Sample records for previous efforts coupled

  1. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section. (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio


    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit. (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D


    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  3. Control Effort Strategies for Acoustically Coupled Distributed Acoustic Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Antoñanzas


    Full Text Available This paper considers the effect of effort constraints on the behavior of an active noise control (ANC system over a distributed network composed of acoustic nodes. A distributed implementation can be desirable in order to provide more flexible, versatile, and scalable ANC systems. In this regard, the distributed version of the multiple error filtered-x least mean square (DMEFxLMS algorithm that allows collaboration between nodes has shown excellent properties. However, practical constraints need to be considered since, in real scenarios, the acoustic nodes are equipped with power constrained actuators. If these constraints are not considered within the adaptive algorithm, the control signals may increase and saturate the hardware devices, causing system instability. To avoid this drawback, a control effort weighting can be considered in the cost function of the distributed algorithm at each node. Therefore, a control effort strategy over the output signals at each node is used to keep them under a given threshold and ensuring the distributed ANC system stability. Experimental results show that, assuming ideal network communications, the proposed distributed algorithm achieves the same performance as the leaky centralized ANC system. A performance evaluation of several versions of the leaky DMEFxLMS algorithm in realistic scenarios is also included.

  4. Income Taxation and Labor Supply: An Experiment on Couple's Work Effort


    Schröder, Melanie; Schmitt, Norma; Heynemann, Britta; Brünn, Claudia


    Complementary to microsimulation studies focusing on the impact of labor supply as a choice of hours worked we shed light on another variable that survey data are not capable of taking into account: the choice of work e ffort. Our aim is to investigate the eff ect of individual and joint taxation on partners' labor supply within an experimental setting. 116 participants (58 real couples) perform under a piece rate compensation on real e ffort tasks in two stages. The couple's income is taxed ...

  5. FEAMAC-CARES Software Coupling Development Effort for CMC Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan; Arnold, Steven; Mital, Subodh; Murthy, Pappu; Walton, Owen


    Reported here is a coupling of two NASA developed codes: CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) with the MACGMC composite material analysis code. The resulting code is called FEAMACCARES and is constructed as an Abaqus finite element analysis UMAT (user defined material). Here we describe the FEAMACCARES code and an example problem (taken from the open literature) of a laminated CMC in off-axis loading is shown. FEAMACCARES performs stochastic-strength-based damage simulation response of a CMC under multiaxial loading using elastic stiffness reduction of the failed elements.

  6. A coupled modelling effort to study the fate of contaminated sediments downstream of the Coles Hill deposit, Virginia, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F. Castro-Bolinaga


    Full Text Available This paper presents the preliminary results of a coupled modelling effort to study the fate of tailings (radioactive waste-by product downstream of the Coles Hill uranium deposit located in Virginia, USA. The implementation of the overall modelling process includes a one-dimensional hydraulic model to qualitatively characterize the sediment transport process under severe flooding conditions downstream of the potential mining site, a two-dimensional ANSYS Fluent model to simulate the release of tailings from a containment cell located partially above the local ground surface into the nearby streams, and a one-dimensional finite-volume sediment transport model to examine the propagation of a tailings sediment pulse in the river network located downstream. The findings of this investigation aim to assist in estimating the potential impacts that tailings would have if they were transported into rivers and reservoirs located downstream of the Coles Hill deposit that serve as municipal drinking water supplies.

  7. Osseointegration Implant Post Coupling With External Prosthetic Limb – Continuation of Previous Case Reports “Stage III”


    Ronald Hillock, MD; Danny Tatum, BCP; Edward Dolegowski, PT


    An ongoing update of the progress case report for the first patient treated with the Longitude™ osseointegration prosthesis implanted in an amputated residual femur is presented. The patient was given an intensive physical therapy program of strengthening and conditioning in anticipation of coupling to the external prosthesis. A custom prosthesis was fabricated based on the Plie’ 2.0 microprocessor knee system. The patient was then successfully trained on use and care of the prosthesis for am...

  8. A previously unidentified deletion in G protein-coupled receptor 143 causing X-linked congenital nystagmus in a Chinese family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Liu


    Full Text Available Background: Congenital nystagmus (CN is characterized by conjugated, spontaneous, and involuntary ocular oscillations. It is an inherited disease and the most common inheritance pattern is X-linked CN. In this study, our aim is to identify the disease-causing mutation in a large sixth-generation Chinese family with X-linked CN. Methods: It has been reported that mutations in four-point-one, ezrin, radixin, moesin domain-containing 7 gene (FRMD7 and G protein-coupled receptor 143 gene (GPR143 account for the majority patients of X-linked nystagmus. We collected 8 ml blood samples from members of a large sixth-generation pedigree with X-linked CN and 100 normal controls. FRMD7 and GPR143 were scanned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based DNA sequencing assays, and multiplex PCR assays were applied to detect deletions. Results: We identified a previously unreported deletion covering 7 exons in GPR143 in a Chinese family. The heterozygous deletion from exon 3 to exon 9 of GPR143 was detected in all affected males in the family, while it was not detected in other unaffected relatives or 100 normal controls. Conclusions: This is the first report of molecular characterization in GPR143 gene in the CN family. Our results expand the spectrum of GPR143 mutations causing CN and further confirm the role of GPR143 in the pathogenesis of CN.

  9. Does using testicular sperm retrieval rather than ejaculated spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes in couples with previous ART failure and poor ovarian response? A case-controlled study. (United States)

    Gilman, A R; Younes, G; Tannus, S; Son, W Y; Chan, P; Buckett, W


    The objective of this study was to assess whether testicular-retrieved spermatozoa improve reproductive outcomes compared to fresh ejaculate in women with poor ovarian response and a history of previous ART failure. The study was performed as a retrospective case-control study at a university-based reproductive center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Eighteen poor-responder patients were matched 3 : 1 with 54 controls. Poor responders were defined as those with ≤3 oocytes retrieved at oocyte pickup. Cases were identified as poor responders, and only those with previous IVF failure(s) as an indication for testicular-retrieved spermatozoa were included. Controls were age and cycle attempt number matched. All patients were included only once. From January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2015, all patients and controls underwent an IVF cycle using ICSI with either testicular spermatozoa or ejaculated spermatozoa, respectively. Outcomes included live birth rate, pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate, oocyte number, and embryo transfer (ET) day. The results showed live birth rates, pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates were similar. There were fewer day 2 ETs (8.5% vs. 48.6%, p = 0.01) and more day 5 blastocyst transfers (25.0% vs. 5.4%, p = 0.05) in the testicular sperm retrieval group compared to controls and thus an overall suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular sperm group. Overall, however, the use of testicular sperm retrieval appears to add little. Women with poor ovarian response typically have a poor prognosis with respect to live birth rates, and this is further supported in this study. The suggestion of better embryo quality in the testicular-retrieved sperm group would need to be further assessed in a larger multicentered study. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  11. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak


    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  12. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort. (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David


    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  13. A survey of previous and current industry-wide efforts regarding burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.


    Sandia has examined the matter of burnup credit from the perspective of physics, logistics, risk, and economics. A limited survey of the nuclear industry has been conducted to get a feeling for the actual application of burnup credit. Based on this survey, it can be concluded that the suppliers of spent fuel storage and transport casks are in general agreement that burnup credit offers the potential for improvements in cask efficiency without increasing the risk of accidental criticality. The actual improvement is design-specific but limited applications have demonstrated that capacity increases in the neighborhood of 20 percent are not unrealistic. A number of these vendors acknowledge that burnup credit has not been reduced to practice in cask applications and suggest that operational considerations may be more important to regulatory acceptance than to the physics. Nevertheless, the importance of burnup credit to the nuclear industry as a cask design and analysis tool has been confirmed by this survey

  14. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  15. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy


    Christensen, Andrew; Doss, Brian D.


    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) is based in part on traditional behavioral couple therapy but expands both the conceptualization of couple distress and of intervention. The efficacy of IBCT has been supported in three clinical trials, including one with five year follow-up. Additionally, the effectiveness of IBCT in the real world has been supported through a system-wide dissemination effort in the United States Department of Veteran’s Affairs. The reach of IBCT has also been ext...

  16. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.


    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  17. Worldwide effort against smoking. (United States)


    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  18. Coupled thermomechanical modeling using dissimilar geometries in arpeggio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostka, Timothy D.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan


    Performing coupled thermomechanical simulations is becoming an increasingly important aspect of nuclear weapon (NW) safety assessments in abnormal thermal environments. While such capabilities exist in SIERRA, they have thus far been used only in a limited sense to investigate NW safety themes. An important limiting factor is the difficulty associated with developing geometries and meshes appropriate for both thermal and mechanical finite element models, which has limited thermomechanical analysis to simplified configurations. This work addresses the issue of how to perform coupled analyses on models where the underlying geometries and associated meshes are different and tailored to their relevant physics. Such an approach will reduce the model building effort and enable previously developed single-physics models to be leveraged in future coupled simulations. A combined-environment approach is presented in this report using SIERRA tools, with quantitative comparisons made between different options in SIERRA. This report summarizes efforts on running a coupled thermomechanical analysis using the SIERRA Arpeggio code.

  19. Upper and lower limb muscle activation is bidirectionally and ipsilaterally coupled. (United States)

    Huang, Helen J; Ferris, Daniel P


    There are neural connections between the upper and lower limbs of humans that enable muscle activation in one limb pair (upper or lower) to modulate muscle activation in the other limb pair (lower or upper, respectively). The aims of this study were to extend previous findings regarding submaximal exercise to maximal effort exercise and determine whether there is an ipsilateral or contralateral bias to the neural coupling during a rhythmic locomotor-like task. We measured upper and lower limb muscle activity, joint kinematics, and limb forces in neurologically intact subjects (n = 16) as they performed recumbent stepping using different combinations of upper and lower limb efforts. We found increased muscle activation in passive lower limbs during active upper limb effort compared with passive upper limb effort. Likewise, increased muscle activation in passive upper limbs occurred during active lower limb effort compared with passive lower limb effort, suggesting a bidirectional effect. Maximal muscle activation in the active lower limbs was not different between conditions with active upper limb effort and conditions with passive upper limb movement. Similarly, maximal muscle activation in the active upper limbs was not different between conditions with active lower limb effort and conditions with passive lower limb movement. Further comparisons revealed that neural coupling was primarily from active upper limb muscles to passive ipsilateral lower limb muscles. These findings indicate that interlimb neural coupling affects muscle recruitment during maximal effort upper and lower limb rhythmic exercise and provides insight into the architecture of the neural coupling.

  20. If We Build It, They Will Come: Exploring Policy and Practice Implications of Public Support for Couple and Relationship Education for Lower Income and Relationally Distressed Couples. (United States)

    Bradford, Angela B; Hawkins, Alan J; Acker, Jennifer


    Over the past decade, public funding for Couple and Relationship Education programs has expanded. As program administrators have been able to extend their reach to low-income individuals and couples using this support, it has become apparent that greater numbers of relationally distressed couples are attending classes than previously anticipated. Because psychoeducational programs for couples have traditionally served less distressed couples, this dynamic highlights the need to examine the policy and practice implications of more distressed couples accessing these services. This paper reviews some of the most immediate issues, including screening for domestic violence and couple needs, pedagogical considerations, and the potential integration of therapy and education services. We also make suggestions for future research that can inform policy and practice efforts. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  1. Coupled transfers; Transferts couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolas, X.; Lauriat, G.; Jimenez-Rondan, J. [Universite de Marne-la-Vallee, Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts d' Energie et de Matiere (LETEM), 77 (France); Bouali, H.; Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Dept. de Physique, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Universitaire de Marseille, IUSTI UMR 6595, 13 Marseille (France); Stoian, M.; Rebay, M.; Lachi, M.; Padet, J. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Thermomecanique, UTAP, 51 - Reims (France); Mladin, E.C. [Universitaire Polytechnique Bucarest, Faculte de Genie Mecanique, Bucarest (Romania); Mezrhab, A. [Faculte des Sciences, Lab. de Mecanique et Energetique, Dept. de Physique, Oujda (Morocco); Abid, C.; Papini, F. [Ecole Polytechnique, IUSTI, 13 - Marseille (France); Lorrette, C.; Goyheneche, J.M.; Boechat, C.; Pailler, R. [Laboratoire des Composites ThermoStructuraux, UMR 5801, 33 - Pessac (France); Ben Salah, M.; Askri, F.; Jemni, A.; Ben Nasrallah, S. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Monastir, Lab. d' Etudes des Systemes Thermiques et Energetiques (Tunisia); Grine, A.; Desmons, J.Y.; Harmand, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Energetique, 59 - Valenciennes (France); Radenac, E.; Gressier, J.; Millan, P. [ONERA, 31 - Toulouse (France); Giovannini, A. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 (France)


    This session about coupled transfers gathers 30 articles dealing with: numerical study of coupled heat transfers inside an alveolar wall; natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a plugged and ventilated chimney; finite-volume modeling of the convection-conduction coupling in non-stationary regime; numerical study of the natural convection/radiant heat transfer coupling inside a partitioned cavity; modeling of the thermal conductivity of textile reinforced composites: finite element homogenization on a full periodical pattern; application of the control volume method based on non-structured finite elements to the problems of axisymmetrical radiant heat transfers in any geometries; modeling of convective transfers in transient regime on a flat plate; a conservative method for the non-stationary coupling of aero-thermal engineering codes; measurement of coupled heat transfers (forced convection/radiant transfer) inside an horizontal duct; numerical simulation of the combustion of a water-oil emulsion droplet; numerical simulation study of heat and mass transfers inside a reactor for nano-powders synthesis; reduction of a combustion and heat transfer model of a direct injection diesel engine; modeling of heat transfers inside a knocking operated spark ignition engine; heat loss inside an internal combustion engine, thermodynamical and flamelet model, composition effects of CH{sub 4}H{sub 2} mixtures; experimental study and modeling of the evolution of a flame on a solid fuel; heat transfer for laminar subsonic jet of oxygen plasma impacting an obstacle; hydrogen transport through a A-Si:H layer submitted to an hydrogen plasma: temperature effects; thermal modeling of the CO{sub 2} laser welding of a magnesium alloy; radiant heat transfer inside a 3-D environment: application of the finite volume method in association with the CK model; optimization of the infrared baking of two types of powder paints; optimization of the emission power of an infrared

  2. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen


    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  3. Learning Environment and Student Effort (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  4. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.


    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  5. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin


    populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...... employed to manage marine fisheries to capture the advantages of both approaches. In hybrid systems, catch or effort RBM dominates and controls on the other supplements. RBM using either catch or effort by itself addresses only the target species stock externality and not the remaining externalities......Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...

  6. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram. (United States)

    Addison, Paul S


    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification. (United States)

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil


    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Following Bariatric Surgery: an Exploration of the Couples' Experience. (United States)

    Pories, Mary Lisa; Hodgson, Jennifer; Rose, Mary Ann; Pender, John; Sira, Natalia; Swanson, Melvin


    Bariatric surgery is the most effective intervention for morbid obesity, resulting in substantial weight loss and the resolution of co-morbid conditions. It is not clear what impact bariatric surgery and the subsequent life-style changes have on patients' couple relationships. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the lived experience of couples after one member of the couple underwent bariatric surgery. This study utilized a phenomenological approach of semi-structured interviews of the couples jointly (n = 10 couples). Colaizzi's method of analysis for phenomenological studies was utilized to elucidate the central themes and distill the essence of the participants' experience. All of the couples felt their post-operative success was due to a joint effort on both members of the couples' part. The participant couples described the following five emerging thematic experiences: (a) changes in physical health, (b) changes in emotional health, (c) changes in eating habits, (d) greater intimacy in the relationship, and (e) the joint journey. This research provides greater insight into the experience of the couple than has been previously reported. The use of qualitative research techniques offer new approaches to examine the biopsychosocial outcomes and needs of bariatric surgery patients. Further research is warranted in order to develop culturally appropriate interventions to improve the patient's surgical and biopsychosocial outcomes.

  9. Dark coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavela, M.B.; Hernández, D.; Honorez, L. Lopez; Mena, O.; Rigolin, S.


    The two dark sectors of the universe—dark matter and dark energy—may interact with each other. Background and linear density perturbation evolution equations are developed for a generic coupling. We then establish the general conditions necessary to obtain models free from non-adiabatic instabilities. As an application, we consider a viable universe in which the interaction strength is proportional to the dark energy density. The scenario does not exhibit ''phantom crossing'' and is free from instabilities, including early ones. A sizeable interaction strength is compatible with combined WMAP, HST, SN, LSS and H(z) data. Neutrino mass and/or cosmic curvature are allowed to be larger than in non-interacting models. Our analysis sheds light as well on unstable scenarios previously proposed

  10. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  11. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, Charlotte; Arpanius, Victor; Daan, Serge; Bos, Nicolaas


    The prevalence and intensity of parasitic infection often increases in animals when they are reproducing. This may be a consequence of increased rates of parasite transmission due to reproductive effort. Alternatively, endocrine changes associated with reproduction can lead to immunosuppression.

  12. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort (United States)

    Wagner, Howard A.


    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  13. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone


    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  14. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.


