In addition, the previously trained rats had improved heart rate variability and BRS in the tachycardic response and bradycardic response in relation to the diabetic group (p<0.05. This study demonstrates that previous ET improves the functional damage that affects DM. Additionally, our findings suggest that the development of renal and cardiac dysfunction can be minimized by 4 weeks of ET before the induction of DM by STZ.

  7. Effects of short-term music and second-language training on executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-04-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on nonverbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals and those with music training, but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the current study pseudorandomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and nonverbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a nonverbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (matched on age, maternal education, and cognitive scores) to a 20-day training program offering instruction in either music or conversational French. The test battery consisted of verbal and non-verbal tasks requiring EC. All children improved on these tasks following training with some training-specific differences. No changes were observed on background or working memory measures after either training, ruling out simple practice effects. Children in both groups had better scores on the most challenging condition of a grammaticality sentence judgment task in which it was necessary to ignore conflict introduced through misleading semantic content. Children in both training groups also showed better accuracy on the easier condition of a non-verbal visual search task at post-test, but children in the French training group also showed significant improvement on the more challenging condition of this task. These results are discussed in terms of emergent EC benefits of language and music training. PMID:26709746

  9. Does Far Transfer Exist? Negative Evidence From Chess, Music, and Working Memory Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Giovanni; Gobet, Fernand

    2017-12-01

    Chess masters and expert musicians appear to be, on average, more intelligent than the general population. Some researchers have thus claimed that playing chess or learning music enhances children's cognitive abilities and academic attainment. We here present two meta-analyses assessing the effect of chess and music instruction on children's cognitive and academic skills. A third meta-analysis evaluated the effects of working memory training-a cognitive skill correlated with music and chess expertise-on the same variables. The results show small to moderate effects. However, the effect sizes are inversely related to the quality of the experimental design (e.g., presence of active control groups). This pattern of results casts serious doubts on the effectiveness of chess, music, and working memory training. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings; extend the debate to other types of training such as spatial training, brain training, and video games; and conclude that far transfer of learning rarely occurs.

  10. Active Music Classes in Infancy Enhance Musical, Communicative and Social Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, David; Unrau, Andrea; Trainor, Laurel J.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random…

  11. Intuitive Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and some improvisational pieces....

  12. The relationship of previous training and experience of journal peer reviewers to subsequent review quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Callaham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peer review is considered crucial to the selection and publication of quality science, but very little is known about the previous experiences and training that might identify high-quality peer reviewers. The reviewer selection processes of most journals, and thus the qualifications of their reviewers, are ill defined. More objective selection of peer reviewers might improve the journal peer review process and thus the quality of published science. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 306 experienced reviewers (71% of all those associated with a specialty journal completed a survey of past training and experiences postulated to improve peer review skills. Reviewers performed 2,856 reviews of 1,484 separate manuscripts during a four-year study period, all prospectively rated on a standardized quality scale by editors. Multivariable analysis revealed that most variables, including academic rank, formal training in critical appraisal or statistics, or status as principal investigator of a grant, failed to predict performance of higher-quality reviews. The only significant predictors of quality were working in a university-operated hospital versus other teaching environment and relative youth (under ten years of experience after finishing training. Being on an editorial board and doing formal grant (study section review were each predictors for only one of our two comparisons. However, the predictive power of all variables was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that there are no easily identifiable types of formal training or experience that predict reviewer performance. Skill in scientific peer review may be as ill defined and hard to impart as is "common sense." Without a better understanding of those skills, it seems unlikely journals and editors will be successful in systematically improving their selection of reviewers. This inability to predict performance makes it imperative that all but the smallest journals implement routine review ratings

  13. Musical Training during Early Childhood Enhances the Neural Encoding of Speech in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child's access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians' perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and…

  14. The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (P(peak) and P(mean)) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (Peffect of music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs' muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises.

  15. Functional Connectivity of the Precuneus in Female University Students with Long-Term Musical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Kirino, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    Conceiving concrete mental imagery is critical for skillful musical expression and performance. The precuneus, a core component of the default mode network (DMN), is a hub of mental image processing that participates in functions such as episodic memory retrieval and imagining future events. The precuneus connects with many brain regions in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term musical training on the resting-state functional connectivity of the precuneus. Our hypothesis was that the functional connectivity of the precuneus is altered in musicians. We analyzed the functional connectivity of the precuneus using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data recorded in female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The results show that the music students had higher functional connectivity of the precuneus with opercular/insular regions, which are associated with interoceptive and emotional processing; Heschl's gyrus (HG) and the planum temporale (PT), which process complex tonal information; and the lateral occipital cortex (LOC), which processes visual information. Connectivity of the precuneus within the DMN did not differ between the two groups. Our finding suggests that functional connections between the precuneus and the regions outside of the DMN play an important role in musical performance. We propose that a neural network linking the precuneus with these regions contributes to translate mental imagery into information relevant to musical performance.

  16. Short-term music training enhances verbal intelligence and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen; Barac, Raluca; Schellenberg, E Glenn; Cepeda, Nicholas J; Chau, Tom

    2011-11-01

    Researchers have designed training methods that can be used to improve mental health and to test the efficacy of education programs. However, few studies have demonstrated broad transfer from such training to performance on untrained cognitive activities. Here we report the effects of two interactive computerized training programs developed for preschool children: one for music and one for visual art. After only 20 days of training, only children in the music group exhibited enhanced performance on a measure of verbal intelligence, with 90% of the sample showing this improvement. These improvements in verbal intelligence were positively correlated with changes in functional brain plasticity during an executive-function task. Our findings demonstrate that transfer of a high-level cognitive skill is possible in early childhood.

  17. Impact of Spectral Notch Width on Neurophysiological Plasticity and Clinical Effectiveness of the Tailor-Made Notched Music Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Wunderlich

    Full Text Available Tinnitus, the ringing in the ears that is unrelated to any external source, causes a significant loss in quality of life, involving sleep disturbance and depression for 1 to 3% of the general population. While in the first place tinnitus may be triggered by damage to the inner ear cells, the neural generators of subjective tinnitus are located in central regions of the nervous system. A loss of lateral inhibition, tonotopical reorganization and a gain-increase in response to the sensory deprivation result in hypersensitivity and hyperactivity in certain regions of the auditory cortex. In the tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT patients listen to music from which the frequency spectrum of the tinnitus has been removed. This evokes strong lateral inhibition from neurons tuned to adjacent frequencies onto the neurons involved in the tinnitus percept. A reduction of tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related neural activity was achieved with TMNMT in previous studies. As the effect of lateral inhibition depends on the bandwidth of the notch, in the current study we altered the notch width to find the most effective notch width for TMNMT. We compared 1-octave notch width with ½-octave and ¼-octave. Participants chose their favorite music for the training that included three month of two hours daily listening. The outcome was measured by means of standardized questionnaires and magnetoencephalography. We found a general reduction of tinnitus distress in all administered tinnitus questionnaires after the training. Additionally, tinnitus-related neural activity was reduced after the training. Nevertheless, notch width did not have an influence on the behavioral or neural effects of TMNMT. This could be due to a non-linear resolution of lateral inhibition in high frequencies.

  18. Assessing a cognitive music training for older participants: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michele; Mangiacotti, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    In a randomised controlled trial, we investigated whether a cognitive training based on rhythm-music and music improvisation exercises had positive effects on executive functions in older participants. Thirty-five residents in a guest home with mild-moderate cognitive impairment and healthy ageing were randomly assigned to an experimental group (n = 18) featuring cognitive music training composed of 12 bi-weekly 70-min sessions, and a control group (n = 17) attended 12 bi-weekly 45-min sessions of gymnastic activities offered by the institute. A neuropsychological test battery was administered at baseline and at the end of treatment, including the Mini-Mental State Examination, verbal fluency test, Trail Making Test A, attentional matrices test and clock-drawing test. Pre-test and post-test comparison showed a significant improvement for the experimental group reflected in the Mini-Mental State Examination (F(1,33) = 13.906; p music-rhythmic exercises and music improvisation exercises is associated with improved cognitive functions in older people with mild-moderate cognitive impairment regardless of the individual's degree of cognitive reserve. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Brain response to a rhythm deviant in adolescent cochlear implant users before and after an intensive musical training program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Weed, Ethan; Hansen, Mads

    . This study aimed to investigate auditory brain processing of musical sounds relevant to prosody processing in adolescent CI-users who have received their implant in childhood. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate the potential impact of intensive musical training on adolescent CI-users’ discrimination...... studies have investigated perception of music, prosody, and speech in the growing population of adolescent CI users with a congenital HL. However, recent studies indicate that to keep pace with their normal hearing (NH) peers, supplementary measures of rehabilitation are important throughout adolescence...... of music and speech prosody. Here we present preliminary analyses of ERP responses to rhythmically deviant stimuli and present results from a behavioral rhythm discrimination test. Eleven adolescent CI users (M.age = 17 years) participated in a group-based music training program, consisting of active music...

  20. Biological impact of music and software-based auditory training

    OpenAIRE

    Kraus, Nina

    2012-01-01

    Auditory-based communication skills are developed at a young age and are maintained throughout our lives. However, some individuals – both young and old – encounter difficulties in achieving or maintaining communication proficiency. Biological signals arising from hearing sounds relate to real-life communication skills such as listening to speech in noisy environments and reading, pointing to an intersection between hearing and cognition. Musical experience, amplification, and software-based ...

  1. Antenatal Training with Music and Maternal Talk Concurrently May Reduce Autistic-Like Behaviors at around 3 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Liang Ruan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal training through music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus is a topic of general interest for parents-to-be in China, but we still lack a comprehensive assessment of their effects on the development of autistic-like behaviors during early childhood. During 2014–2016, 34,749 parents of children around the age of 3 years who were enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen participated in this study. Self-administered questionnaires regarding demographics, antenatal music training, and maternal talk to the fetus during pregnancy were completed by the children’s primary caregivers. Autistic-like behaviors were assessed using the Autism Behavioral Checklist. Tobit regression analyses revealed that antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus was associated with a reduction in autistic-like behaviors in children, with a dose-dependent relationship. Furthermore, factorial analysis of covariance indicated a significant interaction effect between antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus on the autistic-like behaviors and found that children who often experienced antenatal music training and maternal talk concurrently had the lowest risk of autistic-like behaviors, while children who were never exposed to maternal talk and only sometimes experienced antenatal music training had the highest risk. Our results suggest that antenatal training through both music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus might reduce the risk of children’s autistic-like behaviors at around 3 years of age.

  2. Antenatal Training with Music and Maternal Talk Concurrently May Reduce Autistic-Like Behaviors at around 3 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Zeng-Liang; Liu, Li; Strodl, Esben; Fan, Li-Jun; Yin, Xiao-Na; Wen, Guo-Min; Sun, Deng-Li; Xian, Dan-Xia; Jiang, Hui; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Wu, Chuan-An; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Antenatal training through music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus is a topic of general interest for parents-to-be in China, but we still lack a comprehensive assessment of their effects on the development of autistic-like behaviors during early childhood. During 2014-2016, 34,749 parents of children around the age of 3 years who were enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen participated in this study. Self-administered questionnaires regarding demographics, antenatal music training, and maternal talk to the fetus during pregnancy were completed by the children's primary caregivers. Autistic-like behaviors were assessed using the Autism Behavioral Checklist. Tobit regression analyses revealed that antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus was associated with a reduction in autistic-like behaviors in children, with a dose-dependent relationship. Furthermore, factorial analysis of covariance indicated a significant interaction effect between antenatal music training and maternal talk to the fetus on the autistic-like behaviors and found that children who often experienced antenatal music training and maternal talk concurrently had the lowest risk of autistic-like behaviors, while children who were never exposed to maternal talk and only sometimes experienced antenatal music training had the highest risk. Our results suggest that antenatal training through both music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus might reduce the risk of children's autistic-like behaviors at around 3 years of age.

  3. The role of musical training in emergent and event-based timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence eBaer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Musical performance is thought to rely predominantly on event-based timing involving a clock-like neural process and an explicit internal representation of the time interval. Some aspects of musical performance may rely on emergent timing, which is established through the optimization of movement kinematics, and can be maintained without reference to any explicit representation of the time interval. We predicted that musical training would have its largest effect on event-based timing, supporting the dissociability of these timing processes and the dominance of event-based timing in musical performance. We compared 22 musicians and 17 non-musicians on the prototypical event-based timing task of finger tapping and on the typically emergently timed task of circle drawing. For each task, participants first responded in synchrony with a metronome (Paced and then responded at the same rate without the metronome (Unpaced. Analyses of the Unpaced phase revealed that non-musicians were more variable in their inter-response intervals for finger tapping compared to circle drawing. Musicians did not differ between the two tasks. Between groups, non-musicians were more variable than musicians for tapping but not for drawing. We were able to show that the differences were due to less timer variability in musicians on the tapping task. Correlational analyses of movement jerk and inter-response interval variability revealed a negative association for tapping and a positive association for drawing in non-musicians only. These results suggest that musical training affects temporal variability in tapping but not drawing. Additionally, musicians and non-musicians may be employing different movement strategies to maintain accurate timing in the two tasks. These findings add to our understanding of how musical training affects timing and support the dissociability of event-based and emergent timing modes.

  4. Neurophysiological Evidence That Musical Training Influences the Recruitment of Right Hemispheric Homologues for Speech Perception

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    McNeel Gordon Jantzen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Musicians have a more accurate temporal and tonal representation of auditory stimuli than their non-musician counterparts (Kraus & Chandrasekaran, 2010; Parbery-Clark, Skoe, & Kraus, 2009; Zendel & Alain, 2008; Musacchia, Sams, Skoe, & Kraus, 2007. Musicians who are adept at the production and perception of music are also more sensitive to key acoustic features of speech such as voice onset timing and pitch. Together, these data suggest that musical training may enhance the processing of acoustic information for speech sounds. In the current study, we sought to provide neural evidence that musicians process speech and music in a similar way. We hypothesized that for musicians, right hemisphere areas traditionally associated with music are also engaged for the processing of speech sounds. In contrast we predicted that in non-musicians processing of speech sounds would be localized to traditional left hemisphere language areas. Speech stimuli differing in voice onset time was presented using a dichotic listening paradigm. Subjects either indicated aural location for a specified speech sound or identified a specific speech sound from a directed aural location. Musical training effects and organization of acoustic features were reflected by activity in source generators of the P50. This included greater activation of right middle temporal gyrus (MTG and superior temporal gyrus (STG in musicians. The findings demonstrate recruitment of right hemisphere in musicians for discriminating speech sounds and a putative broadening of their language network. Musicians appear to have an increased sensitivity to acoustic features and enhanced selective attention to temporal features of speech that is facilitated by musical training and supported, in part, by right hemisphere homologues of established speech processing regions of the brain.

  5. The impact of instrument-specific musical training on rhythm perception and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Edward Matthews

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that musical training can improve rhythmic perception and production. These findings tell us that music training can result in rhythm processing advantages but they do not tell us whether practicing a particular instrument could lead to specific effects on rhythm perception or production. The current study used a battery of four rhythm perception and production tasks that were designed to test both higher- and lower-level aspects of rhythm processing. Four groups of musicians (drummers, singers, pianists, string players and a control group of non-musicians were tested. Within-task differences in performance showed that factors such as meter, metrical complexity, tempo and beat phase significantly affected the ability to perceive and synchronize taps to a rhythm or beat. Musicians showed better performance on all rhythm tasks compared to non-musicians. Interestingly, our results revealed no significant differences between musician groups for the vast majority of task measures. This is despite the fact that all musicians were selected to have the majority of their training on the target instrument, had on average more than ten years of experience on their instrument, and were currently practicing. These results suggest that general musical experience is more important than specialized musical experience with regards to perception and production of rhythms.

  6. Reestablishing speech understanding through musical ear training after cochlear implantation: a study of the potential cortical plasticity in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Mortensen, Malene V; Gjedde, Albert

    2009-01-01

    the behavioral and neurologic effects of musical ear training on CI users' speech and music perception. The goal is to find and work out musical methods to improve CI users' auditory capabilities and, in a longer perspective, provide an efficient strategy for improving speech understanding for both adults......Cochlear implants (CIs) provide impressive speech perception for persons with severe hearing loss, but many CI recipients fail in perceiving speech prosody and music. Successful rehabilitation depends on cortical plasticity in the brain and postoperative measures. The present study evaluates...

  7. 音乐在运动训练中的应用%Application of Music in Sports Training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟胜志

    2014-01-01

    In sports training, music is targeted for training at the early, middle and later stage, it can achieve a multiplier effect of training. Study on the application of music in sports training, put forward the function classiifcation of music in sports training can be divided into: mobilization music, meditation music, relaxation music; And point out that using these music in sports training can rouse training emotion, adjust bad training mentation before competitions, promote quick recovery of sports fatigue after comeptitions, which aims to provide a theoretical basis for the application of music in sports training.%在运动训练中,将音乐有针对性地应用于训练的前、中、后阶段,可以取得事半功倍的训练效果。通过对音乐在运动训练中应用的深入研究,提出运动训练中音乐的功能分类可分为:动员型音乐、入静型音乐、松弛型音乐;并指出这几种音乐应用于运动训练中可以激发训练情绪、调整赛前不良心理状态、促进赛后运动疲劳的快速恢复等调节作用,旨在为音乐在运动训练中的应用提供理论依据。

  8. An Equal Start: Absence of Group Differences in Cognitive, Social and Neural Measures Prior to Music or Sports Training in Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assal eHabibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6-7 year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.

  9. An equal start: absence of group differences in cognitive, social, and neural measures prior to music or sports training in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Assal; Ilari, Beatriz; Crimi, Kevin; Metke, Michael; Kaplan, Jonas T; Joshi, Anand A; Leahy, Richard M; Shattuck, David W; Choi, So Y; Haldar, Justin P; Ficek, Bronte; Damasio, Antonio; Damasio, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Several studies comparing adult musicians and non-musicians have provided compelling evidence for functional and anatomical differences in the brain systems engaged by musical training. It is not known, however, whether those differences result from long-term musical training or from pre-existing traits favoring musicality. In an attempt to begin addressing this question, we have launched a longitudinal investigation of the effects of childhood music training on cognitive, social and neural development. We compared a group of 6- to 7-year old children at the start of intense after-school musical training, with two groups of children: one involved in high intensity sports training but not musical training, another not involved in any systematic training. All children were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography. Our first objective was to determine whether children who participate in musical training were different, prior to training, from children in the control groups in terms of cognitive, motor, musical, emotional, and social behavior measures as well as in structural and functional brain measures. Our second objective was to determine whether musical skills, as measured by a music perception assessment prior to training, correlates with emotional and social outcome measures that have been shown to be associated with musical training. We found no neural, cognitive, motor, emotional, or social differences among the three groups. In addition, there was no correlation between music perception skills and any of the social or emotional measures. These results provide a baseline for an ongoing longitudinal investigation of the effects of music training.

  10. Long-term musical training may improve different forms of visual attention ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Carolina; Loureiro, Maurício Alves; Caramelli, Paulo

    2013-08-01

    Many studies have suggested that structural and functional cerebral neuroplastic processes result from long-term musical training, which in turn may produce cognitive differences between musicians and non-musicians. We aimed to investigate whether intensive, long-term musical practice is associated with improvements in three different forms of visual attention ability: selective, divided and sustained attention. Musicians from symphony orchestras (n=38) and non-musicians (n=38), who were comparable in age, gender and education, were submitted to three neuropsychological tests, measuring reaction time and accuracy. Musicians showed better performance relative to non-musicians on four variables of the three visual attention tests, and such an advantage could not solely be explained by better sensorimotor integration. Moreover, in the group of musicians, significant correlations were observed between the age at the commencement of musical studies and reaction time in all visual attention tests. The results suggest that musicians present augmented ability in different forms of visual attention, thus illustrating the possible cognitive benefits of long-term musical training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Warming up with Music on Moods and Training Motivation among Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Khazdozi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to review the effects of warming up with music on moods and training motivation among Kurdistan province’s female handball players0 for this purpose, 24 handball players of premier league of Kurdistan province were selected as the research subjects through a random sampling method. In this study a pretest-posttest design is applied by which 12 subjects have been selected as control group and 12 as experimental group. The latter group performed warm ups free from music. For the purpose of estimation of motivation of subjects, the questionnaire of sports motivation was made use of. In addition, for investigation of the moods variable, the questionnaire of athletes’ moods was used. Research results using the statistical test of Mann-Whitney showed that no significant difference existed between the experimental and control groups’ motivation and moods after performance of the warming up program (P: 0.124. This was while there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups’ moods prior and post to execution of Training program (P= 0.003. In general, it may be concluded that playing music doesn’t have any significant effects on athletes’ motivation while their moods can undergo significant changes through listening to music during warming up.

  12. Transfer of training between music and speech: common processing, attention and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille eBesson

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than nonmusicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic processing in the other domain, results can be interpreted as common acoustic processing. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the Event-Related Potentials method to disentangle the different processes that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech processing.

  13. Transfer of Training between Music and Speech: Common Processing, Attention, and Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Mireille; Chobert, Julie; Marie, Céline

    2011-01-01

    After a brief historical perspective of the relationship between language and music, we review our work on transfer of training from music to speech that aimed at testing the general hypothesis that musicians should be more sensitive than non-musicians to speech sounds. In light of recent results in the literature, we argue that when long-term experience in one domain influences acoustic processing in the other domain, results can be interpreted as common acoustic processing. But when long-term experience in one domain influences the building-up of abstract and specific percepts in another domain, results are taken as evidence for transfer of training effects. Moreover, we also discuss the influence of attention and working memory on transfer effects and we highlight the usefulness of the event-related potentials method to disentangle the different processes that unfold in the course of music and speech perception. Finally, we give an overview of an on-going longitudinal project with children aimed at testing transfer effects from music to different levels and aspects of speech processing.

  14. Effects of Warming Up With Music on Moods and Training Motivation among Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Khazdozi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is to review the effects of warming up with music on moods and training motivation among Kurdistan province’s female handball players0 for this purpose, 24 handball players of premier league of Kurdistan province were selected as the research subjects through a random sampling method. In this study a pretest-posttest design is applied by which 12 subjects have been selected as control group and 12 as experimental group. The latter group performed warm ups free from music. For the purpose of estimation of motivation of subjects, the questionnaire of sports motivation was made use of. In addition, for investigation of the moods variable, the questionnaire of athletes’ moods was used. Research results using the statistical test of Mann-Whitney showed that no significant difference existed between the experimental and control groups’ motivation and moods after performance of the warming up program (P: 0.124. This was while there was a statistically significant difference between the experimental and control groups’ moods prior and post to execution of Training program (P= 0.003. In general, it may be concluded that playing music doesn’t have any significant effects on athletes’ motivation while their moods can undergo significant changes through listening to music during warming up.

  15. Benefits of music training in mandarin-speaking pediatric cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J; Wang, Xiaosong; Wu, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess young (5- to 10-year-old) Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users' musical pitch perception and to assess the benefits of computer-based home training on performance. Melodic contour identification (MCI) was used to assess musical pitch perception in 14 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI users; the instrument timbre and the contour length were varied as experimental parameters. Six subjects received subsequent MCI training on their home computer in which auditory and visual feedback were provided. MCI performance was generally poor (grand mean=33.3% correct) and highly variable, with scores ranging from 9.3% to 98.1% correct; there was no significant effect of instrument timbre or contour length on performance (p>.05). After 4 weeks of training, performance sharply improved. Follow-up measures that were conducted 8 weeks after training was stopped showed no significant decline in MCI performance. For the 6 trained subjects, there was a significant effect of contour length for the training and follow-up measures. These preliminary data suggest that although baseline MCI performance initially may be poor, training may greatly improve Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI users' melodic pitch perception.

  16. Music Teaching in Botswana Secondary Teacher Training Colleges: A Case of Molepolole College of Education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otukile Sindiso Phibion

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to find out facts on music teaching in Botswana Secondary Teacher Training Colleges. The authors conducted a formal study with regard to the Diploma in Secondary Education with a component of Music Education Training in Botswana. The study was conducted in Botswana at Molepolole College of Education (MCE which is the only government Secondary Teacher Training College, offering music in the whole country. Data were collected over a period of time by the three authors through meetings with staff and students surveys. The process was informed by involving all three authors. The leading author consecutively moderated this college for twelve years whilst the other two have been lecturers at the research college. This experience facilitated a further exploration of the competence frameworks in music education that they believed offered a narrow and technical view that neglected personal attributes and qualities. Apart from observations, research information was obtained through external examination/moderation reports review compiled consecutively over a number of years. Some of the information was obtained through consultation of government documents such as: The National Development Plan 10 (NDP 10, Vision 2016, Revised National Policy on Education (RNPE and Education for Kagisano with regard to prospects of music teaching in Botswana. In addition, Colleges of Education documents such as syllabuses, regulations, and prospectus were also consulted. It became evident through this research that music is accorded low status hence termed a minor subject as compared to other subjects called major. This research revealed that the admission process is also biased towards “Major” subjects. Initially there used to be interviews for “minor” opting students selection which have been since abandoned. The review found that lecturers at MCE were committed to serving for excellence yet strong criticism was made of perceived

  17. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Fran?ois, Cl?ment; Grau-S?nchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-bas...

  18. Effects of Short Term Music and Second Language Training on Executive Control

    OpenAIRE

    Janus, Monika; Lee, Yunjo; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Separate lines of research have identified enhanced performance on non-verbal executive control (EC) tasks for bilinguals (Bialystok, Craik, Green, & Gollan, 2009) and those with music training (Moreno et al., 2011), but little is known about the relation between them in terms of the specificity of the effects of each experience or the degree of exposure necessary to induce these changes. Using an intervention design, the present study pseudo-randomly assigned 57 4- to 6-year-old children (ma...

  19. Death before disco: the effectiveness of a musical metronome in layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, John W; Jou, Andrew C; Wang, Huaping; Bleess, Brandon B; Tham, Stephanie K

    2015-01-01

    A novel musical memory aid has been proposed for aiding laypersons in complying with the American Heart Association (AHA) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) guidelines of 100 compressions per minute (cpm). This study tested usefulness of such a memory aid to improve layperson long-term compliance with CPR compression rate guidelines. A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted using CPR-untrained laypersons. Subjects received either a standard CPR educational experience (AHA Heartsaver® CPR class) or an experimental CPR educational experience (AHA Heartsaver® CPR class augmented with a musical metronome). Experimental group subjects were taught to perform compressions to the cadence of a pop music song (The Bee Gees "Stayin' Alive"; Saturday Night Fever, The Original Movie Soundtrack; Polygram International Music, 1977) with a tempo of 100 beats/min. Compression rates, depth of compressions, and correct compressions were measured initially and upon retesting ≥6 weeks post-training. Control subjects had a higher mean compression rate both immediately (121 [standard deviation {SD} = 21] vs. 109 [SD = 15] cpm; 95% confidence interval [CI] of mean difference 4-19; p = 0.002) and at follow-up (120 [SD = 20] vs. 111 [SD = 13] cpm; 95% CI of mean difference 2-16; p = 0.014). Compression rates stratified to 100-120 cpm demonstrated no difference between groups initially (39% vs. 48%; p = 0.382), but more experimental subjects maintained these rates at follow-up (43% vs. 74%; p = 0.003). Subjects trained to use a musical metronome more often maintained a compression rate of 100-120 cpm at ≥6-week follow-up, suggesting the memory aid may improve long-term guideline adherence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Musical training generalises across modalities and reveals efficient and adaptive mechanisms for reproducing temporal intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagten-Murphy, David; Cappagli, Giulia; Burr, David

    2014-03-01

    Expert musicians are able to time their actions accurately and consistently during a musical performance. We investigated how musical expertise influences the ability to reproduce auditory intervals and how this generalises across different techniques and sensory modalities. We first compared various reproduction strategies and interval length, to examine the effects in general and to optimise experimental conditions for testing the effect of music, and found that the effects were robust and consistent across different paradigms. Focussing on a 'ready-set-go' paradigm subjects reproduced time intervals drawn from distributions varying in total length (176, 352 or 704 ms) or in the number of discrete intervals within the total length (3, 5, 11 or 21 discrete intervals). Overall, Musicians performed more veridical than Non-Musicians, and all subjects reproduced auditory-defined intervals more accurately than visually-defined intervals. However, Non-Musicians, particularly with visual stimuli, consistently exhibited a substantial and systematic regression towards the mean interval. When subjects judged intervals from distributions of longer total length they tended to regress more towards the mean, while the ability to discriminate between discrete intervals within the distribution had little influence on subject error. These results are consistent with a Bayesian model that minimizes reproduction errors by incorporating a central tendency prior weighted by the subject's own temporal precision relative to the current distribution of intervals. Finally a strong correlation was observed between all durations of formal musical training and total reproduction errors in both modalities (accounting for 30% of the variance). Taken together these results demonstrate that formal musical training improves temporal reproduction, and that this improvement transfers from audition to vision. They further demonstrate the flexibility of sensorimotor mechanisms in adapting to

  1. Music training relates to the development of neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Slater, Jessica; O'Connell, Samantha; Kraus, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Selective attention decreases trial-to-trial variability in cortical auditory-evoked activity. This effect increases over the course of maturation, potentially reflecting the gradual development of selective attention and inhibitory control. Work in adults indicates that music training may alter the development of this neural response characteristic, especially over brain regions associated with executive control: in adult musicians, attention decreases variability in auditory-evoked responses recorded over prefrontal cortex to a greater extent than in nonmusicians. We aimed to determine whether this musician-associated effect emerges during childhood, when selective attention and inhibitory control are under development. We compared cortical auditory-evoked variability to attended and ignored speech streams in musicians and nonmusicians across three age groups: preschoolers, school-aged children and young adults. Results reveal that childhood music training is associated with reduced auditory-evoked response variability recorded over prefrontal cortex during selective auditory attention in school-aged child and adult musicians. Preschoolers, on the other hand, demonstrate no impact of selective attention on cortical response variability and no musician distinctions. This finding is consistent with the gradual emergence of attention during this period and may suggest no pre-existing differences in this attention-related cortical metric between children who undergo music training and those who do not. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Instrument-Specific Musical Training on Rhythm Perception and Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Tomas E; Thibodeau, Joseph N L; Gunther, Brian P; Penhune, Virginia B

    2016-01-01

    Studies comparing musicians and non-musicians have shown that musical training can improve rhythmic perception and production. These findings tell us that training can result in rhythm processing advantages, but they do not tell us whether practicing a particular instrument could lead to specific effects on rhythm perception or production. The current study used a battery of four rhythm perception and production tasks that were designed to test both higher- and lower-level aspects of rhythm processing. Four groups of musicians (drummers, singers, pianists, string players) and a control group of non-musicians were tested. Within-task differences in performance showed that factors such as meter, metrical complexity, tempo, and beat phase significantly affected the ability to perceive and synchronize taps to a rhythm or beat. Musicians showed better performance on all rhythm tasks compared to non-musicians. Interestingly, our results revealed no significant differences between musician groups for the vast majority of task measures. This was despite the fact that all musicians were selected to have the majority of their training on the target instrument, had on average more than 10 years of experience on their instrument, and were currently practicing. These results suggest that general musical experience is more important than specialized musical experience with regards to perception and production of rhythms.

