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Sample records for previous failed pks

  1. Survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrcanovic, Bruno R; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2017-11-01

    To assess the survival of dental implants placed in sites of previously failed implants and to explore the possible factors that might affect the outcome of this reimplantation procedure. Patients that had failed dental implants, which were replaced with the same implant type at the same site, were included. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants; survival analysis was also performed. The effect of systemic, environmental, and local factors on the survival of the reoperated implants was evaluated. 175 of 10,096 implants in 98 patients were replaced by another implant at the same location (159, 14, and 2 implants at second, third, and fourth surgeries, respectively). Newly replaced implants were generally of similar diameter but of shorter length compared to the previously placed fixtures. A statistically significant greater percentage of lost implants were placed in sites with low bone quantity. There was a statistically significant difference (P = 0.032) in the survival rates between implants that were inserted for the first time (94%) and implants that replaced the ones lost (73%). There was a statistically higher failure rate of the reoperated implants for patients taking antidepressants and antithrombotic agents. Dental implants replacing failed implants had lower survival rates than the rates reported for the previous attempts of implant placement. It is suggested that a site-specific negative effect may possibly be associated with this phenomenon, as well as the intake of antidepressants and antithrombotic agents. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Modified Latarjet Procedure Without Capsulolabral Repair for the Treatment of Failed Previous Operative Stabilizations in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalletta, Maximiliano; Rossi, Luciano A; Bertona, Agustin; Tanoira, Ignacio; Maignon, Gastón D; Bongiovanni, Santiago L

    2018-02-03

    To analyze time to return to sport, functional outcomes, and recurrences of the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair in athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability after a failed previous operative stabilization. We included athletes with recurrent anterior shoulder instability with a previous failed operative stabilization treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral repair with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. Return to sports, range of motion, the Rowe score, a visual analog scale for pain in sport activity, and the Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System were used to assess functional outcomes. Recurrences were also evaluated. The postoperative bone block position and consolidation were assessed with computed tomography. Between June 2008 and June 2015, 68 athletes were treated with the modified Latarjet procedure without capsulolabral reconstruction for recurrent shoulder instability after a previous failed stabilization surgery. The mean follow-up was 44 months (range, 24-108 months), and the mean age at the time of operation was 26.8 years (range, 17-35 years). All the patients returned to sports, and 95% returned to the same sport they practiced before the surgery, all to the same level. No significant difference in shoulder range of motion was found between preoperative and postoperative results. The Rowe score, visual analog scale, and Athletic Shoulder Outcome Scoring System showed statistical improvement after operation (P Latarjet without capsulolabral repair produced excellent functional outcomes with most athletes returning to sport at the same level they had before the surgery without recurrences. Level IV, therapeutic, case series study. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Clinical outcomes of the addition of eccentrics for rehabilitation of previously failed treatments of golfers elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Timothy F; Nicholas, Stephen J; Schmitt, Brandon M; Mullaney, Michael; Hogan, Daniel E

    2014-05-01

    Eccentric training of the wrist extensors has been shown to be effective in treating chronic lateral epicondylosis. However, its efficacy in the treatment of medial epicondylosis has yet to be demonstrated. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a novel eccentric wrist flexor exercise added to standard treatment for chronic medial epicondylosis in patients who did not respond to previous therapeutic interventions for this disorder. 20. Patients (13 men, 7 women; age 49±12 yr) with chronic medial epicondylosis who had failed previous treatment for this disorder (physical therapy 7, cortisone injection 7, PRP 1, NSAIDS 15) were prescribed isolated eccentrics in addition to wrist stretching, ultrasound, cross-friction massage, heat and ice. The specific isolated eccentric wrist flexor strengthening exercise performed by the patients involved twisting a rubber bar (Flexbar, Hygenic Corportation, Akron OH) with concentric wrist flexion of the noninvolved arm and releasing the twist by eccentrically contracting the wrist flexors of the involved arm (3 × 15 twice daily). A DASH questionnaire was recorded at baseline and again after the treatment period. Treating clinicians were blinded to baseline DASH scores. Treatment effect was assessed using paired t-test. Based on previous work it was estimated that with a sample of 20 patients there would be 80% power to detect a 13 point improvement in DASH scores (ptennis (2), basketball (1), weight lifting (1), and general activities of daily living (2). There was a significant improvement in outcomes following the addition of isolated eccentrics (Pre DASH 34.7±16.2 vs. Post DASH 7.9±11.1, p<.001). For the 18 patients involved in sports, the sports module of the DASH score improved from 73.9±28.9 to 13.2±25.0, p<.001). Physical therapy visits ranged from 1-22 with an average of 12±6 and, average treatment duration of 6.1±2.5 wks (range 1-10). Home exercise program compliance was recorded for each

  4. Treatment of osteochondral defects of the talus with a metal resurfacing inlay implant after failed previous surgery: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bergen, C. J. A.; van Eekeren, I. C. M.; Reilingh, M. L.; Sierevelt, I. N.; van Dijk, C. N.

    2013-01-01

    We have evaluated the clinical effectiveness of a metal resurfacing inlay implant for osteochondral defects of the medial talar dome after failed previous surgical treatment. We prospectively studied 20 consecutive patients with a mean age of 38 years (20 to 60), for a mean of three years (2 to 5)

  5. Correction of Large Oro-antral Communications From Previously Failed Implant Treatment: Reconstruction of Hard and Soft Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrungaro, Paul S; Gonzalez, Santiago; Villegas, Carlos

    2018-02-01

    As dental implants become more popular for the treatment of partial and total edentulism and treatment of "terminal dentitions," techniques for the management of the atrophic posterior maxillae continue to evolve. Although dental implants carry a high success rate long term, attention must be given to the growing numbers of revisions or retreatment of cases that have had previous dental implant treatment and/or advanced bone replacement procedures that, due to either poor patient compliance, iatrogenic error, or poor quality of the pre-existing alveolar and/or soft tissues, have led to large osseous defects, possibly with deficient soft-tissue volume. In the posterior maxillae, where the poorest quality of bone in the oral cavity exists, achieving regeneration of the alveolar bone and adequate volume of soft tissue remains a complex procedure. This is made even more difficult when dealing with loss of dental implants previously placed, aggressive bone reduction required in various implant procedures, and/or residual sinus infections precluding proper closure of the oral wound margins. The purpose of this article is to outline a technique for the total closure of large oro-antral communications, with underlying osseous defects greater than 15 mm in width and 30 mm in length, for which multiple previous attempts at closure had failed, to achieve not only the reconstruction of adequate volume and quality of soft tissues in the area of the previous fistula, but also total regeneration of the osseous structures in the area of the large void.

  6. Partai Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS dan Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS sebagai Partai Islam Pendukung Demokrasi PKS Pada Pemilu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ali Nurdin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article compares the achievement of Partai Islam se-Malaysia (PAS and Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS in the latest general election held in 2013 in Malaysia and in 2014 in Indonesia. The writer finds that the political performance of PAS and PKS has indicated differently contrast results. While political electability of PAS in the 2013 Malaysia’s general election has disappointed this party, PKS has successfully proved that surveys held by a number of survey institutes—predicting that the party would cease within the 2014 Indonesia’s national election—were totally false. Many political figures of PAS have failed to gain positions in the legislative assembly. Meanwhile, in viewing PKS’s political performance during the 2014 national election, one may assume that this party was luckily survive. This is because, a number of surveys conducted before the election had predicted that PKS could be considered lucky when it was able to gain five percent of vote, as its former president has been suspected of being corrupt for his involvement in cows import. However, the fact shows that PKS has not only magnificently survived but it was even able to gain almost seven percent of voters’ vote. Unfortunately, PKS was unsuccessful to achieve its political target to be the biggest three of national vote.

  7. Bacterial Competition Reveals Differential Regulation of the pks Genes by Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bautista, Carol; Rahlwes, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis is adaptable to many environments in part due to its ability to produce a broad range of bioactive compounds. One such compound, bacillaene, is a linear polyketide/nonribosomal peptide. The pks genes encode the enzymatic megacomplex that synthesizes bacillaene. The majority of pks genes appear to be organized as a giant operon (>74 kb from pksC-pksR). In previous work (P. D. Straight, M. A. Fischbach, C. T. Walsh, D. Z. Rudner, and R. Kolter, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104:305–310, 2007, doi:10.1073/pnas.0609073103), a deletion of the pks operon in B. subtilis was found to induce prodiginine production by Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, colonies of wild-type B. subtilis formed a spreading population that induced prodiginine production from Streptomyces lividans, suggesting differential regulation of pks genes and, as a result, bacillaene. While the parent colony showed widespread induction of pks expression among cells in the population, we found the spreading cells uniformly and transiently repressed the expression of the pks genes. To identify regulators that control pks genes, we first determined the pattern of pks gene expression in liquid culture. We next identified mutations in regulatory genes that disrupted the wild-type pattern of pks gene expression. We found that expression of the pks genes requires the master regulator of development, Spo0A, through its repression of AbrB and the stationary-phase regulator, CodY. Deletions of degU, comA, and scoC had moderate effects, disrupting the timing and level of pks gene expression. The observed patterns of expression suggest that complex regulation of bacillaene and other antibiotics optimizes competitive fitness for B. subtilis. PMID:24187085

  8. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin in patients who previously tried but failed treatment with vitamin K antagonists: results from the AVERROES trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Michiel; Synhorst, David; Eikelboom, John W; Yusuf, Salim; Shestakovska, Olga; Connolly, Stuart J

    2014-07-21

    The AVERROES double-blinded, randomized trial demonstrated that apixaban reduces the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) by 55% compared with aspirin without an increase in major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation either who previously tried but failed vitamin K antagonists (VKA) therapy or who were expected to be unsuitable for VKA therapy. In this pre-specified analysis, we explored the consistency of the results in the subgroup of patients who tried but failed VKA therapy. Of 5599 patients, 2216 (40%) had previously failed VKA treatment [main reasons: poor international normalized ratio (INR) control 42%, refusal 37%, bleeding on VKA 8%]. Compared with those expected to be unsuitable for VKA therapy, those who had previously failed were older, more often male, had higher body mass index, more likely to have moderate renal impairment and a history of stroke and less likely to have heart failure or to be medically undertreated. The effects of apixaban compared with aspirin were consistent in those who previously failed and those who were expected to be unsuitable, for both SSE (P interaction 0.13) and major bleeding (P interaction 0.74) and were also consistent among different subgroups of patients who had previously failed VKA therapy defined by reasons for unsuitability, age, sex, renal function, CHADS2 score, aspirin dose, duration, indication, and quality of INR control of prior VKA use. The efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin is consistent in subgroups of patients who have previously attempted but failed VKA therapy, irrespective of the reason for discontinuation. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Efficacy and safety of apixaban compared with aspirin in patients who previously tried but failed treatment with vitamin K antagonists: results from the AVERROES trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens, Michiel; Synhorst, David; Eikelboom, John W.; Yusuf, Salim; Shestakovska, Olga; Connolly, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    The AVERROES double-blinded, randomized trial demonstrated that apixaban reduces the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SSE) by 55% compared with aspirin without an increase in major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation either who previously tried but failed vitamin K antagonists (VKA)

  10. Influence of Previous Failed Antispasticity Therapy on the Efficacy and Tolerability of THC:CBD Oromucosal Spray for Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupts, Michael; Vila, Carlos; Jonas, Anna; Witte, Kerstin; Álvarez-Ossorio, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Sativex® (THC:CBD oromucosal spray) is indicated as add-on treatment for patients with moderate to severe multiple sclerosis (MS) spasticity. We aimed to determine whether antispasticity treatment history influenced the efficacy and safety of add-on THC:CBD oromucosal spray in MS spasticity patients. Post hoc analysis of an enriched-design clinical trial of THC:CBD oromucosal spray versus placebo, using records of patients under previous and current ineffective antispasticity therapies. Subgroups were patients with at least 1 failed therapy attempt with either baclofen or tizanidine (Group 1) or at least 2 failed therapy attempts with both baclofen and tizanidine (Group 2). Of 241 patients in the intent-to-treat population, 162 and 57 patients met the criteria for Groups 1 and 2, respectively. In all groups, response on the spasticity 0-10 Numerical Rating Scale was significantly greater with THC:CBD oromucosal spray versus placebo, for minimal clinically important difference (MCID ≥18% improvement vs. baseline) and clinically important difference (CID, ≥30% improvement vs. baseline). THC:CBD oromucosal spray improved spasticity-related symptoms such as sleep quality and timed 10-meter walk independent of the number of prior failed therapy attempts. Tolerability was not influenced by pre-treatment history. THC:CBD oromucosal spray provided consistent relief with good tolerability in MS spasticity patients irrespective of their antispasticity pre-treatment history. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Identification of the orsellinic acid synthase PKS63787 for the biosynthesis of antroquinonols in Antrodia cinnamomea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Po-Wei; Cho, Ting-Yu; Liou, Ruey-Fen; Tzean, Shean-Shong; Lee, Tzong-Huei

    2017-06-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea, an endemic basidiomycete used as a health food in Taiwan, is known to synthesize antroquinonols, which were reported to have notable medicinal potential in oncology and immunology. However, the biosynthetic pathway of these compounds is currently unclear. Our previous study showed that a pks63787 knockout mutant of A. cinnamomea (∆pks63787) is deficient in the biosynthesis of several aromatic metabolites. In this study, we pointed by phylogenetic analysis that pks63787 likely encodes an orsellinic acid synthase. Moreover, amendment of the cultural medium with orsellinic acid not only restores the ability of ∆pks63787 to produce its major pigment and other deficient metabolites, e.g., antroquinonols, but also enhances the productivity of several antroquinonols, including two new compounds 2 and 3. These results provide direct evidence that the PKS63787 is involved in the biosynthesis of antroquinonols and confirmed our hypothesis that the 6-methylcyclohexenone moiety was synthesized via the PKS63787-mediated polyketide pathway. In conclusion, PKS63787 might function as orsellinic acid synthase and orsellinic acid is an important precursor indispensable for the biosynthesis of the major pigment and antroquinonols in A. cinnamomea. To facilitate further basic or applied study, a putative biosynthesis pathway map of antroquinonols is proposed.

  12. Mapping of polyketide biosynthesis pathways in Aspergillus nidulans using a genome wide PKS gene deletion library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Rank, Christian; Klejnstrup, Marie Louise

    In order to map new links between PKS genes and their products in Aspergillus nidulans we have systematically deleted all thirty-two individual genes predicted to encode polyketide synthases in this model organism. This number greatly exceeds the number of currently known PKs calling for new...... approaches for triggering “cryptic” or “silent” genes to see production of compounds not previously observed under laboratory conditions. We therefore decided to challenge our deletion library on eight different complex media, spanning a large variety of alternating carbon and nitrogen sources, vitamins...

  13. Failing Failed States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Hans-Henrik

    2002-01-01

    from inaction. Often, the media are blamed. Politicians complain about the media when they interfere (the CNN effect), and when they do not. This article looks at how the media do cover failing states. Sierra Leone and Congo are used as examples. The analysis shows that there is little independent...

  14. Structure of PKS 1148-001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venugopal, V.R.; Ananthakrishnan, S.; Swarup, G.; Pynzar, A.V.; Udaltsov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) observations of PKS1148-001 at 326.5 and 102.5 MHz are described. The results from these are combined with published VLBI results at various frequencies to derive a three-component model for the source. The three components have sizes 0.0015, 0.01 and 0.1 arcsec and synchrotron self-absorption below frequencies about 1.5, 0.4 and 0.05 GHz respectively. This model is consistent with the total flux density spectrum. It is suggested that the results of the earlier two IPS surveys made at 327 and 408 MHz at Ooty and Arecibo need to be revised, since PKS 1148-001 is more compact than IPS calibrators used in those surveys. (author)

  15. Partai Islam Se-Malaysia (PAS) dan Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) sebagai Partai Islam Pendukung Demokrasi PKS Pada Pemilu

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ali Nurdin

    2015-01-01

    The article compares the achievement of Partai Islam se-Malaysia (PAS) and Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (PKS) in the latest general election held in 2013 in Malaysia and in 2014 in Indonesia. The writer finds that the political performance of PAS and PKS has indicated differently contrast results. While political electability of PAS in the 2013 Malaysia’s general election has disappointed this party, PKS has successfully proved that surveys held by a number of survey institutes—predicting that t...

  16. Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty under failed penetrating keratoplasty: visual rehabilitation and graft survival rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anshu, Arundhati; Price, Marianne O; Price, Francis W

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate graft survival, risk factors for failure, complications, and visual rehabilitation in patients who underwent Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK) under a failed penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Retrospective interventional case series. Sixty eyes (60 patients) treated at Price Vision Group, Indianapolis, Indiana. Graft diameters ranged from 8 to 9 mm and were ∼1 mm larger than the previous PK. The Descemet's membrane was not stripped in the majority (54, 84%). The graft was inserted using forceps or a Busin funnel glide (Moria, Anthony, France). The probability of graft survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Graft survival, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and complications. The mean recipient age was 68 years (range, 17-95 years). Forty eyes had 1 previous failed PK, 14 eyes had 2 previous failed PKs, and 6 eyes had 3 previous failed PKs. Thirty-one eyes (52%) had preexisting glaucoma, and 16 eyes (27%) had prior glaucoma surgery (trabeculectomy in 4, shunt procedure in 12). Fifty-five grafts were performed for visual rehabilitation, and 5 grafts were performed for pain relief. Median follow-up was 2.3 years (range, 2 months to 6 years). Median preoperative BCVA was 1.23 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) (range, 0.2-3, Snellen 20/340), and median postoperative visual improvement was 0.6 logMAR (6 lines), range -0.3 to +2.7. Four eyes had graft detachment (6.6%), 7 eyes (10.5%) had endothelial rejection, and 10 eyes (16.6%) had graft failure (primary failure in 2, secondary failure in 8). The overall secondary graft survival rates were 98%, 90%, 81%, and 74% at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively. Prior glaucoma shunt was the principal risk factor for graft failure. The graft survival rates were 100%, 96%, 96%, and 96% in eyes without a prior shunt versus 93%, 74%, 44%, and 22% with a prior shunt at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years, respectively (P=0.0005; relative risk = 20). Peripheral anterior synechiae

  17. Function analysis of a new type I PKS-SAT domain by SAT-EAT domain replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Y L; Wang, L H; Jiao, B H; Wang, S J; Fang, Y W; Liu, S

    2010-01-01

    The function of a new starter unit acyltransferase (SAT) domain SAT-EF080951 (GenBank accession number) encoded in a new type I polyketide synthase (PKS) gene cluster EF568935 (GenBank accession number) isolated for this study was analyzed by domain replacement with an extender unit AT (EAT) domain of avermectin PKS. It was shown that the SAT-EF080951 incorporated malonyl-CoA specifically in vivo, which contradicted the specificity that we had previously determined by substrate binding test in vitro. The result of this study indicates that type I PKS-SAT can alter its specificity in vivo and functions well in extender units and proved the feasibility of the SAT-EAT domain replacement in type I PKS. We propose that SAT-EAT replacement strategy could be a novel route for increasing the diversity of new polyketides combinatorially biosynthesized. The new type I PKS-SAT-EF080951 studied herein may be further employed for related studies on enzymology or combinatorial biosynthesis of polyketides.

  18. Interkingdom gene transfer of a hybrid NPS/PKS from bacteria to filamentous Ascomycota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Lawrence

    Full Text Available Nonribosomal peptides (NRPs and polyketides (PKs are ecologically important secondary metabolites produced by bacteria and fungi using multidomain enzymes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs and polyketide synthases (PKSs, respectively. Previous phylogenetic analyses of fungal NRPSs and PKSs have suggested that a few of these genes were acquired by fungi via horizontal gene transfer (HGT from bacteria, including a hybrid NPS/PKS found in Cochliobolus heterostrophus (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota. Here, we identify this hybrid gene in fungi representing two additional classes of Ascomycota (Aspergillus spp., Microsporum canis, Arthroderma spp., and Trichophyton spp., Eurotiomycetes; Chaetomium spp. and Metarhizium spp., Sordariomycetes and use phylogenetic analyses of the most highly conserved domains from NRPSs (adenylation (A domain and PKSs (ketoacyl synthase (KS domain to examine the hypothesis that the hybrid NPS7/PKS24 was acquired by fungi from bacteria via HGT relatively early in the evolution of the Pezizomycotina. Our results reveal a unique ancestry of the A domain and KS domain in the hybrid gene relative to known fungal NRPSs and PKSs, provide strong evidence for HGT of the hybrid gene from a putative bacterial donor in the Burkholderiales, and suggest the HGT event occurred early in the evolution of the filamentous Ascomycota.

  19. Effect of a supplementation with myo-inositol plus melatonin on oocyte quality in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization cycles for poor oocyte quality: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfer, Vittorio; Raffone, Emanuela; Rizzo, Piero; Buffo, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    Several factors can affect oocyte quality and therefore pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Recently, a number of studies have shown that the presence of several compounds in the follicular fluid positively correlates with oocyte quality and maturation (i.e., myo-inositol and melatonin). In the present study, we aim to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes after the administration of myo-inositol combined with melatonin in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles due to poor oocyte quality. Forty-six women were treated with 4 g/day myo-inositol and 3 mg/day melatonin (inofolic® and inofolic® Plus, Lo.Lipharma, Rome) for 3 months and then underwent a new IVF cycle. After treatment, the number of mature oocytes, the fertilization rate, the number of both, total and top-quality embryos transferred were statistically higher compared to the previous IVF cycle, while there was no difference in the number of retrieved oocyte. After treatment, a total of 13 pregnancies occurred, 9 of them were confirmed echographically; four evolved in spontaneous abortion. The treatment with myo-inositol and melatonin improves ovarian stimulation protocols and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with poor oocyte quality.

  20. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...... as a controlled cost for achieving organizational goals. Decisions must fail so the organization can succeed. This chapter uses two cases to elaborate on these ideas. By way of introduction, I will reflect on the notion of ‘failing decisions’ within organization and decision theory. This chapter is also propelled...

  1. Optical features associated with the quasar PKS 2135-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, M.R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The field surrounding the quasar PKS 2135-14 has been investigated from B and R photographs taken with the 3.8-m Anglo-Australian telescope. Isophotal plots of the plates, produced with the COSMOS measuring machine, have revealed a number of faint optical features apparently associated with the radio source. (author)

  2. The distribution of gas and galaxies around the distant quasar PKS 1614 + 051

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Esther M.; Cowie, Lennox L.

    1987-01-01

    The results of narrow-band and broad-band filter observations of the region surrounding the z = 3.21 quasars, PKS 1614 + 051, made under subarcsec seeing conditions with the 3.6 m CFHT telescope at Mauna Kea are reported. The nuclear region of the Lyman-alpha companion to the quasar is resolved with a FWHM of about 0.9 arcsec A magnitude fainter. Limits on detectable continuum flux from this object suggest that it is a gas cloud interacting with the quasar, and its emission is consistent with simple photoionization by the quasar. However, the presence of several galaxies around the periphery of the quasar is noted. A search of 11 additional quasars at z greater than 3 has failed to show any other such systems. It is argued that this is consistent with the statistics of extended emission line systems in low-z quasars.

  3. Some physical and mechanical properties of palm kernel shell (PKS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, some of the mechanical and physical properties of palm kernel shells (PKS) were evaluated. These are moisture content, 7.8325 ± 0.6672%; true density, 1.254 ± 5.292 x 10-3 g/cm3; bulk density, 1.1248g/cm3; mean rupture force along width, and thickness were 3174.52 ± 270.70N and 2806.94 ± 498.45N for ...

  4. Low-Redshift Damped Ly(alpha) Galaxies Toward the Quasars B2 0827+243, PKS 0952+179, PKS 1127-145, and PKS 1629+120

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rao, Sandhya M; Nestor, Daniel B; Turnshek, David A; Lane, Wendy M; Monier, Eric M; Bergeron, Jacqueline

    2003-01-01

    .... The corresponding DLA systems were discovered in our Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopic surveys for DLA lines in known strong Mg ii absorption-line systems toward the quasars B2 0827+243, PKS 0952...

  5. Comparative genomic analysis of the PKS genes in five species and expression analysis in upland cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueqiang Su

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plant type III polyketide synthase (PKS can catalyse the formation of a series of secondary metabolites with different structures and different biological functions; the enzyme plays an important role in plant growth, development and resistance to stress. At present, the PKS gene has been identified and studied in a variety of plants. Here, we identified 11 PKS genes from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum and compared them with 41 PKS genes in Populus tremula, Vitis vinifera, Malus domestica and Arabidopsis thaliana. According to the phylogenetic tree, a total of 52 PKS genes can be divided into four subfamilies (I–IV. The analysis of gene structures and conserved motifs revealed that most of the PKS genes were composed of two exons and one intron and there are two characteristic conserved domains (Chal_sti_synt_N and Chal_sti_synt_C of the PKS gene family. In our study of the five species, gene duplication was found in addition to Arabidopsis thaliana and we determined that purifying selection has been of great significance in maintaining the function of PKS gene family. From qRT-PCR analysis and a combination of the role of the accumulation of proanthocyanidins (PAs in brown cotton fibers, we concluded that five PKS genes are candidate genes involved in brown cotton fiber pigment synthesis. These results are important for the further study of brown cotton PKS genes. It not only reveals the relationship between PKS gene family and pigment in brown cotton, but also creates conditions for improving the quality of brown cotton fiber.

  6. Diverse Bacterial PKS Sequences Derived From Okadaic Acid-Producing Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen S. Rein

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Okadaic acid (OA and the related dinophysistoxins are isolated from dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and Dinophysis. Bacteria of the Roseobacter group have been associated with okadaic acid producing dinoflagellates and have been previously implicated in OA production. Analysis of 16S rRNA libraries reveals that Roseobacter are the most abundant bacteria associated with OA producing dinoflagellates of the genus Prorocentrum and are not found in association with non-toxic dinoflagellates. While some polyketide synthase (PKS genes form a highly supported Prorocentrum clade, most appear to be bacterial, but unrelated to Roseobacter or Alpha-Proteobacterial PKSs or those derived from other Alveolates Karenia brevis or Crytosporidium parvum.

  7. Important NIR brightening of the Blazar PKS1244-255

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Escobedo, G.; Chavushyan, V.

    2018-02-01

    We report on NIR photometry of the flat spectrum radio source PKS1244-255, cross identified with the intermediate redshift quasar CGRaBSJ1246-2547 (z=0.633) and the Gamma-ray source 3FGL1246.7-2547, We observed the source in the NIR, finding that on January 27th, 2017 (MJD 2458145.970579) its fluxes corresponded to J = 13.895 +/- 0.03, H = 12.937 +/- 0.02 and Ks = 12.042 +/- 0.04.

  8. Fusarium graminearum PKS14 is involved in orsellinic acid and orcinol synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Simon Hartung; Frandsen, Rasmus John Normand; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2014-01-01

    been linked to products. To help remedy this, we focused on PKS14, which has only been shown to be expressed during plant infections or when cultivated on rice or corn meal (RM) based media. To enhance the production of the resulting product we introduced a constitutive promoter in front of PKS14...

  9. Polyketide synthase (PKS) reduces fusion of Legionella pneumophila-containing vacuoles with lysosomes and contributes to bacterial competitiveness during infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchuk, Olga; Pägelow, Dennis; Rasch, Janine; Döhrmann, Simon; Günther, Gabriele; Hoppe, Julia; Ünal, Can Murat; Bronietzki, Marc; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel; Steinert, Michael

    2014-11-01

    L. pneumophila-containing vacuoles (LCVs) exclude endocytic and lysosomal markers in human macrophages and protozoa. We screened a L. pneumophila mini-Tn10 transposon library for mutants, which fail to inhibit the fusion of LCVs with lysosomes by loading of the lysosomal compartment with colloidal iron dextran, mechanical lysis of infected host cells, and magnetic isolation of LCVs that have fused with lysosomes. In silico analysis of the mutated genes, D. discoideum plaque assays and infection assays in protozoa and U937 macrophage-like cells identified well established as well as novel putative L. pneumophila virulence factors. Promising candidates were further analyzed for their co-localization with lysosomes in host cells using fluorescence microscopy. This approach corroborated that the O-methyltransferase, PilY1, TPR-containing protein and polyketide synthase (PKS) of L. pneumophila interfere with lysosomal degradation. Competitive infections in protozoa and macrophages revealed that the identified PKS contributes to the biological fitness of pneumophila strains and may explain their prevalence in the epidemiology of Legionnaires' disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Lumbar extension traction alleviates symptoms and facilitates healing of disc herniation/sequestration in 6-weeks, following failed treatment from three previous chiropractors: a CBP®case report with an 8 year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Paul A; Harrison, Deed E

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] To present the outcome of a patient, having sciatica and MRI-verified disc herniation/sequestration who underwent Chiropractic BioPhysics ® (CBP ® ) protocol designed to improve the lumbar lordosis. [Subject and Methods] A 56-year-old male suffered from chronic low back pain and recent sciatica due to lumbar disc herniation despite being under continuous care from three previous chiropractors. Radiographic analysis revealed a lumbar hypolordosis and MRI confirmed disc herniation and sequestration at L4-L5. Generalized decreased lumbar range of motion and multiple positive orthopedic and neurologic tests were present. [Results] After 26 treatments of CBP lumbar extension traction over 9-weeks a total reduction of the disc herniation and sequestration occurred with concomitant improvement in neurologic symptoms. Continuing maintenance treatments, an 8 year follow-up shows no relapse of condition and patient remained in good health. [Conclusion] A patient with lumbar disc herniation/sequestration was successfully treated with CBP technique procedures including lumbar extension traction that achieved a significant healing of herniation and significant reduction in symptoms not obtained following traditional chiropractic procedures alone. The quick reduction in lumbar disc herniation would appear to be related to a segmental disc unloading force produced during extension traction procedures for increasing the lumbar curvature.

  11. Classification and Regression Tree Analysis of Clinical Patterns that Predict Survival in 127 Chinese Patients with Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Treated by Gefitinib Who Failed to Previous Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziping WANG

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that gefitinib produces only 10%-20% tumor regression in heavily pretreated, unselected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients as the second- and third-line setting. Asian, female, nonsmokers and adenocarcinoma are favorable factors; however, it is difficult to find a patient satisfying all the above clinical characteristics. The aim of this study is to identify novel predicting factors, and to explore the interactions between clinical variables and their impact on the survival of Chinese patients with advanced NSCLC who were heavily treated with gefitinib in the second- or third-line setting. Methods The clinical and follow-up data of 127 advanced NSCLC patients referred to the Cancer Hospital & Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from March 2005 to March 2010 were analyzed. Multivariate analysis of progression-free survival (PFS was performed using recursive partitioning, which is referred to as the classification and regression tree (CART analysis. Results The median PFS of 127 eligible consecutive advanced NSCLC patients was 8.0 months (95%CI: 5.8-10.2. CART was performed with an initial split on first-line chemotherapy outcomes and a second split on patients’ age. Three terminal subgroups were formed. The median PFS of the three subsets ranged from 1.0 month (95%CI: 0.8-1.2 for those with progressive disease outcome after the first-line chemotherapy subgroup, 10 months (95%CI: 7.0-13.0 in patients with a partial response or stable disease in first-line chemotherapy and age <70, and 22.0 months for patients obtaining a partial response or stable disease in first-line chemotherapy at age 70-81 (95%CI: 3.8-40.1. Conclusion Partial response, stable disease in first-line chemotherapy and age ≥ 70 are closely correlated with long-term survival treated by gefitinib as a second- or third-line setting in advanced NSCLC. CART can be used to identify previously unappreciated patient

  12. Dialectical behaviour therapy and an added cognitive behavioural treatment module for eating disorders in women with borderline personality disorder and anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa who failed to respond to previous treatments. An open trial with a 15-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Schweiger, Ulrich; Sipos, Valerija; Kliem, Sören; Arnold, Ruediger; Schunert, Tanja; Reinecker, Hans

    2010-12-01

    There is evidence from case studies suggesting that adapted dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and eating disorders (ED) might improve disorder related complaints. Twenty-four women with BPD (9 with comorbid anorexia nervosa [AN] and 15 with bulimia nervosa [BN]), who already had failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments were consecutively admitted to an adapted inpatient DBT program. Assessment points were at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 15-month follow-up. At follow-up, the remission rate was 54% for BN, and 33% for AN. Yet 44% of women with AN crossed over to BN and one woman additionally met the criteria of AN. For women with AN, the mean weight was not significantly increased at post-treatment, but had improved at follow-up. For women with BN, the frequency of binge-eating episodes was reduced at post-treatment as well as at follow-up. Self-rated eating-related complaints and general psychopathology, as well as ratings on global psychosocial functioning, were significantly improved at post-treatment and at follow-up. Although these findings support the assumption that the adapted DBT inpatient program is a potentially efficacious treatment for those who failed to respond to previous eating-disorder related inpatient treatments, remission rates and maintained eating-related psychopathology also suggest that this treatment needs further improvement. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular hydrogen in the z = 2.811 absorbing material toward the quasar PKS 0528-250

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levshakov, S.A.; Varshalovich, D.A.

    1985-01-01

    Among the previously unidentified absorbtion features in the spectrum of the quasar PKS 0528-250 obtained by previous authors tentative evidence has been found for H 2 lines at the same redshift (z = 2.811) as that of the well-known absorption-line system. The column density of molecules has been estimated from the curve of growth; the fraction of H 2 appears to be about 2 x 10 -5 . The ortho- to para-H 2 ratio corresponds to the excitation temperature of Tsub(ex)(H 2 ) = 300 +- 150 K, though the upper rotational levels J >= 3 turn out be overpopulated. The results obtained seem to provide substantial evidence for the existence of molecular hydrogen at the early cosmological epoch with z approx. 3. (author)

  14. Engaging Future Failing States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    military missions in the Middle East, the Balkans, Africa, Asia , and South America. There is an increasing proliferation of failed and failing states...disparity, overpopulation , food security, health services availability, migration pressures, environmental degradation, personal and 22 community

  15. The polyketide synthase gene pks4 of Trichoderma reesei provides pigmentation and stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, Lea; Knox, Benjamin P; Kubicek, Christian P; Druzhinina, Irina S; Baker, Scott E

    2013-11-01

    Species of the fungal genus Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) are well-known for their production of various secondary metabolites. Nonribosomal peptides and polyketides represent a major portion of these products. In a recent phylogenomic investigation of Trichoderma polyketide synthase (PKS)-encoding genes, the pks4 from T. reesei was shown to be an orthologue of pigment-forming PKSs involved in synthesis of aurofusarin and bikaverin in Fusarium spp. In this study, we show that deletion of this gene in T. reesei results in loss of green conidial pigmentation and in pigmentation alteration of teleomorph structures. It also has an impact on conidial cell wall stability and the antagonistic abilities of T. reesei against other fungi, including formation of inhibitory metabolites. In addition, deletion of pks4 significantly influences the expression of other PKS-encoding genes of T. reesei. To our knowledge, this is the first indication that a low-molecular-weight pigment-forming PKS is involved in defense, mechanical stability, and stress resistance in fungi.

  16. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isvett J. Flores-Sanchez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

  17. In silicio expression analysis of PKS genes isolated from Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Sanchez, Isvett J; Linthorst, Huub J M; Verpoorte, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Cannabinoids, flavonoids, and stilbenoids have been identified in the annual dioecious plant Cannabis sativa L. Of these, the cannabinoids are the best known group of this plant's natural products. Polyketide synthases (PKSs) are responsible for the biosynthesis of diverse secondary metabolites, including flavonoids and stilbenoids. Biosynthetically, the cannabinoids are polyketide substituted with terpenoid moiety. Using an RT-PCR homology search, PKS cDNAs were isolated from cannabis plants. The deduced amino acid sequences showed 51%-73% identity to other CHS/STS type sequences of the PKS family. Further, phylogenetic analysis revealed that these PKS cDNAs grouped with other non-chalcone-producing PKSs. Homology modeling analysis of these cannabis PKSs predicts a 3D overall fold, similar to alfalfa CHS2, with small steric differences on the residues that shape the active site of the cannabis PKSs.

  18. THE NATURE OF {gamma}-RAY LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT I GALAXIES PKS 1502+036 AND PKS 2004-447

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S.; Shukla, Amit [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Block II, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034 (India); Sahayanathan, S., E-mail: vaidehi@iiap.res.in [Astrophysical Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-05-01

    Variable {gamma}-ray emission has been discovered in five radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies by the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. This has clearly demonstrated that these NLSy1 galaxies do have relativistic jets similar to two other cases of {gamma}-ray-emitting active galactic nuclei (AGNs), namely, blazars and radio galaxies. We present here our results on the multi-band analysis of two {gamma}-ray-emitting NLSy1 galaxies, namely, PKS 1502+036 (z = 0.409) and PKS 2004-447 (z = 0.240), using archival data. We generate multi-band long-term light curves of these sources, build their spectral energy distribution (SED), and model them using a one-zone leptonic model. They resemble more the SEDs of the flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) class of AGNs. We then compare the SEDs of these two sources with two other Fermi-detected AGNs along the traditional blazar sequence, namely, the BL Lac Mrk 421 (z = 0.03) and the FSRQ 3C 454.3 (z = 0.86). The SEDs of both PKS 1502+036 and PKS 2004-447 are found to be intermediate to the SEDs of Mrk 421 and 3C 454.3. In the {gamma}-ray spectral index versus {gamma}-ray luminosity plane, both these NLSy1 galaxies occupy a distinct position, wherein they have luminosity between Mrk 421 and 3C 454.3; however, their steep {gamma}-ray spectra are similar to 3C 454.3. Their Compton dominance as well as their X-ray spectral slope also lie between Mrk 421 and 3C 454.3. We argue that the physical properties of both PKS 1502+036 and PKS 2004-447 are generally similar to blazars and intermediate between FSRQs and BL Lac objects and these sources thus could fit into the traditional blazar sequence.

  19. THE NATURE OF A GALAXY ALONG THE SIGHT LINE TO PKS 0454+039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Marianne [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Hawaii Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chun, Mark [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii Manoa, HI 96822 (United States); Kulkarni, Varsha P.; Gharanfoli, Soheila, E-mail: takamiya@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, SC 29208 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We report on the properties of a faint blue galaxy (G1) along the line of sight to the QSO PKS 0454+039 from spectroscopic and imaging data. We measured emission lines of H{alpha}, [S II] {lambda}{lambda}6716, 6732, and [N II] {lambda}6584 in the spectrum of G1 obtained with the Gemini/GMOS instrument. The spectroscopic redshift of G1 is z = 0.0715 {+-} 0.0002. From the extinction-corrected H{alpha} flux, we determine a modest star formation rate of SFR = 0.07 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a specific SFR of log (sSFR) -8.4. Using three different abundance indicators, we determine a nebular abundance 12 + log (O/H) ranging from 7.6 to 8.2. Based on the velocity dispersion inferred from the emission line widths and the observed surface brightness profile, we estimate the virial mass of G1 to be M{sub vir} {approx} 6.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun} with an effective radius of 2.0 kpc. We estimate the stellar mass of G1 using spectral energy distribution fitting to be M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 1.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} and an r'-luminosity of L{sub r'} = 1.5x10{sup 8} L{sub Sun }. Overall, G1 is a faint, low-mass, low-metallicity Im/H II galaxy. We also report on the line flux limits of another source (G3) which is the most likely candidate for the absorber system at z = 0.8596. From the spectrum of the QSO itself, we report a previously undetected Mg II {lambda}{lambda}2796, 2803 absorption line system at z = 1.245.

  20. Tentative detection of warm intervening gas towards PKS 0548-322 with XMM-Newton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcons, X.

    2005-03-17

    We present the results of a long ({approx} 93 ksec) XMM-Newton observation of the bright BL-Lac object PKS 0548-322 (z = 0.069). Our Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) spectrum shows a single absorption feature at an observed wavelength {lambda} = 23.33 {+-} 0.01 {angstrom} which we interpret as OVI K{alpha} absorption at z = 0.058, i.e., {approx} 3000 km s{sup -1} from the background object. The observed equivalent width of the absorption line {approx} 30m {angstrom}, coupled with the lack of the corresponding absorption edge in the EPIC pn data, implies a column density N{sub OVI} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and turbulence with a Doppler velocity parameter b > 100 km s{sup -1}. Within the limitations of our RGS spectrum, no OVII or OV K{alpha} absorption are detected. Under the assumption of ionization equilibrium by both collisions and the extragalactic background, this is only marginally consistent if the gas temperature is {approx} 2.5 x 10{sup 5} K, with significantly lower or higher values being excluded by our limits on OV or OVII. If confirmed, this would be the first X-ray detection of a large amount of intervening warm absorbing gas through OVI absorption. The existence of such a high column density absorber, much stronger than any previously detected one in OVI, would place stringent constraints on the large-scale distribution of baryonic gas in the Universe.

  1. The PKS4 gene in Fusarium graminearum is essential for zearalenone production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysøe, E.; Klemsdal, S. S.; Bone, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    polyketide synthase genes identified in the Fusarium graminearum database was carried out for these mutants. PKS4 was the only gene with an enoyl reductase domain that had a higher level of transcription in the aurofusarin mutants than in the wild type. An Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation...

  2. PERAN BUDAYA ORGANISASI DALAM MEWUJUDKAN VISI MISI PARTAI KEADILAN SEJAHTERA (PKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Much. Yulianto

    2016-11-01

    The results showed: (1 organizational culture play a role in shaping the identity and character of party members; (2 The organizational culture also plays a role in encouraging loyalty and solidity of party members; (3 the organizational culture at PKS played role in strengthening the confidence of individual members.

  3. Linker Flexibility Facilitates Module Exchange in Fungal Hybrid PKS-NRPS Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund; Petersen, Thomas Isbrandt; Petersen, Lene Maj

    2016-01-01

    Polyketide synthases (PKSs) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural PKS-NRPS fusions. Rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives...

  4. Multi-Wavelength Variability in PKS 2155-304 Y. G. Zheng1,2, L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009), we attempt to model the multi-wavelength variability in PKS 2155-304. We assume that the acceleration process is a stochastic process and we describe it as the diffusion of the particle momentum. Throughout the paper, we assume the. Hubble constant H0 = 70 km s−1. Mpc. −1. , the matter energy density M = 0.27,.

  5. PKS 1814-637: a powerful radio-loud AGN in a disk galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morganti, R.; Holt, J.; Tadhunter, C.; Almeida, C. Ramos; Dicken, D.; Inskip, K.; Oosterloo, T.; Tzioumis, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed study of PKS 1814-637, a rare case of powerful radio source (P5 GHz = 4.1 × 1025 W Hz-1) hosted by a disk galaxy. Optical images have been used to model the host galaxy morphology confirming it to be dominated by a strong (and warped) disk component that is observed close to

  6. Multiwavelength variability study and search for periodicity of PKS 1510-089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castignani, G.; Pian, E.; Belloni, T. M.; D'Ammando, F.; Foschini, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Pursimo, T.; Bazzano, A.; Beckmann, V.; Bianchin, V.; Fiocchi, M. T.; Impiombato, D.; Raiteri, C. M.; Soldi, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Treves, A.; Türler, M.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Blazars are the most luminous and variable active galactic nuclei (AGNs). They are thus excellent probes of accretion and emission processes close to the central engine. Aims: We concentrate here on PKS 1510-089 (z = 0.36), a blazar belonging to the flat-spectrum radio quasar subclass, an extremely powerful gamma-ray source and one of the brightest in the Fermi-LAT catalog. We aim to study the complex variability of this blazar's bright multiwavelength spectrum, to identify the physical parameters responsible for the variations and the timescales of possible recurrence and quasi-periodicity at high energies. Methods: The blazar PKS 1510-089 was observed twice in hard X-rays with the IBIS instrument onboard INTEGRAL during the flares of Jan. 2009 and Jan. 2010, and simultaneously with Swift and the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), in addition to the constant Fermi monitoring. We also measured the optical polarization in several bands on 18 Jan. 2010 at the NOT.Using these and archival data we constructed historical light curves at gamma-to-radio wavelengths covering nearly 20 yr and applied tests of fractional and correlated variability. We assembled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) based on these data and compared them with those at two previous epochs, by applying a model based on synchrotron and inverse Compton radiation from blazars. Results: The modeling of the SEDs suggests that the physical quantities that undergo the largest variations are the total power injected into the emitting region and the random Lorentz factor of the electron distribution cooling break, that are higher in the higher gamma-ray states. This suggests a correlation of the injected power with enhanced activity of the acceleration mechanism. The cooling likely takes place at a distance of 1000 Schwarzschild radii( 0.03 pc) from the central engine - a distance muchsmaller than the broad line region (BLR) radius.The emission at a few hundred GeV can be reproduced with inverse

  7. Genetic diversity, phylogroup distribution and virulence gene profile of pks positive Escherichia coli colonizing human intestinal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarshar, Meysam; Scribano, Daniela; Marazzato, Massimiliano; Ambrosi, Cecilia; Aprea, Maria Rita; Aleandri, Marta; Pronio, Annamaria; Longhi, Catia; Nicoletti, Mauro; Zagaglia, Carlo; Palamara, Anna Teresa; Conte, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    Some Escherichia coli strains of phylogroup B2 harbor a (pks) pathogenicity island that encodes a polyketide-peptide genotoxin called colibactin. It causes DNA double-strand breaks and megalocytosis in eukaryotic cells and it may contribute to cancer development. Study of bacterial community that colonizes the adenomatous polyp lesion, defined as precancerous lesions, could be helpful to assess if such pathogenic bacteria possess a role in the polyp progression to cancer. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 1500 E. coli isolates were obtained from biopsies of patients presenting adenomatous colon polyps, the normal tissues adjacent to the polyp lesion and patients presenting normal mucosa. pks island frequency, phylogenetic grouping, fingerprint genotyping, and virulence gene features of pks positive (pks + ) E. coli isolates were performed. We found pks + E. coli strongly colonize two patients presenting polypoid lesions and none were identified in patients presenting normal mucosa. Predominant phylogroups among pks + E. coli isolates were B2, followed by D. Clustering based on fragment profiles of composite analysis, typed the pks + isolates into 5 major clusters (I-V) and 17 sub-clusters, demonstrating a high level of genetic diversity among them. The most prevalent virulence genes were fimH and fyuA (100%), followed by vat (92%), hra and papA (69%), ibeA (28%), and hlyA (25%). Our results revealed that pks + E. coli can colonize the precancerous lesions, with a high distribution in both the polyp lesions and in normal tissues adjacent to the lesion. The high differences in fingerprinting patterns obtained indicate that pks + E. coli strains were genetically diverse, possibly allowing them to more easily adapt to environmental variations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Starter unit flexibility for engineered product synthesis by the nonreducing polyketide synthase PksA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitt-Roehl, Callie R; Hill, Eric A; Adams, Martina M; Vagstad, Anna L; Li, Jesse W; Townsend, Craig A

    2015-06-19

    Nonreducing polyketide synthases (NR-PKSs) are unique among PKSs in their domain structure, notably including a starter unit:acyl-carrier protein (ACP) transacylase (SAT) domain that selects an acyl group as the primer for biosynthesis, most commonly acetyl-CoA from central metabolism. This clan of mega-enzymes resembles fatty acid synthases (FASs) by sharing both their central chain elongation steps and their capacity for iterative catalysis. In this mode of synthesis, catalytic domains involved in chain extension exhibit substrate plasticity to accommodate growing chains as small as two carbons to 20 or more. PksA is the NR-PKS central to the biosynthesis of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 whose SAT domain accepts an unusual hexanoyl starter from a dedicated yeast-like FAS. Explored in this paper is the ability of PksA to utilize a selection of potential starter units as substrates to initiate and sustain extension and cyclization to on-target, programmed polyketide synthesis. Most of these starter units were successfully accepted and properly processed by PksA to achieve biosynthesis of the predicted naphthopyrone product. Analysis of the on-target and derailment products revealed trends of tolerance by individual PksA domains to alternative starter units. In addition, natural and un-natural variants of the active site cysteine were examined and found to be capable of biosynthesis, suggesting possible direct loading of starter units onto the β-ketoacyl synthase (KS) domain. In light of the data assembled here, the predictable synthesis of unnatural products by NR-PKSs is more fully defined.