    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  15. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  16. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  17. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  18. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)


    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  19. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  20. The vertebral biomechanic previous and after kyphoplasty. (United States)

    Pesce, V; Piazzolla, Andrea; Moretti, L; Carlucci, S; Parato, C; Maxy, P; Moretti, B


    The biomechanical understanding of increasing anterior column load with progressing kyphosis leading to subsequent vertebral compression fracture (VCF) established the basic rationale for kyphoplasty. The lumbar spine can support an effort of 500 kg in the axis of the vertebral body, and a bending moment of 20 Nm in flexion. Consequently, if this effort is forward deviated of only 10 cm, the acceptable effort will be reduced to 20 kg so it is important to restore the vertebral anterior wall after a VCF: the authors describe the biomechanical modifications in the spine after kyphoplasty.

  1. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser


    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  2. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.


    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  3. APS Education and Diversity Efforts (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore


    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  4. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section


    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir


    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  5. Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy. (United States)

    Christensen, Andrew; Doss, Brian D


    Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy (IBCT) is based in part on traditional behavioral couple therapy but expands both the conceptualization of couple distress and of intervention. The efficacy of IBCT has been supported in three clinical trials, including one with five year follow-up. Additionally, the effectiveness of IBCT in the real world has been supported through a system-wide dissemination effort in the United States Department of Veteran's Affairs. The reach of IBCT has also been extended through an online program,, based on IBCT. A nationwide clinical trial with a representative sample of the US population demonstrated the effectiveness of this program on both relationship and individual variables.

  6. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé


    . The medical records with possible documentation of ethical issues were independently reviewed by two philosophers in order to identify explicit ethical or philosophical considerations pertaining to the decision to resuscitate or not. RESULTS: In total, 1275 patients were either declared dead at the scene......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  7. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests. (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P


    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  8. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.


    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  9. The Influence Of Child Survival And Health Of The Previous Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on the relationship between child survival and health of the previous child factors and birth spacing practices among couples. A total of 200 couples, men and women, drawn randomly from different professions in Ibadan constituted the sample for the study. The two instruments used were ...

  10. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures. (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael


    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  11. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone


    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  12. Investigation of the Fluid-Solid Thermal Coupling for Rolling Bearing under Oil-Air Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohong Tong


    Full Text Available An excellent oil-air lubrication system helps to improve rolling bearing's working conditions and thus extend its service life span. Flowing and heat dissipating characteristics of oil-air media inside bearing chamber are very complicated due to the fluid-solid thermal coupling. Effects of fluid-solid thermal coupling are neglected in all previous simulation efforts. A numerical model for simulating the flowing inside bearing chamber is developed here based on an analytical fluid-solid thermal coupling method under oil-air lubrication. The effects of the coupling of air-oil flowing and heat dissipating in bearing chamber are predicted. The simulation results indicate that the coupling is influential in the performances of the flowing in rolling bearing under oil-air lubrication. With consideration of the coupling, the turbulence intensity, the turbulent kinetic energy, and the temperature of the rollers are predicted to be lower because part of the heat is carried out by the flow due to the heat transfer. On the contrary, the turbulent dissipation rate gets higher when considering the coupling effects. It is also interesting that the coupling effects have little influence on the flow pressure and the velocity, which is manifested by a little higher predicted value when considering the coupling.

  13. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  14. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  15. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy. (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K


    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  16. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses. (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.


    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  17. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk. (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald


    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Superconducting Resonant Inductive Power Coupling, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort will develop a technology to wirelessly and efficiently transfer power over hundreds of meters via resonant inductive coupling. The key...

  19. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context


    Ruf, Alexander


    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  20. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section]. (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir


    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  1. Aerodynamic and acoustic features of vocal effort. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Allison L; Lowell, Soren Y; Colton, Raymond H


    The purpose of this study was to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic features of speech produced at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. Prospective, quasi-experimental research design. Eighteen healthy participants with normal voice were included in this study. After task training, participants produced repeated syllable combinations at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. A pneumotachometer and vented (Rothenberg) mask were used to record aerodynamic data, with simultaneous recording of the acoustic signal for subsequent analysis. Aerodynamic measures of subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and laryngeal resistance were analyzed, along with acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and its standard deviation (SD). Participants produced significantly greater subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR during maximal effort speech as compared with comfortable vocal effort. When producing speech at minimal vocal effort, participants lowered subglottal pressure, MFDR, and laryngeal resistance. Acoustic changes associated with changes in vocal effort included significantly higher CPP during maximal effort speech and significantly lower CPP SD during minimal effort speech, when each was compared with comfortable effort. For healthy speakers without voice disorders, subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR may be important factors that contribute to an increased sense of vocal effort. Changes in the cepstral signal also occur under conditions of increased or decreased vocal effort relative to comfortable effort. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Books average previous decade of economic misery. (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios


    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  3. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev


    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  4. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports. (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel


    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  5. Gay and lesbian couples in Italy: comparisons with heterosexual couples. (United States)

    Antonelli, Paolo; Dèttore, Davide; Lasagni, Irene; Snyder, Douglas K; Balderrama-Durbin, Christina


    Assessing couple relationships across diverse languages and cultures has important implications for both clinical intervention and prevention. This is especially true for nontraditional relationships potentially subject to various expressions of negative societal evaluation or bias. Few empirically validated measures of relationship functioning have been developed for cross-cultural applications, and none have been examined for their psychometric sufficiency for evaluating same-sex couples across different languages and cultures. The current study examined the psychometric properties of an Italian translation of the Marital Satisfaction Inventory - Revised (MSI-R), a 150-item 13-scale measure of couple relationship functioning, for its use in assessing the intimate relationships of gay and lesbian couples in Italy. Results for these couples were compared to data from heterosexual married and unmarried cohabiting couples from the same geographical region, as well as to previously published data for gay, lesbian, and unmarried heterosexual couples from the United States. Findings suggest that, despite unique societal pressures confronting Italian same-sex couples, these relationships appear resilient and fare well both overall and in specific domains of functioning compared to heterosexual couples both in Italy and the United States. © 2014 Family Process Institute.

  6. A study of coupling two thermoacoustic lasers (United States)

    Surathu, Rohit

    Thermoacoustics is a field studying the effects of applying heat to particular resonator geometries, resulting in the oscillations of gas and thereby producing sound waves. This field is a rich blend of many other scientific fields: acoustics, thermodynamics, and fluid mechanics. Thermoacoustic engines work on a similar principle as traditional heat engines. The main difference between a traditional heat engine and a thermoacoustic engine is that an acoustic wave drives the thermodynamic process in the latter. These engines are easy to construct, and there are no moving parts, which reduces the mechanical wear and tear. In our case, we fabricated the simpler thermoacoustic lasers to conduct the analysis. In most previous work within this field, different designs were tested and studied for a single laser operation from which extensive experimental data sets were collected and analyzed. Design and operation of a thermoacoustic laser pair is more complicated. Even though there have been a few coupling studies, detailed information about the acoustic field of multiple thermoacoustic lasers is lacking. Hence, an effort was made to study the interaction between the sound waves by acoustically coupling two thermoacoustic lasers. The acoustic coupling was varied using 4 different configurations. First, the lasers were placed parallel to each other, with their open ends separated by a 1 m distance (0° crossing angle). Next, the sound waves of the two lasers were focused at a particular point, with their openings in proximity at a fixed crossing angle (30 or 90°). Finally, the spatial distance between the openings of the 30 and 90° crossing lasers was increased in their own respective angles. The signals were read using three different measuring devices: a sound pressure level meter, a unidirectional microphone or an omnidirectional miniature microphone. The signals read using both microphones were collected, measured, and analyzed. The results proved that coupling

  7. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.


    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  8. The Role of Effort Justification in Psychotherapy. (United States)

    Axsom, Danny; Cooper, Joel

    The possible influence of cognitive dissonance in psychotherapy was examined by conceptualizing therapy as an effort justification process. It was predicted that freely choosing to undergo a highly effortful procedure would aid in positive therapeutic change. Subjects (N=52) participated in a weight-reduction experiment in which the degree of…

  9. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz


    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  10. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul


    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  11. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.


    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  12. Improving the Army’s Next Effort in Technology Forecasting (United States)


    Richard Feynman , “Simulating Physics with Computers,” International Journal of Theoretical Physics, 21 (1982), 467–488. 45 D. Deutsch, “Quantum Theory...Improving the Army’s Next Effort in Technology Forecasting John Lyons, Richard Chait, and Simone Erchov, Editors...Psychology and Human Development from the University of Chicago. Richard Chait is a Distinguished Research Fellow at CTNSP. He was previously Chief

  13. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C


    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  14. Warthog: Coupling Status Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Shane W. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reardon, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    stand-alone BISON run. Future work involves improving the user interface (UI), likely through integration with the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Workbench. Furthermore, automating the input creation would ease the user experience. The next priority is to continue coupling the work with other codes in the SHARP package. Efforts on other projects include work to couple the Nek5000 thermo-hydraulics code to MOOSE, but this is in the preliminary stages.

  15. Spin orbit coupling in graphene through gold intercalation (United States)

    Mukherjee, Paromita; O'Farrell, Eoin; Tan, Jun You; Yeo, Yuting; Koon, G. K. W.; Özyilmaz, Barbaros; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.

    Graphene has a very low value of spin orbit coupling. There have been several efforts to enhance the spin orbit interaction in graphene. Our previous work has provided clear evidence that spin orbit coupling can be induced in graphene through Rashba interaction with intercalated gold. By applying an additional electric field, this splitting can be increased or decreased depending on its relative direction with the internal electric field induced by gold in graphene. A large negative magnetoresistance due to an in-plane magnetic field has been observed which can be attributed to the fact that a magnetic moment is induced in gold due to spin-orbit coupling. Anomalous Hall Effect which decreases with an in-plane magnetic field further suggests the formation of a collective magnetic phase. We would like to further elaborate on the spin-orbit coupling in graphene using non local measurements. Hence, by intercalating graphene with gold, we can have a direct electric manipulation of the spin degrees of freedom and lead to its much awaited applications in spintronics, quantum computing. National University of Singapore, Singapore.

  16. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  17. Intimate Partner Violence in Interracial Couples: A Comparison to White and Ethnic Minority Monoracial Couples (United States)

    Fusco, Rachel A.


    The number of interracial couples in the U.S. is growing, but they often receive little support. Although previous studies have explored the relationship between low social support and decreased relationship satisfaction in interracial couples, there are few studies on intimate partner violence (IPV) in these couples. To better understand IPV in…

  18. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language (United States)

    Rice, J. R.


    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  19. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy


    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  20. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015. (United States)


    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  1. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016. (United States)


    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  2. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013. (United States)


    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  3. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014. (United States)


    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  4. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict


    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua


    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  5. Strong coupling phase in QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ken-ichi


    Existence of a strong coupling phase in QED has been suggested in solutions of the Schwinger-Dyson equation and in Monte Carlo simulation of lattice QED. In this article we recapitulate the previous arguments, and formulate the problem in the modern framework of the renormalization theory, Wilsonian renormalization. This scheme of renormalization gives the best understanding of the basic structure of a field theory especially when it has a multi-phase structure. We resolve some misleading arguments in the previous literature. Then we set up a strategy to attack the strong phase, if any. We describe a trial; a coupled Schwinger-Dyson equation. Possible picture of the strong coupling phase QED is presented. (author)

  6. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection. (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha


    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers. (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria


    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenomenology of microwave coupling, part 1 (United States)

    King, R. J.; Breakall, J. K.; Hudson, H. G.; Morrison, J. J.; McGevna, V. G.; Kunz, K. S.; Ludwigsen, A. P.; Gnade, D. K.


    Advances in the development of high power microwave sources have increased the potential for future deployment of microwave weapons. A key ingredient in being able to predict the vulnerability of military systems to such threats involves understanding the phenomenology of how electromagnetic energy couples into cavity like objects, or the so called back door coupling. A similar but much longer standing problem is that of nuclear electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in which the frequencies extend up to several hundreds of MHz. However, compared to EMP coupling, microwave coupling is distinctively different because the wavelength is comparable to the size of the ports of entry. Coupling paths can be highly resonant at certain microwave frequencies, making the shielding against microwave threats difficult. The initial efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to study the phenomenology of back door coupling at the low microwave frequencies (up to 2.5 GHz) are summarized.

  9. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice. (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko


    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele


    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  11. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort? (United States)

    Johnston, Robert


    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  12. Behavior Contracts: A Home School Cooperative Effort. (United States)

    Stitely, Rose Patton


    This paper focuses on behavior contracts at school which attempt to promote a home school cooperative effort. The contract is drawn up at school, and classroom teachers award points for appropriate school behaviors; parents in turn reward the student if the report is good. (DS)

  13. Nash Equilibria in Shared Effort Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; De Weerdt, M.M.


    Shared effort games model people's contribution to projects and sharing the obtained profits. Those games generalize both public projects like writing for Wikipedia, where everybody shares the resulting benefits, and all-pay auctions such as contests and political campaigns, where only the winner

  14. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective? (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F


    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  15. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador


    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  16. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen


    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  17. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort (United States)


    operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising ...effort and how they present themselves. OIP will leverage technology and training to provide the best information and personnel for interagency

  18. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.


    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  19. The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts. (United States)

    Radetzki, Marian


    Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musat Carmina Liana


    Full Text Available During training processes, the human body gradually adapts itself, yet it is hard to believe that it has beenconceived in such way that it could endure the conditions of winning a modern Olympic or world medal. Withrespect to the physical effort, there is the following paradox: if the physical effort is acknowledged as a protector of the heart on the long term, then what causes these sports-related conditions that may result in sudden death?Thus arises the necessity of tracking and evaluating the cardiovascular risk targeting the professional sportsmen, their EKG fluctuations, the cardiovascular causes of sudden death, the part played by the physician and the sportsman in preventing the sudden death, as well as numerous clinical cases of sports cardiology

  1. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron


    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  2. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman


    Full Text Available The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.

  3. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.


    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  4. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts (United States)

    Smith, Danford


    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  5. Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China. (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D


    Previous studies with Western populations have shown that adolescents' tendency to downplay their academic effort is affected by two kinds of motives: ability-related motives (e.g., to appear competent) and social approval motives (e.g., to be popular). In this research, we test for the presence of additional competition-related motives in China, a culture placing strong emphasis on academic competition. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that, in response to a scenario in which a hard-working high-school junior hid effort from classmates, the most highly endorsed explanation was "to influence others to work less hard to maintain a competitive advantage." Study 2 (N = 174) revealed that competition-related explanations were endorsed relatively more often when the speaker and audience had similar academic rankings. This tendency was most evident when both speaker and audience were top performers, and when this was the case, participants' desire to demonstrate superiority over others was a positive predictor of endorsement of competition-related motives. Study 3 (N = 137) verified that competition-related motives were more strongly endorsed among Chinese participants than U.S. These results suggest that at least in cultures that emphasize academic competition and in contexts where competition is salient, hiding effort is often about attempting to gain strategic advantage. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs' affect and venture effort. (United States)

    Foo, Maw-Der; Uy, Marilyn A; Baron, Robert A


    How do feelings influence the effort of entrepreneurs? To obtain data on this issue, the authors implemented experience sampling methodology in which 46 entrepreneurs used cell phones to provide reports on their affect, future temporal focus, and venture effort twice daily for 24 days. Drawing on the affect-as-information theory, the study found that entrepreneurs' negative affect directly predicts entrepreneurs' effort toward tasks that are required immediately. Results were consistent for within-day and next-day time lags. Extending the theory, the study found that positive affect predicts venture effort beyond what is immediately required and that this relationship is mediated by future temporal focus. The mediating effects were significant only for next-day outcomes. Implications of findings on the nature of the affect-effort relationship for different time lags are discussed.

  7. Reduced Delay of Gratification and Effortful Control among Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (United States)

    Faja, Susan; Dawson, Geraldine


    We explored internal control of behavior using direct observation and parent report. Previous research has found that both the delay of gratification task and parent-reported effortful control predict later social ability and more positive outcomes in typically developing children. Children with autism spectrum disorder have previously been…

  8. Towards spatial frequency domain optical imaging of neurovascular coupling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (United States)

    Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.


    Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.

  9. Nicotine increases impulsivity and decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort despite improving attention in "slacker" rats: insights into cholinergic regulation of cost/benefit decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay G Hosking

    Full Text Available Successful decision making in our daily lives requires weighing an option's costs against its associated benefits. The neuromodulator acetylcholine underlies both the etiology and treatment of a number of illnesses in which decision making is perturbed, including Alzheimer's disease, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and schizophrenia. Nicotine acts on the cholinergic system and has been touted as a cognitive enhancer by both smokers and some researchers for its attention-boosting effects; however, it is unclear whether treatments that have a beneficial effect on attention would also have a beneficial effect on decision making. Here we utilize the rodent Cognitive Effort Task (rCET, wherein animals can choose to allocate greater visuospatial attention for a greater reward, to examine cholinergic contributions to both attentional performance and choice based on attentional demand. Following the establishment of baseline behavior, four drug challenges were administered: nicotine, mecamylamine, scopolamine, and oxotremorine (saline plus three doses for each. As per previous rCET studies, animals were divided by their baseline preferences, with "worker" rats choosing high-effort/high-reward options more than their "slacker" counterparts. Nicotine caused slackers to choose even fewer high-effort trials than at baseline, but had no effect on workers' choice. Despite slackers' decreased willingness to expend effort, nicotine improved their attentional performance on the task. Nicotine also increased measures of motor impulsivity in all animals. In contrast, scopolamine decreased animals' choice of high-effort trials, especially for workers, while oxotremorine decreased motor impulsivity for all animals. In sum, the cholinergic system appears to contribute to decision making, and in part these contributions can be understood as a function of individual differences. While nicotine has been considered as a cognitive enhancer, these data suggest

  10. Ultra High Brightness/Low Cost Fiber Coupled Packaging Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The focus of the proposed effort is maximizing the brightness of fiber coupled laser diode pump sources at a minimum cost. The specific innovation proposed is to...