  3. Increase in Synchronization of Autonomic Rhythms between Individuals When Listening to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; Codrons, Erwan; di Leo, Rita; Vandoni, Matteo; Cavallaro, Filippo; Vita, Giuseppe; Bernardi, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    In light of theories postulating a role for music in forming emotional and social bonds, here we investigated whether endogenous rhythms synchronize between multiple individuals when listening to music. Cardiovascular and respiratory recordings were taken from multiple individuals (musically trained or music-naïve) simultaneously, at rest and during a live concert comprising music excerpts with varying degrees of complexity of the acoustic envelope. Inter-individual synchronization of cardiorespiratory rhythms showed a subtle but reliable increase during passively listening to music compared to baseline. The low-level auditory features of the music were largely responsible for creating or disrupting such synchronism, explaining ~80% of its variance, over and beyond subjective musical preferences and previous musical training. Listening to simple rhythms and melodies, which largely dominate the choice of music during rituals and mass events, brings individuals together in terms of their physiological rhythms, which could explain why music is widely used to favor social bonds. PMID:29089898

  4. Musical dual-task training in patients with mild-to-moderate dementia: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YL

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Ling Chen,1,2 Yu-Cheng Pei3–6 1Department of Music, Southwestern Oklahoma State University, Weatherford, OK, USA; 2Division of Music Education and Music Therapy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, USA; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 4Center of Vascularized Tissue Allograft, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital at Linkou, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 5School of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan; 6Healthy Aging Research Center, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan Background/aims: Dual-task training may improve dual-task gait performance, balance, and cognition in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Although music has been widely utilized in dementia management, there are no existing protocols for music-based dual-task training. This randomized controlled study developed a Musical Dual-Task Training (MDTT protocol that patients with dementia can use to practice walking and making music simultaneously, to enhance attention control in patients during dual-tasking.Methods: Twenty-eight adults diagnosed with mild-to-moderate dementia were assigned to the MDTT (n=15 or control groups (n=13. The MDTT group received MDTT, while the control group participated in non-musical cognitive and walking activities. The effects of MDTT were evaluated through the primary outcome of attention control, and secondary outcomes of dual-task performance, balance, falls efficacy, and agitation.Results: The MDTT group showed a significant improvement in attention control, while the control group did not (P<0.001. A significant effect favored MDTT over control treatment for the secondary outcome of falls efficacy (P=0.02 and agitation (P<0.01.Conclusion: MDTT, a music therapy intervention that demands a high level of cognitive processing, enhances attention control, falls efficacy, and helps alleviate agitation in patients with mild-to-moderate dementia. Keywords: music therapy, dementia

  5. Tapping Into Rate Flexibility: Musical Training Facilitates Synchronization Around Spontaneous Production Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Scheurich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to flexibly adapt one’s behavior is critical for social tasks such as speech and music performance, in which individuals must coordinate the timing of their actions with others. Natural movement frequencies, also called spontaneous rates, constrain synchronization accuracy between partners during duet music performance, whereas musical training enhances synchronization accuracy. We investigated the combined influences of these factors on the flexibility with which individuals can synchronize their actions with sequences at different rates. First, we developed a novel musical task capable of measuring spontaneous rates in both musicians and non-musicians in which participants tapped the rhythm of a familiar melody while hearing the corresponding melody tones. The novel task was validated by similar measures of spontaneous rates generated by piano performance and by the tapping task from the same pianists. We then implemented the novel task with musicians and non-musicians as they synchronized tapping of a familiar melody with a metronome at their spontaneous rates, and at rates proportionally slower and faster than their spontaneous rates. Musicians synchronized more flexibly across rates than non-musicians, indicated by greater synchronization accuracy. Additionally, musicians showed greater engagement of error correction mechanisms than non-musicians. Finally, differences in flexibility were characterized by more recurrent (repetitive and patterned synchronization in non-musicians, indicative of greater temporal rigidity.

  6. Tapping Into Rate Flexibility: Musical Training Facilitates Synchronization Around Spontaneous Production Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, Rebecca; Zamm, Anna; Palmer, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    The ability to flexibly adapt one’s behavior is critical for social tasks such as speech and music performance, in which individuals must coordinate the timing of their actions with others. Natural movement frequencies, also called spontaneous rates, constrain synchronization accuracy between partners during duet music performance, whereas musical training enhances synchronization accuracy. We investigated the combined influences of these factors on the flexibility with which individuals can synchronize their actions with sequences at different rates. First, we developed a novel musical task capable of measuring spontaneous rates in both musicians and non-musicians in which participants tapped the rhythm of a familiar melody while hearing the corresponding melody tones. The novel task was validated by similar measures of spontaneous rates generated by piano performance and by the tapping task from the same pianists. We then implemented the novel task with musicians and non-musicians as they synchronized tapping of a familiar melody with a metronome at their spontaneous rates, and at rates proportionally slower and faster than their spontaneous rates. Musicians synchronized more flexibly across rates than non-musicians, indicated by greater synchronization accuracy. Additionally, musicians showed greater engagement of error correction mechanisms than non-musicians. Finally, differences in flexibility were characterized by more recurrent (repetitive) and patterned synchronization in non-musicians, indicative of greater temporal rigidity. PMID:29681872

  7. The effects of context and musical training on auditory temporal-interval discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Karen; Fisher, Shirley; Ganot, Ron

    2012-02-01

    Non sensory factors such as stimulus context and musical experience are known to influence auditory frequency discrimination, but whether the context effect extends to auditory temporal processing remains unknown. Whether individual experiences such as musical training alter the context effect is also unknown. The goal of the present study was therefore to investigate the effects of stimulus context and musical experience on auditory temporal-interval discrimination. In experiment 1, temporal-interval discrimination was compared between fixed context conditions in which a single base temporal interval was presented repeatedly across all trials and variable context conditions in which one of two base intervals was randomly presented on each trial. Discrimination was significantly better in the fixed than in the variable context conditions. In experiment 2 temporal discrimination thresholds of musicians and non-musicians were compared across 3 conditions: a fixed context condition in which the target interval was presented repeatedly across trials, and two variable context conditions differing in the frequencies used for the tones marking the temporal intervals. Musicians outperformed non-musicians on all 3 conditions, but the effects of context were similar for the two groups. Overall, it appears that, like frequency discrimination, temporal-interval discrimination benefits from having a fixed reference. Musical experience, while improving performance, did not alter the context effect, suggesting that improved discrimination skills among musicians are probably not an outcome of more sensitive contextual facilitation or predictive coding mechanisms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Music-supported motor training after stroke reveals no superiority of synchronisation in group therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Tijmen Van Vugt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Music-supported therapy has been shown to be an effective tool for rehabilitation of motor deficits after stroke. A unique feature of music performance is that it is inherently social: music can be played together in synchrony.Aim. The present study explored the potential of synchronised music playing during therapy, asking whether synchronised playing could improve fine motor rehabilitation and mood.Method. Twenty-eight patients in neurological early rehabilitation after stroke with no previous musical background were included. Patients learned to play simple finger exercises and familiar children’s songs on the piano for ten sessions of half an hour. Patients first received three individual therapy sessions and then continued in pairs. The patient pairs were divided into two groups. Patients in one group played synchronously (together group whereas the patients in the other group played one after the other (in-turn group. To assess fine motor skill recovery the patients performed standard clinical tests such as the nine-hole-pegboard test (9HPT and index finger-tapping speed and regularity, and metronome-paced finger tapping. Patients' mood was established using the Profile of Mood States (POMS.Results. Both groups showed improvements in fine motor control. In metronome-paced finger tapping, patients in both groups improved significantly. Mood tests revealed reductions in depression and fatigue in both groups. During therapy, patients in the in-turn group rated their partner as more sympathetic than the together-group in a visual-analogue scale.Conclusions. Our results suggest that music-supported stroke rehabilitation can improve fine motor control and mood not only individually but also in patient pairs. Patients who were playing in turn rather than simultaneously tended to reveal greater improvement in fine motor skill. We speculate that patients in the former group may benefit from the opportunity to learn from observation.

  9. Initial teacher training. His musical impact on children in terms of refuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita Castañeda-de Liendo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The initial teacher training was the cultivation of teacher preparation in order to be the executors of government projects drive enacted by social groups of power in the historical development of Venezuela This article analyzes the initial teacher training in Venezuela, with the help of the logical place to unveil what characterizes the initial training of teachers historical method, specifically the working conditions of temporary shelter, and develops the axiological dynamics through musical training, which determine the current and future behavior regarding the formation of these. There is insufficient number of documents that allow raising the methodological work in the preparation of teachers of children of preschool age who are in temporary shelter provided, this work contributes to the improvement of such problems.

  10. The impact of musical training and tone language experience on talker identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Myers, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Listeners can use pitch changes in speech to identify talkers. Individuals exhibit large variability in sensitivity to pitch and in accuracy perceiving talker identity. In particular, people who have musical training or long-term tone language use are found to have enhanced pitch perception. In the present study, the influence of pitch experience on talker identification was investigated as listeners identified talkers in native language as well as non-native languages. Experiment 1 was designed to explore the influence of pitch experience on talker identification in two groups of individuals with potential advantages for pitch processing: musicians and tone language speakers. Experiment 2 further investigated individual differences in pitch processing and the contribution to talker identification by testing a mediation model. Cumulatively, the results suggested that (a) musical training confers an advantage for talker identification, supporting a shared resources hypothesis regarding music and language and (b) linguistic use of lexical tones also increases accuracy in hearing talker identity. Importantly, these two types of hearing experience enhance talker identification by sharpening pitch perception skills in a domain-general manner.

  11. Can musical training influence brain connectivity? Evidence from diffusion tensor MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Emma; Schaefer, Rebecca S; Bastin, Mark E; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-06-10

    In recent years, musicians have been increasingly recruited to investigate grey and white matter neuroplasticity induced by skill acquisition. The development of Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) has allowed more detailed investigation of white matter connections within the brain, addressing questions about the effect of musical training on connectivity between specific brain regions. Here, current DT-MRI analysis techniques are discussed and the available evidence from DT-MRI studies into differences in white matter architecture between musicians and non-musicians is reviewed. Collectively, the existing literature tends to support the hypothesis that musical training can induce changes in cross-hemispheric connections, with significant differences frequently reported in various regions of the corpus callosum of musicians compared with non-musicians. However, differences found in intra-hemispheric fibres have not always been replicated, while findings regarding the internal capsule and corticospinal tracts appear to be contradictory. There is also recent evidence to suggest that variances in white matter structure in non-musicians may correlate with their ability to learn musical skills, offering an alternative explanation for the structural differences observed between musicians and non-musicians. Considering the inconsistencies in the current literature, possible reasons for conflicting results are offered, along with suggestions for future research in this area.

  12. Does music training facilitate the mnemonic effect of song? An exploration of musicians and nonmusicians with and without Alzheimer's dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Samson, Séverine; Miller, Laurie; Chalmers, Kerry

    2017-02-01

    The efficacy of using sung words as a mnemonic device for verbal memory has been documented in persons with probable Alzheimer's dementia (AD), but it is not yet known whether this effect is related to music training. Given that music training can enhance cognitive functioning, we explored the effects of music training and modality (sung vs. spoken) on verbal memory in persons with and without AD. We used a mixed factorial design to compare learning (5 trials), delayed recall (30-min and, 24-hour), and recognition of sung versus spoken information in 22 healthy elderly (15 musicians), and 11 people with AD (5 musicians). Musicians with AD showed better total learning (over 5 trials) of sung information than nonmusicians with AD. There were no significant differences in delayed recall and recognition accuracy (of either modality) between musicians with and without AD, suggesting that music training may facilitate memory function in AD. Analysis of individual performances showed that two of the five musicians with AD were able to recall some information on delayed recall, whereas the nonmusicians with AD recalled no information on delay. The only significant finding in regard to modality (sung vs. spoken) was that total learning was significantly worse for sung than spoken information for nonmusicians with AD. This may be due to the need to recode information presented in song into spoken recall, which may be more cognitively demanding for this group. This is the first study to demonstrate that music training modulates memory of sung and spoken information in AD. The mechanism underlying these results is unclear, but may be due to music training, higher cognitive abilities, or both. Our findings highlight the need for further research into the potentially protective effect of music training on cognitive abilities in our aging population.

  13. Twelve months of active musical training in 8- to 10-year-old children enhances the preattentive processing of syllabic duration and voice onset time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chobert, Julie; François, Clément; Velay, Jean-Luc; Besson, Mireille

    2014-04-01

    Musical training has been shown to positively influence linguistic abilities. To follow the developmental dynamics of this transfer effect at the preattentive level, we conducted a longitudinal study over 2 school years with nonmusician children randomly assigned to music or to painting training. We recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN), a cortical correlate of preattentive mismatch detection, to syllables that differed in vowel frequency, vowel duration, and voice onset time (VOT), using a test-training-retest procedure and 3 times of testing: before training, after 6 months and after 12 months of training. While no between-group differences were found before training, enhanced preattentive processing of syllabic duration and VOT, as reflected by greater MMN amplitude, but not of frequency, was found after 12 months of training in the music group only. These results demonstrate neuroplasticity in the child brain and suggest that active musical training rather than innate predispositions for music yielded the improvements in musically trained children. These results also highlight the influence of musical training for duration perception in speech and for the development of phonological representations in normally developing children. They support the importance of music-based training programs for children's education and open new remediation strategies for children with language-based learning impairments.

  14. Same Genes, Different Brains: Neuroanatomical Differences Between Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Musical Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Manzano, Örjan; Ullén, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    Numerous cross-sectional and observational longitudinal studies show associations between expertise and regional brain anatomy. However, since these designs confound training with genetic predisposition, the causal role of training remains unclear. Here, we use a discordant monozygotic (identical) twin design to study expertise-dependent effects on neuroanatomy using musical training as model behavior, while essentially controlling for genetic factors and shared environment of upbringing. From a larger cohort of monozygotic twins, we were able to recruit 18 individuals (9 pairs) that were highly discordant for piano practice. We used structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging to analyze the auditory-motor network and within-pair differences in cortical thickness, cerebellar regional volumes and white-matter microstructure/fractional anisotropy. The analyses revealed that the musically active twins had greater cortical thickness in the auditory-motor network of the left hemisphere and more developed white matter microstructure in relevant tracts in both hemispheres and the corpus callosum. Furthermore, the volume of gray matter in the left cerebellar region of interest comprising lobules I-IV + V, was greater in the playing group. These findings provide the first clear support for that a significant portion of the differences in brain anatomy between experts and nonexperts depend on causal effects of training. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Speak on time! Effects of a musical rhythmic training on children with hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Céline; Falk, Simone; Schön, Daniele

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates temporal adaptation in speech interaction in children with normal hearing and in children with cochlear implants (CIs) and/or hearing aids (HAs). We also address the question of whether musical rhythmic training can improve these skills in children with hearing loss (HL). Children named pictures presented on the screen in alternation with a virtual partner. Alternation rate (fast or slow) and the temporal predictability (match vs mismatch of stress occurrences) were manipulated. One group of children with normal hearing (NH) and one with HL were tested. The latter group was tested twice: once after 30 min of speech therapy and once after 30 min of musical rhythmic training. Both groups of children (NH and with HL) can adjust their speech production to the rate of alternation of the virtual partner. Moreover, while children with normal hearing benefit from the temporal regularity of stress occurrences, children with HL become sensitive to this manipulation only after rhythmic training. Rhythmic training may help children with HL to structure the temporal flow of their verbal interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Musically cued gait-training improves both perceptual and motor timing in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles-Etienne eBenoit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that auditory cueing improves gait in patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD. Disease-related reductions in speed and step length can be improved by providing rhythmical auditory cues via a metronome or music. However, effects on cognitive aspects of motor control have yet to be thoroughly investigated. If synchronization of movement to an auditory cue relies on a supramodal timing system involved in perceptual, motor and sensorimotor integration, auditory cueing can be expected to affect both motor and perceptual timing. Here we tested this hypothesis by assessing perceptual and motor timing in 15 IPD patients before and after a four-week music training program with rhythmic auditory cueing. Long-term effects were assessed one month after the end of the training. Perceptual and motor timing was evaluated with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA and compared to that of age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls. Prior to training, IPD patients exhibited impaired perceptual and motor timing. Training improved patients’ performance in tasks requiring synchronization with isochronous sequences, and enhanced their ability to adapt to durational changes in a sequence in hand tapping tasks. Benefits of cueing extended to time perception (duration discrimination and detection of misaligned beats in musical excerpts. The current results demonstrate that auditory cueing leads to benefits beyond gait and support the idea that coupling gait to rhythmic auditory cues in IPD patients relies on a neuronal network engaged in both perceptual and motor timing.

  17. Practicing a musical instrument in childhood is associated with enhanced verbal ability and nonverbal reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgeard, Marie; Winner, Ellen; Norton, Andrea; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2008-01-01

    In this study we investigated the association between instrumental music training in childhood and outcomes closely related to music training as well as those more distantly related. Children who received at least three years (M = 4.6 years) of instrumental music training outperformed their control counterparts on two outcomes closely related to music (auditory discrimination abilities and fine motor skills) and on two outcomes distantly related to music (vocabulary and nonverbal reasoning skills). Duration of training also predicted these outcomes. Contrary to previous research, instrumental music training was not associated with heightened spatial skills, phonemic awareness, or mathematical abilities. While these results are correlational only, the strong predictive effect of training duration suggests that instrumental music training may enhance auditory discrimination, fine motor skills, vocabulary, and nonverbal reasoning. Alternative explanations for these results are discussed.

  18. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kierla Ireland

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7–13 with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130 and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83. We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for

  19. Rhythm and Melody Tasks for School-Aged Children With and Without Musical Training: Age-Equivalent Scores and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Kierla; Parker, Averil; Foster, Nicholas; Penhune, Virginia

    2018-01-01

    Measuring musical abilities in childhood can be challenging. When music training and maturation occur simultaneously, it is difficult to separate the effects of specific experience from age-based changes in cognitive and motor abilities. The goal of this study was to develop age-equivalent scores for two measures of musical ability that could be reliably used with school-aged children (7-13) with and without musical training. The children's Rhythm Synchronization Task (c-RST) and the children's Melody Discrimination Task (c-MDT) were adapted from adult tasks developed and used in our laboratories. The c-RST is a motor task in which children listen and then try to synchronize their taps with the notes of a woodblock rhythm while it plays twice in a row. The c-MDT is a perceptual task in which the child listens to two melodies and decides if the second was the same or different. We administered these tasks to 213 children in music camps (musicians, n = 130) and science camps (non-musicians, n = 83). We also measured children's paced tapping, non-paced tapping, and phonemic discrimination as baseline motor and auditory abilities We estimated internal-consistency reliability for both tasks, and compared children's performance to results from studies with adults. As expected, musically trained children outperformed those without music lessons, scores decreased as difficulty increased, and older children performed the best. Using non-musicians as a reference group, we generated a set of age-based z-scores, and used them to predict task performance with additional years of training. Years of lessons significantly predicted performance on both tasks, over and above the effect of age. We also assessed the relation between musician's scores on music tasks, baseline tasks, auditory working memory, and non-verbal reasoning. Unexpectedly, musician children outperformed non-musicians in two of three baseline tasks. The c-RST and c-MDT fill an important need for researchers

  20. Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Emma; Schaefer, Rebecca S; Bastin, Mark E; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2017-08-01

    Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues. Participants completed 20minutes of training three times per week over four weeks. Diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic neighbourhood tractography identified FA, axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity before and after training. Results revealed that FA increased significantly in the right arcuate fasciculus of the Music group only, as hypothesised, with trends for AD to increase and RD to decrease, a pattern of results consistent with activity-dependent increases in myelination. No significant changes were found in the left ipsilateral arcuate fasciculus of either group. This is the first evidence that adding musical cues to movement learning can induce rapid microstructural change in white matter pathways in adults, with potential implications for therapeutic clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of music-based multitask training on cognition and mood in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hars, Mélany; Herrmann, Francois R; Gold, Gabriel; Rizzoli, René; Trombetti, Andrea

    2014-03-01

    in a secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial, we investigated whether 6 months of music-based multitask training had beneficial effects on cognitive functioning and mood in older adults. 134 community-dwellers aged ≥65 years at increased risk for falling were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 66) who attended once weekly 1-h supervised group classes of multitask exercises, executed to the rhythm of piano music, or a control group with delayed intervention (n = 68) who maintained usual lifestyle habits, for 6 months. A short neuropsychological test battery was administered by an intervention-blinded neuropsychologist at baseline and Month 6, including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), the clock-drawing test, the frontal assessment battery (FAB) and the hospital anxiety (HADS-A) and depression scale. intention-to-treat analysis showed an improvement in the sensitivity to interference subtest of the FAB (adjusted between-group mean difference (AMD), 0.12; 95% CI, 0.00 to 0.25; P = 0.047) and a reduction in anxiety level (HADS-A; AMD, -0.88; 95% CI, -1.73 to -0.05; P = 0.039) in intervention participants, as compared with the controls. Within-group analysis revealed an increase in MMSE score (P = 0.004) and a reduction in the number of participants with impaired global cognitive performance (i.e., MMSE score ≤23; P = 0.003) with intervention. six months of once weekly music-based multitask training was associated with improved cognitive function and decreased anxiety in community-dwelling older adults, compared with non-exercising controls. Studies designed to further delineate whether training-induced changes in cognitive function could contribute to dual-task gait improvements and falls reduction, remain to be conducted.

  2. The effect of musical attention control training (MACT) on attention skills of adolescents with neurodevelopmental delays: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiali, Varvara; LaGasse, A Blythe; Penn, Saundra L

    2014-01-01

    Given the effect of musical training on the rate and accuracy of processing auditory information, therapeutic uses of music may potentially have remedial benefits for individuals with neurodevelopmental deficits. However, additional studies are needed to establish efficacy of music therapy interventions for attention skills in children/adolescents with neurodevelopmental disabilities including those with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). To establish feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a group music therapy protocol to improve attention skills (sustained, selective, attentional control/switching) in adolescents diagnosed with autism and/or developmental delays. This single group pretest/posttest study took place in a private school for high functioning adolescents with neurodevelopmental delays. Nine students (4 males, 5 females), ages 13 to 20, participated in the study. Autism severity was assessed using the CARS2-HF and indicated the following distribution for study participants: severe (n = 3), mild (n = 4), or minimal/no (n = 2) symptoms. We assessed feasibility of implementing a 45-min Musical Attention Control Training (MACT) intervention delivered by a board-certified music therapist eight times over 6 weeks in a school setting. We also examined preliminary efficacy of the MACT to improve attention skills using the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch). Parental consent rate was 100%. All nine participants successfully completed testing measures and 6 weeks of the intervention. Average participation rate was 97%. Data analysis showed positive trends and improvements on measures of attentional control/switching and selective attention. The results showed that the intervention and testing measures were feasible to implement and acceptable to the participants who all completed the protocol. Data analysis demonstrated positive trends indicating that more research on the use of music therapy attention training in high-functioning adolescents with

  3. Social and Emotional Dynamics of College Students with Musical Intelligence and Musical Training: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelayo, Jose Maria G., III; Galang, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Music has been in its formal existence for so many years now and it has also been utilized to enhance, relax and help man's meditation. This study focused on how music can or may influence an individual. The researchers investigated and described the influence of Howard Gardner's theory on Multiple Intelligence (specifically, musical…

  4. Effect of musical training on pitch discrimination performance in older normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Federica; Dau, Torsten; Santurette, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    -discrimination performance for NH listeners. It is unclear whether a comparable effect of musical training occurs for listeners whose sensory encoding of F0 is degraded. To address this question, F0 discrimination was investigated for three groups of listeners (14 young NH, 9 older NH and 10 HI listeners), each......Hearing-impaired (HI) listeners, as well as elderly listeners, typically have a reduced ability to discriminate the fundamental frequency (F0) of complex tones compared to young normal-hearing (NH) listeners. Several studies have shown that musical training, on the other hand, leads to improved F0...... including musicians and non-musicians, using complex tones that differed in harmonic content. Musical training significantly improved F0 discrimination for all groups of listeners, especially for complex tones containing low-numbered harmonics. In a second experiment, the sensitivity to temporal fine...

  5. Music Therapy Using Singing Training Improves Psychomotor Speed in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: A Neuropsychological and fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masayuki; Yuba, Toru; Tabei, Ken-ichi; Okubo, Yukari; Kida, Hirotaka; Sakuma, Hajime; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims To investigate the effect of singing training on the cognitive function in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Methods Ten AD patients (mean age 78.1 years) participated in music therapy using singing training once a week for 6 months (music therapy group). Each session was performed with professional musicians using karaoke and a unique voice training method (the YUBA Method). Before and after the intervention period, each patient was assessed by neuropsychological batteries, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed while the patients sang familiar songs with a karaoke device. As the control group, another 10 AD patients were recruited (mean age 77.0 years), and neuropsychological assessments were performed twice with an interval of 6 months. Results In the music therapy group, the time for completion of the Japanese Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices was significantly reduced (p = 0.026), and the results obtained from interviewing the patients' caregivers revealed a significant decrease in the Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (p = 0.042) and a prolongation of the patients' sleep time (p = 0.039). The fMRI study revealed increased activity in the right angular gyrus and the left lingual gyrus in the before-minus-after subtraction analysis of the music therapy intervention. Conclusion Music therapy intervention using singing training may be useful for dementia patients by improving the neural efficacy of cognitive processing. PMID:26483829

  6. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  7. Brain responses to language-relevant musical features in adolescent cochlear implant users before and after an intensive music training program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bjørn; Weed, Ethan; Hansen, Mads

    Brain responses to language-relevant musical features in adolescent cochlear implant users before and after an intensive music training program Petersen B.1,2, Weed E.1,3, Hansen M.1,4, Sørensen S.D.3 , Sandmann P.5 , Vuust P.1,2 1Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University......, rhythm and intensity). Difference waves for the rhythm deviant were analyzed in the time window between 300 and 320 ms. Separate mixed-model ANOVAs were performed for left and right fronto-central electrodes. Paired t-tests were used to analyze the behavioral data. Here we present preliminary analyses...... of ERP responses to the rhythm deviant stimuli and results from a behavioral rhythm discrimination test. For both left and right electrode sites we found a main effect of group, driven by higher mean amplitude in the NH group. There was no main effect of training. Left hemisphere sites showed...

  8. Music therapy services for individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a survey of clinical practices and training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Petra; Rivera, Nicole R; Chandler, Alie; Humpal, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the definitions, diagnoses, prevalence rates, theories about the causes, evidence-based treatment options, and practice guidelines pertaining to Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have undergone numerous changes. While several recent studies evaluate the effects of music therapy interventions for individuals with ASD, no current review reflects the latest music therapy practices and trends. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of music therapy practices for serving clients with ASD, the implementation of national ASD standards and guidelines, the awareness of recent developments, and training needs of music therapists. Professional members of the American Music Therapy Association who are working with individuals with ASD served as the sample for this national cross-sectional survey study (N = 328). A 45-item online questionnaire was designed and distributed through email and social media. Participants accessed the online survey through SurveyMonkey®. Findings suggest music therapy practices and services for individuals with ASD have shifted and now reflect a slightly higher percentage of caseload, a broader age range of clients, and a trend to serve clients in home and community settings. Most therapeutic processes align with recommended practices for ASD and incorporate several of the recognized evidence-based practices. Less understood or recognized are inclusion practices and latest developments in the field of ASD. Music therapists have a solid understanding of providing services for individuals with ASD, but would benefit from advanced online training and improved information dissemination to stay current with the rapidly changing aspects pertinent to this population. © 2013 by the American Music Therapy Association.

  9. Musical dual-task training in patients with mild-to-moderate dementia: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Ling; Pei, Yu-Cheng

    2018-01-01

    Background/aims Dual-task training may improve dual-task gait performance, balance, and cognition in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Although music has been widely utilized in dementia management, there are no existing protocols for music-based dual-task training. This randomized controlled study developed a Musical Dual-Task Training (MDTT) protocol that patients with dementia can use to practice walking and making music simultaneously, to enhance attention control in patients during dual-tasking. Methods Twenty-eight adults diagnosed with mild-to-moderate dementia were assigned to the MDTT (n=15) or control groups (n=13). The MDTT group received MDTT, while the control group participated in non-musical cognitive and walking activities. The effects of MDTT were evaluated through the primary outcome of attention control, and secondary outcomes of dual-task performance, balance, falls efficacy, and agitation. Results The MDTT group showed a significant improvement in attention control, while the control group did not (Pmusic therapy intervention that demands a high level of cognitive processing, enhances attention control, falls efficacy, and helps alleviate agitation in patients with mild-to-moderate dementia. PMID:29881275

  10. After-school music educational activities as a part of professional training of future teacher

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Lypa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of preparing students for extracurricular musical andeducational activities in secondary school and highlighted ways of combining music andperformance and outreach for individual classes of musical subjects analyzed featuresbetween teachers and students in the development plan and the educational content of themusic and creative project.Key words: musical and educational activities, educational and creative musical project,tutoring, teacher-student collaboration.