  9. Failed endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheykhol Islami V

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of failed intubation is higher in obstetric than other surgical patients. Failed intubation was the 2nd commonest cause of mortality during anesthesia. Bearing in mind that failre to intubate may be unavoidable in certain circumstances, it is worth reviewing. The factors, which may contribute to a disastrous out come. Priorities of subsequent management must include maintaining oxygenation and preventing aspiration of gastric contents. Fiber optic intubation is now the technique of choice with a high success rate and with least trauma to the patient.

  10. Both a PKS and a PPTase are involved in melanin biosynthesis and regulation of Aureobasidium melanogenum XJ5-1 isolated from the Taklimakan desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Liu, Guang-Lei; Chi, Zhe; Wang, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Ly-Ly; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2017-02-20

    A PKS1 gene responsible for the melanin biosynthesis and a NPG1 gene in Aureobasidium melanogenum XJ5-1 were cloned and characterized. An ORF of the PKS1 gene encoding a protein with 2165 amino acids contained 6495bp while an ORF of the NPG1 gene encoding a protein with 340 amino acids had 1076bp. After analysis of their promoters, it was found that expression of both the PKS1 gene and the NPG1 gene was repressed by nitrogen sources and glucose, respectively. The PKS deduced from the cloned gene consisted of one ketosynthase, one acyl transferase, two acyl carrier proteins, one thioesterase and one cyclase while the PPTase belonged to the family Sfp-type. After disruption of the PKS1 gene and the NPG1 gene, expression of the PKS1 gene and the NPG1 gene and the melanin biosynthesis in the disruptants K5 and DP107 disappeared and expression of the PKS1 gene in the disruptant DP107 was also negatively influenced. However, after the NPG1 gene was complemented in the disruptant DP107, the melanin biosynthesis in the complementary strain BP17 was restored and expression of the PKS1 gene and the NPG1 gene was greatly enhanced, suggesting that the PKS was indeed activated and regulated by the PPTase and expression of the PKS1 gene and the NPG1 gene had a coordinate regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martucci, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    A failed fuel detection apparatus is described for a nuclear reactor having a liquid cooled core comprising a gas collection hood adapted to engage the top of the suspect assembly and means for delivering a stripping gas to the vicinity of the bottom of the suspect fuel assembly. (U.S.)

  12. Who Really Failed? Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiuri, Katherine M.; Leon, Raul A.

    2012-01-01

    Scott Jaschik's (2010) article "Who Really Failed?" details the experience of Dominique Homberger, a tenured faculty member at Louisiana State University (LSU) who was removed from teaching her introductory biology course citing student complaints in regards to "the extreme nature" of the grading policy. This removal has…

  13. Simultaneous Observations of PKS 2155--304 with H.E.S.S., Fermi, RXTE and ATOM: Spectral Energy Distributions and Variability in a Low State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharonian, F.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Dublin Inst.; Akhperjanian, A.G.; /Yerevan Phys. Inst.; Anton, G.; /Erlangen - Nuremberg U.; Barres de Almeida, U.; /Durham U.; Bazer-Bachi, A.R.; /Toulouse, CESR; Becherini, Y.; /APC, Paris; Behera, B.; /Heidelberg Observ.; Bernlohr, K.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Humboldt U., Berlin; Boisson, C.; /LUTH, Meudon; Bochow, A.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Borrel, V.; /Toulouse, CESR; Brion, E.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Brucker, J.; /Erlangen - Nuremberg U.; Brun, P.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Buhler, R.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst.; Bulik, T.; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Busching, I.; /Western Ontario U.; Boutelier, T.; /Grenoble Observ.; Chadwick, P.M.; /Durham U.; Charbonnier, A.; /Paris U., VI-VII; Chaves, R.C.G.; /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Durham U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Annecy, LAPP /Humboldt U., Berlin /Durham U. /Namibia U. /Western Ontario U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Durham U. /APC, Paris /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Dublin Inst. /Annecy, LAPP /Grenoble Observ. /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr. /Cracow, INP /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Heidelberg Observ. /APC, Paris /Montpellier U. /Montpellier U. /Montpellier U. /Heidelberg, Max Planck Inst. /Ecole Polytechnique /Humboldt U., Berlin /Dublin Inst. /Montpellier U. /APC, Paris /SLAC; /more authors..

    2009-05-07

    We report on the first simultaneous observations that cover the optical, X-ray, and high-energy gamma-ray bands of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304. The gamma-ray bands were observed for 11 days, between 2008 August 25 and 2008 September 6 (MJD 54704-54715), jointly with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the HESS atmospheric Cherenkov array, providing the first simultaneous MeV-TeV spectral energy distribution (SED) with the new generation of {gamma}-ray telescopes. The ATOM telescope and the RXTE and Swift observatories provided optical and X-ray coverage of the low-energy component over the same time period. The object was close to the lowest archival X-ray and very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) state, whereas the optical flux was much higher. The light curves show relatively little ({approx}30%) variability overall when compared to past flaring episodes, but we find a clear optical/VHE correlation and evidence for a correlation of the X-rays with the high-energy spectral index. Contrary to previous observations in the flaring state, we do not find any correlation between the X-ray and VHE components. Although synchrotron self-Compton models are often invoked to explain the SEDs of BL Lac objects, the most common versions of these models are at odds with the correlated variability we find in the various bands for PKS 2155-304.

  14. Observations, with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, of the gamma emission by the Active Galactic Nuclei PKS 2155-304 above 100 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    The H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System) experiment consists of four imaging Atmospheric Cerenkov detectors dedicated to the study of southern hemisphere sources emitting photons above 100 GeV. This thesis presents the instrument and also the analysis chain. First the calibration of the cameras is presented using 'classical methods' (pulsed light systems, pedestals positions...) but also real Cerenkov signal coming from atmospheric muons. An extraction method for gamma ray signals then presented with the spectral shape determination, which is applied to the Crab Nebula. All these techniques were applied to confirm the emission above 100 GeV from the Active Galactic Nuclei PKS 2155-304. The different observation periods in 2002 and 2003 show a quasi-stable source activity which allowed to postulate the first detection of a quiescent state for this type of object in the TeV range. This confirm the gain in sensitivity reached by H.E.S.S. compared to the previous experiments. The spectrum of PKS 2155-304 allows the study of the extragalactic background light using absorption of the very high energy emission from the source. This study leads to incoherencies between a pure SSC scenario for BL Lac objects and high EBL densities. (author) [fr

  15. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  16. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  17. Searching for Failed Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Jill; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the deaths of massive stars is key to understanding both stellar evolution and the chemical enrichment of the universe. Only by monitoring all the massive stars in a large sample over years are we able to take a statistical approach to the deaths of massive stars and possibly observe the rare phenomenon of a failed supernova, a massive star that collapses to form a black hole without a SN explosion. To this end, we have been monitoring 25 galaxies within 10 Mpc with the Large Binocular Telescope for the past 4 years. Analyzing the data using image subtraction, we monitor the fate of all ~106 evolved supergiants in these galaxies to obtain limits on the rate of failed supernovae. We search for stars that have "vanished'' over the course of our survey, by examining all stars showing a decrease in luminosity of ΔνLν ≥ 104L⊙ from the first to the last observation. If we can detect the variable source in our last observation, it is not considered a vanished supergiant or failed supernova. We also identify sources that have increased in luminosity by this same amount, allowing us to estimate our false-positive rates. In addition to the search that does not require a particular signature, we also search for the low luminosity, long period transients predicted by Lovegrove & Woosley (2013) for failed explosions of red supergiants. Among many other applications, the survey also provides photometry of SN progenitors and the first light curves of these stars. Here I present the first results of the survey and provide the first direct limits on the rate of failed supernovae.

  18. VdPKS1 is required for melanin formation and virulence in a cotton wilt pathogen Verticillium dahliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Bosen; Hua, Chenlei; Meng, Pei; Wang, Sheng; Chen, Zhirong; Du, Yejuan; Gao, Feng; Huang, Jiafeng

    2017-08-01

    Verticillium dahliae is a soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt disease in a broad range of hosts. This pathogen survives for many years in soil in the form of melanized microsclerotia. To investigate the melanin synthesis in V. dahliae, we identified a polyketide synthase gene in V. dahliae, namely VdPKS1. PKS1 is known to involve in the dihydroxynaphthalene melanin synthesis pathway in many fungi. We found that VdPKS1 was required for melanin formation but not for microsclerotial production in V. dahliae. The VdPKS1 gene-disruption mutant (vdpks1) formed melanin-deficient albino microsclerotia, which did not affect the fungal colonization in host tissues but significantly reduced the disease severity. Gene transcription analysis in the wild-type and the vdpks1 strains suggested that VdPKS1 gene-disruption influenced the expression of a series of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, microsclerotial formation and pathogenesis. Our results suggest that the VdPKS1-mediated melanin synthesis is important for virulence and developmental traits of V. dahliae.

  19. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  20. Dinamika Islam Politik Pasca Orde baru: Kajian Psikoanalisi Lacanian atas Hubungan KAMMI dan PKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Rizky Mardhatillah Umar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at analyzing the relations between student movement andpolitical party in post-reform era of Indonesia. KAMMI, a prominent Islamiststudent movement in Indonesia, often associated with PKS (Prosperous JusticeParty in terms of identity and political practices. It has created ‘independencedilemma’ for KAMMI because since its first Congress in 1998, this studentorganization has declared ‘independent from all political forces’. This article,using Lacanian psychoanalytical tradition, exposes the forms of KAMMI’ssubjectivity and PKS interpellation that enable this political party to dominateKAMMI’s articulatory practices. The interpellation process is supported withthe projection of fantacy, emotion, and mirror in the development of KAMMIsince 1998 until present. It leads to PKS creating the KAMMI identity andthus made KAMMI’s articulatory practices identical with this party. However,there were several attempts to dislocate the hegemony through several internalreform movements. These attempts, although made contribution to internaldynamics within KAMMI, were unable to create alternative discourse dueto several limits of those movements. The case of KAMMI can be a model toexplain how other student movements develop and relate to political parties inIndonesian post-reform.

  1. A precise deuterium abundance: remeasurement of the z = 3.572 absorption system towards the quasar PKS1937-101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Kotuš, S.; Webb, J. K.; Ali, K.; Dumont, V.; Murphy, M. T.; Carswell, R. F.

    2017-07-01

    The primordial deuterium abundance probes fundamental physics during the big bang nucleosynthesis and can be used to infer cosmological parameters. Observationally, the abundance can be measured using absorbing clouds along the lines of sight to distant quasars. Observations of the quasar PKS1937-101 contain two absorbers for which the deuterium abundance has previously been determined. Here, we focus on the higher redshift one at zabs = 3.572. We present new observations with significantly increased signal-to-noise ratio that enable a far more precise and robust measurement of the deuterium to hydrogen column density ratio, resulting in D I/H I = 2.62 ± 0.05 × 10-5. This particular measurement is of interest because it is amongst the most precise assessments to date and it has been derived from the second lowest column-density absorber [N(H I) = 17.9 cm-2] that has so-far been utilized for deuterium abundance measurements. The majority of existing high-precision measurements were obtained from considerably higher column density systems [I.e. N(H I) > 19.4 cm-2]. This bodes well for future observations as low column density systems are more common.

  2. Failed fuel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogure, Sumio; Seya, Toru; Watanabe, Masaaki.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To enhance the reliability of a failed fuel detector which detects radioactivity of nuclear fission products leaked out from fuel elements in cooling water. Constitution: Collected specimen is introduced into a separator and co-existing material considered to be an impediment is separated and removed by ion exchange resins, after which this specimen is introduced into a container housing therein a detector to systematically measure radioactivity. Thereby, it is possible to detect a signal lesser in variation in background, and inspection work also becomes simple. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....

  4. Molecular typing using polymorphisms of the polyketide synthase gene (PKS1) of strains in Japan morphologically identified as Fonsecaea pedrosoi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Fonsecaea pedrosoi sensu lato is a major causative agent of dematiaceous fungal infection in Japan. Recent sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the ribosomal RNA gene has shown that this species can be separated into three species: F. pedrosoi sensu stricto, F. monophora and F. nubica. The cell walls of dematiaceous fungi including the genus Fonsecaea contain melanin, which is important for their virulence. Polyketide synthase (PKS1) is an enzyme required for melanin synthesis. This study analyzed the phylogeny of strains of F. pedrosoi sensu lato isolated in Japan by sequencing the PKS1 gene and ITS regions and identifying molecular polymorphism. Sixty strains morphologically identified as F. pedrosoi isolated worldwide, including 37 strains isolated in Japan, were analyzed. ITS regions of the ribosomal RNA gene and part of the PKS1 gene region were amplified, yielding sequences of approximately 600 and 450 bp, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction products were sequenced, and cluster analysis was performed. The proposed phylogenetic tree based on PKS1 sequences closely matched that based on the ITS regions. Sequencing of both regions showed that the isolates from Japan belonged to the clade of F. monophora. Molecular variations of these Japanese strains were evaluated by assessing both ITS and PKS1 sequences. The 37 isolates could be divided into at least seven molecular subtypes. The combination of these two molecular markers provides a most robust method for intraspecies subtyping and further epidemiological study of F. monophora. © 2016 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  5. Search for a narrow baryonic state decaying to pKS0 and p‾KS0 in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Abramowicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A search for a narrow baryonic state in the pKS0 and p‾KS0 system has been performed in ep collisions at HERA with the ZEUS detector using an integrated luminosity of 358pb−1 taken in 2003–2007. The search was performed with deep inelastic scattering events at an ep centre-of-mass energy of 318GeV for exchanged photon virtuality, Q2, between 20 and 100GeV2. Contrary to evidence presented for such a state around 1.52 GeV in a previous ZEUS analysis using a sample of 121 pb−1 taken in 1996–2000, no resonance peak was found in the p(p‾KS0 invariant-mass distribution in the range 1.45–1.7 GeV. Upper limits on the production cross section are set.

  6. Very Rapid High-amplitude Gamma-Ray Variability in Luminous Blazar PKS 1510-089 Studied with Fermi-LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, S.; Stawarz, L.; Tanaka, Y.T.; Takahashi, T.; Madejski, G.; D' Ammando, F.

    2013-03-20

    Here we report on the detailed analysis of the γ-ray light curve of a luminous blazar PKS 1510-089 observed in the GeV range with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite during the period 2011 September - December. By investigating the properties of the detected three major flares with the shortest possible time binning allowed by the photon statistics, we find a variety of temporal characteristics and variability patterns. This includes a clearly asymmetric profile (with a faster flux rise and a slower decay) of the flare resolved on sub-daily timescales, a superposition of many short uncorrelated flaring events forming the apparently coherent longer-duration outburst, and a huge single isolated outburst unresolved down to the timescale of three-hours. In the latter case we estimate the corresponding γ-ray flux doubling timescale to be below one hour, which is extreme and never previously reported for any active galaxy

  7. The use of palm kernel shell (PKS) as substrate material in vertical-flow engineered wetlands for septage treatment in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Valerie Siaw Wee; Tang, Fu Ee

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the treatment of septage (originating from septic tanks) was carried out in a pilot-scale, two-staged, vertical-flow engineered wetland (VFEW). Palm kernel shells (PKS) were incorporated as part of the VFEW's substrate (B-PKS), to compare its organic matter (OM) and nitrogen (N) removal efficiency against wetlands with only sand substrates (B-SD). The results revealed satisfactory OM removal with >90% reduction efficiencies at both wetlands B-PKS and B-SD. No increment of chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration was observed in the effluent of B-PKS. Ammonia load removal efficiencies were comparable (>91% and 95% in wetland B-PKS and B-SD, respectively). However, nitrate accumulation was observed in the effluent of B-SD where PKS was absent. This was due to the limited denitrification in B-SD, as sand is free of carbon. A lower nitrate concentration was associated with higher COD concentration in the effluent at B-PKS. This study has shown that the use of PKS was effective in improving the N removal efficiency in engineered wetlands.

  8. Small Private Key PKS on an Embedded Microprocessor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hwajeong; Kim, Jihyun; Choi, Jongseok; Park, Taehwan; Liu, Zhe; Kim, Howon

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate quadratic ( ) cryptography requires the use of long public and private keys to ensure a sufficient security level, but this is not favorable to embedded systems, which have limited system resources. Recently, various approaches to cryptography using reduced public keys have been studied. As a result of this, at CHES2011 (Cryptographic Hardware and Embedded Systems, 2011), a small public key scheme, was proposed, and its feasible implementation on an embedded microprocessor was reported at CHES2012. However, the implementation of a small private key scheme was not reported. For efficient implementation, random number generators can contribute to reduce the key size, but the cost of using a random number generator is much more complex than computing on modern microprocessors. Therefore, no feasible results have been reported on embedded microprocessors. In this paper, we propose a feasible implementation on embedded microprocessors for a small private key scheme using a pseudo-random number generator and hash function based on a block-cipher exploiting a hardware Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) accelerator. To speed up the performance, we apply various implementation methods, including parallel computation, on-the-fly computation, optimized logarithm representation, vinegar monomials and assembly programming. The proposed method reduces the private key size by about 99.9% and boosts signature generation and verification by 5.78% and 12.19% than previous results in CHES2012. PMID:24651722

  9. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  10. Upper Mantle Seismic Anisotropy Beneath the Northern Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica from PKS, SKS, and SKKS Splitting Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, J. H.; Hansen, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    Stretching 3500 km across Antarctica, the Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) separate the stable East Antarctic craton from the West Antarctic Rift System. Using data from a new, 15-station seismic array, known as the Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, this study aims to constrain azimuthal anisotropy beneath a previously unexplored portion of the TAMs to assess both past and present deformational processes occurring in this region. Shear wave splitting parameters, including fast anisotropic axis directions and delay times, have been calculated for PKS, SKS, and SKKS phases using both the rotation-correlation and eigenvalue methods within the MATLAB-based SplitLab software package. Results show a relatively consistent average fast direction across the study area of 43 degrees, with an average delay time of 1.0 second. However, stations closer to the Ross Sea coastline show larger delay times compared to those behind the TAMs front, averaging 1.62 seconds. Our findings are similar to those from previous shear wave splitting investigations in regions neighboring our study area. Behind the TAMs front, East Antarctica is underlain by cold, thick continental lithosphere, and we suggest that anisotropy in this area is primarily localized in the upper mantle, associated with relict tectonic fabric from deformation events early in Antarctica's tectonic history. In contrast, the larger delay times near the coast may reflect anisotropy associated with a recently identified upper mantle velocity anomaly. This feature has been interpreted as the signature of rift-related decompression melting and Cenozoic extension; hence, the anisotropic signature may be associated with current tectonic processes beneath the TAMs front.

  11. HUBUNGAN KETERBUKAAN DIRI DALAM TA’ARUFDAN KEPUTUSAN MENIKAH KELOMPOK TARBIYAH PKS CABANG POLOKARTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Anung Aryanto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu sarana dalam perkenalan untuk menuju pernikahan adalah dengan Ta’aruf. Proses ini mengikutsertakan keterbukaan diri dengan saling memberi informasi data diri kepada calon pasangan. Pertemuan ini bertujuan untuk mengenal satu sama lain untuk membentuk keluarga. Dalam mengambil keputusan dalam menikah tergantung proses keterbukaan diri dalam Ta’aruf.Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui adakah hubungan antara keterbukaan diri dalam Ta’aruf dengan keputusan menikah pada kelompok TarbiyahPKS cabang Polokarto. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan Kuantitatif dengan menyebarkan kuesioner atau angket kepada sampel. Dengan sampel 80 orang yang merupakan anggota TarbiyahPKS sudah mengalami proses Ta’aruf.Teknik pengambilan data dengan kuesioner dengan teknik analisis data studi korelasi. Hasil pengolahan data menunjukkan nilai r hitung > r tabel (0,589 > 0,219 dan signifikansi sebesar 0,000 lebih kecil dari 0,05. Berdasarkan hasil pengolahan data, maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa keterbukaan diri dalam Ta’aruf memiliki hubungan dengan keputusan untuk menikah. Nilai koefisien korelasi sebesar 0,589 menunjukkan bahwa terdapat hubungan yang cukup kuat dan searah antara keterbukaan diri dalam Ta’aruf dengan keputusan menikah. Artinya, semakin tinggi keterbukaan diri dalam Ta’aruf maka semakin meningkat keputusan untuk menikah.

  12. ULTRALUMINOUS STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AND EXTREMELY LUMINOUS WARM MOLECULAR HYDROGEN EMISSION AT z = 2.16 IN THE PKS 1138–26 RADIO GALAXY PROTOCLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, P.; Davies, J. E.; Helou, G.; Appleton, P. N.; Bertincourt, B.; Seymour, N.

    2012-01-01

    A deep Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph map of the PKS 1138–26 galaxy protocluster reveals ultraluminous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from obscured star formation in three protocluster galaxies, including Hα-emitter (HAE) 229, HAE 131, and the central Spiderweb Galaxy. Star formation rates of ∼500-1100 M ☉ yr –1 are estimated from the 7.7 μm PAH feature. At such prodigious formation rates, the galaxy stellar masses will double in 0.6-1.1 Gyr. We are viewing the peak epoch of star formation for these protocluster galaxies. However, it appears that extinction of Hα is much greater (up to a factor of 40) in the two ULIRG HAEs compared to the Spiderweb. This may be attributed to different spatial distributions of star formation-nuclear star formation in the HAEs versus extended star formation in accreting satellite galaxies in the Spiderweb. We find extremely luminous mid-IR rotational line emission from warm molecular hydrogen in the Spiderweb Galaxy, with L(H 2 0-0 S(3)) = 1.4 × 10 44 erg s –1 (3.7 × 10 10 L ☉ ), ∼20 times more luminous than any previously known H 2 emission galaxy (MOHEG). Depending on the temperature, this corresponds to a very large mass of >9 × 10 6 -2 × 10 9 M ☉ of T > 300 K molecular gas, which may be heated by the PKS 1138–26 radio jet, acting to quench nuclear star formation. There is >8 times more warm H 2 at these temperatures in the Spiderweb than what has been seen in low-redshift (z < 0.2) radio galaxies, indicating that the Spiderweb may have a larger reservoir of molecular gas than more evolved radio galaxies. This is the highest redshift galaxy yet in which warm molecular hydrogen has been directly detected.

  13. Upper mantle seismic anisotropy beneath the Northern Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica from PKS, SKS, and SKKS splitting analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Jordan H.; Hansen, Samantha E.

    2017-02-01

    Using data from the new Transantarctic Mountains Northern Network, this study aims to constrain azimuthal anisotropy beneath a previously unexplored portion of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) to assess both past and present deformational processes occurring in this region. Shear-wave splitting parameters have been measured for PKS, SKS, and SKKS phases using the eigenvalue method within the SplitLab software package. Results show two distinct geographic regions of anisotropy within our study area: one behind the TAMs front, with an average fast axis direction of 42 ± 3° and an average delay time of 0.9 ± 0.04 s, and the other within the TAMs near the Ross Sea coastline, with an average fast axis oriented at 51 ± 5° and an average delay time of 1.5 ± 0.08 s. Behind the TAMs front, our results are best explained by a single anisotropic layer that is estimated to be 81-135 km thick, thereby constraining the anisotropic signature within the East Antarctic lithosphere. We interpret the anisotropy behind the TAMs front as relict fabric associated with tectonic episodes occurring early in Antarctica's geologic history. For the coastal stations, our results are best explained by a single anisotropic layer estimated to be 135-225 km thick. This places the anisotropic source within the viscous asthenosphere, which correlates with low seismic velocities along the edge of the West Antarctic Rift System. We interpret the coastal anisotropic signature as resulting from active mantle flow associated with rift-related decompression melting and Cenozoic extension.

  14. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of a melanin polyketide synthase (pks1) gene in the fungus Slafractonia leguminicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhawatema, Mohammad S; Gebril, Sayed; Cook, Daniel; Creamer, Rebecca

    2017-09-20

    The fungus Slafractonia leguminicola, the causal agent of blackpatch disease of legumes produces two mycotoxins slaframine and swainsonine, causing slobbers' symptoms and locoism of grazing animals, respectively. The genetics of this important fungus is poorly understood. This work aimed to develop a genetic transformation system and evaluate the efficacy of RNA interference (RNAi) in S. leguminicola. In this study, S. leguminicola was transformed using a PEG-mediated method with a fungal construct that carries a hygromycin resistance cassette. To assess the use of RNAi, a silencing construct pSilentPKS1-AS was constructed which includes inverted repeat transgenes of the polyketide synthase gene (pks1) that is involved in melanin biosynthesis. Transformation of S. leguminicola with the IRT pks1 vector decreased pks1 transcripts levels 82-92% in knockdown mutants when compared with the wild type and was accompanied with a reduction in melanin and swainsonine production. These results demonstrate that RNAi can be a useful tool for studying gene function in S. leguminicola.

  15. Results of the first simultaneous X-ray, optical, and radio campaign on the blazar PKS 1622-297

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Miller, H. Richard; Marshall, Kevin; Ryle, Wesley T.; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; McFarland, John P.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Crain, J. Adam; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Nysewander, Melissa C.

    Coordinated X-ray, optical, and radio observations of the blazar PKS 1622-297 were obtained during a three-week campaign in 2006 using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, and optical telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.

  16. To fail or not to fail : clinical trials in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santen, Gijs Willem Eduard

    2008-01-01

    To fail or not to fail – Clinical trials in depression investigates the causes of the high failure rate of clinical trials in depression research. Apart from the difficulties in the search for new antidepressants during drug discovery, faulty clinical trial designs hinder their evaluation during

  17. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  18. The Tomato 14-3-3 Protein TFT4 Modulates H+ Efflux, Basipetal Auxin Transport, and the PKS5-J3 Pathway in the Root Growth Response to Alkaline Stress1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weifeng; Jia, Liguo; Shi, Weiming; Baluška, František; Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Liang, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-01-01

    Alkaline stress is a common environmental stress, in particular in salinized soils. Plant roots respond to a variety of soil stresses by regulating their growth, but the nature of the regulatory pathways engaged in the alkaline stress response (ASR) is not yet understood. Previous studies show that PIN-FORMED2, an auxin (indole-3-acetic acid [IAA]) efflux transporter, PKS5, a protein kinase, and DNAJ HOMOLOG3 (J3), a chaperone, play key roles in root H+ secretion by regulating plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPases directly or by targeting 14-3-3 proteins. Here, we investigated the expression of all 14-3-3 gene family members (TOMATO 14-3-3 PROTEIN1 [TFT1]–TFT12) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) under ASR, showing the involvement of four of them, TFT1, TFT4, TFT6, and TFT7. When these genes were separately introduced into Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and overexpressed, only the growth of TFT4 overexpressors was significantly enhanced when compared with the wild type under stress. H+ efflux and the activity of PM H+-ATPase were significantly enhanced in the root tips of TFT4 overexpressors. Microarray analysis and pharmacological examination of the overexpressor and mutant plants revealed that overexpression of TFT4 maintains primary root elongation by modulating PM H+-ATPase-mediated H+ efflux and basipetal IAA transport in root tips under alkaline stress. TFT4 further plays important roles in the PKS5-J3 signaling pathway. Our study demonstrates that TFT4 acts as a regulator in the integration of H+ efflux, basipetal IAA transport, and the PKS5-J3 pathway in the ASR of roots and coordinates root apex responses to alkaline stress for the maintenance of primary root elongation. PMID:24134886

  19. Method for repairing failed fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakudo, Taketomi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To repair fuel elements that became failed during burnup in a reactor or during handling. Method: After the surface in the vicinity of a failed part of a fuel element is cleaned, a socket made of a shape-memory alloy having a ring form or a horseshoe form made by cutting a part of the ring form is inserted into the failed position according to the position of the failed fuel element. The shape memory alloy socket remembers a slightly larger inside diameter in its original phase (high-temperature side) than the outside diameter of the cladding tube and also a slightly larger inside diameter of the socket in the martensite phase (low-temperature side) than the outside diameter of the cladding tube, such that the socket can easily be inserted into the failed position. The socket, inserted into the failed part of the cladding tube, is heated by a heating jig. The socket recovers the original phase, and the shape also tends to recover a smaller diameter than the outside diameter of the cladding tube that has been remembered, and accordingly the failed part of the cladding tube is fastened with a great force and the failed part is fully closed with the socket, thus keeping radioactive materials from going out. (Horiuchi, T.)

  20. Biocombinatorial Engineering of Fungal PKS-NRPS Hybrids for Production of Novel Synthetic Natural Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maria Lund

    Natural products have had a huge impact on the history of drug development, and today, these compounds continue to be a key source of novel drug leads. Over the years, natural products have been exploited for their pharmacological and biological activities in the treatment of many diseases....... Secondary metabolites (SMs) from bacteria, plants and filamentous fungi constitute a large group of important natural products. In this thesis I explore the biosynthesis of several fungal SMs along with the enzymes responsible for their synthesis. Specifically, my research focuses on the expression...... and engineering of a certain type of fungal enzymes – natural fusions of polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (PKS-NRPSs). The thesis is divided into two topics: 1) Expanding fungal chemodiversity through combinatorial biosynthesis 2) Two CRISPR-Cas9-based approaches to linking SMs...

  1. Involvement of a Polyketide Synthetase ClPKS18 in the Regulation of Vegetative Growth, Melanin and Toxin Synthesis, and Virulence inCurvularia lunata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jin-Xin; Chen, Jie

    2017-12-01

    The clpks18 gene was first cloned and identified in Curvularia lunata. It contains 6571 base pairs (bp) and an 6276 bp open reading frame encoding 2091 amino acids. The ClPKS18 deletion mutant displayed an albino phenotype, and almost lost the ability to product 5-(hydroxymethyl) furan-2-carboxylate (M5HF2C) toxin, implying that clpks18 gene in C. lunata is not only involved in 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene melanin synthesis, but also relatively associated with M5HF2C toxin biosynthesis of the pathogen. The pathogenicity assays revealed that ΔClPKS18 was impaired in colonizing the maize leaves, which corresponds to the finding that ClPKS18 controls the production of melanin and M5HF2C in C. lunata . Results indicate that ClPKS18 plays a vital role in regulating pathogenicity of in C. lunata .

  2. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  3. Designing and Implementing an Assay for the Detection of Rare and Divergent NRPS and PKS Clones in European, Antarctic and Cuban Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C A Amos

    Full Text Available The ever increasing microbial resistome means there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Metagenomics is an underexploited tool in the field of drug discovery. In this study we aimed to produce a new updated assay for the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding bioactive secondary metabolites. PCR assays targeting the polyketide synthases (PKS and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS were developed. A range of European soils were tested for their biosynthetic potential using clone libraries developed from metagenomic DNA. Results revealed a surprising number of NRPS and PKS clones with similarity to rare Actinomycetes. Many of the clones tested were phylogenetically divergent suggesting they were fragments from novel NRPS and PKS gene clusters. Soils did not appear to cluster by location but did represent NRPS and PKS clones of diverse taxonomic origin. Fosmid libraries were constructed from Cuban and Antarctic soil samples; 17 fosmids were positive for NRPS domains suggesting a hit rate of less than 1 in 10 genomes. NRPS hits had low similarities to both rare Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria; they also clustered with known antibiotic producers suggesting they may encode for pathways producing novel bioactive compounds. In conclusion we designed an assay capable of detecting divergent NRPS and PKS gene clusters from the rare biosphere; when tested on soil samples results suggest the majority of NRPS and PKS pathways and hence bioactive metabolites are yet to be discovered.

  4. Designing and Implementing an Assay for the Detection of Rare and Divergent NRPS and PKS Clones in European, Antarctic and Cuban Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, Paris; Krsek, Martin; Berry, Andrew E.; Newsham, Kevin K.; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Pearce, David A.; Vallin, Carlos; Wellington, Elizabeth M. H.

    2015-01-01

    The ever increasing microbial resistome means there is an urgent need for new antibiotics. Metagenomics is an underexploited tool in the field of drug discovery. In this study we aimed to produce a new updated assay for the discovery of biosynthetic gene clusters encoding bioactive secondary metabolites. PCR assays targeting the polyketide synthases (PKS) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) were developed. A range of European soils were tested for their biosynthetic potential using clone libraries developed from metagenomic DNA. Results revealed a surprising number of NRPS and PKS clones with similarity to rare Actinomycetes. Many of the clones tested were phylogenetically divergent suggesting they were fragments from novel NRPS and PKS gene clusters. Soils did not appear to cluster by location but did represent NRPS and PKS clones of diverse taxonomic origin. Fosmid libraries were constructed from Cuban and Antarctic soil samples; 17 fosmids were positive for NRPS domains suggesting a hit rate of less than 1 in 10 genomes. NRPS hits had low similarities to both rare Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria; they also clustered with known antibiotic producers suggesting they may encode for pathways producing novel bioactive compounds. In conclusion we designed an assay capable of detecting divergent NRPS and PKS gene clusters from the rare biosphere; when tested on soil samples results suggest the majority of NRPS and PKS pathways and hence bioactive metabolites are yet to be discovered. PMID:26398766

  5. Penentuan Umur Ekonomis Dump Truck Dengan Menggunakan Metode Biaya Tahunan Rata-Rata Pada PTPN 3 PKS Kebun Rambutan

    OpenAIRE

    Mazmur Harapanta Tarigan

    2009-01-01

    PTPN 3 PKS Kebun Rambutan merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan minyak sawit Crude Palm Oil dan inti sawit Palm Kernel. Kerusakan Dump Truck merupakan salah satu faktor penyebab terganggunya kelancaran produksi. Kerusakan pada Dump Truck tidak dapat ditentukan dengan pasti, hanya dapat diperkirakan dengan menentukan umur ekonomis Dump Truck tersebut. Alat pengangkut yang dibahas dalam penelitian ini adalah Dump Truck. Pokok permasalahan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk m...

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) from Cannabis sativa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taguchi, Chiho; Taura, Futoshi; Tamada, Taro; Shoyama, Yoshinari; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Kuroki, Ryota; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Polyketide synthase-1 from C. sativa has been crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. Polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) is a novel type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of hexanoyl triacetic acid lactone in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). PKS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and finally crystallized in two different space groups. The crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M calcium acetate and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 59.3, c = 62.6 Å, α = 69, β = 81, γ = 80°. Another crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M sodium chloride and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 110, c = 130 Å. These data will enable us to determine the crystal structure of PKS-1

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) from Cannabis sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, Chiho [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Taura, Futoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Tamada, Taro; Shoyama, Yoshinari [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Shoyama, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan); Kuroki, Ryota, E-mail: kuroki.ryota@jaea.go.jp [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (Japan); Morimoto, Satoshi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyushu University (Japan)

    2008-03-01

    Polyketide synthase-1 from C. sativa has been crystallized. The crystal diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution with sufficient quality for further structure determination. Polyketide synthase-1 (PKS-1) is a novel type III polyketide synthase that catalyzes the biosynthesis of hexanoyl triacetic acid lactone in Cannabis sativa (Mexican strain). PKS-1 was overproduced in Escherichia coli, purified and finally crystallized in two different space groups. The crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M calcium acetate and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.65 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 59.3, c = 62.6 Å, α = 69, β = 81, γ = 80°. Another crystal obtained in 0.1 M HEPES buffer pH 7.5 containing 0.2 M sodium chloride and 20%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 diffracted to 1.55 Å resolution and belonged to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.3, b = 110, c = 130 Å. These data will enable us to determine the crystal structure of PKS-1.

  8. Metagenomic Analysis of Upwelling-Affected Brazilian Coastal Seawater Reveals Sequence Domains of Type I PKS and Modular NRPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadrat, Rafael R C; Cury, Juliano C; Dávila, Alberto M R

    2015-11-27

    Marine environments harbor a wide range of microorganisms from the three domains of life. These microorganisms have great potential to enable discovery of new enzymes and bioactive compounds for industrial use. However, only ~1% of microorganisms from the environment can currently be identified through cultured isolates, limiting the discovery of new compounds. To overcome this limitation, a metagenomics approach has been widely adopted for biodiversity studies on samples from marine environments. In this study, we screened metagenomes in order to estimate the potential for new natural compound synthesis mediated by diversity in the Polyketide Synthase (PKS) and Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) genes. The samples were collected from the Praia dos Anjos (Angel's Beach) surface water-Arraial do Cabo (Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil), an environment affected by upwelling. In order to evaluate the potential for screening natural products in Arraial do Cabo samples, we used KS (keto-synthase) and C (condensation) domains (from PKS and NRPS, respectively) to build Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models. From both samples, a total of 84 KS and 46 C novel domain sequences were obtained, showing the potential of this environment for the discovery of new genes of biotechnological interest. These domains were classified by phylogenetic analysis and this was the first study conducted to screen PKS and NRPS genes in an upwelling affected sample.

  9. TRIAGEM METABÓLICA POR PKS E NRPS EM ACTINOBACTÉRIAS ENDOFÍTICAS DE Citrus reticulata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. R. da Cruz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyketides and non-ribosomal peptides are natural products widely found in bacteria, fungi and plants. The biological activities associated with these metabolites have attracted special attention in biopharmaceutical studies. Polyketide synthases act similarly to fatty acids synthetases and the whole multi-enzymatic set coordinating precursor and extending unit selection and reduction levels during chain growth. Acting in a similarly orchestrated model, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases biosynthesize NRPs. PKSs-I and NRPSs enzymatic modules and domains are collinearly organized with the parent gene sequence. This arrangement allows the use of degenerated PCR primers to amplify targeted regions in the genes corresponding to specific enzymatic domains such as ketosynthases and acyltransferases in PKSs and adenilation domains in NRPSs. Careful analysis of these short regions allows the classifying of a set of organisms according to their potential to biosynthesize PKs and NRPs. In this work, the biosynthetic potential of a set of 13 endophytic actinobacteria from Citrus reticulata for producing PKs and NRP metabolites was evaluated. The biosynthetic profile was compared to antimicrobial activity. Based on the inhibition promoted, 4 strains were considered for cluster analysis. A PKS/NRPS phylogeny was generated in order to classify some of the representative sequences throughout comparison with homologous genes. Using this approach, a molecular fingerprint was generated to help guide future studies on the most promising strains.

  10. Can the 2014 Comprehensive Agreement on the Bangsamoro (CAB) Succeed in Mindanao Where Previous Agreements Failed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    homeless .82 The Moros, once rich in “mineral wealth” and blessed with an abundance of “natural resources,” now found themselves with extreme financial...difficulties and living “in grinding poverty .”83 The fight originally directed towards the migrating Christians eventually targeted the GOP; the GOP led...Moro poverty throughout the region may decrease. If land issues are left unanswered, then Moro “frustrations” may lead into the “resumption of

  11. The 300 Kpc Long X-Ray Jet in PKS 1127-145, Z=1.18 Quasar: Constraining X-Ray Emission Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siemiginowska, Aneta; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Stawarz, Lukasz; /Heidelberg Observ. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ. /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Cheung, C.C.; /KIPAC,; Harris, D.E.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Sikora, Marek; /Warsaw, Copernicus Astron. Ctr.; Aldcroft, Thomas L.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bechtold,; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ.

    2006-11-20

    We present a {approx} 100 ksec Chandra X-ray observation and new VLA radio data of the large scale, 300 kpc long X-ray jet in PKS 1127-145, a radio loud quasar at redshift z=1.18. With this deep X-ray observation we now clearly discern the complex X-ray jet morphology and see substructure within the knots. The X-ray and radio jet intensity profiles are seen to be strikingly different with the radio emission peaking strongly at the two outer knots while the X-ray emission is strongest in the inner jet region. The jet X-ray surface brightness gradually decreases by an order of magnitude going out from the core. The new X-ray data contain sufficient counts to do spectral analysis of the key jet features. The X-ray energy index of the inner jet is relatively flat with {alpha}{sub x} = 0.66 {+-} 0.15 and steep in the outer jet with {alpha}{sub x} = 1.0 {+-} 0.2. We discuss the constraints implied by the new data on the X-ray emission models and conclude that ''one-zone'' models fail and at least a two component model is needed to explain the jet's broad-band emission. We propose that the X-ray emission originates in the jet proper while the bulk of the radio emission comes from a surrounding jet sheath. We also consider intermittent jet activity as a possible cause of the observed jet morphology.

  12. DECOFF Probabilities of Failed Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    A statistical procedure of estimation of Probabilities of Failed Operations is described and exemplified using ECMWF weather forecasts and SIMO output from Rotor Lift test case models. Also safety factor influence is investigated. DECOFF statistical method is benchmarked against standard Alpha...

  13. Method of detecting failed fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, Hideaki; Suzumura, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the settlement of the temperature of an adequate filling high temperature pure water by detecting the outlet temperature of a high temperature pure water filling tube to a fuel assembly to control the heating of the pure water and detecting the failed fuel due to the sampling of the pure water. Method: A temperature sensor is provided at a water tube connected to a sipping cap for filling high temperature pure water to detect the temperature of the high temperature pure water at the outlet of the tube, and the temperature is confirmed by a temperature indicator. A heater is controlled on the basis of this confirmation, an adequate high temperature pure water is filled in the fuel assembly, and the pure water is replaced with coolant. Then, it is sampled to settle the adequate temperature of the high temperature coolant used for detecting the failure of the fuel assembly. As a result, the sipping effect does not decrease, and the failed fuel can be precisely detected. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Phylogeny and expression analyses reveal important roles for plant PKS III family during the conquest of land by plants and angiosperm diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Xie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPolyketide synthases (PKSs utilize the products of primary metabolism to synthesize a wide array of secondary metabolites in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. PKSs can be grouped into three distinct classes, type I, II, and III, based on enzyme structure, substrate specificity, and catalytic mechanisms. The type III PKS enzymes function as homodimers, and are the only class of PKS that do not require acyl carrier protein. Plant type III PKS enzymes, also known as chalcone synthase (CHS-like enzymes, are of particular interest due to their functional diversity. In this study, we mined type III PKS gene sequences from the genomes of six aquatic algae and twenty-five land plants (one bryophyte, one lycophyte, two basal angiosperms, sixteen core eudicots, and five monocots. PKS III sequences were found relatively conserved in all embryophytes, but not exist in algae. We also examined gene expression patterns by analyzing available transcriptome data, and identified potential cis regulatory elements in upstream sequences. Phylogenetic trees of dicots angiosperms showed that plant type III PKS proteins fall into three clades. Clade A contains CHS/STS-type enzymes coding genes with diverse transcriptional expression patterns and enzymatic functions, while clade B is further divided into subclades b1 and b2, which consist of anther-specific CHS-like enzymes. Differentiation regions, such as amino acids 196-207 between clades A and B, and predicted positive selected sites within α-helixes in late appeared branches of clade A, account for the major diversification in substrate choice and catalytic reaction. The integrity and location of conserved cis-elements containing MYB and bHLH binding sites can affect transcription levels. Potential binding sites for transcription factors such as WRKY, SPL or AP2/EREBP may contribute to tissue- or taxon-specific differences in gene expression. Our data shows that gene duplications and functional

  15. Galaxy at a redshift of 3.215 - further studies of the PKS 1614+051 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djorgovski, S.; Strauss, M.A.; Spinrad, H.; Mccarthy, P.; Perley, R.A.; California Univ., Berkeley; National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA)

    1987-01-01

    A narrow-emission-line companion of the quasar PKS 1614+051 was reported earlier as a probable galaxy at a redshift of 3.218, which would have made it by far the most distant galaxy known at the time. New radio and optical imaging, and optical and near-IR spectroscopy of the PKS 1614+051 system is reported here. It is argued that the data support and reinforce the original interpretation of the companion object as a mildly active galaxy, possibly a marginal Seyfert 2. The object has a detectable and marginally resolved optical continuum, but was not detected at radio wavelengths. The ionization state is low, and the emission lines are fairly narrow. The improved redshift for the companion, based on the Ly-alpha line alone, is 3.215 + or - 0.002. New Ly-alpha images show interesting morphology of extended emission-line gas, suggestive of a possible tidal interaction with the neighboring QSO. 24 references

  16. DISCOVERY OF VERY HIGH ENERGY GAMMA RAYS FROM PKS 1424+240 AND MULTIWAVELENGTH CONSTRAINTS ON ITS REDSHIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Chow, Y. C.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Boettcher, M.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first detection of very high energy 83 Gamma-ray emission above 100 GeV. (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140 GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140 GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 ± 0.5 stat ± 0.3 syst and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 ± 0.9 stat ± 0.5 syst ) x 10 -11 TeV -1 cm -2 s -1 , where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainties, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (from 2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high-energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  17. Discovery of Very High Energy Gamma Rays from PKS 1424+240 and Multiwavelength Constraints on its Redshift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acciari, V.A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Aliu, E.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Arlen, T.; /UCLA; Aune, T.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Bautista, M.; /McGill U.; Beilicke, M. /Washington U., St. Louis; Benbow, W.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Bottcher, M.; /Ohio U.; Boltuch, D.; /Delaware U., Bartol Inst.; Bradbury, S.M.; /Leeds U.; Buckley, J.H.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Bugaev, V.; /Washington U., St. Louis; Byrum, K.; /Argonne; Cannon, A.; /University Coll., Dublin; Cesarini, A.; /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway; Chow, Y.C.; /UCLA; Ciupik, L.; /Roosevelt U., Chicago; Cogan, P.; /McGill U.; Cui, W.; /Purdue U.; Duke, C.; /Grinnell Coll.; Falcone, A.; /Penn State U. /Purdue U. /Utah U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Purdue U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /University Coll., Dublin /McGill U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /McGill U. /Delaware U., Bartol Inst. /Utah U. /Chicago U., EFI /Iowa State U. /Roosevelt U., Chicago /DePauw U. /Utah U. /Pittsburg State U. /Washington U., St. Louis /Iowa State U. /Natl. U. of Ireland, Galway /Utah U. /McGill U. /Washington U., St. Louis /McGill U. /McGill U. /Purdue U. /Anderson U. /Galway-Mayo Inst. of Tech. /Iowa State U. /UCLA; /more authors..