  11. Robust, Low Loss Approach for Fiber to Waveguide Coupling Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA Phase I SBIR effort proposes to establish the feasibility of significantly improving coupling at fiber to waveguide interfaces for the manufacture of low...

  12. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort. (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil


    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  13. Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO. (United States)

    Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K


    The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.

  14. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis


    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...... in the listening room....

  15. Smart FPA's: are they worth the effort? (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; Theuwissen, Albert; Magnan, Pierre


    CMOS APS technology allows including signal processing in the sensor array. Inclusion of functionality however will come at a cost both financially and in the field of limited applicability. Based on two real world examples (micro digital sunsensor core and lightning flash detector for Meteosat Third Generation (MTG)) it will be demonstrated that large system gains can be obtained by devising smart focal planes. Therefore it is felt that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages for some applications, making it worth to spend the effort on system integration.

  16. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...... on the tool/workpiece interface conditions. The task includes the following four sub-tasks: Subtask 3.1 Simulative testing of friction in cold forming Subtask 3.2 Simulative testing of friction in warm and hot forming Subtask 3.3 Validation of measured friction values by process tests Subtask 3.4 Heat...

  17. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad. (United States)

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M


    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives.

  18. Analysis of efforts on a tubular chassis


    Pérez Ripa, Diego


    The objective of this project is to design a tubular chassis of a speed car, based on a earlier design of this type of car. When it is designed, the aim is to design it with a finite element program, in this case, is going to be used the software Abaqus, for after establish a method of calculation in a manner in which can be measured all the parameters, like deformations and stresses, suffered by the chassis submited to the efforts supported by the chassis in different situatio...

  19. Path coupling and aggregate path coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yevgeniy


    This book describes and characterizes an extension to the classical path coupling method applied to statistical mechanical models, referred to as aggregate path coupling. In conjunction with large deviations estimates, the aggregate path coupling method is used to prove rapid mixing of Glauber dynamics for a large class of statistical mechanical models, including models that exhibit discontinuous phase transitions which have traditionally been more difficult to analyze rigorously. The book shows how the parameter regions for rapid mixing for several classes of statistical mechanical models are derived using the aggregate path coupling method.

  20. Risks worth Taking: Safety Agreements among Discordant Gay Couples


    Beougher, Sean C.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Garcia, Carla C.; Darbes, Lynae A.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Hoff, Colleen C.


    As HIV research and prevention efforts increasingly target gay men in relationships, situational factors such as couple serostatus and agreements about sex become central to examinations of risk. Discordant gay couples are of particular interest because the risk of HIV infection is seemingly near-at-hand. Yet little is known about their sexual behaviors, agreements about sex, and safer sex efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal semi-structured, qualitative interviews to explore thes...

  1. Magnetosphere - Ionosphere - Thermosphere (MIT) Coupling at Jupiter (United States)

    Yates, J. N.; Ray, L. C.; Achilleos, N.


    Jupiter's upper atmospheric temperature is considerably higher than that predicted by Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) heating alone. Simulations incorporating magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling effects into general circulation models have, to date, struggled to reproduce the observed atmospheric temperatures under simplifying assumptions such as azimuthal symmetry and a spin-aligned dipole magnetic field. Here we present the development of a full three-dimensional thermosphere model coupled in both hemispheres to an axisymmetric magnetosphere model. This new coupled model is based on the two-dimensional MIT model presented in Yates et al., 2014. This coupled model is a critical step towards to the development of a fully coupled 3D MIT model. We discuss and compare the resulting thermospheric flows, energy balance and MI coupling currents to those presented in previous 2D MIT models.

  2. Indiscriminate polyandry and male parental effort. (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi


    Extrapair paternity involves cooperation between mated females and extrapair males. On the other hand, mated males exhibit a spectrum of anti-cuckolding strategies. Hence, extrapair attributes of diverse species and populations reported in the literature are particular solutions of evolutionary games involving gender-specific cuckolding/anti-cuckolding strategies. Here we use game theoretical methods to study the effect of male paternal effort conserving strategies in situations where females seek extrapair fertilizations (EPF) for reasons of genetic compatibility and/or in pursuit of genetic diversity for their offspring. In such cases, females cannot make a pre-copulatory selection of the optimal genetic partners, and therefore combine promiscuous copulation with the use of in copula and/or post-copulatory selection mechanisms to optimize the genetic endowment of their offspring-indiscriminate polyandry. Our results indicate that, when indiscriminate polygamy is constrained by the availability of extrapair male partners, there are three possible (parameter regime wise) evolutionary stable strategy solutions. (1). All females seek EPF, while all males restrict parental care. (2). All females seek EPF, while all males are unconditionally parental. (3). Females use a combination strategy where pursuit of EPF is mixed-on either a population, or an individual level-with genetic monogamy, while all males use a conditional paternal care strategy, which involves adjusting their parental efforts according to their certainty of paternity.

  3. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams


    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  4. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.


    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  5. Nuclear thermal rocket clustering: 1, A summary of previous work and relevant issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buksa, J.J.; Houts, M.G.


    A general review of the technical merits of nuclear thermal rocket clustering is presented. A summary of previous analyses performed during the Rover program is presented and used to assess clustering in the context of projected Space Exploration Initiative missions. A number of technical issues are discussed including cluster reliability, engine-out operation, neutronic coupling, shutdown core power generation, shutdown reactivity requirements, reactor kinetics, and radiation shielding. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. The couple as context: Latino gay male couples and HIV. (United States)

    Beougher, Sean C; Gomez, Walter; Hoff, Colleen C


    HIV-prevention efforts with gay men in relationships frequently omit primary partners. When they are considered, examinations of race/ethnicity are often overlooked despite higher infection rates among gay men of colour. Acknowledging both the need to contextualise the behaviours that may affect HIV risk for gay men of colour and the disproportionate impact of HIV on Latino gay men, the present study utilised semi-structured, qualitative interviews to explore relationship dynamics, sexual agreements and behaviours, safer sex choices and HIV risk among nine Latino gay male couples. All participants were HIV-negative and in concordant negative relationships. Additionally, nearly all reported closed agreements. Analysis revealed participants engaging in four behaviours that may actively reduce their HIV risk: approaching sexual agreements from a practical standpoint, maintaining a high literacy around HIV, having exposure to social support groups for Latino gay men and finding support in their relationship with another Latino gay man. Additional issues are raised where long-term HIV prevention is concerned. Intimate relationships are an important context for understanding both HIV risk and prevention among Latino gay men. Likewise, race/ethnicity provides an indispensable perspective on all research with gay couples. Future prevention efforts with gay men must strive to include both.

  7. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts (United States)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale


    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  8. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts (United States)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.


    NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA

  9. Quality of life and its related factors in infertile couples. (United States)

    Keramat, Afsaneh; Masoomi, Seyyedeh Zahra; Mousavi, Seyed Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Hazavhei, Seyyed Mohammad Mehdi


    Health related quality of life (QoL) has now been considered as a main tool for outcome measurement in infertility. The present study aimed to determine the association between general and specified QoL with different psychological aspects of self-esteem, social support, sexual satisfaction, and marital satisfaction in a sample of Iranian infertile couples. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 385 infertile couples referred to the Fatemieh Hospital in Hamadan City, western Iran in 2012.To measure the self-esteem, the Iseng test was used. The social support scaling developed by Cassidy and Long was used for assessment of social support. The sexual satisfaction was also assessed by the Lindaberg questionnaire. For assessing the general QoL state, the WHO-QoL-BREF and FertiQoL tools were employed. Self-esteem scores were lower in the couples with longer infertility duration. The social support mean score was lower in low income couples. Those with higher educational level, shorter infertility duration, and higher income were more satisfied from their marital relationships. Besides, we revealed that the previous failed efforts for treatment of infertility were adversely associated with the lower social support and sexual satisfaction. The higher educational level, higher monthly income, living in urban area, shorter duration of marriage and infertility, and male gender were associated with better. QoL status in the most components.Associations between QoL and self-esteem, social support, sexual satisfaction, and marital satisfaction were significant (Pself-esteem, social support, sexual satisfaction, and marital satisfaction.

  10. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.


    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  11. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  12. KEK effort for high field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, T


    KEK has emphasized efforts to develop the RHQNb3Al superconductor and a sub-scale magnet reaching 13 T towards the HL-LHC upgrade in last years. In addition, relevant R&D regarding radiation resistance has been carried out. For higher field magnets beyond 15 T, HTS in combination with A15 superconductors should be one of baseline materials. However, all these superconductors are very sensitive to stress and strain and thorough understanding of behaviour is truly desired for realization of high field magnets. KEK has launched a new research subject on stress/strain sensitivity of HTS and A15 superconductors in collaboration with the neutron diffraction facility at J-PARC and High Field Laboratory in Tohoku University. Present activity for high field magnets at KEK is reported.

  13. The present gravitational wave detection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riles, Keith


    Gravitational radiation offers a new non-electromagnetic window through which to observe the universe. The LIGO and Virgo Collaborations have completed a first joint data run with unprecedented sensitivities to gravitational waves. Results from searches in the data for a variety of astrophysical sources are presented. A second joint data run with improved detector sensitivities is underway, and soon major upgrades will be carried out to build Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with expected improvements in event rates of more than 1000. In parallel there is a vigorous effort in the radio pulsar community to detect nHz gravitational waves via the timing residuals in an array of pulsars at different locations in the sky.

  14. Self-regulating the effortful "social dos". (United States)

    Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna


    In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Broadband Noise of Fans - With Unsteady Coupling Theory to Account for Rotor and Stator Reflection/Transmission Effects (United States)

    Hanson, Donald B.


    This report examines the effects on broadband noise generation of unsteady coupling between a rotor and stator in the fan stage of a turbofan engine. Whereas previous acoustic analyses treated the blade rows as isolated cascades, the present work accounts for reflection and transmission effects at both blade rows by tracking the mode and frequency scattering of pressure and vortical waves. The fan stage is modeled in rectilinear geometry to take advantage of a previously existing unsteady cascade theory for 3D perturbation waves and thereby use a realistic 3D turbulence spectrum. In the analysis, it was found that the set of participating modes divides itself naturally into "independent mode subsets" that couple only among themselves and not to the other such subsets. This principle is the basis for the analysis and considerably reduces computational effort. It also provides a simple, accurate scheme for modal averaging for further efficiency. Computed results for a coupled fan stage are compared with calculations for isolated blade rows. It is found that coupling increases downstream noise by 2 to 4 dB. Upstream noise is lower for isolated cascades and is further reduced by including coupling effects. In comparison with test data, the increase in the upstream/downstream differential indicates that broadband noise from turbulent inflow at the stator dominates downstream noise but is not a significant contributor to upstream noise.

  16. Risks worth taking: safety agreements among discordant gay couples. (United States)

    Beougher, Sean C; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Garcia, Carla C; Darbes, Lynae A; Neilands, Torsten B; Hoff, Colleen C


    As HIV research and prevention efforts increasingly target gay men in relationships, situational factors such as couple serostatus and agreements about sex become central to examinations of risk. Discordant gay couples are of particular interest because the risk of HIV infection is seemingly near-at-hand. Yet, little is known about their sexual behaviors, agreements about sex, and safer sex efforts. The present study utilized longitudinal semi-structured, qualitative interviews to explore these issues among 12 discordant couples. Findings show that nearly every couple had agreements about reducing the likelihood of HIV transmission from one partner to the other. Negotiating these agreements involved establishing a level of acceptable risk, determining condom use, and employing other risk-reduction techniques, such as seropositioning and withdrawal. For half of the couples, these agreements did not involve using condoms; only two couples reported consistent condom use. Despite forgoing condoms, however, none reported seroconversion over the course of data collection. Additional issues are raised where long-term HIV prevention is concerned. Future prevention efforts with discordant couples should work with, rather than fight against, the couple's decision to use condoms and endeavor to complement and accentuate their other safer sex efforts.

  17. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  18. Neural correlates of mental effort evaluation--involvement of structures related to self-awareness. (United States)

    Otto, Tobias; Zijlstra, Fred R H; Goebel, Rainer


    Mental effort is a limited resource which must be invested to perform mental tasks. The amount of mental effort investment that an individual experiences during task performance can be measured afterwards with the help of self-rating scales. Earlier research suggests that integration of information about somatic state changes is crucial for the self-evaluation of mental effort investment. Damage to the pathways which convey information about somatic state changes can lead to an inability to self-evaluate mental effort investment, while conceptually similar evaluations of task difficulty can still be performed. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate brain activation, while subjects rated their mental effort investment and the difficulty of a previously performed task. Our results show stronger activation of the left anterior insular cortex (aIC) during evaluation of mental effort. Additionally, the activity in left aIC during task performance was modulated by changes in task demand in a similar way as the self-ratings of mental effort. We argue that aIC does not only play a role in the integration of self-related information during self-evaluation of mental effort investment, but that left aIC might also be involved in the experience of mental effort during task performance.

  19. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald


    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  20. Mindfulness training affects attention—Or is it attentional effort?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Frøkjær, Vibe Gedsø


    and visual working memory capacity. Furthermore, stress-reducing effects of MBSR were supported because those in the MBSR group showed significantly less perceived and physiological stress while increasing their mindfulness levels significantly. We argue that MBSR may contribute uniquely to attentional......Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress...... reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls...

  1. Efforts to Improve Writing Skills of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Inayah


    Full Text Available Writing in English is one of the language skills that are taught in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Indonesian senior high schools. According to previous studies, most of the students consider writing is the most difficult of the four skills. This research was aimed at finding out the main difficulties in writing faced by the grade XI students at SMA Negeri 10 Fajar Harapan, Banda Aceh, and the efforts made by their teacher to overcome those problems. The design of this study was a descriptive qualitative study. To obtain the data, the writers used document collection and interviews. The results from the document collection showed that the highest percentages of problems faced by the students were in the aspect of language use and the least problems were in the aspect of content. The results from the interviews showed that the most common correcting efforts made by the teacher were giving written feedback for all aspects of writing i.e. language use, mechanics, vocabulary, organization, and content. Likewise, teachers need to develop systemized forms of feedback and make it clear to students what the feedback means and what they are to do with them to assist students in improving their writing skills.

  2. Trenchant Remedying: Directional Disturbing of Organizational Change Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Green


    Full Text Available Organisational change theory has a historic bias towards personal resistance and individuals adopting a passive or negative perspective to change initiatives. Perpetuating this view change literature presents management approaches to assist in overcoming resistance, which have shown negligible evolution beyond the view that individual involvement and participation, together with effective communication, provide assistance. This paper challenges this assumption by providing inspiration via a contrary conceptual approach to organisational change; proposing an antithesis to traditional change management solutions and contributes to the role of communication within the process of change management. Grounded theory is the methodology used, which enables the data to provide the concepts and connections required in the construction of the theory. This requires a no preconceptions dictum to enable the generation of theory, not verification of a previous theory or hypothesis. Trenchant remedying is the grounded theory generated from data and conceptualises the concern resolving behaviours undertaken during the change receptivity process. During analysis it became evident that vigour and effort were expended and a solution sought as a remedy, hence the naming of the core category. Keywords: change receptivity, change initiation, alertness, disruption, effort

  3. Common factors of change in couple therapy. (United States)

    Davis, Sean D; Lebow, Jay L; Sprenkle, Douglas H


    Though it is clear from meta-analytic research that couple therapy works well, it is less clear how couple therapy works. Efforts to attribute change to the unique ingredients of a particular model have consistently turned up short, leading many researchers to suggest that change is due to common factors that run through different treatment approaches and settings. The purpose of this article is to provide an empirically based case for several common factors in couple therapy, and discuss clinical, training, and research implications for a common factors couple therapy paradigm. Critical distinctions between model-driven and common factors paradigms are also discussed, and a moderate common factors approach is proposed as a more useful alternative to an extreme common factors approach. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Contemporary and emerging efforts on material degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Peter L.


    After decades of surprises and lost capacity in commercial nuclear power plants, there are major efforts throughout the world to address materials degradation proactively, although to date there has been vastly more paper studies than R and D. Proactivity requires sufficient knowledge and extrapolation/projection of prior and yet-to-be-observed degradation in reactors. This is complex because relatively subtle variations of conditions that gave rise to historical problems can reduce or enhance their incidence, and of course simple evolution vs. time leads to increased incidence. Problems not yet observed are even more difficult to assess, and extremes of opinion range from a vast array of imaginative potential degradation mechanisms to the view that if a problem has not yet surfaced in plant, then it won't be a future problem. Environmentally assisted cracking in high temperature water has been extensively studied. But it is sufficiently complex-involving dozens of important parameters - that important issues continue to emerge as careful studies have been performed. This paper summarizes a number of emerging issues, and highlights the need for improvements in experimental sophistication and for deeper probing into the nature and importance of these emerging issues. With sophisticated laboratory measurements that can reproduce plant conditions and degradation, it is reasonable to conclude that lab data can act as a preview of future field experience. (author)

  5. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran. (United States)

    Aghajanian, A


    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  6. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ... (United States)

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  7. ICRP new recommendations. Committee 2's efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.