  11. Musical feedback during exercise machine workout enhances mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Music making has a number of beneficial effects for motor tasks compared to passive music listening. Given that recent research suggests that high energy musical activities elevate positive affect more strongly than low energy musical activities, we here investigated a recent method that combined music making with systematically increasing physiological arousal by exercise machine workout. We compared mood and anxiety after two exercise conditions on non-cyclical exercise machines, one with passive music listening and the other with musical feedback (where participants could make music with the exercise machines. The results showed that agency during exercise machine workout (an activity we previously labeled jymmin—a cross between jammin and gym had an enhancing effect on mood compared to workout with passive music listening. Furthermore, the order in which the conditions were presented mediated the effect of musical agency for this subscale When participants first listened passively, the difference in mood between the two conditions was greater, suggesting that a stronger increase in hormone levels (e.g. endorphins during the active condition may have caused the observed effect. Given an enhanced mood after training with musical feedback compared to passively listening to the same type of music during workout, the results suggest that exercise machine workout with musical feedback (jymmin makes the act of exercise machine training more desirable.

  12. Reliability and smallest worthwhile difference in 1RM tests according to previous resistance training experience in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Amarante do Nascimento

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the familiarization and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD of one-repetition maximum (1RM tests in detrained women according to their previous resistance training experience. Three groups of women with varying amounts of previous resistance training experience were recruited: Novice (n = 27, 1 to 6 months, Intermediate (n = 13, from 7 to 12 months, and Advanced (n = 20, 13 to 24 months. All participants performed four 1RM test sessions in the bench press (BP, squat (SQ, and arm curl (AC. A significant (p< 0.05 (group vs. time interaction was observed in SQ suggesting that more experienced participants needed fewer 1RM test sessions to reach a stable load compared to the less experienced groups. Strength changes (p 0.05, suggesting that experience had no impact on familiarization for these lifts. SWDs suggest that strength gains greater than 2-4% in these lifts would indicate a meaningful improvement in strength beyond random variation from trial to trial no matter the experience of the subject. Women with limited previous resistance training experience do not require more trials to reach load stabilization than those with more experience. Stability of 1RM loads for BP and AC may require only two sessions, while SQ may require at least three trials.

  13. Effects of Phonological and Musical Training on the Reading Readiness of Native- and Foreign-Spanish-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Lucia; Lorenzo, Oswaldo; Defior, Sylvia; Fernandez-Smith, Gerard; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a music training program on children's phonological awareness and naming speed in Spanish. Participants were preschool children whose first language was either Spanish (n = 45) or Tamazight ( n = 52), a Berber dialect spoken in Morocco's Rif area. The two-year pretest/posttest study…

  14. Musical Training, Bilingualism, and Executive Function: A Closer Look at Task Switching and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician)…

  15. Influence of music training on academic examination-induced stress in Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohawattanakun, Janejira; Chearskul, Supornpim; Dumrongphol, Hattaya; Jutapakdeegul, Nuanchan; Yensukjai, Juntima; Khumphan, Nipaporn; Niltiean, Songwit; Thangnipon, Wipawan

    2011-01-10

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that academic examinations fulfill the classical requirement of a psychological stressor. Academic examinations represent a stressful challenge to many students, but studies on examination-dependent corticosteroid response, a sensitive physiological indicator of a stress response, are inconsistent. In addition, several studies showed that music can decrease cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and other studies have found that music also may enhance a variety of cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, communication and memory. The present study investigated cortisol response in saliva of Thai adolescents taking academic examinations and analyzed the differences of the stress response between musician and control subjects. Also, we observed whether the academic examination-dependent corticosteroid response affected learning and memory in the test subjects, which comprised 30 musician and 30 control students, age ranging from 15 to 17 years. Mathematical examinations were used as the stressor. Pre- and post-academic examination saliva cortisol levels were measured including self-estimated stress levels. Results showed that the pre-academic examination saliva cortisol concentrations of the musician group are significantly lower than those of the control group, whereas there is no difference in the stress inventory scores. Interestingly, among students with grade point average (GPA) of >3.50, pre-academic examination cortisol levels are significantly lower in the musician compared with control group. This study suggests that under academic examination-induced stress condition, music training can reduce saliva cortisol level in Thai adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of music tempo on performance, psychological, and physiological variables during 20 km cycling in well-trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the effects of music on trained athletes during high intensity endurance tasks. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of different music tempi on performance, psychological, and physiological responses of well-trained cyclists to time trial cycling. 10 male road cyclists (M age = 35 yr., SD = 7), with a minimum of three years racing experience, performed four 20-km time trials on a Computrainer Pro 3D indoor cycle trainer over a period of four weeks. The time-trials were spaced one week apart. The music conditions for each trial were randomised between fast-tempo (140 bpm), medium-tempo (120 bpm), slow-tempo (100 bpm), and no music. Performance (completion time, power output, average speed and cadence), physiological (heart rate, oxygen consumption, breathing frequency and respiratory exchange ratio), psychophysical (RPE), and psychological (mood states) data were collected for each trial. Results indicated no significant changes in performance, physiological, or psychophysical variables. Total mood disturbance and tension increased significantly in the fast-tempo trial when compared with medium and no-music conditions.

  17. Previous injuries and some training characteristics predict running-related injuries in recreational runners: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2013-12-01

    What is the incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs) in recreational runners? Which personal and training characteristics predict RRIs in recreational runners? Prospective cohort study. A total of 200 recreational runners answered a fortnightly online survey containing questions about their running routine, races, and presence of RRI. These runners were followed-up for a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was running-related injury. The incidence of injuries was calculated taking into account the exposure to running and was expressed by RRI/1000 hours. The association between potential predictive factors and RRIs was estimated using generalised estimating equation models. A total of 84 RRIs were registered in 60 (31%) of the 191 recreational runners who completed all follow-up surveys. Of the injured runners 30% (n=18/60) developed two or more RRIs, with 5/18 (28%) being recurrences. The incidence of RRI was 10 RRI/1000 hours of running exposure. The main type of RRI observed was muscle injuries (30%, n=25/84). The knee was the most commonly affected anatomical region (19%, n=16/84). The variables associated with RRI were: previous RRI (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.51), duration of training although the effect was very small (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02), speed training (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.10), and interval training (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88). Physiotherapists should be aware and advise runners that past RRI and speed training are associated with increased risk of further RRI, while interval training is associated with lower risk, although these associations may not be causative. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Self-relaxation techniques for glaucoma patients. Significance of autogenic training, hypnosis and music therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelmann, T; Strempel, I

    2016-02-01

    Glaucoma is currently the second most common cause of severe visual impairment and blindness worldwide. Standard pharmaceutical and surgical interventions often fail to prevent progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. To evaluate whether adjuvantly applied self-relaxation techniques can significantly impact intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion and the overall mental state of affected patients. A search of the literature was carried out and a comprehensive overview of currently available data is presented. Autogenic training, hypnosis and music therapy can significantly impact intraocular pressure, ocular perfusion and overall mental state of patients suffering from glaucoma. As all of these adjuvant therapeutic options are cost-effective, available almost everywhere and at anytime as well as without any known side effects, they can be useful additional techniques in the overall concept for treating glaucoma patients. Regular ocular examinations by an ophthalmologist are, however, mandatory.

  19. Music Training Program: A Method Based on Language Development and Principles of Neuroscience to Optimize Speech and Language Skills in Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Dastgheib

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, music has been employed in many intervention and rehabilitation program to enhance cognitive abilities in patients. Numerous researches show that music therapy can help improving language skills in patients including hearing impaired. In this study, a new method of music training is introduced based on principles of neuroscience and capabilities of Persian language to optimize language development in deaf children after implantation.    Materials and Methods: The candidate children are classified in three groups according to their hearing age and language development. The music training program is established and centered on four principles, as follows: hearing and listening to music (with special attention to boost hearing, singing, rhythmic movements with music and playing musical instruments.   Results: Recently much research has demonstrated that even after cochlear implant operation, a child cannot acquire language to the same level of detail as a normal child. As a result of this study music could compensate this developmental delay .It is known that the greater the area of the brain that is activated, the more synaptic learning and plasticity changes occur in that specific area. According to the principles of neural plasticity, music could improve language skills by activating the same areas for language processing in the brain.   Conclusion:  In conclusion, the effects of music on the human brain seem to be very promising and therapeutic in various types of disorders and conditions, including cochlear implantation.

  20. Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…

  1. Musical training, bilingualism, and executive function: a closer look at task switching and dual-task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradzadeh, Linda; Blumenthal, Galit; Wiseheart, Melody

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether musical training and bilingualism are associated with enhancements in specific components of executive function, namely, task switching and dual-task performance. Participants (n = 153) belonging to one of four groups (monolingual musician, bilingual musician, bilingual non-musician, or monolingual non-musician) were matched on age and socioeconomic status and administered task switching and dual-task paradigms. Results demonstrated reduced global and local switch costs in musicians compared with non-musicians, suggesting that musical training can contribute to increased efficiency in the ability to shift flexibly between mental sets. On dual-task performance, musicians also outperformed non-musicians. There was neither a cognitive advantage for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, nor an interaction between music and language to suggest additive effects of both types of experience. These findings demonstrate that long-term musical training is associated with improvements in task switching and dual-task performance. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Short and intense tailor-made notched music training against tinnitus: the tinnitus frequency matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Teismann

    Full Text Available Tinnitus is one of the most common diseases in industrialized countries. Here, we developed and evaluated a short-term (5 subsequent days and intensive (6 hours/day tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT for patients suffering from chronic, tonal tinnitus. We evaluated (i the TMNMT efficacy in terms of behavioral and magnetoencephalographic outcome measures for two matched patient groups with either low (≤8 kHz, N = 10 or high (>8 kHz, N = 10 tinnitus frequencies, and the (ii persistency of the TMNMT effects over the course of a four weeks post-training phase. The results indicated that the short-term intensive TMNMT took effect in patients with tinnitus frequencies ≤8 kHz: subjective tinnitus loudness, tinnitus-related distress, and tinnitus-related auditory cortex evoked activity were significantly reduced after TMNMT completion. However, in the patients with tinnitus frequencies >8 kHz, significant changes were not observed. Interpreted in their entirety, the results also indicated that the induced changes in auditory cortex evoked neuronal activity and tinnitus loudness were not persistent, encouraging the application of the TMNMT as a longer-term training. The findings are essential in guiding the intended transfer of this neuro-scientific treatment approach into routine clinical practice.

  3. Postgraduate Training in Music Therapy Research in Aalborg University: An International Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2011-01-01

    Short report on dissemination and careers of PhD candidates in Music Therapy from Aalborg University 1998-2006......Short report on dissemination and careers of PhD candidates in Music Therapy from Aalborg University 1998-2006...

  4. Beta-band oscillations during passive listening to metronome sounds reflect improved timing representation after short-term musical training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    Sub-second time intervals in musical rhythms provide predictive cues about future events to performers and listeners through an internalized representation of timing. While the acuity of automatic, sub-second timing as well as cognitively controlled, supra-second timing declines with ageing, musical experts are less affected. This study investigated the influence of piano training on temporal processing abilities in older adults using behavioural and neuronal correlates. We hypothesized that neuroplastic changes in beta networks, caused by training in sensorimotor coordination with timing processing, can be assessed even in the absence of movement. Behavioural performance of internal timing stability was assessed with synchronization-continuation finger-tapping paradigms. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded from older adults before and after one month of one-on-one training. For neural measures of automatic timing processing, we focused on beta oscillations (13-30 Hz) during passive listening to metronome beats. Periodic beta-band modulations in older adults before training were similar to previous findings in young listeners at a beat interval of 800 ms. After training, behavioural performance for continuation tapping was improved and accompanied by an increased range of beat-induced beta modulation, compared to participants who did not receive training. Beta changes were observed in the caudate, auditory, sensorimotor and premotor cortices, parietal lobe, cerebellum and medial prefrontal cortex, suggesting that increased resources are involved in timing processing and goal-oriented monitoring as well as reward-based sensorimotor learning. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Neurologic Music Therapy Training for Mobility and Stability Rehabilitation with Parkinson's Disease - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Anna A; Krężałek, Piotr; Mirek, Elżbieta; Bujas, Przemysław; Marchewka, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive condition with gait disturbance and balance disorder as the main symptoms. Previous research studies focused on the application of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) in PD gait rehabilitation. The key hypothesis of this pilot study, however, assumes the major role of the combination of all three Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) sensorimotor techniques in improving spatio-temporal gait parameters, and postural stability in the course of PD. The 55 PD-diagnosed subjects invited to the study were divided into two groups: 30 in the experimental and 25 in the control group. Inclusion criteria included Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 or 3, the ability to walk independently without any aid and stable pharmacological treatment for the duration of the experiment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the chosen therapy procedure the following measures were applied: Optoelectrical 3D Movement Analysis, System BTS Smart for gait, and Computerized Dynamic Posturography CQ Stab for stability and balance. All measures were conducted both before and after the therapy cycle. The subjects from the experimental group attended music therapy sessions four times a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP), Pattern Sensory Enhancement (PSE) and RAS were used in every 45-min session for practicing daily life activities, balance, pre-gait, and gait pattern. Percussion instruments, the metronome and rhythmic music were the basis for each session. The subjects from the control group were asked to stay active and perform daily life activities between the measures. The research showed that the combination of the three NMT sensorimotor techniques can be used to improve gait and other rhythmical activities in PD rehabilitation. The results demonstrated significant improvement in the majority of the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. In the stability tests with eyes

  6. Music Therapy Training for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Modality to Foster Interest in Gerontological Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Shu-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-En; Lin, Ping-Yi

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Music Therapy Training for Undergraduate Nursing Students: A Modality to Foster Interest in Gerontological Nursing" found on pages 25-31, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Identify the worldwide shortage of nurses specializing in

  7. Playing and Listening to Tailor-Made Notched Music: Cortical Plasticity Induced by Unimodal and Multimodal Training in Tinnitus Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Pape

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The generation and maintenance of tinnitus are assumed to be based on maladaptive functional cortical reorganization. Listening to modified music, which contains no energy in the range of the individual tinnitus frequency, can inhibit the corresponding neuronal activity in the auditory cortex. Music making has been shown to be a powerful stimulator for brain plasticity, inducing changes in multiple sensory systems. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG and behavioral measurements we evaluated the cortical plasticity effects of two months of (a active listening to (unisensory versus (b learning to play (multisensory tailor-made notched music in nonmusician tinnitus patients. Taking into account the fact that uni- and multisensory trainings induce different patterns of cortical plasticity we hypothesized that these two protocols will have different affects. Results. Only the active listening (unisensory group showed significant reduction of tinnitus related activity of the middle temporal cortex and an increase in the activity of a tinnitus-coping related posterior parietal area. Conclusions. These findings indicate that active listening to tailor-made notched music induces greater neuroplastic changes in the maladaptively reorganized cortical network of tinnitus patients while additional integration of other sensory modalities during training reduces these neuroplastic effects.

  8. Playing and listening to tailor-made notched music: cortical plasticity induced by unimodal and multimodal training in tinnitus patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pape, Janna; Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Wollbrink, Andreas; Rudack, Claudia; Pantev, Christo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND. The generation and maintenance of tinnitus are assumed to be based on maladaptive functional cortical reorganization. Listening to modified music, which contains no energy in the range of the individual tinnitus frequency, can inhibit the corresponding neuronal activity in the auditory cortex. Music making has been shown to be a powerful stimulator for brain plasticity, inducing changes in multiple sensory systems. Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG) and behavioral measurements we evaluated the cortical plasticity effects of two months of (a) active listening to (unisensory) versus (b) learning to play (multisensory) tailor-made notched music in nonmusician tinnitus patients. Taking into account the fact that uni- and multisensory trainings induce different patterns of cortical plasticity we hypothesized that these two protocols will have different affects. RESULTS. Only the active listening (unisensory) group showed significant reduction of tinnitus related activity of the middle temporal cortex and an increase in the activity of a tinnitus-coping related posterior parietal area. CONCLUSIONS. These findings indicate that active listening to tailor-made notched music induces greater neuroplastic changes in the maladaptively reorganized cortical network of tinnitus patients while additional integration of other sensory modalities during training reduces these neuroplastic effects.

  9. Musical training during early childhood enhances the neural encoding of speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; Hittner, Emily; Kraus, Nina

    2012-12-01

    For children, learning often occurs in the presence of background noise. As such, there is growing desire to improve a child's access to a target signal in noise. Given adult musicians' perceptual and neural speech-in-noise enhancements, we asked whether similar effects are present in musically-trained children. We assessed the perception and subcortical processing of speech in noise and related cognitive abilities in musician and nonmusician children that were matched for a variety of overarching factors. Outcomes reveal that musicians' advantages for processing speech in noise are present during pivotal developmental years. Supported by correlations between auditory working memory and attention and auditory brainstem response properties, we propose that musicians' perceptual and neural enhancements are driven in a top-down manner by strengthened cognitive abilities with training. Our results may be considered by professionals involved in the remediation of language-based learning deficits, which are often characterized by poor speech perception in noise. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Musical Students’ Concert Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr S. Plokhotnyuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available . The article presents detailed analysis of performance training of future teachers of music at higher educational establishments and offers ways to overcome the problem of musical students’ concert practice organization.

  11. Musical Preference and Music Education: Musical Preferences of Turkish University Students and Their Levels in Genre Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürgen, Elif Tekin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is any relationship between musical preference, genre identification and frequency of listening to music genres, and whether musical training and gender played a role in these factors. A total of 205 college music and non-music majors recorded their preference for 13 music excerpts in popular,…

  12. How musical are music video game players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinski, Amanda C; Hannon, Erin E; Snyder, Joel S

    2016-10-01

    Numerous studies have shown that formal musical training is associated with sensory, motor, and cognitive advantages in individuals of various ages. However, the nature of the observed differences between musicians and nonmusicians is poorly understood, and little is known about the listening skills of individuals who engage in alternative types of everyday musical activities. Here, we show that people who have frequently played music video games outperform nonmusicians controls on a battery of music perception tests. These findings reveal that enhanced musical aptitude can be found among individuals who play music video games, raising the possibility that music video games could potentially enhance music perception skills in individuals across a broad spectrum of society who are otherwise unable to invest the time and/or money required to learn a musical instrument.

  13. Pop and World Music in Dutch Music Education: Two Cases of Authentic Learning in Music Teacher Education and Secondary Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evelein, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Popular and world music play an important role in Dutch music education. This article examines two case studies that illustrate authentic music learning environments in which these types of music are prominently used. The first case follows a student during her training at the Rotterdam Academy for Music Education, in which her own musical and…

  14. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Mora, M C; Jara-Jiménez, Pilar; Gómez-Domínguez, María

    2015-01-01

    Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n = 63) learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control), and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.

  15. Musical plus phonological input for young foreign language readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. eFonseca-Mora

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies showing that phonological awareness is related to reading abilities and that music training improves phonological processing, the aim of the present study was to test for the efficiency of a new method for teaching to read in a foreign language. Specifically, we tested the efficacy of a phonological training program, with and without musical support that aimed at improving early reading skills in 7-8-year-old Spanish children (n=63 learning English as a foreign language. Of interest was also to explore the impact of this training program on working memory and decoding skills. To achieve these goals we tested three groups of children before and after training: a control group, an experimental group with phonological non-musical intervention (active control, and an experimental group with musical intervention. Results clearly point to the beneficial effects of the phonological teaching approach but the further impact of the music support was not demonstrated. Moreover, while children in the music group showed low musical aptitudes before training, they nevertheless performed better than the control group. Therefore, the phonological training program with and without music support seem to have significant effects on early reading skills.

  16. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  17. Music Teacher Perceptions of a Model of Technology Training and Support in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Lee Arthur

    2013-01-01

    A plethora of technology resources currently exists for the music classroom of the twenty-first century, including digital audio and video, music software, electronic instruments, Web 2.0 tools and more. Research shows a strong need for professional development for teachers to properly implement and integrate instructional technology resources…

  18. The influence of musical training on the perception of sequentially presented mistuned harmonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burns, E.M.; Houtsma, A.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether musical scales have developed from a processing advantage for frequency ratios based on small integers, i.e., ratios derived from relationships among harmonically related tones, is widely debated in musicology and music perception. In the extreme position, this processing

  19. Medical Music Therapy: A Model Program for Clinical Practice, Education, Training and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph evolved from the unique, innovative partnership between the Florida State University Music Therapy Program and Tallahassee Memorial HealthCare. Its purpose is to serve as a model for music therapy educators, students, clinicians, and the hospital administrators who might employ them. This book should prove a valuable resource for…

  20. Neuromagnetic beta and gamma oscillations in the somatosensory cortex after music training in healthy older adults and a chronic stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Shahab; Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Extensive rehabilitation training can lead to functional improvement even years after a stroke. Although neuronal plasticity is considered as a main origin of such ameliorations, specific subtending mechanisms need further investigation. Our aim was to obtain objective neuromagnetic measures sensitive to brain reorganizations induced by a music-supported training. We applied 20-Hz vibrotactile stimuli to the index finger and the ring finger, recorded somatosensory steady-state responses with magnetoencephalography, and analyzed the cortical sources displaying oscillations synchronized with the external stimuli in two groups of healthy older adults before and after musical training or without training. In addition, we applied the same analysis for an anecdotic report of a single chronic stroke patient with hemiparetic arm and hand problems, who received music-supported therapy (MST). Healthy older adults showed significant finger separation within the primary somatotopic map. Beta dipole sources were more anterior located compared to gamma sources. An anterior shift of sources and increases in synchrony between the stimuli and beta and gamma oscillations were observed selectively after music training. In the stroke patient a normalization of somatotopic organization was observed after MST, with digit separation recovered after training and stimulus induced gamma synchrony increased. The proposed stimulation paradigm captures the integrity of primary somatosensory hand representation. Source position and synchronization between the stimuli and gamma activity are indices, sensitive to music-supported training. Responsiveness was also observed in a chronic stroke patient, encouraging for the music-supported therapy. Notably, changes in somatosensory responses were observed, even though the therapy did not involve specific sensory discrimination training. The proposed protocol can be used for monitoring changes in neuronal organization during training and will improve

  1. Early musical training is linked to gray matter structure in the ventral premotor cortex and auditory-motor rhythm synchronization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Jennifer Anne; Zatorre, Robert J; Penhune, Virginia B

    2014-04-01

    Evidence in animals and humans indicates that there are sensitive periods during development, times when experience or stimulation has a greater influence on behavior and brain structure. Sensitive periods are the result of an interaction between maturational processes and experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms. Previous work from our laboratory has shown that adult musicians who begin training before the age of 7 show enhancements in behavior and white matter structure compared with those who begin later. Plastic changes in white matter and gray matter are hypothesized to co-occur; therefore, the current study investigated possible differences in gray matter structure between early-trained (ET; 7) musicians, matched for years of experience. Gray matter structure was assessed using voxel-wise analysis techniques (optimized voxel-based morphometry, traditional voxel-based morphometry, and deformation-based morphometry) and surface-based measures (cortical thickness, surface area and mean curvature). Deformation-based morphometry analyses identified group differences between ET and LT musicians in right ventral premotor cortex (vPMC), which correlated with performance on an auditory motor synchronization task and with age of onset of musical training. In addition, cortical surface area in vPMC was greater for ET musicians. These results are consistent with evidence that premotor cortex shows greatest maturational change between the ages of 6-9 years and that this region is important for integrating auditory and motor information. We propose that the auditory and motor interactions required by musical practice drive plasticity in vPMC and that this plasticity is greatest when maturation is near its peak.

  2. Preattentive cortical-evoked responses to pure tones, harmonic tones, and speech: influence of music training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikjeh, Dee A; Lister, Jennifer J; Frisch, Stefan A

    2009-08-01

    presented as a standard and a deviant in separate blocks. P1-N1-P2 was elicited before each oddball task by presenting each auditory stimulus alone in single blocks. All cortical auditory evoked potentials were recorded in a passive listening condition. Incidental findings revealed that musicians had longer P1 latencies for pure tones and smaller P1 amplitudes for harmonic tones than nonmusicians. There were no P1 group differences for speech stimuli. Musicians compared with nonmusicians had shorter MMN latencies for all deviances (harmonic tones, pure tones, and speech). Musicians had shorter P3a latencies to harmonic tones and speech but not to pure tones. MMN and P3a amplitude were modulated by deviant frequency but not by group membership. Formally trained musicians compared with nonmusicians showed more efficient neural detection of pure tones and harmonic tones; demonstrated superior auditory sensory-memory traces for acoustic features of pure tones, harmonic tones, and speech; and revealed enhanced sensitivity to acoustic changes of spectrally rich stimuli (i.e., harmonic tones and speech). Findings support a general influence of music training on central auditory function and illustrate experience-facilitated modulation of the auditory neural system.

  3. Contemporary Commercial Music Singing Students-Voice Quality and Vocal Function at the Beginning of Singing Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielska-Badurek, Ewelina M; Sobol, Maria; Olszowska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Kazimierz

    2017-10-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the voice quality and the vocal tract function in popular singing students at the beginning of their singing training at the High School of Music. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. The study consisted of 45 popular singing students (35 females and 10 males, mean age: 19.9 ± 2.8 years). They were assessed in the first 2 months of their 4-year singing training at the High School of Music, between 2013 and 2016. Voice quality and vocal tract function were evaluated using videolaryngostroboscopy, palpation of the vocal tract structures, the perceptual speaking and singing voice assessment, acoustic analysis, maximal phonation time, the Voice Handicap Index, and the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI). Twenty-two percent of Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with vocal nodules. Palpation of the vocal tract structure showed in 50% correct motions and tension in speaking and in 39.3% in singing. Perceptual voice assessment showed in 80% proper speaking voice quality and in 82.4% proper singing voice quality. The mean vocal fundamental frequency while speaking in females was 214 Hz and in males was 116 Hz. Dysphonia Severity Index was at the level of 2, and maximum phonation time was 17.7 seconds. The Voice Handicap Index and the SVHI remained within the normal range: 7.5 and 19, respectively. Perceptual singing voice assessment correlated with the SVHI (P = 0.006). Twenty-two percent of the Contemporary Commercial Music singing students began their education in the High School, with organic vocal fold lesions. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Musical experience, auditory perception and reading-related skills in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banai, Karen; Ahissar, Merav

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between auditory processing and reading-related skills remain poorly understood despite intensive research. Here we focus on the potential role of musical experience as a confounding factor. Specifically we ask whether the pattern of correlations between auditory and reading related skills differ between children with different amounts of musical experience. Third grade children with various degrees of musical experience were tested on a battery of auditory processing and reading related tasks. Very poor auditory thresholds and poor memory skills were abundant only among children with no musical education. In this population, indices of auditory processing (frequency and interval discrimination thresholds) were significantly correlated with and accounted for up to 13% of the variance in reading related skills. Among children with more than one year of musical training, auditory processing indices were better, yet reading related skills were not correlated with them. A potential interpretation for the reduction in the correlations might be that auditory and reading-related skills improve at different rates as a function of musical training. Participants' previous musical training, which is typically ignored in studies assessing the relations between auditory and reading related skills, should be considered. Very poor auditory and memory skills are rare among children with even a short period of musical training, suggesting musical training could have an impact on both. The lack of correlation in the musically trained population suggests that a short period of musical training does not enhance reading related skills of individuals with within-normal auditory processing skills. Further studies are required to determine whether the associations between musical training, auditory processing and memory are indeed causal or whether children with poor auditory and memory skills are less likely to study music and if so, why this is the case.

  5. Musical experience, auditory perception and reading-related skills in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Banai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationships between auditory processing and reading-related skills remain poorly understood despite intensive research. Here we focus on the potential role of musical experience as a confounding factor. Specifically we ask whether the pattern of correlations between auditory and reading related skills differ between children with different amounts of musical experience. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Third grade children with various degrees of musical experience were tested on a battery of auditory processing and reading related tasks. Very poor auditory thresholds and poor memory skills were abundant only among children with no musical education. In this population, indices of auditory processing (frequency and interval discrimination thresholds were significantly correlated with and accounted for up to 13% of the variance in reading related skills. Among children with more than one year of musical training, auditory processing indices were better, yet reading related skills were not correlated with them. A potential interpretation for the reduction in the correlations might be that auditory and reading-related skills improve at different rates as a function of musical training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Participants' previous musical training, which is typically ignored in studies assessing the relations between auditory and reading related skills, should be considered. Very poor auditory and memory skills are rare among children with even a short period of musical training, suggesting musical training could have an impact on both. The lack of correlation in the musically trained population suggests that a short period of musical training does not enhance reading related skills of individuals with within-normal auditory processing skills. Further studies are required to determine whether the associations between musical training, auditory processing and memory are indeed causal or whether children with poor auditory and

  6. How music training enhances working memory: a cerebrocerebellar blending mechanism that can lead equally to scientific discovery and therapeutic efficacy in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervert, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Following in the vein of studies that concluded that music training resulted in plastic changes in Einstein's cerebral cortex, controlled research has shown that music training (1) enhances central executive attentional processes in working memory, and (2) has also been shown to be of significant therapeutic value in neurological disorders. Within this framework of music training-induced enhancement of central executive attentional processes, the purpose of this article is to argue that: (1) The foundational basis of the central executive begins in infancy as attentional control during the establishment of working memory, (2) In accordance with Akshoomoff, Courchesne and Townsend's and Leggio and Molinari's cerebellar sequence detection and prediction models, the rigors of volitional control demands of music training can enhance voluntary manipulation of information in thought and movement, (3) The music training-enhanced blending of cerebellar internal models in working memory as can be experienced as intuition in scientific discovery (as Einstein often indicated) or, equally, as moments of therapeutic advancement toward goals in the development of voluntary control in neurological disorders, and (4) The blending of internal models as in (3) thus provides a mechanism by which music training enhances central executive processes in working memory that can lead to scientific discovery and improved therapeutic outcomes in neurological disorders. Within the framework of Leggio and Molinari's cerebellar sequence detection model, it is determined that intuitive steps forward that occur in both scientific discovery and during therapy in those with neurological disorders operate according to the same mechanism of adaptive error-driven blending of cerebellar internal models. It is concluded that the entire framework of the central executive structure of working memory is a product of the cerebrocerebellar system which can, through the learning of internal models

  7. A Survey of Florida High School Instrumental Music Programs: Rationale for the Inclusion of Jazz Ensemble Experience in Music Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Jonathan R.