    2012-04-05

    We report the first detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray emission above 140GeV from PKS 1424+240, a BL Lac object with an unknown redshift. The photon spectrum above 140GeV measured by VERITAS is well described by a power law with a photon index of 3.8 {+-}0.5{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub syst} and a flux normalization at 200 GeV of (5.1 {+-} 0.9{sub stat} {+-} 0.5{sub syst}) x 10{sup -11} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, where stat and syst denote the statistical and systematical uncertainty, respectively. The VHE flux is steady over the observation period between MJD 54881 and 55003 (2009 February 19 to June 21). Flux variability is also not observed in contemporaneous high energy observations with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Contemporaneous X-ray and optical data were also obtained from the Swift XRT and MDM observatory, respectively. The broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) is well described by a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model favoring a redshift of less than 0.1. Using the photon index measured with Fermi in combination with recent extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption models it can be concluded from the VERITAS data that the redshift of PKS 1424+240 is less than 0.66.

  18. Diggers failing to become diggers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    of mining as a national discourse beg the question how we might begin to assess mining’s actual long-term influence on the national imaginary. Two quite recent interventions – possibly at the tail end of another boom cycle – have sought to address how the ‘story of mining’ as a national narrative could......Mining has in recent years emerged as a national discourse in Australia as the combined result of the mining boom and national anxieties over the GFC featured prominently in references to Australia as a failed competitive state (the folding of manufacturing, where the closure of car factories plays...... a particular iconic role, not to mention perpetually troubled Qantas). Yet mining is not new to Australia, but has been pivotal to the country’s demographic growth post-settlement/post-invasion. Arguably, mining’s boom and bust cycles have given it at times a disproportionate influence on narratives...

  19. Detector for failed fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masaru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide automatic monitor for the separation or reactor water and sampling water, in a failed fuel element detector using a sipping chamber. Constitution: A positional detector for the exact mounting of a sipping chamber on a channel box and a level detector for the detection of complete discharge of cooling water in the sipping chamber are provided in the sipping chamber. The positional detector is contacted to the upper end of the channel box and operated when the sipping chamber is correctly mounted to the fuel assemblies. The level detector comprises a float and a limit switch and it is operated when the water in the sipping chamber is discharged by a predetermined amount. Isolation of reactor water and sampling water are automatically monitored by the signal from these two detectors. (Ikeda, J.)

  20. Why good projects fail anyway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Nadim F; Ashkenas, Ronald N

    2003-09-01

    Big projects fail at an astonishing rate--more than half the time, by some estimates. It's not hard to understand why. Complicated long-term projects are customarily developed by a series of teams working along parallel tracks. If managers fail to anticipate everything that might fall through the cracks, those tracks will not converge successfully at the end to reach the goal. Take a companywide CRM project. Traditionally, one team might analyze customers, another select the software, a third develop training programs, and so forth. When the project's finally complete, though, it may turn out that the salespeople won't enter in the requisite data because they don't understand why they need to. This very problem has, in fact, derailed many CRM programs at major organizations. There is a way to uncover unanticipated problems while the project is still in development. The key is to inject into the overall plan a series of miniprojects, or "rapid-results initiatives," which each have as their goal a miniature version of the overall goal. In the CRM project, a single team might be charged with increasing the revenues of one sales group in one region by 25% within four months. To reach that goal, team members would have to draw on the work of all the parallel teams. But in just four months, they would discover the salespeople's resistance and probably other unforeseen issues, such as, perhaps, the need to divvy up commissions for joint-selling efforts. The World Bank has used rapid-results initiatives to great effect to keep a sweeping 16-year project on track and deliver visible results years ahead of schedule. In taking an in-depth look at this project, and others, the authors show why this approach is so effective and how the initiatives are managed in conjunction with more traditional project activities.

  1. Classification of the adenylation and acyl-transferase activity of NRPS and PKS systems using ensembles of substrate specific hidden Markov models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barzan I Khayatt

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in the Non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs and polyketide synthases (PKSs of microbes, fungi and plants because they can produce bioactive peptides such as antibiotics. The ability to identify the substrate specificity of the enzyme's adenylation (A and acyl-transferase (AT domains is essential to rationally deduce or engineer new products. We here report on a Hidden Markov Model (HMM-based ensemble method to predict the substrate specificity at high quality. We collected a new reference set of experimentally validated sequences. An initial classification based on alignment and Neighbor Joining was performed in line with most of the previously published prediction methods. We then created and tested single substrate specific HMMs and found that their use improved the correct identification significantly for A as well as for AT domains. A major advantage of the use of HMMs is that it abolishes the dependency on multiple sequence alignment and residue selection that is hampering the alignment-based clustering methods. Using our models we obtained a high prediction quality for the substrate specificity of the A domains similar to two recently published tools that make use of HMMs or Support Vector Machines (NRPSsp and NRPS predictor2, respectively. Moreover, replacement of the single substrate specific HMMs by ensembles of models caused a clear increase in prediction quality. We argue that the superiority of the ensemble over the single model is caused by the way substrate specificity evolves for the studied systems. It is likely that this also holds true for other protein domains. The ensemble predictor has been implemented in a simple web-based tool that is available at http://www.cmbi.ru.nl/NRPS-PKS-substrate-predictor/.

  2. Application of the global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) mobile apps to land degradation, restoration and climate change adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combatting land degradation, promoting restoration and adapting to climate change all require an understanding of land potential. A global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS) is being developed that will address many of these limitations using an open source approach designed to allow anyone w...

  3. Factors associated with failed spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Abiodun Alabi

    Results: The incidence of failed spinal anaesthesia was 11.7%, which was slightly higher in emergency Caesarean sections. In univariate analysis, previous anaesthesia, obesity, dry tap of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), bloody CSF and duration of work experience less than one year were significantly associated with FSA in the ...

  4. A single Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase plays a major role in the biosynthesis of PKS and NRPS derived metabolites in Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bunet

    Full Text Available The phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases are responsible for the activation of the carrier protein domains of the polyketide synthases (PKS, non ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS and fatty acid synthases (FAS. The analysis of the Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 genome has revealed the presence of four putative PPTase encoding genes. One of these genes appears to be essential and is likely involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. Two other PPTase genes, samT0172 (alpN and samL0372, are located within a type II PKS gene cluster responsible for the kinamycin production and an hybrid NRPS-PKS cluster involved in antimycin production, respectively, and their products were shown to be specifically involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. Surprisingly, the fourth PPTase gene, which is not located within a secondary metabolite gene cluster, appears to play a pleiotropic role. Its product is likely involved in the activation of the acyl- and peptidyl-carrier protein domains within all the other PKS and NRPS complexes encoded by S. ambofaciens. Indeed, the deletion of this gene affects the production of the spiramycin and stambomycin macrolide antibiotics and of the grey spore pigment, all three being PKS-derived metabolites, as well as the production of the nonribosomally produced compounds, the hydroxamate siderophore coelichelin and the pyrrolamide antibiotic congocidine. In addition, this PPTase seems to act in concert with the product of samL0372 to activate the ACP and/or PCP domains of the antimycin biosynthesis cluster which is also responsible for the production of volatile lactones.

  5. A single Sfp-type phosphopantetheinyl transferase plays a major role in the biosynthesis of PKS and NRPS derived metabolites in Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunet, Robert; Riclea, Ramona; Laureti, Luisa; Hôtel, Laurence; Paris, Cédric; Girardet, Jean-Michel; Spiteller, Dieter; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Leblond, Pierre; Aigle, Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    The phosphopantetheinyl transferases (PPTases) are responsible for the activation of the carrier protein domains of the polyketide synthases (PKS), non ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPS) and fatty acid synthases (FAS). The analysis of the Streptomyces ambofaciens ATCC23877 genome has revealed the presence of four putative PPTase encoding genes. One of these genes appears to be essential and is likely involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. Two other PPTase genes, samT0172 (alpN) and samL0372, are located within a type II PKS gene cluster responsible for the kinamycin production and an hybrid NRPS-PKS cluster involved in antimycin production, respectively, and their products were shown to be specifically involved in the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites. Surprisingly, the fourth PPTase gene, which is not located within a secondary metabolite gene cluster, appears to play a pleiotropic role. Its product is likely involved in the activation of the acyl- and peptidyl-carrier protein domains within all the other PKS and NRPS complexes encoded by S. ambofaciens. Indeed, the deletion of this gene affects the production of the spiramycin and stambomycin macrolide antibiotics and of the grey spore pigment, all three being PKS-derived metabolites, as well as the production of the nonribosomally produced compounds, the hydroxamate siderophore coelichelin and the pyrrolamide antibiotic congocidine. In addition, this PPTase seems to act in concert with the product of samL0372 to activate the ACP and/or PCP domains of the antimycin biosynthesis cluster which is also responsible for the production of volatile lactones.

  6. Revisiting Quasi-periodic Modulation in γ -Ray Blazar PKS 2155-304 with Fermi Pass 8 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng-fei; Liao, Neng-hui [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yan, Da-hai; Wang, Jian-cheng, E-mail: zhangpengfee@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: yandahai@ynao.ac.cn [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2017-02-01

    We examine the gamma-ray quasi-periodic variability of PKS 2155-304 with the latest publicly available Fermi -LAT Pass 8 data, which covers the years from 2008 August to 2016 October. We produce the light curves in two ways: the exposure-weighted aperture photometry and the maximum likelihood optimization. The light curves are then analyzed by using Lomb-Scargle Periodogram (LSP) and Weighted Wavelet Z-transform, and the results reveal a significant quasi-periodicity with a period of 1.74±0.13 years and a significance of ∼4.9 σ . The constraint of multifrequencies quasi-periodic variabilities on blazar emission model is discussed.

  7. A hydrodynamical model for the Fermi-LAT γ-ray light curve of blazar PKS 1510-089

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera J.I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A physical description of the formation and propagation of working surfaces inside the relativistic jet of the blazar PKS 1510-089 are used to model its γ -ray variability light curve using Fermi-LAT data from 2008 to 2012. The physical model is based on conservation laws of mass and momentum at the working surface as explained by Mendoza et al. (2009. The hydrodynamical description of a working surface is parametrized by the initial velocity and mass injection rate at the base of the jet. We show that periodic variations on the injected velocity profiles are able to account for the observed luminosity, fixing model parameters such as mass ejection rates of the central engine injected at the base of the jet, oscillation frequencies of the flow and maximum Lorentz factors of the bulk flow during a particular burst.

  8. Multi-Frequency Monitoring of the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar PKS 1222+216 in 2008–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Troitskiy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the broadband activity of the flat spectrum radio quasar PKS 1222+216 from 2008 to 2015 using multi-frequency monitoring which involves γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, total intensity and linear polarization observations from different optical telescopes in R band, and imaging of the inner jet structure with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA at 43 GHz. During the observations, the source showed several dramatic flares at γ rays and optical bands, with the rising branch of a γ-ray flare accompanied by a rapid rotation of the polarization position angle (EVPA, a fast increase of the degree of polarization in the optical band, brightening of the VLBI core, and appearance of a new superluminal component in the parsec-scale jet. The rapid variability of the optical linear polarization may be explained by a strong turbulence in the jet plasma. We find a correlation between the γ rays, optical R band, and 43 GHz variability on a long-term scale (months and years, and a good general alignment between EVPAs in R band and at 43 GHz, while the correlation between short-term variations (days and weeks is weaker. Synchronous activity across the bands supports the idea that the emission regions responsible for the γ-ray and optical flares are co-spatial and located in the vicinity of the mm-wave core of the parsec-scale jet. However, these connections do not completely explain the challenging behaviour of PKS 1222+216, since there are some γ-ray flares which are not accompanied by jet events, and vice versa. We need a continuation of multi-frequency monitoring along with high resolution imaging of the parsec-scale jet to understand in detail the origin of high energy emission in blazars.

  9. A PKS I gene-based screening approach for the discovery of a new polyketide from Penicillium citrinum Salicorn 46.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tianxing; Xin, Zhihong

    2014-06-01

    Salicorn 46, an endophytic fungus isolated from Salicornia herbacea Torr., was identified as Penicillium citrinum based on its internal transcribed spacer and ribosomal large-subunit DNA sequences using a type I polyketide synthase (PKS I) gene screening approach. A new polyketide, penicitriketo (1), and seven known compounds, including ergone (2), (3β,5α,8α,22E)-5,8-epidioxyergosta-6,9,22-trien-3-ol (3), (3β,5α,8α,22E)-5,8-epidioxyergosta-6,22-dien-3-ol (4), stigmasta-7,22-diene-3β,5α,6α-triol (5), 3β,5α-dihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6β-yl oleate (6), N b-acetyltryptamine (7), and 2-(1-oxo-2-hydroxyethyl) furan (8), were isolated from the culture of Salicorn 46, and their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Antioxidant experiments revealed that compound 1 possessed moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity with an IC50 value of 85.33 ± 1.61 μM. Antimicrobial assays revealed that compound 2 exhibited broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Clostridium perfringens, Mycobacterium smegmatis, and Mycobacterium phlei with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 25.5, 25.5, 18.5, and 51.0 μM, respectively. Compound 3 displayed potent antimicrobial activities against C. perfringens and Micrococcus tetragenus with a MIC value of 23.5 μM. Compounds 5 and 6 showed high levels of selectivity toward Bacillus subtilis and M. phlei with MIC values of 22.5 and 14.4 μM, respectively. The results of this study highlight the use of PCR-based techniques for the screening of new polyketides from endophytic fungi containing PKS I genes.

  10. Gamma-Ray Flaring Activity from the Gravitationally Lensed Blazar PKS 1830-211 Observed by Fermi LAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdo, A. A.; et al.

    2015-01-23

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the MeV-peaked flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830–211 (z = 2.507). Its apparent isotropic γ-ray luminosity (E > 100 MeV), averaged over ~3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 × 10(50) erg s(–)(1), makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time-delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor of 1.5 less. Two large γ-ray flares of PKS 1830–211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period, and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the γ-ray flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program indicate a hard spectrum with no significant correlation of X-ray flux with the γ-ray variability. The spectral energy distribution can be modeled with inverse Compton scattering of thermal photons from the dusty torus. The implications of the LAT data in terms of variability, the lack of evident delayed flare events, and different radio and γ-ray flux ratios are discussed. Microlensing effects, absorption, size and location of the emitting regions, the complex mass distribution of the system, an energy-dependent inner structure of the source, and flux suppression by the lens galaxy for one image path may be considered as hypotheses for understanding our results.

  11. When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaschke, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)......Review of: James R. Taylor and Elizabeth J. Van Every / When Organization Fails: Why Authority Matters. (New York: Routledge, 2014. 220 pp. ISBN: 978 0415741668)...

  12. Neglected City Narratives And Failed Rebranding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2017-01-01

    Rīga, Latvia went through a failed rebranding process as the forerunner of its status as a European Capital of Culture (2014). The same thing happened in Aarhus, Denmark. Aarhus will be a European Capital of Culture (2017) and leading to this, it went through a failed rebranding process. Based on...

  13. Is journalism failing on climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmstorf, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    How can we build a reliable and affordable energy supply based on renewables? How rapidly do we need to cut greenhouse gas emissions to keep climate change within manageable bounds? What does it take to maintain a stable common currency of different nations? These are just a few examples of questions that are critical for our future and that require an understanding of complex systems—the energy system, the climate system, the financial system. Finding sound answers to these questions requires sophisticated scientific analysis and expert knowledge; a lay person's intuition will clearly not suffice. Yet, decisions in a democracy are (and should be!) taken by politicians and the voting public who are not usually scientific experts. Hence the well-being of our societies—and even more so the living conditions of future generations, which are defined by the decisions we take today—depends on the wider public being well informed about the state of scientific knowledge and discourse. The media are the most important means by which lay people obtain their information about science. Good science journalism is therefore a decisive factor for the long-term success of modern society. Good science journalism clearly must be critical journalism, and it requires journalists who know what is what, who can put things into a perspective, and who are able to make well-informed judgements. After all, the role of science journalism is not simply to act as a 'translator' who conveys the findings of scientists in a language understandable to lay people. Rather, good science journalism will provide the public with a realistic impression of what is well established in science and what are current 'hot topics', uncertainties and controversies. It will also discuss the methods and social context of the scientific endeavour. There is ample evidence that in the area of climate science, journalism too often is failing to deliver this realistic picture to its audience, despite many good

  14. DETECTION OF CA II ABSORPTION BY A HIGH-VELOCITY CLOUD IN THE DIRECTION OF THE QUASAR PKS 0837-120

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROBERTSON, JG; SCHWARZ, UJ; VANWOERDEN, H; MURRAY, JD; MORTON, DC; HULSBOSCH, ANM

    1991-01-01

    We present optical absorption spectroscopy of the Ca II K and H lines along the sight line to the quasar PKS 0837-120, which lies in the direction of a high-velocity cloud (HVC) detected in H I 21-cm emission at V(LSR) = + 105 km s-1. Our data show Ca II absorption due to the HVC as well as a lower

  15. A PKS/NRPS/FAS hybrid gene cluster from Serratia plymuthica RVH1 encoding the biosynthesis of three broad spectrum, zeamine-related antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masschelein, Joleen; Mattheus, Wesley; Gao, Ling-Jie; Moons, Pieter; Van Houdt, Rob; Uytterhoeven, Birgit; Lamberigts, Chris; Lescrinier, Eveline; Rozenski, Jef; Herdewijn, Piet; Aertsen, Abram; Michiels, Chris; Lavigne, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Serratia plymuthica strain RVH1, initially isolated from an industrial food processing environment, displays potent antimicrobial activity towards a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Isolation and subsequent structure determination of bioactive molecules led to the identification of two polyamino antibiotics with the same molecular structure as zeamine and zeamine II as well as a third, closely related analogue, designated zeamine I. The gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of the zeamine antibiotics was cloned and sequenced and shown to encode FAS, PKS as well as NRPS related enzymes in addition to putative tailoring and export enzymes. Interestingly, several genes show strong homology to the pfa cluster of genes involved in the biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine bacteria. We postulate that a mixed FAS/PKS and a hybrid NRPS/PKS assembly line each synthesize parts of the backbone that are linked together post-assembly in the case of zeamine and zeamine I. This interaction reflects a unique interplay between secondary lipid and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Most likely, the zeamine antibiotics are produced as prodrugs that undergo activation in which a nonribosomal peptide sequence is cleaved off.

  16. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASAR PKS 1454-354

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy γ-ray (GeV) emission from the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1454-354 (z = 1.424). On 2008 September 4, the source rose to a peak flux of (3.5 ± 0.7) x 10 -6 ph cm -2 s -1 (E > 100 MeV) on a timescale of hours and then slowly dropped over the following 2 days. No significant spectral changes occurred during the flare. Fermi/LAT observations also showed that PKS 1454-354 is the most probable counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1500-3509. Multiwavelength measurements performed during the following days (7 September with Swift; 6-7 September with the ground-based optical telescope Automated Telescope for Optical Monitoring; 13 September with the Australia Telescope Compact Array) resulted in radio, optical, UV, and X-ray fluxes greater than archival data, confirming the activity of PKS 1454-354.

  17. A PKS/NRPS/FAS hybrid gene cluster from Serratia plymuthica RVH1 encoding the biosynthesis of three broad spectrum, zeamine-related antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen Masschelein

    Full Text Available Serratia plymuthica strain RVH1, initially isolated from an industrial food processing environment, displays potent antimicrobial activity towards a broad spectrum of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Isolation and subsequent structure determination of bioactive molecules led to the identification of two polyamino antibiotics with the same molecular structure as zeamine and zeamine II as well as a third, closely related analogue, designated zeamine I. The gene cluster encoding the biosynthesis of the zeamine antibiotics was cloned and sequenced and shown to encode FAS, PKS as well as NRPS related enzymes in addition to putative tailoring and export enzymes. Interestingly, several genes show strong homology to the pfa cluster of genes involved in the biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in marine bacteria. We postulate that a mixed FAS/PKS and a hybrid NRPS/PKS assembly line each synthesize parts of the backbone that are linked together post-assembly in the case of zeamine and zeamine I. This interaction reflects a unique interplay between secondary lipid and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. Most likely, the zeamine antibiotics are produced as prodrugs that undergo activation in which a nonribosomal peptide sequence is cleaved off.

  18. Multiwavelength Observations of the Powerful Gamma-ray Quasar PKS 1510-089: Clues on the Jet Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataoka, J.; Madejski, G.; Sikora, M.; Roming, P.; Chester, M.M.; Grupe, D.; Tsubuku, Y.; Sato, R.; Kawai, N.; Tosti, G.; Impiombato, D.; Kovalev, Y.Y.; Kovalev, Y.A.; Edwards, Philip G.; Wagner, S.J.; Moderski, R.; Stawarz, L.; Takahashi, T.; Watanabe, S.

    2007-09-28

    We present the results from a multiwavelength campaign conducted in August 2006 of the powerful {gamma}-ray quasar PKS 1510--089 (z = 0.361). This campaign commenced with a deep Suzaku observation lasting three days for a total exposure time of 120 ks, and continued with Swift monitoring over 18 days. Besides Swift observations, which sampled the optical/UV flux in all 6 UVOT filters as well as the X-ray spectrum in the 0.3--10 keV energy range, the campaign included ground-based optical and radio data, and yielded a quasi-simultaneous broad-band spectral energy distribution from 109 Hz to 1019 Hz. Thanks to its low instrumental background, the Suzaku observation provided a high S/N X-ray spectrum, which is well represented by an extremely hard power-law with photon index {Gamma}{approx_equal}1.2, augmented by a soft component apparent below 1 keV, which is well described by a black-body model with temperature kT {approx_equal}0.2 keV. Monitoring by Suzaku revealed temporal variability which is different between the low and high energy bands, again suggesting the presence of a second, variable component in addition to the primary power-law emission. We model the broadband spectrum of PKS 1510--089 assuming that the high energy spectral component results from Comptonization of infrared radiation produced by hot dust located in the surrounding molecular torus. In the adopted internal shock scenario, the derived model parameters imply that the power of the jet is dominated by protons but with a number of electrons/positrons exceeding a number of protons by a factor {approx} 10. We also find that inhomogeneities responsible for the shock formation, prior to the collision may produce bulk-Compton radiation which can explain the observed soft X-ray excess and possible excess at {approx} 18 keV. We note, however, that the bulk-Compton interpretation is not unique, and the observed soft excess could arise as well via some other processes discussed briefly in the text.

  19. HUBUNGAN ANTARA PARTISIPASI BIDAN PRAKTIK MANDIRI (BPM, PERJANJIAN KERJASAMA (PKS DAN SOSIALISASI DENGAN PELAKSANAAN PROGRAM JAMPERSAL DI KOTA BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawati Nawati

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hubungan antara Partisipasi BPM, Perjanjian Kerjasama dan Sosialiasi dengan Pelaksanaan Program Jampersal di kota Bogor. Kesehatan merupakan bagian integal yang penting dalam pembangunan dan peningkatan kesejahteraan bangsa serta human capital investment baik jangka pendek maupun jangka panjang oleh karena itu pemerintah dalam suatu negara bertanggung jawab pada masalah kesehatan rakyatnya. Pemerintah sendiri adalah regulator dari penyelenggaraan pelayanan kesehatan untuk seluruh masyarakat, agar masyarakat mampu membayar kesehatan yang dibebankan kepadanya atau institusi tempat kerjanya. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk diketahuinya hubungan antara Partisipasi BPM, Perjanjian Kerjasama dan Sosialiasi dengan Pelaksanaan Program Jampersal. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian  analitik dengan pendekatan Cross sectional. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara dengan kuesioner pada bidan. Analisis data menggunakan uji Chi Square dan Regresi Logistik. Hasil analisis data didapatkan responden dengan OR:9,74 (95% CI:5,33-17,81 dan p-value= 0,000. Pada pendidikan responden mendapatkan nilai OR:4,56 (95% CI:3,22-16,24 dengan p-value= 0,000. Pada masa kerja responden dengan nilai OR:9,46 (95% CI:4,88-19,98 dengan p-value= 0,000. Pada karakteristik lama responden dengan OR: 66,93 (95% CI:5,89-173,07 dengan p-value= 0,000. Nilai sikap responden dengan OR:10,98 (95% CI:5,14-23,43 dengan p-value= 0,006. PKS dengan pelaksanakan Program Jampersal di Kota Bogor mempunyai nilai OR:9,46 (95% CI:4,48-19,98 dengan p-value= 0,000. Analisis multivariat ternyata variabel yang berhubungan bermakna dengan pelaksanaan program Jampersal adalah variabel PKS dengan nilai expB 3.833 p-value 0,036 dan sikap responden dengan nilai expB 3.032 dengan p-value 0,006. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa sikap responden memiliki perilaku positif dalam pelaksanaan Program Jampersal, variabel yang berhubungan bermakna dengan pelaksanaan Program Jampersal adalah

  20. Failed fuel action plan guidelines: Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-11-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a generic guideline that can be used to formulate a failed fuel action plan (FFAP) for specific application by a utility. This document is intended to be part of a comprehensive fuel reliability monitoring, management, and improvement program. The utilities may utilize this document as one resource in developing a failed fuel action plan. This document is not intended to be used as a failed fuel action plan standard. This document is intended to provide guidance on: management responsibilities; fuel performance parameters; cost/benefit analysis; action levels; long-term improvement methods; and data collection, analysis, and trending. 3 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Failing hospitals: mission statements to drive service improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Annabel; Sarfraz, Aamer

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to consider whether the hospital mission statement can be used as a management tool to improve service provision in failing hospitals. A literature search into the potential value and harm of hospital mission statements was done, followed by a survey of initial attitudes within a failing hospital. Do they indicate likely success of the tool? Mission statement is a potentially valuable leadership tool in the hospital environment. The success of its implementation is broadly dependent on its being developed with the support of stakeholders and its real application to all management decisions and questions of asset allocation. The potential danger lies in the fact that it can be seen as an expensive expression of politically correct platitudes which leads to cynical alienation of stakeholders. This was a small study within a single UK failing hospital, and extending its range will help to clarify whether its findings are typical of attitudes within such institutions. The likely success of the hospital mission statement as a management tool within a failing hospital is significantly limited by initial attitudes and preconceptions. Our research suggests that implementation is likely to be detrimental without preparatory involvement of the local community and hospital staff at all levels. Hospital management cannot be divorced from the local community where patient confidence must be maintained. This paper complements previous research, which has looked at mission statement acceptance among the upper echelons of hospital management.

  2. Unique actinomycetes from marine caves and coral reef sediments provide novel PKS and NRPS biosynthetic gene clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Tyler W; Slattery, Marc; Olson, Julie B

    2012-06-01

    In the ever-expanding search for novel bioactive molecules and enzymes, marine actinomycetes have proven to be a productive source. While open reef sediment and sponge-associated actinomycetes have been extensively examined, their marine cave counterparts remain unevaluated. Anchialine cave systems in the Bahamas offered an ideal setting to evaluate the occurrence and variation within sediment-associated actinomycete communities. While in close geographical proximity to open reef environments, these systems provide a specialized environmental niche devoid of light and direct exposure to nutrient input. In the present study, selective isolation techniques and molecular methods were used to test the hypothesis that variable distribution of actinomycetes and secondary metabolite gene clusters occur between open reef and marine cave systems. The results indicated that differences exist within the culturable sediment-associated actinomycete communities between marine caves and open reef systems, with members of the genus Streptomyces dominating cultures from open reef sediments and a more diverse suite of actinomycetes isolated from marine cave sediment samples. Within the cave isolates, members of the proposed genus Solwaraspora were the most represented. Based on PKS- and NRPS-gene-targeted PCR amplification and sequencing, geographic variation in the occurrence of these biosynthetic pathways was also observed. These findings indicate that marine cave systems are a lucrative source in the search for novel secondary metabolite producers with biotechnological applications and that environmental and geographic factors likely affect the occurrence of these biosynthetic pathways.

  3. Biosynthesis of t-Butyl in Apratoxin A: Functional Analysis and Architecture of a PKS Loading Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, Meredith A; Sikkema, Andrew P; Moss, Nathan A; Lowell, Andrew N; Su, Min; Sturgis, Rebecca M; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H; Sherman, David H; Smith, Janet L

    2018-04-27

    The unusual feature of a t-butyl group is found in several marine-derived natural products including apratoxin A, a Sec61 inhibitor produced by the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii PNG 5-198. Here we determine that the apratoxin A t-butyl group is formed as pivaloyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) by AprA, the polyketide synthase (PKS) loading module of the apratoxin A biosynthetic pathway. AprA contains an inactive "pseudo" GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase domain (ΨGNAT) flanked by two methyltransferase domains (MT1 and MT2) that differ distinctly in sequence. Structural, biochemical, and precursor incorporation studies reveal that MT2 catalyzes unusually coupled decarboxylation and methylation reactions to transform dimethylmalonyl-ACP, the product of MT1, to pivaloyl-ACP. Further, pivaloyl-ACP synthesis is primed by the fatty acid synthase malonyl acyltransferase (FabD), which compensates for the ΨGNAT and provides the initial acyl-transfer step to form AprA malonyl-ACP. Additionally, images of AprA from negative stain electron microscopy reveal multiple conformations that may facilitate the individual catalytic steps of the multienzyme module.

  4. [Presence of genes of genotoxin associated with pks pathogenicity island in Escherichia coli M-17 probiotic strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, V M; Fialkina, S V

    2012-01-01

    Study the presence of genetic determinants of pks pathogenicity island containing clb (colibactin) genes in bacteria of the E. coli M-17 production strain by using PCR. E. coli M-17 cultures isolated from biopreparations bificol (Microgen) and colibacterin (Biomed) and control strain obtained from Tarasevich State Institute on Standardization and Control (Moscow) were studied. Detection of genetic markers of colibacterin was performed by using multiplex PCR with 4 pairs of primers amplifying the main clb genes: clbB, clbN, clbA and clbQ, generating 575, 711, 981 and 820 bp amplicons, respectively. In genome of all the studied E. coli M-17 strains clbB, clbN, clbA and clbQ genes associated with the formation of genotoxic colibacterin were detected. Genome of E. coli M-17 bacteria used for production of probiotic preparations colibacterin and bificol contains genetic determinants ofgenotoxin that require further studies in terms of evidence of harmlessness of production bacteria.

  5. Faraday rotation at low frequencies: magnetoionic material of the large FRII radio galaxy PKS J0636-2036

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, S. P.; Lenc, E.; Anderson, C. S.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T.

    2018-04-01

    We present a low-frequency, broad-band polarization study of the FRII radio galaxy PKS J0636-2036 (z = 0.0551), using the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) from 70 to 230 MHz. The northern and southern hotspots (separated by ˜14.5 arcmin on the sky) are resolved by the MWA (3.3 arcmin resolution) and both are detected in linear polarization across the full frequency range. A combination of Faraday rotation measure (RM) synthesis and broad-band polarization model fitting is used to constrain the Faraday depolarization properties of the source. For the integrated southern hotspot emission, two-RM-component models are strongly favoured over a single RM component, and the best-fitting model requires Faraday dispersions of approximately 0.7 and 1.2 rad m-2 (with a mean RM of ˜50 rad m-2). High-resolution imaging at 5 arcsec with the Australia Telescope Compact Array shows significant sub-structure in the southern hotspot and highlights some of the limitations in the polarization modelling of the MWA data. Based on the observed depolarization, combined with extrapolations of gas density scaling relations for group environments, we estimate magnetic field strengths in the intergalactic medium between ˜0.04 and 0.5 μG. We also comment on future prospects of detecting more polarized sources at low frequencies.

  6. Efficacy of repeated 5-fluorouracil needling for failing and failed filtering surgeries based on simple gonioscopic examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad MA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad A RashadOphthalmology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the success rate of a modified bleb needling technique in eyes with previous glaucoma surgery that had elevated intraocular pressure.Methods: A retrospective study of 24 eyes of 24 patients that underwent repeated bleb needling performed for failing and failed blebs on slit lamp with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU injections on demand. This was performed after gonioscopic examination to define levels of filtration block.Results: There was significant reduction of mean IOP from 36.91 mmHg to 14.73 mmHg at the final follow-up (P < 0.001. The overall success rate was 92%.Conclusion: Repeated needling with adjunctive 5-FU proved a highly effective, safe alternative to revive filtration surgery rather than another medication or surgery.Keywords: bleb, failure, 5-FU, needling, gonioscopy

  7. Arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty for chronic anterior knee pain after previous failed conservative and arthroscopic treatment. Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blønd, Lars

    2017-01-01

    A proportion of patients having years of chronic anterior knee pain(AKP) that have not responded to non-operative modalities. Trochlear dysplasia have been found to be a cause for AKP. By restoring the anatomy with a trochleoplasty procedure the patellofemoral joint is unloaded. This study is a prospective 2year follow-up study, based on two cases with chronic AKP for several years and having severe trochlear dysplasia and both were successfully treated by arthroscopic deepening trochleoplasty. Case one was a 46year old women with chronic anterior knee pain (AKP). Imaging showed lateral trochlear inclination angle of 2°, trochlear asymmetry 0.36, central height 81% and medial height 83%. Thepreoperative Kujala score was 70 and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscale for pain was 67. Case two was a 26year old man troubled by AKP and knee knee joint effusion for >8years without any instability in the history. Imaging showed lateral trochlear inclination angle of 6°, trochlear asymmetry 0.25, central height 76% and medial height 78%. The preoperative Kujala score was 49 and KOOS subscale for pain was 72. The postoperative Kujala score was for case one 82 and for case two 81. The postoperative KOOS subscale for pain was for case one 89 and for case two 92. Improvement in the KOOS subscale for sport and recreational activities and quality of living were also found. This is the first case report to demonstrate that patient having had years of chronic AKP and trochlear dysplasia can be successfully treated by arthroscopic trochleoplasty. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Amnioinfusion for women with a singleton breech presentation and a previous failed external cephalic version: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diguisto, Caroline; Winer, Norbert; Descriaud, Celine; Tavernier, Elsa; Weymuller, Victoire; Giraudeau, Bruno; Perrotin, Franck

    2018-04-01

    Our trial aimed to assess the effectiveness of amnioinfusion for a second attempt at external cephalic version (ECV). This open randomized controlled trial was planned with a sequential design. Women at a term ≥36 weeks of gestation with a singleton fetus in breech presentation and a first unsuccessful ECV were recruited in two level-3 maternity units. They were randomly allocated to transabdominal amnioinfusion with a 500-mL saline solution under ultrasound surveillance or no amnioinfusion before the second ECV attempt. Trained senior obstetricians performed all procedures. The primary outcome was the cephalic presentation rate at delivery. Analyses were conducted according to intention to treat (NCT00465712). Recruitment difficulties led to stopping the trial after a 57-month period, 119 women were randomized: 59 allocated to amnioinfusion + ECV and 60 to ECV only. Data were analyzed without applying the sequential feature of the design. The rate of cephalic presentation at delivery did not differ significantly according to whether the second version attempt was or was not preceded by amnioinfusion (20 versus 12%, p = .20). Premature rupture of the membranes occurred for 15% of the women in the amnioinfusion group. Amnioinfusion before a second attempt to external version does not significantly increase the rate of cephalic presentation at delivery.

  9. Multiwavelength Variability Study of the Classical BL Lac Object PKS 0735+178 on Timescales Ranging from Decades to Minutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, Arti; Stawarz, Łukasz; Ostrowski, Michał; Soida, Marian [Astronomical Observatory of Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland); Larionov, Valeri [Astronomical Institute of St. Petersburg State University, Petrodvorets 198504 (Russian Federation); Gopal-Krishna [Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences (CEBS), University of Mumbai campus (Kalina), Mumbai 400098 (India); Wiita, Paul J. [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, 2000 Pennington Road, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States); Joshi, Santosh [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), Manora Peak, Nainital 263002 (India); Agudo, Iván, E-mail: arti@oa.uj.edu.pl [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Apartado 3004, E–18080 Granada (Spain)

    2017-03-10

    We present the results of our power spectral analysis for the BL Lac object PKS 0735+178, utilizing the Fermi -LAT survey at high-energy γ -rays, several ground-based optical telescopes, and single-dish radio telescopes operating at GHz frequencies. The novelty of our approach is that, by combining long-term and densely sampled intra-night light curves in the optical regime, we were able to construct for the first time the optical power spectrum of the blazar for a time domain extending from 23 years down to minutes. Our analysis reveals that: (1) the optical variability is consistent with a pure red noise, for which the power spectral density can be well approximated by a single power law throughout the entire time domain probed; (2) the slope of power spectral density at high-energy γ -rays (∼1) is significantly flatter than that found at radio and optical frequencies (∼2) within the corresponding time variability range; (3) for the derived power spectra, we did not detect any low-frequency flattening, nor do we see any evidence for cutoffs at the highest frequencies down to the noise floor levels due to measurement uncertainties. We interpret our findings in terms of a model where the blazar variability is generated by the underlying single stochastic process (at radio and optical frequencies), or a linear superposition of such processes (in the γ -ray regime). Along with the detailed PSD analysis, we also present the results of our extended (1998–2015) intra-night optical monitoring program and newly acquired optical photo-polarimetric data for the source.

  10. POLARIMETRY AND THE HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION MECHANISMS IN QUASAR JETS: THE CASE OF PKS 1136–135

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cara, Mihai; Perlman, Eric S.; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Cheung, Chi C.; Coppi, Paolo S.; Georganopoulos, Markos; Worrall, Diana M.; Birkinshaw, Mark; Sparks, William B.; Marshall, Herman L.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Begelman, Mitchell C.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of kiloparsec-scale X-ray emission from quasar jets, the physical processes responsible for their high-energy emission have been poorly defined. A number of mechanisms are under active debate, including synchrotron radiation, inverse-Comptonized cosmic microwave background (IC/CMB) emission, and other Comptonization processes. In a number of cases, the optical and X-ray emission of jet regions are inked by a single spectral component, and in those, high-resolution multi-band imaging and polarimetry can be combined to yield a powerful diagnostic of jet emission processes. Here we report on deep imaging photometry of the jet of PKS 1136–135 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that several knots are highly polarized in the optical, with fractional polarization Π > 30%. When combined with the broadband spectral shape observed in these regions, this is very difficult to explain via IC/CMB models, unless the scattering particles are at the lowest-energy tip of the electron energy distribution, with Lorentz factor γ ∼ 1, and the jet is also very highly beamed (δ ≥ 20) and viewed within a few degrees of the line of sight. We discuss both the IC/CMB and synchrotron interpretation of the X-ray emission in the light of this new evidence, presenting new models of the spectral energy distribution and also the matter content of this jet. The high polarizations do not completely rule out the possibility of IC/CMB optical-to-X-ray emission in this jet, but they do strongly disfavor the model. We discuss the implications of this finding, and also the prospects for future work

  11. Why Do Large Infrastructure Projects Often Fail?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    The paper reports, in a systematic manner, the views of a group of experienced practitioners on why large infrastructure projects often fail. The views, centering on the role played by the Owner (the Client or Buyer), can be summarized as follows:The owner should be aware of the need of clarity...... elements in securing successful projects....

  12. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep...

  13. Log-binomial models: exploring failed convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Tyler; Eliasziw, Misha; Fick, Gordon Hilton

    2013-12-13

    Relative risk is a summary metric that is commonly used in epidemiological investigations. Increasingly, epidemiologists are using log-binomial models to study the impact of a set of predictor variables on a single binary outcome, as they naturally offer relative risks. However, standard statistical software may report failed convergence when attempting to fit log-binomial models in certain settings. The methods that have been proposed in the literature for dealing with failed convergence use approximate solutions to avoid the issue. This research looks directly at the log-likelihood function for the simplest log-binomial model where failed convergence has been observed, a model with a single linear predictor with three levels. The possible causes of failed convergence are explored and potential solutions are presented for some cases. Among the principal causes is a failure of the fitting algorithm to converge despite the log-likelihood function having a single finite maximum. Despite these limitations, log-binomial models are a viable option for epidemiologists wishing to describe the relationship between a set of predictors and a binary outcome where relative risk is the desired summary measure. Epidemiologists are encouraged to continue to use log-binomial models and advocate for improvements to the fitting algorithms to promote the widespread use of log-binomial models.

  14. I Failed the edTPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Adam; Oyler, Celia

    2017-01-01

    In this article, co-written by a teacher and a professor, the authors examine possible explanations for why Adam (first author), a New York City public school special educator, failed the edTPA, a teacher performance assessment required by all candidates for state certification. Adam completed a yearlong teaching residency where he was the special…

  15. Underachievement, Failing Youth and Moral Panics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emma

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers contemporary "moral panics" around the underachievement of boys in school examinations in the UK and America. In the UK, in particular, the underachievement of boys is central to current "crisis accounts" about falling standards and failing pupils. "Underachievement" is a familiar word to those…

  16. [Analysis of chromosome deletions of TbDl, RD6 and pks15/1 in clinical strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhoshvaĭ, E Iu; Kurepina, N E; Sinsimer, D; Belikov, S I; Kreiswirth, B N

    2006-01-01

    Deletions are very important sources of the variability among members of the mycobacterial tuberculosis complex (MTC). Deletion analysis of MTC clinical isolates was performed to clarify phylogenetic relationships and help to identify epidemiologically significant groups of the MTC. In this study, the variability of the TbDl, RD6 and pks15/1 chromosome loci in clinical MTC strains and comparison of those results with IS6110-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism), sSNP (synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism), PGG (Principal Genetic Group) typing data were used to determine if these chromosome regions constitute good molecular markers for some of the epidemiologically important groups of the MTC. In the present study, 122, 61 and 294 clinical isolates were tested for the TbDl, RD6 and pks15/1 deletions, respectively. Specific probes were designed and used in RFLP analysis as well as sequencing techniques were applied. We found that all strains with intact TbDl region belonged to the sSNP cluster I, PGG 1 (katG463Leu and gyrA95Thr). The RD6 deletion was not determined to be a strict characteristic feature of any specific genetic group of the tested M.tb strains, but presence of this deletion is presumed for strains of high virulence, and associated with principal genetic groups 2 or 3. The genetic event that led to this deletion likely occurred in the strain that belongs to PGG 1. Identification of strains with an intact pksl5/1 gene cluster provided a potential marker for virulence. An intact pks15/1 gene cluster is required for the biosynthesis of the phenolic glycolipids (PGL-tb), production of which by clinical isolates was correlated with virulence.