    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may release new primary radiation protection recommendation in 2007. Committee 2 has underway reviews of the dosimetric and biokinetic models and associated data used in calculating dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and exposures to external radiation fields. This paper outlines the work plans of Committee 2 during the current term, 2005-2009, in anticipation of the new primary recommendations. The two task groups of Committee 2 responsible for the computations of dose coefficients, INDOS and DOCAL, are reviewing the models and data used in the computations. INDOS is reviewing the lung model and the biokinetic models that describe the behavior of the radionuclides in the body. DOCAL is reviewing its computational formulations with the objective of harmonizing the formulation with those of nuclear medicine, and developing new computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference individuals of ICRP Publication 89. In addition, DOCAL will issue a publication on nuclear decay data to replace ICRP Publication 38. While the current efforts are focused on updating the dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides plans are being formulated to address dose coefficients for external radiation fields which include consideration of high energy fields associated with accelerators and space travel and the updating of dose coefficients for members of the public. (author)

  8. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.


    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  9. Quality-oriented efforts in IPD, - a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup


    It is generally expected that modern quality efforts like TQM and ISO9000 should deliver a sufficient framework for quality efforts in industrial companies. Our findings in Danish industry shows a fragmented picture of islands of efforts and a weak understanding of basic quality concepts between...... designers. The paper propose a framework for quality efforts, illustrated by simple metaphors....

  10. Electromagnetic clutches and couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Vorob'Yeva, T M; Fry, D W; Higinbotham, W


    Electromagnetic Clutches and Couplings contains a detailed description of U.S.S.R. electromagnetic friction clutches, magnetic couplings, and magnetic particle couplings. This book is divided into four chapters. The first chapter discusses the design and construction of magnetic (solenoid-operated) couplings, which are very quick-acting devices and used in low power high-speed servo-systems. Chapter 2 describes the possible fields of application, design, construction, and utilization of magnetic particle couplings. The aspects of construction, design, and utilization of induction clutches (sli

  11. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, B.


    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to ±5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications

  12. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo


    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  13. Global Data Grid Efforts for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, R.


    Over the past two years computational data grids have emerged as a promising new technology for large scale, data-intensive computing required by the LHC experiments, as outlined by the recent "Hoffman" review panel that addressed the LHC computing challenge. The problem essentially is to seamlessly link physicists to petabyte-scale data and computing resources, distributed worldwide, and connected by high-bandwidth research networks. Several new collaborative initiatives in Europe, the United States, and Asia have formed to address the problem. These projects are of great interest to ATLAS physicists and software developers since their objective is to offer tools that can be integrated into the core ATLAS application framework for distributed event reconstruction, Monte Carlo simulation, and data analysis, making it possible for individuals and groups of physicists to share information, data, and computing resources in new ways and at scales not previously attempted. In addition, much of the distributed IT...

  14. Outcomes of couples with infidelity in a community-based sample of couple therapy. (United States)

    Atkins, David C; Marín, Rebeca A; Lo, Tracy T Y; Klann, Notker; Hahlweg, Kurt


    Infidelity is an often cited problem for couples seeking therapy, but the research literature to date is very limited on couple therapy outcomes when infidelity is a problem. The current study is a secondary analysis of a community-based sample of couple therapy in Germany and Austria. Outcomes for 145 couples who reported infidelity as a problem in their relationship were compared with 385 couples who sought therapy for other reasons. Analyses based on hierarchical linear modeling revealed that infidelity couples were significantly more distressed and reported more depressive symptoms at the start of therapy but continued improving through the end of therapy and to 6 months posttherapy. At the follow-up assessment, infidelity couples were not statistically distinguishable from non-infidelity couples, replicating previous research. Sexual dissatisfaction did not depend on infidelity status. Although there was substantial missing data, sensitivity analyses suggested that the primary findings were not due to missing data. The current findings based on a large community sample replicated previous work from an efficacy trial and show generally optimistic results for couples in which there has been an affair. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  15. The Kavirondo Escarpment: a previously unrecognized site of high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite only a limited effort there, we report several new atlas square occurrences, presence of the local and poorly known Rock Cisticola Cisticola emini and a significant range extension for the Stone Partridge Ptilopachus petrosus. Our short visits indicate high avian species richness is associated with the escarpment and ...

  16. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.


    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort

  17. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  18. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  19. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  20. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...




  2. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation. (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A


    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  3. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients. (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio


    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  4. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.


    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  5. Omens of coupled model biases in the CMIP5 AMIP simulations (United States)

    Găinuşă-Bogdan, Alina; Hourdin, Frédéric; Traore, Abdoul Khadre; Braconnot, Pascale


    Despite decades of efforts and improvements in the representation of processes as well as in model resolution, current global climate models still suffer from a set of important, systematic biases in sea surface temperature (SST), not much different from the previous generation of climate models. Many studies have looked at errors in the wind field, cloud representation or oceanic upwelling in coupled models to explain the SST errors. In this paper we highlight the relationship between latent heat flux (LH) biases in forced atmospheric simulations and the SST biases models develop in coupled mode, at the scale of the entire intertropical domain. By analyzing 22 pairs of forced atmospheric and coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations from the CMIP5 database, we show a systematic, negative correlation between the spatial patterns of these two biases. This link between forced and coupled bias patterns is also confirmed by two sets of dedicated sensitivity experiments with the IPSL-CM5A-LR model. The analysis of the sources of the atmospheric LH bias pattern reveals that the near-surface wind speed bias dominates the zonal structure of the LH bias and that the near-surface relative humidity dominates the east-west contrasts.

  6. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote


    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  7. Osseointegration Implant Post Coupling With External Prosthetic Limb – Continuation of Previous Case Reports “Stage III”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Hillock, MD


    Acknowledgement: Design concept by Concept Design & Development, LLC (CDD,LLC; Development and Manufacturing by Signature Orthopaedics, LTD; Centennial Hills Hospital Medical Center, Las Vegas, NV; and Institutional Review Board (IRB by Joint Implant Surgery & Research Foundation.

  8. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  9. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  10. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling (United States)


    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  11. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section. (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y


    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  12. Convincing American Women to Join in the Efforts to Win World War I: A Lesson Plan. (United States)

    Sunal, Cynthia S.; Haas, Mary E.


    Asserts that World War I, unlike previous wars, was not fought by small groups of professional soldiers, but with large groups of citizens, including women. Presents a lesson plan using poster and postcards that examines methods used by the U.S. government to rally women to join the war effort. (CFR)

  13. Including Performance Assessments in Accountability Systems: A Review of Scale-Up Efforts (United States)

    Tung, Rosann


    The purpose of this literature and field review is to understand previous efforts at scaling up performance assessments for use across districts and states. Performance assessments benefit students and teachers by providing more opportunities for students to demonstrate their knowledge and complex skills, by providing teachers with better…

  14. Results of the Software Process Improvement Efforts of the Early Adopters in NAVAIR 4.0 (United States)


    NAWCWD TP 8642 4 BACKGROUND Over the last several decades NAVAIR, the parent organization of Code 4.0, Research and Engineering Group, staff. • Previous process changes had left the engineering staff feeling uninvolved . • Time saving. • Effort saving. NAWCWD TP 8642

  15. Regional GHG reduction targets based on effort sharing: a comparison of studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höhne, N.; Elzen, den M.G.J.; Escalante, D.


    Over 40 studies that analyse future GHG emissions allowances or reduction targets for different regions based on a wide range of effort-sharing approaches and long-term concentration stabilization levels are compared. This updates previous work undertaken for the Fourth Assessment Report of the

  16. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation]. (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao


    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  17. Conformally Coupled Inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Faraoni


    Full Text Available A massive scalar field in a curved spacetime can propagate along the light cone, a causal pathology, which can, in principle, be eliminated only if the scalar couples conformally to the Ricci curvature of spacetime. This property mandates conformal coupling for the field driving inflation in the early universe. During slow-roll inflation, this coupling can cause super-acceleration and, as a signature, a blue spectrum of primordial gravitational waves.

  18. Conversation, coupling and complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Abney, Drew; Bahrami, Bahador

    We investigate the linguistic co-construction of interpersonal synergies. By applying a measure of coupling between complex systems to an experimentally elicited corpus of joint decision dialogues, we show that interlocutors’ linguistic behavior displays increasing signature of multi-scale coupling......, known as complexity matching, over the course of interaction. Furthermore, we show that stronger coupling corresponds with more effective interaction, as measured by collective task performance....

  19. Lung Transplantation From Donors After Previous Cardiac Surgery: Ideal Graft in Marginal Donor? (United States)

    Palleschi, A; Mendogni, P; Tosi, D; Montoli, M; Carrinola, R; Mariolo, A V; Briganti, F; Nosotti, M


    Lung transplantation is a limited by donor pool shortage. Despite the efforts to extend the graft acceptability with recurrent donor criteria reformulations, previous cardiothoracic surgery is still considered a contraindication. A donor who underwent cardiac surgery could potentially provide an ideal lung but high intraoperative risks and intrinsic technical challenges are expected during the graft harvesting. The purpose of this study is to present our dedicated protocol and four clinical cases of successful lung procurements from donors who had a previous major cardiac surgery. One donor had ascending aortic root (AAR) substitution, another had mitral valve substitution, and two had coronary artery bypass surgery. The others' eligibility criteria for organ allocation, such as ABO compatibility, PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio, absence of aspiration, or sepsis were respected. In one of the cases with previous coronary bypass grafting, the donor had a veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. Consequently, the grafts required an ex vivo lung perfusion evaluation. We report the technical details of procurement and postoperative courses of recipients. All procurements were uneventful, without lung damage or waste of abdominal organs related to catastrophic intraoperative events. All recipients had a successful clinical outcome. We believe that successful transplantation is achievable even in a complicated setting, such as cases involving donors with previous cardiac surgery frequently are. Facing lung donor shortage, we strongly support any effort to avoid the loss of possible acceptable lungs. In particular, previous major cardiac surgery does not strictly imply a poor quality of lungs as well as unsustainable graft procurement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The power of competition: Effects of social motivation on attention, sustained physical effort, and learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brynne Catherine DiMenichi


    Full Text Available Competition has often been implicated as a means to improve effort-based learning and attention. Two experiments examined the effects of competition on effort and memory. In Experiment 1, participants completed a physical effort task in which they were rewarded for winning an overall percentage, or for winning a competition they believed was against another player. In Experiment 2, participants completed a memory task in which they were rewarded for remembering an overall percentage of shapes, or more shapes than a competitor. We found that, in the physical effort task, participants demonstrated faster reaction times—a previous indicator of increased attention— in the competitive environment. Moreover, individual differences predicted the salience of competition’s effect. Furthermore, male participants showed faster reaction times and greater sustained effort as a result of a competitive environment, suggesting that males may be more affected by competition in physical effort tasks. However, in Experiment 2, participants remembered fewer shapes when competing, and later recalled less of these shapes during a post-test, suggesting that competition was harmful in our memory task. The different results from these two experiments suggest that competition can improve attention in a physical effort task, yet caution the use of competition in memory tasks.

  1. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  2. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh


    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  3. An association between paying physician-teachers for their teaching efforts and an improved educational experience for learners. (United States)

    Ashar, Bimal; Levine, Rachel; Magaziner, Jeffrey; Shochet, Robert; Wright, Scott


    Medical schools often rely on faculty volunteerism to address clinical teaching needs for students. Increasing time pressures on physicians has made it difficult to secure commitments for clinical instruction. In the 2005-2006 academic year, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (JHUSOM) launched the Colleges Program, recruiting 24 salary-supported physician-faculty to serve as advisors to students as well as teachers of the second year course, 'clinical skills'. We hypothesized that compensating physician educators would have a measurable positive impact on the students' experiences in this course. Students' assessments of paid colleges faculty (CF) preceptors from the 2005-2006 year were compared to those of volunteer preceptors from the two prior years (2003-2005 academic years) along six different teaching parameters linked to the course's objectives. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify the factors independently associated with higher preceptor scores. Fifty-eight preceptors taught clinical skills over the 3-year study period. The overall response rate for preceptor evaluations by medical learners was 77% (277/359). CF, more likely than volunteer preceptors to have a full-time academic appointment (100 vs 63%, p evaluation domains were higher for CF compared to those from the two previous years combined (all p evaluation scores (Odds Ratio 4.3, 95% CI 1.01-18.20). Salary support for teaching efforts in the time-intensive CS course coupled with the prestige of being appointed to the CF was associated with higher student evaluations.

  4. Perceived effort for motor control and decision-making. (United States)

    Cos, Ignasi


    How effort is internally quantified and how it influences both movement generation and decisions between potential movements are 2 difficult questions to answer. Physical costs are known to influence motor control and decision-making, yet we lack a general, principled characterization of how the perception of effort operates across tasks and conditions. Morel and colleagues introduce an insightful approach to that end, assessing effort indifference points and presenting a quadratic law between perceived effort and force production.

  5. Analysis of over 10,000 Cases finds no association between previously reported candidate polymorphisms and ovarian cancer outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    White, Kristin L; Vierkant, Robert A; Fogarty, Zachary C


    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women. In an effort to understand contributors to disease outcome, we evaluated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with ovarian cancer recurrence or survival, specifically in angiogenesis, inflammation, mitosis...

  6. Contested Spatial Coincidence of Conservation and Mining Efforts in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mining appears to represent an important threat to conservation efforts in Madagascar. Expanding mining activities on the island have the potential to provide revenue for development and conservation efforts, but also pose a potential threat to conservation efforts on the island due to the spatial distribution and extent of ...

  7. Relation Between Listening Effort and Speech Intelligibility in Noise. (United States)

    Krueger, Melanie; Schulte, Michael; Zokoll, Melanie A; Wagener, Kirsten C; Meis, Markus; Brand, Thomas; Holube, Inga


    Subjective ratings of listening effort might be applicable to estimate hearing difficulties at positive signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) at which speech intelligibility scores are near 100%. Hence, ratings of listening effort were compared with speech intelligibility scores at different SNRs, and the benefit of hearing aids was evaluated. Two groups of listeners, 1 with normal hearing and 1 with hearing impairment, performed adaptive speech intelligibility and adaptive listening effort tests (Adaptive Categorical Listening Effort Scaling; Krueger, Schulte, Brand, & Holube, 2017) with sentences of the Oldenburg Sentence Test (Wagener, Brand, & Kollmeier, 1999a, 1999b; Wagener, Kühnel, & Kollmeier, 1999) in 4 different maskers. Model functions were fitted to the data to estimate the speech reception threshold and listening effort ratings for extreme effort and no effort. Listeners with hearing impairment showed higher rated listening effort compared with listeners with normal hearing. For listeners with hearing impairment, the rating extreme effort, which corresponds to negative SNRs, was more correlated to the speech reception threshold than the rating no effort, which corresponds to positive SNRs. A benefit of hearing aids on speech intelligibility was only verifiable at negative SNRs, whereas the effect on listening effort showed high individual differences mainly at positive SNRs. The adaptive procedure for rating subjective listening effort yields information beyond using speech intelligibility to estimate hearing difficulties and to evaluate hearing aids.

  8. Goal Setting and Expectancy Theory Predictions of Effort and Performance. (United States)

    Dossett, Dennis L.; Luce, Helen E.

    Neither expectancy (VIE) theory nor goal setting alone are effective determinants of individual effort and task performance. To test the combined ability of VIE and goal setting to predict effort and performance, 44 real estate agents and their managers completed questionnaires. Quarterly income goals predicted managers' ratings of agents' effort,…

  9. Translation-coupling systems (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian; Mendez-Perez, Daniel


    Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation-coupling cassette. The translation-coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element. Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product. The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation-coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation-coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation-coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation-coupling cassettes.

  10. Phase coupling gravity and astronomical mass discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, R.H.


    A previous author has proposed a new theory of gravity in which an additional long-range force is associated with a complex scalar field. The unique aspect of the theory is that only the phase of the complex scalar field couples to matter; hence, the designation 'phase coupling gravity'. The scalar field Lagrangian density contains a self-interaction potential which, in original form, depends upon the sixth power of the scalar amplitude because then the resulting weak field phenomenology is similar to that of MOND, the empirically motivated modification of Newton's law in the limit of low accelerations previously suggested in order to account for the observed mass discrepancies in large astronomical systems. In the present paper I explore versions of phase coupling gravity with alternative forms for the scalar self-interaction. (author)

  11. Tensor coupling and pseudospin symmetry in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto, P.; Castro, A.S. de; Lisboa, R.; Malheiro, M.