    2011-01-01

    During the past 60 years, jazz music has slowly become recognized as a genre worthy of study in high school music programs throughout the United States. Only a few researchers have analyzed large samples of jazz-related instruction in instrumental music programs, and of these studies no data were collected to investigate the inclusion of jazz in…

  8. What makes a rhythm complex? The influence of musical training and accent type on beat perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwer, Fleur L; Burgoyne, J Ashley; Odijk, Daan; Honing, Henkjan; Grahn, Jessica A

    2018-01-01

    Perception of a regular beat in music is inferred from different types of accents. For example, increases in loudness cause intensity accents, and the grouping of time intervals in a rhythm creates temporal accents. Accents are expected to occur on the beat: when accents are "missing" on the beat, the beat is more difficult to find. However, it is unclear whether accents occurring off the beat alter beat perception similarly to missing accents on the beat. Moreover, no one has examined whether intensity accents influence beat perception more or less strongly than temporal accents, nor how musical expertise affects sensitivity to each type of accent. In two experiments, we obtained ratings of difficulty in finding the beat in rhythms with either temporal or intensity accents, and which varied in the number of accents on the beat as well as the number of accents off the beat. In both experiments, the occurrence of accents on the beat facilitated beat detection more in musical experts than in musical novices. In addition, the number of accents on the beat affected beat finding more in rhythms with temporal accents than in rhythms with intensity accents. The effect of accents off the beat was much weaker than the effect of accents on the beat and appeared to depend on musical expertise, as well as on the number of accents on the beat: when many accents on the beat are missing, beat perception is quite difficult, and adding accents off the beat may not reduce beat perception further. Overall, the different types of accents were processed qualitatively differently, depending on musical expertise. Therefore, these findings indicate the importance of designing ecologically valid stimuli when testing beat perception in musical novices, who may need different types of accent information than musical experts to be able to find a beat. Furthermore, our findings stress the importance of carefully designing rhythms for social and clinical applications of beat perception, as not

  9. Long-term music training tunes how the brain temporally binds signals from multiple senses

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, HweeLing; Noppeney, Uta

    2011-01-01

    Practicing a musical instrument is a rich multisensory experience involving the integration of visual, auditory, and tactile inputs with motor responses. This combined psychophysics–fMRI study used the musician's brain to investigate how sensory-motor experience molds temporal binding of auditory and visual signals. Behaviorally, musicians exhibited a narrower temporal integration window than nonmusicians for music but not for speech. At the neural level, musicians showed increased audiovisua...

  10. Music lessons are associated with increased verbal memory in individuals with Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Brittany A; Martens, Marilee A; Jungers, Melissa K

    2014-11-16

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual delay and an affinity for music. It has been previously shown that familiar music can enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS who have had music training. There is also evidence that unfamiliar, or novel, music may also improve cognitive recall. This study was designed to examine if a novel melody could also enhance verbal memory in individuals with WS, and to more fully characterize music training in this population. We presented spoken or sung sentences that described an animal and its group name to 44 individuals with WS, and then tested their immediate and delayed memory using both recall and multiple choice formats. Those with formal music training (average duration of training 4½ years) scored significantly higher on both the spoken and sung recall items, as well as on the spoken multiple choice items, than those with no music training. Music therapy, music enjoyment, age, and Verbal IQ did not impact performance on the memory tasks. These findings provide further evidence that formal music lessons may impact the neurological pathways associated with verbal memory in individuals with WS, consistent with findings in typically developing individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Benefits of listening to a recording of euphoric joint music making in polydrug abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and AimsListening to music can have powerful physiological and therapeutic effects. Some essential features of the mental mechanism underlying beneficial effects of music are probably strong physiological and emotional associations with music created during the act of music making. Here we tested this hypothesis in a clinical population of polydrug abusers in rehabilitation listening to a previously performed act of physiologically and emotionally intense music making.MethodsPsychological effects of listening to self-made music that was created in a previous musical feedback intervention were assessed. In this procedure, participants produced music with exercise machines which modulate musical sounds (Jymmin.ResultsThe data showed a positive effect of listening to the recording of joint music making on self-efficacy, mood, and a readiness to engage socially. Furthermore, the data showed the powerful influence of context on how the recording evoked psychological benefits. The effects of listening to the self-made music were only observable when participants listened to their own performance first; listening to a control music piece first caused effects to deteriorate. We observed a positive correlation between participants’ mood and their desire to engage in social activities with their former training partners after listening to the self-made music. This shows that the observed effects of listening to the recording of the single musical feedback intervention are influenced by participants recapitulating intense pleasant social interactions during the Jymmin intervention. ConclusionsListening to music that was the outcome of a previous musical feedback (Jymmin intervention has beneficial psychological and probably social effects in patients that had suffered from polydrug addiction, increasing self-efficacy, mood, and a readiness to engage socially. These intervention effects, however, depend on the context in which the music

  12. The effects of noise exposure and musical training on suprathreshold auditory processing and speech perception in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeend, Ingrid; Beach, Elizabeth Francis; Sharma, Mridula; Dillon, Harvey

    2017-09-01

    Recent animal research has shown that exposure to single episodes of intense noise causes cochlear synaptopathy without affecting hearing thresholds. It has been suggested that the same may occur in humans. If so, it is hypothesized that this would result in impaired encoding of sound and lead to difficulties hearing at suprathreshold levels, particularly in challenging listening environments. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of noise exposure on auditory processing, including the perception of speech in noise, in adult humans. A secondary aim was to explore whether musical training might improve some aspects of auditory processing and thus counteract or ameliorate any negative impacts of noise exposure. In a sample of 122 participants (63 female) aged 30-57 years with normal or near-normal hearing thresholds, we conducted audiometric tests, including tympanometry, audiometry, acoustic reflexes, otoacoustic emissions and medial olivocochlear responses. We also assessed temporal and spectral processing, by determining thresholds for detection of amplitude modulation and temporal fine structure. We assessed speech-in-noise perception, and conducted tests of attention, memory and sentence closure. We also calculated participants' accumulated lifetime noise exposure and administered questionnaires to assess self-reported listening difficulty and musical training. The results showed no clear link between participants' lifetime noise exposure and performance on any of the auditory processing or speech-in-noise tasks. Musical training was associated with better performance on the auditory processing tasks, but not the on the speech-in-noise perception tasks. The results indicate that sentence closure skills, working memory, attention, extended high frequency hearing thresholds and medial olivocochlear suppression strength are important factors that are related to the ability to process speech in noise. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by

  13. [Evaluation of the Musical Concentration Training with Pepe (MusiKo mit Pepe) for children with attention deficits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmann, Kathrin; Hillmer, Jana-Mareike; Hosser, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluates the Musical Concentration Training with Pepe ("MusiKo mit Pepe") for children aged 5 to 10 years with attention deficits. Using a pre-post-control design (N = 108), changes in attention capacity are measured by the Test of Attentional Performance for Children (KiTAP), whereas changes in the quality of life are assessed with the Children's Questionnaire (KINDL-R). Additionally, we utilized the Symptom Checklist for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders (FBB-ADHS) and for Conduct Disorder (FBB-SSV) of the Diagnostic System of Mental Disorders in Children and Adolescents II based on ICD-10 and DSM-IV as well as the Child Behavior Checklist and the Teacher's Report Form (CBCL, TRF). Significant pre-post effects were found in both attention and quality of life for children treated by the training compared to controls. Moreover, significant reductions were detected in ADHD symptomatology in parents' and teachers' ratings, and in internal problems in parents' ratings. The effectiveness of the intervention was not affected by age, sex, intelligence, or migration background. The music-based training "MusiKo mit Pepe" is an effective intervention for children with attention deficits, pending replication of these findings in future studies.

  14. Antenatal Training with Music and Maternal Talk Concurrently May Reduce Autistic-Like Behaviors at around 3 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Ruan, Zeng-Liang; Liu, Li; Strodl, Esben; Fan, Li-Jun; Yin, Xiao-Na; Wen, Guo-Min; Sun, Deng-Li; Xian, Dan-Xia; Jiang, Hui; Jing, Jin; Jin, Yu; Wu, Chuan-An; Chen, Wei-Qing

    2018-01-01

    Antenatal training through music and maternal talk to the unborn fetus is a topic of general interest for parents-to-be in China, but we still lack a comprehensive assessment of their effects on the development of autistic-like behaviors during early childhood. During 2014–2016, 34,749 parents of children around the age of 3 years who were enrolled at kindergarten in the Longhua district of Shenzhen participated in this study. Self-administered questionnaires regarding demographics, antenatal...

  15. Music and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Haefliger, Anna Berenika

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Music and its different forms of use seem to benefit people in a number of ways. Research has suggested that extensive musical practice and musical listening enhances mental functioning in healthy adults and patients with neurodegenerative disease. Yet, the findings presented have not yet examined the effects both musical training and stimuli enhancement have on episodic memory recognition. 20 musicians and 20 non-musicians took part in an episodic memory task which evaluated m...

  16. Walking with music is a safe and viable tool for gait training in Parkinson's disease: the effect of a 13-week feasibility study on single and dual task walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Natalie; Doan, Jon B; Turnbull, George; Suchowersky, Oksana; Bonfield, Stephan; Hu, Bin; Brown, Lesley A

    2010-07-13

    This study explored the viability and efficacy of integrating cadence-matched, salient music into a walking intervention for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-two people with PD were randomised to a control (CTRL, n = 11) or experimental (MUSIC, n = 11) group. MUSIC subjects walked with an individualised music playlist three times a week for the intervention period. Playlists were designed to meet subject's musical preferences. In addition, the tempo of the music closely matched (±10-15 bpm) the subject's preferred cadence. CTRL subjects continued with their regular activities during the intervention. The effects of training accompanied by "walking songs" were evaluated using objective measures of gait score. The MUSIC group improved gait velocity, stride time, cadence, and motor symptom severity following the intervention. This is the first study to demonstrate that music listening can be safely implemented amongst PD patients during home exercise.

  17. The Case for Musical Instrument Training in Cerebral Palsy for Neurorehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Turova, Varvara; Blumenstein, Tobias; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Recent imaging studies in cerebral palsy (CP) have described several brain structural changes, functional alterations, and neuroplastic processes that take place after brain injury during early development. These changes affect motor pathways as well as sensorimotor networks. Several of these changes correlate with behavioral measures of motor and sensory disability. It is now widely acknowledged that management of sensory deficits is relevant for rehabilitation in CP. Playing a musical instrument demands the coordination of hand movements with integrated auditory, visual, and tactile feedback, in a process that recruits multiple brain regions. These multiple demands during instrument playing, together with the entertaining character of music, have led to the development and investigation of music-supported therapies, especially for rehabilitation with motor disorders resulting from brain damage. We review scientific evidence that supports the use of musical instrument playing for rehabilitation in CP. We propose that active musical instrument playing may be an efficient means for triggering neuroplastic processes necessary for the development of sensorimotor skills in patients with early brain damage. We encourage experimental research on neuroplasticity and on its impact on the physical and personal development of individuals with CP.

  18. The Case for Musical Instrument Training in Cerebral Palsy for Neurorehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alves-Pinto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent imaging studies in cerebral palsy (CP have described several brain structural changes, functional alterations, and neuroplastic processes that take place after brain injury during early development. These changes affect motor pathways as well as sensorimotor networks. Several of these changes correlate with behavioral measures of motor and sensory disability. It is now widely acknowledged that management of sensory deficits is relevant for rehabilitation in CP. Playing a musical instrument demands the coordination of hand movements with integrated auditory, visual, and tactile feedback, in a process that recruits multiple brain regions. These multiple demands during instrument playing, together with the entertaining character of music, have led to the development and investigation of music-supported therapies, especially for rehabilitation with motor disorders resulting from brain damage. We review scientific evidence that supports the use of musical instrument playing for rehabilitation in CP. We propose that active musical instrument playing may be an efficient means for triggering neuroplastic processes necessary for the development of sensorimotor skills in patients with early brain damage. We encourage experimental research on neuroplasticity and on its impact on the physical and personal development of individuals with CP.

  19. Neural basis of music imagery and the effect of musical expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Knief, Arne; Pantev, Christo

    2008-12-01

    Although the influence of long-term musical training on the processing of heard music has been the subject of many studies, the neural basis of music imagery and the effect of musical expertise remain insufficiently understood. By means of magnetoencephalography (MEG) we compared musicians and nonmusicians in a musical imagery task with familiar melodies. Subjects listened to the beginnings of the melodies, continued them in their imagination and then heard a tone which was either a correct or an incorrect further continuation of the melody. Only in musicians was the imagery of these melodies strong enough to elicit an early preattentive brain response to unexpected incorrect continuations of the imagined melodies; this response, the imagery mismatch negativity (iMMN), peaked approximately 175 ms after tone onset and was right-lateralized. In contrast to previous studies the iMMN was not based on a heard but on a purely imagined memory trace. Our results suggest that in trained musicians imagery and perception rely on similar neuronal correlates, and that the musicians' intense musical training has modified this network to achieve a superior ability for imagery and preattentive processing of music.

  20. A physical exercise program using music-supported video-based training in older adults in nursing homes suffering from dementia: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spildooren, Joke; Speetjens, Ite; Abrahams, Johan; Feys, Peter; Timmermans, Annick

    2018-04-28

    Motivation towards an exercise program is higher in a small group setting in comparison to individual therapy. Due to attentional problems, group exercises are difficult for people with Alzheimer disease (AD). This study evaluates the feasibility of a music-supported video-based group exercise program in older adults suffering from AD. Five participants with moderate AD were recruited from a nursing home. A progressive physical exercise program using a video-based training with musical accompaniment was performed and digitally recorded to investigate the adherence and performed accuracy of the exercises. The overall participation during the exercises was 84.1%. The quality of the performance was for all exercises above the cut-off scores. A music-supported video-based group exercise program is feasible in persons with AD. The participants were motivated and the expectations towards the program increased over time. Music seemed an important factor for attention in participants with AD.

  1. Enhancement of numeric cognition in children with low achievement in mathematic after a non-instrumental musical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fabiana Silva; Santos, Flávia H

    2017-03-01

    Studies suggest that musical training enhances spatial-temporal reasoning and leads to greater learning of mathematical concepts. The aim of this prospective study was to verify the efficacy of a Non-Instrumental Musical Training (NIMT) on the Numerical Cognition systems in children with low achievement in math. For this purpose, we examined, with a cluster analysis, whether children with low scores on Numerical Cognition would be grouped in the same cluster at pre and post-NIMT. Participants were primary school children divided into two groups according to their scores on an Arithmetic test. Results with a specialized battery of Numerical Cognition revealed improvements for Cluster 2 (children with low achievement in math) especially for number production capacity compared to normative data. Besides, the number of children with low scores in Numerical Cognition decreased at post-NIMT. These findings suggest that NIMT enhances Numerical Cognition and seems to be a useful tool for rehabilitation of children with low achievement in math. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. El Sistema-inspired ensemble music training is associated with changes in children's neurocognitive functional integration: preliminary ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Nina; Schibli, Kylie; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2016-12-01

    Children (aged 9-12) training in an El Sistema-inspired program (OrKidstra) and a matched comparison group participated in an auditory Go/No-Go task while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Entire-sweep waveform patterns correlated with known ERP peaks associated with executive and other cognitive functions and indicated that the spread of neural activity in the initial 250 ms of executive attention processing (pre-P300) showed higher level of topographical overlap in OrKidstra children. In these children, late potentials (post-P300) concurrent with response control were more widely distributed and temporally coordinated. Intensive ensemble music training, we suggest, may be associated with neuroplastic changes facilitating integration of neural information.

  3. Endurance training-induced changes in the GH-IGF-I axis influence maximal muscle strength in previously untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandys, Marcin; Majerczak, Joanna; Kuczek, Piotr; Sztefko, Krystyna; Duda, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2017-02-01

    In this study we have determined the effects of 20weeks of endurance running training on the GH-IGF-I axis changes in the context of the skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity level. Before and after the endurance training program a maximal incremental exercise tests, a 1500m race and a muscle strength measurements were performed and the blood samples were taken to determine both resting as well as end-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth hormone-I (IGF-I), insulin-like growth hormone binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations. 20weeks of endurance running training improved power output generated at the end of the maximal incremental test by 24% (P<0.012), 1500m running time by 13% (P<0.012) and maximal muscle strength by 9% (P<0.02). End-exercise IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio was decreased by 22% after the training (P<0.04) and the magnitude of IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio decrease (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 ex ) was 2.3 times higher after the training (P<0.04). The magnitude of the exercise-induced changes in IGFBP-3 concentration was also significantly higher (P<0.04) and there was a trend toward lower end-exercise IGF-I concentration (P=0.08) after the training. These changes were accompanied by a significantly higher (30%) end-exercise IL-6 concentration (P<0.01) as well as by a 3.4 times higher magnitude of IL-6 increase (P<0.02) after the training. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between changes in resting serum IGF-I concentration (ΔIGF-I res ) and IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio (ΔIGF-I/IGFBP-3 res ) and changes in muscle strength (ΔMVC) (r=0.95, P=0.0003 and r=0.90, P=0.002, respectively). The training-induced changes in the components of the GH-IGF-I axis may have additive effects on skeletal muscle performance and physical capacity improvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The extent and influence of Asbestos Safety Awareness training among managers who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings

    OpenAIRE

    HICKEY, Jane; SAUNDERS, Jean; DAVERN, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted among a sample of managers (n=30) in Ireland who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings. The aims of the telephone survey were to examine the extent to which managers had completed Asbestos Safety Awareness (ASA) training, and to assess how such training might influence (i) their instinctive thoughts on asbestos, and (ii) their approach to aspects of asbestos management within their buildings. Managers’ motivations for comm...

  5. Analysis of General Personality Characteristics of High School Students Who Take and Do not Take Vocational Music Training according to Personality Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Yağışan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authorities claim that music training helps children and young people gain insight and actualize themselves and it contributes to their self-expression, self-confidence and socialization process. As known, music education that children and adolescences get varies for several reasons, and particularly the aims, the ways, and the intensity of courses differ according to the school types. From this context, the students of the high schools of fine arts getting vocational musical training and the students of general high schools not getting the vocational training were investigated by means of a general personality inventory, and a research was conducted to examine whether or not music education supports the personality development of the high school students. In the study, 140 students attending the last grade of high schools of fine arts, 140 students attending last grade of general high schools with total amount of 280 were randomly selected. The students were administered a 168 item personality inventory to determine their characteristics of ‘social, personal and general adaptation’ levels. Following findings were obtained as a result of the survey: When the total scales “general adaptation”, “social adaptation” and “personal adaptation” levels, including the sub-scales of ‘family affairs, social affairs, social norms, anti-social tendencies’, ‘self-actualization, emotional decisiveness, neurotic tendencies and psychotic symptoms’, were examined, the scores of students who get vocational music training were found significantly higher than the students who do not get it. The results of the study show that music training supports the personality development of adolescences positively.

  6. Musical intervention enhances infants' neural processing of temporal structure in music and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, T Christina; Kuhl, Patricia K

    2016-05-10

    Individuals with music training in early childhood show enhanced processing of musical sounds, an effect that generalizes to speech processing. However, the conclusions drawn from previous studies are limited due to the possible confounds of predisposition and other factors affecting musicians and nonmusicians. We used a randomized design to test the effects of a laboratory-controlled music intervention on young infants' neural processing of music and speech. Nine-month-old infants were randomly assigned to music (intervention) or play (control) activities for 12 sessions. The intervention targeted temporal structure learning using triple meter in music (e.g., waltz), which is difficult for infants, and it incorporated key characteristics of typical infant music classes to maximize learning (e.g., multimodal, social, and repetitive experiences). Controls had similar multimodal, social, repetitive play, but without music. Upon completion, infants' neural processing of temporal structure was tested in both music (tones in triple meter) and speech (foreign syllable structure). Infants' neural processing was quantified by the mismatch response (MMR) measured with a traditional oddball paradigm using magnetoencephalography (MEG). The intervention group exhibited significantly larger MMRs in response to music temporal structure violations in both auditory and prefrontal cortical regions. Identical results were obtained for temporal structure changes in speech. The intervention thus enhanced temporal structure processing not only in music, but also in speech, at 9 mo of age. We argue that the intervention enhanced infants' ability to extract temporal structure information and to predict future events in time, a skill affecting both music and speech processing.

  7. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken eRosslau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions or expression (music production abilities, and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a right-sided stroke, patients with a left-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  8. Clinical investigations of receptive and expressive musical functions after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosslau, Ken; Steinwede, Daniel; Schröder, C; Herholz, Sibylle C; Lappe, Claudia; Dobel, Christian; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-01-01

    There is a long tradition of investigating various disorders of musical abilities after stroke. These impairments, associated with acquired amusia, can be highly selective, affecting only music perception (i.e., receptive abilities/functions) or expression (music production abilities), and some patients report that these may dramatically influence their emotional state. The aim of this study was to systematically test both the melodic and rhythmic domains of music perception and expression in left- and right-sided stroke patients compared to healthy subjects. Music perception was assessed using rhythmic and melodic discrimination tasks, while tests of expressive function involved the vocal or instrumental reproduction of rhythms and melodies. Our approach revealed deficits in receptive and expressive functions in stroke patients, mediated by musical expertise. Those patients who had experienced a short period of musical training in childhood and adolescence performed better in the receptive and expressive subtests compared to those without any previous musical training. While discrimination of specific musical patterns was unimpaired after a left-sided stroke, patients with a right-sided stroke had worse results for fine melodic and rhythmic analysis. In terms of expressive testing, the most consistent results were obtained from a test that required patients to reproduce sung melodies. This implies that the means of investigating production abilities can impact the identification of deficits.

  9. The LGBTQ Component of 21st-Century Music Teacher Training: Strategies for Inclusion from the Research Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Matthew L.

    2012-01-01

    Music is important to the development of multidimensional future adults. Students have self-reported the value of music in their lives. Music educators, therefore, have a unique opportunity to create inclusive learning environments. Music learning objectives are often rooted in development of rehearsal techniques and performance skills. However,…

  10. Absence of Widespread Psychosocial and Cognitive Effects of School-Based Music Instruction in 10-13-Year-Old Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Bambrick, Caroline J.; Gill, Anneliese

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that private music training has benefits which may transfer to other domains, including verbal memory, intelligence and self-esteem. The current paper reports on the impact of an increase in school-based music training on a range of cognitive and psychosocial measures for 10-13-year-olds in two independent studies. In…

  11. Probing attentive and preattentive emergent meter in adult listeners without extensive music training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladinig, O.; Honing, H.; Háden, G.; Winkler, I.

    2009-01-01

    Beat and meter induction are considered important structuring mechanisms underlying the perception of rhythm. Meter comprises two or more levels of hierarchically ordered regular beats with different periodicities. When listening to music, adult listeners weight events within a measure in a

  12. What makes a rhythm complex? The influence of musical training and accent type on beat perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwer, F.L.; Burgoyne, J.A.; Odijk, D.; Honing, H.; Grahn, J.A.

    2018-01-01

    Perception of a regular beat in music is inferred from different types of accents. For example, increases in loudness cause intensity accents, and the grouping of time intervals in a rhythm creates temporal accents. Accents are expected to occur on the beat: when accents are “missing” on the beat,

  13. Vermittlungen - musically speaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weymann, Eckhard; Metzner, Susanne; Fitzthum, Elena

    2001-01-01

    Bilingual publication - mixed content in English and German. Articles were written by participants in the First European Symposium "Improvisation Training in Music Therapy education" which took place in Hamburg, 1998.......Bilingual publication - mixed content in English and German. Articles were written by participants in the First European Symposium "Improvisation Training in Music Therapy education" which took place in Hamburg, 1998....

  14. ATTITUDES OF THE MUSIC TEACHER CANDIDATES IN TURKEYTOWARDS THE “INDIVIDUAL INSTRUMENT TRAINING LESSON”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Çoban

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is a descriptive study conducted in order to determine the attitudelevels of candidate music teachers studying at theMusic Education Departmentsof Universities in Turkey towards the instrument lesson during their education atthe universities. Working group of this study is comprised of senior studentsstudying in Faculty of Education from different universities of Turkey. The scaleused in the study was adopted from the attitude scale prepared by Tufan andGüdek (2008 and aimed at the piano lesson and thestudies of validity andreliability were carried out. After the factor analysis performed, the factorstructure of the scale was determined as; value, pleasure and necessity. As a resultof the study, value, pleasure and necessity dimensions, which are thesubdimensions of the Attitude Scale of the teachercandidates aimed at theinstrument lesson, were compared with one another within the context of thestudy findings and consequently, significant determinations were revealed.

  15. Musically cued gait-training improves both perceptual and motor timing in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, C.; Dalla Bella, S.; Farrugia, N.; Obrig, H.; Mainka, S.; Kotz, S.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that auditory cueing improves gait in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Disease-related reductions in speed and step length can be improved by providing rhythmical auditory cues via a metronome or music. However, effects on cognitive aspects of motor control have yet to be thoroughly investigated. If synchronization of movement to an auditory cue relies on a supramodal timing system involved in perceptual, motor, and sensorimotor integration, auditory ...

  16. Music training improves the ability to understand speech-in-noise in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Belleville, Sylvie; Zendel, Benjamin; West, Greg; Peretz, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that hearing abilities decline with age, and one of the most commonly reported hearing difficulties reported in older adults is a reduced ability to understand speech in noisy environments. Older musicians have an enhanced ability to understand speech in noise, and this has been associated with enhanced brain responses related to both speech processing and the deployment of attention, however the causal impact of music lessons in older adults is poorly understood. A sample of...

  17. Somatotopic mapping of piano fingering errors in sensorimotor experts: TMS studies in pianists and visually trained musically naives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candidi, Matteo; Sacheli, Lucia Maria; Mega, Ilaria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2014-02-01

    Virtuosic musical performance requires fine sensorimotor skills and high predictive control of the fast finger movements that produce the intended sounds, and cannot be corrected once the notes have been played. The anticipatory nature of motor control in experts explains why musical performance is barely affected by auditory feedback. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we provide evidence that, in expert pianists (Experiment 1), the observation of a mute piano fingering error induces 1) a time-locked facilitation of hand corticospinal representation which occurred 300 and 700 ms but not 100 ms after error onset, and 2) a somatotopic corticospinal facilitation of the very same finger that commits the error. In a second experiment, we show that no corticospinal modulation is found in non-pianist naïve individuals who were experimentally trained to visually detect the observed fingering errors (Experiment 2). This is the first evidence showing that the refined somatosensory and motor skills of musicians exceed the domain of individual motor control and may provide the brain with fine anticipatory, simulative error monitoring systems for the evaluation of others' movements.

  18. Time course of the influence of musical expertise on the processing of vocal and musical sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoulot, S; Pell, M D; Armony, J L

    2015-04-02

    Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that different cerebral regions preferentially process human voice and music. Yet, little is known on the temporal course of the brain processes that decode the category of sounds and how the expertise in one sound category can impact these processes. To address this question, we recorded the electroencephalogram (EEG) of 15 musicians and 18 non-musicians while they were listening to short musical excerpts (piano and violin) and vocal stimuli (speech and non-linguistic vocalizations). The task of the participants was to detect noise targets embedded within the stream of sounds. Event-related potentials revealed an early differentiation of sound category, within the first 100 ms after the onset of the sound, with mostly increased responses to musical sounds. Importantly, this effect was modulated by the musical background of participants, as musicians were more responsive to music sounds than non-musicians, consistent with the notion that musical training increases sensitivity to music. In late temporal windows, brain responses were enhanced in response to vocal stimuli, but musicians were still more responsive to music. These results shed new light on the temporal course of neural dynamics of auditory processing and reveal how it is impacted by the stimulus category and the expertise of participants. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Training neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: can it be improved by playing a musical prompt? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Simone K; Schmölzer, Georg M; Kelm, Marcus; Davis, Peter G; Schmalisch, Gerd; Roehr, Charles Christoph

    2014-03-01

    Effective neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) requires 3:1 coordinated manual inflations (MI) and chest compressions (CC). We hypothesized that playing a musical prompt would help coordinate CC and MI during CPR. In this pilot trial we studied the effect the "Radetzkymarsch" (110 beats per minute) on neonatal CPR. Thirty-six medical professionals performed CPR on a neonatal manikin. CC and MI were recorded with and without the music played, using a respiratory function monitor and a tally counter. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon test. Without music, the median (interquartile range) rate of CC was 115 (100 to 129) per minute and the rate of MI was 38 (32 to 42) per minute. When listening to the auditory prompt, the rate of CC decreased significantly to 96 (96 to 100) per minute (p = 0.002) and the rate of MI to 32 (30 to 34) per minute (p = 0.001). The interquartile range of interoperator variability decreased up to 86%. Listening to an auditory prompt improved compliance with the recommended delivery rates of CC and MI during neonatal CPR. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Formación de profesores para la enseñanza musical y artística: Un estudio comparado How to train teachers for Musical and Artistic Education: A compared study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellver Jazzid Ortiz Castro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una parte de los resultados de la investigación que lleva por título " La Educación Musical y Artística en la formación del Profesorado: estudio comparativo entre la Universidad Pública de Navarra (España y la Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia". Como parte de esta investigación doctoral, el artículo surge del propósito de examinar las convergencias y divergencias de las asignaturas de educación musical y artística que se ofrecen en ambas universidades, en las especialidades de la educación musical infantil: en la UPNA (España, Especialidad de Maestro en Educación Infantil, y en la UP (Colombia, Licenciatura en Pedagogía Infantil. En sintonía con la etnografía y la antropología interpretativa (Geertz, 1989 y su aplicación a la educación musical (Campbell, 1998, se toman en cuenta sobre todo los resultados obtenidos en las entrevistas en grupo e individuales (entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a los estudiantes y profesores. Se concluye que la música y la plástica no gozan de una valoración proporcional a la importancia que tienen, en la práctica real con los niños, en esta etapa educativa.In this article we present one part of the results obtained from an investigation called "Musical and Artistic Education in Teachers Training: a compared study between the Public University of Navarra ( Spain and the University of Pamplona ( Colombia ". The scope of this work is to examinee the concurrences and divergences regarding the Music and Arts Education subjects offered by both Universities, as part of the Specializations related to Children's Musical Education: a Specialization to become a Teacher in Children's Education, at UPNA ( Spain ; and a Degree in Children's Pedagogy at UP ( Colombia . Being very close to Ethnography and Interpretative Anthropology (Geertz, 1989 and to its application into Musical Education as well ( Campbell , 1998, we have taken into account the results of the

  1. The musical identities of Danish music therapy students : a study based on musical autobiographies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists need both advanced musical and therapeutic skills to work as ‘health musicians’ in the vast area of ‘health musicking’ (Trondalen & Bonde, 2012), which ranges from working with groups in the community to individual sessions with mental health patients in hospital clinics. The balance between musical and therapeutic skills in this training is the subject of continuous discussion in the training program at Aalborg University, as are the ways in which the musical identity of a m...