  17. Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical thinking: are the ideals of OBE failing us or are we failing the ideals of OBE? K Lombard, M Grosser. Abstract. No Abstract. South African Journal of Education Vol. 28 (4) 2008: pp. 561-580. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Effects of disrupting the polyketide synthase gene WdPKS1 in Wangiella [Exophiala] dermatitidis on melanin production and resistance to killing by antifungal compounds, enzymatic degradation, and extremes in temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Piyali

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wangiella dermatitidis is a human pathogenic fungus that is an etiologic agent of phaeohyphomycosis. W. dermatitidis produces a black pigment that has been identified as a dihydroxynaphthalene melanin and the production of this pigment is associated with its virulence. Cell wall pigmentation in W. dermatitidis depends on the WdPKS1 gene, which encodes a polyketide synthase required for generating the key precursor for dihydroxynaphthalene melanin biosynthesis. Results We analyzed the effects of disrupting WdPKS1 on dihydroxynaphthalene melanin production and resistance to antifungal compounds. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wdpks1Δ-1 yeast had thinner cell walls that lacked an electron-opaque layer compared to wild-type cells. However, digestion of the wdpks1Δ-1 yeast revealed small black particles that were consistent with a melanin-like compound, because they were acid-resistant, reacted with melanin-binding antibody, and demonstrated a free radical signature by electron spin resonance analysis. Despite lacking the WdPKS1 gene, the mutant yeast were capable of catalyzing the formation of melanin from L-3,4-dihyroxyphenylalanine. The wdpks1Δ-1 cells were significantly more susceptible to killing by voriconazole, amphotericin B, NP-1 [a microbicidal peptide], heat and cold, and lysing enzymes than the heavily melanized parental or complemented strains. Conclusion In summary, W. dermatitidis makes WdPKS-dependent and -independent melanins, and the WdPKS1-dependent deposition of melanin in the cell wall confers protection against antifungal agents and environmental stresses. The biological role of the WdPKS-independent melanin remains unclear.

  19. Analysis of failed nuclear plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.

    1992-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory has conducted analyses of failed components from nuclear power generating stations since 1974. The considerations involved in working with and analyzing radioactive components are reviewed here, and the decontamination of these components is discussed. Analyses of four failed components from nuclear plants are then described to illustrate the kinds of failures seen in service. The failures discussed are (a) intergranular stress corrosion cracking of core spray injection piping in a boiling water reactor, (b) failure of canopy seal welds in adapter tube assemblies in the control rod drive head of a pressure water reactor, (c) thermal fatigue of a recirculation pump shaft in a boiling water reactor, and (d) failure of pump seal wear rings by nickel leaching in a boiling water reactor

  20. Recommended protocol for failed back surgery syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhr Tabatabaei SA

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS is many a times an intractable problem confronted in patients with surgical disease of lumbar spine and at the same time is a pressing problem for the physicians as well. This clinical entity is defined as continuation of pain in the lumbar region and lower extremities following surgery of the lumbar spine. Knowledge of the etiological factors and their prevention is the best line of treatment to overcome the evolution of this syndrome. During this study, which was conducted in Imam Khomeini hospital Tehran from the year 1989 till 1990, 43 out of 114 patients developed "FBSS". 23 cases responded to conservative treatment and psychotherapy whereas medical treatment failed to achieve fruitful results in the rest. The latter underwent extensive radiological investigations and repeat surgery. According to this study, we recommend that in the initial management of these patients. The surgeon should observe the dictum of "5-mis" to overcome and minimize the "FBSS" entity

  1. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G.R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in co...

  2. Mexico: Failing State or Emerging Democracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    argue that President Calderón’s current counter-drug strategy actually triggered the displacement of malign actors throughout Mexico by aggravating...increasing violence in Mexico along the nearly 2,000-mile long U.S. southern border as greater than Iraq and on par with Iran as the greatest...USJFCOM), said either Mexico or Pakistan were “worst case scenarios” for U.S. national security should either nation rapidly fail or collapse.2 Tension

  3. FidFail: Coverage and Precision Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    command line argument optionally disables static field analysis in order to reduce DidFail’s memory usage and analysis time. These new features make...unanalyzed taint flows. Finally, a new command line argument optionally disables static field analysis in order to reduce DidFail’s memory usage and...one of the apps has permission for. Unknown to the Android user, sensitive data could be exfiltrated to the Internet , if an app with permission to

  4. Revision of the Failed Thumb Carpometacarpal Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, Loukia K; Winston, Jonathan D; Bielicka, Deidre L; Rogozinski, Benjamin J; Lourie, Gary M; Sotereanos, Dean G

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the outcome of revision surgery for failed thumb carpometacarpal (CMC) arthroplasty. We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients with failed thumb CMC arthroplasty. The primary reason for revision was pain caused by metacarpal subsidence. Revision surgery included soft tissue interposition and distraction pinning to address the metacarpal subsidence. Additional ligament reconstruction was performed in patients with thumb instability. Eight patients required additional metacarpophalangeal joint fusion for concomitant joint hyperextension. Eleven required additional partial excision of the trapezoid for concomitant scaphotrapezoidal joint arthritis. All patients were evaluated clinically and radiographically. Mean follow-up was 57 months (range, 24-121 months). Pain levels evaluated by visual analog scale were significantly reduced in all patients after revision surgery. Mean grip strength and key pinch strength significantly increased. Twenty-seven patients achieved good functional results; those for 5 patients were fair. This study showed that revision surgery with distraction pinning and soft tissue interposition with or without ligament reconstruction was an effective treatment for failed CMC arthroplasty of the thumb. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining the nature of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the AGN PKS 1222+216 and 3C 279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sharleen; Brill, Ari; Mukherjee, Reshmi; VERITAS

    2018-01-01

    Blazars are a type of active galactic nuclei (AGN) that emit jets of ionized matter which move towards the Earth at relativistic speeds. In this research we carried out a study of two objects, 3C 279 and PKS 1222+216, which belong to the subset of blazars known as FSRQs (flat spectrum radio quasars), the most powerful TeV-detected sources at gamma-ray energies with bolometric luminosities exceeding 1048 erg/s. The high-energy emission of quasars peaks in the MeV-GeV band, making these sources very rarely detectable in the TeV energy range. In fact, only six FSRQs have ever been detected in this range by very-high-energy gamma-ray telescopes. We will present results from observing campaigns on 3C 279 in 2014 and 2016, when the object was detected in high flux states by Fermi-LAT. Observations include simultaneous coverage with the Fermi-LAT satellite and the VERITAS ground-based array spanning four decades in energy from 100 MeV to 1 TeV. We will also report VERITAS observations of PKS 1222+216 between 2008 and 2017. The detection/non-detection of TeV emission during flaring episodes at MeV energies will further contribute to our understanding of particle acceleration and gamma-ray emission mechanisms in blazar jets.

  6. Implant failure and history of failed endodontic treatment: A retrospective case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S.; Wolff, Larry F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Residual bacterial biofilm and/or bacteria in planktonic form may be survived in the bone following an extraction of an infected tooth that was endodontically treated unsuccessfully Failed endodontic treatment may be associated with failure of implants to osseointegrate in the same sites. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case-control study is to examine the risk of implant failure in previous failed endodontic sites. Material and Methods This retrospective case-control stud...

  7. The Failed Image and the Possessed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This article asks if the recurrent queries regarding the value of images in visual anthropology could find new answers by exploring responses to visual media in neo-orthodox Islam. It proposes that the visual display of the photographic image shares a curious resemblance to the bodies of people...... possessed by invisible spirits called jinn. The image as a failed example or model of reality works like the possessed body as an amplifier of invisibility pointing towards that which cannot be seen, depicted visually, or represented in writing. This suggests a negative epistemology in which images obtain...

  8. Heterologous Gene Expression of N-Terminally Truncated Variants of LipPks1 Suggests a Functionally Critical Structural Motif in the N-terminus of Modular Polyketide Synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Bailey, Constance B.; Fujii, Tatsu A.

    2017-01-01

    Streptomyces-derived, Well-characterized modular, polyketide synthase (PKS). Using this enzyme as a model, we experimentally investigated the effects of alternative TSSs using a heterologous host, Streptomyces venezuelae. One of the TSSs employed boosted the protein level by 59-fold and the product yield by 23...

  9. The Gamma-Ray Emitting Radio-Loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS 2004-447 II. The Radio View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, R.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Ros, E.; Stevens, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Carpenter, B.; Elsaesser, D.; Gehrels, N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Context. gamma-ray-detected radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 (gamma-NLS1) galaxies constitute a small but interesting sample of the gamma-ray-loud AGN. The radio-loudest gamma-NLS1 known, PKS2004447, is located in the southern hemisphere and is monitored in the radio regime by the multiwavelength monitoring programme TANAMI. Aims. We aim for the first detailed study of the radio morphology and long-term radio spectral evolution of PKS2004447, which are essential for understanding the diversity of the radio properties of gamma-NLS1s. Methods. The TANAMI VLBI monitoring program uses the Australian Long Baseline Array (LBA) and telescopes in Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa to monitor the jets of radio-loud active galaxies in the southern hemisphere. Lower resolution radio flux density measurements at multiple radio frequencies over four years of observations were obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA). Results. The TANAMI VLBI image at 8.4GHz shows an extended one-sided jet with a dominant compact VLBI core. Its brightness temperature is consistent with equipartition, but it is an order of magnitude below other gamma-NLS1s with the sample value varying over two orders of magnitude. We find a compact morphology with a projected large-scale size 11 kpc and a persistent steep radio spectrum with moderate flux-density variability. Conclusions. PKS2004447 appears to be a unique member of the gamma-NLS1 sample. It exhibits blazar-like features, such as a flat featureless X-ray spectrum and a core-dominated, one-sided parsec-scale jet with indications for relativistic beaming. However, the data also reveal properties atypical for blazars, such as a radio spectrum and large-scale size consistent with compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) objects, which are usually associated with young radio sources. These characteristics are unique among all gamma-NLS1s and extremely rare among gamma-ray-loud AGN.

  10. X-ray monitoring of the radio and γ-ray loud Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy PKS2004–447

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreikenbohm A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results of the X-ray analysis of XMM-Newton and Swift observations as part of a multi-wavelength monitoring campaign in 2012 of the radio-loud narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy PKS 2004–447. The source was recently detected in γ-rays by Fermi/LAT among only four other galaxies of that type. The 0:5 – 10 keV X-ray spectrum is well-described by a simple absorbed powerlaw (Γ ∼ 1.6. The source brightness exhibits variability on timescales of months to years with indications for spectral variability, which follows a “bluer-when-brighter” behaviour, similar to blazars.

  11. Closed External Fixation for Failing or Failed Femoral Shaft Plating in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbar, Adil; Witwit, Ibrahim; Al-Algawy, Alaa A Hussein

    2017-08-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are one of the common injuries that is treated by open reduction, with internal fixation by plate and screws or intramedullary nailing, which can achieve a high union rate. To evaluate the outcome of using closed external fixation to augment a failing plate; with signs of screw loosening and increasing bone/plate gap; a failed plate; broken plate; screws completely out of bone with redisplacement of fracture. A retrospective study on 18 patients, aged between 17-42 years, who presented between 6-18 weeks after initial surgical fixation, with pain, difficulty in limb function, deformity and abnormal movement at fracture site, was done. X-Rays showed plating failure with acceptable amount of callus, which unfortunately had refractured. Cases associated with infection and no radiological evidence of callus formation were excluded from this study. Closed reduction was done by manipulation, then fracture fixation by AO external fixator. The patients were encouraged for full weight bearing as early as possible with dynamization later on. Of the 18 patients who underwent external fixation after close reduction, 15 cases showed bone healing in a period between 11-18 weeks (mean of 14.27 weeks) with good alignment (Radiologically). Removal of external fixator was done followed by physical therapy thereafter. Closed external fixation for treatment of failing or failed femoral plating, achieves good success rate and has less complications, is a short time procedure, especially in a hospital with limited resources.

  12. Fail forward: Mitigating failure in energy research and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    on participant observation and empirical field research in three case companies, the OFEI model is developed to identify inappropriate behaviors that cause energy research and innovation to fail. The OFEI model can be used to give failed (or failing) projects a second chance and the article concludes...

  13. Data mining and diagnosing IC fails

    CERN Document Server

    Huisman, Leendert M

    2005-01-01

    This book grew out of an attempt to describe a variety of tools that were developed over a period of years in IBM to analyze Integrated Circuit fail data. The selection presented in this book focuses on those tools that have a significant statistical or datamining component. The danger of describing sta­ tistical analysis methods is the amount of non-trivial mathematics that is involved and that tends to obscure the usually straigthforward analysis ideas. This book is, therefore, divided into two roughly equal parts. The first part contains the description of the various analysis techniques and focuses on ideas and experimental results. The second part contains all the mathematical details that are necessary to prove the validity of the analysis techniques, the existence of solutions to the problems that those techniques engender, and the correctness of several properties that were assumed in the first part. Those who are interested only in using the analysis techniques themselves can skip the second part, b...

  14. Salvage microdissection testicular sperm extraction after failed conventional testicular sperm extraction in patients with nonobstructive azoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Takao, Tetsuya; Takada, Shingo; Koga, Minoru; Takeyama, Masami; Matsumiya, Kiyomi; Fujioka, Hideki; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2006-04-01

    TESE is considered the best procedure for identifying a tubule for spermatozoa retrieval. This technique improves the SRR to around 50%. However, it has been unclear whether it is useful in patients in whom conventional TESE has failed. We compared the outcome of microdissection TESE in patients in whom conventional TESE failed to that in patients who did not undergo conventional TESE. We also evaluated relations between the outcome of salvage microdissection TESE and the characteristics of previous conventional TESE. A total of 46 patients with nonobstructive azoospermia in whom salvage microdissection TESE was performed after failed conventional TESE were included. Patient characteristics and the SRR were compared between these patients and 134 in whom conventional TESE had not been performed previously. The previous TESE procedure, testicular histology and interval between TESEs were also evaluated. Patient characteristics did not differ significantly between the groups. The microdissection TESE SRR also did not differ significantly between the groups (45.7% vs 44.0%). The possibility of successful spermatozoa retrieval by salvage microdissection TESE remained regardless of the previous failure of any other TESE procedure and regardless of testicular histology. The salvage microdissection TESE SRR was not related to the interval between TESEs. Because salvage microdissection TESE is effective in patients in whom conventional TESE has failed, this option should be made available to them with the understanding that extended followup after salvage microdissection TESE is necessary due to the risk of hypogonadism.

  15. Physical and Emotional Development, Appetite and Body Image in Adolescents Who Failed to Thrive as Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewett, R. F.; Corbett, S. S.; Wright, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Previous studies suggest that failure to thrive in infancy may be associated with adverse sequelae in childhood. Although cognitive abilities have been extensively investigated, little systematic research is available on other aspects of development. Methods: Eighty-nine children who failed to thrive as infants and 91 controls were…

  16. Effects of failed commissuration on the septum pellucidum and fornix: implications for fetal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Batty, Ruth; Connolly, Dan A.J.; Reeves, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    In the previous article, we considered the normal appearances of the midline stuctures of the brain as they appear on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we discuss the effects of failed commissuration on the midline structures. We highlight some of the misconceptions of this process that may lead to misdiagnosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum in utero. (orig.)

  17. Effects of failed commissuration on the septum pellucidum and fornix: implications for fetal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Academic Unit of Radiology, C Floor, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Batty, Ruth; Connolly, Dan A.J. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Reeves, Michael J. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    In the previous article, we considered the normal appearances of the midline stuctures of the brain as they appear on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. In this article, we discuss the effects of failed commissuration on the midline structures. We highlight some of the misconceptions of this process that may lead to misdiagnosis of agenesis of the corpus callosum in utero. (orig.)

  18. Why Do First-Generation Students Fail?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay S.; Newbold, John J.; O'Rourke, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have determined factors contributing to first-generation student success. This study finds that first-generation students are less involved, have less social and financial support, and do not show a preference for active coping strategies. First-generation students report less social and academic satisfaction as well as lower…

  19. Why Small Businesses Fail in Tunisia?

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Omri; Mohamed Frikha

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at drawing up an average cognitive map in order to explain the failure factors of Tunisian small businesses. The method adopted in our study is the cognitive approach. Our study extends entrepreneurship literature and previous literature by proposing a new approach in order to build an average cognitive map for the explanation of small businesses failures.

  20. Money Talks: Why Nigeria’s Petroleum Industry Bill will Fail to End Gas Flaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    Industry Bill ( PIB ) that if enacted would ban gas flaring. However, as currently written the PIB will not end flaring for the same reasons that...previous legislation failed. Loopholes in the PIB combined with corruption, lack of effective enforcement mechanisms and lack of incentives to develop...Bill ( PIB ) that if enacted would ban gas flaring. However, as currently written, the PIB will not end flaring for the same reasons that previous

  1. Pass/fail patterns of candidates who failed COMLEX-USA level 2-PE because of misrepresentation of clinical findings on postencounter notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenau, Erik E; Sandella, Jeanne M

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, The National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners (NBOME) instituted a policy to address the accuracy and integrity of postencounter written documentation recorded during the Comprehensive Osteopathic Medical Licensing Examination Level 2-Performance Evaluation (COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE). This policy was instituted not only to protect the integrity of the examination, but also to highlight that overdocumentation of clinical findings not obtained during patient encounters may jeopardize patient safety. To investigate overall and domain pass/fail patterns of candidates who misrepresented clinical findings with regard to past and subsequent performance on COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE. Specifically, to investigate what percentage of candidates failed because of misrepresentation on first attempts and how they performed on subsequent administrations, as well as the previous performance patterns of candidates who failed because of misrepresentation on examination retakes. Historical records from NBOME's COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE database (testing cycles 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2009-2010) were used to analyze overall and domain pass/fail patterns of candidates who failed at least once because of misrepresentation of clinical findings. Of the 24 candidates who failed because of misrepresentation of postencounter (SOAP) notes, 20 candidates (83%) were first-time examinees. Four candidates (17%) were repeating the examination, 2 of whom were making a third attempt to pass. Among these 20 candidates who failed because of misrepresentation of clinical findings on their first attempt, 19 passed on their next attempt. At the time of study analysis, all but 2 candidates eventually passed the examination in subsequent attempts. Among candidates found to have misrepresented clinical findings on postencounter written documentation on COMLEX-USA Level 2-PE, no pattern existed between their past or subsequent performance with regard to overall or domain pass/fail results. The vast

  2. Disorganized junior doctors fail the MRCP (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome.

  3. Imaging studies for failed back surgery syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, G.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Sarrazin, J.L.; Soulie, D.

    1995-01-01

    In patients with failed back surgery syndrome, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be the best first-line imaging study because it simplifies the diagnosis. This update is based on over 600 cases. MRI shows the scar tissue at the surgical site, persistent evidence of disk herniation for several weeks after surgery, and evidence of local and regional edema in one-fourth of cases. The edema is most marked between two months and two years after the operation and can misleadingly suggest discitis. MRI is the best investigation for detecting recurrent herniation at the same vertebral level or another level. Herniated disk material is seen as a mass that does not enhance after gadolinium, in contrast to the vascularized scar tissue. Free fragments are often clearly visible within the scar tissue. Fragments that migrate to the epidural space can give rise to granulomatous reactions. Scar tissue can be seen in the epidural space and within the disk; it can show enhancement after gadolinium for several years. The scar can be atrophic or hypertrophic and can encase or impinge on the dural sac and nerve roots. Pathological fibrosis cannot be differentiated from ordinary scar tissue. Arachnoiditis causing adherence of the nerve roots to the dura mater or to each other occurs in 5 % to 10 % of cases. Nerve root enhancement after gadolinium is seen in three-fourths of cases. Bone lesions are common, especially some time after surgery; they are usually accompanied with other lesions. Hematomas are seen in less than 10 % of cases. Infections are similarly rare (0.25 % each for discitis and epiduritis). The diagnosis of discitis is difficult and requires percutaneous biopsy of the disk, especially when MRI shows fluid within the disk, with decreased signal intensity on T2 images, and non enhancement after intravenous gadolinium. (authors). 19 refs., 7 figs

  4. Salvage of Failed Protein Targets by Reductive Alkylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kemin; Kim, Youngchang; Hatzos-Skintges, Catherine; Chang, Changsoo; Cuff, Marianne; Chhor, Gekleng; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Michalska, Karolina; Nocek, Boguslaw; An, Hao; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Bigelow, Lance; Joachimiak, Grazyna; Li, Hui; Mack, Jamey; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Maltseva, Natalia; Mulligan, Rory; Tesar, Christine; Zhou, Min; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The growth of diffraction-quality single crystals is of primary importance in protein X-ray crystallography. Chemical modification of proteins can alter their surface properties and crystallization behavior. The Midwest Center for Structural Genomics (MCSG) has previously reported how reductive methylation of lysine residues in proteins can improve crystallization of unique proteins that initially failed to produce diffraction-quality crystals. Recently, this approach has been expanded to include ethylation and isopropylation in the MCSG protein crystallization pipeline. Applying standard methods, 180 unique proteins were alkylated and screened using standard crystallization procedures. Crystal structures of 12 new proteins were determined, including the first ethylated and the first isopropylated protein structures. In a few cases, the structures of native and methylated or ethylated states were obtained and the impact of reductive alkylation of lysine residues was assessed. Reductive methylation tends to be more efficient and produces the most alkylated protein structures. Structures of methylated proteins typically have higher resolution limits. A number of well-ordered alkylated lysine residues have been identified, which make both intermolecular and intramolecular contacts. The previous report is updated and complemented with the following new data; a description of a detailed alkylation protocol with results, structural features, and roles of alkylated lysine residues in protein crystals. These contribute to improved crystallization properties of some proteins. PMID:24590719

  5. Outcome After Salvage Arthrodesis for Failed Total Ankle Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrad, Ilka; Henricson, Anders; Magnusson, Håkan; Carlsson, Åke; Rosengren, Björn E

    2016-03-01

    In cases with total ankle replacement (TAR) failure, a decision between revision TAR and salvage arthrodesis (SA) must be made. In a previous study, we analyzed revision TAR and found low functional outcome and satisfaction. The aims of the current study were to analyze SA concerning failure rate and patient-related outcome measures (PROMs). Until September 2014, a total of 1110 primary TARs were recorded in the Swedish Ankle Registry. Of the 188 failures, 118 were revised with SA (and 70 with revision TAR). Patient- and implant-specific data for SA cases were analyzed as well as arthrodesis techniques. Failure of SA was defined as repeat arthrodesis or amputation. Generic and region-specific PROMs of 68 patients alive with a solid unilateral SA performed more than 1 year before were analyzed. The first-attempt solid arthrodesis rate of SA was 90%. Overall, 25 of 53 (47%) patients were very satisfied or satisfied. Mean Self-reported Foot and Ankle Score (SEFAS) was 22 (95% confidence interval 20-24), Euro Qol-5 Dimensions 0.57 (0.49-0.65), Euro Qol-Visual Analogue Scale 59 (53-64), Short Form-36 physical 34 (31-37) and mental 50 (46-54). The scores and satisfaction were similar to those after revision TAR but the reoperation rate was significantly lower in SA (P < .05). Salvage arthrodesis after failed TAR had a solid arthrodesis rate of 90% at first attempt, but similar to revision TAR, less than 50% of the patients were satisfied and the functional scores were low. Until studies show true benefit of revision TAR over SA, we favor SA for failed TAR. Level IV, retrospective case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  7. 4D monitoring of actively failing rockslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Nick; Williams, Jack; Hardy, Richard; Brain, Matthew

    2017-04-01

    Assessing the conditions which promote rockfall to collapse relies upon detailed monitoring, ideally before, during and immediately after failure. With standard repeat surveys it is common that surveys do not coincide with or capture precursors, or that surveys are widely spaced relative to the timing and duration of driving forces such as storms. As a result gaining insight into the controls on failure and the timescales over which precursors operate remains difficult to establish with certainty, and establishing direct links between environmental conditions and rock-falls, or sequences of events prior to rockfall, remain difficult to define. To address this, we present analysis of a high-frequency 3D laser scan dataset captured using a new permanently installed system developed to constantly monitor actively failing rock slopes. The system is based around a time of flight laser scanner, integrated with and remotely controlled by dedicated controls and analysis software. The system is configured to capture data at 0.1 m spacing across > 22,000 m3 at up to 30 minute intervals. Here we present results captured with this system over a period of 9 months, spanning spring to winter 2015. Our analysis is focussed upon improving the understanding of the nature of small (< 1m^3) rockfalls falling from near vertical rock cliffs. We focus here on the development of a set of algorithms for differencing that trade-off the temporal resolution of frequent surveys (hourly) against high spatial resolution point clouds (< 0.05 m) to enhance the precision of change detection, allowing both deformation and detachments to be monitored through time. From this dataset we derive rockfall volume frequency distributions based upon short-interval surveys, and identify the presence and/or absence of precursors, in what we believe to be the first constant volumetric measurement of rock face erosion. The results hold implications for understanding of rockfall mechanics, but also for how

  8. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  9. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  10. Rescue of failed filtering blebs with ab interno trephination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shihadeh, Wisam A; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of ab interno automated trephination as a technique for rescuing failed mature filtering blebs. A retrospective chart review of 40 failed blebs of 38 patients who had a posttrephination follow-up period of at least 3 months was done. With success defined as intraocular pressure (IOP) control with other modalities of management. Complications were few. We believe that ab interno trephination is an excellent option for rescuing selected failed filtering blebs.

  11. Development of failed fuel detection system for PWR (III)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Churl Kew; Kang, Hee Dong; Jeong, Seung Ho; Cho, Byung Sub; Yoon, Byeong Joo; Yoon, Jae Seong

    1987-12-01

    Ultrasonic transducers satisfying the conditions for failed fuel rod detection for failed fuel rod detection have been designed and built. And performance tests for them have been carried out. Ultrasonic signal processing units, a manipulator guiding the ultrasonic probe through the fuel assembly lanes and its control units have been constructed. The performance of the system has been verified experimentally to be successful in failed fuel rod detection. (Author)

  12. Recurrent failings of medical humanitarianism: intractable, ignored, or just exaggerated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Sandro; Pavignani, Enrico

    2017-11-18

    Humanitarian health workers operate in dangerous and uncertain contexts, in which mistakes and failures are common, often have severe consequences, and are regularly repeated, despite being documented by many reviews. This Series paper aims to discuss the failures of medical humanitarianism. We describe why some of these recurrent failings, which are often not identified until much later, seem intractable: they are so entrenched in humanitarian action that they cannot be addressed by simple technical fixes. We argue that relief health-care interventions should be contextualised. Perhaps medical humanitarianism deserves a better reputation than the one at times tarnished by unfair criticism, resulting from inapplicable guiding principles and unrealistic expectations. The present situation is not conducive to radical reforms of humanitarian medicine; complex crises multiply and no political, diplomatic, or military solutions are in sight. Relief agencies have to compete for financial resources that do not increase at the same pace as health needs. Avoiding the repetition of failures requires recognising previous mistakes and addressing them through different policies by donors, stronger documentation and analysis of humanitarian programmes and interventions, increased professionalisation, improved, opportunistic relationships with the media, and better ways of working together with local health stakeholders and through indigenous institutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  14. First Nustar Observations of the Bl Lac-Type Blazar Pks 2155-304: Constraints on the Jet Content and Distribution of Radiating Particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madejski, G. M.; Nalewajko, K.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    , covering the energy range 0.5–60 keV, is best described by a model consisting of a log-parabola component with curvature β = 0.3 -0.1+0.2 and a (local) photon index 3.04 ± 0.15 at photon energy of 2 keV, and a hard power-law tail with photon index 2.2 ± 0.4. The hard X-ray tail can be smoothly joined......We report the first hard X-ray observations with NuSTAR of the BL Lac-type blazar PKS 2155-304, augmented with soft X-ray data from XMM-Newton and γ-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope, obtained in 2013 April when the source was in a very low flux state. A joint NuSTAR and XMM spectrum...... to the quasi-simultaneous γ-ray spectrum by a synchrotron self-Compton component produced by an electron distribution with index p = 2.2. Assuming that the power-law electron distribution extends down to γ min = 1 and that there is one proton per electron, an unrealistically high total jet power of Lp ~ 10...

  15. Radio and γ -Ray Variability in the BL Lac PKS 0219−164: Detection of Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Radio Light Curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatta, Gopal, E-mail: gopalbhatta716@gmail.com [Astronomical Observatory of the Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, 30-244 Kraków (Poland); Mt. Suhora Observatory, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, 30-084 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-09-20

    In this work, we explore the long-term variability properties of the blazar PKS 0219−164 in the radio and the γ -ray regime, utilizing the OVRO 15 GHz and the Fermi /LAT observations from the period 2008–2017. We found that γ -ray emission is more variable than the radio emission implying that γ -ray emission possibly originated in more compact regions while the radio emission represented continuum emission from the large-scale jets. Also, in the γ -ray, the source exhibited spectral variability, characterized by the softer-when-brighter trend, a less frequently observed feature in the high-energy emission by BL Lacs. In radio, using Lomb–Scargle periodogram and weighted wavelet z -transform, we detected a strong signal of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) with a periodicity of 270 ± 26 days with possible harmonics of 550 ± 42 and 1150 ± 157 day periods. At a time when detections of QPOs in blazars are still under debate, the observed QPO with high statistical significance (∼97%–99% global significance over underlying red-noise processes) and persistent over nearly 10 oscillations could make one of the strongest cases for the detection of QPOs in blazar light curves. We discuss various blazar models that might lead to the γ -ray and radio variability, QPO, and the achromatic behavior seen in the high-energy emission from the source.

  16. Multiband Observations of the Quasar PKS 2326–502 during Active and Quiescent Gamma-Ray States in 2010–2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutka, Michael S. [The Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, NE, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Carpenter, Bryce D.; Gehrels, Neil [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ojha, Roopesh [UMBC/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finke, Justin D. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Code 7653, 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); D’Ammando, Filippo [Università di Bologna Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, INAF-IRA, Bologna (Italy); Kadler, Matthias [Lehrstuhl für Astronomie, Universität Würzburg, Emil -Fischer-Straße 31, D-97074 Würzburg (Germany); Edwards, Philip G. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Stevens, Jamie [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, 1828 Yarrie Lake Road, Narrabri NSW 2390 (Australia); Torresi, Eleonora; Grandi, Paola [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, (National Institute of Astrophysics) INAF-IASFBO, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Nesci, Roberto [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, (National Institute of Astrophysics) INAF-IAPS, via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Krauß, Felicia [GRAPPA and Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Müller, Cornelia [Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, P.O. Box 9010, 6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wilms, Joern, E-mail: ditko86@gmail.com, E-mail: carpbr01@gmail.com [Remeis Observatory and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    Quasi-simultaneous observations of the Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar PKS 2326−502 were carried out in the γ -ray, X-ray, UV, optical, near-infrared, and radio bands. Using these observations, we are able to characterize the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the source during two flaring and one quiescent γ -ray states. These data were used to constrain one-zone leptonic models of the SEDs of each flare and investigate the physical conditions giving rise to them. While modeling one flare required only changes in the electron spectrum compared to the quiescent state, modeling the other flare required changes in both the electron spectrum and the size of the emitting region. These results are consistent with an emerging pattern of two broad classes of flaring states seen in blazars. Type 1 flares are explained by changes solely in the electron distribution, whereas type 2 flares require a change in an additional parameter. This suggests that different flares, even in the same source, may result from different physical conditions or different regions in the jet.

  17. NuSTAR and multifrequency study of the two high-redshift blazars S5 0836+710 and PKS 2149-306

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Ghisellini, G.; Perri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Powerful blazars are flat-spectrum radio quasars whose emission is dominated by a Compton component peakingbetween a few hundred keV and a few hundred MeV. We observed two bright blazars, PKS 2149–306 at redshift z = 2.345 and S5 0836+710 at z = 2.172, in the hard X-ray band with the Nuclear...... of a few months. While no fast variability was detected during a single observation, both sources were variable in the X-ray band, up to 50%, between the two observations, with larger variability at higher energies. No variability was detected in the optical/NIR band. These data, together with Fermi......-Large Area Telescope, Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, and other literature data, are then used to study the overall spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of these blazars. Although the jet nonthermal emission dominates the SED, it leaves the UV band unhidden, allowing us to detect the thermal emission...

  18. Implant failure and history of failed endodontic treatment: A retrospective case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Wolff, Larry F

    2017-11-01

    Residual bacterial biofilm and/or bacteria in planktonic form may be survived in the bone following an extraction of an infected tooth that was endodontically treated unsuccessfully Failed endodontic treatment may be associated with failure of implants to osseointegrate in the same sites. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case-control study is to examine the risk of implant failure in previous failed endodontic sites. This retrospective case-control study is based on 94 dental records of implants placed at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry. Dental records of patients who received an implant in sites with previously failed endodontic therapy in the dental school were identified from the electronic database, while control subjects were obtained from the same pool of patients with the requirement to have received an implant in a site that was not endodontically treated. The mean age of the population was 62.89±14.17 years with 57.4% of the sample being females and 42.6% of them being males. In regards to the socio-economic status and dental insurance, 84.0% of this population was classified as low socio-economic status and 68.1% had dental insurance. Tobacco use was self-reported by 9.6% and hypercholesterolemia was the most prevalent systemic medical condition. Dental implant failure was identified in two of the included records (2.1%), both of which were placed in sites with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Within the limitations of this retrospective case-control study, further investigation with a larger population group into implant failure of sites that previously had unsuccessful endodontic treatment would be warranted. Implant failure may be associated with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Key words: Implantology, endodontics, osseointegration, treatment outcome, case-control study.

  19. Native kidney reincarnation following a failed transplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.; Roberts, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 51-year-old woman with end stage renal failure secondary to Haemolytic Uraemic syndrome underwent a cadaveric renal transplant. A routine post transplant DTPA scan was performed which demonstrated satisfactory renal transplant perfusion and function. Incidental note was made of tracer uptake in the pelvis in the mid-line, which was suspected to be a uterine fibroid. This was confirmed on ultrasonography and at surgery. One week post transplantation the patient became acutely unwell and at laparotomy a perforated diverticular abscess was drained. Intraoperatively the transplant kidney was examined and the surgeon thought there was a area of infarction. This was confirmed on biopsy. As the patient's creatinine was rising a repeat DTPA study was performed. Perfusion and function of the transplant kidney was virtually absent while Doppler studies showed no flow. The patient however continued to produce urine and the creatinine was stable. Subsequently a mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG) 3 study was performed which again confirmed absent perfusion and function by the the transplanted kidney as well as the previous noted uterine fibroid. The native kidneys however demonstrated good perfusion and function. The patient's renal function remained stable and she did not require dialysis. A necrotic infarcted transplant kidney was removed uneventfully. This case illustrates the importance of imaging the native kidneys as well as the transplant kidney when there are puzzling clinical features. The presumed cause of the recovery of native renal function was the immunosuppression given for the transplant. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  1. Ultrasonics aids the identification of failed fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Over a number of years Brown Boveri Reaktor of West Germany has developed and commercialized an ultrasonic failed fuel rod detection system. Sipping has up to now been the standard technique for failed fuel detection, but sipping can only indicate whether or not an assembly contains defective rods; the BBR system can tell which rod is defective. (author)

  2. 7 CFR 983.52 - Failed lots/rework procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA.... Each lot of substandard pistachios may be reworked to meet aflatoxin or quality requirements. The... reporting. If a lot fails to meet the aflatoxin and/or the quality requirements of this part, a failed lot...

  3. Management for failed back surgery syndrome: three-in-one ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management for failed back surgery syndrome: three-in-one procedure versus percutaneous spinal fixation alone .... unchanged; Fair: definite relief of some preoperative symptoms, while other symptoms were either .... spinal fixation procedure alone for management of pain and handicap after failed back spinal surgery ...

  4. 75 FR 76321 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION... source of income attributable to qualified fails charges. This action is necessary to provide guidance...-basis taxation of foreign persons not otherwise subject to U.S. net-basis taxation and the withholding...

  5. Simulating fail-stop in asynchronous distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Laura; Marzullo, Keith

    1994-01-01

    The fail-stop failure model appears frequently in the distributed systems literature. However, in an asynchronous distributed system, the fail-stop model cannot be implemented. In particular, it is impossible to reliably detect crash failures in an asynchronous system. In this paper, we show that it is possible to specify and implement a failure model that is indistinguishable from the fail-stop model from the point of view of any process within an asynchronous system. We give necessary conditions for a failure model to be indistinguishable from the fail-stop model, and derive lower bounds on the amount of process replication needed to implement such a failure model. We present a simple one-round protocol for implementing one such failure model, which we call simulated fail-stop.

  6. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  7. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  8. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  9. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  10. Indiscriminate behaviors in previously institutionalized young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A; Drury, Stacy S; Smyke, Anna T; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-03-01

    This study included 54-month-old children with a history of institutional care. Our goal was to: (1) examine differences in indiscriminate social behaviors in children with a history of institutional care compared with home-reared children; (2) test whether foster care reduces indiscriminate social behaviors in a randomized controlled trial; and (3) examine early predictors of indiscriminate behaviors. Participants were 58 children with a history of institutional care and 31 never-institutionalized control (NIG) subjects enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of foster care for institutional care, assessed from toddlerhood to 54 months. Indiscriminate social behaviors were measured naturalistically by using the Stranger at the Door procedure. In the Stranger at the Door procedure, children with a history of institutional care left with a stranger at higher rates than NIG subjects (33% vs. 3.5%; P Children in the care as usual group left more than NIG subjects (41.9% vs. 3.6%; P ≤ .001). The differences between the foster care group (24.1%) and the care as usual group and between foster care group and NIG were not significant. In a logistic regression, early disorganized attachment behaviors, baseline developmental quotient, and caregiving quality after randomization contributed to variance at 54 months. In the same analysis using only children with a history of institutional care, only disorganized attachment contributed significantly to 54-month indiscriminate social behaviors (Exp[B] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.5]). Observed socially indiscriminate behaviors at 54 months were associated with prolonged exposure to institutional care. Young children raised in conditions of deprivation who fail to develop organized attachments as toddlers are at increased risk for subsequent indiscriminate behaviors.

  11. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  12. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  13. Predictors of failed attendances in a multi-specialty outpatient centre using electronic databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mark I

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Failure to keep outpatient medical appointments results in inefficiencies and costs. The objective of this study is to show the factors in an existing electronic database that affect failed appointments and to develop a predictive probability model to increase the effectiveness of interventions. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on outpatient clinic attendances at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore from 2000 to 2004. 22864 patients were randomly sampled for analysis. The outcome measure was failed outpatient appointments according to each patient's latest appointment. Results Failures comprised of 21% of all appointments and 39% when using the patients' latest appointment. Using odds ratios from the mutliple logistic regression analysis, age group (0.75 to 0.84 for groups above 40 years compared to below 20 years, race (1.48 for Malays, 1.61 for Indians compared to Chinese, days from scheduling to appointment (2.38 for more than 21 days compared to less than 7 days, previous failed appointments (1.79 for more than 60% failures and 4.38 for no previous appointments, compared with less than 20% failures, provision of cell phone number (0.10 for providing numbers compared to otherwise and distance from hospital (1.14 for more than 14 km compared to less than 6 km were significantly associated with failed appointments. The predicted probability model's diagnostic accuracy to predict failures is more than 80%. Conclusion A few key variables have shown to adequately account for and predict failed appointments using existing electronic databases. These can be used to develop integrative technological solutions in the outpatient clinic.

  14. Childhood obesity: parents fail to recognise, general practitioners fail to act.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    White, A

    2012-01-01

    General Practitioners (GPs) have an important role to play in recognition of and intervention against childhood obesity in Ireland. Data were collected prospectively on a cohort of children aged 4-14 and their parents (n = 101 pairs) who attended consecutively to a semi-rural group general practice. Parents estimated their child\\'s weight status. Actual weight status was determined for both parent and child using the United States Centres\\' for Disease Control\\'s BMI-for-age references. 15 (14.9%) of the children and 49 (51.6%) of the parents were overweight or obese. While 71 (95.5%) of normal weight status children were correctly identified, parents showed poor concordance in identifying their children as overweight 2 (18.2%) or obese 0 (0%). BMI was only evidently recorded in the clinical records of 1 out of 15 cases of overweight children identified. With parents failing to recognise childhood obesity, GPs have a responsibility in tackling this problem at a family level.

  15. Securing Failed Inner-City Communities: The Military's Role

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khan, Oral

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the threat to internal security posed by violent gangs. This threat was found to be particularly acute in inner-city communities that have over time devolved to a status that the author classified as failed communities...

  16. Why military personnel fail to keep medical appointments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, R; Ballard, K

    2008-03-01

    Failure to keep medical appointments, commonly referred to as 'Did Not Attend' (DNA), is a frequent problem in both primary and secondary health care and leads to a waste of valuable resources. Although the reasons for DNA within the general population are well documented, little is known about this behaviour amongst people serving in the armed forces. In this paper we report the findings of a questionnaire-based study investigating the reasons why military personnel fail to keep hospital appointments. A postal questionnaire asking questions about the reasons for not attending the appointment and how they perceived the condition for which treatment had been sought, were sent to 167 military patients known to have missed appointments in either a hospital outpatient department or regional rehabilitation unit. 162 controls, who attended appointments, were also sent a questionnaire asking them about factors leading to their appointment and how they perceived the condition that they attended the appointment for. Illness perception was measured using a previously validated Illness perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R). The controls were matched by rank, gender and corps. The overall response rate was 51.5%, with 46% response in the DNA group and 55% in the controls. A previous history of hospital DNA (though not DNA in primary care) and attempting to change the appointment date were associated with DNA (p = 0.01). Those who received a reminder about the appointment were less likely to DNA (p IPQ-R, was not associated with appointment attendance. The most frequent reasons cited for missed appointments were due to administrative problems, with many (38%) respondents being simply unaware that they had an appointment at all or believing that they had cancelled it (14%). Forgetting the appointment (8%) or mixing up the date (21%) were also cited by respondents as reasons for not attending. Only 11% of respondents gave reasons that were specific to a military population, most

  17. Failing the market, failing deliberative democracy: How scaling up corporate carbon reporting proliferates information asymmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Lippert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Corporate carbon footprint data has become ubiquitous. This data is also highly promissory. But as this paper argues, such data fails both consumers and citizens. The governance of climate change seemingly requires a strong foundation of data on emission sources. Economists approach climate change as a market failure, where the optimisation of the atmosphere is to be evidence based and data driven. Citizens or consumers, state or private agents of control, all require deep access to information to judge emission realities. Whether we are interested in state-led or in neoliberal ‘solutions’ for either democratic participatory decision-making or for preventing market failure, companies’ emissions need to be known. This paper draws on 20 months of ethnographic fieldwork in a Fortune 50 company’s environmental accounting unit to show how carbon reporting interferes with information symmetry requirements, which further troubles possibilities for contesting data. A material-semiotic analysis of the data practices and infrastructures employed in the context of corporate emissions disclosure details the situated political economies of data labour along the data processing chain. The explicit consideration of how information asymmetries are socially and computationally shaped, how contexts are shifted and how data is systematically straightened out informs a reflexive engagement with Big Data. The paper argues that attempts to automatise environmental accounting’s veracity management by means of computing metadata or to ensure that data quality meets requirements through third-party control are not satisfactory. The crossover of Big Data with corporate environmental governance does not promise to trouble the political economy that hitherto sustained unsustainability.

  18. National intelligence estimates and the Failed State Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-10-01

    Across 177 countries around the world, the Failed State Index, a measure of state vulnerability, was reliably negatively associated with the estimates of national intelligence. Psychometric analysis of the Failed State Index, compounded of 12 social, economic, and political indicators, suggested factorial unidimensionality of this index. The observed correspondence of higher national intelligence figures to lower state vulnerability might arise through these two macro-level variables possibly being proxies of even more pervasive historical and societal background variables that affect both.

  19. Griseorhodins D-F, neuroactive intermediates and end products of post-PKS tailoring modification in Griseorhodin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenjian; Zachariah, Malcolm M; Marett, Lenny; Hughen, Ronald W; Teichert, Russell W; Concepcion, Gisela P; Haygood, Margo G; Olivera, Baldomero M; Light, Alan R; Schmidt, Eric W

    2014-05-23

    The griseorhodins belong to a family of extensively modified aromatic polyketides that exhibit activities such as inhibition of HIV reverse transcriptase and human telomerase. The vast structural diversity of this group of polyketides is largely introduced by enzymatic oxidations, which can significantly influence the bioactivity profile. Four new compounds, griseorhodins D-F, were isolated from a griseorhodin producer, Streptomyces sp. CN48+, based upon their enhancement of calcium uptake in a mouse dorsal root ganglion primary cell culture assay. Two of these compounds, griseorhodins D1 and D2, were shown to be identical to the major, previously uncharacterized products of a grhM mutant in an earlier griseorhodin biosynthesis study. Their structures enabled the establishment of a more complete hypothesis for the biosynthesis of griseorhodins and related compounds. The other two compounds, griseorhodins E and F, represent new products of post-polyketide synthase tailoring in griseorhodin biosynthesis and showed significant binding activity in a human dopamine active transporter assay.

  20. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  1. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  2. Suzaku View of the Swift/BAT Active Galactic Nuclei. V. Torus Structure of Two Luminous Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei (3C 206 and PKS 0707-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We present the results from broadband X-ray spectral analysis of 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35 with Suzaku and Swift/BAT, two of the most luminous unobscured and obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with hard X-ray luminosities of 10(sup 45.5) erg per second and 10(sup 44.9) erg per second (14-195 keV), respectively. Based on the radio core luminosity, we estimate that the X-ray spectrum of 3C 206 contains a significant (60% in the 14-195 keV band) contribution from the jet, while it is negligible in PKS 0707-35.We can successfully model the spectra with the jet component (for 3C 206), the transmitted emission, and two reflection components from the torus and the accretion disk. The reflection strengths from the torus are found to be R(sub torus)(=Omega/2pi) = 0.29 +/- 0.18 and 0.41 +/- 0.18 for 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35, respectively, which are smaller than those in typical Seyfert galaxies. Utilizing the torus model by Ikeda et al., we quantify the relation between the half-opening angle of a torus (theta(sub oa)) and the equivalent width of an iron-K line. The observed equivalent width of 3C 206, less than 71 eV, constrains the column density in the equatorial plane to N(sup eq)(sub H) lesst han 10(sup 23) per square centimeter, or the half-opening angle to theta(sub oa) greater than 80 deg. if N(sup eq)(sub H) = 10(sup 24) per square centimeter is assumed. That of PKS 0707-35, 72 +/- 36 eV, is consistent with N(sup eq)(sub H) 10(sup 23) per square centimeter. Our results suggest that the tori in luminous radio-loud AGNs are only poorly developed. The trend is similar to that seen in radio-quiet AGNs, implying that the torus structure is not different between AGNs with jets and without jets.