    In this work we study the contribution of the isoscalar tensor coupling to the realization of pseudospin symmetry in nuclei. Using realistic values for the tensor coupling strength, we show that this coupling reduces noticeably the pseudospin splittings, especially for single-particle levels near the Fermi surface. By using an energy decomposition of the pseudospin energy splittings, we show that the changes in these splittings come mainly through the changes induced in the lower radial wave function for the low-lying pseudospin partners and through changes in the expectation value of the pseudospin-orbit coupling term for surface partners. This allows us to confirm the conclusion already reached in previous studies, namely that the pseudospin symmetry in nuclei is of a dynamical nature

  12. A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P


    This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator

  13. Pension plan participation among married couples. (United States)

    Dushi, Irena; Iams, Howard M


    We present descriptive statistics on pension participation and types of pensions among married couples, using data from the 1996/2008 Panels of the Survey of Income and Program Participation and Social Security administrative records. Previous research has focused on pension coverage by marital status, but has not examined couples as a unit. Because couples usually share income, viewing them as a unit provides a better picture of potential access to income from retirement plans. Our analysis compares 1998 and 2009 data because substantial changes occurred in the pension landscape over this decade that could have influenced the prevalence of different pension plans, although we observe modest changes in participation rates and types of plans over the period. We find that in 20 percent of couples, neither spouse participated in a pension plan; in 10 percent, the wife was the only participant; and in 37 percent, the husband was the only participant.

  14. 21st century pharmacovigilance: efforts, roles, and responsibilities. (United States)

    Pitts, Peter J; Louet, Hervé Le; Moride, Yola; Conti, Rena M


    In an era when the number of expedited and conditional review pathways for newly available brand-name drugs and biosimilar medicines to treat serious and life-threatening diseases is increasing, defining pharmacovigilance has never been more crucial. 21st century pharmacovigilance is not merely about uncovering, reporting, and addressing adverse events associated with already approved and marketed agents, but can be described as the systematic monitoring of the process of pre-market review and post-market surveillance, which includes the use of medicines in everyday practice. Pharmacovigilance identifies previously unrecognised adverse events or changes in the patterns of these effects, the quality and adequacy of drug supply, and should ensure effective communication with the public, health-care professionals, and patients about the optimum safety and effective use of medicines. In this paper, the first in a Series of three about drug safety in oncology, we discuss evolving challenges in the purview, roles, and responsibilities of the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency with respect to pharmacovigilance efforts, with a special emphasis on oncology treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TIPS Placement in Swine, Guided by Electromagnetic Real-Time Needle Tip Localization Displayed on Previously Acquired 3-D CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, Stephen B.; Magee, Carolyn; Acker, David E.; Venbrux, Anthony C.


    Purpose: To determine the feasibility of guiding a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure with an electromagnetic real-time needle tip position sensor coupled to previously acquired 3-dimensional (3-D) computed tomography (CT) images. Methods: An electromagnetic position sensor was placed at the tip of a Colapinto needle. The real-time position and orientation of the needle tip was then displayed on previously acquired 3-D CT images which were registered with the five swine. Portal vein puncture was then attempted in all animals. Results: The computer calculated accuracy of the position sensor was on average 3 mm. Four of five portal vein punctures were successful. In the successes, only one or two attempts were necessary and success was achieved in minutes. Conclusion: A real-time position sensor attached to the tip of a Colapinto needle and coupled to previously acquired 3-D CT images may potentially aid in entering the portal vein during the TIPS procedure

  16. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance. (United States)


    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  17. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  18. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  19. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  20. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  1. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  2. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate. (United States)


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  3. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings. (United States)


    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  4. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate. (United States)


    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  5. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  6. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children. (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L


    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  7. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  8. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant? (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  9. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  10. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.


    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  11. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  12. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  13. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  14. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  15. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped. (United States)


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  16. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy. (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R


    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  17. Homicide and domestic violence. Are there different psychological profiles mediated by previous exerted on the victim?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Yepes


    Full Text Available A sample of 46 men was evaluated with the DAPP (Questionnaire of Domestic Aggressor Psychological Profile. All were inmates convicted for various degrees of violence against their wives in different prisons. The sample was divided into three groups: homicides without previous violence against their wives (H (n=11, homicides with previous violence (VH (n=9 and domestic batterers without previous homicide attempts against their partners (B (n=26. The aim of the study was to analyze the possible existence of three different kinds of profiles and more specifically if it’s possible to obtain an independent profile for domestic homicides with previous episodes of violence against their wives. The results neither confirm the hypothesis as whole nor for the violent homicides. However, differences between groups were obtained in the admission and description of the facts, in the risk of future violence, in some sociodemographical characteristics (i.e., level of education, social status, in the couple relationship, in the dissatisfaction concerning the unachieved ideal woman, in the use of extreme physical force during the aggression, the time of the first aggression, the use of verbal threats during the aggression, explanation of the events to the family and the period of time between the beginning of the romantic relationship and the manifestation of violence. The implications of the results for the theoretical frameworks proposed and future research are discussed.

  18. Between and within couple-level factors associated with gay male couples' investment in a sexual agreement. (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W


    Sexual agreements are common among gay male couples, and between one-third and two-thirds of gay men acquire HIV while in a same-sex relationship. Studies have assessed whether agreements could be used for HIV prevention yet additional research is needed. By using dyadic data collected from 361 U.S. gay male couples, the present cross-sectional study sought to assess whether certain between and within couple-level relationship characteristics predict a partner's value in, commitment to, and satisfaction with an agreement. On average, couples with higher levels of constructive communication and relationship satisfaction and commitment were associated with partners who had higher levels of investment in the agreement. Within the couple, differences in commitment and investment of the relationship were also found to be negatively associated with partners' investment toward an agreement. Implications are discussed for how sexual agreements may be used to develop new HIV prevention efforts for gay male couples.

  19. Couple's labor supply, taxes, and the division of housework in a gender-neutral lab


    Schröder, Melanie; Burow, Norma


    We use a lab-in-the-field experiment to investigate intra-couple labor supply decisions and the division of housework under individual and joint income taxation systems. In order to eliminate problems of endogenous intra-couple time use decisions, we exogenously varied not only the taxation system but also the intra-couple roles of primary and secondary earners. Using work effort as a proxy for labor supply, 62 established couples, both cohabiting and married (124 participants), performed rea...

  20. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2. (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda


    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  1. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine


    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.


    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  2. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking


    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET


    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  3. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern


    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  4. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings


    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.


    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  5. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy. (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  6. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby


    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla


    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  7. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings. (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M


    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  8. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.


    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  9. Status report on SHARP coupling framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caceres, A.; Tautges, T. J.; Lottes, J.; Fischer, P.; Rabiti, C.; Smith, M. A.; Siegel, A.; Yang, W. S.; Palmiotti, G.


    This report presents the software engineering effort under way at ANL towards a comprehensive integrated computational framework (SHARP) for high fidelity simulations of sodium cooled fast reactors. The primary objective of this framework is to provide accurate and flexible analysis tools to nuclear reactor designers by simulating multiphysics phenomena happening in complex reactor geometries. Ideally, the coupling among different physics modules (such as neutronics, thermal-hydraulics, and structural mechanics) needs to be tight to preserve the accuracy achieved in each module. However, fast reactor cores in steady state mode represent a special case where weak coupling between neutronics and thermal-hydraulics is usually adequate. Our framework design allows for both options. Another requirement for SHARP framework has been to implement various coupling algorithms that are parallel and scalable to large scale since nuclear reactor core simulations are among the most memory and computationally intensive, requiring the use of leadership-class petascale platforms. This report details our progress toward achieving these goals. Specifically, we demonstrate coupling independently developed parallel codes in a manner that does not compromise performance or portability, while minimizing the impact on individual developers. This year, our focus has been on developing a lightweight and loosely coupled framework targeted at UNIC (our neutronics code) and Nek (our thermal hydraulics code). However, the framework design is not limited to just using these two codes.

  10. Coupling in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, N.M.


    The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-β quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note

  11. Coupling in the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, N.M.


    The performance of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider at the commencement of run Ib was far below expectations. After a frustrating period of several months, a low-{beta} quad downstream of the interaction point at B0 was found to be rolled. This rolled quadrupole coupled the horizontal and vertical motion of the Tevatron beams. It also made matching the beam from the Main Ring to the Tevatron impossible, resulting in emittance blow up on injection. The net result of the roll was a significant reduction in the Tevatron luminosity. When the roll in the quadrupole was corrected the performance of the Tevatron improved dramatically. This note will discuss the experimental data indicating the presence of coupling and subsequent calculations which show how coupling an affect the luminosity. It is not intended to exhaust a discussion of coupling, which hopefully will be understood well enough to be discussed in a subsequent note.

  12. Adoption and Donor Insemination: Factors Influencing Couples' Choices. (United States)

    Daniels, Ken R.


    A study of 54 couples who gave birth to a child by means of donor insemination (DI) showed that most couples who had children by DI had previously considered adoption. Their reasons for choosing DI ranged from the practical to the emotional and from perceived negative aspects of adoption to perceived advantages of DI. (MDM)

  13. Triple gauge boson couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Gounaris, George J; Zeppenfeld, Dieter; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Arhrib, A; Bella, G; Berends, F A; Bilenky, S M; Blondel, A; Busenitz, J K; Choudhury, D; Clarke, P; Conboy, J E; Diehl, M; Fassouliotis, D; Frère, J M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Gibbs, M; Grünewald, M W; Hansen, J B; Hartmann, C; Jin, B N; Jousset, J; Kalinowski, Jan; Kocian, M L; Lahanas, Athanasios B; Layssac, J; Lieb, E H; Markou, C; Matteuzzi, C; Mättig, P; Moreno, J M; Moultaka, G; Nippe, A; Orloff, J; Papadopoulos, C G; Paschalis, J; Petridou, C; Phillips, H; Podlyski, F; Pohl, M; Renard, F M; Rossignol, J M; Rylko, R; Sekulin, R L; Van Sighem, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Skillman, A; Spanos, V C; Tonazzo, A; Tytgat, M H G; Tzamarias, S; Verzegnassi, Claudio; Vlachos, N D; Zevgolatakos, E


    We present the results obtained by the "Triple Gauge Couplings" working group during the LEP2 Workshop (1994-1995). The report concentrates on the measurement of WW\\gamma and WWZ couplings in e^-e^+\\to W^-W^+ or, more generally, four-fermion production at LEP2. In addition the detection of new interactions in the bosonic sector via other production channels is discussed.

  14. Pion coupling to nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.


    The concept of the pion-nucleus coupling constants is discussed. Methods of their determination are reviewed. These include: forward dispersion relations, extrapolation of differential cross sections to the poles in the angular variable, analysis of data on electromagnetic form factors with the use of the PCAC and CVC hypotheses, pion photoproduction at threshold and low-energy theorems. Our present knowledge of the pion coupling to the He, Li, Be, C, N and O nuclei is summarized. (author)

  15. Viscous-Inviscid Coupling Methods for Advanced Marine Propeller Applications


    Greve, Martin; Wöckner-Kluwe, Katja; Abdel-Maksoud, Moustafa; Rung, Thomas


    The paper reports the development of coupling strategies between an inviscid direct panel method and a viscous RANS method and their application to complex propeller ows. The work is motivated by the prohibitive computational cost associated to unsteady viscous flow simulations using geometrically resolved propellers to analyse the dynamics of ships in seaways. The present effort aims to combine the advantages of the two baseline methods in order to reduce the numerical effort without comprom...

  16. Intersection of Effort and Risk: Ethological and Neurobiological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike A Miller


    Full Text Available The physical effort required to seek out and extract a resource is an important consideration for a foraging animal. A second consideration is the variability or risk associated with resource delivery. An intriguing observation from ethological studies is that animals shift their preference from stable to variable food sources under conditions of increased physical effort or falling energetic reserves. Although theoretical models for this effect exist, no exploration into its biological basis has been pursued. Recent advances in understanding the neural basis of effort- and risk-guided decision making suggest that opportunities exist for determining how effort influences risk preference. In this review, we describe the intersection between the neural systems involved in effort- and risk-guided decision making and outline two mechanisms by which effort-induced changes in dopamine release may increase the preference for variable rewards.

  17. Colloids and Radionuclide Transport: A Field, Experimental and Modeling Effort (United States)

    Zhao, P.; Zavarin, M.; Sylwester, E. E.; Allen, P. G.; Williams, R. W.; Kersting, A. B.


    Natural inorganic colloids (colloid-facilitated transport to the transport of low-solubility actinides, such as Pu, is still not well understood. In an effort to better understand the dominant geochemical mechanisms that control Pu transport, we have performed a series of sorption/desorption experiments using mineral colloids. We focused on natural colloidal minerals present in water samples collected from both saturated and vadose zone waters at the Nevada Test Site. These minerals include zeolites, clays, silica, Mn-oxides, Fe-oxides, and calcite. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy ( both XANES and EXAFS) was performed in order to characterize the speciation of sorbed plutonium. The XANES spectra show that only Pu(IV) was detected (within experimental error) on these mineral surfaces when the starting Pu oxidation state was +5, indicating that Pu(V) was reduced to Pu(IV) during sorption. The EXAFS detected Pu-M and Pu-C interactions (where M=Fe, Mn, or Si) indicating Pu(IV) surface complexation along with carbonate ternary complex formation on most of the minerals tested. Although the plutonium sorption as Pu(IV) species is mineral independent, the actual sorption paths are different for different minerals. The sorption rates were compared to the rates of plutonium disproportionation under similar conditions. The batch sorption/desorption experiments of Pu(IV) and Pu(V) onto colloidal zeolite (clinoptilolite, colloids particle size 171 ñ 25 nm) were conducted in synthetic groundwater (similar to J-13, Yucca Mountain standard) with a pH range from 4 to 10 and initial plutonium concentration of 10-9 M. The results show that Pu(IV) sorption takes place within an hour, while the rates of Pu(V) sorption onto the colloids is much slower and mineral dependent. The kinetic results from the batch sorption/desorption experiments, coupled with redox kinetics of plutonium in solution will be used in geochemical modeling of Pu surface complexation to colloids and

  18. Greater effort increases perceived value in an invertebrate. (United States)

    Czaczkes, Tomer J; Brandstetter, Birgit; di Stefano, Isabella; Heinze, Jürgen


    Expending effort is generally considered to be undesirable. However, both humans and vertebrates will work for a reward they could also get for free. Moreover, cues associated with high-effort rewards are preferred to low-effort associated cues. Many explanations for these counterintuitive findings have been suggested, including cognitive dissonance (self-justification) or a greater contrast in state (e.g., energy or frustration level) before and after an effort-linked reward. Here, we test whether effort expenditure also increases perceived value in ants, using both classical cue-association methods and pheromone deposition, which correlates with perceived value. In 2 separate experimental setups, we show that pheromone deposition is higher toward the reward that requires more effort: 47% more pheromone deposition was performed for rewards reached via a vertical runway (high effort) compared with ones reached via a horizontal runway (low effort), and deposition rates were 28% higher on rough (high effort) versus smooth (low effort) runways. Using traditional cue-association methods, 63% of ants trained on different surface roughness, and 70% of ants trained on different runway elevations, preferred the high-effort related cues on a Y maze. Finally, pheromone deposition to feeders requiring memorization of one path bifurcation was up to 29% higher than to an identical feeder requiring no learning. Our results suggest that effort affects value perception in ants. This effect may stem from a cognitive process, which monitors the change in a generalized hedonic state before and after reward. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. How to use COSMIC Functional Size in Effort Estimation Models?


    Gencel, Cigdem


    Although Functional Size Measurement (FSM) methods have become widely used by the software organizations, the functional size based effort estimation still needs further investigation. Most of the studies on effort estimation consider total functional size of the software as the primary input to estimation models and they mostly focus on identifying the project parameters which might have a significant effect on the size-effort relationship. This study brings suggestions on how to use COSMIC ...

  20. Entrepreneurial Effort in the Theory of the Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hudson


    Full Text Available This article develops a link between the theory of the firm and entrepreneurship theory to enable the study of employee entrepreneurial behaviour. First, we describe how incomplete contracts permit employee entrepreneurial effort in the theory of the firm. Next, we argue that emancipation offers an explanation for entrepreneurial effort that is not motivated by financial gain. Finally, we show how new technology creates conditions where the boundary of the firm may change and where entrepreneurial effort by employees may occur.

  1. Relationship Characteristics and Motivations behind Agreements among Gay Male Couples: Differences by Agreement Type and Couple Serostatus


    Hoff, Colleen C.; Beougher, Sean C.; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Darbes, Lynae A.; Neilands, Torsten B.


    Gay men in relationships are often overlooked in HIV prevention efforts, yet many engage in sexual behaviors that increase their HIV risk and some seroconvert as a result. While different aspects of gay male relationships have been studied, such as sexual agreements, relationship characteristics, and couple serostatus, little research combines these elements to examine HIV risk for this population. The present study recruited 566 gay male couples from the San Francisco Bay Area to study their...

  2. Sharing Information among Various Organizations in Relief Efforts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costur, Gurkan


    .... An analysis is presented of the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami relief effort; specifically, how different organizations such as the military, United Nations, and non-governmental organizations...

  3. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)


    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  4. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle


    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  5. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans


    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  6. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection. (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit


    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  7. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus. (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor


    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev


    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  9. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient. (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M


    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The sexual division of labor within households revisited : comparisons of couples and roommates


    Christopher Jepsen; Lisa K. Jepsen


    Becker’s theories of labor-market specialization predict that couples will allocate the time of the man mainly to the labor market and the time of the woman mainly to the home market. Previous studies fail to find evidence to support this allocation of labor. We compare cohabiting couples to roommates to study the extent to which couples specialize. Roommates make an interesting comparison group. Like couples, they live together. Unlike couples, they have no incentives to specialize with resp...