  2. Sound and Music in A Mixed Martial Arts Gym: Exploring the Functions and Effects of Organized Noise as an Aid to Training and Fighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper has two distinct yet interrelated parts. First, it is a study into the sociology of sound and music—an exploration of how the phenomena of noise organizes and structures human behavior. Second, it is an auditory ethnographic excursion into the world of mixed martial arts (MMA fighting. Using a general qualitative approach grounded by the soundscape, participant observation and semi-structured interviews, we query MMA fighters’ experiences with sound and music, noting how these “sonic things” become key aids in bonding, training, and fighting. Lastly, we describe how participants use music to achieve various motivational and psychophysical outcomes.

  3. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  4. Effect of Regular Resistance Training on Motivation, Self-Perceived Health, and Quality of Life in Previously Inactive Overweight Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiestad, Hege; Rustaden, Anne Mette; Bø, Kari; Haakstad, Lene A H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim was to investigate the effects of three different types of resistance training implementation. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Methods. Inactive, overweight women (n = 143), mean BMI 31.3 ± 5.2 kg/m(2), mean age 39.9 ± 10.5 years, were randomized to one of the following groups: A (BodyPump group training), B (individual follow-up by a personal trainer), C (nonsupervised exercise), or D (controls). The intervention included 12 weeks of 45-60 minutes' full-body resistance training three sessions per week. The outcomes in this paper are all secondary outcome measures: exercise motivation, self-perceived health, and quality of life. Results. Adherence averaged 26.1 ± 10.3 of 36 prescribed sessions. After the intervention period, all three training groups (A-C) had better scores on exercise motivation (A = 43.9 ± 19.8, B = 47.6 ± 15.4, C = 48.4 ± 17.8) compared to the control group (D) (26.5 ± 18.2) (p training contributed to higher scores in important variables related to exercise motivation and self-perceived health. Low adherence showed that it was difficult to motivate previously inactive, overweight women to participate in regular strength training.

  5. The extent and influence of Asbestos Safety Awareness training among managers who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Jane; Saunders, Jean; Davern, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A telephone survey was conducted among a sample of managers (n=30) in Ireland who had previously commissioned an asbestos survey in their workplace buildings. The aims of the telephone survey were to examine the extent to which managers had completed Asbestos Safety Awareness (ASA) training, and to assess how such training might influence (i) their instinctive thoughts on asbestos, and (ii) their approach to aspects of asbestos management within their buildings. Managers' motivations for commissioning the asbestos survey were also identified. The study found that ASA-trained managers (n=11) were not significantly more likely to work in larger organisations or in organisations which operated an accredited management system. Though ASA-trained managers' instinctive thoughts on asbestos were of a slightly poorer technical quality compared with those of non-ASA-trained managers, they were still significantly more cognisant of their responsibilities towards those of their employees at specific risk of asbestos exposure. Most managers (n=28) commissioned the asbestos survey to satisfy a pre-requisite of external contractors for commencing refurbishment/demolition work in their buildings. Given its potential to positively influence the occupational management of asbestos, the authors recommend the general promotion of suitably tailored ASA-training programmes among building managers and external contractors alike.

  6. Cortical entrainment to music and its modulation by expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doelling, Keith B; Poeppel, David

    2015-11-10

    Recent studies establish that cortical oscillations track naturalistic speech in a remarkably faithful way. Here, we test whether such neural activity, particularly low-frequency (music and whether experience modifies such a cortical phenomenon. Music of varying tempi was used to test entrainment at different rates. In three magnetoencephalography experiments, we recorded from nonmusicians, as well as musicians with varying years of experience. Recordings from nonmusicians demonstrate cortical entrainment that tracks musical stimuli over a typical range of tempi, but not at tempi below 1 note per second. Importantly, the observed entrainment correlates with performance on a concurrent pitch-related behavioral task. In contrast, the data from musicians show that entrainment is enhanced by years of musical training, at all presented tempi. This suggests a bidirectional relationship between behavior and cortical entrainment, a phenomenon that has not previously been reported. Additional analyses focus on responses in the beta range (∼15-30 Hz)-often linked to delta activity in the context of temporal predictions. Our findings provide evidence that the role of beta in temporal predictions scales to the complex hierarchical rhythms in natural music and enhances processing of musical content. This study builds on important findings on brainstem plasticity and represents a compelling demonstration that cortical neural entrainment is tightly coupled to both musical training and task performance, further supporting a role for cortical oscillatory activity in music perception and cognition.

  7. NEUROLOGIC MUSIC THERAPY TRAINING FOR MOBILITY AND STABILITY REHABILITATION WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE – A PILOT STUDY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A. Bukowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (PD is a progressive condition with gait disturbance and balance disorder as the main symptoms. Previous research studies focused on the application of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS in PD gait rehabilitation. The key hypothesis of this pilot study, however, assumes the major role of the combination of all three Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT sensorimotor techniques in improving spatio-temporal gait parameters, and postural stability in the course of PD. The 55 PD-diagnosed subjects invited to the study were divided into two groups: 30 in the experimental and 25 in the control group. Inclusion criteria included Hoehn & Yahr stage 2 or 3, the ability to walk independently without any aid and stable pharmacological treatment for the duration of the experiment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the chosen therapy procedure the following measures were applied: Optoelectrical 3D Movement Analysis System BTS Smart for gait, and Computerized Dynamic Posturography CQ Stab for stability and balance . All measures were conducted both before and after the therapy cycle. The subjects from the experimental group attended music therapy sessions 4 times a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP, Pattern Sensory Enhancement (PSE and Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS were used in every 45-minute session for practicing daily life activities, balance, pre-gait and gait pattern. Percussion instruments, the metronome and rhythmic music were the basis for each session. The subjects from the control group were asked to stay active and perform daily life activities between the measures. The research showed that the combination of the three NMT sensorimotor techniques can be used to improve gait and other rhythmical activities in PD rehabilitation.The results demonstrated significant improvement in the majority of the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control

  8. Neurologic Music Therapy Training for Mobility and Stability Rehabilitation with Parkinson’s Disease – A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Anna A.; Krężałek, Piotr; Mirek, Elżbieta; Bujas, Przemysław; Marchewka, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a progressive condition with gait disturbance and balance disorder as the main symptoms. Previous research studies focused on the application of Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation (RAS) in PD gait rehabilitation. The key hypothesis of this pilot study, however, assumes the major role of the combination of all three Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) sensorimotor techniques in improving spatio-temporal gait parameters, and postural stability in the course of PD. The 55 PD-diagnosed subjects invited to the study were divided into two groups: 30 in the experimental and 25 in the control group. Inclusion criteria included Hoehn and Yahr stages 2 or 3, the ability to walk independently without any aid and stable pharmacological treatment for the duration of the experiment. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the chosen therapy procedure the following measures were applied: Optoelectrical 3D Movement Analysis, System BTS Smart for gait, and Computerized Dynamic Posturography CQ Stab for stability and balance. All measures were conducted both before and after the therapy cycle. The subjects from the experimental group attended music therapy sessions four times a week for 4 weeks. Therapeutic Instrumental Music Performance (TIMP), Pattern Sensory Enhancement (PSE) and RAS were used in every 45-min session for practicing daily life activities, balance, pre-gait, and gait pattern. Percussion instruments, the metronome and rhythmic music were the basis for each session. The subjects from the control group were asked to stay active and perform daily life activities between the measures. The research showed that the combination of the three NMT sensorimotor techniques can be used to improve gait and other rhythmical activities in PD rehabilitation. The results demonstrated significant improvement in the majority of the spatiotemporal gait parameters in the experimental group in comparison to the control group. In the stability tests with eyes

  9. Benefits of a Classroom Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal Memory of Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Nikki S.; Vasquez, Jorge T.; Murphy, Fintan; Gill, Anneliese; Toukhsati, Samia R.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a benefit of music training on a number of cognitive functions including verbal memory performance. The impact of school-based music programs on memory processes is however relatively unknown. The current study explored the effect of increasing frequency and intensity of classroom-based instrumental training…

  10. Effect of the rate of chest compression familiarised in previous training on the depth of chest compression during metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jinkun; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Je, Sang Mo

    2016-02-12

    To assess how the quality of metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was affected by the chest compression rate familiarised by training before the performance and to determine a possible mechanism for any effect shown. Prospective crossover trial of a simulated, one-person, chest-compression-only CPR. Participants were recruited from a medical school and two paramedic schools of South Korea. 42 senior students of a medical school and two paramedic schools were enrolled but five dropped out due to physical restraints. Senior medical and paramedic students performed 1 min of metronome-guided CPR with chest compressions only at a speed of 120 compressions/min after training for chest compression with three different rates (100, 120 and 140 compressions/min). Friedman's test was used to compare average compression depths based on the different rates used during training. Average compression depths were significantly different according to the rate used in training (ptraining at a speed of 100 compressions/min and those at speeds of 120 and 140 compressions/min (both pCPR is affected by the relative difference between the rate of metronome guidance and the chest compression rate practised in previous training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Nigerian Contemporary Music Practice: A New Musical Culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the 1960s, there were reports from post colonial West Africa of a somewhat unflinching loyalty to western standards and traditions by music educators and western-trained music composers who did not take kindly to reforms in certain directions in the practice of their music profession. Today‟s reality is that we have come ...

  12. Musical Parenting and Music Education: Integrating Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Although teachers work constantly with parents, discussions concerning parental roles in children's music learning are often left at the margins in music teacher training programs. The aim of this article is to offer a review of musical parenting research from an ecological perspective. Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory of human development is…

  13. Study protocol: Münster tinnitus randomized controlled clinical trial-2013 based on tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantev, Christo; Rudack, Claudia; Stein, Alwina; Wunderlich, Robert; Engell, Alva; Lau, Pia; Wollbrink, Andreas; Shaykevich, Alex

    2014-03-02

    Tinnitus is a result of hyper-activity/hyper-synchrony of auditory neurons coding the tinnitus frequency, which has developed to synchronous mass activity owing the lack of inhibition. We assume that removal of exactly these frequency components from an auditory stimulus will cause the brain to reorganize around tonotopic regions coding the tinnitus frequency. Based on this assumption a novel treatment for tonal tinnitus - tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT) (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:1207-1210, 2010; Ann N Y Acad Sci 1252:253-258, 2012; Frontiers Syst Neurosci 6:50, 2012) has been introduced and will be tested in this clinical trial on a large number of tinnitus patients. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) in parallel group design will be performed in a double-blinded manner. The choice of the intervention we are going to apply is based on two "proof of concept" studies in humans (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107:1207-1210, 2010; Ann N Y Acad Sci 1252:253-258, 2012; Frontiers Syst Neurosci 6:50, 2012; PloS One 6(9):e24685, 2011) and on a recent animal study (Front Syst Neurosci 7:21, 2013).The RCT includes 100 participants with chronic, tonal tinnitus who listened to tailor-made notched music (TMNM) for two hours a day for three months. The effect of TMNMT is assessed by the tinnitus handicap questionnaire and visual analogue scales (VAS) measuring perceived tinnitus loudness, distress and handicap. This is the first randomized controlled trial applying TMNMT on a larger number of patients with tonal tinnitus. Our data will verify more securely and reliably the effectiveness of this kind of completely non-invasive and low-cost treatment approach on tonal tinnitus. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN04840953.

  14. The Brain on Music

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    effects of music training on auditory .... dala but is distributed over a network of regions that also in- clude the ... In addition to the emotional impact of music on the brain, these ... social cognition, contact, copathy, and social cohesion in a group.

  15. Music Researchers' Musical Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Clemens; Ginsborg, Jane; Williamon, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the importance of reflexivity across various disciplines, which encourages researchers to scrutinize their research perspectives. In order to contextualize and reflect upon research in music, this study explores the musical background, current level of musical engagement and the listening habits of music…

  16. Music interventions for mechanically ventilated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Dileo, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation often causes major distress and anxiety in patients. The sensation of breathlessness, frequent suctioning, inability to talk, uncertainty regarding surroundings or condition, discomfort, isolation from others, and fear contribute to high levels of anxiety. Side effects of analgesia and sedation may lead to the prolongation of mechanical ventilation and, subsequently, to a longer length of hospitalization and increased cost. Therefore, non-pharmacological interventions should be considered for anxiety and stress management. Music interventions have been used to reduce anxiety and distress and improve physiological functioning in medical patients; however, their efficacy for mechanically ventilated patients needs to be evaluated. This review was originally published in 2010 and was updated in 2014. To update the previously published review that examined the effects of music therapy or music medicine interventions (as defined by the authors) on anxiety and other outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients. Specifically, the following objectives are addressed in this review.1. To conduct a meta-analysis to compare the effects of participation in standard care combined with music therapy or music medicine interventions with standard care alone.2. To compare the effects of patient-selected music with researcher-selected music.3. To compare the effects of different types of music interventions (e.g., music therapy versus music medicine). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2014), CINAHL (1980 to March 2014), EMBASE (1980 to March 2014), PsycINFO (1967 to March 2014), LILACS (1982 to March 2014), Science Citation Index (1980 to March 2014), www.musictherapyworld.net (1 March 2008) (database is no longer functional), CAIRSS for Music (to March 2014), Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to March 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (2000 to March 2014), Current

  17. The effect of a music therapy social skills training program on improving social competence in children and adolescents with social skills deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F

    2011-01-01

    Three separate studies were conducted in school, residential and after-school care settings to test the effectiveness of a music therapy-based social skills intervention program on improving social competence in children and adolescents. A total of 45 children (n = 12; n = 13; n = 20) aged 6-17 years with social skills deficits participated in a group-based five session intervention program. The same curriculum, adapted to be age appropriate, was used at all 3 sites. Specific deficits within the social skills areas of peer relations and self-management skills were targeted. Active interventions like music performance, movement to music and improvisation were used. Cognitive-behavioral techniques like modeling, feedback, transfer training and problem solving were also incorporated. Data on social functioning were collected before, during, and after the music therapy intervention from participants, appropriate adult personnel and via behavioral observations. Results indicated that significant improvements in social functioning were found in (a) school participant pre and post self-ratings, (b) researcher pre and post ratings of school participants, (c) case manager's pre and post treatment ratings for the residential participants, (d) after-school care participants' pre and post self-ratings, and (e) behavioral observations at all three settings. Additional changes, although not significant, were noted in teacher ratings, residential participant self- and peer ratings, and after-school case manager ratings. Results from these studies suggest that the music therapy intervention was effective in improving social competence in children and adolescents with social deficits. More research is warranted to provide additional guidance about the use of music therapy interventions to improve social functioning.

  18. Music in CrossFit®—Influence on Performance, Physiological, and Psychological Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Brupbacher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaining increasing popularity within the fitness sector, CrossFit® serves as an appealing and efficient high intensity training approach to develop strength and endurance on a functional level; and music is often utilized to produce ergogenic effects. The present randomized, controlled, crossover study aimed at investigating the effects of music vs. non-music on performance, physiological and psychological outcomes. Thirteen (age: 27.5, standard deviation (SD 6.2 years, healthy, moderately trained subjects performed four identical workouts over two weeks. The order of the four workouts (two with, and two without music, 20 min each was randomly assigned for each individual. Acute responses in work output, heart rate, blood lactate, rate of perceived exertion, perceived pain, and affective reaction were measured at the 5th, 10th, 15th, and 20th min during the training sessions. Training with music resulted in a significantly lower work output (460.3 repetitions, SD 98.1 vs. 497.8 repetitions, SD 103.7; p = 0.03. All other parameters did not differ between both music conditions. This is partly in line with previous findings that instead of providing ergogenic effects, applying music during CrossFit® may serve as a more distractive stimulus. Future studies should separate the influence of music on a more individual basis with larger sample sizes.

  19. The Complexity of H-wave Amplitude Fluctuations and Their Bilateral Cross-Covariance Are Modified According to the Previous Fitness History of Young Subjects under Track Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Ceballos-Villegas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hoffmann reflex (H-wave is produced by alpha-motoneuron activation in the spinal cord. A feature of this electromyography response is that it exhibits fluctuations in amplitude even during repetitive stimulation with the same intensity of current. We herein explore the hypothesis that physical training induces plastic changes in the motor system. Such changes are evaluated with the fractal dimension (FD analysis of the H-wave amplitude-fluctuations (H-wave FD and the cross-covariance (CCV between the bilateral H-wave amplitudes. The aim of this study was to compare the H-wave FD as well as the CCV before and after track training in sedentary individuals and athletes. The training modality in all subjects consisted of running three times per week (for 13 weeks in a concrete road of 5 km. Given the different physical condition of sedentary vs. athletes, the running time between sedentary and athletes was different. After training, the FD was significantly increased in sedentary individuals but significantly reduced in athletes, although there were no changes in spinal excitability in either group of subjects. Moreover, the CCV between bilateral H-waves exhibited a significant increase in athletes but not in sedentary individuals. These differential changes in the FD and CCV indicate that the plastic changes in the complexity of the H-wave amplitude fluctuations as well as the synaptic inputs to the Ia-motoneuron systems of both legs were correlated to the previous fitness history of the subjects. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the FD and CCV can be employed as indexes to study plastic changes in the human motor system.

  20. The Complexity of H-wave Amplitude Fluctuations and Their Bilateral Cross-Covariance Are Modified According to the Previous Fitness History of Young Subjects under Track Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Villegas, Maria E; Saldaña Mena, Juan J; Gutierrez Lozano, Ana L; Sepúlveda-Cañamar, Francisco J; Huidobro, Nayeli; Manjarrez, Elias; Lomeli, Joel

    2017-01-01

    The Hoffmann reflex (H-wave) is produced by alpha-motoneuron activation in the spinal cord. A feature of this electromyography response is that it exhibits fluctuations in amplitude even during repetitive stimulation with the same intensity of current. We herein explore the hypothesis that physical training induces plastic changes in the motor system. Such changes are evaluated with the fractal dimension (FD) analysis of the H-wave amplitude-fluctuations (H-wave FD) and the cross-covariance (CCV) between the bilateral H-wave amplitudes. The aim of this study was to compare the H-wave FD as well as the CCV before and after track training in sedentary individuals and athletes. The training modality in all subjects consisted of running three times per week (for 13 weeks) in a concrete road of 5 km. Given the different physical condition of sedentary vs. athletes, the running time between sedentary and athletes was different. After training, the FD was significantly increased in sedentary individuals but significantly reduced in athletes, although there were no changes in spinal excitability in either group of subjects. Moreover, the CCV between bilateral H-waves exhibited a significant increase in athletes but not in sedentary individuals. These differential changes in the FD and CCV indicate that the plastic changes in the complexity of the H-wave amplitude fluctuations as well as the synaptic inputs to the Ia-motoneuron systems of both legs were correlated to the previous fitness history of the subjects. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that the FD and CCV can be employed as indexes to study plastic changes in the human motor system.

  1. A Music Program for Training Head Start Teachers Using a Sequential, Cognitive, Developmental Process with Pre-school Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodhecker, Shirley G.

    This practicum report addresses the need to supply Head Start teachers with: (1) specific preschool music objectives; (2) a sequential preschool developmental program in music to match the child's cognitive level; (3) how to choose instructional material to encourage specific basic school readiness skills; and (4) workshops to accomplish these…

  2. Non-Music Specialist Trainee Primary School Teachers' Confidence in Teaching Music in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Frederick; Biasutti, Michele

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has revealed that non-music specialist trainee primary school teachers lack confidence in teaching music in spite of changes to teacher training and the introduction of music in the National Curriculum in England. The current study investigated the effects on non-music specialist trainee primary teachers' confidence to teach music…

  3. Greasing the Skids of the Musical Mind: Connecting Music Learning to Mind Brain Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers suggest that musical training prepares the mind for learning; however, there are many obstacles to the implementation of research to practice in music education. The purpose of this article is to apply key principles of mind brain education to music education and to evaluate how music prepares the mind for learning. Practical teaching…

  4. 音乐节奏的功能性与训练技巧探究%On the Function of Music Rhythm and Its Training Skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林修婷

    2014-01-01

    在当前高校专业音乐教育中,视唱练耳的课程教学占据着越来越重要的地位。本文结合相关的论著资料以及音乐节奏的多家学说,对音乐节奏的基本要素进行介绍,并且对音乐节奏的功能性与训练技巧进行探究。%In current years , solfeggio teaching plays a more and more important role in the education of music major .Therefore this article according to the works and theories related to the music rhythm intro-duces basic elements , and functions as well the training techniques .

  5. Music interventions for dental anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, J; Teague, A

    2018-04-01

    Anxiety is a significant issue in the dental care of adults and children. Dental anxiety often leads to avoidance of dental care which may result in significant deterioration of oral and dental health. Non-pharmacological anxiety management interventions such as music listening are increasingly used in dental care. Although efficacy for music's anxiolytic effects has been established for pre-operative anxiety, findings regarding the use of music listening for dental anxiety are inconclusive, especially for children. The use of music for passive distraction may not be adequate for children and highly anxious adults. Instead, interventions offered by a trained music therapist may be needed to optimize music's anxiolytic impact. Music therapy interventions are individualized to the patient's presenting needs and geared at enhancing patients' active engagement in the management of their anxiety. Interventions may include (i) active refocusing of attention, (ii) music-guided deep breathing, (iii) music-assisted relaxation, and (iv) music-guided imagery. In addition, music therapists can teach patients music-based anxiety management skills prior to dental treatments, offer them the opportunity to express emotions related to the upcoming procedure, and help them gain a sense of control and safety. Clinical guidelines for the use of music listening by dental practitioners are offered. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: Biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina eKraus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements in the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1,000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for one year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to an instrumental training class. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. These findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity during trand may inform the development of strategies for auditory

  7. Auditory learning through active engagement with sound: biological impact of community music lessons in at-risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Nina; Slater, Jessica; Thompson, Elaine C; Hornickel, Jane; Strait, Dana L; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis

    2014-01-01

    The young nervous system is primed for sensory learning, facilitating the acquisition of language and communication skills. Social and linguistic impoverishment can limit these learning opportunities, eventually leading to language-related challenges such as poor reading. Music training offers a promising auditory learning strategy by directing attention to meaningful acoustic elements of the soundscape. In light of evidence that music training improves auditory skills and their neural substrates, there are increasing efforts to enact community-based programs to provide music instruction to at-risk children. Harmony Project is a community foundation that has provided free music instruction to over 1000 children from Los Angeles gang-reduction zones over the past decade. We conducted an independent evaluation of biological effects of participating in Harmony Project by following a cohort of children for 1 year. Here we focus on a comparison between students who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training vs. students who took music appreciation classes. All children began with an introductory music appreciation class, but midway through the year half of the children transitioned to the instrumental training. After the year of training, the children who actively engaged with sound through instrumental music training had faster and more robust neural processing of speech than the children who stayed in the music appreciation class, observed in neural responses to a speech sound /d/. The neurophysiological measures found to be enhanced in the instrumentally-trained children have been previously linked to reading ability, suggesting a gain in neural processes important for literacy stemming from active auditory learning. Despite intrinsic constraints on our study imposed by a community setting, these findings speak to the potential of active engagement with sound (i.e., music-making) to engender experience-dependent neuroplasticity and may inform the

  8. Compulsory Education in Italian Middle School Music Departments and the Music Education Act : Textbooks Associated with the 1963 Program and Guide to Music Education

    OpenAIRE

    Onouchi, Ai

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the requirements for music education as part of general education in Italy through an assessment of the 1963 program, the music textbooks published by Ricordi during the implementation of that program, and the Guide to Music Education textbooks. I found that the textbooks focused on music theory, although the 1963 program emphasized practical training of students with a love of music. Further, the Guide to Music Education series was published specifically for use in...

  9. Compulsory Education in Italian Middle School Music Departments and the Music Education Act : Textbooks Associated with the 1963 Program and Guide to Music Education

    OpenAIRE

    大野内, 愛

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the requirements for music education as part of general education in Italy through an assessment of the 1963 program, the music textbooks published by Ricordi during the implementation of that program, and the Guide to Music Education textbooks. I found that the textbooks focused on music theory, although the 1963 program emphasized practical training of students with a love of music. Further, the Guide to Music Education series was published specifically for use in...

  10. Communicative Musicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2010-01-01

    university, Stephen Malloch listened to tapes of mothers and their babies ‘chatting’ with each other, recorded by Trevarthen in the 70’s. One of the first tapes was the vocal interaction of Laura and her mother. “As I listened, intrigued by the fluid give and take of the communication, and the lilting speech...... of the mother as she chatted with her baby, I began to tap my foot. I am, by training, a musician, so I was very used to automatically feeling the beat as I listened to musical sounds.… I replaced the tape, and again, I could sense a distinct rhythmicity and melodious give and take to the gentle prompting...... therapy as purely protomusic. But with Malloch & Trevarthen’s focus on musicality as the innate human abilities that make music production and appreciation possible, this discussion can easily move on. These and many other essential discussions await us – thanks to this comprehensive – and demanding...

  11. Preservice music teachers' predictions, perceptions, and assessment of students with special needs: the need for training in student assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanWeelden, Kimberly; Whipple, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine preservice teachers' predictions and perceptions of students with special needs' levels of mastery of specific music education concepts and actual grades achieved by these students using alternative assessments and testing accommodations within two subpopulations: students with emotional and/or behavior disorders (EDBD) and students with acute cognitive delays (ACD). The preservice teachers predicted students within the EDBD class would achieve a significantly higher level of mastery of the music concepts than students within the ACD classroom. After the field experience, however, the preservice teachers' perceptions of all students' levels of mastery increased from prediction scores overall. Additionally, preservice teachers were able to execute testing accommodations and implement successful alternative assessments which gave empirical data on the students' levels of mastery of the music education concepts within the curriculum. Implications for music therapists, as consultants in special education, are discussed.

  12. Musical agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; McBurney, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music.......The authors, a composer and a computer scientist, discuss their collaborative research on the use of multiagent systems and their applicability to music and musical composition. They describe the development of software and techniques for the composition of generative music....

  13. Loja musical capital of Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Rodríguez Guerrero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the slang language of Lojanos, it is said that Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. thesis or clich´e, which has led to write the present article to find the theoretical empirical support and practices that support it, constituting it in research object and recommend to the future the innovations that need to be introduced in order to sustain and strengthen this place of Loja. This first approach has as a problem What does Loja provides, that distinguish from the rest of the provinces of Ecuador in the musical field, to be considered its capital? This first delivery aims to build a framework of computer concepts that open up posterity to a field of research on music and that translate into policies, plans and programs that empower it. They develop three concepts derived from the thesis: the power to construct music that refers to the generic and specific competences in different instruments and genres, the amount of music that is produced and the human talent in musical formation that is developed in Loja. Empirical evidence is collected to corroborate or reject the hypothesis: Loja is the musical capital of Ecuador. Data are collected on musical skills and compared at the global level, as well as music production and music training scenarios. At the end the hypothesis is checked. The task of the Lojanos is to innovate the capital. Keywords: Music, musical competitions, musical talent in training, amount of music, musicalperformance, musical instrument, songs.

  14. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio José Pereira de Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches.

  15. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  16. High school music classes enhance the neural processing of speech

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Adam; Krizman, Jennifer; Skoe, Erika; Johnston, Kathleen; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Should music be a priority in public education? One argument for teaching music in school is that private music instruction relates to enhanced language abilities and neural function. However, the directionality of this relationship is unclear and it is unknown whether school-based music training can produce these enhancements. Here we show that two years of group music classes in high school enhance the subcortical encoding of speech. To tease apart the relationships between music and neural...

  17. Revealing spatio-spectral electroencephalographic dynamics of musical mode and tempo perception by independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuan-Pin; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Feng, Wenfeng; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-02-28

    Music conveys emotion by manipulating musical structures, particularly musical mode- and tempo-impact. The neural correlates of musical mode and tempo perception revealed by electroencephalography (EEG) have not been adequately addressed in the literature. This study used independent component analysis (ICA) to systematically assess spatio-spectral EEG dynamics associated with the changes of musical mode and tempo. Empirical results showed that music with major mode augmented delta-band activity over the right sensorimotor cortex, suppressed theta activity over the superior parietal cortex, and moderately suppressed beta activity over the medial frontal cortex, compared to minor-mode music, whereas fast-tempo music engaged significant alpha suppression over the right sensorimotor cortex. The resultant EEG brain sources were comparable with previous studies obtained by other neuroimaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). In conjunction with advanced dry and mobile EEG technology, the EEG results might facilitate the translation from laboratory-oriented research to real-life applications for music therapy, training and entertainment in naturalistic environments.

  18. Enculturation Effects in Music Cognition: The Role of Age and Music Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J.; Demorest, Steven M.; Stambaugh, Laura A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors replicate and extend findings from previous studies of music enculturation by comparing music memory performance of children to that of adults when listening to culturally familiar and unfamiliar music. Forty-three children and 50 adults, all born and raised in the United States, completed a music memory test comprising unfamiliar…

  19. Intuitive Music:A Mini-Handbook: Version 2009f

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2009-01-01

    Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of musical awareness, parameters of the musical sound, the history of improvised music and a bibliography. - Greek translation by Demetrios Psychas, 2013. Handbook for people who wish to play or teach freely improvised music and improvisation pieces. With sections on how to start with different types of groups, training of mu...