  3. Thermal analysis of the failed equipment storage vault system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerrell, J.; Lee, S.Y.; Shadday, A.

    1995-07-01

    A storage facility for failed glass melters is required for radioactive operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). It is currently proposed that the failed melters be stored in the Failed Equipment Storage Vaults (FESV's) in S area. The FESV's are underground reinforced concrete structures constructed in pairs, with adjacent vaults sharing a common wall. A failed melter is to be placed in a steel Melter Storage Box (MSB), sealed, and lowered into the vault. A concrete lid is then placed over the top of the FESV. Two melters will be placed within the FESV/MSB system, separated by the common wall. There is no forced ventilation within the vault so that the melter is passively cooled. Temperature profiles in the Failed Equipment Storage Vault Structures have been generated using the FLOW3D software to model heat conduction and convection within the FESV/MSB system. Due to complexities in modeling radiation with FLOW3D, P/THERMAL software has been used to model radiation using the conduction/convection temperature results from FLOW3D. The final conjugate model includes heat transfer by conduction, convection, and radiation to predict steady-state temperatures. Also, the FLOW3D software has been validated as required by the technical task request

  4. Effects of vedolizumab induction therapy for patients with Crohn's disease in whom tumor necrosis factor antagonist treatment failed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sands, Bruce E.; Feagan, Brian G.; Rutgeerts, Paul; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Sandborn, William J.; Sy, Richmond; D'Haens, Geert; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Xu, Jing; Rosario, Maria; Fox, Irving; Parikh, Asit; Milch, Catherine; Hanauer, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need for new treatments for patients with Crohn's disease (CD) in whom previous therapy with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists has failed. We performed a placebo-controlled, phase 3, double-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vedolizumab, an antibody

  5. Fail-safe reactivity compensation method for a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Erik T.; Angelo, Peter L.; Aase, Scott B.

    2018-01-23

    The present invention relates generally to the field of compensation methods for nuclear reactors and, in particular to a method for fail-safe reactivity compensation in solution-type nuclear reactors. In one embodiment, the fail-safe reactivity compensation method of the present invention augments other control methods for a nuclear reactor. In still another embodiment, the fail-safe reactivity compensation method of the present invention permits one to control a nuclear reaction in a nuclear reactor through a method that does not rely on moving components into or out of a reactor core, nor does the method of the present invention rely on the constant repositioning of control rods within a nuclear reactor in order to maintain a critical state.

  6. Resolution of temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) by correcting a lateral head translation posture following previous failed traditional chiropractic therapy: a CBP®case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Jason O; Oakley, Paul A; Moore, Robert R; Ruggeroli, Edward P; Harrison, Deed E

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] To present the case of the resolution of right temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJD) following the correction of a right lateral head translation posture. [Subject and Methods] A 24 year old female reported facial pain and jaw clicking in the right TMJ. Radiography revealed a 19 mm right head (shift) translation posture. TMJ vibration analysis showed characteristic abnormalities for the right TMJ. The patient was treated with CBP ® technique mirror image ® left sided exercises, and traction methods as well as spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). [Results] After 36 treatments over a 12-week time period, a complete correction of the lateral head posture was achieved corresponding with a complete resolution of jaw pain and clicking. TMJ vibration analysis demonstrated normal right side TMJ characteristics following treatment. [Conclusion] Abnormal head/neck postures, such as lateral head translation, may be an unrealized source of TMJD and may be explained through the 'regional interdependence' model or by how seemingly unrelated anatomy may be associated with a primary complaint.

  7. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2004-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs

  8. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  9. Sipping tests on a failed irradiated MTR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeituni, C. A.; Terremoto, L. A. A.; Da Silva, J. E. R.

    2004-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs. (authors)

  10. 77 FR 9846 - Source of Income From Qualified Fails Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Administration for comment on its impact on small business. Drafting Information The principal author of these... unit if it satisfies the principles of Sec. 1.864-4(c)(5)(iii) (substituting ``qualified business unit... income, with two exceptions. Qualified fails charge income earned by a qualified business unit (QBU) of a...

  11. Failing Boys! Beyond Crisis, Moral Panic and Limiting Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    For some time now, school boards, Ministries of Education, and the popular media have been expressing concerns about failing boys and how best to meet their needs, framing these concerns in terms of a crisis in which boys are the "new disadvantaged". This perspective does not provide an accurate representation of the problem and, in fact, detracts…

  12. When Consensus Decision-Making Fails: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Grant T.

    Habermas's theory of dialogue was used to evaluate the process of decision making that occurred in a labor-management committee's meeting to discuss flextime. The study attempted to determine why, at that meeting, the committee's consensus process of decision making failed. W.R. Bion's theory of unconscious group motives was also used to…

  13. Reversing Polarities: Anarchical (Failed States versus International Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Fernandez Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores how the literature on 'failed states' (reproduces the modern state as a regulatory ideal, obscuring its contingent character and its violent foundation. So, discursive practices, based on an Eurocentric account, construct the 'failed state' as deviant. The resultant hierarchy of states, in turn, creates favorable conditions for interventionist practices, whose agents are depicted as members of a 'progressive' and 'benevolent' 'international community'. As state failure is interpreted as exclusively domestic process, a well-demarcated boundary between the domestic level of 'anarchy' and the international realm of 'order' and 'progress' results. This article shows that the traditional image of an anarchical system versus an ordered and progressive state is turned on its head when viewed from the perspective of 'failed states'. In the latter, domestic anarchy is contrary to a modernizing international realm. By labelling the 'other' as 'traditional', 'failed', and 'backward' in distinction to a 'modern', 'successful' and 'progressive' international, the dominant discourse conditions us to conceive of these realms as homogeneous in themselves and radically different from each other, rather than as liminal areas with numerous ambiguities and overlaps.

  14. Chloroquine in the Ugandan market fails quality test: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Antimalaria treatment failure has been partly attributed to poor quality antimalarials in the drug market. A 1998 survey in Kampala showed that 55 % of tablets and 62 % of injection forms of chloroquine failed the quality test. Objective: This study was carried out as a follow-up to establish the quality of ...

  15. Why does Centralisation fail to internalise Policy Externalities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert); H.J. Roelfsema (Hein)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractCentralisation of political decision making often fails to produce the desired results. For instance, it is frequently argued that decision making within the European Union results in overspending and overregulation in some policy areas, while too low spending and too little regulation

  16. "It's All Human Error!": When a School Science Experiment Fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viechnicki, Gail Brendel; Kuipers, Joel

    2006-01-01

    This paper traces the sophisticated negotiations to re-inscribe the authority of Nature when a school science experiment fails during the enactment of a highly rated science curriculum unit. Drawing on transcriptions from classroom videotapes, we identify and describe four primary patterns of interaction that characterize this process, arguing…

  17. Post-deportation risks for failed asylum seekers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Alpes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available What happens to people who are deported after their asylum applications have failed? Many who are deported are at risk of harm when they return to their country of origin but there is little monitoring done of deportation outcomes.

  18. Refections of an Industrial Sociologist on the Failed Attempts to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locating privatisation within the theoretical context of neo-liberalism, this paper reflects on the causes of the failed attempt to privatise NITEL as well as the reasons for dismal performances of most public enterprises in Nigeria. Reflecting on the utility or otherwise of privatising state-owned enterprises in Nigeria, the paper ...

  19. Factors associated with failed spinal anaesthesia for Caesarean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The use of spinal anaesthesia has increased in the last three decades, given that it is the recommended anaesthetic of choice for better foetal and maternal outcomes in Caesarean section. Failed spinal anaesthesia (FSA) exposes patients to unfavourable experience of pain and the potential complications of ...

  20. The ugly twins: Failed global sourcing projects and their substitutes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Horn, Philipp; Horn, Philipp; Werner, Welf

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: Analyzing the impact of failed global sourcing projects on the entire commodity group and exploring isomorphism as potential antecedent to the observed phenomenon. The paper is embedded in the global sourcing literature, as well as isomorphism and total

  1. Organization Theory: Bright Prospects for a Permanently Failing Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.M.A.R. Heugens (Pursey)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractOrganization theory is a paradoxical field of scientific inquiry. It has struggled for more than fifty years to develop a unified theory of organizational effectiveness under girded by a coherent set of assumptions, and it has thus far failed to produce one. Yet, by other standards it is

  2. Therapeutic options after failed Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hulst, R. W.; Weel, J. F.; van der Ende, A.; ten Kate, F. J.; Dankert, J.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Many of the currently used Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens fail to cure 5-20% of the patients. Those patients will remain at risk of developing a potentially fatal complication of peptic ulcer disease. Therefore, a new attempt to cure H. pylori infection after initial failure of

  3. Why pediatricians fail to diagnose hypertension: a multicenter survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, Merijn W.; Blufpand, Hester N.; Kaspers, Gertjan J. L.; Bökenkamp, Arend

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate why pediatricians fail to diagnose childhood hypertension, with special emphasis on the use of blood pressure (BP) reference data. We hypothesized that pediatricians frequently omit BP measurements and do not routinely relate BP measurements to reference data. We conducted a multicenter

  4. Age of failed restorations: A deceptive longevity parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Cenci, M.S.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Wilson, N.H.F.

    2011-01-01

    There is pressing need to enhance evidence base in respect of longevity of restorations. Currently, there is lack of appreciation of differences between survival data based on the age of failed restorations as compared to gold standard Kaplan-Meier statistics. OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken

  5. Delay factors in failed construction projects in southwestern Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with a view to showing the contribution of delay factors in the overall consideration of failed construction projects in south western Nigeria. This is considered necessary because the traditional view of construction project failure as consisting mainly of structural or functional failures tends to excuse ...

  6. Failed total carpometacarpal joint prosthesis of the thumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Bæk; Homilius, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis. T...... in eight of 10 patients, but the mean Disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) scores, self-reported pinch-grip-related function, and pain were comparable with our earlier published results with the Elektra carpometacarpal total joint prosthesis.......Total joint prosthesis in carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb often fails. Loosening of the implant is often treated by resection arthroplasty, and we reviewed 10 patients, mean age 54 years (range 47-63) who were treated by resection arthroplasty after a failed total joint prosthesis....... The male:female ratio was 1:4 and the mean duration of observation 32 months (range 6-52). In three patients the revised implant was a MOJE uncemented carpometacarpal joint prosthesis and in seven patients an Elektra uncemented one. At follow-up grip strength was reduced to less than 90% of the other hand...

  7. Counselor Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Samuel

    1983-01-01

    Describes the laws regarding counselor liability for failure to report child abuse and state laws designating mandated reporters of suspected child abuse. Notes how the law protects mandated reporters. Discusses criminal penalties for those who fail to report suspected abuse. (RC)

  8. Heterotopic Pregnancy in a Natural Conception Following Failed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents another rare case of spontaneous simultaneous intrauterine and extrauterine tubal pregnancies following failed progestogen-only injectable contraceptive. The ruptured heterotopic pregnancy was diagnosed in unruptured state but could not be treated because the couple did not believe/accept the ...

  9. Rulers against Writers, Writers against Rulers: The Failed Promise of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various literary critics have dwelt on the nature, tenets and trends of commitment in Nigeria literature. However, there is paucity of scholarly studies on the representations of the failed promise to the public sphere in postcolonial Nigerian fiction. This paper, therefore, examines the strategies and technicalities of representing ...

  10. Civil Liability for Failing to Report Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Neil J.

    1977-01-01

    The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…

  11. BENEFITS OF SHIRODKAR STITCH IN WOMEN WITH FAILED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... BENEFITS OF SHIRODKAR STITCH IN WOMEN WITH FAILED McDONALD STITCH. Omondi-Ogutu, MBChB, MMed (O/G) PGDRM, ... advanced cervical changes (dilatation) are present on visual (speculum) and digital .... length at 23 weeks of gestation: the value of. Shirodkar Suture for the short cervix.

  12. Finite element analysis of bone loss around failing implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, J.E.H.; Narra, N.; Antalainen, A.K.; Valasek, J.; Kaiser, J.; Sandor, G.K.; Marcian, P.

    2014-01-01

    Dental implants induce diverse forces on their surrounding bone. However, when excessive unphysiological forces are applied, resorption of the neighbouring bone may occur. The aim of this study was to assess possible causes of bone loss around failing dental implants using finite element analysis. A

  13. Characteristics of failed fertilized oocytes in patients with severe obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E A Pigarova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по статье: Machtinger R, Combelles CM, Missmer SA, Correia KF, Fox JH, Racowsky C. The association between severe obesity and characteristics of failed fertilized oocytes. Hum Reprod. 2012 Nov;27(11:3198-207.

  14. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  15. High Prevalence of Abacavir-associated L74V/I Mutations in Kenyan Children Failing Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuban, Eric J; DeVos, Joshua; Ngeno, Bernadette; Ngugi, Evelyn; Zhang, Guoqing; Sabatier, Jennifer; Wagar, Nick; Diallo, Karidia; Nganga, Lucy; Katana, Abraham; Yang, Chunfu; Rivadeneira, Emilia D; Mukui, Irene; Odhiambo, Francesca; Redfield, Robert; Raizes, Elliot

    2017-08-01

    A survey of 461 HIV-infected Kenyan children receiving antiretroviral therapy found 143 (31%) failing virologically. Drug resistance mutations were found in 121; 37 had L74V/I mutations, with 95% receiving abacavir (ABC)-containing regimens. L74V/I was associated with current ABC usage (P = 0.0001). L74V/I may be more prevalent than previously realized in children failing ABC-containing regimens, even when time on treatment has been short. Ongoing rigorous pediatric drug resistance surveillance is needed.

  16. Conversion of failed modern unicompartmental arthroplasty to total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, W N; Ozuna, R M; Scott, R D; Thornhill, T S

    1996-10-01

    Between January 1983 and January 1991, 29 patients (31 knees) with a failed Robert Brigham metal-backed knee arthroplasty (Johnson & Johnson, Raynham, MA) underwent revision to a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Twenty-five patients had osteoarthritis, three avascular necrosis, and one rheumatoid arthritis. The average patient age was 72.3 years (range, 49-88 years), and the average weight was 179 lb. (range, 112-242 lb.). The interval between the primary and secondary index procedures averaged 62 months (range, 7-106 months), and mean postrevision follow-up period was 45 months (range, 24-104 months). The primary mechanism of failure of the UKA was tibial polyethylene wear in 21 knees and opposite compartment progression of arthritis in 10 knees. Sixteen knees had particulate synovitis with dense metallic staining of the synovium. At revision, the posterior cruciate ligament was spared in 30 knees and substituted in 1 knee. Restoration of bony deficiency at revision required cancellous bone-graft for contained defects in seven knees, tibial wedges in four knees, and femoral wedges in two knees. No defects received structural allografts. The data suggest that failed, modern unicompartmental knee arthroplasty can successfully be converted to TKA. In most cases, the posterior cruciate ligament can be spared and bone defects corrected with simple wedges or cancellous grafts. Moreover, the results of revision of failed unicompartmental knee arthroplasty are superior to those of failed TKA and failed high tibial osteotomy and comparable to the authors' results of primary TKA with similar-length follow-up periods. Although these results are encouraging, longer-term follow-up evaluation is required to determine survivorship of these revision arthroplasties.

  17. Proximal femoral reconstruction for failed internal fixation of a bisphosphonate-related femur fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishabh G. Jethanandani, BSE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a bisphosphonate-related femur fracture in an elderly woman, who failed treatment with both cephalomedullary nail and proximal femoral locking plate, leading to successful treatment with total hip arthroplasty. Hardware failure should be included in the differential of patients with previous internal fixation of bisphosphonate-related femur fracture that present with hip or groin pain. Arthroplasty can be an acceptable salvage option in an active elderly patient with a bisphosphonate-related femur fracture.

  18. Comparison of nutritional status in hemodialysis patients with and without failed renal allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelken, B M; Gorgulu, N; Caliskan, Y; Yazici, H; Turkmen, A; Yildiz, A; Sever, M S

    2010-01-01

    The survival of patients returning to hemodialysis (HD) following kidney transplant failure is unfavorable. However, the factors responsible for this poor outcome are largely unknown; chronic inflammation due to failed allograft and malnutrition may contribute to morbidity and mortality. We aimed to compare the nutritional status and its relation with inflammation in patients on HD with and without previous kidney transplantation. Forty-three patients with failed renal allografts (27 males; mean age 36±9 yr) and 40 never transplanted HD patients (24 males; mean age 39±9 yr) were included in the study. Body weight, triceps (TSF), biceps (BSF), subscapular (SSSF), and suprailiac skinfold thicknesses (SISF); mid-arm, mid-arm muscle, hip and waist circumferences; as well as body mass indices (BMIs) were determined as anthropometric parameters. Moreover, biochemical markers of nutritional status, including serum cholesterol and albumin as well as high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), as a marker of inflammation, were measured. Associations among these variables were analyzed. There were no significant differences considering age, gender or duration of renal replacement therapy between the two groups. The TSF (pfailed renal allografts were significantly lower than those of the never transplanted HD patients. Waist circumference was significantly lower as well (p=0.028). Patients with failed transplants were characterized by lower serum albumin (pfailed allografts may induce chronic inflammation in chronic HD patients which may result in a worse nutritional status. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Salvage Percutaneous Vertebral Augmentation Using Polymethyl Methacrylate in Patients with Failed Interbody Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Dong-Ju; Hwang, Byeong-Wook; Oh, Hyeong-Seok; Kim, Jin-Sung; Jeon, Sang-Hyeop; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-11-01

    Percutaneous vertebral augmentation with cement is used as a salvage procedure for failed instrumentation. Few studies have reported the use of this procedure for failed anterior lumbar fusion in elderly patients with osteoporosis and other complicated diseases who have undergone a previous major operation. Between January 2007 and December 2015, the clinical and radiographic results of 8 patients with osteoporosis who showed subsidence and migration of the implant after an initial operation were examined. After the development of implant failure, the patients underwent vertebral augmentation with polymethyl methacrylate. Mean patient age was 73.4 years (range, 67-78 years), and mean bone mineral density was -2.96 (range, -2.1 to -3.8). The mean radiologic follow-up period between augmentation and the last follow-up examination was 16 months (range, 3-38 months). Although the subjective clinical outcome was not satisfying to the patients, no loss of correction, fractures, or screw loosening occurred during the follow-up period. The injection of cement around the instrument might help to stabilize it by providing strength to the axis and preventing further loosening. This salvage procedure could be an alternative in the management of cases with failed interbody fusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Placenta Percreta in First Trimester after Multiple Rounds of Failed Medical Management for a Missed Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimin Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The detection of a morbidly adherent placenta (MAP in the first trimester is rare. Risk factors such as multiparity, advanced maternal age, prior cesarean delivery, prior myomectomy, placenta previa, or previous uterine evacuation place patients at a higher risk for having abnormal placental implantation. If these patients have a first trimester missed abortion and fail medical management, it is important that providers have a heightened suspicion for a MAP. Case. A 24-year-old G4P3003 with 3 prior cesarean deliveries underwent multiple rounds of failed medical management for a missed abortion. She had a dilation and curettage that was complicated by a significant hemorrhage and ultimately required an urgent hysterectomy. Conclusion. When patients fail medical management for a missed abortion, providers need to assess the patient’s risk factors for a MAP. If risk factors are present, a series of specific evaluations should be triggered to rule out a MAP and help further guide management. Early diagnosis of a MAP allows providers to coordinate a multidisciplinary treatment approach and thoroughly counsel patients. Ensuring adequate resources and personnel at a tertiary hospital is essential to provide the highest quality of care and improve outcomes.

  1. Elevated cytosolic Na+ increases mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species in failing cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhaas, Michael; Liu, Ting; Knopp, Andreas; Zeller, Tanja; Ong, Mei Fang; Böhm, Michael; O'Rourke, Brian; Maack, Christoph

    2010-04-13

    Oxidative stress is causally linked to the progression of heart failure, and mitochondria are critical sources of reactive oxygen species in failing myocardium. We previously observed that in heart failure, elevated cytosolic Na(+) ([Na(+)](i)) reduces mitochondrial Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](m)) by accelerating Ca(2+) efflux via the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Because the regeneration of antioxidative enzymes requires NADPH, which is indirectly regenerated by the Krebs cycle, and Krebs cycle dehydrogenases are activated by [Ca(2+)](m), we speculated that in failing myocytes, elevated [Na(+)](i) promotes oxidative stress. We used a patch-clamp-based approach to simultaneously monitor cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca(2+) and, alternatively, mitochondrial H(2)O(2) together with NAD(P)H in guinea pig cardiac myocytes. Cells were depolarized in a voltage-clamp mode (3 Hz), and a transition of workload was induced by beta-adrenergic stimulation. During this transition, NAD(P)H initially oxidized but recovered when [Ca(2+)](m) increased. The transient oxidation of NAD(P)H was closely associated with an increase in mitochondrial H(2)O(2) formation. This reactive oxygen species formation was potentiated when mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake was blocked (by Ru360) or Ca(2+) efflux was accelerated (by elevation of [Na(+)](i)). In failing myocytes, H(2)O(2) formation was increased, which was prevented by reducing mitochondrial Ca(2+) efflux via the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Besides matching energy supply and demand, mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake critically regulates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. In heart failure, elevated [Na(+)](i) promotes reactive oxygen species formation by reducing mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. This novel mechanism, by which defects in ion homeostasis induce oxidative stress, represents a potential drug target to reduce reactive oxygen species production in the failing heart.

  2. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  3. Important biological information uncovered in previously unaligned reads from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP-Seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Wilberforce Zachary; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Yilmaz, Alper; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Li, Wei; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the architecture of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) methods that provide genome-wide transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). ChIP-Seq furnishes millions of short reads that, after alignment, describe the genome-wide binding sites of a particular TF. However, in all organisms investigated an average of 40% of reads fail to align to the corresponding genome, with some datasets having as much as 80% of reads failing to align. We describe here the provenance of previously unaligned reads in ChIP-Seq experiments from animals and plants. We show that a substantial portion corresponds to sequences of bacterial and metazoan origin, irrespective of the ChIP-Seq chromatin source. Unforeseen was the finding that 30%–40% of unaligned reads were actually alignable. To validate these observations, we investigated the characteristics of the previously unaligned reads corresponding to TAL1, a human TF involved in lineage specification of hemopoietic cells. We show that, while unmapped ChIP-Seq read datasets contain foreign DNA sequences, additional TFBSs can be identified from the previously unaligned ChIP-Seq reads. Our results indicate that the re-evaluation of previously unaligned reads from ChIP-Seq experiments will significantly contribute to TF target identification and determination of emerging properties of GRNs. PMID:25727450

  4. An optimal inspection strategy for randomly failing equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelbi, Anis; Ait-Kadi, Daoud

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generating optimal inspection strategies for randomly failing equipment where imminent failure is not obvious and can only be detected through inspection. Inspections are carried out following a condition-based procedure. The equipment is replaced if it has failed or if it shows imminent signs of failure. The latter state is indicated by measuring certain predetermined control parameters during inspection. Costs are associated with inspection, idle time and preventive or corrective actions. An optimal inspection strategy is defined as the inspection sequence minimizing the expected total cost per time unit over an infinite span. A mathematical model and a numerical algorithm are developed to generate an optimal inspection sequence. As a practical example, the model is applied to provide a machine tool operator with a time sequence for inspecting the cutting tool. The tool life time distribution and the trend of one control parameter defining its actual condition are supposed to be known

  5. A survey of failed post-retained restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peutzfeldt, A; Sahafi, A; Asmussen, E

    2008-01-01

    functioned for 10 years or less. Fracture of the tooth was the most common type of failure reported, followed by loosening of the post and fracture of the post. Tapered posts implied an increased risk of tooth fracture compared to loosening or fracture of the post, and the relative risk of tooth fracture...... increased with the functioning time until failure. Fracture of the post was more common among male than female patients. On the basis of this survey of failed post-retained restorations, it was concluded that tapered posts were associated with a higher risk of tooth fracture than were parallel-sided posts......., the tooth, the restorative materials, and the techniques. Two-hundred and sixty questionnaires were collected from 171 practitioners over a 3-year period. Functioning time until failure varied between 3 months and 38 years. Mean survival time until failure was 11 years. Of the failed restorations, 61% had...

  6. 'HAs fail to consult Irish people in UK'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-10

    Health authorities are failing to consult local people on their health needs, a conference on the mental health of Irish people living in the UK heard last week. Consulting Irish people was often only 'symbolic', despite the requirements of the NHS and Community Care Act, conference Chair Padraic Kenna, Director of Innisfree Housing Association, told delegates. 'The Irish caught the boat in the 1950s only to miss the boat ever since,' he said.

  7. Amount of meniscal resection after failed meniscal repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Nicolas; Barbier, Olivier; Boisrenoult, Philippe; Beaufils, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    The failure rate after arthroscopic meniscal repair ranges from 5% to 43.5% (mean, 15%) in the literature. But little is known about the amount of meniscal tissue removed after failed meniscal repair. The volume of subsequent meniscectomy after failed meniscal repair is not increased when compared with the volume of meniscectomy that would have been performed if not initially repaired. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. From January 2000 to December 2009, 295 knees underwent arthroscopic meniscal repair for unstable peripheral vertical tears. When present (219 cases), all anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears underwent reconstruction. Patients with multiple ligament injuries and posterior cruciate ligament injuries were excluded from the analysis. Thirty-two medial and 5 lateral menisci underwent subsequent meniscectomy after failed repair at a mean of 26 months postoperatively (range, 3-114 months). Five parameters were specifically evaluated: the amount of meniscectomy related to the initial tear, the ACL status, the appearance of chondral lesions, the time from the initial injury to meniscal repair, and the time from repair to meniscectomy. The posterior segment of the meniscus was involved in all tears and retears. Among failures, resection of the meniscal segments primarily repaired occurred for 17 medial and 2 lateral meniscal tears (52%); the tear extended in 5 cases (all medial menisci), and healing of some repaired segments led to a partial resection of the initial lesion in 35% of cases (10 medial menisci, 3 lateral menisci). The time from injury to meniscal repair was correlated with an increasing volume of meniscus removed (P lesions at revision (P meniscal lesion, even if it fails. The amount of meniscectomy is rarely increased when compared with the initial lesion. This study supports the hypothesis that the meniscus can be partially saved and that a risk of a partial failure should be taken when possible.

  8. Agrobacterium rhizogenes mutants that fail to bind to plant cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Crews, J L; Colby, S; Matthysse, A G

    1990-01-01

    Transposon insertion mutants of Agrobacterium rhizogenes were screened to obtain mutant bacteria that failed to bind to carrot suspension culture cells. A light microscope binding assay was used. The bacterial isolates that were reduced in binding to carrot cells were all avirulent on Bryophyllum diagremontiana leaves and on carrot root disks. The mutants did not appear to be altered in cellulose production. The composition of the medium affected the ability of the parent and mutant bacteria ...

  9. When in vitro fertilization fails: a prospective view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, R B; Walther, V N; Chute, D; Greenfeld, D A

    1992-01-01

    New reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) offer much hope to infertile couples, yet the odds for success are not high. In this study we examine the experiences of a cohort of women undergoing IVF or a related technology at three points in time: before technological intervention, approximately one month after the first failed cycle, and six months later. We consider the women's expectations and experiences and discuss implications of the findings for social work practice.

  10. Management of Failed Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnahas, Ahmad Ibrahim; Jackson, Timothy D; Hong, Dennis

    2014-03-01

    Background: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) has emerged as the gold standard for the management of morbid obesity. Accordingly, patients who fail to lose weight after LRYGB present a difficult problem for the bariatric surgeons. A literature review was performed to evaluate the management options for this select bariatric population. Methods: A literature search was conducted in the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases using the most comprehensive timeline. All relevant articles were identified and full texts were obtained and reviewed. Results: Thirteen articles were retrieved based on key word searches. Management for weight failure following LRYGB included revision using the following options: laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, pouch/anastomotic revision with or without endoluminal techniques, laparoscopic distal Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and laparoscopic biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy may be considered in patients who fail LRYGB with nutritional deficiencies. Conclusion: Failed LRYGB should be managed based on the patient presentation and diagnostic evaluation. Patients may present with significant nutritional deficiencies/complications, failure to lose weight, or weight recidivism. A treatment algorithm is proposed based on the literature to guide bariatric surgeons with respect to management options. However, given the paucity of research with respect to this problem, additional studies are needed to provide more insight on the optimal surgical management.

  11. Failed magnetic resonance imaging examinations due to claustrophobia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarji, S.A.; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Kumar, G.; Tan, A.H.; Narayanan, P.

    1998-01-01

    A recognised cause of incomplete or cancelled MRI examinations is anxiety and claustrophobic symptoms in patients undergoing MR scanning. This appears to be a problem in many MRI centres in Western Europe and North America, where it is said to be costly in terms of loss of valuable scan time, and has led to researchers suggesting several anxiety reducing approaches for MRI. To determine the incidence of failed MRI examination among our patients and if there are any associations with a patient's sex, age and education level, we studied claustrophobia that led to premature termination of the MRI examination in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 3324 patients over 28 months. The incidence of failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia in the UMMC was found to be only 0.54%. There are associations between claustrophobia in MRI with the patients' sex, age and level of education. The majority of those affected were male patients and young patients in the 25-45-year age group. The patients' education level appears to be the strongest association with failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia, where the majority of the affected were highly educated individuals. Claustrophobia in MRI is more of a problem among the educated individuals or patients from a higher socio-economic group, which may explain the higher incidence in Western European and North American patients. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  12. Hip arthroplasty in failed intertrochanteric fractures in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javahir A Pachore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Failed intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients are surgical challenge with limited options. Hip arthroplasty is a good salvage procedure even though it involves technical issues such as implant removal, bone loss, poor bone quality, trochanteric nonunion and difficulty of surgical exposure. Materials and Methods: 30 patients of failed intertrochanteric fractures where hip arthroplasty was done between May 2008 and December 2011 were included in study. 13 were males and 17 were females with average age of 67.3 years. There were 2 cemented bipolar arthroplasties, 19 uncemented bipolar, 4 cemented total hip arthroplasty and 5 uncemented total hip arthroplasties. 16 patients had a trochanteric nonunion, which was treated by tension band principles. Total hip was considered where there was acetabular damage due to the penetration of implant. Results: The average followup was 20 months (range 6-48 months. Patients were followed up from 6 to 48 months with average followup of 20 months. None of the patients were lost to followup. There was no dislocation. All patients were ambulatory at the final followup. Conclusion: A predictable functional outcome can be achieved by hip arthroplasty in elderly patients with failed intertrochanteric fractures. Though technically demanding, properly performed hip arthroplasty can be a good salvage option for this patient group.

  13. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1% failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients. Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80% screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  14. Palmitoylethanolamide in the Treatment of Failed Back Surgery Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Paladini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This observational study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (um-PEA (Normast® administration, as add-on therapy for chronic pain, in the management of pain-resistant patients affected by failed back surgery syndrome. Methods. A total of 35 patients were treated with tapentadol (TPD and pregabalin (PGB. One month after the start of standard treatment, um-PEA was added for the next two months. Pain was evaluated by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS at the time of enrollment (T0 and after one (T1, two (T2, and three (T3 months. Results. After the first month with TDP + PGB treatment only, VAS score decreased significantly from 5.7±0.12 at the time of enrollment (T0 to 4.3 ± 0.11 (T1 (p<0.0001; however, it failed to provide significant subjective improvement in pain symptoms. Addition of um-PEA led to a further and significant decrease in pain intensity, reaching VAS scores of 2.7 ± 0.09 (T2 and 1.7 ± 0.11 (T3, end of treatment (p<0.0001 without showing any side effects. Conclusions. This observational study provides evidence, albeit preliminary, for the efficacy and safety of um-PEA (Normast as part of a multimodal therapeutic regimen in the treatment of pain-resistant patients suffering from failed back surgery syndrome.

  15. Failed magnetic resonance imaging examinations due to claustrophobia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarji, S.A.; Abdullah, B.J.J.; Kumar, G.; Tan, A.H.; Narayanan, P. [University of malaya Centre, Kuala Lumpar (Malaysia). Department of Radiology

    1998-11-01

    A recognised cause of incomplete or cancelled MRI examinations is anxiety and claustrophobic symptoms in patients undergoing MR scanning. This appears to be a problem in many MRI centres in Western Europe and North America, where it is said to be costly in terms of loss of valuable scan time, and has led to researchers suggesting several anxiety reducing approaches for MRI. To determine the incidence of failed MRI examination among our patients and if there are any associations with a patient`s sex, age and education level, we studied claustrophobia that led to premature termination of the MRI examination in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) in 3324 patients over 28 months. The incidence of failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia in the UMMC was found to be only 0.54%. There are associations between claustrophobia in MRI with the patients` sex, age and level of education. The majority of those affected were male patients and young patients in the 25-45-year age group. The patients` education level appears to be the strongest association with failed MRI examinations due to claustrophobia, where the majority of the affected were highly educated individuals. Claustrophobia in MRI is more of a problem among the educated individuals or patients from a higher socio-economic group, which may explain the higher incidence in Western European and North American patients. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 9 refs.

  16. "Too big to fail" or "Too non-traditional to fail"?: The determinants of banks' systemic importance

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Kyle; Zhou, Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the determinants of banks' systemic importance. In constructing a measure on the systemic importance of financial institutions we find that size is a leading determinant. This confirms the usual "Too big to fail'' argument. Nevertheless, banks with size above a sufficiently high level have equal systemic importance. In addition to size, we find that the extent to which banks engage in non-traditional banking activities is also positively related to ...

  17. [Vaginal delivery after previous cesarean: comparison between own method and Weinstein's predictive score].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreba, R; Dudkiewicz, D; Drygalski, M; Poreba, A; Sipiński, A

    2000-04-01

    121 women after previous caesarean section were examined. The amount of successful labours were compared (according to the own diagnostic card) with the foreseeing probability of vaginal labours according to Weinstein's score. 63% pregnant woman was classified to the natural labour on the base of the own diagnostic card, probability of natural labour according to Weinstein's score were more or equal than 67%. There were no agreement between prognostic Weinstein's scale and our own method in the cases of failed attempt of labour followed by caesarean section.

  18. [Bronchiolitis obliterans in a patient previously working as a printer in a textile factory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fernández, A M; Gómez de Tejada, R; Castañar Jover, A; Checa Pinilla, J M; Fuentes Otero, F

    2000-10-01

    We report the case of a 24-year-old man with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis obliterans, a rare clinical condition; the similarity to Ardystil syndrome was striking. Relevant occupational history included work in a textile air-brushing factory. Also noteworthy were lesions observed by CT scan in the form of cystic formations measuring less than 1 cm, a finding not previously described in the context of bronchiolitis obliterans. The patient improved immediately after starting corticoid treatment although scans failed to improve over several months of follow-up.

  19. Failed magmatic eruptions: Late-stage cessation of magma ascent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, S.C.; Newhall, C.; Roman, D.C.

    2011-01-01

    When a volcano becomes restless, a primary question is whether the unrest will lead to an eruption. Here we recognize four possible outcomes of a magmatic intrusion: "deep intrusion", "shallow intrusion", "sluggish/viscous magmatic eruption", and "rapid, often explosive magmatic eruption". We define "failed eruptions" as instances in which magma reaches but does not pass the "shallow intrusion" stage, i. e., when magma gets close to, but does not reach, the surface. Competing factors act to promote or hinder the eventual eruption of a magma intrusion. Fresh intrusion from depth, high magma gas content, rapid ascent rates that leave little time for enroute degassing, opening of pathways, and sudden decompression near the surface all act to promote eruption, whereas decreased magma supply from depth, slow ascent, significant enroute degassing and associated increases in viscosity, and impingement on structural barriers all act to hinder eruption. All of these factors interact in complex ways with variable results, but often cause magma to stall at some depth before reaching the surface. Although certain precursory phenomena, such as rapidly escalating seismic swarms or rates of degassing or deformation, are good indicators that an eruption is likely, such phenomena have also been observed in association with intrusions that have ultimately failed to erupt. A perpetual difficulty with quantifying the probability of eruption is a lack of data, particularly on instances of failed eruptions. This difficulty is being addressed in part through the WOVOdat database. Papers in this volume will be an additional resource for scientists grappling with the issue of whether or not an episode of unrest will lead to a magmatic eruption.

  20. Fail-safe computer-based plant protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keats, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    A fail-safe mode of operation for computers used in nuclear reactor protection systems was first evolved in the UK for application to a sodium cooled fast reactor. The fail-safe properties of both the hardware and the software were achieved by permanently connecting test signals to some of the multiplexed inputs. This results in an unambiguous data pattern, each time the inputs are sequentially scanned by the multiplexer. The ''test inputs'' simulate transient excursions beyond defined safe limits. The alternating response of the trip algorithms to the ''out-of-limits'' test signals and the normal plant measurements is recognised by hardwired pattern recognition logic external to the computer system. For more general application to plant protection systems, a ''Test Signal Generator'' (TSG) is used to compute and generate test signals derived from prevailing operational conditions. The TSG, from its knowledge of the sensitivity of the trip algorithm to each of the input variables, generates a ''test disturbance'' which is superimposed upon each variable in turn, to simulate a transient excursion beyond the safe limits. The ''tripped'' status yielded by the trip algorithm when using data from a ''disturbed'' input forms part of a pattern determined by the order in which the disturbances are applied to the multiplexer inputs. The data pattern formed by the interleaved test disturbances is again recognised by logic external to the protection system's computers. This fail-safe mode of operation of computer-based protection systems provides a powerful defence against common-mode failure. It also reduces the importance of software verification in the licensing procedure. (author)

  1. Clinical Outcomes Associated with a Failed Infant Car Seat Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Malika D; Dookeran, Keith A; Khan, Janine Y

    2017-01-01

    To assess comorbid conditions and clinical outcomes among late preterm and low birth weight term infants (Baby Unit. This was a retrospective chart review of consecutive infants who failed ICSC on the Mother-Baby Unit and were subsequently admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit at Prentice Women's Hospital between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2015. Regression models were used to estimate risk differences (RDs) with 95% CIs for factors related to length of stay. A total of 148 infants were studied (43% male; 37% delivered via cesarean). ICSC failure in the Mother-Baby Unit was due to desaturation, bradycardia, and tachypnea in 59%, 37%, and 4% of infants, respectively. During monitoring on the neonatal intensive care unit, 39% of infants experienced apnea (48% in preterm vs 17% in term infants) in the supine position, 19% received phototherapy, and 2% and 6.8% received nasogastric and thermoregulatory support, respectively. Univariate predictors of increased duration of stay (days) were younger gestational age, apnea, nasogastric support, intravenous fluids, and antibiotics (all P < .05). In multivariable analysis adjusted for gestational age and discharge weight, only apnea (RD, 4.87; 95% CI, 2.99-6.74; P < .001), administration of antibiotics (RD, 3.25; 95% CI, 0.29-6.21; P < .032), and intravenous fluid support (RD, 4.87; 95% CI, 0.076-9.66; P < .047) remained independent predictors of a longer duration of stay. Infants who failed ICSC were at risk for comorbid conditions that prolonged hospital stay beyond the neonatal intensive care unit observation period. Almost one-half of late preterm infants who failed ICSC had apnea events in the supine position. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fail-safe neutron shutter used for thermal neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.D.; Morris, R.A.

    1976-11-01

    A fail-safe, reliable, easy-to-use neutron shutter was designed, built, and put into operation at the Omega West Reactor, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The neutron shutter will be used primarily to perform thermal neutron radiography, but is also available for a highly collimated source of thermal neutrons [neutron flux = 3.876 x 10 6 (neutrons)/(cm 2 .s)]. Neutron collimator sizes of either 10.16 by 10.16 cm or 10.16 by 30.48 cm are available

  3. A Perplexed Economist Confronts 'too Big to Fail'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherer, F. M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines premises and data underlying the assertion that some financial institutions in the U.S. economy were "too big to fail" and hence warranted government bailout. It traces the merger histories enhancing the dominance of six leading firms in the U. S. banking industry and he sharp increases in the concentration of financial institution assets accompanying that merger wave. Financial institution profits are found to have soared in tandem with rising concentration. The paper advances hypotheses why these phenomena might be related and surveys relevant empirical literature on the relationships between market concentration, interest rates received and charged by banks, and economies of scale in banking.

  4. Sipping test on a failed MTR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac; Zeituni, Carlos Alberto; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Perrotta, Jose Augusto; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da

    2002-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on MTR fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to determinate which one failed in the core during a routine operation of the reactor. radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure indicators, were detected in samples corresponding to the fuel element IEA-156. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs. (author)

  5. Has Multiculturalism Really Failed? A Canadian Muslim Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljit Nagra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, claims that multiculturalism has created segregated communities, encouraged terrorism, and failed to foster shared national identities in western nations have gained popularity. In this paper, we use young Canadian Muslims’ lived experience of multiculturalism to reflect on this debate. Contrary to popular rhetoric, our interviews of 50 young Muslim adults show that many maintain a dual Canadian-Muslim identity by utilizing the ideology of multiculturalism, even though they are increasingly stigmatized for their religion. These findings lead us to problematize the discourse surrounding the ‘failure’ of multiculturalism and to highlight the contradictions within it.

  6. Establishing Pass/Fail Criteria for Bronchoscopy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Clementsen, Paul; Larsen, Klaus Richter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several tools have been created to assess competence in bronchoscopy. However, educational guidelines still use an arbitrary number of performed procedures to decide when basic competency is acquired. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to define pass/fail scores for two...... method. In the first we compared bronchoscopy performance scores of 14 novices with the scores of 14 experienced consultants to find the score that best discriminated between the two groups. In the second we asked an expert group of 7 experienced bronchoscopists to judge how a borderline trainee would...

  7. [Hospitals failing minimum volumes in 2004: reasons and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraedts, M; Kühnen, C; Cruppé, W de; Blum, K; Ohmann, C

    2008-02-01

    In 2004 Germany introduced annual minimum volumes nationwide on five surgical procedures: kidney, liver, stem cell transplantation, complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions. Hospitals that fail to reach the minimum volumes are no longer allowed to perform the respective procedures unless they raise one of eight legally accepted exceptions. The goal of our study was to investigate how many hospitals fell short of the minimum volumes in 2004, whether and how this was justified, and whether hospitals that failed the requirements experienced any consequences. We analysed data on meeting the minimum volume requirements in 2004 that all German hospitals were obliged to publish as part of their biannual structured quality reports. We performed telephone interviews: a) with all hospitals not achieving the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions, and b) with the national umbrella organisations of all German sickness funds. In 2004, one quarter of all German acute care hospitals (N=485) performed 23,128 procedures where minimum volumes applied. 197 hospitals (41%) did not meet at least one of the minimum volumes. These hospitals performed N=715 procedures (3.1%) where the minimum volumes were not met. In 43% of these cases the hospitals raised legally accepted exceptions. In 33% of the cases the hospitals argued using reasons that were not legally acknowledged. 69% of those hospitals that failed to achieve the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal and pancreatic interventions did not experience any consequences from the sickness funds. However, one third of those hospitals reported that the sickness funds addressed the issue and partially announced consequences for the future. The sickness funds' umbrella organisations stated that there were only sparse activities related to the minimum volumes and that neither uniform registrations nor uniform proceedings in case of infringements of the standards had been agreed upon. In spite of the

  8. Recognizing and treating delayed or failed lactogenesis II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Nancy M

    2007-01-01

    Delayed or failed achievement of lactogenesis II--the onset of copious milk volume--occurs as a result of various maternal and/or infant factors. Early recognition of these risk factors is critical for clinicians who interact with breastfeeding women so that intervention and achievement of full or partial breastfeeding can be preserved. This article describes the maternal and infant conditions that contribute to the unsuccessful establishment of a full lactation. Treatment modalities that can maximize maternal lactation capacity and infant growth rates are offered.

  9. Looked-but-failed-to-see-errors in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Mai-Britt; Jørgensen, N O

    2003-01-01

    Danish studies of traffic accidents at priority intersections have shown a particular type of accidents. In these accidents a car driver supposed to give way has collided with a bicycle rider on the priority road. Often the involved car drivers have maintained that they did not see the bicycle...... looking in the direction where the other parties were but have not seen (i.e. perceived the presence of) the other road user. This paper describes two studies approaching this problem.One study is based on 10 self-reported near accidents. It does show that "looked-but-failed-to-see" events do occur...

  10. Analysis of failed ramps during the RHIC FY09 run

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2014-08-15

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a versatile accelerator that supports operation with polarized protons of up to 250 GeV and ions with up to 100 GeV/nucleon. During any running period, various operating scenarios with different particle species, beam energies or accelerator optics are commissioned. In this report the beam commissioning periods for establishing full energy beams (ramp development periods) from the FY09 run are summarized and, for the purpose of motivating further developments, we analyze the reasons for all failed ramps.

  11. Fail-safe storage rack for irradiated fuel rod assemblies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D.R.

    1993-03-23

    A fail-safe storage rack is provided for interim storage of spent but radioactive nuclear fuel rod assemblies. The rack consists of a checkerboard array of substantially square, elongate receiving tubes fully enclosed by a double walled container, the outer wall of which is imperforate for liquid containment and the inner wall of which is provided with perforations for admitting moderator liquid flow to the elongate receiving tubes, the liquid serving to take up waste heat from the stored nuclear assemblies and dissipate same to the ambient liquid reservoir. A perforated cover sealing the rack facilitates cooling liquid entry and dissipation.