  11. Academic achievement in the Chinese context: the role of goals, strategies, and effort. (United States)

    Ho, Irene T; Hau, Kit-Tai


    Previous studies have suggested that Western constructs of academic motivation may operate in different ways in Asian contexts due to differences in the cultural environment. In the present study, the integrative effects of achievement goals, strategy orientations, and effort expenditure on achievement outcomes were examined among 1950 seventh-grade Chinese students in Hong Kong. Participants completed separate questionnaires for mathematics and English. Results for the two subjects were largely similar. There were significant positive relationships between mastery and performance goals, between cooperative and competitive orientations, as well as between understanding and memorizing strategies. Regression analyses further revealed that goals and strategies were highly predictive of effort expenditure, but only goals and effort significantly predicted achievement outcome, with strategies being barely significant. The need to further investigate how Chinese students reconcile the apparently antithetical orientations in learning as well as the effective strategies contributing to their learning is indicated.

  12. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.


    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  13. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  14. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels


    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  15. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray


    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  16. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian


    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  17. Life-history traits in an evergreen Mediterranean oak respond differentially to previous experimental environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Rey Benayas


    Full Text Available Living organisms respond both to current and previous environments, which can have important consequences on population dynamics. However, there is little experimental evidence based on long-term field studies of the effects of previous environments on the performance of individuals. We tested the hypothesis that trees that establish under different environmental conditions perform differently under similar post-establishment conditions. We used the slow-growing, evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex subsp. rotundifolia as target species. We analyzed the effects of previous environments, competition effects and tradeoffs among life-history traits (survival, growth, and reproduction. We enhanced seedling establishment for three years by reducing abiotic environmental harshness by means of summer irrigation and artificial shading in 12 experimental plots, while four plots remained as controls. Then these treatments were interrupted for ten years. Seedlings under ameliorated environmental conditions survived and grew faster during early establishment. During the post-management period, previous treatments 1 did not have any effect on survival, 2 experienced a slower above-ground growth, 3 decreased root biomass as indicated from reflectivity of Ground Penetration Radar, 4 increased acorn production mostly through a greater canopy volume and 5 increased acorn production effort. The trees exhibited a combination of effects related to acclimation for coping with abiotic stress and effects of intra-specific competition. In accordance with our hypothesis, tree performance overall depended on previous environmental conditions, and the response was different for different life-history traits. We recommend early management because it increased plot cover, shortened the time to attain sexual maturity and increased the amount of acorn production. Plots such as those assessed in this study may act as sources of propagules in deforested

  18. Advancing Globally Integrated Logistics Effort 2017 Wargame Report (United States)


    September 2017 Dr. M. Webster Ewell, Jr. Director, Integration and Gaming Team Advanced Technology and Systems Analysis REPORT ...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE (U) Advancing Globally Integrated Logistics Effort 2017 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N00014-16-D-5003 Wargame Report 5b. GRANT...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Advancing Globally Integrated Logistics Effort

  19. Assessment of sustainable yield and optimum fishing effort for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L. 1758) stock of Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia, was assessed to estimate sustainable yield (MSY) and optimum fishing effort (fopt) using length-based analytical models (Jone's cohort analysis and Thompson and Bell). Pertinent data (length, weight, catch, effort, etc.) were collected on a daily ...

  20. Systems Theory, Unity of Effort, and Military Leadership (United States)


    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Systems Theory , Unity of Effort, and Military Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...PAGE Name of Candidate: Major Lisa Livingood Thesis Title: Systems Theory , Unity of Effort and Military Leadership Approved by

  1. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko Haram threat to efforts in sub-Saharan Africa. ... Targets of Boko Haram aggression in these zones include violence against polio workers, disruption of polio immunization campaigns, with consequent reduced access to health care and immunization.

  2. Student Organizations and Institutional Diversity Efforts: A Typology (United States)

    Kuk, Linda; Banning, James


    American higher education has become focused on increasing access and success for traditionally underrepresented populations. Despite the myriad of institutional efforts, attention has not been given to the role of student organizations in supporting these efforts. This article looks at the role campus student organizations can play within campus…

  3. Determinants of Tourists Information Search Effort: The Case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines tourist information search effort prior to the visit to a selected destination. The focus was on identifying the key variables that influence the information search effort of Ghana's international visitors from the United States of America, the United Kingdom and Germany. The Dummy Multiple Regression ...

  4. Reviewing efforts in global forest conservation for sustainable forest ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The world's forests are in crisis - facing greater threats than ever before; and there is need to document efforts made in protecting them for effective forest resources management. The paper compiled and assessed from 1996-1998 a maiden report of the efforts of a leading world forest conservation Organization - the World ...

  5. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds that HUD may provide to an agency to enhance enforcement activities of the agency's fair housing law. SEE...

  6. Best-effort Support for a Virtual Seminar Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin; Todirica, Edward Alexandru


    This paper describes the RTMM Virtual Seminar Room, an interactive distributed multimedia application based on a platform with a simple middleware architecture, using best effort scheduling and a best effort network service. Emphasis has been placed on achieving low latency in all parts of the so...

  7. Does Confidence Predict Out-of-Domain Effort?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokudina, Elena; Renneboog, Luc; Tobler, Philippe


    Predicting worker’s effort is important in many different areas, but is often difficult. Using a laboratory experiment, we test the hypothesis that confidence, i.e. the person-specific beliefs about her abilities, can be used as a generic proxy to predict future effort provision. We measure

  8. Policies and Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood: Commentary (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Bellotti, Jeanne


    The articles in this section focus attention on (1) the historical shift in policies that affect the young men of this nation (2) how fatherhood policies and programmatic efforts are expanding and (3) how fatherhood practices and policies could and perhaps should be expanded and elaborated further. These efforts are linked to a growing body of…

  9. Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework (United States)

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.


    In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this…

  10. Development Efforts Of Oil Companies As Perceived By Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that the host communities are highly satisfied with companies' efforts (projects and services) to them. Based on these findings, recommendations were made. Key words: Oil producing communities; oil exploration/production; company's development efforts; Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol.4(1) 2004: 60-71 ...

  11. Repositioning Science Reform Efforts: Four Practical Recommendations from the Field (United States)

    Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen J.; Shah, Vishal; Garofalo, Salvatore G.


    Appeals to reform science education by policy makers are not new phenomena. To be sure, while science reform efforts have been ongoing occurrences for nearly six decades, perpetual educational reform efforts as a whole have been evolving and gaining momentum in number for more than a century. The general motivation for continual reform appears to…

  12. Private Speech Moderates the Effects of Effortful Control on Emotionality (United States)

    Day, Kimberly L.; Smith, Cynthia L.; Neal, Amy; Dunsmore, Julie C.


    Research Findings: In addition to being a regulatory strategy, children's private speech may enhance or interfere with their effortful control used to regulate emotion. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether children's private speech during a selective attention task moderated the relations of their effortful control to their…

  13. Incorporating Responsiveness to Marketing Efforts When Modeling Brand Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)


    textabstractIn this paper we put forward a brand choice model which incorporates responsiveness to marketing efforts as a form of structural heterogeneity. We introduce two latent segments of households. The households in the first segment are assumed to respond to marketing efforts while households

  14. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs (United States)

    Wallshein, Corinne C.


    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  15. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts. (United States)


    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Secretarial Mediation § 930.114 Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit the...

  16. Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues (United States)

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael


    Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…

  17. Effort reward imbalance, and salivary cortisol in the morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Nanna Hurwitz; Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Blønd, Morten


    Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR.......Effort reward imbalance (ERI) is suggested to increase risk for stress and is hypothesized to increase cortisol levels, especially the awakening cortisol response, ACR....

  18. Projected coupled cluster theory. (United States)

    Qiu, Yiheng; Henderson, Thomas M; Zhao, Jinmo; Scuseria, Gustavo E


    Coupled cluster theory is the method of choice for weakly correlated systems. But in the strongly correlated regime, it faces a symmetry dilemma, where it either completely fails to describe the system or has to artificially break certain symmetries. On the other hand, projected Hartree-Fock theory captures the essential physics of many kinds of strong correlations via symmetry breaking and restoration. In this work, we combine and try to retain the merits of these two methods by applying symmetry projection to broken symmetry coupled cluster wave functions. The non-orthogonal nature of states resulting from the application of symmetry projection operators furnishes particle-hole excitations to all orders, thus creating an obstacle for the exact evaluation of overlaps. Here we provide a solution via a disentanglement framework theory that can be approximated rigorously and systematically. Results of projected coupled cluster theory are presented for molecules and the Hubbard model, showing that spin projection significantly improves unrestricted coupled cluster theory while restoring good quantum numbers. The energy of projected coupled cluster theory reduces to the unprojected one in the thermodynamic limit, albeit at a much slower rate than projected Hartree-Fock.

  19. Cognitive coupling during reading. (United States)

    Mills, Caitlin; Graesser, Art; Risko, Evan F; D'Mello, Sidney K


    We hypothesize that cognitively engaged readers dynamically adjust their reading times with respect to text complexity (i.e., reading times should increase for difficult sections and decrease for easier ones) and failure to do so should impair comprehension. This hypothesis is consistent with theories of text comprehension but has surprisingly been untested. We tested this hypothesis by analyzing 4 datasets in which participants (N = 484) read expository texts using a self-paced reading paradigm. Participants self-reported mind wandering in response to pseudorandom thought-probes during reading and completed comprehension assessments after reading. We computed two measures of cognitive coupling by regressing each participant's paragraph-level reading times on two measures of text complexity: Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level and Word Concreteness scores. The two coupling measures yielded convergent findings: coupling was a negative predictor of mind wandering and a positive predictor of both text- and inference-level comprehension. Goodness-of-fit, measured with Akaike information criterion, also improved after adding coupling to the reading-time only models. Furthermore, cognitive coupling mediated the relationship between mind wandering and comprehension, supporting the hypothesis that mind wandering engenders a decoupling of attention from external stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions. (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P


    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  1. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.


    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  2. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy. (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W


    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  3. Men's Work Efforts and the Transition to Fatherhood. (United States)

    Astone, Nan Marie; Dariotis, Jacinda; Sonenstein, Freya; Pleck, Joseph H; Hynes, Kathryn


    In this paper we tested three hypotheses: (a) the transition to fatherhood is associated with an increase in work effort; (b) the positive association (if any) between the transition to fatherhood and work effort is greater for fathers who are married at the time of the transition; and (c) the association (if any) is greater for men who make the transition at younger ages. The data are from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 Cohort. The transition to fatherhood was associated with an increase in work effort among young unmarried men, but not for married men. Among married men who were on-time fathers, work effort decreased. Among childless men, the marriage transition was associated with increased work effort.

  4. Perception of effort in Exercise Science: Definition, measurement and perspectives. (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin


    Perception of effort, also known as perceived exertion or sense of effort, can be described as a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of what is perception of effort in Exercise Science. Due to the addition of sensations other than effort in its definition, the neurophysiology of perceived exertion remains poorly understood. As humans have the ability to dissociate effort from other sensations related to physical exercise, the need to use a narrower definition is emphasised. Consequently, a definition and some brief guidelines for its measurement are provided. Finally, an overview of the models present in the literature aiming to explain its neurophysiology, and some perspectives for future research are offered.

  5. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients. (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W


    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  6. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR. (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian


    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  7. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer? (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans


    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  8. Nuclear Structure Calculations with Coupled Cluster Methods from Quantum Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Dean, D.J.; Hagen, G.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Kowalski, K.; Papenbrock, T.; Piecuch, P.; Wloch, M.


    We present several coupled-cluster calculations of ground and excited states of 4He and 16O employing methods from quantum chemistry. A comparison of coupled cluster results with the results of exact diagonalization of the hamiltonian in the same model space and other truncated shell-model calculations shows that the quantum chemistry inspired coupled cluster approximations provide an excellent description of ground and excited states of nuclei, with much less computational effort than traditional large-scale shell-model approaches. Unless truncations are made, for nuclei like 16O, full-fledged shell-model calculations with four or more major shells are not possible. However, these and even larger systems can be studied with the coupled cluster methods due to the polynomial rather than factorial scaling inherent in standard shell-model studies. This makes the coupled cluster approaches, developed in quantum chemistry, viable methods for describing weakly bound systems of interest for future nuclear facilities...

  9. Structural Coupling and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tække, Jesper

    of structural couplings between psychic and social systems (Luhmann 2002: 275, Tække 2011). In this way media are seen as a necessary third, making it possible for two different kinds of systems to process, using complexity from one another - leaving out the idea of direct transmission. In actor-network theory...... Danish to English, but to describe: “displacement, drift, invention, mediation, the creation of a link that did not exist before and that to some degree modifies two elements or agents” (Latour 1994, 32). The paper works with two aims. The first aim is to discuss what kinds of structural couplings...... to compare the semantics of their concepts. The paper first provides an analysis and discussion of language as the mechanism of structural coupling between the levels of psychic and social systems. Then the article provides an analysis and discussion of translation as a transformation process between actors...

  10. Coupled moderator neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, G.J.; Pitcher, E.J.; Ferguson, P.D.


    Optimizing the neutronic performance of a coupled-moderator system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source is a new and challenging area for the spallation target-system designer. For optimal performance of a neutron source, it is essential to have good communication with instrument scientists to obtain proper design criteria and continued interaction with mechanical, thermal-hydraulic, and materials engineers to attain a practical design. A good comprehension of the basics of coupled-moderator neutronics will aid in the proper design of a target system for a Long-Pulse Spallation Source

  11. Strong-coupling approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, R.B.


    Standard path-integral techniques such as instanton calculations give good answers for weak-coupling problems, but become unreliable for strong-coupling. Here we consider a method of replacing the original potential by a suitably chosen harmonic oscillator potential. Physically this is motivated by the fact that potential barriers below the level of the ground-state energy of a quantum-mechanical system have little effect. Numerically, results are good, both for quantum-mechanical problems and for massive phi 4 field theory in 1 + 1 dimensions. 9 references, 6 figures

  12. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till


    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil......Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  13. Coupling in reflector arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen


    In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present communic......In order to reduce the space occupied by a reflector array, it is desirable to arrange the array antennas as close to each other as possible; however, in this case coupling between the array antennas will reduce the reflecting properties of the reflector array. The purpose of the present...

  14. A strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuryak, Edward [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University at Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)


    Successful description of robust collective flow phenomena at RHIC by ideal hydrodynamics, recent observations of bound c-barc,q-barq states on the lattice, and other theoretical developments indicate that QGP produced at RHIC, and probably in a wider temperature region T{sub c} < T < 4T{sub c}, is not a weakly coupled quasiparticle gas as believed previously. We discuss how strong the interaction is and why it seems to generate hundreds of binary channels with bound states, surviving well inside the QGP phase. We in particular discuss their effect on pressure and viscosity. We conclude by reviewing the similar phenomena for other 'strongly coupled systems', such as (i) strongly coupled supersymmetric theories studied via Maldacena duality; (ii) trapped ultra-cold atoms with very large scattering length, tuned to Feschbach resonances.

  15. Physics of Strongly Coupled Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich [Universitat Rostock (Germany)


    Strongly coupled plasmas (or non-ideal plasmas) are multi-component charged many-particle systems, in which the mean value of the potential energy of the system is of the same order as or even higher than the mean value of the kinetic energy. The constituents are electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. Dusty (or complex) plasmas contain still mesoscopic (multiply charged) particles. In such systems, the effects of strong coupling (non-ideality) lead to considerable deviations of physical properties from the corresponding properties of ideal plasmas, i.e., of plasmas in which the mean kinetic energy is essentially larger than the mean potential energy. For instance, bound state energies become density dependent and vanish at higher densities (Mott effect) due to the interaction of the pair with the surrounding particles. Non-ideal plasmas are of interest both for general scientific reasons (including, for example, astrophysical questions), and for technical applications such as inertially confined fusion. In spite of great efforts both experimentally and theoretically, satisfactory information on the physical properties of strongly coupled plasmas is not at hand for any temperature and density. For example, the theoretical description of non-ideal plasmas is possible only at low densities/high temperatures and at extremely high densities (high degeneracy). For intermediate degeneracy, however, numerical experiments have to fill the gap. Experiments are difficult in the region of 'warm dense matter'. The monograph tries to present the state of the art concerning both theoretical and experimental attempts. It mainly includes results of the work performed in famous Russian laboratories in recent decades. After outlining basic concepts (chapter 1), the generation of plasmas is considered (chapter 2, chapter 3). Questions of partial (chapter 4) and full ionization (chapter 5) are discussed including Mott transition and Wigner crystallization. Electrical and

  16. Dysfunction of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in Alzheimer’'s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Z. Suo


    Full Text Available Although mutations and variations of several genes have been identified to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the efforts towards understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease still have a long journey to go. One such effort is to identify the signal transduction deficits, for which previous studies have suggested that the central problems appear to be at the interface between G proteins and their coupled receptors. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs are a small family of serine/threonine protein kinases primarily acting at the “receptor-G protein interface””. Recent studies have indicated the possible involvement of GRK, primarily GRK2 and GRK5, dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. It seems that mild, soluble, β-amyloid accumulation can lead to a reduced membrane (functional and an elevated cytosolic GRK2/5. The increased cytosolic GRK2 appears to be colocalized with damaged mitochondria and neurofibrillary tangles. Moreover, the total levels of GRK2, not only in the brain, but also in peripheral blood samples, are increased in a manner inversely correlated with the patient's cognitive levels. The deficiency of GRK5, on the other hand, impairs presynaptic M2 autoreceptor desensitization, which leads to a reduced acetylcholine release, axonal/synaptic degenerative changes, and associated amnestic, mild cognitive impairment. It also promotes an evil cycle to further increase Beta-amyloid accumulation and exaggerates brain inflammation, possibly even the basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration. Therefore, continuous efforts in this direction are necessary before translating the knowledge to any therapeutic strategies.