  20. The role of auditory feedback in music-supported stroke rehabilitation: A single-blinded randomised controlled intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, F T; Kafczyk, T; Kuhn, W; Rollnik, J D; Tillmann, B; Altenmüller, E

    2016-01-01

    Learning to play musical instruments such as piano was previously shown to benefit post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Previous work hypothesised that the mechanism of this rehabilitation is that patients use auditory feedback to correct their movements and therefore show motor learning. We tested this hypothesis by manipulating the auditory feedback timing in a way that should disrupt such error-based learning. We contrasted a patient group undergoing music-supported therapy on a piano that emits sounds immediately (as in previous studies) with a group whose sounds are presented after a jittered delay. The delay was not noticeable to patients. Thirty-four patients in early stroke rehabilitation with moderate motor impairment and no previous musical background learned to play the piano using simple finger exercises and familiar children's songs. Rehabilitation outcome was not impaired in the jitter group relative to the normal group. Conversely, some clinical tests suggests the jitter group outperformed the normal group. Auditory feedback-based motor learning is not the beneficial mechanism of music-supported therapy. Immediate auditory feedback therapy may be suboptimal. Jittered delay may increase efficacy of the proposed therapy and allow patients to fully benefit from motivational factors of music training. Our study shows a novel way to test hypotheses concerning music training in a single-blinded way, which is an important improvement over existing unblinded tests of music interventions.

  1. Mentoring Music Educators in Gospel Music Pedagogy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Patrice Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Since the early 20th century, gospel music has become increasingly popular in the United States. The popularity is making it appealing to perform in public schools. However, many choral and general music educators did not experience the tradition during their formative years and/or have not received training or background in its instruction. …

  2. Eduquemos con Musica (Let's Educate with Music).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Raquel Ojeda

    This elementary and preschool music textbook is designed to reflect Latin America and Caribbean Island cultures and to be useful in both school classrooms and in teacher training courses. Short, easy to learn songs, illustrated pages, and 10 musical games are combined to teach musical forms, rhythm, auditory discrimination, language usage, motor…

  3. Computer Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Perry R.

    This chapter covers algorithms, technologies, computer languages, and systems for computer music. Computer music involves the application of computers and other digital/electronic technologies to music composition, performance, theory, history, and the study of perception. The field combines digital signal processing, computational algorithms, computer languages, hardware and software systems, acoustics, psychoacoustics (low-level perception of sounds from the raw acoustic signal), and music cognition (higher-level perception of musical style, form, emotion, etc.).

  4. Opportunistic Music

    OpenAIRE

    Hachet , Martin; Kian , Arash; Berthaut , Florent; Franco , Jean-Sébastien; Desainte-Catherine , Myriam

    2009-01-01

    International audience; While mixed reality has inspired the development of many new musical instruments, few approaches explore the potential of mobile setups. We present a new musical interaction concept, called "opportunistic music". It allows musicians to recreate a hardware musical controller using any objects of their immediate environment. This approach benefits from the physical properties of real objects for controlling music. Our prototype is based on a stereo-vision tracking system...

  5. The razor's edge: Australian rock music impairs men's performance when pretending to be a surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancourt, Daisy; Burton, Thomas Mw; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-12-12

    Over the past few decades there has been interest in the role of music in the operating theatre. However, despite many reported benefits, a number of potentially harmful effects of music have been identified. This study aimed to explore the effects of rock and classical music on surgical speed, accuracy and perceived distraction when performing multiorgan resection in the board game Operation. Single-blind, three-arm, randomised controlled trial. Imperial Festival, London, May 2016. Members of the public (n = 352) aged ≥ 16 years with no previous formal surgical training or hearing impairments. Participants were randomised to listen through noise-cancelling headphones to either the sound of an operating theatre, rock music or classical music. Participants were then invited to remove three organs from the board game patient, Cavity Sam, using surgical tweezers. Time taken (seconds) to remove three organs from Cavity Sam; the number of mistakes made in performing the surgery; and perceived distraction, rated on a five-point Likert-type scale from 1 (not at all distracting) to 5 (very distracting). Rock music impairs the performance of men but not women when undertaking complex surgical procedures in the board game Operation, increasing the time taken to operate and showing a trend towards more surgical mistakes. In addition, classical music was associated with lower perceived distraction during the game, but this effect was attenuated when factoring in how much people liked the music, with suggestions that only people who particularly liked the music of Mozart found it beneficial. Rock music (specifically Australian rock music) appears to have detrimental effects on surgical performance. Men are advised not to listen to rock music when either operating or playing board games.

  6. Relative Effectiveness of Two Approaches to the Teaching of Music Theory on the Achievement and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Training as Church Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, John Dawson, III

    2012-01-01

    As a result of a perceived need to improve the music theory curricula for the preparation of church music leaders, this study compared two diverse approaches to the teaching of music theory for church music university students on achievement, attitudes, and self-preparedness. This current study was a quantitative, quasi-experimental research…

  7. Music and Dyslexia: The Therapeutic Use of Instrument (Piano) Training with a Child with Dyslexia (A Case Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Bilgehan

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia is defined as a difficulty in learning at an expected level according to age, intelligence and education that is given, even though the intelligence level of the individual is normal or above normal. Individuals with dyslexia have difficulties in many developmental areas that can be considered in the scope of music therapy. Interventions…

  8. 音乐训练对健听青年噪声间隙阈值影响的研究%Study on the Noise Gap Threshold of Music Training for Normal Hearing Young People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡晨晨; 胡旭君

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨音乐训练对健听青年噪声间隙阈值的影响.方法 选择健听青年并根据音乐学习背景,将受试者分为音乐组(32例)和非音乐组(25例),对其进行气骨导测试、声导抗测试,以及噪声间隙测试并统计.结果 音乐组的噪声间隙阈值与非音乐组存在统计学差异(P<0.05);音乐组中学习不同乐器与间隙阈值无统计学差异(P>0.05);学习音乐时间长短与间隙阂值无统计学差异(P>0.05).结论 音乐组的噪声间隙阈值与非音乐组相比更低;与音乐训练类型及学习音乐时间长短无关.%Objective To investigate the influence of music training on noise gap threshold in normal hearing youths.Methods The subjects from Zhejiang Conservatory of music and Zhejiang Chinese Medicine University,were divided into a music group (32 cases) and a non music group (25 cases).The pneumatic bone conduction test,acoustic impedance test and noise gap test were carried out and recorded.Results There was a significant difference between the noise gap threshold of the music group and non music group (P<0.05);there was no statistical difference (P>0.05) within music group in learning different instruments;no statistical difference (P>0.05) between music learning time and gap threshold.Conclusion The noise gap threshold of the music group is lower than that of the non music group;it has nothing to do with the type of music training and learning time.

  9. Auditory profiles of classical, jazz, and rock musicians: Genre-specific sensitivity to musical sound features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari eTervaniemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e. varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians’ and non-musicians’ accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians, timing (classical and jazz musicians, transposition (jazz musicians, and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians. Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  10. Auditory Profiles of Classical, Jazz, and Rock Musicians: Genre-Specific Sensitivity to Musical Sound Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervaniemi, Mari; Janhunen, Lauri; Kruck, Stefanie; Putkinen, Vesa; Huotilainen, Minna

    2015-01-01

    When compared with individuals without explicit training in music, adult musicians have facilitated neural functions in several modalities. They also display structural changes in various brain areas, these changes corresponding to the intensity and duration of their musical training. Previous studies have focused on investigating musicians with training in Western classical music. However, musicians involved in different musical genres may display highly differentiated auditory profiles according to the demands set by their genre, i.e., varying importance of different musical sound features. This hypothesis was tested in a novel melody paradigm including deviants in tuning, timbre, rhythm, melody transpositions, and melody contour. Using this paradigm while the participants were watching a silent video and instructed to ignore the sounds, we compared classical, jazz, and rock musicians' and non-musicians' accuracy of neural encoding of the melody. In all groups of participants, all deviants elicited an MMN response, which is a cortical index of deviance discrimination. The strength of the MMN and the subsequent attentional P3a responses reflected the importance of various sound features in each music genre: these automatic brain responses were selectively enhanced to deviants in tuning (classical musicians), timing (classical and jazz musicians), transposition (jazz musicians), and melody contour (jazz and rock musicians). Taken together, these results indicate that musicians with different training history have highly specialized cortical reactivity to sounds which violate the neural template for melody content.

  11. Perceptions and Reflections of Music Teacher Education in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuno, Emily Achieng'

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on enquiry aimed to discover Kenyan music teachers' perceptions and expectations of their role; their view of the training they received; head teachers' perceptions and expectations of the role of the music teacher; and the expectations of both music teachers and head teachers of a music teacher education programme in Kenya.…

  12. North Indian Classical Vocal Music for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Divya D.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers information that will allow music educators to incorporate North Indian classical vocal music into a multicultural music education curriculum. Obstacles to teaching North Indian classical vocal music are acknowledged, including lack of familiarity with the cultural/structural elements and challenges in teaching ear training and…

  13. The effect of previous conditioning exercise on diaphyseal and metaphyseal bone to imposition and withdrawal of training in young Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Elwyn C; Rogers, Christopher W; van Weeren, P Rene; Barneveld, Albert; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Goodship, Allen E; Smith, Roger K W

    2012-04-01

    This study recorded the response to training of the diaphysis of the proximal phalangeal bone and the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) and the Mc3 proximal metaphysis. Nineteen 2- and 3-year old horses in training were exposed either to spontaneous exercise at pasture (PASTEX group) or additional imposed exercise (CONDEX group) from a very young age. Quantitative computed tomography scans were analysed for bone mineral content, size, bone mineral density, periosteal and endosteal circumference, cortical thickness and an estimate of bone strength. The bones of the CONDEX horses were bigger and stronger than those of the PASTEX horses at the start of the observation period, and these differences were maintained after adjusting for training workload. Increase in the bone strength index was through size and not density increase. Density increased during training and decreased during paddock rest between the two training campaigns, during which time bone strength continued to increase because of the slow growth that was still occurring. The greatest variance in the response to the training exercise of diaphyseal bone mineral content, bone strength index or cortical thickness was associated with the cumulative workload index at the gallop, although statistically significant unexplained variances remained. There were no differences in bone response to training, with the exception of the endosteal circumference at 55% of the Mc3 length from the carpometacarpal joint space between CONDEX and PASTEX, which indicated that young horses may be able to be exercised slightly more vigorously than currently accepted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  15. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...

  16. A clinical randomized controlled trial of music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training in female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy: results on depression, anxiety and length of hospital stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kaina; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Jin; Liu, Miao; Dang, Shaonong; Wang, Duolao; Xin, Xia

    2015-02-01

    To examine effects of music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training on depression, anxiety and length of hospital stay in Chinese female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. A total of 170 patients were randomly allocated to the intervention group (n = 85) receiving music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training plus routine nursing care and the control group (n = 85) receiving routine nursing care. Music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training were performed twice a day within 48 h after radical mastectomy, once in the early morning (6a.m.-8a.m.) and once in the evening (9p.m.-11p.m.), for 30 min per session until discharged from the hospital. A general linear model with univariate analysis showed that the intervention group patients had significant improvement in depression and anxiety in the effects of group (F = 20.31, P Music therapy and progressive muscle relaxation training can reduce depression, anxiety and length of hospital stay in female breast cancer patients after radical mastectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Music processing in preterm and full-term newborns: A psychophysiological interaction (PPI) approach in neonatal fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordier, Lara; Loukas, Serafeim; Grouiller, Frédéric; Vollenweider, Andreas; Vasung, Lana; Meskaldij, Djalel-Eddine; Lejeune, Fleur; Pittet, Marie Pascale; Borradori-Tolsa, Cristina; Lazeyras, François; Grandjean, Didier; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Hüppi, Petra S

    2018-04-06

    Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) provide special equipment designed to give life support for the increasing number of prematurely born infants and assure their survival. More recently NICU's strive to include developmentally oriented care and modulate sensory input for preterm infants. Music, among other sensory stimuli, has been introduced into NICUs, but without knowledge on the basic music processing in the brain of preterm infants. In this study, we explored the cortico-subcortical music processing of different types of conditions (Original music, Tempo modification, Key transposition) in newborns shortly after birth to assess the effective connectivity of the primary auditory cortex with the entire newborn brain. Additionally, we investigated if early exposure during NICU stay modulates brain processing of music in preterm infants at term equivalent age. We approached these two questions using Psychophysiological Interaction (PPI) analyses. A group of preterm infants listened to music (Original music) starting from 33 weeks postconceptional age until term equivalent age and were compared to two additional groups without music intervention; preterm infants and full-term newborns. Auditory cortex functional connectivity with cerebral regions known to be implicated in tempo and familiarity processing were identified only for preterm infants with music training in the NICU. Increased connectivity between auditory cortices and thalamus and dorsal striatum may not only reflect their sensitivity to the known music and the processing of its tempo as familiar, but these results are also compatible with the hypothesis that the previously listened music induces a more arousing and pleasant state. Our results suggest that music exposure in NICU's environment can induce brain functional connectivity changes that are associated with music processing. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Music publishing

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Alberto; Almeida, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Current music publishing in the Internet is mainly concerned with sound publishing. We claim that music publishing is not only to make sound available but also to define relations between a set of music objects like music scores, guitar chords, lyrics and their meta-data. We want an easy way to publish music in the Internet, to make high quality paper booklets and even to create Audio CD's. In this document we present a workbench for music publishing based on open formats, using open-source t...

  19. Music preference in degus (Octodon degus: Analysis with Chilean folk music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Watanabe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most nonhuman animals do not show selective preference for types of music, but researchers have typically employed only Western classical music in such studies. Thus, there has been bias in music choice. Degus (Octodon degus, originally from the mountain areas of Chile, have highly developed vocal communication. Here, we examined music preference of degus using not only Western classical music (music composed by Bach and Stravinsky, but also South American folk music (Chilean and Peruvian. The degus preferred the South American music to the Western classical music but did not show selective preference between the two Western classical music choices. Furthermore, the degus preferred the Chilean to the Peruvian music to some extent. In the second experiment, we examined preference for music vs. silence. Degus overall showed a preference for Chilean music over silence, but preferred silence over Western music. The present results indicate that the previous negative data for musical preference in nonhuman animals may be due to biased music selection (Krause, 2012. Our results suggest the possibility that the soundscape of an environment influences folk music created by native peoples living there and the auditory preference of other resident animals there.

  20. Dancing to "groovy" music enhances the experience of flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F; Bellemare-Pepin, Antoine; Peretz, Isabelle

    2018-05-06

    We investigated whether dancing influences the emotional response to music, compared to when music is listened to in the absence of movement. Forty participants without previous dance training listened to "groovy" and "nongroovy" music excerpts while either dancing or refraining from movement. Participants were also tested while imitating their own dance movements, but in the absence of music as a control condition. Emotion ratings and ratings of flow were collected following each condition. Dance movements were recorded using motion capture. We found that the state of flow was increased specifically during spontaneous dance to groovy excerpts, compared with both still listening and motor imitation. Emotions in the realms of vitality (such as joy and power) and sublimity (such as wonder and nostalgia) were evoked by music in general, whether participants moved or not. Significant correlations were found between the emotional and flow responses to music and whole-body acceleration profiles. Thus, the results highlight a distinct state of flow when dancing, which may be of use to promote well-being and to address certain clinical conditions. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Immersion Music: a Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    Nakra, Teresa M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the artistic projects undertaken at ImmersionMusic, Inc. (www.immersionmusic.org) during its three-yearexistence. We detail work in interactive performance systems,computer-based training systems, and concert production.

  2. Music in Kamigata Rakugo Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hallett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rakugo is the Japanese tradition of staged comic storytelling presented by highly trained hanashika storytellers associated with small urban variety theatres called yose, found in the Kamigata and Edo regions. Although yose theatres are associated with spoken rather than musical events, music is an integral component of Kamigata rakugo performance. It is central both to the rendering of a storyteller’s performance and to creating the overall atmosphere in the yose theatre. This paper addresses the lack of detailed research on music in Kamigata rakugo performance, particularly in English. It demonstrates and documents the centrality of music in Kamigata rakugo performance, specifically the way that this music, which is rich in symbolism, aids a storyteller’s performance and is intrinsically bound up in the hierarchical structure of the storytellers and yose-bayashi ensemble musicians. It focuses on how the music functions in the performances, transmitting meanings and supporting the social structure of the ensemble.

  3. [Music, pulse, heart and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasenzer, E R; Leischik, R

    2018-02-01

    Music, with its various elements, such as rhythm, sound and melody had the unique ability even in prehistoric, ancient and medieval times to have a special fascination for humans. Nowadays, it is impossible to eliminate music from our daily lives. We are accompanied by music in shopping arcades, on the radio, during sport or leisure time activities and in wellness therapy. Ritualized drumming was used in the medical sense to drive away evil spirits or to undergo holy enlightenment. Today we experience the varied effects of music on all sensory organs and we utilize its impact on cardiovascular and neurological rehabilitation, during invasive cardiovascular procedures or during physical activities, such as training or work. The results of recent studies showed positive effects of music on heart rate and in therapeutic treatment (e. g. music therapy). This article pursues the impact of music on the body and the heart and takes sports medical aspects from the past and the present into consideration; however, not all forms of music and not all types of musical activity are equally suitable and are dependent on the type of intervention, the sports activity or form of movement and also on the underlying disease. This article discusses the influence of music on the body, pulse, on the heart and soul in the past and the present day.

  4. Rhythmic and melodic deviations in musical sequences recruit different cortical areas for mismatch detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Claudia; Steinsträter, Olaf; Pantev, Christo

    2013-01-01

    The mismatch negativity (MMN), an event-related potential (ERP) representing the violation of an acoustic regularity, is considered as a pre-attentive change detection mechanism at the sensory level on the one hand and as a prediction error signal on the other hand, suggesting that bottom-up as well as top-down processes are involved in its generation. Rhythmic and melodic deviations within a musical sequence elicit a MMN in musically trained subjects, indicating that acquired musical expertise leads to better discrimination accuracy of musical material and better predictions about upcoming musical events. Expectation violations to musical material could therefore recruit neural generators that reflect top-down processes that are based on musical knowledge. We describe the neural generators of the musical MMN for rhythmic and melodic material after a short-term sensorimotor-auditory (SA) training. We compare the localization of musical MMN data from two previous MEG studies by applying beamformer analysis. One study focused on the melodic harmonic progression whereas the other study focused on rhythmic progression. The MMN to melodic deviations revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG), inferior frontal cortex (IFC), and the superior frontal (SFG) and orbitofrontal (OFG) gyri. IFC and SFG activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. In contrast, beamformer analysis of the data from the rhythm study revealed bilateral activation within the vicinity of auditory cortices and in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL), an area that has recently been implied in temporal processing. We conclude that different cortical networks are activated in the analysis of the temporal and the melodic content of musical material, and discuss these networks in the context of the dual-pathway model of auditory processing.

  5. Rhythmic and melodic deviations in musical sequences recruit different cortical areas for mismatch detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eLappe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mismatch negativity (MMN, an event-related potential (ERP representing the violation of an acoustic regularity, is considered as a pre-attentive change detection mechanism at the sensory level on the one hand and as a prediction error signal on the other hand, suggesting that bottom-up as well as top-down processes are involved in its generation. Rhythmic and melodic deviations within a musical sequence elicit a mismatch negativity in musically trained subjects, indicating that acquired musical expertise leads to better discrimination accuracy of musical material and better predictions about upcoming musical events. Expectation violations to musical material could therefore recruit neural generators that reflect top-down processes that are based on musical knowledge.We describe the neural generators of the musical MMN for rhythmic and melodic material after a short-term sensorimotor-auditory training. We compare the localization of musical MMN data from two previous MEG studies by applying beamformer analysis. One study focused on the melodic harmonic progression whereas the other study focused on rhythmic progression. The MMN to melodic deviations revealed significant right hemispheric neural activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG, inferior frontal cortex (IFC, and the superior frontal (SFG and orbitofrontal (OFG gyri. IFC and SFG activation was also observed in the left hemisphere. In contrast, beamformer analysis of the data from the rhythm study revealed bilatral activation within the vicinity of auditory cortices and in the inferior parietal lobule, an area that has recently been implied in temporal processing. We conclude that different cortical networks are activated in the analysis of the temporal and the melodic content of musical material, and discuss these networks in the context of the the dual-pathway model of auditory processing.

  6. The effects of musical training on movement pre-programming and re-programming abilities: an event-related potential investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatürk, Melis; Jentzsch, Ines

    2015-03-01

    Two response precuing experiments were conducted to investigate effects of musical skill level on the ability to pre- and re-programme simple movements. Participants successfully used advance information to prepare forthcoming responses and showed response slowing when precue information was invalid rather than valid. This slowing was, however, only observed for partially invalid but not fully invalid precues. Musicians were generally faster than non-musicians, but no group differences in the efficiency of movement pre-programming or re-programming were observed. Interestingly, only musicians exhibited a significant foreperiod lateralized readiness potential (LRP) when response hand was pre-specified or full advance information was provided. These LRP findings suggest increased effector-specific motor preparation in musicians than non-musicians. However, here the levels of effector-specific preparation did not predict preparatory advantages observed in behaviour. In sum, combining the response precuing and ERP paradigms serves a valuable tool to examine influences of musical training on movement pre- or re-programming processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The music like scope of education. Education «through» the music and education «for» the music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel TOURIÑÁN LÓPEZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is the formation of criterion in favors of the music as scope of education. Inside the educational current system we can distinguish three areas of musical education: the musical professional training, the teacher training and general music education. It is important to maintain these distinctions for the development of the curriculum and for the identity of the competence of formation of teachers, student training and general education pupils. In order to build criteria, we will approach these questions in three paragraphs, the first one dedicated to the education «through» the music, where we develop the possibilities of music as general scope of education and as scope of general education. The following epigraph contemplates the education «for» the music, orientated to the professional and vocational development. And, finally, we come closer to music teacher training for the different educational levels.

  8. Music Warehouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2006-01-01

    Music Information Retrieval has received increasing attention from both the industrial and the research communities in recent years. Many audio extraction techniques providing content-based music information have been developed, sparking the need for intelligent storage and retrieval facilities. ...

  9. Prelude: The ISME Commission on Community Music Activity and Its Oslo Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, John

    2010-01-01

    This short introduction to the proceedings of the 1990 Commission of Community Music Activity spells out a prevailing spirit of those involved. Describing community music as the cutting edge in music education, this prelude suggests that community music activity should play a vital role in the future of music education training.

  10. Music & Wellbeing

    OpenAIRE

    Garrido, Gemma; Camps, Laia; Herrera, Isabel Herrera; Guillamat, Roser; Vallés, Vicenç; Sanz, Maite; Martínez, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that music may serve as therapeutic function among populations with different illnesses or disorders. Functional neuroimaging studies that incorporate music activity or music method shown an increase activation in several brain areas, with widespread bilateral hemodynamic responses in occipital lobe, bilateral cerebellum, temporal lobe, in the right lateral prefrontal cortex as well hemodynamic responses in the left middle frontal gyrus.Music activ...

  11. Musical Tasks and Energetic Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A; Watson, Angela L

    2018-03-08

    Music is widely recognized as a motivating stimulus. Investigators have examined the use of music to improve a variety of motivation-related outcomes; however, these studies have focused primarily on passive music listening rather than active participation in musical activities. To examine the influence of participation in musical tasks and unique participant characteristics on energetic arousal. We used a one-way Welch's ANOVA to examine the influence of musical participation (i.e., a non-musical control and four different musical task conditions) upon energetic arousal. In addition, ancillary analyses of participant characteristics including personality, age, gender, sleep, musical training, caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol revealed their possible influence upon pretest and posttest energetic arousal scores. Musical participation yielded a significant relationship with energetic arousal, F(4, 55.62) = 44.38, p = .000, estimated ω2 = 0.60. Games-Howell post hoc pairwise comparisons revealed statistically significant differences between five conditions. Descriptive statistics revealed expected differences between introverts' and extraverts' energetic arousal scores at the pretest, F(1, 115) = 6.80, p = .010, partial η2= .06; however, mean differences failed to reach significance at the posttest following musical task participation. No other measured participant characteristics yielded meaningful results. Passive tasks (i.e., listening to a story or song) were related to decreased energetic arousal, while active musical tasks (i.e., singing, rhythm tapping, and keyboard playing) were related to increased energetic arousal. Musical task participation appeared to have a differential effect for individuals with certain personality traits (i.e., extroverts and introverts).

  12. A Comprehensive Guide to Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Bonde, Lars Ole

    A detailed guide to music therapy from an international perspective, covering theory, practice, assessment, research and training. 2nd Edition of the first Danish Handbook in music theory, clinical practice, research and training. The Danish version "Musikterapi: Når ord ikke slår til......" was published in 2001 by KLIM, Aarhus DK. The English Edition has a more international orientation and a broader view on research and extended bibliography. The book includes a music CD and a CD rom....

  13. Combining transcranial direct current stimulation and tailor-made notched music training to decrease tinnitus-related distress--a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Teismann

    Full Text Available The central auditory system has a crucial role in tinnitus generation and maintenance. Curative treatments for tinnitus do not yet exist. However, recent attempts in the therapeutic application of both acoustic stimulation/training procedures and electric/magnetic brain stimulation techniques have yielded promising results. Here, for the first time we combined tailor-made notched music training (TMNMT with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in an effort to modulate TMNMT efficacy in the treatment of 32 patients with tonal tinnitus and without severe hearing loss. TMNMT is characterized by regular listening to so-called notched music, which is generated by digitally removing the frequency band of one octave width centered at the individual tinnitus frequency. TMNMT was applied for 10 subsequent days (2.5 hours of daily treatment. During the initial 5 days of treatment and the initial 30 minutes of TMNMT sessions, tDCS (current strength: 2 mA; anodal (N = 10 vs. cathodal (N = 11 vs. sham (N = 11 groups was applied simultaneously. The active electrode was placed on the head surface over left auditory cortex; the reference electrode was put over right supra-orbital cortex. To evaluate treatment outcome, tinnitus-related distress and perceived tinnitus loudness were assessed using standardized tinnitus questionnaires and a visual analogue scale. The results showed a significant treatment effect reflected in the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire that was largest after 5 days of treatment. This effect remained significant at the end of follow-up 31 days after treatment cessation. Crucially, tDCS did not significantly modulate treatment efficacy--it did not make a difference whether anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS was applied. Possible explanations for the findings and functional modifications of the experimental design for future studies (e.g. the selection of control conditions are discussed.

  14. Igbo Art Music Composers and Globalization | Nwamara | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Art music can be defined as those musical compositions which trained musicians produce under the influence of their western music training. On the other hand, Globalisation has been defined as the integration of the activities of various people irrespective of distance and national boundaries. It has also been observed that ...

  15. Music Exposure and the Development of Spatial Intelligence in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Frances H.

    1999-01-01

    Presents research on the effects of music instruction on spatial-temporal reasoning in children. Summarizes past studies that tested whether music training transfers to spatial-temporal task performance. A work-in-progress focuses on whether music training can improve economically-disadvantaged preschoolers' abstract reasoning and why…

  16. Cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and non-musicians: the importance of silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, L; Porta, C; Sleight, P

    2006-04-01

    To assess the potential clinical use, particularly in modulating stress, of changes in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems induced by music, specifically tempo, rhythm, melodic structure, pause, individual preference, habituation, order effect of presentation, and previous musical training. Measurement of cardiovascular and respiratory variables while patients listened to music. University research laboratory for the study of cardiorespiratory autonomic function. 12 practising musicians and 12 age matched controls. After a five minute baseline, presentation in random order of six different music styles (first for a two minute, then for a four minute track), with a randomly inserted two minute pause, in either sequence. Breathing rate, ventilation, carbon dioxide, RR interval, blood pressure, mid-cerebral artery flow velocity, and baroreflex. Ventilation, blood pressure, and heart rate increased and mid-cerebral artery flow velocity and baroreflex decreased with faster tempi and simpler rhythmic structures compared with baseline. No habituation effect was seen. The pause reduced heart rate, blood pressure, and minute ventilation, even below baseline. An order effect independent of style was evident for mid-cerebral artery flow velocity, indicating a progressive reduction with exposure to music, independent of style. Musicians had greater respiratory sensitivity to the music tempo than did non-musicians. Music induces an arousal effect, predominantly related to the tempo. Slow or meditative music can induce a relaxing effect; relaxation is particularly evident during a pause. Music, especially in trained subjects, may first concentrate attention during faster rhythms, then induce relaxation during pauses or slower rhythms.

  17. Music Teachers' Everyday Conceptions of Musicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstrom, Sture

    1999-01-01

    Investigates music teachers' everyday conceptions of musicality through (1) a pilot study involving music teachers in higher education and (2) interviews with teachers in music teacher education and in compulsory school. Finds in the pilot the categories of musical achievement, musical experience, and musical communication, while the interviews…

  18. The effects of music on the cardiac resuscitation education of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastan, Sevinc; Ayhan, Hatice; Unver, Vesile; Cinar, Fatma Ilknur; Kose, Gulsah; Basak, Tulay; Cinar, Orhan; Iyigun, Emine

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of music on the appropriate performance of the rate and depth of chest compression for nursing students. This randomized controlled study was conducted in the School of Nursing in Turkey between November 2014 and January 2015. The study's participants were second-year nursing school students with no previous formal cardiac resuscitation training (n=77). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: an intervention group with music and a control group without music. During practical training, the intervention group performed chest compressions with music. The outcomes of this study were collected twice. The first evaluation was conducted one day after CPR education, and the second evaluation was conducted six weeks after the initial training. The first evaluation shows that the participants in the intervention group had an average rate of 107.33±7.29 chest compressions per minute, whereas the rate for the control group was 121.47±12.91. The second evaluation shows that the rates of chest compression for the intervention and control groups were 106.24±8.72 and 100.71±9.54, respectively. The results of this study show that a musical piece enables students to remember the ideal rhythm for chest compression. Performing chest compression with music can easily be integrated into CPR education because it does not require additional technology and is cheap. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of music-based multitask training on gait, balance, and fall risk in elderly people: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetti, Andrea; Hars, Mélany; Herrmann, François R; Kressig, Reto W; Ferrari, Serge; Rizzoli, René

    2011-03-28

    Falls occur mainly while walking or performing concurrent tasks. We determined whether a music-based multitask exercise program improves gait and balance and reduces fall risk in elderly individuals. We conducted a 12-month randomized controlled trial involving 134 community-dwelling individuals older than 65 years, who are at increased risk of falling. They were randomly assigned to an intervention group (n = 66) or a delayed intervention control group scheduled to start the program 6 months later (n = 68). The intervention was a 6-month multitask exercise program performed to the rhythm of piano music. Change in gait variability under dual-task condition from baseline to 6 months was the primary end point. Secondary outcomes included changes in balance, functional performances, and fall risk. At 6 months, there was a reduction in stride length variability (adjusted mean difference, -1.4%; P Balance and functional tests improved compared with the control group. There were fewer falls in the intervention group (incidence rate ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.79) and a lower risk of falling (relative risk, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.96). Similar changes occurred in the delayed intervention control group during the second 6-month period with intervention. The benefit of the intervention on gait variability persisted 6 months later. In community-dwelling older people at increased risk of falling, a 6-month music-based multitask exercise program improved gait under dual-task condition, improved balance, and reduced both the rate of falls and the risk of falling. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01107288.