  12. How energy efficiency fails in the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryghaug, Marianne; Sorensen, Knut H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how energy efficiency fails in the building industry based on many years of research into the integration of energy efficiency in the construction of buildings and sustainable architecture in Norway. It argues that energy-efficient construction has been seriously restrained by three interrelated problems: (1) deficiencies in public policy to stimulate energy efficiency, (2) limited governmental efforts to regulate the building industry, and (3) a conservative building industry. The paper concludes that innovation and implementation of new, energy-efficient technologies in the building industry requires new policies, better regulations and reformed practices in the industry itself

  13. On fail-safe principle and safety for reactor control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Chiyozi; Ito, Taiju

    1974-01-01

    Fail-safe technique is not systematically established yet in the safety technology in reactor operation, though the concept has been incorporated in design. The safey measures taken are multifold, with emphasis placed on the fair margin of design making sacrifice of economy and availability, and the policy of using multiplicity, independency and reliability freely is taken. The following matters are described: distinction between accidents and failures; principles for reactor safety and safety measures against radiation and accidents of cooling system, foolproof and interlock; the relation between safety and plant availability; safety manipulation and scram; reactor safety instrumentation; reliability of measuring instrumentation; and system reliability. (Mori, K.)

  14. John 21:24-25: A case of failed attestation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.F. Tolmie

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available John 21:24-25: A case of� failed attestation In� this article� the� tendency� to� interpret John� 21:24-25 narratologically as a highly sophisticated and effective� technique� is disputed.� Instead it is argued that� the Beloved Disciple� is� identified in� these� verses as� the� real author of the� Gospel� and� that� the� dominating� function� in� John� 21� :24-25� is� the testimonial function� (also� known� as� the function� of attestation.� It� is� also argued� that� the� intended� effect� of this� junction� is� undermined� by� the awkward manner in which� it is� fulfilled.

  15. A Physical Model of Mass Ejection in Failed Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Eric R.; Quataert, Eliot; Fernández, Rodrigo; Kasen, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    During the core collapse of massive stars, the formation of the protoneutron star is accompanied by the emission of a significant amount of mass-energy (˜0.3 M⊙) in the form of neutrinos. This mass-energy loss generates an outward-propagating pressure wave that steepens into a shock near the stellar surface, potentially powering a weak transient associated with an otherwise-failed supernova. We analytically investigate this mass-loss-induced wave generation and propagation. Heuristic arguments provide an accurate estimate of the amount of energy contained in the outgoing sound pulse. We then develop a general formalism for analyzing the response of the star to centrally concentrated mass loss in linear perturbation theory. To build intuition, we apply this formalism to polytropic stellar models, finding qualitative and quantitative agreement with simulations and heuristic arguments. We also apply our results to realistic pre-collapse massive star progenitors (both giants and compact stars). Our analytic results for the sound pulse energy, excitation radius, and steepening in the stellar envelope are in good agreement with full time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations. We show that prior to the sound pulses arrival at the stellar photosphere, the photosphere has already reached velocities ˜20 - 100% of the local sound speed, thus likely modestly decreasing the stellar effective temperature prior to the star disappearing. Our results provide important constraints on the physical properties and observational appearance of failed supernovae.

  16. Electromechanical Dyssynchrony and Resynchronization of the Failing Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Jonathan A.; Kass, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with heart failure and depressed function frequently develop discoordinate contraction due to electrical activation delay. Often termed dyssynchrony, this further depresses systolic function and chamber efficiency, and worsens morbidity and mortality. In the mid-1990s, a pacemaker-based treatment termed cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was developed to restore mechanical synchrony by electrically activating both right and left sides of the heart. It is a major therapeutic advance for the new millennium.. Acute chamber-effects of CRT include increased cardiac output and mechanical efficiency, and reduced mitral regurgitation, while reduction in chamber volumes ensues more chronically. Patient candidates for CRT have a prolonged QRS duration and discoordinate wall-motion, although other factors may also be important as ∼30% of such selected subjects fail to respond to the treatment. In contrast to existing pharmacological inotropes, CRT both acutely and chronically increases cardiac systolic function and work yet it also reduces long-term mortality. Recent studies reveal unique molecular/cellular changes from CRT that may also contribute to this success. Heart failure with dyssynchrony displays depressed myocyte and myofilament function, calcium handling, beta-adrenergic responsiveness, mitochondrial ATP-synthase activity, cell survival signaling, and other changes. CRT reverses many of these abnormalities often by triggering entirely new pathways. In this review, we discuss chamber, circulatory, and basic myocardial effects of dyssynchrony and CRT in the failing heart, and highlight new research aiming to better target and implement CRT as well as leverage its molecular effects. PMID:23989718

  17. Mass Ejection in Failed Supernovae: Variation with Stellar Progenitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rodrigo; Quataert, Eliot; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Coughlin, Eric R.

    2018-02-01

    We study the ejection of mass during stellar core-collapse when the stalled shock does not revive and a black hole forms. Neutrino emission during the protoneutron star phase causes a decrease in the gravitational mass of the core, resulting in an outward going sound pulse that steepens into a shock as it travels out through the star. We explore the properties of this mass ejection mechanism over a range of stellar progenitors using spherically-symmetric, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations that treat neutrino mass loss parametrically and follow the shock propagation over the entire star. We find that all types of stellar progenitor can eject mass through this mechanism. The ejected mass is a decreasing function of the surface gravity of the star, ranging from several M⊙ for red supergiants to ˜0.1M⊙ for blue supergiants and ˜10-3M⊙ for Wolf-Rayet stars. We find that the final shock energy at the surface is a decreasing function of the core-compactness, and is ≲ 1047 - 1048 erg in all cases. In progenitors with a sufficiently large envelope, high core-compactness, or a combination of both, the sound pulse fails to unbind mass. Successful mass ejection is accompanied by significant fallback accretion that can last from hours to years. We predict the properties of shock breakout and thermal plateau emission produced by the ejection of the outer envelope of blue supergiant and Wolf-Rayet progenitors in otherwise failed supernovae.

  18. We still fail to account for Mendel's observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porteous John W

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present article corrects common textbook accounts of Mendel's experiments by re-establishing what he wrote and how he accounted for his observations. It notes the long-established tests for the validity of any explanations that purport to explain observations obtained by experiment. Application of these tests to Mendel's paper shows that the arguments he used to explain his observations were internally consistent but were, on one crucial issue, implausible. The same tests are applied to the currently accepted explanation for Mendel's observations. Conclusions The currently favoured explanation for Mendel's observations is untenable. It misrepresents Mendel, fails to distinguish between the parameters and the variables of any system of interacting components, its arguments are inconsistent, it repeats the implausibility in Mendel's paper, fails to give a rational explanation for his observed 3:1 trait ratio and cannot explain why this ratio is not always observed in experimental practice. A rational explanation for Mendel's observations is initiated. Readers are challenged to complete the process before a further article appears.

  19. Mechanical and Spectroscopic Analysis of Retrieved/Failed Dental Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umer Daood

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine surface alterations and bone formation on the surface of failed dental implants (Straumann [ST] and TiUnite [TiUn] removed due to any biological reason. In addition, failure analysis was performed to test mechanical properties. Dental implants (n = 38 from two manufacturers were collected and subjected to chemical cleaning. The presence of newly formed hydroxyapatite bone around failed implants was evaluated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to identify surface defects. Mechanical testing was performed using a Minneapolis servo-hydraulic system (MTS along with indentation using a universal testing machine and average values were recorded. A statistical analysis of mechanical properties was done using an unpaired t test, and correlation between observed defects was evaluated using Chi-square (p = 0.05. Apatite-formation was evident in both implants, but was found qualitatively more in the ST group. No significant difference was found in indentation between the two groups (p > 0.05. The percentage of “no defects” was significantly lower in the ST group (71%. Crack-like and full-crack defects were observed in 49% and 39% of TiUn. The ST group showed 11,061 cycles to failure as compared with 10,021 cycles in the TiUnite group. Implant failure mechanisms are complex with a combination of mechanical and biological reasons and these factors are variable with different implant systems.

  20. [Spinal cord stimulation and failed back surgery syndrome. Clinical results with laminectomy electrodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García March, Guillermo; Bordes, Vicente; Roldán, Pedro; Real, Luis; González Darder, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is a widely-accepted technique in the treatment of back pain resulting from failed back surgery. Classically, stimulation has been carried out with percutaneous electrodes implanted under local anaesthesia and sedation. However, the ease of migration and the difficulty of reproducing electrical paresthesias in large areas with such electrodes has led to increasing use of surgical plate leads, which have the disadvantage of the need for general anaesthesia and a laminectomy for implantation. Our objective was to report the clinical results, technical details, advantages and benefits of laminectomy lead placement under epidural anaesthesia in failed back surgery syndrome cases. Spinal cord stimulation was performed in a total of 119 patients (52 men and 67 women), aged between 31 and 73 years (average, 47.3). Epidural anaesthesia was induced with ropivacaine. In all cases we inserted the octapolar or 16-polar lead in the epidural space through a small laminectomy. The final position of the leads was the vertebral level that provided coverage of the patient's pain. The electrodes were connected at dual-channel or rechargeable pulse generators. After a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, the results in terms of improvement of the previous painful situation was satisfactory, with an analgesia level of 58% of axial pain and 60% of radicular pain in more than 70% of cases. None of the patients said that the surgery stage was painful or unpleasant. No serious complications were included in the group, but in 6 cases the system had to be explanted because of ineffectiveness or intolerance of long-term neurostimulation. This study, with a significant number of patients, used epidural anaesthesia for spinal cord stimulation of lead implants by laminectomy in failed back surgery syndromes. The technique seems to be safe and effective. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of a prosthetic inlay resurfacing as a salvage procedure for a failed cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhollander, Aad Alfons Maria; Almqvist, Karl Fredrik; Moens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Pieter-Jan; Verdonk, René; Verdonk, Peter; Victor, Jan

    2015-08-01

    This study was designed to describe the clinical and radiographical outcome of the HemiCAP(®) resurfacing system as a salvage treatment for a failed index cartilage procedure. Fourteen patients were treated consecutively and clinically prospectively followed for a mean period of 26.1 ± 12.8 months. All patients were previously treated for their cartilage lesion. Radiographical data were analysed based on the Kellgren and Lawrence system. The patients involved in this study demonstrated a gradual clinical improvement in time. However, radiographically significant osteoarthritic changes were observed during the follow-up period. The position of the HemiCAP(®) resurfacing system was adequate in all cases, and no signs of loosening were observed during the follow-up period. The HemiCAP(®) resurfacing system is feasible as a salvage treatment for a failed index cartilage procedure and resulted in a gradual clinical improvement. However, the favourable clinical outcome was not confirmed by the radiographical findings. IV.

  2. Identifying Demographic and Academic Issues that Influence the Passing or Failing of the Physiology Course in the Medicine Study Program of UCIMED (University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Vanegas-Pissa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available (This paper, product of a research project, analyzes some academic and demographic issues that might influence students passing or failing Physiology in the Licentiate Study Program in Medicine and Surgery at UCIMED (University of Medical Sciences between 2008 and 2011. This was a retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the grades obtained by the students who were taking Physiology for the first, second or third time during the research period, the semesters in which the grades were obtained, who passed or failed the course, their sociodemographic characteristics, and other courses passed or failed previously with their corresponding grades. For the data analysis, we used the Stata 13 software (Data Analysis and Statistical Software with a logistic regression model to determine the variables, which explain the passing or failing of the Physiology course. The results showed that the variables with a greater effect on the probability of p

  3. FAILED PRIMARY TREATMENT OF CALCANEAL FRACTURE. WHAT TO DO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Andoljšek

    2008-02-01

    When conservative treatment fails, operative treatment is indicated in most patients withbone and joint problems. The goals of surgical treatment are pain relief and restoration oftalocalcaneal alignment. In lateral impingement, when subtalar joint and general alignmentof the tuber are preserved, removal of the bulged lateral wall could suffice. In suchcases a corrective osteotomy of the tuber is rarely indicated. In painfull subtalar arthrosisfusion is the only option. Limited fusion is preferable. »In situ« subtalar fusion is advisablein cases without malalignment or deformity. When we have arthrosis and varus/valgusdeformity with preserved height, arthrodesis with corrective osteotomy is indicated. In mostcases, where complex deformity is present, corrective subtalar distraction bone-blockarthrodesis should be done

  4. A Novel Endoscopic Technique for Failed Nasogastric Tube Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Direct visualization of the nasopharynx gives the otolaryngologist a unique advantage for addressing difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy. One common situation is being consulted to assist when the blind placement of a nasogastric tube has failed. A novel technique for managing a patient with a nasogastric tube embedded in the adenoid remnant is described with illustrations. The atraumatic method is easily employed by a resident armed with a portable nasolaryngoscope and plain suture. By using a repeated pull-through technique, the nasogastric tube can be guided past difficult nasopharyngeal anatomy and into a position from where it can be advanced into the patient's esophagus. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  5. Trending a New Normal: Is Nigeria becoming a failed Nation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Olusegun Stober

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Judging from every economic parameter, Nigeria will suggest being a failed nation. Not so long ago international investors identified Nigeria as one of the world’s most promising investment opportunities, but things have changed drastically in the meantime. The slump in the price of crude oil has hit Nigerian economy hard, the twin curses of insecurity and corruption have not gone away either. The Nigerian currency - naira has also lost its value by 170% from its value in 2015. The question most analysts and citizens are now asking is if Nigeria will ever fulfil its potential. This study empirically analyses the current economic situation of Nigeria, and gives recommendations on what government should do in getting the country out of recession.

  6. Failed rapid sequence induction in an achondroplastic dwarf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasleen Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Achondroplasia, a common cause of short limbed type of dwarfism is due to quantitative decrease in rate of endochondral ossification. This abnormal bone growth leads to disproportionate body and head structure, thus placing them under high risk for anaesthetic management. There is paucity in literatures, regarding appropriate drug dosage selection in these patients. Use of drugs as per standard dosage recommendations based on body weight or body surface area, may not be adequate in these patients owing to discrepancies in overall body weight and lean body weight, especially during rapid sequence induction. Here, we report a case of failed rapid sequence induction due to abnormal response to administered drugs in an adult achondroplastic dwarf. Standard doses of thiopentone and rocuronium had to be repeated thrice to achieve adequate conditions for intubation.

  7. The ambivert: A failed attempt at a normal personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Ian J

    2017-09-01

    Recently, attention has been drawn toward an overlooked and nearly forgotten personality type: the ambivert. This paper presents a genealogy of the ambivert, locating the various contexts it traversed in order to highlight the ways in which these places and times have interacted and changed-ultimately elucidating our current situation. Proposed by Edmund S. Conklin in 1923, the ambivert only was meant for normal persons in between the introvert and extravert extremes. Although the ambivert could have been taken up by early personality psychologists who were transitioning from the study of the abnormal to the normal, it largely failed to gain traction. Whether among psychoanalysts, psychiatrists, or applied and personality psychologists, the ambivert was personality non grata. It was only within the context of Eysenck's integrative view of types and traits that the ambivert marginally persisted up to the present day and is now the focus of sales management and popular psychology. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Looked-but-failed-to-see-errors in traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Mai-Britt; Jørgensen, N O

    2003-01-01

    Danish studies of traffic accidents at priority intersections have shown a particular type of accidents. In these accidents a car driver supposed to give way has collided with a bicycle rider on the priority road. Often the involved car drivers have maintained that they did not see the bicycle...... until immediately before the collision even though the bicycle must have been clearly visible.Similar types of accidents have been the subject of studies elsewhere. In literature they are labelled "looked-but-failed-to-see", because it seems clear that in many cases the car drivers have actually been......, especially for well experienced drivers. The other study based on Gap Acceptance shows that the car driver acceptance of gaps towards cyclists depends on whether or not another car is present. Hypotheses for driver perception and for accident countermeasures are discussed....

  9. Failed manual removal of the placenta after vaginal delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurström, Johanna; Collins, Sally; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2018-01-01

    and the UK provide examples of various treatment strategies such as ultrasound-guided vaginal removal, removal of the placenta through a hysterotomy and just leaving the placenta in situ. The placentas were all retained, but it was only possible to diagnose abnormal invasion in the one case, which had......PURPOSE: A retained placenta after vaginal delivery where manual removal of placenta fails is a clinical challenge. We present six cases that illustrate the heterogeneity of the condition and discuss the etiology and terminology as well as the clinical management. METHODS: Members of the European...... a histopathological diagnosis of increta. Based on these cases we present a flow chart to aid clinical management for future cases. CONCLUSION: We need properly defined stringent terminology for the different types of retained placenta, as well as improved tools to predict and diagnose both abnormally invasive...

  10. Mutuality: clinical and metapsychological potentials of a failed experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Mendoza, Carlos Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis are often dismissed, without acknowledging the results obtained from them and his own cautionary remarks about their limits. Though ultimately failed, Ferenczi's experiments with mutual analysis were a source of clinical and metapsychological knowledge, despite the fact that he was unable to elaborate them in his lifetime. In this paper I connect mutuality to the development of the psyche, especially to the constitutive core of the intrapsychic. To understand the latter, it is necessary to take into account, among others, issues such as the common attribute, the mutual flux between the unconsciouses, the dialogue of unconsciouses, the maternal profundity, the primal relationship with the mother, and, above all, the primal unity between mother and child, which are fundamental for the emergence and development of the primary psychic forces. Incidences of rupture, distortion of the core of mutuality in the psychic life, its loss and disadjustment, by means of external traumatizing forces, and some clinical implications are described.

  11. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-10

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  12. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  13. Why did ISO 9001:2008 system fail to deliver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Melvyn

    2014-02-01

    This article is based on an actual investigation undertaken, and summarises the subsequent report's findings and observations. It has been anonymised for obvious reasons. In May 2013 an analysis was undertaken by a multidisciplinary team that compared an NHS Trust estates department's managerial systems against the NHS national recommendations. The conclusions stated that: 'There was a systemic failure across a large number of topics generating intolerable/substantial risks to the organisation, its staff, and patients; this despite the department's managerial systems being accredited to the International Standard ISO 9001:2008'. The natural question raised when presented with this demonstrable and auditable evidence was: 'Why did the ISO 9001:2008 system fail?'

  14. Alternative Splicing of NOX4 in the Failing Human Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán V. Varga

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress is a major contributor to the development and progression of heart failure, however, our knowledge on the role of the distinct NADPH oxidase (NOX isoenzymes, especially on NOX4 is controversial. Therefore, we aimed to characterize NOX4 expression in human samples from healthy and failing hearts. Explanted human heart samples (left and right ventricular, and septal regions were obtained from patients suffering from heart failure of ischemic or dilated origin. Control samples were obtained from donor hearts that were not used for transplantation. Deep RNA sequencing of the cardiac transcriptome indicated extensive alternative splicing of the NOX4 gene in heart failure as compared to samples from healthy donor hearts. Long distance PCR analysis with a universal 5′-3′ end primer pair, allowing amplification of different splice variants, confirmed the presence of the splice variants. To assess translation of the alternatively spliced transcripts we determined protein expression of NOX4 by using a specific antibody recognizing a conserved region in all variants. Western blot analysis showed up-regulation of the full-length NOX4 in ischemic cardiomyopathy samples and confirmed presence of shorter isoforms both in control and failing samples with disease-associated expression pattern. We describe here for the first time that NOX4 undergoes extensive alternative splicing in human hearts which gives rise to the expression of different enzyme isoforms. The full length NOX4 is significantly upregulated in ischemic cardiomyopathy suggesting a role for NOX4 in ROS production during heart failure.

  15. Evaluation and Management of Failed Shoulder Instability Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartucho, António; Moura, Nuno; Sarmento, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Background: Failed shoulder instability surgery is mostly considered to be the recurrence of shoulder dislocation but subluxation, painful or non-reliable shoulder are also reasons for patient dissatisfaction and should be considered in the notion. Methods: The authors performed a revision of the literature and online contents on evaluation and management of failed shoulder instability surgery. Results: When we look at the reasons for failure of shoulder instability surgery we point the finger at poor patient selection, technical error and an additional traumatic event. More than 80% of surgical failures, for shoulder instability, are associated with bone loss. Quantification of glenoid bone loss and investigation of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion are determining facts. Adequate imaging studies are determinant to assess labrum and capsular lesions and to rule out associated pathology as rotator cuff tears. CT-scan is the method of choice to diagnose and quantify bone loss. Arthroscopic soft tissue procedures are indicated in patients with minimal bone loss and no contact sports. Open soft tissue procedures should be performed in patients with small bone defects, with hiperlaxity and practicing contact sports. Soft tissue techniques, as postero-inferior capsular plication and remplissage, may be used in patients with less than 25% of glenoid bone loss and Hill-Sachs lesions. Bone block procedures should be used for glenoid larger bone defects in the presence of an engaging Hill-Sachs lesion or in the presence of poor soft tissue quality. A tricortical iliac crest graft may be used as a primary procedure or as a salvage procedure after failure of a Bristow or a Latarjet procedure. Less frequently, the surgeon has to address the Hill-Sachs lesion. When a 30% loss of humeral head circumference is present a filling graft should be used. Conclusion: Reasons for failure are multifactorial. In order to address this entity, surgeons must correctly identify the causes and

  16. Remembering past exchanges: Apes fail to use social cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Lewis

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonhuman primates can remember events from their distant past. Furthermore, they can distinguish between very similar events by the process of binding. So far, research into long-term memory and binding has focused on the binding of contextual information, such as spatial surroundings. As such, we aimed to investigate if apes can bind and retrieve other types of information, specifically, social information. We presented great apes with three different object types; they learnt to exchange (via reinforcement one of the object types with one experimenter and another type with a second, different, experimenter. The remaining object type was not reinforced by either of the experimenters. After a delay of two or ten weeks, we assessed the apes’ memory of which object type was exchanged with which experimenter. Additionally, we introduced a new experimenter to see if the apes could infer by exclusion that the remaining object type should be exchanged with the new experimenter. The apes successfully remembered which object types were exchanged, but failed to distinguish which object type was exchanged with whom. This failure to bind an object type to a specific person may have resulted from the apes learning to use a rule based on recency, as opposed to learning a conditional rule involving social information. However, results from a second experiment suggested they fail to incorporate social information even when no other information could guide successful performance. Our findings are consistent with research showing long-term memory in primates, but suggest that social information may not be bound in memory as readily as spatial or contextual information.

  17. Rotationplasty as a salvage of failed primary limb reconstruction: up to date review and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavese, Federico; Samba, Antoine; Khan, Ahmad; Dechelotte, Pierre; Krajbich, Joseph I

    2014-05-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old girl who is a known case for proximal focal femoral deficiency. She underwent several surgical lengthening procedures. Her course was complicated by femur nonunion, knee joint dislocation, stiff knee, and final lower limb discrepancy of over 15 cm. Rotationplasty was performed to salvage her previous surgical failures and restore her function. Surgery was uneventful and the patient was able to walk with the prosthesis in a few months after index surgery. Although the outcome of rotationplasty is visually unusual, for some children restored function and physical capabilities outweigh cosmetic concerns. The aim of the present study was to report a case of rotationplasty in salvaging a failed primary limb reconstruction in a patient with proximal femur focal deficiency.

  18. Failed fertilization with conventional oocyte insemination can be overcome with the ability of ICSI according to binding or failing to bind to the zona pellucida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Check, J H; Bollendorf, A; Wilson, C

    2016-01-01

    To determine the frequency of failed fertilization with conventional oocyte insemination and to determine the ability of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) to overcome the failed fertilization according to binding or failing to bind to the zona pellucida. Retrospective review of 12,448 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle to identify cycles where failed fertilization occurred following conventional oocyte insemination with seemingly normal sperm. A number of three oocytes retrieved was required. There were only 12 cases of failed fertilization (0.1%). Six were related to failure of any or few sperm attaching to the zona pellucida These six had high fertilization rates with ICSI. Six had normal attachment and five attempted another cycle, this time with ICSI. Only 60% had good fertilization. When there is failed fertilization with normal sperm oocyte binding following conventional oocyte insemination, ICSI may still be effective in 60% of the cases, but it would be probably recommended to combine ICSI with artificial oocyte activation by calcium ionophore.

  19. A triple-helix forming oligonucleotide targeting genomic DNA fails to induce mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshat, Reshat; Priestley, Catherine C; Gooderham, Nigel J

    2012-11-01

    Purine tracts in duplex DNA can bind oligonucleotide strands in a sequence specific manner to form triple-helix structures. Triple-helix forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) targeting supFG1 constructs have previously been shown to be mutagenic raising safety concerns for oligonucleotide-based pharmaceuticals. We have engineered a TFO, TFO27, to target the genomic Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus to define the mutagenic potential of such structures at genomic DNA. We report that TFO27 was resistant to nuclease degradation and readily binds to its target motif in a cell free system. Contrary to previous studies using the supFG1 reporter construct, TFO27 failed to induce mutation within the genomic HPRT locus. We suggest that it is possible that previous reports of triplex-mediated mutation using the supFG1 reporter construct could be confounded by DNA quadruplex formation. Although the present study indicates that a TFO targeting a genomic locus lacks mutagenic activity, it is unclear if this finding can be generalised to all TFOs and their targets. For the present, we suggest that it is prudent to avoid large purine stretches in oligonucleotide pharmaceutical design to minimise concern regarding off-target genotoxicity.

  20. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  1. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  2. Utility of Covered Stents for Revision of Aging Failing Synthetic Hemodialysis Grafts: A Report of Three Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silas, Anne M.; Bettmann, Michael A.

    2003-01-01

    Three aging failing hemodialysis polytetrafluoroethylene bypass shunts, average age 44 months, previously percutaneously revised with balloon angioplasty, presented with pseudoaneurysms and recurrent thrombosis. All were treated with percutaneous covered stent placement within their affected limbs. One graft was ligated 1 month after treatment for infected overlying skin ulcer, though this graft was subsequently surgically revised with interposition graft and the covered stent portion remains functional at 19 month follow-up. The 18- and 13- month follow- up of the remaining 2 patients shows that the covered stents remained patent and they are functional and being successfully and routinely punctured for dialysis. In this elderly population, the use of covered stents may prolong the functional life of failing hemodialysis bypass grafts, reducing the number of percutaneous and surgical interventions and further sparing other vascular access sites

  3. 7 CFR 1951.264 - Action when borrower fails to cooperate, respond or graduate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Analyzing Credit Needs and Graduation of Borrowers § 1951.264 Action when borrower fails to cooperate, respond or graduate. (a) When borrowers with other than FCP loans fail to: (1) Provide information... appeal the decision. (b) If an FCP borrower fails to cooperate after a lender expresses a willingness to...

  4. Biochemical effectiveness of allopurinol and allopurinol-probenecid in previously benzbromarone-treated gout patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Mattheus K; van Roon, Eric N; Houtman, Pieternella M; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Jansen, Tim L Th A

    2007-09-01

    In 2003, the uricosuric drug benzbromarone was withdrawn from the market. The first alternative drug of choice was the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. The purpose was to (1) investigate the efficacy of allopurinol (standard dosage) compared with previous treatment with benzbromarone; and (2) investigate the combination therapy allopurinol-probenecid as an effective alternative treatment compared with previous benzbromarone treatment. A prospective, open study was carried out in a cohort of 51 gout patients who discontinued benzbromarone therapy because of market withdrawal. Patients were given 200-300 mg allopurinol (stage 1). When allopurinol failed to attain the target serum urate (sUr) levels probenecid 1,000 mg/day was added (stage 2). Treatment with benzbromarone monotherapy (range: 100-200 mg/day; mean 138 mg/day) resulted in 92% of patients reaching target levels sUr probenecid combination therapy, which resulted in 86% of patients attaining target sUr levels (after failure on allopurinol monotherapy), which was comparable to previous treatment with benzbromarone (p = 0.81). Decrease in sUr levels was 53[9]% (CI 95%: 48-58%), which was a non-significant difference compared to previous treatment with benzbromarone (p = 0.23). Benzbromarone is a very effective antihyperuricemic drug with 91% success in attainment of target sUr levels probenecid proves to be an effective treatment strategy for attaining sUr target levels (86% success).

  5. Requirements: Towards an understanding on why software projects fail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Azham; Mkpojiogu, Emmanuel O. C.

    2016-08-01

    Requirement engineering is at the foundation of every successful software project. There are many reasons for software project failures; however, poorly engineered requirements process contributes immensely to the reason why software projects fail. Software project failure is usually costly and risky and could also be life threatening. Projects that undermine requirements engineering suffer or are likely to suffer from failures, challenges and other attending risks. The cost of project failures and overruns when estimated is very huge. Furthermore, software project failures or overruns pose a challenge in today's competitive market environment. It affects the company's image, goodwill, and revenue drive and decreases the perceived satisfaction of customers and clients. In this paper, requirements engineering was discussed. Its role in software projects success was elaborated. The place of software requirements process in relation to software project failure was explored and examined. Also, project success and failure factors were also discussed with emphasis placed on requirements factors as they play a major role in software projects' challenges, successes and failures. The paper relied on secondary data and empirical statistics to explore and examine factors responsible for the successes, challenges and failures of software projects in large, medium and small scaled software companies.

  6. Experimenting `learn by doing' and `learn by failing'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Rossella; Noè, Carlo; Rossi, Tommaso

    2015-01-01

    According to the literature, in recent years, developing experiential learning has fulfilled the requirement of a deep understanding of lean philosophy by engineering students, demonstrating the advantages and disadvantages of some of the key principles of lean manufacturing. On the other hand, the literature evidences how some kinds of game-based experiential learning overlook daily difficulties, which play a central role in manufacturing systems. To fill the need of a game overcoming such lack of vision, an innovative game direct in-field, named Kart Factory, has been developed. Actual production shifts are simulated, while keeping all the elements peculiar to a real production set (i.e. complexity, effort, safety). The working environment is a real pedal car assembly department, the products to be assembled have relevant size and weight (i.e. up to 35 kg approximately), and the provided tools are real production equipment (e.g. keys, screwdrivers, trans-pallets, etc.). Due to the need to maximise the impact on students, a labour-intensive process characterises the production department. The whole training process is based on three educational principles: Experience Value Principle, Error Value Principle, and Team Value Principle. As the 'learn by doing' and 'learn by failing' are favoured, the theory follows the practice, while crating the willingness to 'do' instead of just designing or planning. The gathered data prove the Kart Factory's effectiveness in reaching a good knowledge of lean concepts, notwithstanding the students' initial knowledge level.

  7. Excisional Bleb Revision for Management of Failed Ahmed Glaucoma Valve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Yadollah; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Moghimi, Sasan; Zarei, Reza; Mohammadi, Masoud; Nabavi, Amin; Yaseri, Mehdi; Izadi, Ali

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the outcome of excisonal bleb revision in patients with failed Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV). In total, 29 patients with uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) despite of maximal tolerated medical therapy at least 6 months after AGV implantation were enrolled in this prospective interventional case series. Excision of fibrotic tissue around the reservoir with application of mitomycin C 0.02% was performed. IOP, number of glaucoma medications were evaluated at baseline and 1 week and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Complete and qualified success was defined as IOP≤21 mm Hg with or without glaucoma medications, respectively. Intraoperative and postopervative complications were also recorded. Mean IOP was reduced from 30±4.2 mm Hg at baseline to 19.2±3.1 mm Hg at 12-month follow-up visit (Pglaucoma medications was decrease from 3.2±0.5 at baseline to 1.9±0.7 at 12-month follow-up (Pglaucoma surgeries were significantly associated with the failure of excisonal bleb revision. Excisional bleb revision could be considered as a relatively effective alternative option for management of inadequate IOP control after AGV implantation.

  8. Why have we failed to cure Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczyn, Amos D

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread recognition in the urgency to understand the causes and mechanisms of senile dementia. Attempts to find cures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have, however, failed so far, in spite of enormous investments, intellectual and financial. We therefore have to reconsider the problem from new angles. AD is regarded as a disease because of its clinical manifestations and underlying pathology. However, this combination does not define a disease but rather a syndrome, just like hepatic cirrhosis in which liver pathology causes metabolic changes, but which can result from many different etiologies. It is unlikely that attacking a downstream phenomenon, like apoptosis or amyloid-β accumulation, can cure AD, or prevent the progression of the disease. It is probable that senile dementia is the result of a combination of several processes, working differently in each person. Epidemiological studies have identified many risk factors for "senile dementia of the Alzheimer type", some genetic but most environmental and therefore modifiable. Thus, a concerted action to fight the dementia epidemic must be made by aggressive action against its risk factors, and this battle must begin in midlife, not in old age.

  9. Fail-fixed servovalve with positive fluid feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Howard B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    The servovalve includes a primary jet of fluid. A variable control signal is adapted to vary the angular position of the primary jet from its maximum recovery position. A first fluid path is adapted to supply fluid to a servopiston at a variable pressure determined at least in part by the control signal. A second fluid path is adapted to receive a predetermined portion of the primary jet fluid when the control signal reaches a predetermined value. The second fluid path terminates in the vicinity of the primary jet and is adapted to direct a secondary jet of fluid at the primary jet to deflect the primary jet toward the input orifice of the second fluid path. The resultant positive fluid feedback in the second fluid path causes the primary jet to latch in a first angular position relative to the maximum recovery position when the control signal reaches a predetermined value. The servovalve may further include a means to discharge the fluid and a means to block the first fluid path to the servopiston when the control signal falls below a second predetermined value. A method of operating a fail-fixed servovalve is also described.

  10. Sparse approximation problem: how rapid simulated annealing succeeds and fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    Information processing techniques based on sparseness have been actively studied in several disciplines. Among them, a mathematical framework to approximately express a given dataset by a combination of a small number of basis vectors of an overcomplete basis is termed the sparse approximation. In this paper, we apply simulated annealing, a metaheuristic algorithm for general optimization problems, to sparse approximation in the situation where the given data have a planted sparse representation and noise is present. The result in the noiseless case shows that our simulated annealing works well in a reasonable parameter region: the planted solution is found fairly rapidly. This is true even in the case where a common relaxation of the sparse approximation problem, the G-relaxation, is ineffective. On the other hand, when the dimensionality of the data is close to the number of non-zero components, another metastable state emerges, and our algorithm fails to find the planted solution. This phenomenon is associated with a first-order phase transition. In the case of very strong noise, it is no longer meaningful to search for the planted solution. In this situation, our algorithm determines a solution with close-to-minimum distortion fairly quickly.

  11. Organism-level models: When mechanisms and statistics fail us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M. H.; Meyer, J.; Smith, W. P.; Rockhill, J. K.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To describe the unique characteristics of models that represent the entire course of radiation therapy at the organism level and to highlight the uses to which such models can be put. Methods: At the level of an organism, traditional model-building runs into severe difficulties. We do not have sufficient knowledge to devise a complete biochemistry-based model. Statistical model-building fails due to the vast number of variables and the inability to control many of them in any meaningful way. Finally, building surrogate models, such as animal-based models, can result in excluding some of the most critical variables. Bayesian probabilistic models (Bayesian networks) provide a useful alternative that have the advantages of being mathematically rigorous, incorporating the knowledge that we do have, and being practical. Results: Bayesian networks representing radiation therapy pathways for prostate cancer and head & neck cancer were used to highlight the important aspects of such models and some techniques of model-building. A more specific model representing the treatment of occult lymph nodes in head & neck cancer were provided as an example of how such a model can inform clinical decisions. A model of the possible role of PET imaging in brain cancer was used to illustrate the means by which clinical trials can be modelled in order to come up with a trial design that will have meaningful outcomes. Conclusions: Probabilistic models are currently the most useful approach to representing the entire therapy outcome process.

  12. Why Buildings Fail: Are We Learning From Our Mistakes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kevin Parfitt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most building professionals have investigated or performed remedial designs for at least one architectural or engineering system failure during their careers. Other practitioners, especially those who work for forensic consultants or firms specializing in disaster response and repair, are more familiar with the variety and extent of building failures as they assist their clients in restoring damaged or deficient buildings. The advent of social medial and twenty-four-hour news channels along with the general ease of finding more examples of failures in the Internet have made us realize that building failures in the broad sense are much more common than we may have realized.Relatively recent events leading to building failures such as the Christchurch, New Zealand earthquakes, the roof/parking deck of the Algo Centre mall in the northern Ontario, Canada city of Elliot Lake and the Indiana State Fairground stage collapse in the US are just a few reminders that much more work needs to be done on a variety of fronts to prevent building failures from a life safety standpoint. The need is compounded by economic concerns from what would be considered more mundane or common failures. Inspections by the author after Hurricane Katrina revealed a huge number of failures associated rain water alone as roofs, windows, flashing, mechanical penetrations etc. failed leading to interior water penetration often resulting in more damage from damp conditions and mold propagation than outright structural collapses.

  13. Diagnostic Profiles of Patients Differentially Failing Executive Functioning Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammers, Dustin; Ramirez, Gabriela; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Limited research exists to explain differential executive functioning impairment in clinical populations, particularly between the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) and the Trail Making Test (TMT). The distribution of clinical diagnoses was examined in patients failing none, one, or both tasks, and executive task performance was compared among dementia-related diagnoses. Two hundred and sixty-six participants received evaluations through an Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, which included executive tasks. Dementia-related diagnoses were established through consensus. Chi-square analyses indicated that TMT failure, with or without WCST failure, possessed higher associations with dementia diagnoses. Repeated measures analysis of variance similarly indicated that participants with dementia, especially mild and moderate severity, performed worse on TMT. Executive dysfunction was observed in dementia-related diagnoses, and TMT failure was implicated in dementia in higher proportions than WCST impairment. Trail Making Test appears more sensitive than WCST for assessing executive impairment across diagnoses, especially when time and resources are limited in screening and clinical settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. FGF23 fails to inhibit uremic parathyroid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalejo, Rocío; Canalejo, Antonio; Martinez-Moreno, Julio Manuel; Rodriguez-Ortiz, M Encarnacion; Estepa, Jose C; Mendoza, Francisco Javier; Munoz-Castaneda, Juan Rafael; Shalhoub, Victoria; Almaden, Yolanda; Rodriguez, Mariano

    2010-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) modulates mineral metabolism by promoting phosphaturia and decreasing the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3). FGF23 decreases parathyroid hormone (PTH) mRNA and secretion, but despite a marked elevation in FGF23 in uremia, PTH production increases. Here, we investigated the effect of FGF23 on parathyroid function in normal and uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands in rats. In normal parathyroid glands, FGF23 decreased PTH production, increased expression of both the parathyroid calcium-sensing receptor and the vitamin D receptor, and reduced cell proliferation. Furthermore, FGF23 induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, which mediates the action of FGF23. In contrast, in hyperplastic parathyroid glands, FGF23 did not reduce PTH production, did not affect expression of the calcium-sensing receptor or vitamin D receptor, and did not affect cell proliferation. In addition, FGF23 failed to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in hyperplastic parathyroid glands. We observed very low expression of the FGF23 receptor 1 and the co-receptor Klotho in uremic hyperplastic parathyroid glands, which may explain the lack of response to FGF23 in this tissue. In conclusion, in hyperparathyroidism secondary to renal failure, the parathyroid cells resist the inhibitory effects of FGF23, perhaps as a result of the low expression of FGF23 receptor 1 and Klotho in this condition.

  15. Fetoplacental cytogenetic discrepancy in a pregnancy with fetal mosaic tetrasomy 12p and Pallister–Killian syndrome detected by amniocentesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ping Chen

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Pregnancy with fetal PKS and mosaic tetrasomy 12p may present fetoplacental cytogenetic discrepancy. Therefore, genetic analysis on placenta alone may fail to detect fetal mosaic tetrasomy 12p associated with PKS.

  16. Modified Mathieu repair for failed surgery for hypospadias ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty patients presented with complete dehiscence after previous hypospadias repair, while a coronal fistula was present in 18. The meatal position was coronal in 22 patients and anterior penile in 16. Twenty-six patients underwent a single operation and 12 underwent multiple operations. The urethral plate was supple ...

  17. Experience with failed or damaged spent fuel and its impacts on handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1989-12-01

    Spent fuel management planning needs to include consideration of failed or damaged spent light-water reactor (LWR) fuel. Described in this paper, which was prepared under the Commercial Spent Fuel Management (CSFM) Program that is sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), are the following: the importance of fuel integrity and the behavior of failed fuel, the quantity and burnup of failed or damaged fuel in storage, types of defects, difficulties in evaluating data on failed or damaged fuel, experience with wet storage, experience with dry storage, handling of failed or damaged fuel, transporting of fuel, experience with higher burnup fuel, and conclusions. 15 refs

  18. Measuring mental disorders: The failed commensuration project of DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whooley, Owen

    2016-10-01

    Commensuration - the comparison of entities according to a common quantitative metric - is a key process in efforts to rationalize medicine. The push toward evidence-based medicine and quantitative assessment has led to the proliferation of metrics in healthcare. While social scientific attention has revealed the effects of these metrics once institutionalized - on clinical practice, on medical expertise, on outcome assessment, on valuations of medical services, and on experiences of illness - less attention has been paid to the process of developing metrics. This article examines the attempt to create severity scales during the revision to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as a case of failed commensuration. Using data from interviews with participants in the DSM-5 revision (n = 30), I reconstruct the problems that emerged in the DSM-5 Task Force's effort to develop viable psychometric instruments to measure severity. Framed as a part of a "paradigm shift" in psychiatry, the revision produced ad hoc, heterogeneous severity scales with divergent logics. I focus on two significant issues of metric construction in this case - diagnostic validity and clinical utility. Typically perceived as technical and conceptual challenges of design, I show how these issues were infused with, and undermined by, professional political dynamics, specifically tensions between medical researchers and clinicians. This case reveals that, despite its association with objectivity and transparency, commensuration encompasses more than identifying, operationalizing, and measuring an entity; it demands the negotiation of extra-scientific, non-empirical concerns that get written into medical metrics themselves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Baseline series fragrance markers fail to predict contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Jack; McFadden, John P; White, Jonathan M L; White, Ian R; Banerjee, Piu

    2014-05-01

    Negative patch test results with fragrance allergy markers in the European baseline series do not always predict a negative reaction to individual fragrance substances. To determine the frequencies of positive test reactions to the 26 fragrance substances for which labelling is mandatory in the EU, and how effectively reactions to fragrance markers in the baseline series predict positive reactions to the fragrance substances that are labelled. The records of 1951 eczema patients, routinely tested with the labelled fragrance substances and with an extended European baseline series in 2011 and 2012, were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and eighty-one (14.4%) (71.2% females) reacted to one or more allergens from the labelled-fragrance substance series and/or a fragrance marker from the European baseline series. The allergens that were positive with the greatest frequencies were cinnamyl alcohol (48; 2.46%), Evernia furfuracea (44; 2.26%), and isoeugenol (40; 2.05%). Of the 203 patients who reacted to any of the 26 fragrances in the labelled-fragrance substance series, only 117 (57.6%) also reacted to a fragrance marker in the baseline series. One hundred and seven (52.7%) reacted to either fragrance mix I or fragrance mix II, 28 (13.8%) reacted to Myroxylon pereirae, and 13 (6.4%) reacted to hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde. These findings confirm that the standard fragrance markers fail to identify patients with contact allergies to the 26 fragrances. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Heart failure: when form fails to follow function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Arnold M; Rolett, Ellis L

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac performance is normally determined by architectural, cellular, and molecular structures that determine the heart's form, and by physiological and biochemical mechanisms that regulate the function of these structures. Impaired adaptation of form to function in failing hearts contributes to two syndromes initially called systolic heart failure (SHF) and diastolic heart failure (DHF). In SHF, characterized by high end-diastolic volume (EDV), the left ventricle (LV) cannot eject a normal stroke volume (SV); in DHF, with normal or low EDV, the LV cannot accept a normal venous return. These syndromes are now generally defined in terms of ejection fraction (EF): SHF became 'heart failure with reduced ejection fraction' (HFrEF) while DHF became 'heart failure with normal or preserved ejection fraction' (HFnEF or HFpEF). However, EF is a chimeric index because it is the ratio between SV--which measures function, and EDV--which measures form. In SHF the LV dilates when sarcomere addition in series increases cardiac myocyte length, whereas sarcomere addition in parallel can cause concentric hypertrophy in DHF by increasing myocyte thickness. Although dilatation in SHF allows the LV to accept a greater venous return, it increases the energy cost of ejection and initiates a vicious cycle that contributes to progressive dilatation. In contrast, concentric hypertrophy in DHF facilitates ejection but impairs filling and can cause heart muscle to deteriorate. Differences in the molecular signals that initiate dilatation and concentric hypertrophy can explain why many drugs that improve prognosis in SHF have little if any benefit in DHF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Obstetric Outcomes After Failed Hysteroscopic and Laparoscopic Sterilization Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandi, Kristyn; Morgan, Jake R; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Perkins, Rebecca B; White, Katharine OʼConnell

    2018-02-01

    To compare obstetric outcomes after failed hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization. This retrospective cohort study examined pregnancy outcomes including live birth, preterm birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, therapeutic abortion, ectopic pregnancies, and gestational trophoblastic disease using a commercial claims administrative database for the years 2007-2013. We used a Z-test to compare pregnancy outcomes per 100 person-years based on type of sterilization. Cox proportional hazard models controlled for patient age, geographic region, urbanicity, comorbidities, and insurance type. We evaluated 997 pregnancy outcomes among 817 women from a total of 70,115 women with a history of either hysteroscopic sterilization (n=387 pregnancies/27,724 cases) or laparoscopic sterilization (n=610 pregnancies/42,391 cases). Women undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were slightly older than, but otherwise similar to, women undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. The most common outcome was live birth, which was more likely after hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60). The rate of spontaneous abortion was not statistically significantly different between the two groups. Therapeutic abortion occurred more often after hysteroscopic sterilization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-2.01), whereas ectopic pregnancies occurred less often (adjusted hazard ratio 0.12, 95% CI 0.05-0.29) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Hysteroscopic sterilization is associated with higher rates of live birth and lower rates of ectopic pregnancy compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Spontaneous abortion and preterm birth rates were similar in both groups. These data do not support an adverse effect of hysteroscopic sterilization on subsequent pregnancy outcomes.