  17. Fiber Coupled Pulse Shaper for Sub-Nanosecond Pulse Lidar, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I effort will investigate the feasibility of using electro-optic (EO) beam scanning element to control coupling into a...

  18. Trust and reciprocity: are effort and money equivalent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Vilares


    Full Text Available Trust and reciprocity facilitate cooperation and are relevant to virtually all human interactions. They are typically studied using trust games: one subject gives (entrusts money to another subject, which may return some of the proceeds (reciprocate. Currently, however, it is unclear whether trust and reciprocity in monetary transactions are similar in other settings, such as physical effort. Trust and reciprocity of physical effort are important as many everyday decisions imply an exchange of physical effort, and such exchange is central to labor relations. Here we studied a trust game based on physical effort and compared the results with those of a computationally equivalent monetary trust game. We found no significant difference between effort and money conditions in both the amount trusted and the quantity reciprocated. Moreover, there is a high positive correlation in subjects' behavior across conditions. This suggests that trust and reciprocity may be character traits: subjects that are trustful/trustworthy in monetary settings behave similarly during exchanges of physical effort. Our results validate the use of trust games to study exchanges in physical effort and to characterize inter-subject differences in trust and reciprocity, and also suggest a new behavioral paradigm to study these differences.

  19. Trust and reciprocity: are effort and money equivalent? (United States)

    Vilares, Iris; Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad


    Trust and reciprocity facilitate cooperation and are relevant to virtually all human interactions. They are typically studied using trust games: one subject gives (entrusts) money to another subject, which may return some of the proceeds (reciprocate). Currently, however, it is unclear whether trust and reciprocity in monetary transactions are similar in other settings, such as physical effort. Trust and reciprocity of physical effort are important as many everyday decisions imply an exchange of physical effort, and such exchange is central to labor relations. Here we studied a trust game based on physical effort and compared the results with those of a computationally equivalent monetary trust game. We found no significant difference between effort and money conditions in both the amount trusted and the quantity reciprocated. Moreover, there is a high positive correlation in subjects' behavior across conditions. This suggests that trust and reciprocity may be character traits: subjects that are trustful/trustworthy in monetary settings behave similarly during exchanges of physical effort. Our results validate the use of trust games to study exchanges in physical effort and to characterize inter-subject differences in trust and reciprocity, and also suggest a new behavioral paradigm to study these differences.

  20. ElectroWeak Bosons Couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Ouraou, Ahmimed; The ATLAS collaboration


    Latest results on the measurement of gauge boson couplings, from ATLAS and CMS at the LHC, are presented. This review starts with an introduction to boson couplings, then the measurements of Triple and Quartic Couplings are described. And finally, limits on anomalous couplings are summarized.

  1. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke


    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  2. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli


    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  3. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  4. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.


    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  5. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang


    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  6. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang


    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  7. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan


    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  8. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.


    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  9. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.


    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  10. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children. (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna


    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  11. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.


    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  12. Characterization of reward and effort mechanisms in apathy. (United States)

    Bonnelle, Valerie; Veromann, Kai-Riin; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Lo Sterzo, Elena; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud


    Apathy is a common but poorly understood condition with a wide societal impact observed in several brain disorders as well as, to some extent, in the normal population. Hence the need for better characterization of the underlying mechanisms. The processes by which individuals decide to attribute physical effort to obtain rewards might be particularly relevant to relate to apathy traits. Here, we designed two paradigms to assess individual differences in physical effort production and effort-based decision-making and their relation to apathy in healthy people. Apathy scores were measured using a modified version of the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, suitable for use in a non-clinical population. In the first study, apathy scores were correlated with the degree to which stake (reward on offer) and difficulty level impacts on physical effort production. Individuals with relatively high apathy traits showed an increased modulation of effort while more motivated individuals generally exerted greater force across different levels of stake. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this behavior, we designed a second task that allows independent titration of stake and effort levels for which subjects are willing to engage in an effortful response to obtain a reward. Our results suggest that apathy traits in the normal population are related to the way reward subjectively affects the estimation of effort costs, and more particularly manifest as decreased willingness to exert effort when rewards are small, or below threshold. The tasks we introduce here may provide useful tools to further investigate apathy in clinical populations. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. What makes a reach movement effortful? Physical effort discounting supports common minimization principles in decision making and motor control. (United States)

    Morel, Pierre; Ulbrich, Philipp; Gail, Alexander


    When deciding between alternative options, a rational agent chooses on the basis of the desirability of each outcome, including associated costs. As different options typically result in different actions, the effort associated with each action is an essential cost parameter. How do humans discount physical effort when deciding between movements? We used an action-selection task to characterize how subjective effort depends on the parameters of arm transport movements and controlled for potential confounding factors such as delay discounting and performance. First, by repeatedly asking subjects to choose between 2 arm movements of different amplitudes or durations, performed against different levels of force, we identified parameter combinations that subjects experienced as identical in effort (isoeffort curves). Movements with a long duration were judged more effortful than short-duration movements against the same force, while movement amplitudes did not influence effort. Biomechanics of the movements also affected effort, as movements towards the body midline were preferred to movements away from it. Second, by introducing movement repetitions, we further determined that the cost function for choosing between effortful movements had a quadratic relationship with force, while choices were made on the basis of the logarithm of these costs. Our results show that effort-based action selection during reaching cannot easily be explained by metabolic costs. Instead, force-loaded reaches, a widely occurring natural behavior, imposed an effort cost for decision making similar to cost functions in motor control. Our results thereby support the idea that motor control and economic choice are governed by partly overlapping optimization principles.

  14. The relationship of IQ to effort test performance. (United States)

    Dean, Andy C; Victor, Tara L; Boone, Kyle B; Arnold, Ginger


    The relationship between IQ and nine effort indicators was examined in a sample of 189 neuropsychology clinic outpatients who were not in litigation or attempting to obtain disability. Participants with the lowest IQ (50-59) failed approximately 60% of the effort tests, while patients with an IQ of 60 to 69 failed 44% of effort indicators, and individuals with borderline IQ (70 to 79) exhibited a 17% failure rate. All patients with IQ test. Cutoffs for the Warrington Recognition Memory Test (Words) and Finger Tapping maintained the highest specificities in low IQ samples.

  15. Coupled superconductors and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephson, Brian D.


    This paper describes the events leading to the discovery of coupled superconductors, the author move in the 1970s to a perspective where mind plays a role comparable to matter, and the remarkable hostility sometimes encountered by those who venture into unconventional areas.

  16. Anomalous top magnetic couplings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Nov 9, 2012 ... Corresponding author. E-mail: Abstract. The real and imaginary parts of the one-loop electroweak contributions to the left and right tensorial anomalous couplings of the tbW vertex in the Standard Model (SM) are computed. Keywords. Top; anomalous. PACS Nos 14.65.Ha; 12.15 ...

  17. Benefits for Gay Couples. (United States)

    Collison, Michele N-K


    Increasingly, colleges are finding it hypocritical to have nondiscrimination policies protecting gay faculty and staff but deny benefits available to married employees. Institutions have adopted different criteria to determine who qualifies as a "spousal equivalent." The standards may face legal challenges from unmarried heterosexual couples. (MSE)

  18. Gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.M., E-mail: [Administration Building 310-4, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    We present a family of gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole solutions in Einstein–Weinberg–Salam theory. Our result confirms the existence of globally regular gravitating electroweak monopole which changes to the magnetically charged black hole as the Higgs vacuum value approaches to the Planck scale. Moreover, our solutions could provide a more accurate description of the monopole stars and magnetically charged black holes.

  19. HIV-discordant couples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Jun 2, 2006 ... These may broadly be divided into factors that affect the transmissibility of HIV between couples per sex act and factors influencing the number of sex acts during which exposure may occur. Examples of the former include use of condoms or other barrier methods and certain sexual behaviours, such as sex.

  20. The Use of Technology to Advance HIV Prevention for Couples. (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W


    The majority of HIV prevention studies and programs have targeted individuals or operated at the community level. This has also been the standard approach when incorporating technology (e.g., web-based, smartphones) to help improve HIV prevention efforts. The tides have turned for both approaches: greater attention is now focusing on couple-based HIV prevention and using technology to help improve these efforts for maximizing reach and potential impact. To assess the extent that technology has been used to help advance HIV prevention with couples, a literature review was conducted using four databases and included studies that collected data from 2000 to early 2015. Results from this review suggest that technology has primarily been used to help advance HIV prevention with couples as a tool for (1) recruitment and data collection and (2) intervention development. Challenges and limitations of conducting research (e.g., validity of dyadic data) along with future directions for how technology (e.g., mHealth, wearable sensors) can be used to advance HIV prevention with couples are then discussed. Given the growing and near ubiquitous use of the Internet and smartphones, further efforts in the realm of mHealth (e.g., applications or "apps") and eHealth are needed to develop novel couple-focused HIV-preventive interventions.

  1. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity? (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D


    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  2. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  3. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan


    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  4. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  5. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman


    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  6. Combined Sales Effort and Inventory Control under Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xue


    Full Text Available We study the joint inventory and sales effort management problems of a retailer in a broad context and investigate the optimal policies for a single item, periodic-review system. In each period, the demand is uncertain depending on the sales effort level exerted by the retailer, which incurs an associated cost. The retailer’s objective is to find a joint optimal inventory replenishment and sales effort policy to maximize the discounted profit over a finite horizon. We first consider a basic setting with zero setup cost and no batch ordering, under which the base stock list sales effort policy is optimal. Two extensions are then investigated: (1 the case with nonzero setup cost, under which we show that (s,S,e policy is optimal; and (2 the case with batch ordering, under which we prove the optimality of the (r,Nq,e policy. Finally, we conduct numerical studies to provide additional managerial insights.

  7. Response effort discounts the subjective value of rewards. (United States)

    Nishiyama, Ryoji


    Factors associated with obtaining a reward, such as a temporal delay in receiving the reward, can influence the subjective value of the reward. Cognitive as well as physical response effort is also known to influence choice behaviors. The present study used hypothetical situations to assess whether response effort affects the subjective value of rewards. The results demonstrated that increasing response effort increases the amount of money that participants are willing to forgo to avoid engaging in work. An exponential as well as hyperbolic function provided a good fit for such discounting. The findings suggest that response effort discounts the subjective value of a reward as a function of its amount. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Normal muscle strength and fatigability in patients with effort syndromes. (United States)

    Stokes, M J; Cooper, R G; Edwards, R H


    To examine fatigue mechanisms in an unselected series of patients with excess fatigue ("effort syndromes") their muscle function was compared with that of normal subjects. Voluntary performance was assessed with a cycle ergometer to exhaustion and by maximal isometric contractions of the quadriceps femoris. The mean maximal heart rate in patients during ergometry was 89% of the predicted rate, and quadriceps strength was either normal or was inappropriate for the available muscle, which suggested submaximal effort. Contractile performance was examined in the absence of volition with stimulated contractions of the adductor pollicis. During stimulated fatiguing activity patients were neither weaker nor more fatigable than controls; thus the excess fatigue experienced by the patients was not due to a defect of the contractile apparatus. The increased perception of effort must therefore be due to impairment of central rather than peripheral mechanisms. The optimal approach to treatment of effort syndromes combines physical and psychological techniques.

  9. Military Transformation: Issues for Congress and Status of Effort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSerisy, Lloyd D


    This report assesses the status of military transformation across the Department of Defense and indicates issues of potential interest to Congress Other CRS reports focus on individual Service efforts...

  10. Transatlantic Armaments Cooperation: Is It Worth the Effort?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brouse, Steven


    .... Taking a closer look however one discovers that the countries of Europe are essentially struggling to find some middle ground in their attempts to consolidate their defense armaments efforts towards...

  11. 48 CFR 35.009 - Subcontracting research and development effort. (United States)


    ... technical or scientific work without the contracting officer's advance knowledge. During the negotiation of... development effort (see also 35.007(c)). Also when negotiating a fixed-price contract, the contracting officer...

  12. NUCLEAR NONPROLIFERATION: U.S. Efforts to Combat Nuclear Smuggling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...) information about efforts to combat nuclear smuggling at U.S. borders. My statement today is based on the results of our May 16, 2002, report on this subject1 and information we obtained from the U.S...

  13. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast? (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R


    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.

  14. Manage changes in the requirements definition through a collaborative effort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joseph-Malherbe, S


    Full Text Available Updating or changing the requirements statement during the systems engineering process may impact adversely on project parameters such as sequence, dependencies, effort, and duration of tasks, usually with an increase in development time and cost...

  15. Experiences with Two Reliability Data Collection Efforts (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; Lantz, E.


    This presentation, given by NREL at the Wind Reliability Experts Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, outlines the causes of wind plant operational expenditures and gearbox failures and describes NREL's efforts to create a gearbox failure database.

  16. Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon(SCUTES) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Students Collaborating to Undertake Tracking Efforts for Sturgeon (SCUTES) is a collaboration between NOAA Fisheries, sturgeon researchers, and teachers/educators in...

  17. Coupled processes in NRC high-level waste research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costanzi, F.A.


    The author discusses NRC research effort in support of evaluating license applications for disposal of nuclear waste and for promulgating regulations and issuing guidance documents on nuclear waste management. In order to do this they fund research activities at a number of laboratories, academic institutions, and commercial organizations. One of our research efforts is the coupled processes study. This paper discusses interest in coupled processes and describes the target areas of research efforts over the next few years. The specific research activities relate to the performance objectives of NRC's high-level waste (HLW) regulation and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) HLW standard. The general objective of the research program is to ensure the NRC has a sufficient independent technical base to make sound regulatory decisions

  18. Shell Inspection History and Current CMM Inspection Efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montano, Joshua Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The following report provides a review of past and current CMM Shell Inspection efforts. Calibration of the Sheffield rotary contour gauge has expired and the primary inspector, Matthew Naranjo, has retired. Efforts within the Inspection team are transitioning from maintaining and training new inspectors on Sheffield to off-the-shelf CMM technology. Although inspection of a shell has many requirements, the scope of the data presented in this report focuses on the inner contour, outer contour, radial wall thickness and mass comparisons.



    BAYAZIT, Zeynep; PANAYIRCI, Uğur Cevdet


    Contemporary social and technological changes inevitably affect consumer behaviour. Today’s customer is savvy, have no time and hard to persuade. This new relationship between customers and brands has a deeper impact on competitive industries such as fashion. Fashion brands are eager to adopt shocking themes for their marketing communication efforts in order to emotionally affect and challenge consumers. Aim of this study is to study with a critical perspective the advertisement efforts of fa...

  20. Predictive and Stochastic Approach for Software Effort Estimation


    Srinivasa Rao T.; Hari CH.V.M.K.; Prasad Reddy P.V.G.D


    Software cost Estimation is the process of predicting the amount of time (Effort) required to build a software system. The primary reason for cost estimation is to enable the client or the developer to perform a cost-benefit analysis. Effort Estimations are determined in terms of person-months, which can be translated into actual dollar cost. The accuracy of the estimate will be depending on the amount of accurate information of the final product. Specification with uncertainty represents a r...

  1. Measuring the Cognitive Effort of Literal Translation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Carl, Michael


    It has been claimed that human translators rely on some sort of literal translation equivalences to produce translations and to check their validity. More effort would be required if translations are less literal. However, to our knowledge, there is no established metric to measure and quantify...... this claim. This paper attempts to bridge this gap by introducing a metric for measuring literality of translations and assesses the effort that is observed when translators produce translations which deviate from the introduced literality definition....

  2. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review. (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M


    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  3. Judgments of learning depend on how learners interpret study effort. (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Nussinson, Ravit; Ackerman, Rakefet


    In self-paced learning, when the regulation of study effort is goal driven (e.g., allocated to different items according to their relative importance), judgments of learning (JOLs) increase with study time. When regulation is data driven (e.g., determined by the ease of committing the item to memory), JOLs decrease with study time (Koriat, Ma'ayan, & Nussinson, 2006). We induced learners to interpret differences in their study time (Experiment 1) or in another learner's study time (Experiment 2) as reflecting either differences in data-driven regulation or differences in goal-driven regulation. This manipulation was found to moderate the relationship of both study time and rated effort to JOLs. The results were seen to support the idea that JOLs are based on study effort but the effects of experienced effort are mediated by an attribution that intervenes between the metacognitive regulation of effort and the monitoring of one's learning. The results invite an attributional theoretical framework that encompasses both data-driven and goal-driven regulation and incorporates the option of attributing experienced effort to either or both of the 2 types of regulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Control and Effort Costs Influence the Motivational Consequences of Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly Sullivan-Toole


    Full Text Available The act of making a choice, apart from any outcomes the choice may yield, has, paradoxically, been linked to both the enhancement and the detriment of intrinsic motivation. Research has implicated two factors in potentially mediating these contradictory effects: the personal control conferred by a choice and the costs associated with a choice. Across four experiments, utilizing a physical effort task disguised as a simple video game, we systematically varied costs across two levels of physical effort requirements (Low-Requirement, High-Requirement and control over effort costs across three levels of choice (Free-Choice, Restricted-Choice, and No-Choice to disambiguate how these factors affect the motivational consequences of choosing within an effortful task. Together, our results indicated that, in the face of effort requirements, illusory control alone may not sufficiently enhance perceptions of personal control to boost intrinsic motivation; rather, the experience of actual control may be necessary to overcome effort costs and elevate performance. Additionally, we demonstrated that conditions of illusory control, while otherwise unmotivating, can through association with the experience of free-choice, be transformed to have a positive effect on motivation.