  20. Music, Violence and Music Therapy with Young People in Schools: A Position Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Katrina Skewes McFerran; Andreas Wölfl

    2015-01-01

    Music therapists have rarely involved themselves in the discourse linking music and violence. Instead, representatives of the profession have advocated for the positive outcomes that can result from the use of music by trained therapists working with people who have experienced violence or been violent. In this position paper, we will elaborate a much-needed position that first acknowledges the ways that music can promote violence, and then focuses on different ways to work with young peopl...

  1. Effect of the rate of chest compression familiarised in previous training on the depth of chest compression during metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomised crossover trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jinkun; Chung, Tae Nyoung; Je, Sang Mo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess how the quality of metronome-guided cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) was affected by the chest compression rate familiarised by training before the performance and to determine a possible mechanism for any effect shown. Design Prospective crossover trial of a simulated, one-person, chest-compression-only CPR. Setting Participants were recruited from a medical school and two paramedic schools of South Korea. Participants 42 senior students of a medical school and two pa...

  2. The value of traditional African religious music into liturgy: Lobethal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-04

    Jun 4, 2015 ... Singing is linked to religious experience and expression. In both the Lutheran .... data were gathered in Sepedi, the home language of the interviewees ... training either in music education or music composition. It is noticeable ...

  3. Gender and the performance of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond C Sergeant

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. If such propositions are substantive, gendered qualities might be imparted to the musical ‘message’ at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or superimposed in the course of listener perceptions. Four research hypotheses are identified and relevant literature of music behaviours and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the four hypotheses: i two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, ii four ‘music characteristics’ scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically trained listeners heard the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that if gendering of music is a reality, the properties are imposed subjectively by the perceiver, and the respective qualities appear to be primarily related to the tempo of the music.

  4. Musical activity and emotional competence - a twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, Töres P; Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Mosing, Miriam A; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that musical activities may contribute to the prevention of alexithymia. We tested whether musical creative achievement and musical practice are associated with lower alexithymia. 8000 Swedish twins aged 27-54 were studied. Alexithymia was assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Musical achievement was rated on a 7-graded scale. Participants estimated number of hours of music practice during different ages throughout life. A total life estimation of number of accumulated hours was made. They were also asked about ensemble playing. In addition, twin modelling was used to explore the genetic architecture of the relation between musical practice and alexithymia. Alexithymia was negatively associated with (i) musical creative achievement, (ii) having played a musical instrument as compared to never having played, and - for the subsample of participants that had played an instrument - (iii) total hours of musical training (r = -0.12 in men and -0.10 in women). Ensemble playing added significant variance. Twin modelling showed that alexithymia had a moderate heritability of 36% and that the association with musical practice could be explained by shared genetic influences. Associations between musical training and alexithymia remained significant when controlling for education, depression, and intelligence. Musical achievement and musical practice are associated with lower levels of alexithymia in both men and women. Musical engagement thus appears to be associated with higher emotional competence, although effect sizes are small. The association between musical training and alexithymia appears to be entirely genetically mediated, suggesting genetic pleiotropy.

  5. The Empirical Testing of a Musical Performance Assessment Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of aurally perceived performer-controlled musical factors that influence assessments of performance quality. Previous research studies on musical performance constructs, musical achievement, musical expression, and scale construction were examined to identify the factors that influence…

  6. Music Perception and Cognition in the First Year of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilari, Beatriz Senoi

    2002-01-01

    Reviews literature on music perception and cognition in the first year of life and examines their contribution to domains such as child development and music education. Focuses on studies examining musical features and the uses of music in the everyday life of infants and their caretakers. Critiques previous and current literature. Discusses…

  7. Implicit memory in music and language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettlinger, Marc; Margulis, Elizabeth H; Wong, Patrick C M

    2011-01-01

    Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an important role for implicitly acquired knowledge, implicit memory, and their associated neural structures in the acquisition of linguistic or musical grammar. These findings motivate potential new work that examines music and language comparatively in the context of the implicit memory system.

  8. Metabolic response to 6-week aerobic exercise training and dieting in previously sedentary overweight and obese pre-menopausal women: A randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri Wiklund

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Our results indicate that small weight loss does not produce measurable health benefits, whereas short-term regular aerobic exercise can improve glucose and lipid metabolism even in the absence of weight loss in previously sedentary overweight and obese women.

  9. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  10. How do musical tonality and experience affect visual working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Lu, Jing; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-20

    The influence of music on the human brain has continued to attract increasing attention from neuroscientists and musicologists. Currently, tonal music is widely present in people's daily lives; however, atonal music has gradually become an important part of modern music. In this study, we conducted two experiments: the first one tested for differences in perception of distractibility between tonal music and atonal music. The second experiment tested how tonal music and atonal music affect visual working memory by comparing musicians and nonmusicians who were placed in contexts with background tonal music, atonal music, and silence. They were instructed to complete a delay matching memory task. The results show that musicians and nonmusicians have different evaluations of the distractibility of tonal music and atonal music, possibly indicating that long-term training may lead to a higher auditory perception threshold among musicians. For the working memory task, musicians reacted faster than nonmusicians in all background music cases, and musicians took more time to respond in the tonal background music condition than in the other conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that for a visual memory task, background tonal music may occupy more cognitive resources than atonal music or silence for musicians, leaving few resources left for the memory task. Moreover, the musicians outperformed the nonmusicians because of the higher sensitivity to background music, which also needs a further longitudinal study to be confirmed.

  11. Intuitive Music and Graphic Notation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    Describes subjects existing at Aalborg University since the middle eighties. "Intuitive Music" trains free improvisation through exercises including group-dynamic exercises, awareness exercises and parameter exercises. Students also create open compositions. "Graphic notation"concerns aural scores....... Students' works are quoted. The writer discusses the theoretical context and advocates for giving more attention to music as the medium in which music therapy takes place, referring to language theory and Jakobson. NB: the description of the two subjects are, at the present moment (2011) no longer up...... to date. Intuitive music stresses less making compositions and more using the main instrument intuitively. Graphic notation has been integrated into a larger subject (also taught by the present author) which also comprises other methods of description and interpretation of music....

  12. (A)musicality in Williams syndrome: examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D; Shivers, Carolyn M; Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing (TD) population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and TD individuals with and without amusia.

  13. (A)musicality in Williams syndrome: examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lense, Miriam D.; Shivers, Carolyn M.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS), a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing (TD) population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and TD individuals with and without amusia. PMID:23966965

  14. Music to the inner ears: exploring individual differences in musical imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty, Roger E; Burgin, Chris J; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R; Hodges, Donald A; Silvia, Paul J

    2013-12-01

    In two studies, we explored the frequency and phenomenology of musical imagery. Study 1 used retrospective reports of musical imagery to assess the contribution of individual differences to imagery characteristics. Study 2 used an experience sampling design to assess the phenomenology of musical imagery over the course of one week in a sample of musicians and non-musicians. Both studies found episodes of musical imagery to be common and positive: people rarely wanted such experiences to end and often heard music that was personally meaningful. Several variables predicted musical imagery, including personality, musical preferences, and positive mood. Musicians tended to hear musical imagery more often, but they reported less frequent episodes of deliberately-generated imagery. Taken together, the present research provides new insights into individual differences in musical imagery, and it supports the emerging view that such experiences are common, positive, and more voluntary than previously recognized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  16. Beat Synchronization across the Lifespan: Intersection of Development and Musical Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C Thompson

    Full Text Available Rhythmic entrainment, or beat synchronization, provides an opportunity to understand how multiple systems operate together to integrate sensory-motor information. Also, synchronization is an essential component of musical performance that may be enhanced through musical training. Investigations of rhythmic entrainment have revealed a developmental trajectory across the lifespan, showing synchronization improves with age and musical experience. Here, we explore the development and maintenance of synchronization in childhood through older adulthood in a large cohort of participants (N = 145, and also ask how it may be altered by musical experience. We employed a uniform assessment of beat synchronization for all participants and compared performance developmentally and between individuals with and without musical experience. We show that the ability to consistently tap along to a beat improves with age into adulthood, yet in older adulthood tapping performance becomes more variable. Also, from childhood into young adulthood, individuals are able to tap increasingly close to the beat (i.e., asynchronies decline with age, however, this trend reverses from younger into older adulthood. There is a positive association between proportion of life spent playing music and tapping performance, which suggests a link between musical experience and auditory-motor integration. These results are broadly consistent with previous investigations into the development of beat synchronization across the lifespan, and thus complement existing studies and present new insights offered by a different, large cross-sectional sample.

  17. Enhanced timing abilities in percussionists generalize to rhythms without a musical beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Daniel J; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    The ability to entrain movements to music is arguably universal, but it is unclear how specialized training may influence this. Previous research suggests that percussionists have superior temporal precision in perception and production tasks. Such superiority may be limited to temporal sequences that resemble real music or, alternatively, may generalize to musically implausible sequences. To test this, percussionists and nonpercussionists completed two tasks that used rhythmic sequences varying in musical plausibility. In the beat tapping task, participants tapped with the beat of a rhythmic sequence over 3 stages: finding the beat (as an initial sequence played), continuation of the beat (as a second sequence was introduced and played simultaneously), and switching to a second beat (the initial sequence finished, leaving only the second). The meters of the two sequences were either congruent or incongruent, as were their tempi (minimum inter-onset intervals). In the rhythm reproduction task, participants reproduced rhythms of four types, ranging from high to low musical plausibility: Metric simple rhythms induced a strong sense of the beat, metric complex rhythms induced a weaker sense of the beat, nonmetric rhythms had no beat, and jittered nonmetric rhythms also had no beat as well as low temporal predictability. For both tasks, percussionists performed more accurately than nonpercussionists. In addition, both groups were better with musically plausible than implausible conditions. Overall, the percussionists' superior abilities to entrain to, and reproduce, rhythms generalized to musically implausible sequences.

  18. Enhanced Timing Abilities in Percussionists Generalize to Rhythms Without a Musical Beat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cameron

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to entrain movements to music is arguably universal, but it is unclear how specialized training may influence this. Previous research suggests that percussionists have superior temporal precision in perception and production tasks. Such superiority may be limited to temporal sequences that resemble real music or, alternatively, may generalize to musically implausible sequences. To test this, percussionists and nonpercussionists completed two tasks that used rhythmic sequences varying in musical plausibility. In the beat tapping task, participants tapped with the beat of a rhythmic sequence over 3 stages: finding the beat (as an initial sequence played, continuation of the beat (as a second sequence was introduced and played simultaneously, and switching to a second beat (the initial sequence finished, leaving only the second. The metres of the two sequences were either congruent or incongruent, as were their tempi (minimum inter-onset intervals. In the rhythm reproduction task, participants reproduced rhythms of four types, ranging from high to low musical plausibility: Metric simple rhythms induced a strong sense of the beat, metric complex rhythms induced a weaker sense of the beat, nonmetric rhythms had no beat, and jittered nonmetric rhythms also had no beat as well as low temporal predictability. For both tasks, percussionists performed more accurately than nonpercussionists. In addition, both groups were better with musically plausible than implausible conditions. Overall, the percussionists’ superior abilities to entrain to, and reproduce, rhythms generalized to musically implausible sequences.

  19. Long-term pitch memory for music recordings is related to auditory working memory precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hedger, Stephen C; Heald, Shannon Lm; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2018-04-01

    Most individuals have reliable long-term memories for the pitch of familiar music recordings. This pitch memory (1) appears to be normally distributed in the population, (2) does not depend on explicit musical training and (3) only seems to be weakly related to differences in listening frequency estimates. The present experiment was designed to assess whether individual differences in auditory working memory could explain variance in long-term pitch memory for music recordings. In Experiment 1, participants first completed a musical note adjustment task that has been previously used to assess working memory of musical pitch. Afterward, participants were asked to judge the pitch of well-known music recordings, which either had or had not been shifted in pitch. We found that performance on the pitch working memory task was significantly related to performance in the pitch memory task using well-known recordings, even when controlling for overall musical experience and familiarity with each recording. In Experiment 2, we replicated these findings in a separate group of participants while additionally controlling for fluid intelligence and non-pitch-based components of auditory working memory. In Experiment 3, we demonstrated that participants could not accurately judge the pitch of unfamiliar recordings, suggesting that our method of pitch shifting did not result in unwanted acoustic cues that could have aided participants in Experiments 1 and 2. These results, taken together, suggest that the ability to maintain pitch information in working memory might lead to more accurate long-term pitch memory.

  20. The effects of ambient music on simulated anaesthesia monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, P M; Tosh, N; Philp, S; Rudie, J; Watson, M O; Russell, W J

    2005-11-01

    We examined the effect of no music, classical music or rock music on simulated patient monitoring. Twenty-four non-anaesthetist participants with high or low levels of musical training were trained to monitor visual and auditory displays of patients' vital signs. In nine anaesthesia test scenarios, participants were asked every 50-70 s whether one of five vital signs was abnormal and the trend of its direction. Abnormality judgements were unaffected by music or musical training. Trend judgements were more accurate when music was playing (p = 0.0004). Musical participants reported trends more accurately (p = 0.004), and non-musical participants tended to benefit more from music than did the musical participants (p = 0.063). Music may provide a pitch and rhythm standard from which participants can judge changes in vital signs from auditory displays. Nonetheless, both groups reported that it was easier to monitor the patient with no music (p = 0.0001), and easier to rely upon the auditory displays with no music (p = 0.014).

  1. Musical activity and emotional competence – a twin study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tores PG Theorell

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis was tested that musical creative achievement and musical practice are associated with lower alexithymia. 8000 Swedish twins aged 27-54 were studied. Alexithymia was assessed using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20. Musical achievement was rated on a 7-graded scale. Participants estimated number of hours of music practice during different ages throughout life. A total life estimation of number of accumulated hours was made. They were also asked about ensemble playing. In addition, twin modelling was used to explore the genetic architecture of the relation between musical practice and alexithymia. Alexithymia was negatively associated with (i musical creative achievement, (ii having played a musical instrument as compared to never having played, and – for the subsample of participants that had played an instrument – (iii total hours of musical training (r = -.12 – in men and -.10 in women. Ensemble playing added significant variance. Twin modelling showed that alexithymia had a moderate heritability of 36% and that the association with musical practice could be explained by shared genetic influences. Associations between musical training and alexithymia remained significant when controlling for education, depression, and intelligence. Musical achievement and musical practice are associated with lower levels of alexithymia in both men and women. Musical engagement thus appears to be associated with higher emotional competence, although effect sizes are small. The association between musical training and alexithymia appears to be entirely genetically mediated, suggesting genetic pleiotropy.

  2. Music Abilities and Experiences as Predictors of Error-Detection Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Manny; Burnsed, Vernon

    1981-01-01

    This study examined the predictive validity of previous music abilities and experiences of skill in music error detection among undergraduate instrumental music education majors. Results indicated no statistically significant relationships which suggest that the ability to detect music errors may exist independently of other music abilities.…

  3. Gender and the performance of music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Desmond C.; Himonides, Evangelos

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates propositions that have appeared in the literature that music phenomena are gendered. Were they present in the musical “message,” gendered qualities might be imparted at any of three stages of the music–communication interchange: the process of composition, its realization into sound by the performer, or imposed by the listener in the process of perception. The research was designed to obtain empirical evidence to enable evaluation of claims of the presence of gendering at these three stages. Three research hypotheses were identified and relevant literature of music behaviors and perception reviewed. New instruments of measurement were constructed to test the three hypotheses: (i) two listening sequences each containing 35 extracts from published recordings of compositions of the classical music repertoire, (ii) four “music characteristics” scales, with polarities defined by verbal descriptors designed to assess the dynamic and emotional valence of the musical extracts featured in the listening sequences. 69 musically-trained listeners listened to the two sequences and were asked to identify the sex of the performing artist of each musical extract; a second group of 23 listeners evaluated the extracts applying the four music characteristics scales. Results did not support claims that music structures are inherently gendered, nor proposals that performers impart their own-sex-specific qualities to the music. It is concluded that gendered properties are imposed subjectively by the listener, and these are primarily related to the tempo of the music. PMID:24795663

  4. Construction and communication of meanings in popular music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Céspedes Guevara

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Both musicology and the psychology of music have traditionally approached the construction and communication of musical meanings using a functionalist model of communication. The purpose of this research is to study these phenomena within the context of popular music, using a constructivist theoretical framework. Two songs from a funk-rock band and 2 songs from a jazz band were heard individually by 6 members of the bands and by 14 participants without formal musical training. The participants were asked to indicate the moments in which the music called their attention, and to elaborate on the meaning of each song. The findings were interpreted as evidence that musical meaning is not inherent to music, that popular music is not always perceived an expression of emotions, and that musical communication depends on the existence of shared symbolic referents by musicians and listeners. As a conclusion, a constructivist conceptual model of musical communication is proposed

  5. Music Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søderberg, Ene Alicia; Odgaard, Rasmus Emil; Bitsch, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of breaking the barrier between deaf and hearing people when it comes to the subject of making music. Suggestions on how deaf and hearing people can collaborate in creating music together, are presented. The conducted research will focus on deaf people...... with a general interest in music as well as hearing musicians as target groups. Through reviewing different related research areas, it is found that visualization of sound along with a haptic feedback can help deaf people interpret and interact with music. With this in mind, three variations of a collaborative...

  6. Assessing musical abilities objectively: construction and validation of the profile of music perception skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily N C Law

    Full Text Available A common approach for determining musical competence is to rely on information about individuals' extent of musical training, but relying on musicianship status fails to identify musically untrained individuals with musical skill, as well as those who, despite extensive musical training, may not be as skilled. To counteract this limitation, we developed a new test battery (Profile of Music Perception Skills; PROMS that measures perceptual musical skills across multiple domains: tonal (melody, pitch, qualitative (timbre, tuning, temporal (rhythm, rhythm-to-melody, accent, tempo, and dynamic (loudness. The PROMS has satisfactory psychometric properties for the composite score (internal consistency and test-retest r>.85 and fair to good coefficients for the individual subtests (.56 to.85. Convergent validity was established with the relevant dimensions of Gordon's Advanced Measures of Music Audiation and Musical Aptitude Profile (melody, rhythm, tempo, the Musical Ear Test (rhythm, and sample instrumental sounds (timbre. Criterion validity was evidenced by consistently sizeable and significant relationships between test performance and external musical proficiency indicators in all three studies (.38 to.62, p<.05 to p<.01. An absence of correlations between test scores and a nonmusical auditory discrimination task supports the battery's discriminant validity (-.05, ns. The interrelationships among the various subtests could be accounted for by two higher order factors, sequential and sensory music processing. A brief version of the full PROMS is introduced as a time-efficient approximation of the full version of the battery.

  7. Supervisor training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2015-01-01

    on the experience of an integrated supervisor training programme offered in Aalborg, Denmark in 2009/2010. In this programme general issues of professional supervision and the application of artistic media as a core element in the supervisory process were Integrated. It is the hope of the author that this article...... will inspire other music therapists to develop supervisor training programmes for professional music therapists and also to undertake further research into professional supervision....

  8. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Lorenzo D.; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revea...

  9. Emotional reactions to music: psychophysiological correlates and applications to affective disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Kalda, Tiina

    2013-01-01

    Music has been used to evoke emotions for centuries. The mechanisms underlying this effect have remained largely unclear. This thesis contributes to research on how music\\ud evokes emotions by investigating two mechanisms from the model of Juslin and Västfjäll (2008) - musical expectancy and emotional contagion. In the perception studies the focus is on how musical expectancy violations are detected by either musically trained or untrained individuals. In the music-making studies, we concentr...

  10. MUSICAL-COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY: THE LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova Irina B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with musically-computer technology in the educational system on example of the Educational and Methodical Laboratory Music & Computer Technologies at the Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg. Interdisciplinary field of professional activities relates to the creation and application of specialized music software and hardware tools and the knowledges in music and informatics. A realization of the concept of musical-computer education in preparing music teachers is through basic educational programs of vocational training, supplementary education, professional development of teachers and methodical support via Internet. In addition, the laboratory Music & Computer Technologies engaged in scientific activity: it is, above all, specialized researches in the field of pedagogy and international conferences.

  11. Effects of synchronous music on treadmill running among elite triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Peter C; Karageorghis, Costas I; Saha, Alessandra Mecozzi; D'Auria, Shaun

    2012-01-01

    Music can provide ergogenic, psychological, and psychophysical benefits during physical activity, especially when movements are performed synchronously with music. The present study developed the train of research on synchronous music and extended it to elite athletes. Repeated-measures laboratory experiment. Elite triathletes (n=11) ran in time to self-selected motivational music, a neutral equivalent and a no-music control during submaximal and exhaustive treadmill running. Measured variables were time-to-exhaustion, mood responses, feeling states, RPE, blood lactate concentration, oxygen consumption and running economy. Time-to-exhaustion was 18.1% and 19.7% longer, respectively, when running in time to motivational and neutral music, compared to no music. Mood responses and feeling states were more positive with motivational music compared to either neutral music or no music. RPE was lowest for neutral music and highest for the no-music control. Blood lactate concentrations were lowest for motivational music. Oxygen consumption was lower with music by 1.0%-.7%. Both music conditions were associated with better running economy than the no-music control. Although neutral music did not produce the same level of psychological benefits as motivational music, it proved equally beneficial in terms of time-to-exhaustion and oxygen consumption. In functional terms, the motivational qualities of music may be less important than the prominence of its beat and the degree to which participants are able to synchronise their movements to its tempo. Music provided ergogenic, psychological and physiological benefits in a laboratory study and its judicious use during triathlon training should be considered. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. All rights reserved.

  12. Listening to music before TSST modulates salivary cortisol levels in a nondependent way of music preference in college students

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas Poveda, Diana Carolina; Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios-Uniminuto Sede Principal; Ruiz Gallo, William; Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios; Rodríguez-Angarita, Óscar; Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios; Prado-Rivera, Mayerli A.; Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of listening to music selected by participants or relaxing music chosen by researchers before modified TSST (Trier Social Stress Test) on: 1) TSST tasks, 2) TSST-induced stress responses, and 3) one attention task with both music and TSST before it. Seventy six college students were randomly assigned to one of six groups: listening to relaxing music chosen by researchers, previously selected music by students, or silence, any of them with or without TSST...

  13. High school music classes enhance the neural processing of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam; Krizman, Jennifer; Skoe, Erika; Johnston, Kathleen; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Should music be a priority in public education? One argument for teaching music in school is that private music instruction relates to enhanced language abilities and neural function. However, the directionality of this relationship is unclear and it is unknown whether school-based music training can produce these enhancements. Here we show that 2 years of group music classes in high school enhance the neural encoding of speech. To tease apart the relationships between music and neural function, we tested high school students participating in either music or fitness-based training. These groups were matched at the onset of training on neural timing, reading ability, and IQ. Auditory brainstem responses were collected to a synthesized speech sound presented in background noise. After 2 years of training, the neural responses of the music training group were earlier than at pre-training, while the neural timing of students in the fitness training group was unchanged. These results represent the strongest evidence to date that in-school music education can cause enhanced speech encoding. The neural benefits of musical training are, therefore, not limited to expensive private instruction early in childhood but can be elicited by cost-effective group instruction during adolescence.

  14. Health music(k)ing - Music therapy or Music and health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2011-01-01

    The field of music therapy is expanding rapidly into new areas, practices and interdisciplinary fields, as well as redefining its goals and values. Increasingly "music and health" is used to describe the field when it comes to naming new training programs, new interdisciplinary fields of theory...... by Ken Wilber and Gary Ansdell, is presented and illustrated by empirical examples and references from the literature. Metatheoretical reflections include the relevance of interpersonal or relational psychology and vitality dynamics for the theory and practice of health musicing....

  15. Do informal musical activities shape auditory skill development in preschool-age children?

    OpenAIRE

    Putkinen, Vesa; Saarikivi, Katri; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    The influence of formal musical training on auditory cognition has been well established. For the majority of children, however, musical experience does not primarily consist of adult-guided training on a musical instrument. Instead, young children mostly engage in everyday musical activities such as singing and musical play. Here, we review recent electrophysiological and behavioral studies carried out in our laboratory and elsewhere which have begun to map how developing auditory skills are...

  16. Integrative Music Therapy: A Healing Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Thomas Bryan

    Music plays a significant role in the lives of individuals across the lifespan. Some healthcare providers may not appreciate music therapy and the positive benefits it can have on the environment, patients, caregivers, and healthcare staff. Integrative Music Therapy (IMT) has proven to be effective in multiple settings, offering therapy for behavioral, emotional, physiological, psychological, and psychosocial needs. IMT, performed by a trained, certified professional (MT-BC), does not seek to replace medication or other procedures, but works synergistically with provided healthcare.

  17. Implicit Memory in Music and Language

    OpenAIRE

    Marc eEttlinger; Elizabeth Hellmuth Margulis; Patrick C. M. Wong; Patrick C. M. Wong

    2011-01-01

    Research on music and language in recent decades has focused on their overlapping neurophysiological, perceptual, and cognitive underpinnings, ranging from the mechanism for encoding basic auditory cues to the mechanism for detecting violations in phrase structure. These overlaps have most often been identified in musicians with musical knowledge that was acquired explicitly, through formal training. In this paper, we review independent bodies of work in music and language that suggest an imp...

  18. Musical Instrument Design Process for Mobile Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Barraclough, Timothy J.; Carnegie, Dale A.; Kapur, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the iterative design process based upon multiple rounds of user studies that guided the the design of a novel social music application, Pyxis Minor. The application was designed based on the concept of democratising electronic music creation and performance. This required the development to be based upon user studies to inform and drive the development process in order to create a novel musical interface that can be enjoyed by users of any prior musicianship training.

  19. Ghost Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo.......Geolocative AR concert for Arts Festival of North Norway (Festspillene i Nord-Norge), Harstad, Norge. In cooperation with The Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo....

  20. Caribbean Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  1. Visualizing Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Music has always been an important aspect of teenage life, but with the portability of the newest technological devices, it is harder and harder to separate students from their musical influences. In this article, the author describes a lesson wherein she incorporated their love of song into an engaging art project. In this lesson, she had…

  2. Tuvan music and World Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim V. Chaposhnikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the author’s observations about the ingression of Tuvan music into the World Music – a niche of world musical culture covering ethnical music traditions. The author has witnessed the rise of interest to traditional musical culture of Tuva and Russia as well as globalization of Tuvan music. He is endeavoring to interpret these changes and reveal their affect on traditional music and xöömei. In the late Soviet period, traditional music in Tuva, like in many republics of the Union, has been as if put on hold. During the Perestroika and national revival processes, traditionalism became of high demand. Symposia and festivals started off in Tuva where amateur participants took the same stage with professionals. Special honor was paid to old masters of xöömei. Scholars started engaging in  discussions about the origins and a role of xöömei and its genres. Хöömei attracted a good deal of market interest from outside Russia. In the late 1980s American scientist and producer T. Levin made first field records of xöömei to be released on a disk. Ethnographic ensemble “Tuva” was established. Later, members of “Tuva” started their own musical bands. Musical programs were compiled as an ethnographic variety show – a principle that the public has been seeking for both in Tuva and abroad. Disks were realeased and artists started active touring in foreign countries. Boosting interest in World Music was marked with hallmark attention to the phenomenon of throat-singing and overtone music, and further evolution of Tuvan music has since been tightly linked to Western musical market. The author traces the peculiarities of such bands as “Huun Huur Tu”, “Yat-Kha”, etc. and remarks that the value of Tuvan music is not only in star performers shining on the Western skies, but in the rise of a stable community of people inspired by Tuvan music and culture, and seeking new ways of aesthetic and spiritual perception of

  3. Musical appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Maria del Consuelo

    2002-11-01

    Pre-school listening to music is the principal way that leads to the appreciation of music that later facilitates knowledge and pleasure in the history of music. At the prescholastic age it is a very important aspect of education, and reasons and suggestions will be given. The activities must be brief, the teachers of music can at the most develop the activity every five minutes, leaving time for rest or expansion. Another suitable way to bring the child to music is through stories, which please all children; let them go to an unreal and fantastic world and listen to a story or an exciting adventure. The story then, should be brief, simple, with action, with familiar characters, but with some mystery; some repetitive element; and an ending both surprising and happy. It is preferable to include small folkloric tales from the universal repertoire, with works of simple and clear structure.