  2. Failed surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism - what has changed with time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirowski, D; Goretzki, P E; Schwarz, K; Lammers, B J; Dotzenrath, C; Röher, H-D

    2013-06-01

    Advanced preoperative imaging of parathyroid adenomas and intraoperative parathyroid hormone determination optimized the results in the surgical treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism patients. We asked, whether reasons for failure have changed during the last 25 years.We retrospectively analyzed operations for persistent primary hyperparathyroidism in our department between 2001 and 2011 (n=67), and compared these results to our experience between 1986 and 2001 (n=80).From 2001 to 2011, 765 primary hyperparathyroidism patients were operated on at our department. All but 4 patients were cured (761/765, 99.5%). 67 operations were performed for persistent primary hyperparathyroidism. Main reasons for failure were a misdiagnosed sporadic multiple gland disease in our own patients (18/29, 62.1%), and an undetected solitary adenoma in patients referred to us after -initial operation in another hospital (22/38, 57.9%) (statistically significant). From 1986 to 2001 (1 105 primary hyperparathyroidism patients), main indications for re-operation due to persistent disease were an undiagnosed sporadic multiple gland disease in our own patients (15/24, 62.5%), and a missed solitary adenoma in patients being operated on primarily somewhere else (38/56, 67.9%) (statistically significant).Comparing our experience in 147 patients with persistent primary hyperparathyroidism being operated on between 2001-2011 and 1986-2001, not much has changed with the modern armamentarium of improved preoperative imaging or intraoperative biochemical control. Whereas sporadic multiple gland disease was the most common reason for unsuccessful surgery in experienced hands, other units mainly failed due to an undetected solitary adenoma. Re-operations for persistent primary hyperparathyroidism performed by us were successful in 93.8% (2001-2011) and 96.0% (1986-2001), respectively. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Examination of a failed reactor coolant pump rotating assembly from Crystal River Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayner, G.O.; Lubnow, T.; Clary, M.

    1990-01-01

    On January 18, 1989, the A reactor coolant pump rotating assembly at the Crystal River Unit 3 Nuclear Power Plant failed during operation. A rotating assembly from this pump had previously failed in 1986. The reactor coolant pump was fabricated by Byron Jackson Pump Division of Borg-Warner Ind. Products, Inc. from UNS S66286 superalloy (Alloy A286). A root cause failure analysis examination was performed on the pump shaft and other components. The failure analysis included shaft vibrational mode and stress analyses, pump clearance and alignment analyses, and detailed destructive examination of the shaft and hydrostatic bearing assemblies. Based on the detailed physical examination of the shaft it was concluded that cracks initiated in the pump shaft at two sites approximately 180 0 apart in a band of shallow, thermally induced fatigue cracks. The cracks initiated at the bottom edge of the motor end shrink fit pad under the shrink fit sleeve supporting the hydrostatic bearing journal. The band of thermally induced fatigue cracks was apparently caused by mixing of cold seal injection water and hot reactor coolant in gaps between the pump shaft and sleeve. The motor end shrink fit was apparently not effective in preventing introduction of the seal injection water to this area. Initial crack propagation occurred by fatigue due to lateral vibration; however, the majority of crack propagation occurred by abnormal torsional fatigue loading induced by contact and sticking between the rotating and stationary portions of the hydrostatic bearing. Final fracture of the shaft occurred by torsional overload. Metallurgical characteristics and mechanical properties of the shaft were within design specification and probably did not significantly influence the cracking process

  4. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  5. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  6. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  7. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  8. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  9. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  10. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  11. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  12. Mexico: a regional power or a failed State?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Derwich

    2015-10-01

    Caribbean region for many years. This opinion has strong foundations. Territory, geographical location, economy, and political influence are the key factors that predestine this country to the role of a regional power. The democratic transition that has taken place in Mexico in last decades and economic cooperation with the United States also allow it to play a role of regional leader. However, Mexico has significant problems that make it difficult for the country to play the role of a real leader. The most important one is the development of narcobusiness. This phenomenon brings not only the growing activity of drug cartels but also the eruption of narcoviolence in Mexico. This gives rise to grave problems for the Mexican authorities. The development of narcobusiness is partially the result of weakness of some of its institutions. For example, police forces do not carry out their tasks and are closely related to the drug cartels. As a result, the Mexican state is incapable of assuring security to its citizens – one of the most important functions of every state. Is it able to control its territory? It definitely does not have a monopoly for the use of violence on its territory. Huge corruption enables different non-state actors to influence decision making processes. All these problems make substantiated theses that the Mexican state is dysfunctional in some areas. Some analysts go much further in their opinions and describe Mexico as a failed state. The aim of the paper is to analyze the present position of Mexico in Latin America and the Caribbean region. Are the contemporary problems so big that they can lead to the collapse of the Mexican state or does Mexico have a real potential to play the role of a local leader and regional power? The author would like to analyze the impact of the present day internal problems in Mexico’s geopolitical position.

  13. Preliminary findings of a previously unrecognized porcine primary immunodeficiency disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozuna, A G Cino; Rowland, R R R; Nietfeld, J C; Kerrigan, M A; Dekkers, J C M; Wyatt, C R

    2013-01-01

    Weaned pigs from a line bred for increased feed efficiency were enrolled in a study of the role of host genes in the response to infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV). Four of the pigs were euthanatized early in the study due to weight loss with illness and poor body condition; 2 pigs before PRRSV infection and the other 2 pigs approximately 2 weeks after virus inoculation. The 2 inoculated pigs failed to produce PRRSV-specific antibodies. Gross findings included pneumonia, absence of a detectable thymus, and small secondary lymphoid tissues. Histologically, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches were sparsely cellular with decreased to absent T and B lymphocytes.

  14. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  15. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  16. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  17. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  18. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  19. VAGINAL BIRTH AFTER A PREVIOUS CAESAREAN SECTION: CURRENT TRENDS AND OUTLOOK IN GHANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffah, J D; Adu-Bonsaffoh, K

    2014-01-01

    an inverse trend between the annual caesarean sections rates and the proportion of women with one previous CS scheduled for TOLAC. There was a statistically significant difference between women who had successful or failed VBAC regarding maternal age, parity, number of ANC visits, gestational age at delivery, birth weight, Apgar score at 1 min and Apgar score at 5 min. Birth weights of less than 1.5kg, and 3.5Kg or greater were associated significantly with higher incidence failed TOLAC and emergency repeat CS. However, birth weights ranging from 2.0 to 3.49kg were associated with significantly lower incidence of failed TOLAC and emergency repeat CS. Birth weight of 2.5-2.99kg was associated with the lowest incidence of failed TOLAC and repeat CS. . There is a significantly high vaginal birth after caesarian section (VBAC) success rate among carefully selected women undergoing trial of scar in Ghana although a decreasing trend towards trial of labor after caesarian section (TOLAC) and a rising CS rate were determined. TOLAC remains a viable option for child birth in low resource settings like West Africa even though there are specific clinical and management related challenges to overcome. Adequate patient education and counselling in addition to appropriate patient selection for TOLAC remains the cornerstone to achieving high VBAC success rate with minimal adverse outcomes in such settings.

  20. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  1. In-core sipping method for the identification of failed fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhongwang; Zhang Yajun

    2000-01-01

    The failed fuel assembly identification system is an important safety system which ensures safe operations of reactor and immediate treatment of failed fuel rod cladding. The system uses an internationally recognized method to identify failed fuel assemblies in a reactor with fuel element cases. The in-core sipping method is customary used to identify failed fuel assemblies during refueling or after fuel rod cladding failure accidents. The test is usually performed after reactor shutdown by taking samples from each fuel element case while the cases are still in their original core positions. The sample activity is then measured to identify failed fuel assemblies. A failed fuel assembly identification system was designed for the NHR-200 based on the properties of the NHR-200 and national requirements. the design provides an internationally recognized level of safety to ensure the safety of NHR-200

  2. High-Dose Misoprostol as An Alternative Therapy After Failed Medical Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yiu-Tai; Hou, Guang-Qiong; Chen, Tien-Hui; Chu, Yi-Chih; Lin, Ta-Chin; Kuan, Long-Ching; Lin, Mau; Huang, Shu-Feng; Chen, Fu-Min; Kuo, Tsung-Cheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the complete abortion rate for the vaginal administration of high-dose misoprostol after a failed medical abortion. Materials and Methods: When their medical abortions failed after the conventional oral administration of mifepristone and misoprostol, participants then received 1,000 μg of misoprostol vaginally. The efficacy and side effects of this treatment were evaluated. Results: Twenty-seven women who failed to abort after the conven...

  3. Insights into failed lexical retrieval from network science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Chan, Kit Ying; Goldstein, Rutherford

    2014-02-01

    Previous network analyses of the phonological lexicon (Vitevitch, 2008) observed a web-like structure that exhibited assortative mixing by degree: words with dense phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have dense phonological neighborhoods, and words with sparse phonological neighborhoods tend to have as neighbors words that also have sparse phonological neighborhoods. Given the role that assortative mixing by degree plays in network resilience, we examined instances of real and simulated lexical retrieval failures in computer simulations, analysis of a slips-of-the-ear corpus, and three psycholinguistic experiments for evidence of this network characteristic in human behavior. The results of the various analyses support the hypothesis that the structure of words in the mental lexicon influences lexical processing. The implications of network science for current models of spoken word recognition, language processing, and cognitive psychology more generally are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  5. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  6. CT findings in ten patients with failed renal allografts: comparison with findings in functional grafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayer, Gabriela; Apter, Sara; Katz, Rama; Ben-David, Aharon; Katzir, Ze'ev; Hertz, Marjorie

    2000-01-01

    Our aim is to report the computed tomography (CT) features of the long-term failed renal allograft. Ten patients with failed renal transplants in whom the graft was left in situ underwent CT for various unrelated indications. The majority of the failed grafts showed marked shrinkage and coarse punctate diffuse parenchymal calcifications. Small cysts were seen in four grafts. A long-term failed renal transplant appeared on CT as a small rounded soft tissue mass. The graft was almost always heavily calcified. Lack of awareness of the nature of such a mass may mislead the radiologist in interpreting it as a space-occupying lesion

  7. Feasibility of a tubularised incised-plate urethroplasty with double de-epithelised dartos flaps in a failed hypospadias repair: A preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Yildiz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reoperation for failed hypospadias has been considered to be seriously problematic. The dense fibrotic tissue causes difficulties in wound healing and increases the rate of complications. The tubularised incised-plate urethroplasty (TIPU method has become a preferred method for all varieties of hypospadias in the past decade. However, fistulas are still one of the most common complications of this technique. The aim of this paper was to present the preliminary results of TIPU procedure with double de-epithelised dartos flaps in failed hypospadias repair. Materials and Methods: All patients were treated between January 2009 and August 2010 by the same procedure, utilising TIPU with double de-epithelised dartos flaps. Vascularised ventral dartos flaps harvested from each side of the penis with their vascular supply were transposed to cover the suture line by wrapping them from either side of the penis. Results: There were 21 boys with failed hypospadias: 20 had previously undergone TIPU, and one Koyanagi repair. Patients presented with very large fistulas in four and dehiscence in 17. Repair of the failed hypospadias using TIPU with double de-epithelised dartos flaps was quite successful, with no fistula recurrence or dehiscence observed. Conclusion: The preliminary results showed that TIPU with double de-epithelised dartos flaps is a useful method of successfully repairing failed hypospadias.

  8. FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate intermediate filament protein vimentin during myogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipinski M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is an autosomal dominant hereditary neuromuscular disorder. The clinical features of FSHD include weakness of the facial and shoulder girdle muscles followed by wasting of skeletal muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower extremities. Although FSHD myoblasts grown in vitro can be induced to differentiate into myotubes by serum starvation, the resulting FSHD myotubes have been shown previously to be morphologically abnormal. Aim. In order to find the cause of morphological anomalies of FSHD myotubes we compared in vitro myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts at the protein level. Methods. We induced myogenic differentiation of normal and FSHD myoblasts by serum starvation. We then compared protein extracts from proliferating myoblasts and differentiated myotubes using SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identification of differentially expressed proteins. Results. We demonstrated that the expression of vimentin was elevated at the protein and mRNA levels in FSHD myotubes as compared to normal myotubes. Conclusions. We demonstrate for the first time that in contrast to normal myoblasts, FSHD myoblasts fail to downregulate vimentin after induction of in vitro myogenic differentiation. We suggest that vimentin could be an easily detectable marker of FSHD myotubes

  9. Active Fail-Safe Micro-Array Flow Control for Advanced Embedded Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Mace, James L.; Mani, Mori

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this research effort was to develop and analytically demonstrate enhanced first generation active "fail-safe" hybrid flow-control techniques to simultaneously manage the boundary layer on the vehicle fore-body and to control the secondary flow generated within modern serpentine or embedded inlet S-duct configurations. The enhanced first-generation technique focused on both micro-vanes and micro-ramps highly-integrated with micro -jets to provide nonlinear augmentation for the "strength' or effectiveness of highly-integrated flow control systems. The study focused on the micro -jet mass flow ratio (Wjet/Waip) range from 0.10 to 0.30 percent and jet total pressure ratios (Pjet/Po) from 1.0 to 3.0. The engine bleed airflow range under study represents about a 10 fold decrease in micro -jet airflow than previously required. Therefore, by pre-conditioning, or injecting a very small amount of high-pressure jet flow into the vortex generated by the micro-vane and/or micro-ramp, active flow control is achieved and substantial augmentation of the controlling flow is realized.

  10. Experimental immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice: cyclosporin A fails to protect against AA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knospe, W.H.; Steinberg, D.; Gratwohl, A.; Speck, B.

    1984-01-01

    Immunologically mediated aplastic anemia (AA) in mice was induced by the i.v. injection of 10(7) lymph node cells (LNC) from H-2k identical but Mls mismatched CBA/J donor mice into previously irradiated (600 rad total body gamma) C3H/HeJ mice. Cyclosporin A (CsA), 25 mg/kg, was administered subcutaneously from day -1 to day 30. Control mice included C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad alone, C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad plus CsA as above, and C3H/HeJ mice which received 600 rad total body irradiation followed by 10(7) LNC from CBA/J donors. CsA failed to prevent lethal AA. These results suggest that the pathogenetic mechanisms operating in immunologically mediated AA differ from the mechanisms operating in rodents transplanted with allogeneically mismatched marrow or spleen cells which develop graft-versus-host disease. The results are consistent with a non-T cell-dependent mechanism causing the AA

  11. Fission-product-release signatures for LWR fuel rods failed during PCM and RIA transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osetek, D.J.; King, J.J.; Croucher, D.W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses fission product release from light-water-reactor-type fuel rods to the coolant loop during design basis accident tests. One of the tests was a power-cooling-mismatch test in which a single fuel rod was operated in film boiling beyond failure. Other tests discussed include reactivity initiated accident (RIA) tests, in which the fuel rods failed as a result of power bursts that produced radial-average peak fuel enthalpies ranging from 250 to 350 cal/g. One of the RIA tests used two previously irradiated fuel rods. On-line gamma spectroscopic measurements of short-lived fission products, and important aspects of fission product behavior observed during the tests, are discussed. Time-dependent release fractions for short-lived fission products are compared with release fractions suggested by: the Reactor Safety Study; NRC Regulatory Guides; and measurements from the Three Mile Island accident. Iodine behavior observed during the tests is discussed, and fuel powdering is identified as a source of particulate fission product activity, the latter of which is neglected for most accident analyses

  12. Role of laparohysteroscopy in women with normal pelvic imaging and failed ovulation stimulation with intrauterine insemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Jayakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Women with primary infertility and no obvious pelvic pathology on clinical evaluation and imaging are either treated empirically or further investigated by laparoscopy. Aims: The role of diagnostic laparoscopy in women who fail to conceive after empirical treatment with ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination was evaluated. Settings and Design: Retrospective study at a private infertility center. Materials and Methods: A study of patients who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy between 1 st January 2001 and 31 st December 2008 was performed. Those patients who had no detectable pathology based on history, physical examination, and ultrasound and had treatment for three or more cycles in the form of ovulation induction and IUI were included in the study. Moderate and severe male factor infertility and history of any previous surgery were exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were statistically analyzed using Statistics Package for Social Sciences (ver. 16.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago. Results: Of the 127 women who underwent diagnostic laparoscopy and hysteroscopy, 87.4% ( n= 111 of patients had positive findings. Significant pelvic pathology (moderate endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and tubal pathology was seen in 26.8% of cases. Conclusion: One in four women had significant pelvic pathology where treatment could possibly improve future fertility. Diagnostic laparoscopy has a role in infertile women with no obvious abnormality before they proceed to more aggressive treatments.

  13. Chickadees fail standardized operant tests for octave equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeschele, Marisa; Weisman, Ronald G; Guillette, Lauren M; Hahn, Allison H; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2013-07-01

    Octave equivalence occurs when an observer judges notes separated by a doubling in frequency perceptually similar. The octave appears to form the basis of pitch change in all human cultures and thus may be of biological origin. Previously, we developed a nonverbal operant conditioning test of octave generalization and transfer in humans. The results of this testing showed that humans with and without musical training perceive the octave relationship between pitches. Our goal in the current study was to determine whether black-capped chickadees, a North American songbird, perceive octave equivalence. We chose these chickadees because of their reliance on pitch in assessing conspecific vocalizations, our strong background knowledge on their pitch height perception (log-linear perception of frequency), and the phylogenetic disparity between them and humans. Compared to humans, songbirds are highly skilled at using pitch height perception to classify pitches into ranges, independent of the octave. Our results suggest that chickadees used that skill, rather than octave equivalence, to transfer the note-range discrimination from one octave to the next. In contrast, there is evidence that at least some mammals, including humans, do perceive octave equivalence.

  14. Social Misdirection Fails to Enhance a Magic Illusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jie; Otero-Millan, Jorge; Macknik, Stephen L.; King, Mac; Martinez-Conde, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Visual, multisensory and cognitive illusions in magic performances provide new windows into the psychological and neural principles of perception, attention, and cognition. We investigated a magic effect consisting of a coin “vanish” (i.e., the perceptual disappearance of a coin after a simulated toss from hand to hand). Previous research has shown that magicians can use joint attention cues such as their own gaze direction to strengthen the observers’ perception of magic. Here we presented naïve observers with videos including real and simulated coin tosses to determine if joint attention might enhance the illusory perception of simulated coin tosses. The observers’ eye positions were measured, and their perceptual responses simultaneously recorded via button press. To control for the magician’s use of joint attention cues, we occluded his head in half of the trials. We found that subjects did not direct their gaze at the magician’s face at the time of the coin toss, whether the face was visible or occluded, and that the presence of the magician’s face did not enhance the illusion. Thus, our results show that joint attention is not necessary for the perception of this effect. We conclude that social misdirection is redundant and possibly detracting to this very robust sleight-of-hand illusion. We further determined that subjects required multiple trials to effectively distinguish real from simulated tosses; thus the illusion was resilient to repeated viewing. PMID:22046155

  15. Left ventricular assist device effects on metabolic substrates in the failing heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay B Weitzel

    Full Text Available Heart failure patients have inadequate nutritional intake and alterations in metabolism contributing to an overall energy depleted state. Left ventricular assist device (LVAD support is a common and successful intervention in patients with end-stage heart failure. LVAD support leads to alterations in cardiac output, functional status, neurohormonal activity and transcriptional profiles but the effects of LVADs on myocardial metabolism are unknown. This study set out to measure cardiac metabolites in non-failing hearts, failing hearts, and hearts post-LVAD support.The study population consisted of 8 non-ischemic failing (at LVAD implant and 8 post-LVAD hearts, plus 8 non-failing hearts obtained from the tissue bank at the University of Colorado. NMR spectroscopy was utilized to evaluate differences in myocardial energy substrates. Paired and non-paired t-tests were used to determine differences between the appropriate groups.Glucose and lactate values both decreased from non-failing to failing hearts and increased again significantly in the (paired post-LVAD hearts. Glutamine, alanine, and aromatic amino acids decreased from non-failing to failing hearts and did not change significantly post-LVAD. Total creatine and succinate decreased from non-failing to failing hearts and did not change significantly post-LVAD.Measured metabolites related to glucose metabolism are diminished in failing hearts, but recovered their values post-LVAD. This differed from the amino acid levels, which decreased in heart failure but did not recover following LVAD. Creatine and the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate followed a similar pattern as the amino acid levels.

  16. Disks around Failed Stars - a Question of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    First Ground-Based Mid-Infrared Observations of Brown Dwarfs [1] Summary A team of European astronomers [2] have observed eight Brown Dwarfs, i.e., small and faint objects also known as "failed stars", with the TIMMI2 infrared sensitive instrument at the ESO 3.6-m telescope on La Silla. From two of these, mid-infrared radiation is detected - for the first time ever from such objects with a ground-based telescope . While the younger Brown Dwarf, aged a few million years, is found to be surrounded by a dusty disk, no warm dust is present around the older ones. The new observations support the following formation hypothesis for Brown Dwarfs: they are born in the same way as "real" stars, by contraction in interstellar clouds of gas and dust . During the later stages of this process, the infalling material is transferred onto the star via a gas and dust disk . This disk - in which planets may possibly form - then disperses with time. PR Photo 17a/02 : Image of Brown Dwarf LP 944-20 PR Photo 17b/02 : Models of the disk around Brown Dwarf Cha HA 2 Brown Dwarfs are faint and cool objects Astronomical objects known as "Brown Dwarfs" are "failed stars" . Their comparatively small mass, less than about 7% of that of our Sun (or about 75 times the mass of planet Jupiter), is too small to achieve sufficiently high pressure and temperature at their centre to ignite energy-producing nuclear processes. Some astronomers also refer to Brown Dwarfs as a "missing link" between planets and stars, being neither one nor the other, yet with similarities to both. They do not burn hydrogen to helium as "real" stars do, but continue to emit faint light as they slowly contract and cool during millions of years. They end their inglorious life with a whimper and finally fade into eternal insignificance. Although Brown Dwarfs were theoretically predicted already in 1963, astronomers had to wait until 1995 for the first one to be discovered. This was mainly due to their extreme faintness as

  17. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  18. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  19. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  20. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  1. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  2. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  3. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  4. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  5. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  6. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  7. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  8. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  9. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  11. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  12. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  13. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  14. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  15. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  16. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  17. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  18. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  19. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  20. Methodology of failed section location in case of leaks in PGN-200M sectional steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, A.A.; Govorov, P.P.; Nosov, Yu.V.; Karavaev, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    The article considers a way of the failed section location when indications of water-sodium reaction emerge in PGN-200M sectional steam generator of the BN-600 power unit. The selection of diagnostic parameters used to locate the failed section is justified. Various alternative locations of leaks have been simulated [ru

  1. Somalia: An Anti-Thesis of the Western Conception of Failed States ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews the concept of failed states and its supposed results of anarchy, conflict and safe-haven for terrorists. Using the US policy towards Somalia as a case study, it points out the flaws in the concept of “Failed States” and argues that these flaws when not fully dealt with, may affect any meaningful global effort to ...

  2. The Role of Tertiary Education in Fixing Failed States: Globalization and Public Goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The plight of nations labeled as "failed" is well-documented, as are suggested strategies to fix them. One area that receives a great deal of focus in the extant literature is education. How can education contribute to the rebuilding of a failed State? Most often the responses to this question focus on the importance of reestablishing primary and…

  3. 45 CFR 261.50 - What happens if a State fails to meet the participation rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Requirements? § 261.50 What happens if a State fails to meet the participation rates? (a) If we determine that... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if a State fails to meet the participation rates? 261.50 Section 261.50 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF...

  4. Failure to Fail in a Final Pre-Service Teaching Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danyluk, Patricia J.; Luhanga, Florence; Gwekwerere, Yovita N.; MacEwan, Leigh; Larocque, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a Canadian perspective on the issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs. The issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs is one that had not been explored in any great detail. What literature does exist focuses on the strain that a teacher experiences when s/he mentors a student teacher…

  5. Understanding "Failed" Markets: Conflicting Logics and Dissonance in Attempts to Price the Priceless Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, P.A.M.; Ansari, S.; Lounsbury, M.; Gehman, J.; Lounsbury, M.; Greenwood, R.

    2017-01-01

    While scholars have developed increasingly well-developed accounts of institutional change, little attention has been paid to how change is resisted and, in particular, how efforts to marketize fail. We draw on the institutional logics perspective to guide analysis of an empirical case of the failed

  6. The Value of Failing in Career Development: A Chaos Theory Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Robert G. L.; Bright, James E. H.

    2012-01-01

    Failing is a neglected topic in career development theory and counselling practice. Most theories see failing as simply the opposite of success and something to be avoided. It is contended that the Chaos Theory of Careers with its emphasis on complexity, uncertainty and consequent human imitations, provides a conceptually coherent account of…

  7. Turning the Question Around: Do Colleges Fail to Meet Students' Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Becker, Kelly Iwanaga; Cepa, Kennan A.; Zapata-Gietl, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Research often focuses on how students fail to meet college expectations, but it rarely asks how colleges fail to meet students' expectations. This study examines students' expectations of college and their institutional confidence--their level of certainty that college will meet their expectations. Drawing on 65 pilot interviews and a survey of…

  8. Contribution of targeted saliva screening for congenital CMV-related hearing loss in newborns who fail hearing screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari-Even Roth, Daphne; Lubin, Daniel; Kuint, Jacob; Teperberg-Oikawa, Michal; Mendelson, Ella; Strauss, Tzipora; Barkai, Galia

    2017-11-01

    We previously reported a 2.2% rate of infants born with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) due to congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection identified by universal neonatal screen for cCMV using saliva. To evaluate the contribution of targeted saliva screening for cCMV to the detection of infants born with cCMV-related SNHL who failed universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS). We retrospectively reviewed the audiological and medical records of infants who failed UNHS and were tested for cCMV using saliva sample prior to discharge at Sheba Medical Center between 2014 and 2015. Positive cases were confirmed by urine sample. Two hundred (1%) of the 19 830 infants tested during the study period failed in-hospital hearing screening. A saliva specimen was obtained prior to discharge in 187 infants (93.5% of those who failed UNHS). In 178 infants saliva testing was performed at ≤21 days of chronological age and yielded results. cCMV infection was identified in 4/178 tested infants (2.25%, 95% CI 0.8% to 5.3%), of whom three were diagnosed with SNHL (1.7%, 95% CI 0.5% to 4.4%) and offered antiviral treatment. Two of the tested infants (1.12%, 95% CI 0.2% to 3.6%) were diagnosed with cCMV solely due to failure in UNHS. Occult central nervous system (CNS) symptoms of cCMV infection were detected in 2/4 infants following targeted investigation. Targeted cCMV screening in newborns who failed UNHS contributed to the early detection of infants born with cCMV-related isolated SNHL or with occult CNS symptoms who could potentially benefit from antiviral treatment. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. The Rockall Trough, NE Atlantic: An Extinct Young Ocean Basin or a Failed Breakup Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alan; Kusznir, Nick; Alvey, Andy

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the crustal structure and composition of the Rockall Trough which is located in the NE Atlantic to the west of Ireland and the UK. The Rockall Trough is a large extensional basin formed in the Early Cretaceous and has dimensions of approximately 250 km in width and 1000 km in length. It is one of several basins formed during the complex Mesozoic northward propagation of rifting, continental breakup and sea-floor spreading initiation of the North Atlantic; other adjacent basins formed at this time include the Porcupine Trough to its east and the East and West Orphan Basins on the Canadian conjugate margin. To investigate the crustal structure of the Rockall Trough we have used three independent analyses of available 2D and 3D data: 1. 3D gravity inversion, using public-domain gravity and sediment-thickness information, has produced maps of (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness (figure 1) and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins. 2. Gravity inversion as above, but using public-domain gravity data combined with new proprietary 2D sediment-thickness information, has produced a series of cross-sections which show (i) depth to Moho, (ii) crustal thickness and (iii) stretching/thinning factor across both margins 3. Geodynamic modelling, comprising 2D flexural backstripping and forward modelling, has been used to produce (i) estimates of stretching/thinning factor, (ii) whole-crustal cross-sections and (iii) predictions of palaeobathymetry through time along a series of project-specific transects. Our analysis of the Rockall Trough shows a rapid shallowing of crustal basement thicknesses on the flanks of the basin with central values of crustal thickness typically 8-10 km consistent with previously published seismic estimates. An important question is whether this thin crust is hyper-extended continental crust or proto-oceanic crust. Locally isolated patches of crustal thicknesses as low as 3km are observed which are consistent with the

  10. Ab Interno Trabeculectomy With the Trabectome as a Valuable Therapeutic Option for Failed Filtering Blebs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wecker, Thomas; Neuburger, Matthias; Bryniok, Laura; Bruder, Kathrin; Luebke, Jan; Anton, Alexandra; Jordan, Jens F

    2016-09-01

    Uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) after glaucoma filtration surgery is a challenging problem in the management of glaucoma patients. The Trabectome is a device for selective electroablation of the trabecular meshwork through a clear cornea incision without affecting the conjunctiva. Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery using the Trabectome is safe and effective as primary glaucoma surgery. Here we investigate the results of ab interno trabeculectomy with the Trabectome for IOP control in patients with a failed filtering bleb. A total of 60 eyes of 60 consecutive patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PXG) were enrolled in this single center observational study. Trabectome surgery was performed alone or in combination with phacoemulsification by 2 experienced surgeons. IOP readings and number of IOP lowering medication as primary outcome parameters were taken by an independent examiner. Intraoperative and postoperative medication were recorded systematically. Mean IOP before surgery was 24.5±3.5 mm Hg and decreased to 15.7±3.4 (-36%) after mean follow-up of 415 days. The number of necessary IOP lowering medication dropped from 2.1±1.3 to 1.8±1.2 (14% reduction from baseline). A total of 25% (n=15) of cases reported here needed additional surgery after 517 days (range: 6 to 1563 d). No major complications were observed. After mean follow-up, we found a qualified success rate for PXG of 87% and 50% for POAG as revealed by the Kaplan-Meier analysis according to the definitions for success in advanced glaucoma cases according to the World Glaucoma Association (40% reduction from baseline IOP and maximum IOP of 15 mm Hg). Trabectome surgery for uncontrolled IOP after trabeculectomy is safe and effective especially in PXG patients. Given the demanding subgroup of patients studied here, it is not surprising that success rates are lower compared with previous studies investigating the Trabectome for primary glaucoma surgery

  11. Clinical predictors of failing one dose of methotrexate for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Paula C; Missmer, Stacey A; Farland, Leslie V; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical predictors of failure of a single dose of methotrexate (MTX) for management of ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization (IVF). A retrospective cohort study was performed of women who conceived ectopic pregnancies following fresh or frozen IVF cycles at an academic infertility clinic between 2007 and 2014, and received intramuscular MTX (50 mg/m 2 ). Successful single-dose MTX treatment was defined as a serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) decline ≥15% between days 4 and 7 post-treatment. Logistic regression models adjusted for oocyte age, number of embryos transferred, and prior ectopic pregnancy were used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of failing one dose of MTX. Sixty-four patients with ectopic pregnancies after IVF were included. Forty required only one dose of MTX (62.5%), while 15 required additional MTX alone (up to four total doses, 23.4%), and 9 required surgery (14.1%). By multivariable logistic regression, the highest tertiles of serum hCG at peak (≥499 IU/L, OR = 9.73, CI 1.88-50.25) and at first MTX administration (≥342 IU/L, OR = 4.74, CI 1.11-20.26), fewer embryos transferred (OR = 0.37 per each additional embryo transferred, CI 0.19-0.74), and adnexal mass by ultrasound (OR = 3.65, CI 1.10-12.11) were each correlated with greater odds of requiring additional MTX and/or surgery. This is the first study to report that in women with ectopic pregnancies after IVF, higher hCG-though well below treatment failure thresholds previously described in spontaneous pregnancies-fewer embryos transferred, and adnexal masses are associated with greater odds of failing one dose of MTX. These findings can be used to counsel IVF patients regarding the likelihood of success with single-dose MTX.

  12. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  13. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  14. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  15. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  16. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  17. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  18. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  19. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  20. Genomic reconstruction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism reveals previously uncharacterized machinery for lactate utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Collart, Frank R.; Scott, J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2009-02-24

    The ability to utilize lactate as a sole source of carbon and energy is one of the key metabolic signatures of Shewanellae, a diverse group of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria commonly found in aquatic and sedimentary environments. Nonetheless, homology searches failed to recognize orthologs of previously described bacterial D- or L-lactate oxidizing enzymes (Escherichia coli genes dld and lldD) in any of the 13 analyzed genomes of Shewanella spp. Using comparative genomic techniques, we identified a conserved chromosomal gene cluster in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (locus tag: SO1522-SO1518) containing lactate permease and candidate genes for both D- and L-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The predicted D-LDH gene (dldD, SO1521) is a distant homolog of FAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from yeast, whereas the predicted L-LDH is encoded by three genes with previously unknown functions (lldEGF, SO1520-19-18). Through a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we experimentally confirmed the predicted physiological role of these novel genes in S. oneidensis MR-1 and carried out successful functional validation studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We conclusively showed that dldD and lldEFG encode fully functional D-and L-LDH enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of the respective lactate stereoisomers to pyruvate. Notably, the S. oneidensis MR-1 LldEFG enzyme is the first described example of a multi-subunit lactate oxidase. Comparative analysis of >400 bacterial species revealed the presence of LldEFG and Dld in a broad range of diverse species accentuating the potential importance of these previously unknown proteins in microbial metabolism.

  1. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  2. Maternal and perinatal outcomes of delivery after a previous Cesarean section in Enugu, Southeast Nigeria: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O

    2014-01-01

    Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good

  3. Avascular Necrosis of Acetabulum: The Hidden Culprit of Resistant Deep Wound Infection and Failed Fixation of Fracture Acetabulum ? A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    K, Kandhari V; M, Desai M; S, Bava S; N, Wade R

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chances of avascular necrosis of acetabulum are rare as it enjoys a rich blood supply. But cases of post - traumatic avascular necrosis of acetabulum following fracture of posterior column have been well documented. Importance of identifying and suspecting the avascular necrosis of acetabulum is essential in cases of failed fixation of fracture acetabulum, previously operated using extensile approach to acetabulum; either extended anterior ilio - femoral or tri - radiate approac...

  4. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  5. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  6. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  7. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  8. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  9. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  10. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Previously Undescribed Antibacterial Polyketides from Heterotrophic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Associated with Seaweed Padina gymnospora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kajal; Thilakan, Bini; Raola, Vamshi Krishna

    2018-02-01

    A heterotrophic marine bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolated from seaweed Padina gymnospora exhibited broad spectra of antibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The seaweed-associated B. amyloliquefaciens was recognized to possess functional type I polyketide synthase-1 (pks-1) gene, and was used to isolate four homologous compounds with polyketide frameworks. The compounds were characterized as 11-(15-butyl-13-ethyl-tetrahydro-12-oxo-2H-pyran-13-yl) propyl-2-methylbenzoate (1), 9-(tetrahydro-12-isopropyl-11-oxofuran-10-yl)-ethyl-4-ethoxy-2-hydroxybenzoate (2), 12-(aminomethyl)-11-hydroxyhexanyl-10-phenylpropanoate (3), and 7-(14-hydroxypropan-13-yl)-8-isobutyl-7,8-dihydrobenzo[c]oxepin-1(3H)-one (4) by comprehensive nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopic experiments. The compounds 1-4 displayed significant antibacterial activities against clinically important pathogens V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus (inhibitory zone diameter of ≥15 mm, 100 mcg on disk). The electronic and hydrophobic parameters appeared to hold a conspicuous part in directing the antibacterial properties of the compounds. This study revealed seaweed-associated B. amyloliquefaciens as potential source of antimicrobial polyketides for pharmaceutical applications.

  12. 'Pseudofailure' of spinal cord stimulation for neuropathic pain following a new severe noxious stimulus: learning points from a case series of failed spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome and failed back surgery syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muquit, Samiul; Moussa, Ahmad Abdelhai; Basu, Surajit

    2016-05-01

    Failure of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) may be due to hardware problems, migration of electrodes and, in the long-term, plasticity in the spinal cord with habituation to the stimulation current. We describe a series of seven patients who experienced acute therapeutic loss of SCS effects following an acute nociceptive event unrelated to primary pathology. There were no hardware problems. We called this 'Pseudofailure', as the effective stimulation returned in all patients following a period off stimulation or reprogramming. This phenomenon has not been reported previously in the literature. Over a 4-year period, we managed seven patients with this feature: four had received SCS for complex regional pain syndrome and three for failed back surgery syndrome. In all seven cases, there was cessation of the pain relief afforded by SCS following an acute painful event: four patients had trauma, two patients had domestic electric shock and one patient suffered shingles (varicella zoster infection). We excluded hardware-related problems in all cases. In two patients, SCS effects could be regained by an initial attempt at reprogramming. In the remaining five cases reprogramming was unsuccessful, and stimulation was switched off for several months before recommencing, when we discovered a return of good therapeutic effect. We conclude that SCS may seem to fail following a separate strong nociceptive stimulus. Stimulation may be regained with reprogramming or following a period with stimulation switched off. We would, therefore, advise against removal of SCS hardware in the first instance.

  13. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  14. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  15. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  16. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  17. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  18. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Identify too big to fail banks and capital insurance: An equilibrium approach

    OpenAIRE

    Katerina Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is develop a rational expectation equilibrium model of capital insurance to identify too big to fail banks. The main results of this model include (1) too big to fail banks can be identified explicitly by a systemic risk measure, loss betas, of all banks in the entire financial sector; (2) the too big to fail feature can be largely justified by a high level of loss beta; (3) the capital insurance proposal benefits market participants and reduces the systemic risk; ...

  20. Addressing the too big to fail problem with baryon physics and sterile neutrino dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Mark R.; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Bose, Sownak; Boyarsky, Alexey; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2017-07-01

    N-body dark matter simulations of structure formation in the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model predict a population of subhaloes within Galactic haloes that have higher central densities than inferred for the Milky Way satellites, a tension known as the 'too big to fail' problem. Proposed solutions include baryonic effects, a smaller mass for the Milky Way halo and warm dark matter (WDM). We test these possibilities using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation to generate luminosity functions for Milky Way halo-analogue satellite populations, the results of which are then coupled to the Jiang & van den Bosch model of subhalo stripping to predict the subhalo Vmax functions for the 10 brightest satellites. We find that selecting the brightest satellites (as opposed to the most massive) and modelling the expulsion of gas by supernovae at early times increases the likelihood of generating the observed Milky Way satellite Vmax function. The preferred halo mass is 6 × 1011 M⊙, which has a 14 per cent probability to host a Vmax function like that of the Milky Way satellites. We conclude that the Milky Way satellite Vmax function is compatible with a CDM cosmology, as previously found by Sawala et al. using hydrodynamic simulations. Sterile neutrino-WDM models achieve a higher degree of agreement with the observations, with a maximum 50 per cent chance of generating the observed Milky Way satellite Vmax function. However, more work is required to check that the semi-analytic stripping model is calibrated correctly for each sterile neutrino cosmology.

  1. Procalcitonin fails to predict bacteremia in SIRS patients: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, M; Raggam, R B; Wagner, J; Prueller, F; Grisold, A J; Leitner, E; Seeber, K; Prattes, J; Valentin, T; Zollner-Schwetz, I; Schilcher, G; Krause, R

    2014-10-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) has previously been proposed as useful marker to rule out bloodstream-infection (BSI). The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of different PCT cut-offs for prediction of BSI in patients with community (CA)- and hospital-acquired (HA)-BSI. A total of 898 patients fulfilling systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome (SIRS) criteria were enrolled in this prospective cohort study at the Medical University of Graz, Austria. Of those 666 patients had positive blood cultures (282 CA-BSI, 384 HA-BSI, enrolled between January 2011 and December 2012) and 232 negative blood cultures (enrolled between January 2011 and July 2011 at the emergency department). Blood samples for determination of laboratory infection markers (e.g. PCT) were collected simultaneously with blood cultures. Procalcitonin was significantly (p SIRS patients with bacteremia/fungemia than in those without. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.675 for PCT (95% CI 0.636-0.714) for differentiating patients with BSI from those without. AUC for IL-6 was 0.558 (95% CI 0.515-0.600). However, even at the lowest cut-off evaluated (i.e. 0.1 ng/ml) PCT failed to predict BSI in 7% (n = 46) of patients. In the group of patients with SIRS and negative blood culture 79% (n = 185) had PCT levels > 0.1. Procalcitonin was significantly higher in patients with BSI than in those without and superior to IL-6 and CRP. The clinical importance of this is questionable, because a suitable PCT threshold for excluding BSI was not established. An approach where blood cultures are guided by PCT only can therefore not be recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Failed anti-tachycardia pacing can be used to differentiate atrial arrhythmias from ventricular tachycardia in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Kevin A; Enriquez, Andres; Baranchuk, Adrian; Haley, Charlotte; Caldwell, Jane; Simpson, Christopher S; Abdollah, Hoshiar; Redfearn, Damian P

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation/tachycardia (AF/AT) may result in inappropriate therapies in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). The post-pacing interval (PPI) and tachycardia cycle length difference (PPI - TCL) has been previously demonstrated to indicate the proximity of the pacing site to a tachycardia origin. We postulated that the PPI and PPI - TCL would be greater in AT/AF vs. ventricular tachycardia (VT) after episodes of failed anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP). This was a single-centre, retrospective study evaluating consecutive patients implanted with dual (DR)/biventricular (BIV) ICDs. Stored electrograms were used to determine whether the ATP captured the arrhythmia and the arrhythmia did not present with primary or secondary termination. Measurements were done using manual calipers. A total of 155 patients were included. There were 79 BIV and 76 DR devices. In total, 39 episodes were identified in 20 patients over a 23-month follow-up period. A total of 76 sequences of ATP (burst/ramp) were delivered, 28 (37%) of them inappropriate. Fifty-one events (18 AT/AF and 33 VT) were compared. The mean PPI was 693 ± 96 vs. 512 ± 88 ms (P failed ATP differs significantly between AF/AT and VT and are therefore useful indices to discriminate between supraventricular tachycardia and VT in ICDs. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Estrogen supplementation failed to attenuate biochemical indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in rat skeletal muscles following ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiidus, Peter M; Deller, Mirada; Bombardier, Eric; Gül, Mustafa; Liu, X Linda

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effects of estrogen supplementation on markers of neutrophil infiltration and damage in skeletal muscle of rats following ischemia. Male and female gonad-intact rats, with or without 14 days of estrogen supplementation were subjected to two hours of hind-limb ischemia and sacrificed at 24, 48 or 72 hours post-ischemia. Control animals were sacrificed without ischemia. Plantaris and red and white gastrocneimus muscles were removed and assayed for myeloperoxidase (MPO), a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and beta-glucuronidase (betaGLU), as markers of muscle damage. Significant elevations of MPO, G6PD and betaGLU activities were observed at various time points post-ischemia. No systematic differences between genders were noted in any of the measures. Estrogen supplementation in both male and female animals failed to significantly attenuate post-ischemia increases in MPO, G6PD and betaGLU activities in any of the muscles studied and in some cases accentuated activities of some of these measures. Unlike previous findings following exercise in skeletal muscle, this study failed to demonstrate estrogen-induced attenuation of indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in skeletal muscles of rats up to 72 hours following ischemia. This demonstrates that estrogen may not consistently attenuate neutrophil infiltration and that a number of variables including damage modality, tissue or estrogen level may influence this.

  4. Estrogen supplementation failed to attenuate biochemical indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in rat skeletal muscles following ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER M TIIDUS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of estrogen supplementation on markers of neutrophil infiltration and damage in skeletal muscle of rats following ischemia. Male and female gonad-intact rats, with or without 14 days of estrogen supplementation were subjected to two hours of hind-limb ischemia and sacrificed at 24, 48 or 72 hours post-ischemia. Control animals were sacrificed without ischemia. Plantaris and red and white gastrocneimus muscles were removed and assayed for myeloperoxidase (MPO, a marker of neutrophil infiltration, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD and ß-glucuronidase (GLU, as markers of muscle damage. Significant elevations of MPO, G6PD and GLU activities were observed at various time points post-ischemia. No systematic differences between genders were noted in any of the measures. Estrogen supplementation in both male and female animals failed to significantly attenuate post-ischemia increases in MPO, G6PD and GLU activities in any of the muscles studied and in some cases accentuated activities of some of these measures. Unlike previous findings following exercise in skeletal muscle, this study failed to demonstrate estrogen-induced attenuation of indices of neutrophil infiltration or damage in skeletal muscles of rats up to 72 hours following ischemia. This demonstrates that estrogen may not consistently attenuate neutrophil infiltration and that a number of variables including damage modality, tissue or estrogen level may influence this.

  5. Effectiveness of a calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine digluconate mixture as disinfectant during retreatment of failed endodontic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerella, Joseph A; Fouad, Ashraf F; Spångberg, Larz S W

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this in vivo investigation is to compare the effect of a slurry of Ca(OH)2 mixed in aqueous 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) versus aqueous Ca(OH)2 slurry alone on the disinfection of the pulp space of failed root-filled teeth during endodontic retreatment. Forty single-rooted previously root-filled teeth with associated periradicular lesions were included. The teeth were nonsurgically retreated and medicated over 3 treatment visits with 7-10-day intervals with either Ca(OH)2 in water or Ca(OH)2 in 2% aqueous CHX. Root canal cultures were collected in fluid thioglycollate, and bacterial growth was assessed by turbidity daily for 1 week, then weekly for an additional 3 weeks. The presence of enterococci in the root canals at the initial treatment session was determined. Of the total sample population, 12 of 40 (30%) were positive for bacteria before root filling. The control medication disinfected 12 of 20 (60%) teeth including 2 of 4 teeth originally diagnosed with enterococci. The experimental medication resulted in disinfected 16 of 20 (80%) teeth at the beginning of the third appointment. None of the teeth originally containing enterococci showed remaining growth. This difference between the overall positive cultures was not statistically significant (P > .05). Canal dressing with a mixture of 2% CHX and Ca(OH)2 slurry is as efficacious as aqueous Ca(OH)2 on the disinfection of failed root-filled teeth.