  4. No effects of a combination of caregivers support group and memory training/music therapy in dementia patients from a memory clinic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Gabriele; Bernhardt, Tanja; Schramm, Uta; Müller, Ruth; Landsiedel-Anders, Susanne; Peters, Juergen; Kratzsch, Tilman; Frolich, Lutz

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a combination of caregiver support group and memory training/music therapy in dementia patients on behavioural and psychological symptoms (BPSD) and caregiver burden compared to a control group. Eighteen patient-carer-dyads in the treatment group and 18 patient-carer-dyads as controls were studied in the setting of a memory clinic of a psychiatric university hospital over a period of 2 years. Controls were matched for age, gender, diagnosis, dementia severity, living arrangement and medication. The interventions were conducted once per week for 1 hour run by a clinical psychogeriatric team. Outcome measures were patients' cognitive and functional status as well as BPSD and caregivers subjective burden and depression measured by validated scales. Data were obtained 6, 12 and 24 months after baseline. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control group neither after 6, 12 nor after 24 months treatment. The lack of a positive impact in alleviating caregiver burden or BPSD after intensive psychological interventions may result from extensive care in the routine clinical management including individual counselling for patients and families. The effect of 'treatment as usual' needs to be taken into account when comparing an intervention and control group, as well as the dosage of the intervention. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Development of Musical Creativity of Higher Class Pupils Using Musical Computer Technologies (MCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rimkutė-Jankuvienė

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to find out possibilities of development of musical creativity by using MCT in the music education of senior pupils.Design/methodology/approach – literature review, qualitative survey methodology (interview with music teachers.Findings – implementation of MCT, like any other innovation (as well as ICT in different spheres of education, including pre-school education, bring forth a certain positive effect. The results of the interview showed that in the praxis of music education, MCT is used for different development purposes (to make a lesson original, help pupils memorize music, expand their imagination not only by listening, but also by watching and evaluating performance of music, listen to music recordings, understand music and evaluate its quality, etc.. But for the development of musical creativity, MCT has been used very poorly.Research limitation/implications – musical creativity’s concept has not been uniquely defined so far. The aim of scientific literature review is to show that musical creativity is not meant to be separated from general creativity. Moreover, this is compounded by the search of the possibilities to the development of musical creativity. Analysis of scientific literature shows that the use of MCT can make an influence on musical creativity. However, empirical researches on this subject are still missing.Practical implications – the results of the interviews about using MCT in music lessons in order to develop musical creativity could be significant in formulating strategies of the development of musical creativity, preparing methodological instruments as well as in teacher training programs.Originality/value – the object of the survey in the chosen theme has never been explored in Lithuania, while the comparison of the obtained data with foreign scientists’ discoveries could contribute to a musical creativity’s definition.Research type: literature review, interview review.

  6. The Band Effect – physically strenuous music making increases aesthetic appreciation of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal aesthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed aesthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants aesthetically assessed similar music. Data are reported from two experiments where different patient groups performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments aesthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more aesthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived aesthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal aesthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical styles that they might otherwise be reluctant to listen to (e

  7. New learning of music after bilateral medial temporal lobe damage: evidence from an amnesic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Jussi; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ's rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed and closely matched for factors contributing to a piece's musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of the two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ's complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance.

  8. New Learning of Music after Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobe Damage: Evidence from an Amnesic Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Jussi; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ’s rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed and closely matched for factors contributing to a piece’s musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of the two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ’s complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance. PMID:25232312

  9. New Learning of Music after Bilateral Medial Temporal Lobe Damage: Evidence from an Amnesic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi eValtonen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Damage to the hippocampus impairs the ability to acquire new declarative memories, but not the ability to learn simple motor tasks. An unresolved question is whether hippocampal damage affects learning for music performance, which requires motor processes, but in a cognitively complex context. We studied learning of novel musical pieces by sight-reading in a newly-identified amnesic, LSJ, who was a skilled amateur violist prior to contracting herpes simplex encephalitis. LSJ has suffered virtually complete destruction of the hippocampus bilaterally, as well as extensive damage to other medial temporal lobe structures and the left anterior temporal lobe. Because of LSJ’s rare combination of musical training and near-complete hippocampal destruction, her case provides a unique opportunity to investigate the role of the hippocampus for complex motor learning processes specifically related to music performance. Three novel pieces of viola music were composed, closely matched for factors contributing to a piece’s musical complexity. LSJ practiced playing two of the pieces, one in each of two sessions during the same day. Relative to a third unpracticed control piece, LSJ showed significant pre- to post-training improvement for the two practiced pieces. Learning effects were observed both with detailed analyses of correctly played notes, and with subjective whole-piece performance evaluations by string instrument players. The learning effects were evident immediately after practice and 14 days later. The observed learning stands in sharp contrast to LSJ’s complete lack of awareness that the same pieces were being presented repeatedly, and to the profound impairments she exhibits in other learning tasks. Although learning in simple motor tasks has been previously observed in amnesic patients, our results demonstrate that non-hippocampal structures can support complex learning of novel musical sequences for music performance.

  10. The Dalcroze Approach to Music Education: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William Todd

    2012-01-01

    The methods of the Dalcroze approach to music education--eurhythmics, solfege, and improvisation--have had a profound influence on modern music education. In particular, the overt training in kinesthetic abilities, and the assertion that the relationship between music and movement is an intimate one, is at the heart of Dalcroze's approach to…

  11. Popular Music and Classical Musicians: Strategies and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsup, Randall Everett

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, popular music has become a growing area of music study and is increasingly accepted in schools and universities around the world. Despite this general enthusiasm, classically trained music teachers bring a certain hesitation to this art form, perhaps because too few have had formal hands-on experience with it. This article…

  12. General Music Teachers' Backgrounds and Multicultural Repertoire Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soojin

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine how teachers' backgrounds could contribute to their decisions to include music from diverse cultures. Analysis of interviews with three general music teachers indicated that their music training and experiences, ethnic backgrounds, and years of teaching experience may have influenced their…

  13. Reflective Practice at the Heart of Higher Music Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2014-01-01

    The main challenge of today’s musicians and music educators trained in our conservatoires and music academies is navigating in a rapidly changing cultural landscape. In short, these changes are helping to shape a very different workplace for musicians and music educators. Flexible portfolio careers

  14. High school music classes enhance the neural processing of speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTierney

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Should music be a priority in public education? One argument for teaching music in school is that private music instruction relates to enhanced language abilities and neural function. However, the directionality of this relationship is unclear and it is unknown whether school-based music training can produce these enhancements. Here we show that two years of group music classes in high school enhance the subcortical encoding of speech. To tease apart the relationships between music and neural function, we tested high school students participating in either music or fitness-based training. These groups were matched at the onset of training on neural timing, reading ability, and IQ. Auditory brainstem responses were collected to a synthesized speech sound presented in background noise. After 2 years of training, the subcortical responses of the music training group were earlier than at pretraining, while the neural timing of students in the fitness training group was unchanged. These results represent the strongest evidence to date that in-school music education can cause enhanced speech encoding. The neural benefits of musical training are, therefore, not limited to expensive private instruction early in childhood but can be elicited by cost-effective group instruction during adolescence.

  15. Guido of Arezzo and His Influence on Music Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J. Reisenweaver

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history of Western music, Guido of Arezzo stands out as one of the most influential theorists and pedagogues of the Middle Ages. His developments of the hexachord system, solmization syllables, and music notation revolutionized the teaching and learning of music during his time and laid the foundation for our modern system of music. While previous theorists were interested in the philosophical and mathematical nature of music, Guido’s desire to aid singers in the learning process was practical. Through his innovations, students were able to classify, sight-sing, and visualize the music they were learning, ultimately resulting in an easier, simpler, and more efficient way to learn music. By building upon the theories of those before him, Guido expanded and reshaped the musical system of his day, transformed the way music was taught, and established his ideas as a vital part of our musical heritage.

  16. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eRoden

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 minutes sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests for three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  17. Effects of a school-based instrumental music program on verbal and visual memory in primary school children: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children's socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills.

  18. Effects of a School-Based Instrumental Music Program on Verbal and Visual Memory in Primary School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Ingo; Kreutz, Gunter; Bongard, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a school-based instrumental training program on the development of verbal and visual memory skills in primary school children. Participants either took part in a music program with weekly 45 min sessions of instrumental lessons in small groups at school, or they received extended natural science training. A third group of children did not receive additional training. Each child completed verbal and visual memory tests three times over a period of 18 months. Significant Group by Time interactions were found in the measures of verbal memory. Children in the music group showed greater improvements than children in the control groups after controlling for children’s socio-economic background, age, and IQ. No differences between groups were found in the visual memory tests. These findings are consistent with and extend previous research by suggesting that children receiving music training may benefit from improvements in their verbal memory skills. PMID:23267341

  19. Improving Student Reading Fluency Scores through Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, Jennifer Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Due to the controversial nature of previous research it is unclear whether music has positive or negative effect on cognition. Previous studies tested different styles and tempos of music, and have found that songs with faster beats distract learning. There have been numerous studies and each study refutes another study. Research has been done on…

  20. Genre Identification of Very Brief Musical Excerpts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sandra T.; Wagoner, Cynthia L.; Teachout, David J.; Hodges, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how well individuals were able to identify different music genres from very brief excerpts and whether musical training, gender and preference played a role in genre identification. Listeners were asked to identify genre from classical, jazz, country, metal, and rap/hip hop excerpts that were 125, 250, 500,…

  1. Acute adjustments of heart rate and oxygen consuption in an experimental protocol of step training with diferent combinations of platform height and musical rhythms - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.11669

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Ribeiro de Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate adaptations acute heart rate (HR and oxygen consumption (VO2 in an experimental protocol of step training with different combinations of platform height (15.2, 20.3 and 25.4 cm and musical rhythms (125, 135 and 145 bpm. Thirty-five women were randomly selected, (mean ± DP aged 21.6 ± 1.8 years, body weight of 57.8 ± 8.2 kg, height of 162.6 ± 6.8 cm, body mass index of 21.8 ± 2.5 kg m-2 and fat percentage (% Fat of 24.8 ± 4.4%, with at least six months experience in step training sessions, and a frequency of at least two days a week. Techniques of descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. A significant difference was detected for the HR and VO2 in relation to the increase in step platform height and in musical rhythm for all the combinations, except for three situations. From the obtained results, we can infer that the cardiovascular and metabolic responses increase or decrease according to the musical rhythm and/or platform height.

  2. Music genetics research: Association with musicality of a polymorphism in the AVPR1A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariath, Luiza Monteavaro; Silva, Alexandre Mauat da; Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Gattino, Gustavo Schulz; Araujo, Gustavo Andrade de; Figueiredo, Felipe Grahl; Tagliani-Ribeiro, Alice; Roman, Tatiana; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Schuch, Jaqueline Bohrer

    2017-01-01

    Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype. Our aim was to investigate whether polymorphisms in six genes (AVPR1A, SLC6A4, ITGB3, COMT, DRD2 and DRD4) related to social and cognitive traits are associated with musicality in a sample of children. Musicality was assessed through an individualized music therapy assessment profile (IMTAP) which has been validated in Brazil to measure musical ability. We show here that the RS1 microsatellite of the AVPR1A gene is nominally associated with musicality, corroborating previous results linking AVPR1A with musical activity. This study is one of the first to investigate musicality in a comprehensive way, and it contributes to better understand the genetic basis underlying musical ability.

  3. Music genetics research: Association with musicality of a polymorphism in the AVPR1A gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Monteavaro Mariath

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Musicality is defined as a natural tendency, sensibility, knowledge, or talent to create, perceive, and play music. Musical abilities involve a great range of social and cognitive behaviors, which are influenced by both environmental and genetic factors. Although a number of studies have yielded insights into music genetics research, genes and biological pathways related to these traits are not fully understood. Our hypothesis in the current study is that genes associated with different behaviors could also influence the musical phenotype. Our aim was to investigate whether polymorphisms in six genes (AVPR1A, SLC6A4, ITGB3, COMT, DRD2 and DRD4 related to social and cognitive traits are associated with musicality in a sample of children. Musicality was assessed through an individualized music therapy assessment profile (IMTAP which has been validated in Brazil to measure musical ability. We show here that the RS1 microsatellite of the AVPR1A gene is nominally associated with musicality, corroborating previous results linking AVPR1A with musical activity. This study is one of the first to investigate musicality in a comprehensive way, and it contributes to better understand the genetic basis underlying musical ability.

  4. Visualizing the semantic structure in classical music works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wing-Yi; Qu, Huamin; Mak, Wai-Ho

    2010-01-01

    A major obstacle in the appreciation of classical music is that extensive training is required to understand musical structure and compositional techniques toward comprehending the thoughts behind the musical work. In this paper, we propose an innovative visualization solution to reveal the semantic structure in classical orchestral works such that users can gain insights into musical structure and appreciate the beauty of music. We formulate the semantic structure into macrolevel layer interactions, microlevel theme variations, and macro-micro relationships between themes and layers to abstract the complicated construction of a musical composition. The visualization has been applied with success in understanding some classical music works as supported by highly promising user study results with the general audience and very positive feedback from music students and experts, demonstrating its effectiveness in conveying the sophistication and beauty of classical music to novice users with informative and intuitive displays.

  5. Music Teachers' Personal Concepts: Qualitative Classroom Research in Music Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Niessen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available How do music teachers reflect on planning and performing school lessons? How do their experiences influence their teaching arrangements? In a qualitative research project the author uses the "Individualkonzept" (personal concept to explore what music teachers think while planning music lessons. In addition, the relationship between personal concepts and biographical experiences is investigated. In accordance with grounded theory methodology, interviews with teachers were analyzed first at the level of the single interviews; followed by developing a grounded theory about the music teachers' personal concepts and their embedding in biography. In doing so an integrative pattern emerged unfolding in time as a learning process. Results of the research suggest finding forms of in-service-training for teachers that will allow them to foster a self-conscious acquaintance with their own biographical background. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs080178

  6. (Amusicality in Williams syndrome: Examining relationships among auditory perception, musical skill, and emotional responsiveness to music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eLense

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Williams syndrome (WS, a genetic, neurodevelopmental disorder, is of keen interest to music cognition researchers because of its characteristic auditory sensitivities and emotional responsiveness to music. However, actual musical perception and production abilities are more variable. We examined musicality in WS through the lens of amusia and explored how their musical perception abilities related to their auditory sensitivities, musical production skills, and emotional responsiveness to music. In our sample of 73 adolescents and adults with WS, 11% met criteria for amusia, which is higher than the 4% prevalence rate reported in the typically developing population. Amusia was not related to auditory sensitivities but was related to musical training. Performance on the amusia measure strongly predicted musical skill but not emotional responsiveness to music, which was better predicted by general auditory sensitivities. This study represents the first time amusia has been examined in a population with a known neurodevelopmental genetic disorder with a range of cognitive abilities. Results have implications for the relationships across different levels of auditory processing, musical skill development, and emotional responsiveness to music, as well as the understanding of gene-brain-behavior relationships in individuals with WS and typically developing individuals with and without amusia.

  7. Developing a Critical Consciousness for Diversity and Equity among Preservice Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nicole R.

    2017-01-01

    For approximately 50 years, music education scholars have purported the need for more diversity training among preservice music teachers. This call has become increasingly urgent as contemporary preservice music teachers encounter the most ethnically and culturally diverse classrooms in public school history. Although preservice music teachers may…

  8. Emotional Responses to Music: Shifts in Frontal Brain Asymmetry Mark Periods of Musical Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Hussain-Abdulah; Hohagen, Jesper; Paton, Bryan; Rickard, Nikki S

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated increased activity in brain regions associated with emotion and reward when listening to pleasurable music. Unexpected change in musical features intensity and tempo - and thereby enhanced tension and anticipation - is proposed to be one of the primary mechanisms by which music induces a strong emotional response in listeners. Whether such musical features coincide with central measures of emotional response has not, however, been extensively examined. In this study, subjective and physiological measures of experienced emotion were obtained continuously from 18 participants (12 females, 6 males; 18-38 years) who listened to four stimuli-pleasant music, unpleasant music (dissonant manipulations of their own music), neutral music, and no music, in a counter-balanced order. Each stimulus was presented twice: electroencephalograph (EEG) data were collected during the first, while participants continuously subjectively rated the stimuli during the second presentation. Frontal asymmetry (FA) indices from frontal and temporal sites were calculated, and peak periods of bias toward the left (indicating a shift toward positive affect) were identified across the sample. The music pieces were also examined to define the temporal onset of key musical features. Subjective reports of emotional experience averaged across the condition confirmed participants rated their music selection as very positive, the scrambled music as negative, and the neutral music and silence as neither positive nor negative. Significant effects in FA were observed in the frontal electrode pair FC3-FC4, and the greatest increase in left bias from baseline was observed in response to pleasurable music. These results are consistent with findings from previous research. Peak FA responses at this site were also found to co-occur with key musical events relating to change, for instance, the introduction of a new motif, or an instrument change, or a change in low level acoustic

  9. Constructing Music History in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa De Luca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on some aspects of the teaching-learning of Music History in the school education system. It concentrates upon contents, strategies and methods of teaching transposition of historical and musical knowledge as a training model for music education oriented on the comprehension of music as culture. Based on this branch of teaching’s model, epistemological assumptions are discussed and relied to various degrees of education, considering also the challenges that the teacher faces in the didactic transposition process of topics.

  10. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  11. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  12. Music Therapy and Avatars: Reflections on Virtual Learning Environments for Music Therapy Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Story, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Music therapy students have expressed concerns regarding their general preparedness for practicum and working with new populations. Simulations in the immersive virtual world, Second Life, may provide a platform to assist in training music therapy students and enhance preparedness. This project...... examined the feasibility of utilizing Second Life to assist in training music therapists. Music therapy practicum students enrolled in a music therapy equivalency program participated in weekly one hour virtual class meetings in Second Life, which included 5 sessions of music therapy simulations....... At the end of the semester, students were interviewed in relation to their experiences, and interviews were analyzed qualitatively. Common themes among students were limitations of Second Life software, student’s knowledge of software, emotional reactions (both positive and negative), and distance learning....

  13. Prevalence of absolute pitch: a comparison between Japanese and Polish music students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Ken'ichi; Makomaska, Sylwia; Rakowski, Andrzej

    2012-11-01

    Comparable large-scale surveys including an on-site pitch-naming test were conducted with music students in Japan and Poland to obtain more convincing estimates of the prevalence of absolute pitch (AP) and examine how musical experience relates to AP. Participants with accurate AP (95% correct identification) accounted for 30% of the Japanese music students, but only 7% of the Polish music students. This difference in the performance of pitch naming was related to the difference in musical experience. Participants with AP had begun music training at an earlier age (6 years or earlier), and the average year of commencement of musical training was more than 2 years earlier for the Japanese music students than for the Polish students. The percentage of participants who had received early piano lessons was 94% for the Japanese musically trained students but was 72% for the Polish music students. Approximately one-third of the Japanese musically trained students had attended the Yamaha Music School, where lessons on piano or electric organ were given to preschool children in parallel with fixed-do solfège singing training. Such early music instruction was not as common in Poland. The relationship of AP with early music training is discussed.

  14. Music and communication in music psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Ian Ralph

    2014-01-01

    There is a general consensus that music is both universal and communicative, and musical dialogue is a key element in much music-therapeutic practice. However, the idea that music is a communicative medium has, to date, received little attention within the cognitive sciences, and the limited amount of research that addresses how and what music communicates has resulted in findings that appear to be of limited relevance to music therapy. This paper will draw on ethnomusicological evidence and ...

  15. Effect of music on submaximal cycling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Athletes frequently report training to music, yet there have been relatively .... Keiper Dynavit Company, Kaiserlauten, West Germany) and a calibrated metabolic cart ... (Discman, Sony D-121 MEGA BASS, Japan) was linked up to lightweight ...

  16. Neural overlap in processing music and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L

    2015-03-19

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Neural overlap in processing music and speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique; Lagrois, Marie-Élaine; Armony, Jorge L.

    2015-01-01

    Neural overlap in processing music and speech, as measured by the co-activation of brain regions in neuroimaging studies, may suggest that parts of the neural circuitries established for language may have been recycled during evolution for musicality, or vice versa that musicality served as a springboard for language emergence. Such a perspective has important implications for several topics of general interest besides evolutionary origins. For instance, neural overlap is an important premise for the possibility of music training to influence language acquisition and literacy. However, neural overlap in processing music and speech does not entail sharing neural circuitries. Neural separability between music and speech may occur in overlapping brain regions. In this paper, we review the evidence and outline the issues faced in interpreting such neural data, and argue that converging evidence from several methodologies is needed before neural overlap is taken as evidence of sharing. PMID:25646513

  18. Immediate effects of Alpha/theta and Sensory-Motor Rhythm feedback on music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, J H; Hirst, L; Holmes, P; Leach, J

    2014-07-01

    This is one of a series of investigations comparing two EEG-neurofeedback protocols - Alpha/theta (A/T) and Sensory-Motor Rhythm (SMR) - for performance enhancement in the Arts, here with the focus on music. The original report (Egner and Gruzelier, 2003) established a beneficial outcome for elite conservatoire musicians following A/T training in two investigations. Subsequently this A/T advantage was replicated for both advanced instrumental and novice singing abilities, including improvisation, while SMR training benefited novice performance only (Gruzelier, Holmes et al., 2014). Here we report a replication of the latter study in university instrumentalists who as before were novice singers with one design change - post-training performances were conducted within the tenth final session instead of on a subsequent occasion. As before expert judges rated the domains of Creativity/Musicality, Communication/Presentation and Technique. The proximity to training of the music performances within the last session likely compromised gains from A/T learning, but perhaps reinforced the impact of SMR training efficacy. In support of validation there was evidence of strong within- and across-session A/T learning and positive linear trends for across-session SMR/theta and SMR/beta-2 ratio learning. In support of mediation learning correlated with music performance. The A/T outcome was markedly discrepant from previous studies and should dispel any impression that the hypnogogic state itself is transferred to the performance context. The effects of SMR ratio training are consistent with an impact on lower-order abilities required in novice performance such as sustained attention and memory, and benefiting all three domains of music assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Music and Culture Areas of Native California

    OpenAIRE

    Keeling, Richard

    1992-01-01

    This paper sketches the principal music and culture areas of native California and identifies general characteristics that distinguish the region in the overall sphere of Native American music. Rather than provide notations or detailed analyses I describe the music according to a set of general parameters that I have found useful in previous comparative research. The following elements are considered: (1) vocal quality or timbre; (2) presence of words or vocables, text-setting, and repetition...

  20. Long-term analysis of health status and preventive behavior in music students across an entire university program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahn, Claudia; Nusseck, Manfred; Zander, Mark

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to analyze longitudinal data concerning physical and psychological health, playing-related problems, and preventive behavior among music students across their complete 4- to 5-year study period. In a longitudinal, observational study, we followed students during their university training and measured their psychological and physical health status and preventive behavior using standardized questionnaires at four different times. The data were in accordance with previous findings. They demonstrated three groups of health characteristics observed in beginners of music study: healthy students (cluster 1), students with preclinical symptoms (cluster 2), and students who are clinically symptomatic (cluster 3). In total, 64% of all students remained in the same cluster group during their whole university training. About 10% of the students showed considerable health problems and belonged to the third cluster group. The three clusters of health characteristics found in this longitudinal study with music students necessitate that prevention programs for musicians must be adapted to the target audience.

  1. The teaching of music history in Japanese music education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midori Sonoda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the leading institutions in the field of musicology in Japan is the one hosted by “Tokyo University of the Arts” (previously Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music. The musicology course, started in 1949, was, and still is, the main promoter of music history teaching in the Japanese university system. A reflection on the over 60 years of its existence, which has been characterized by the fortunate coexistence of musicology students and students of ‘practical’ musical courses, might contribute to raise awareness among European musicologists about the pedagogic-didactic task that is expected of them in the current situation of Western musical culture.

  2. While the music lasts : on music and dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke; Page, Kate; Alheit, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This book has been written for musicians who want to engage with audiences beyond the concert hall and other traditional venues. The study is equally worthwhile for conservatoires and music academies aiming to change the increasingly unrealistic goal of training young musicians solely for the stage.

  3. Tuning Features of Chinese Folk Song Singing: A Case Study of Hua'er Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham; Sundberg, Johan; Himonides, Evangelos

    2015-07-01

    The learning and teaching of different singing styles, such as operatic and Chinese folk singing, was often found to be very challenging in professional music education because of the complexity of varied musical properties and vocalizations. By studying the acoustical and musical parameters of the singing voice, this study identified distinctive tuning characteristics of a particular folk music in China-Hua'er music-to inform the ineffective folk singing practices, which were hampered by the neglect of inherent tuning issues in music. Thirteen unaccompanied folk song examples from four folk singers were digitally audio recorded in a sound studio. Using an analyzing toolkit consisting of Praat, PeakFit, and MS Excel, the fundamental frequencies (F0) of these song examples were extracted into sets of "anchor pitches" mostly used, which were further divided into 253 F0 clusters. The interval structures of anchor pitches within each song were analyzed and then compared across 13 examples providing parameters that indicate the tuning preference of this particular singing style. The data analyses demonstrated that all singers used a tuning pattern consisting of five major anchor pitches suggesting a nonequal-tempered bias in singing. This partly verified the pentatonic scale proposed in previous empirical research but also argued a potential misunderstanding of the studied folk music scale that failed to take intrinsic tuning issues into consideration. This study suggests that, in professional music training, any tuning strategy should be considered in terms of the reference pitch and likely tuning systems. Any accompanying instruments would need to be tuned to match the underlying tuning bias. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sissela eBergman Nutley

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM during development. Subjects (n = 352 between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64 on two or three occasions, two years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, Verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002, processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027 and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p < 0.001 across all three time points, after correcting for the effect of parental education and other after school activities Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008, areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, Verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006 but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090. These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other afterschool activites. In conclusion, these results indicates that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.

  5. Music practice is associated with development of working memory during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman Nutley, Sissela; Darki, Fahimeh; Klingberg, Torkel

    2014-01-07

    Practicing a musical instrument is associated with cognitive benefits and structural brain changes in correlational and interventional trials; however, the effect of musical training on cognition during childhood is still unclear. In this longitudinal study of child development we analyzed the association between musical practice and performance on reasoning, processing speed and working memory (WM) during development. Subjects (n = 352) between the ages of 6 and 25 years participated in neuropsychological assessments and neuroimaging investigations (n = 64) on two or three occasions, 2 years apart. Mixed model regression showed that musical practice had an overall positive association with WM capacity (visuo-spatial WM, F = 4.59, p = 0.033, verbal WM, F = 9.69, p = 0.002), processing speed, (F = 4.91, p = 0.027) and reasoning (Raven's progressive matrices, F = 28.34, p effect of parental education and other after school activities. Music players also had larger gray matter volume in the temporo-occipital and insular cortex (p = 0.008), areas previously reported to be related to musical notation reading. The change in WM between the time points was proportional to the weekly hours spent on music practice for both WM tests (VSWM, β = 0.351, p = 0.003, verbal WM, β = 0.261, p = 0.006) but this was not significant for reasoning ability (β = 0.021, p = 0.090). These effects remained when controlling for parental education and other after school activities. In conclusion, these results indicate that music practice positively affects WM development and support the importance of practice for the development of WM during childhood and adolescence.

  6. Music, memory and emotion

    OpenAIRE

    J?ncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. Music has a prominent role in the everyday life of many people. Whether it is for recreation, distraction or mood enhancement, a lot of people listen to music from early in t...

  7. Human Computer Music Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dannenberg, Roger B.

    2012-01-01

    Human Computer Music Performance (HCMP) is the study of music performance by live human performers and real-time computer-based performers. One goal of HCMP is to create a highly autonomous artificial performer that can fill the role of a human, especially in a popular music setting. This will require advances in automated music listening and understanding, new representations for music, techniques for music synchronization, real-time human-computer communication, music generation, sound synt...

  8. "One Equal Music": An Exploration of Gender Perceptions and the Fair Assessment by Beginning Music Teachers of Musical Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Previous research in education has investigated the relationship between gender and perceptions of musicality, suggesting that teachers' assessments of boys' and girls' achievements in music are different and unequal. This empirical study attempts to explore that relationship in more detail, building on research from the late 1990s, by asking…

  9. Improved Digit Span in Children after a 6-Week Intervention of Playing a Musical Instrument: An Exploratory Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xia; Ohsawa, Chie; Suzuki, Akiko; Sekiyama, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that music training not only improves children's musical skills, but also enhances their cognitive functions. However, there is a disagreement about what domain(s) might be affected. Moreover, effects of short-term (musical scores to emphasize creating association between sound (auditory modality) and finger movement (somato-motor system). Cognitive measurements included verbal ability, processing speed, working memory, and inhibitory control, which were administered before and after the curriculum in both groups. After the 6-week training, only the experimental group showed a significant improvement in the Digit Span test (especially in the Digit Span Backward) that measures working memory. However, no significant influences were found on the other cognitive tests. The result suggests that several weeks of instrumental music training may be beneficial to improving children's working memory. In addition, we used an inexpensive and portable keyboard harmonica; therefore, our instructional method is easy to apply in classrooms or other circumstances. If the method is applied to music lessons in schools or in the community, it may help improve children's working memory.

  10. Dramaturgical and Music-Theoretical Approaches to Improvisation Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huovinen, Erkki; Tenkanen, Atte; Kuusinen, Vesa-Pekka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the relative merits of two approaches to teaching musical improvisation: a music-theoretical approach, focusing on chords and scales, and a "dramaturgical" one, emphasizing questions of balance, variation and tension. Adult students of music pedagogy, with limited previous experience in improvisation,…

  11. Effects of a Music Programme on Kindergartners' Phonological Awareness Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This research examines the effect of a music training programme on the development of phonological awareness among 104 Franco-Canadian kindergarten children. The experimental group (N = 51) participated in an adapted version of the Standley and Hughes music training programme, while the control group (N = 53) took part in the Ministere de…

  12. Making music in a group: synchronization and shared experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overy, Katie

    2012-04-01

    To consider the full impact of musical learning on the brain, it is important to study the nature of everyday, non-expert forms of musical behavior alongside expert instrumental training. Such informal forms of music making tend to include social interaction, synchronization, body movements, and positive shared experiences. Here, I propose that when designing music intervention programs for scientific purposes, such features may have advantages over instrumental training, depending on the specific research aims, contexts, and measures. With reference to a selection of classroom approaches to music education and to the shared affective motion experience (SAME) model of emotional responses to music, I conclude that group learning may be particularly valuable in music pedagogy. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Music Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Music Club

    2011-01-01

    MUSIC ON THE LAWN 2011 As part of the Fete de la Musique 2011, the CERN MusiClub is organizing Music on the Lawn, an informal concert for Club musicians/bands. The event will take place from 14h00 to 20h00 on Saturday 25th June on the terrace of restaurant no 1. This year 8 MusiClub bands will be performing… WOT Home Cookin’ Picture Flame DANGLERZ The Nearlies RISE A Drop of Red The Groovy Gang So put the date in your diaries and spend a sunny afternoon listening to some great live music (and unlike Paleo and Montreux it’s FREE!!!!) For more information on the CERN MusiClub see http://muzipod.free.fr/  

  14. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    Science.