  6. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  7. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  8. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  9. Alveolar nerve repositioning with rescue implants for management of previous treatment. A clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amet, Edward M; Uehlein, Chris

    2013-12-01

    The goal of modern implant dentistry is to return patients to oral health in a rapid and predictable fashion, following a diagnostically driven treatment plan. If only a limited number of implants can be placed, or some fail and the prosthetic phase of implant dentistry is chosen to complete the patient's treatment, the final outcome may result in partial patient satisfaction and is commonly referred to as a "compromise." Previous All-on-4 implant treatment for the patient presented here resulted in a compromise, with an inadequate support system for the mandibular prosthesis and a maxillary complete denture with poor esthetics. The patient was unable to function adequately and also was disappointed with the resulting appearance. Correction of the compromised treatment consisted of bilateral inferior alveolar nerve elevation and repositioning without bone removal for lateral transposition, to gain room for rescue implants for a totally implant-supported and stabilized prosthesis. Treatment time to return the patient to satisfactory comfort, function, facial esthetics, and speech was approximately 2 weeks. The definitive mandibular prosthesis was designed for total implant support and stability with patient retrievability. Adequate space between the mandibular bar system and the soft tissue created a high water bridge effect for self-cleansing. Following a short interim mandibular healing period, the maxillary sinuses were bilaterally grafted to compensate for bone inadequacies and deficiencies for future maxillary implant reconstruction. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  11. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  13. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  14. Intrauterine adhesions as a risk factor for failed first-trimester pregnancy termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Janelle; Allen, Rebecca H; Schantz-Dunn, Julianna; Goldberg, Alisa B

    2007-10-01

    Risk factors for failed first-trimester surgical abortion include endometrial distortion caused by leiomyomas, uterine anomalies and malposition and cervical stenosis. This report introduces intrauterine adhesions as an additional risk factor. A multiparous woman presented for pregnancy termination at 6 weeks' gestation. Three suction-curettage attempts failed to remove what appeared to be an intrauterine pregnancy. Rising beta-hCG levels and concern for an interstitial ectopic pregnancy prompted a diagnostic laparoscopy and exploratory laparotomy without the identification of an ectopic pregnancy. After methotrexate treatment failed, the patient underwent ultrasound-guided hysteroscopy and suction curettage using a cannula with a whistle-cut aperture for the successful removal of a pregnancy implanted behind intrauterine adhesions. Intrauterine adhesions are a cause of failed surgical abortion. Ultrasound-guided hysteroscopy may be required for diagnosis.

  15. [Review of: Daron Acemoglu, James Robinson Why nations fail: the origins of power, prosperity, and poverty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Piet

    2015-01-01

    The basic theme of the book is what causes nations to fail where others succeed. The authors argue that the political institutions have a determining impact on the establishment of economic institutions.

  16. Identify too big to fail banks and capital insurance: An equilibrium approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ivanov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is develop a rational expectation equilibrium model of capital insurance to identify too big to fail banks. The main results of this model include (1 too big to fail banks can be identified explicitly by a systemic risk measure, loss betas, of all banks in the entire financial sector; (2 the too big to fail feature can be largely justified by a high level of loss beta; (3 the capital insurance proposal benefits market participants and reduces the systemic risk; (4 the implicit guarantee subsidy can be estimated endogenously; and lastly, (5 the capital insurance proposal can be used to resolve the moral hazard issue. We implement this model and document that the too big to fail issue has been considerably reduced in the pro-crisis period. As a result, the capital insurance proposal could be a useful macro-regulation innovation policy tool

  17. 40 CFR 1068.430 - What happens if a family fails an SEA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR ENGINE PROGRAMS Selective Enforcement Auditing § 1068... family if it fails the SEA under § 1068.420. The suspension may apply to all facilities producing engines...

  18. Professor highlights failing U.S. water infrastructure in national press briefing

    OpenAIRE

    Mackay, Steven D.

    2009-01-01

    A Virginia Tech professor with the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech and renowned expert on water infrastructure said America is failing in its quest to provide safe drinking water in high quality and high quantity.

  19. Fears for literacy and numeracy as new nurses fail basic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learner, Sue

    2006-08-16

    The Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) has voiced concern over nurses' poor levels of English and maths after a third of newly qualified nurses failed a basic test set by a hospital as part of anew selection process.

  20. Failure to Fail in a Final Pre-service Teaching Practicum

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia J. Danyluk; Florence Luhanga; Yovita N. Gwekwerere

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a Canadian perspective on the issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs. The issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs is one that had not been explored in any great detail. What literature does exist focuses on the strain that a teacher experiences when s/he mentors a student teacher (Siebert, Clark, Kilbridge, & Peterson, 2006) and the wide variety of situations that can result in failure (Sudzina & Knowles, 1992). This study examines ...

  1. Anatomical Glenoid Reconstruction Using Fresh Osteochondral Distal Tibia Allograft After Failed Latarjet Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Anthony; Ferrari, Marcio B.; Akamefula, Ramesses A.; Frank, Rachel M.; Sanchez, George; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    In the treatment of recurrent anterior glenohumeral instability, the Latarjet procedure has been shown to fail. This results in a need for viable revisional procedures for patients who present with this challenging pathology. We report our preferred technique for anatomical glenoid reconstruction using a fresh osteochondral distal tibia allograft after a failed Latarjet procedure. This bony augmentation technique employs a readily available dense, weight-bearing osseous tissue source that has...

  2. "To big to fail"-doktrinen står for fald?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Hvis præsident Barack Obama får sin vilje, skal den klassiske "too big to fail"-bankdoktrin afløses af en "small enough to fail"-doktrin. Det fremgår af præsidentens planer om at opdele storbankerne i mindre enheder og forbyde bankernes handelsaktiviteter for egen regning. Hvis Barack Obama får...

  3. FAILED STATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Miles R. Cone

    the state, it is possible to extrapolate a core of characteristics usually included in definitions of the state. .... colonial history is the 'artificial nature' of Africa's state borders and the notion that statehood was imposed on .... increasingly work exclusively for their own benefit as the state's capacity gradually weakens. Key interest ...

  4. Very Preterm Infants Failing CPAP Show Signs of Fatigue Immediately after Birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Siew

    Full Text Available To investigate the differences in breathing pattern and effort in infants at birth who failed or succeeded on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP during the first 48 hours after birth.Respiratory function recordings of 32 preterm infants were reviewed of which 15 infants with a gestational age of 28.6 (0.7 weeks failed CPAP and 17 infants with a GA of 30.1 (0.4 weeks did not fail CPAP. Frequency, duration and tidal volumes (VT of expiratory holds (EHs, peak inspiratory flows, CPAP-level and FiO2-levels were analysed.EH incidence increased 9 ml/kg with higher peak inspiratory flows than CPAP-fail infants (71.8 ± 15.8 vs. 15.5 ± 5.2 ml/kg.s, p <0.05. CPAP-fail infants required higher FiO2 (0.31 ± 0.03 vs. 0.21 ± 0.01, higher CPAP pressures (6.62 ± 0.3 vs. 5.67 ± 0.26 cmH2O and more positive pressure-delivered breaths (45 ± 12 vs. 19 ± 9% (p <0.05.At 9-12 minutes after birth, CPAP-fail infants more commonly used lower VTs and required higher peak inspiratory flow rates while receiving greater respiratory support. VT was less variable and larger VT was infrequently used reflecting early signs of fatigue.

  5. When Does Maluma/Takete Fail? Two Key Failures and a Meta-Analysis Suggest That Phonology and Phonotactics Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Suzy J; Gawne, Lauren

    2017-01-01

    Eighty-seven years ago, Köhler reported that the majority of students picked the same answer in a quiz: Which novel word form ('maluma' or 'takete') went best with which abstract line drawing (one curved, one angular). Others have consistently shown the effect in a variety of contexts, with only one reported failure by Rogers and Ross. In the spirit of transparency, we report our own failure in the same journal. In our study, speakers of Syuba, from the Himalaya in Nepal, do not show a preference when matching word forms 'kiki' and 'bubu' to spiky versus curvy shapes. We conducted a meta-analysis of previous studies to investigate the relationship between pseudoword legality and task effects. Our combined analyses suggest a common source for both of the failures: 'wordiness' - We believe these tests fail when the test words do not behave according to the sound structure of the target language.

  6. MLEP-Fail calibration for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the work presented in this memo was to calibrate the Sierra material model Multilinear Elastic-Plastic Hardening Model with Failure (MLEP-Fail) for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel. The calibration approach is essentially the same as that recently used in a previous memo using data from smooth and notched tensile specimens. The notched specimens were manufactured with three notch radii R = 1=8, 1/32 and 1/64 inches. The dimensions of the smooth and notched specimens are given in the prints in Appendix A. Two cast plates, Plate 3 and Plate 4, with nominally identical properties were considered.

  7. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  8. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  9. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  10. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  11. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  12. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  13. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  14. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  15. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  16. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  17. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  18. Laparoscopic repyeloplasty after failed open repair of ureteropelvic junction obstruction: a case-matched multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammady, Ahmed; Elbadry, Mohamed S; Rashed, El-Nesr; Moussa, Ahmed; Gamal, Wael; Dawood, Waleed; Fahmy, Ahmed; Abdelkareem, Ali; Mahfouz, Wally

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the experience and midterm results of laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) in patients with previous failed open pyeloplasty in comparison to primary LP. Thirty-two patients who had undergone previous failed open surgery for management of ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) were reviewed. The patients underwent transperitoneal dismembered LP. All operations were performed by the same laparoscopist from March 2009 to June 2013. Surgical results were compared to 72 patients who underwent primary LP carried out by the same surgeon during the same period. The laparoscopic repyeloplasty group consisted of 14 men and 18 women. The mean age was 29 ± 6 years. The mean operative period was 133 ± 42 and 110 ± 57 min; the mean length of stay in hospital was 2.7 ± 2.3 and 1.3 ± 2.1 days; and the mean follow-up period was 32.4 ± 14 and 29.3 ± 11.2 months in the secondary and primary LP groups, respectively. The success rate was 90.6% for secondary LP and 94.4% for primary LP. There was no conversion in either group. The percentage of intraoperative and postoperative complications in secondary LP was 9.4% and 12.5%, respectively, compared with 0% and 5.6% in the primary LP group. Laparoscopic repyeloplasty is a safe and viable treatment option for secondary UPJO, with a success rate similar to that of primary repair but with longer operative time. Considerable experience in laparoscopic reconstructive procedures is a prerequisite for optimal results.

  19. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  20. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  1. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

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    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  2. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  3. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  4. Failure to Fail in a Final Pre-service Teaching Practicum

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    Patricia J. Danyluk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a Canadian perspective on the issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs. The issue of failure to fail in Bachelor of Education programs is one that had not been explored in any great detail. What literature does exist focuses on the strain that a teacher experiences when s/he mentors a student teacher (Siebert, Clark, Kilbridge, & Peterson, 2006 and the wide variety of situations that can result in failure (Sudzina & Knowles, 1992. This study examines whether the issue of failure to fail in final pre-service practica exist and, if so, why? Twelve interviews were conducted at a mid-sized Canadian university in Ontario with university supervisors and associate teachers on the topic of teacher candidate failure during the final teaching practicum. All participants had experience with teacher candidates struggling during practicum. Faculty commented on their supervision of student teachers in Ontario, other provinces in Canada, and the United States. Results indicate that both university supervisors and associate teachers find the decision to fail a student teacher difficult, taking an emotional toll on both the supervisor and the student. University faculty report the decision to fail results in additional work for the faculty responsible; however, failure to fail an underperforming student teacher could diminish the reputation of professional programs. Associate teachers feel a sense of betrayal when their recommendations to fail an under-performing student are not followed by the university. These findings have implications for improving the quality of field experiences and support for students, associate teachers, and faculty in Bachelor of Education programs.

  5. Functional desensitization to isoproterenol without reducing cAMP production in canine failing cardiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, C E; Cardinal, R; Rousseau, G; Vermeulen, M; Bouchard, C; Wilkinson, M; Armour, J A; Bouvier, M

    2001-02-01

    To corroborate alterations in the functional responses to beta-adrenergic receptor (beta-AR) stimulation with changes in beta-AR signaling in failing cardiomyocytes, contractile and L-type Ca(2+) current responses to isoproterenol along with stimulated cAMP generation were compared among cardiomyocytes isolated from canines with tachycardia-induced heart failure or healthy hearts. The magnitude of shortening of failing cardiomyocytes was significantly depressed (by 22 +/- 4.4%) under basal conditions, and the maximal response to isoproterenol was significantly reduced (by 45 +/- 18%). Similar results were obtained when the responses in the rate of contraction and rate of relaxation to isoproterenol were considered. The L-type Ca(2+) current amplitude measured in failing cardiomyocytes under basal conditions was unchanged, but the responses to isoproterenol were significantly reduced compared with healthy cells. Isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP generation was similar in sarcolemmal membranes derived from the homogenates of failing (45 +/- 6.8) and healthy cardiomyocytes (52 +/- 8.5 pmol cAMP. mg protein(-1). min(-1)). However, stimulated cAMP generation was found to be significantly reduced when the membranes were derived from the homogenates of whole tissue (failing: 67 +/- 8.1 vs. healthy: 140 +/- 27.8 pmol cAMP. mg protein(-1). min(-1)). Total beta-AR density was not reduced in membranes derived from either whole tissue or isolated cardiomyocyte homogenates, but the beta(1)/beta(2) ratio was significantly reduced in the former (failing: 45/55 vs. healthy: 72/28) without being altered in the latter (failing: 72/28, healthy: 77/23). We thus conclude that, in tachycardia-induced heart failure, reduction in the functional responses of isolated cardiomyocytes to beta-AR stimulation may be attributed to alterations in the excitation-contraction machinery rather than to limitation of cAMP generation.

  6. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  7. 40 CFR 1045.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1045.315 Section 1045.315 Protection of Environment... PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Testing Production-line Engines § 1045.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass-fail criteria for...

  8. 40 CFR 1051.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1051.315 Section 1051.315 Protection of Environment... ENGINES AND VEHICLES Testing Production-Line Vehicles and Engines § 1051.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass-fail criteria for...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1054.315 Section 1054.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Production-line Testing § 1054.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass-fail criteria for...

  10. 40 CFR 1048.315 - How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... fails the production-line testing requirements? 1048.315 Section 1048.315 Protection of Environment... SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Testing Production-line Engines § 1048.315 How do I know when my engine family fails the production-line testing requirements? This section describes the pass/fail criteria for the...

  11. Characteristics of successful and failed mentoring relationships: a qualitative study across two academic health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E; Johnson, Mallory O; Marquez, Christine; Feldman, Mitchell D

    2013-01-01

    To explore the mentor-mentee relationship with a focus on determining the characteristics of effective mentors and mentees and understanding the factors influencing successful and failed mentoring relationships. The authors completed a qualitative study through the Departments of Medicine at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine and the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine between March 2010 and January 2011. They conducted individual, semistructured interviews with faculty members from different career streams and ranks and analyzed transcripts of the interviews, drawing on grounded theory. The authors completed interviews with 54 faculty members and identified a number of themes, including the characteristics of effective mentors and mentees, actions of effective mentors, characteristics of successful and failed mentoring relationships, and tactics for successful mentoring relationships. Successful mentoring relationships were characterized by reciprocity, mutual respect, clear expectations, personal connection, and shared values. Failed mentoring relationships were characterized by poor communication, lack of commitment, personality differences, perceived (or real) competition, conflicts of interest, and the mentor's lack of experience. Successful mentorship is vital to career success and satisfaction for both mentors and mentees. Yet challenges continue to inhibit faculty members from receiving effective mentorship. Given the importance of mentorship on faculty members' careers, future studies must address the association between a failed mentoring relationship and a faculty member's career success, how to assess different approaches to mediating failed mentoring relationships, and how to evaluate strategies for effective mentorship throughout a faculty member's career.

  12. Characteristics of Successful and Failed Mentoring Relationships: A Qualitative Study Across Two Academic Health Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, Sharon E.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Marquez, Christine; Feldman, Mitchell D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To explore the mentor–mentee relationship with a focus on determining the characteristics of effective mentors and mentees and understanding the factors influencing successful and failed mentoring relationships. Method The authors completed a qualitative study through the Departments of Medicine at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine and the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine between March 2010 and January 2011. They conducted individual, semistructured interviews with faculty members from different career streams and ranks and analyzed transcripts of the interviews, drawing on grounded theory. Results The authors completed interviews with 54 faculty members and identified a number of themes, including the characteristics of effective mentors and mentees, actions of effective mentors, characteristics of successful and failed mentoring relationships, and tactics for successful mentoring relationships. Successful mentoring relationships were characterized by reciprocity, mutual respect, clear expectations, personal connection, and shared values. Failed mentoring relationships were characterized by poor communication, lack of commitment, personality differences, perceived (or real) competition, conflicts of interest, and the mentor’s lack of experience. Conclusions Successful mentorship is vital to career success and satisfaction for both mentors and mentees. Yet challenges continue to inhibit faculty members from receiving effective mentorship. Given the importance of mentorship on faculty members’ careers, future studies must address the association between a failed mentoring relationship and a faculty member’s career success, how to assess different approaches to mediating failed mentoring relationships, and how to evaluate strategies for effective mentorship throughout a faculty member’s career. PMID:23165266

  13. Failure investigations of failed valve plug SS410 steel due to cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyankar, V. D.; Deshmukh, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    Premature and sudden in service failure of a valve plug due to crack formation, applied in power plant has been investigated. The plug was tempered and heat treated, the crack was originated at centre, developed along the axis and propagates radially towards outer surface of plug. The expected life of the component is 10-15 years while, the component had failed just after the installation that is, within 3 months of its service. No corrosion products were observed on the crack interface and on the failed surface; hence, causes of corrosion failure are neglected. This plug of level separator control valve, is welded to the stem by means of plasma-transferred arc welding and as there is no crack observed at the welding zone, the failure due to welding residual stresses are also neglected. The failed component discloses exposed surface of a crack interface that originated from centre and propagates radially. The micro-structural observation, hardness testing, and visual observation are carried out of the specimen prepared from the failed section and base portion. The microstructure from the cracked interface showed severe carbide formation along the grain boundaries. From the microstructural analysis of the failed sample, it is observed that there is a formation of acicular carbides along the grain boundaries due to improper tempering heat treatment.

  14. Bacterial biofilm on successful and failed orthodontic mini-implants--a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Nayra Oliveira; Andrucioli, Marcela Cristina Damião; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Zanella, Eduardo Pereira; Consolaro, Alberto; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane

    2015-12-01

    Mini-implants have been extensively used in Orthodontics as temporary bone anchorage devices. However, early failure of mini-implants due to mobility might occur and the colonization of their surfaces by pathogenic bacteria has been referred to as one of the contributing factors. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to assess the presence of microorganisms adhered to the surface of mini-implants that failed due to loss of stability. Twelve self-drilling titanium mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter × 9.0 mm long) were collected from 12 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment-7 successful and 5 failed mini-implants. The mean time of permanence in the mouth was 15.8 and 2.4 months for successful and failed mini-implants, respectively. The devices were placed in the maxilla and/or mandible and removed by the same surgeon and were processed for SEM analysis of the presence of microorganisms on their surfaces (head, transmucosal profile, and body). Extensive bacterial colonization on mini-implant head and transmucosal profile was observed in all successful and failed mini-implants. None of the failed mini-implants exhibited bacteria on its body and only one mini-implant belonging to the successful (stable) group exhibited bacteria on its body. The results did not suggest a relationship between failure and presence of bacterial colonies on mini-implant surfaces. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

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    Adam K Fetterman

    Full Text Available Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions.

  16. The Reputational Consequences of Failed Replications and Wrongness Admission among Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scientists are dedicating more attention to replication efforts. While the scientific utility of replications is unquestionable, the impact of failed replication efforts and the discussions surrounding them deserve more attention. Specifically, the debates about failed replications on social media have led to worry, in some scientists, regarding reputation. In order to gain data-informed insights into these issues, we collected data from 281 published scientists. We assessed whether scientists overestimate the negative reputational effects of a failed replication in a scenario-based study. Second, we assessed the reputational consequences of admitting wrongness (versus not) as an original scientist of an effect that has failed to replicate. Our data suggests that scientists overestimate the negative reputational impact of a hypothetical failed replication effort. We also show that admitting wrongness about a non-replicated finding is less harmful to one's reputation than not admitting. Finally, we discovered a hint of evidence that feelings about the replication movement can be affected by whether replication efforts are aimed one's own work versus the work of another. Given these findings, we then present potential ways forward in these discussions.

  17. Magmatic Consequences of Failed Rift Zones: Examples from the Eastern Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpp, K. S.; Wanless, V. D.; Otto, R. H.; Hoernle, K.

    2003-12-01

    The aseismic Cocos Ridge, one of the most prominent bathymetric features in the eastern Pacific, records ~20 million years of interaction between the Galapagos hotspot and the Galapagos Spreading Center. Two major clusters of seamounts are located along the northern flanks of the ridge, one near the Costa Rican coast and the second around Cocos Island. The Costa Rica and Cocos Seamount Provinces (including Cocos Island) have produced alkalic lavas accompanied by enrichment in incompatible trace elements beyond any observed in the Galapagos Archipelago today or in samples from the crest of the Cocos Ridge. Cocos Island is known to be millions of years younger than the hotspot track on which it lies, and the other seamounts likely share this characteristic. Trace element data determined by ICP-MS from over 90 dredged samples from the ridge and seamounts suggest that the compositions of the lavas are strongly controlled by the history of rift jumping in the region. The lavas are the result of small degrees of melting of a Galapagos plume-like source, predominantly in the garnet stability field. In the case of both seamount fields, their eruption immediately follows the failure of a rift zone at each province's location. Thus we attribute the anomalously young alkalic lavas of the seamount provinces to post-abandonment volcanism following either a ridge jump or rift failure, and not to the direct activity of the Galapagos plume. The seamounts and Cocos Island are instead the result of passive upwelling caused by a major tectonic rearrangement, such that the seamounts are significantly younger than their supporting lithosphere or the hotspot trace. The failed rift tapped mantle that had previously incorporated Galapagos plume material when the lithosphere was produced at the plume-affected GSC. Fundamentally, the hotspot's variable interaction with the Galapagos Spreading Center, coupled with rift failures associated with tectonic rearrangements of the ridge itself may

  18. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  19. A dynamic fail-safe approach to the design of computer-based safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, I.C.; Miller, M.

    1994-01-01

    For over 30 years AEA Technology has carried out research and development in the field of nuclear instrumentation and protection systems. Throughout the course of this extensive period of research and development the dominant theme has been the achievement of fully fail-safe designs. These are defined as designs in which the failure of any single component will result in the unit output reverting to a demand for trip action status. At an early stage it was recognized that the use of dynamic rather than static logic could ease the difficulties inherent in achieving a fail-safe design. The first dynamic logic systems coupled logic elements magnetically. The paper outlines the evolution from these early concepts of a dynamic fail-safe approach to the design of computer-based safety systems. Details are given of collaboration between AEA Technology and Duke Power Co. to mount an ISAT TM demonstration at Duke's Oconee Nuclear Power Station

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid can be used for HIV genotyping when it fails in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotta, Indianara; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Ribeiro, Cléa Elisa Lopes; Riedel, Maristela; Winhescki, Maria da Graça; Smith, Davey M.; Ellis, Ronald J.; de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Blood plasma specimens are the clinical standard for HIV-1 pol gene genotyping from viral populations; however, it is not always successful, often from low viral loads or the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors. Objective To describe the successful of HIV-1 genotyping in two samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), after genotype procedures failed from blood. Method Two HIV-infected patients enrolled in a neurocognitive research study were evaluated when standard HIV-1 genotyping failed from blood plasma samples. Genotyping was performed using the commercial system TRUGENE® HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the OpenGene® DNA Sequencing System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA). Results CSF genotyping was performed via the same commercial platform and was successful in both cases. Conclusion This report demonstrates that CSF could be used as an alternate clinical specimen for HIV-1 genotyping when it fails from blood. PMID:25054982

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid can be used for HIV genotyping when it fails in blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indianara Rotta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood plasma specimens are the clinical standard for HIV-1 pol gene genotyping from viral populations; however, it is not always successful, often from low viral loads or the presence of polymerase chain reaction (PCR inhibitors. Objective To describe the successful of HIV-1 genotyping in two samples of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, after genotype procedures failed from blood. Method Two HIV-infected patients enrolled in a neurocognitive research study were evaluated when standard HIV-1 genotyping failed from blood plasma samples. Genotyping was performed using the commercial system TRUGENE® HIV-1 Genotyping Kit and the OpenGene® DNA Sequencing System (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY, USA. Results CSF genotyping was performed via the same commercial platform and was successful in both cases. Conclusion This report demonstrates that CSF could be used as an alternate clinical specimen for HIV-1 genotyping when it fails from blood.

  2. Is the Pass/Fail System Applicable to a Medical School in Korea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Young Kim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether a pass/fail system is more appropriate for medical education instead of a grade-based system, a survey of medical students and faculty members of Hallym University, Korea, was taken. A questionnaire was delivered to 54 junior students and 36 faculty members from a medical school in Korea and analyzed. Of these participants, 37.7% of students and 36.1% of faculty agreed to the pass/fail system, while 28.3% of students and 52.8% of faculty objected to it. The most frequent reason for objection was the potential decrease in learning achievement. A pass/fail system should be considered after persuasion of the students and faculty to think positively of this system.

  3. [Therapeutic trials of aclarubicin in previously treated acute leukemias and hematosarcomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machover, D; Goldschmidt, E; Benavides, M; Gastiaburu, J; Vandenbulcke, J M; Delgado, M; Misset, J L; Mathe, G

    1987-01-01

    In a phase I-II trial, 38 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were given single drug induction therapy with aclarubicin (ACM) according to two dosing schedules: treatment 1: 10 to 30 mg/m2/d to a maximum total dose of 300 mg/m2 or until development of unacceptable toxicity: treatment 2: 15 mg/m2/d in ten-day courses separated by ten-day intervals. Response rates were 15% with treatment 1 and 44% with treatment 2 (overall response rate 34%). Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 6 patients who had previously failed to respond to adriamycin (ADM). Toxicity was more frequent and more severe in those patients given more than 150 mg/m2 ACM per course. The main side effects were oropharyngeal mucositis and diarrhea. Three patients exhibited T wave inversion and one had an episode of auricular flutter. In a separate trial in 16 patients with AML we used cyclic chemotherapy combining ACM (20 mg/m2/d) and ARA-C (200 mg/m2/d) for seven consecutive days. Complete remission rate was 50%. Severe ventricular rhythm disorders were seen in two patients. In a phase I-II study, 19 patients with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and 8 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) were given ACM alone according to the regimen designated treatment 1 described above. Response rates were 11% (2/19) in ALL and 25% (2/8) in NHL. A review of the literature is presented in the discussion of the original trials reported herein.

  4. The relationship of previous training and experience of journal peer reviewers to subsequent review quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Callaham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peer review is considered crucial to the selection and publication of quality science, but very little is known about the previous experiences and training that might identify high-quality peer reviewers. The reviewer selection processes of most journals, and thus the qualifications of their reviewers, are ill defined. More objective selection of peer reviewers might improve the journal peer review process and thus the quality of published science. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 306 experienced reviewers (71% of all those associated with a specialty journal completed a survey of past training and experiences postulated to improve peer review skills. Reviewers performed 2,856 reviews of 1,484 separate manuscripts during a four-year study period, all prospectively rated on a standardized quality scale by editors. Multivariable analysis revealed that most variables, including academic rank, formal training in critical appraisal or statistics, or status as principal investigator of a grant, failed to predict performance of higher-quality reviews. The only significant predictors of quality were working in a university-operated hospital versus other teaching environment and relative youth (under ten years of experience after finishing training. Being on an editorial board and doing formal grant (study section review were each predictors for only one of our two comparisons. However, the predictive power of all variables was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that there are no easily identifiable types of formal training or experience that predict reviewer performance. Skill in scientific peer review may be as ill defined and hard to impart as is "common sense." Without a better understanding of those skills, it seems unlikely journals and editors will be successful in systematically improving their selection of reviewers. This inability to predict performance makes it imperative that all but the smallest journals implement routine review ratings

  5. Phylogenetics of HIV-1 subtype G env: Greater complexity and older origins than previously reported.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongo, Marcel; Essomba, René G; Nindo, Frederick; Abrahams, Fatima; Nanfack, Aubin Joseph; Fokam, Joseph; Takou, Desire; Torimiro, Judith N; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Burgers, Wendy A; Martin, Darren P; Dorfman, Jeffrey R

    2015-10-01

    HIV-1 subtype G has played an early and central role in the emergent complexity of the HIV-1 group M (HIV-1M) epidemic in central/west Africa. Here, we analysed new subtype G env sequences sampled from 8 individuals in Yaoundé, Cameroon during 2007-2010, together with all publically available subtype G-attributed full-length env sequences with known sampling dates and locations. We inferred that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the analysed subtype G env sequences most likely occurred in ∼1953 (95% Highest Posterior Density interval [HPD] 1939-1963): about 15 years earlier than previous estimates. We found that the subtype G env phylogeny has a complex structure including seven distinct lineages, each likely dating back to the late 1960s or early 1970s. Sequences from Angola, Gabon and the Democratic Republic of Congo failed to group consistently in these lineages, possibly because they are related to more ancient sequences that are poorly sampled. The circulating recombinant form (CRF), CRF06_cpx env sequences but not CRF25_cpx env sequences are phylogenetically nested within the subtype G clade. This confirms that the CRF06_cpx env plausibly was derived through recombination from a subtype G parent, and suggests that the CRF25_cpx env was likely derived from an HIV-1M lineage related to the MRCA of subtype G that has remained undiscovered and may be extinct. Overall, this fills important gaps in our knowledge of the early events in the spread of HIV-1M. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-irradiation examination of a failed PHWR fuel bundle of KAPS-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Prerna; Unnikrishnan, K.; Viswanathan, U.K.; Shriwastaw, R.S.; Singh, J.L.; Ouseph, P.M.; Alur, V.D.; Singh, H.N.; Anantharaman, S.; Sah, D.N.

    2006-08-01

    Detailed post irradiation examination was carried out on a PHWR fuel bundle irradiated at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station unit 2 (KAPS-2). The fuel bundle had failed early in life at a low burnup of 387 MWd/T. Non destructive and destructive examination was carried out to identify the cause of fuel failure. Visual examination and leak testing indicated failure in two fuel pins of the outer ring of the bundle in the form of axial cracks near the end plug location. Ultrasonic testing of the end cap weld indicated presence of lack of fusion type defect in the two fuel pins. No defect was found in other fuel pins of the bundle. Metallographic examination of fuel sections taken from the crack location in the failed fuel pin showed extensive restructuring of fuel. The centre temperature of the fuel had exceeded 1700 degC at this location in the failed fuel pin, whereas fuel centre temperature in the un-failed fuel pin was only about 1300 degC. Severe fuel clad interaction was observed in the failed fuel pin at and near the location of failure but no such interaction was observed in the un-failed fuel pins. Several incipient cracks originating from the inside surface were found in the cladding near failure location in addition to the main through wall crack. The incipient cracks were filled with interaction products and hydride platelets were present at tip of the cracks. It was concluded from the observations that the primary cause of failure was the presence of a part-wall defect in the end cap weld of the fuel pins. These defects opened up during reactor operation leading to steam ingress into the fuel, which caused high fuel centre temperature and severe fuel-cladding interaction resulting in secondary failures. A more stringent inspection and quality control of end plug weld during fabrication using ultrasonic test has been recommended to avoid such failure. (author)

  7. Setting and validating the pass/fail score for the NBDHE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsun; Dixon, Barbara Leatherman

    2013-04-01

    This report describes the overall process used for setting the pass/fail score for the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE). The Objective Standard Setting (OSS) method was used for setting the pass/fail score for the NBDHE. The OSS method requires a panel of experts to determine the criterion items and proportion of these items that minimally competent candidates would answer correctly, the percentage of mastery and the confidence level of the error band. A panel of 11 experts was selected by the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations (Joint Commission). Panel members represented geographic distribution across the U.S. and had the following characteristics: full-time dental hygiene practitioners with experience in areas of preventive, periodontal, geriatric and special needs care, and full-time dental hygiene educators with experience in areas of scientific basis for dental hygiene practice, provision of clinical dental hygiene services and community health/research principles. Utilizing the expert panel's judgments, the pass/fail score was set and then the score scale was established using the Rasch measurement model. Statistical and psychometric analysis shows the actual failure rate and the OSS failure rate are reasonably consistent (2.4% vs. 2.8%). The analysis also showed the lowest error of measurement, an index of the precision at the pass/fail score point and that the highest reliability (0.97) are achieved at the pass/fail score point. The pass/fail score is a valid guide for making decisions about candidates for dental hygiene licensure. This new standard was reviewed and approved by the Joint Commission and was implemented beginning in 2011.

  8. Synthesis Report on the understanding of failed LMFBR fuel element performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plitz, H.; Bagley, K.; Harbourne, B.

    1990-07-01

    In the coarse of LMFBR operation fuel element failures cannot entirely be avoided as experienced during the operation of PFR, PHENIX and KNK II, where 44 failed fuel elements have been registered between 1978 and 1989. In earlier irradiations, post irradiation examinations showed mixed oxide pin diameter increases up to pin pitch distance, urging to stress reactor safety questions on the potential of fuel pin failure propagation within pin bundles. The chemical interaction of sodium with mixed oxide fuel is regarded to be the key for the understanding of failed fuel behavior. Valuable results on the failed fuel pin behavior during operation were obtained from the SILOE sodium loop test. Based on the bulk of experience with the detection of fuel pin failures, with the continued operation and with the handling of failed pins respectively elements, one can state: 1. All fuel pin failures have been detected securely in time and have been located. 2. Small defects are developing slowly. 3. Even large defects at end-of-life pins resulted in limited fuel loss. 4. Clad failures behave benign in main aspects. 5. The chemical interaction of sodium with mixed oxide is an important factor in the behavior of failed fuel pins, especially at high burnup. 6. Despite different pin designs and different operation conditions, on the basis of 44 failed elements in PFR, PHENIX and KNK II no pin-to-pin propagation was observed and fuel release was rather low, often not detectable. 7. In no case hazard conditions affecting reactor safety have been experienced

  9. Pass-fail grading: laying the foundation for self-regulated learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Casey B; Fantone, Joseph C

    2010-10-01

    Traditionally, medical schools have tended to make assumptions that students will "automatically" engage in self-education effectively after graduation and subsequent training in residency and fellowships. In reality, the majority of medical graduates out in practice feel unprepared for learning on their own. Many medical schools are now adopting strategies and pedagogies to help students become self-regulating learners. Along with these changes in practices and pedagogy, many schools are eliminating a cornerstone of extrinsic motivation: discriminating grades. To study the effects of the switch from discriminating to pass-fail grading in the second year of medical school, we compared internal and external assessments and evaluations for a second-year class with a discriminating grading scale (Honors, High Pass, Pass, Fail) and for a second-year class with a pass-fail grading scale. Of the measures we compared (MCATs, GPAs, means on second-year examinations, USMLE Step 1 scores, residency placement, in which there were no statistically significant changes), the only statistically significant decreases (lower performance with pass fail) were found in two of the second-year courses. Performance in one other course also improved significantly. Pass-fail grading can meet several important intended outcomes, including "leveling the playing field" for incoming students with different academic backgrounds, reducing competition and fostering collaboration among members of a class, more time for extracurricular interests and personal activities. Pass-fail grading also reduces competition and supports collaboration, and fosters intrinsic motivation, which is key to self-regulated, lifelong learning.

  10. Percutaneous N-Butyl cyanoacrylate embolization of a pancreatic pseudoaneurysm after failed attempts of transcatheter embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ri Hyeon; Yoo, Roh Eul; Kim, Hyo Cheol [Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    One common complication after major pancreatic surgery is bleeding. Herein we describe a case of pancreatic pseudoaneurysm which developed after pylorous preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for common bile duct cancer. Three attempts of transcatheter embolization failed since feeders to the pseudoaneurysm had unfavorable anatomy. Direct percutaneous N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection was performed under fluoroscopy-guidance and the pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated. Percutaneous fluoroscopy-guided direct N-butyl cyanoacrylate injection may be a useful alternative when selective transcatheter embolization fails or is technically challenging.

  11. Challenges and achievements of instrumentation for failed fuel identification in PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Chandra Kant; Sivaramakrishna, M.; Nageswaran, A.; Nagaraj, C.P.; Madhusoodanan, K.; Krishnakumar, B.

    2010-01-01

    Failed fuel identification system is provided to locate and remove the failed fuel sub assembly. It comprises of selector valve mechanism to sample the flow from each assembly and associated instrumentation to detect the activity in the sample, indicating the clad failure of the respective subassembly. The development includes sampling pump, its power supply, motor to rotate the selector valve, encoder, brake, gear box, neutron detectors and Instrumentation and Control for all these with interlocks and related logic. These systems are expected to work under many physical constraints and in harsh environmental conditions, such as high temperature. This paper discusses the various challenges and achievements towards this system design. (author)

  12. Fail save shut off valve for filtering systems employing candle filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanOsdol, John [Fairmont, WV

    2006-01-03

    The invention relates to an apparatus that acts as a fail save shut off valve. More specifically, the invention relates to a fail save shut off valve that allows fluid flow during normal operational conditions, but prevents the flow of fluids in the event of system failure upstream that causes over-pressurization. The present invention is particularly well suited for use in conjunction with hot gas filtering systems, which utilize ceramic candle filters. Used in such a hot gas system the present invention stops the flow of hot gas and prevents any particulate laden gas from entering the clean side of the system.

  13. Hyaluronic acid solution injection for upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed conventional endoscopic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kim, Hyung Hun

    2014-03-01

    Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be an additional endoscopic modality for controlling bleeding in difficult cases when other techniques have failed. We evaluated 12 cases in which we used hyaluronic acid solution injection for stopping bleeding. Immediately following hyaluronic acid solution injection, bleeding was controlled in 11 out of 12 cases. There was no clinical evidence of renewed bleeding in 11 cases during follow up.Hyaluronic acid solution injection can be a simple and efficient additional method for controlling upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding after failed endoscopic therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  14. The effect of platelet-rich plasma injection on lateral epicondylitis following failed conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkljac, Milos; Kumar, Shyam; Kalloo, Dale; Hirehal, Kiran

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the effect PRP injection on pain and function in patients with lateral epicondylitis where conservative management had failed. We prospectively reviewed 34 patients. The mean follow-up was 26 weeks (range 6-114 weeks). We used the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and progression to surgery to assess outcomes. 88.2% improved their OES. 8.8% reported symptom progression. One patient had no change. No patients suffered adverse reactions. Two patients underwent an open release procedure. One had the injection repeated. An injection of PRP improves pain and function in patients suffering from LE where conservative management has failed.

  15. New Developments in FPGA: SEUs and Fail-Safe Strategies from the NASA Goddard Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that, when exposed to radiation environments, each Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device has unique error signatures. Subsequently, fail-safe and mitigation strategies will differ per FPGA type. In this session several design approaches for safe systems will be presented. It will also explore the benefits and limitations of several mitigation techniques. The intention of the presentation is to provide information regarding FPGA types, their susceptibilities, and proven fail-safe strategies; so that users can select appropriate mitigation and perform the required trade for system insertion. The presentation will describe three types of FPGA devices and their susceptibilities in radiation environments.

  16. New Developments in FPGA Devices: SEUs and Fail-Safe Strategies from the NASA Goddard Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth; Pellish, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that, when exposed to radiation environments, each Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) device has unique error signatures. Subsequently, fail-safe and mitigation strategies will differ per FPGA type. In this session several design approaches for safe systems will be presented. It will also explore the benefits and limitations of several mitigation techniques. The intention of the presentation is to provide information regarding FPGA types, their susceptibilities, and proven fail-safe strategies; so that users can select appropriate mitigation and perform the required trade for system insertion. The presentation will describe three types of FPGA devices and their susceptibilities in radiation environments.

  17. Could an experimental dengue virus infection fail to induce solid immunity against homologous viral challenge in non-human primates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Iris; Gil, Lázaro; Lazo, Laura; Marcos, Ernesto; Martín, Jorge; Suzarte, Edith; Castro, Jorge; Romero, Yaremis; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2016-02-01

    There are several dengue vaccine candidates at advanced stages of development, but none of them are licensed. Despite the reactogenicity and immunogenicity profile in humans of the tetravalent ChimeriVax™ dengue vaccine candidate, in efficacy trials, it has failed to confer complete protection against dengue virus (DENV)-1 and DENV-2. However, full protection against the four serotypes had been observed previously in monkeys immunized with this vaccine candidate. Some authors have tried to explain this contradiction by hypothesizing that protection rates in non-human primates (NHPs) are associated with a lack of post-challenge anamnestic immune responses. Here, we studied the protection and anamnestic response patterns after homologous challenge in NHPs previously infected with DENV-2. Two immunization schemes were used, varying the viral doses and the intervals between them. Animals developed immunity against DENV-2 that provided full protection against reinfection with a homologous virus. However, all monkeys showed a significant increase in antiviral and neutralizing antibody titers after challenge. Our results suggest that sterilizing immunity could not be induced by infection with the virus despite the lack of detectable viremia in some animals in which an increase in antibody titer was observed. For this reason, we propose that the lack of an anamnestic neutralizing antibody response after challenge, as suggested by some authors, should be carefully reviewed as a criterion for evaluating the functionality of vaccine candidates.

  18. Clinical outcome of instrumented fusion for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome: a case series of 100 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Mark P; Kols, Nicola I; Onderwater, Suzanne M; Peul, Wilco C

    2012-07-01

    Failed back surgery syndrome is defined as persistent chronic low-back pain and/or leg pain lasting more than 1 year, despite of one or more surgical procedures. Instrumented spinal fusion has been offered by surgeons as a potential treatment to recover from pain and functional disability. Factors contributing to good outcome of instrumented spinal fusion have not been investigated extensively. This study evaluated the global perceived recovery and functional status of patients after instrumented fusion for the treatment of failed back surgery syndrome. Between January 2004 and September 2007, 100 patients underwent instrumented spinal fusion because of persistent back and/or leg pain lasting more than 1 year despite of one or more previous spine surgeries. The global perceived recovery of the patients was documented on a seven-point Likert scale, in which good outcome was defined as "complete recovery" and "almost complete recovery". Pain was evaluated by the 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS) of back pain and leg pain, and functional disability measured by the Roland Disability Questionnaire for Sciatica (RDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) evaluated psychological co-morbidity. All patients were sent questionnaires by mail. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between outcome measures and preoperative patient characteristics. Eighty-two patients (82% response rate) returned questionnaires that were useful for analysis. After a mean follow-up period of 15 months, 35% of the patients reported good outcome, whereas 65% had unsatisfactory outcome. The mean (± SD) score of VAS low-back pain and leg pain was 45.7 ± 29 and 37.9 ± 31.9, respectively. The mean (± SD) RDQ and ODI score was 11.8 ± 5.4 and 30.6 ± 20.3, respectively. HADS score indicated a possible anxiety disorder in 28% of the patients and in 30% a possible underlying depression. Of the patients' baseline

  19. Protein dynamics associated with failed and rescued learning in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Mahiuddin Ahmed

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is caused by an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21. Although it is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID, there are, as yet, no effective pharmacotherapies. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS is trisomic for orthologs of ∼55% of Hsa21 classical protein coding genes. These mice display many features relevant to those seen in DS, including deficits in learning and memory (L/M tasks requiring a functional hippocampus. Recently, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine, was shown to rescue performance of the Ts65Dn in several L/M tasks. These studies, however, have not been accompanied by molecular analyses. In previous work, we described changes in protein expression induced in hippocampus and cortex in control mice after exposure to context fear conditioning (CFC, with and without memantine treatment. Here, we extend this analysis to Ts65Dn mice, measuring levels of 85 proteins/protein modifications, including components of MAP kinase and MTOR pathways, and subunits of NMDA receptors, in cortex and hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice after failed learning in CFC and after learning was rescued by memantine. We show that, compared with wild type littermate controls, (i of the dynamic responses seen in control mice in normal learning, >40% also occur in Ts65Dn in failed learning or are compensated by baseline abnormalities, and thus are considered necessary but not sufficient for successful learning, and (ii treatment with memantine does not in general normalize the initial protein levels but instead induces direct and indirect responses in approximately half the proteins measured and results in normalization of the endpoint protein levels. Together, these datasets provide a first view of the complexities associated with pharmacological rescue of learning in the Ts65Dn. Extending such studies to additional drugs and mouse models of DS will aid in identifying pharmacotherapies for effective

  20. Using Student Ability and Item Difficulty for Making Defensible Pass/Fail Decisions for Borderline Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulruf, Boaz; Jones, Phil; Turner, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    The determination of Pass/Fail decisions over Borderline grades, (i.e., grades which do not clearly distinguish between the competent and incompetent examinees) has been an ongoing challenge for academic institutions. This study utilises the Objective Borderline Method (OBM) to determine examinee ability and item difficulty, and from that…