  5. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance. (United States)

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai


    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Job Satisfaction, Effort, and Performance: A Reasoned Action Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icek Ajzen


    Full Text Available In this article the author takes issue with the recurrent reliance on job satisfaction to explain job-related effort and performance.  The disappointing findings in this tradition are explained by lack of compatibility between job satisfaction–-a very broad attitude–-and the more specific effort and performance criteria.  Moreover, attempts to apply the expectancy-value model of attitude to explore the determinants of effort and performance suffer from reliance on unrepresentative sets of beliefs about the likely consequences of these behaviors.  The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991, 2012, with its emphasis on the proximal antecedents of job effort and performance, is offered as an alternative.  According to the theory, intentions to exert effort and to attain a certain performance level are determined by attitudes, subjective norms, and perceptions of control in relation to these behaviors; and these variables, in turn, are a function of readily accessible beliefs about the likely outcomes of effort and performance, about the normative expectations of important others, and about factors that facilitate or hinder effective performance.

  7. HIV Risk and Protection among Gay Male Couples: The Role of Gay Community Integration (United States)

    Fergus, Stevenson; Lewis, Megan A.; Darbes, Lynae A.; Butterfield, Rita M.


    This study examined the association between different types of integration in the gay community and HIV risk among gay male couples. Previous research linking gay community integration and involvement among couples to HIV risk has been equivocal. Each partner in 59 gay couples completed a separate anonymous questionnaire that assessed two types of…

  8. Does Couple and Relationship Education Work for Individuals in Stepfamilies? A Meta-Analytic Study (United States)

    Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Adler-Baeder, Francesca


    Recent meta-analytic efforts have documented how couple and relationship education (CRE) programs promote healthy relationship and family functioning. The current meta-analysis contributes to this body of literature by examining stepfamily couples, an at-risk, subpopulation of participants, and assessing the effectiveness of CRE programs for…

  9. Quick connect coupling (United States)

    Lomax, Curtis; Webbon, Bruce


    A cooling apparatus includes a container filled with a quantity of coolant fluid initially cooled to a solid phase, a cooling loop disposed between a heat load and the container, a pump for circulating a quantity of the same type of coolant fluid in a liquid phase through the cooling loop, and a pair of couplings for communicating the liquid phase coolant fluid into the container in a direct interface with the solid phase coolant fluid.

  10. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed (United States)


    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  11. Why do couples seek relationship help online? Description and comparison to in-person interventions. (United States)

    Roddy, McKenzie K; Rothman, Karen; Cicila, Larisa N; Doss, Brian D


    Couples are increasingly utilizing newly developed online adaptations of couple therapy; however, different presenting problems could drive couples to seek either online or in-person services. This study compared the presenting problems of 151 couples seeking an online couple intervention for relationship distress (OurRelationship) with responses from 147 couples seeking in-person couple therapy. Presenting problems were generally consistent across gender and whether or not the respondent was the initial help-seeker. Online and in-person samples frequently endorsed difficulties with communication and emotional intimacy; however, they differentially endorsed trust, time together, and child/parenting difficulties. Therefore, while basing online interventions on existing couple therapies is generally supported, efforts should be made to tailor online services to meet the unique needs of this population. © 2018 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  12. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy Engle-Friedman


    Full Text Available Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety.

  13. APA efforts in promoting human rights and social justice. (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Pickren, Wade E; Vasquez, Melba J T


    This article reviews the American Psychological Association's (APA) efforts in promoting human rights and social justice. Beginning with a historical review of the conceptualizations of human rights and social justice, the social challenges that have faced the United States over time are discussed in relation to the APA's evolving mission and strategic initiatives enacted through its boards, committees, and directorates. From early efforts on the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology and the Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs to the establishment of the Public Interest Directorate, the APA's efforts to address these human rights and social justice challenges through its task force reports, guidelines, and policies are described. Specifically, issues related to diversity and underrepresentation of minority group members and perspective within the APA, as well as women's issues (prochoice, violence against women, sexualization of young girls, human trafficking) were central to these efforts. These minority groups included racial and ethnic minority groups; immigrants and refugees; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer individuals; and those with disabilities. Later attention shifted to broader social justice challenges within a public health perspective, such as AIDS, obesity, and violence. Also included is a brief discussion of the Hoffman Report. The article ends with a discussion of future directions for the APA's efforts related to human rights and social justice related to health disparities, violent extremism, social inequality, migration, cultural and racial diversity, and an evidence-based approach to programming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The effect of sleep loss on next day effort. (United States)

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna


    The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding.

  15. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Soimakallio, Sampo; Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka


    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either -10% or -50% from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system.

  16. Level of dynamic efforts weightlifters make in competitive exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleshko V.G.


    Full Text Available The level of dynamic efforts of weightlifters of high qualification is investigational in the structure of technique of getting up of barbell in a jerk and first reception of shove. Technical actions were investigational 220 strongest weightlifters of the world. In all 169 rising barbells are analysed for men and 116 - for women. It is well-proven that the structure of dynamic efforts changes: one sportsmen put more efforts in the phase of preliminary acceleration, other - in the phase of final acceleration. It is set that descriptions of making effort to the shell change with growth of groups of gravimetric categories. For men in the first three groups of gravimetric categories minimum differences have these indexes. For the sportsmen of gravimetric category 105 and they have over 105 kg substantial differences from other. The same conformity to the law in the dynamic indexes of technique is observed and for women. It is set that the sportsmen of heavy gravimetric categories (for men gravimetric categories 105 and over 105 kg in both exercises, for women - in a gravimetric category over 75 kg in raising of barbell on a breast put more efforts in the moment of dissociating of barbell from a dais, what in the phase of final acceleration.

  17. Climate Data Initiative: A Geocuration Effort to Support Climate Resilience (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Bugbee, Kaylin; Tilmes, Curt; Pinheiro Privette, Ana


    Curation is traditionally defined as the process of collecting and organizing information around a common subject matter or a topic of interest and typically occurs in museums, art galleries, and libraries. The task of organizing data around specific topics or themes is a vibrant and growing effort in the biological sciences but to date this effort has not been actively pursued in the Earth sciences. In this paper, we introduce the concept of geocuration and define it as the act of searching, selecting, and synthesizing Earth science data/metadata and information from across disciplines and repositories into a single, cohesive, and useful compendium We present the Climate Data Initiative (CDI) project as an exemplar example. The CDI project is a systematic effort to manually curate and share openly available climate data from various federal agencies. CDI is a broad multi-agency effort of the U.S. government and seeks to leverage the extensive existing federal climate-relevant data to stimulate innovation and private-sector entrepreneurship to support national climate-change preparedness. We describe the geocuration process used in CDI project, lessons learned, and suggestions to improve similar geocuration efforts in the future.

  18. The Effects of Noise and Reverberation on Listening Effort in Adults With Normal Hearing. (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Gordon, Julia; Ricketts, Todd A


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of background noise and reverberation on listening effort. Four specific research questions were addressed related to listening effort: (A) With comparable word recognition performance across levels of reverberation, what are the effects of noise and reverberation on listening effort? (B) What is the effect of background noise when reverberation time is constant? (C) What is the effect of increasing reverberation from low to moderate when signal to noise ratio is constant? (D) What is the effect of increasing reverberation from moderate to high when signal to noise ratio is constant? Eighteen young adults (mean age 24.8 years) with normal hearing participated. A dual-task paradigm was used to simultaneously assess word recognition and listening effort. The primary task was monosyllable word recognition, and the secondary task was word categorization (press a button if the word heard was judged to be a noun). Participants were tested in quiet and in background noise in three levels of reverberation (T30 noise ratios used were chosen individually for each participant and varied by reverberation to address the specific research questions. As expected, word recognition performance was negatively affected by both background noise and by increases in reverberation. Furthermore, analysis of mean response times revealed that background noise increased listening effort, regardless of degree of reverberation. Conversely, reverberation did not affect listening effort, regardless of whether word recognition performance was comparable or signal to noise ratio was constant. The finding that reverberation did not affect listening effort, even when word recognition performance was degraded, is inconsistent with current models of listening effort. The reasons for this surprising finding are unclear and warrant further investigation. However, the results of this study are limited in generalizability to young listeners with

  19. A Magnetically Coupled Cryogenic Pump (United States)

    Hatfield, Walter; Jumper, Kevin


    Historically, cryogenic pumps used for propellant loading at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and other NASA Centers have a bellows mechanical seal and oil bath ball bearings, both of which can be problematic and require high maintenance. Because of the extremely low temperatures, the mechanical seals are made of special materials and design, have wearing surfaces, are subject to improper installation, and commonly are a potential leak path. The ball bearings are non-precision bearings [ABEC-1 (Annular Bearing Engineering Council)] and are lubricated using LOX compatible oil. This oil is compatible with the propellant to prevent explosions, but does not have good lubricating properties. Due to the poor lubricity, it has been a goal of the KSC cryogenics community for the last 15 years to develop a magnetically coupled pump, which would eliminate these two potential issues. A number of projects have been attempted, but none of the pumps was a success. An off-the-shelf magnetically coupled pump (typically used with corrosive fluids) was procured that has been used for hypergolic service at KSC. The KSC Cryogenics Test Lab (CTL) operated the pump in cryogenic LN2 as received to determine a baseline for modifications required. The pump bushing, bearings, and thrust rings failed, and the pump would not flow liquid (this is a typical failure mode that was experienced in the previous attempts). Using the knowledge gained over the years designing and building cryogenic pumps, the CTL determined alternative materials that would be suitable for use under the pump design conditions. The CTL procured alternative materials for the bearings (bronze, aluminum bronze, and glass filled PTFE) and machined new bearing bushings, sleeves, and thrust rings. The designed clearances among the bushings, sleeves, thrust rings, case, and case cover were altered once again using experience gained from previous cryogenic pump rebuilds and designs. The alternative material parts were assembled into

  20. Inpo/industry job and task analysis efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigley, W.W.


    One of the goals of INPO is to develop and coordinate industrywide programs to improve the education, training and qualification of nuclear utility personnel. To accomplish this goal, INPO's Training and Education Division: conducts periodic evaluations of industry training programs; provides assistance to the industry in developing training programs; manages the accreditation of utility training programs. These efforts are aimed at satisfying the need for training programs for nuclear utility personnel to be performance-based. Performance-based means that training programs provide an incumbent with the skills and knowledge required to safely perform the job. One of the ways that INPO has provided assistance to the industry is through the industrywide job and task analysis effort. I will discuss the job analysis and task analysis processes, the current status of JTA efforts, JTA products and JTA lessons learned

  1. Surveillance Systems to Track and Evaluate Obesity Prevention Efforts. (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ranjit, Nalini; Pérez, Adriana


    To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Our recommendations include adding environmental and policy measures to surveillance efforts with a focus on addressing underserved populations, harmonizing existing surveillance systems, including more sensitive measures of obesity outcomes, and developing a knowledgeable workforce. In addition, the widespread use of electronic health records and new technologies that allow self-quantification of behaviors offers opportunities for innovative surveillance methods.

  2. Practitioner's knowledge representation a pathway to improve software effort estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, Emilia


    The main goal of this book is to help organizations improve their effort estimates and effort estimation processes by providing a step-by-step methodology that takes them through the creation and validation of models that are based on their own knowledge and experience. Such models, once validated, can then be used to obtain predictions, carry out risk analyses, enhance their estimation processes for new projects and generally advance them as learning organizations.Emilia Mendes presents the Expert-Based Knowledge Engineering of Bayesian Networks (EKEBNs) methodology, which she has used and adapted during the course of several industry collaborations with different companies world-wide over more than 6 years. The book itself consists of two major parts: first, the methodology's foundations in knowledge management, effort estimation (with special emphasis on the intricacies of software and Web development) and Bayesian networks are detailed; then six industry case studies are presented which illustrate the pra...

  3. Muscle strength, working capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Lykkegaard, J J


    The objective of the study was to evaluate the physical capacity and effort in patients with fibromyalgia. Muscle strength and the coefficient of variation of the strength measurements of 181 female fibromyalgia patients and 126 healthy females were compared. These measurements and ergometer...... exercise capacity, work status and psychometric scoring (SCL-90-R) were correlated. The fibromyalgia patients exhibited significant reduction in voluntary muscle strength of the knee and elbow, flexors and extensors in the order of 20-30%. However, the coefficient of variation was higher among patients...... scores. Work status was related to psychometric scoring, but not to physical capacity or effort. In conclusion, we found a low degree of effort but near normal physical capacity in the fibromyalgia patients....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira, G., Gálvez, D.,


    Full Text Available Among the most popular algorithmic cost and efforts estimation models are COCOMO, SLIM, Function Points. However, since the 90s, the models based on Artificial Intelligence techniques, mainly in Machine Learning techniques have been used to improve the accuracy of the estimates. These models are based on two fundamental aspects: the use of data collected in previous projects where estimates were performed and the application of various knowledge extraction techniques, with the idea of making estimates more efficiently, effectively and, if possible, with greater precision. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of some of these techniques and how they are been applied in estimating the effort of software projects.

  5. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers. (United States)

    van Vegchel, N; de Jonge, J; Meijer, T; Hamers, J P


    The present study investigates the relationship between Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). The ERI model had been used as a theoretical framework, indicating that work stress is related to high efforts (i.e. job demands) and low occupational rewards (e.g. money, esteem and security/career opportunities). The ERI model also predicts that, in overcommitted workers, effects of ERI on employee well-being are stronger compared with their less committed counterparts. A cross-sectional survey among 167 ancillary health care workers of two nursing homes was conducted. Multiple univariate logistic regression analyses were used to test the relationship between ERI and employee well-being. Results of the logistic regression analyses showed that employees with both high (psychological, physical and emotional) efforts and low rewards had higher risks of psychosomatic health complaints, physical health symptoms and job dissatisfaction (odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 5.09 to 18.55). Moreover, employees who reported both high efforts and high rewards had elevated risks of physical symptoms and exhaustion (ORs ranged from 6.17 to 9.39). No support was found for the hypothesis on the moderating effect of overcommitment. Results show some support for the ERI model; ancillary health care workers with high effort/low reward imbalance had elevated risks of poor employee well-being. In addition, results show that the combination of high efforts and high rewards is important for employee well-being. Finally, some practical implications are discussed to combat work stress in health care work.

  6. Predicting Engagement in a Transition to Parenthood Program for Couples (United States)

    Brown, Louis D.; Feinberg, Mark E.; Kan, Marni L.


    Fostering participant engagement is a challenging but essential component of effective prevention programs. To better understand which factors influence engagement, this study examines several predictors of couple engagement in Family Foundations (FF), a preventive intervention for first-time parents shown to enhance parent mental health, couple relations, parenting quality, and child adjustment through age three years. FF consists of a series of classes delivered through childbirth education departments at local hospitals. Baseline data on socio-demographics, parent mental health, and couple relationship quality were examined as predictors of participants’ level of engagement in FF (n = 89 couples, 178 individuals). Sociodemographic variables such as parent gender, socioeconomic status, and age predicted program engagement to a limited extent. However, findings indicated that marital status was the best predictor of engagement. Discussion focuses on how findings can inform the development of practices that promote engagement, such as the use of targeted outreach efforts for individuals most at risk of disengagement. PMID:21841851

  7. DoDs Efforts to Consolidate Data Centers Need Improvement (United States)


    H 2 9 , 2 0 1 6 Report No. DODIG-2016-068 DoD’s Efforts to Consolidate Data Centers Need Improvement Mission Our mission is to provide independent...e DODIG-2016-068 (Project No. D2015-D000RC-0137.000) │ i Results in Brief DoD’s Efforts to Consolidate Data Centers Need Improvement Visit us March 29, 2016 Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether selected DoD Components were effectively consolidating their data

  8. Controllable optomechanical coupling in serially-coupled triple resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenguang Huang


    Full Text Available Radiation pressure can efficiently couple mechanical modes with optical modes in an optical cavity. The coupling efficiency is quite dependent on the interaction between the optical mode and mechanical mode. In this report, we investigate a serially-coupled triple resonator system, where a freestanding beam is placed in the vicinity of the middle resonator. In this coupled system, we demonstrate that the mechanical mode of the free-standing beam can be selectively coupled to different resonance supermodes through the near field interaction.

  9. Learner Characteristic Based Learning Effort Curve Mode: The Core Mechanism on Developing Personalized Adaptive E-Learning Platform (United States)

    Hsu, Pi-Shan


    This study aims to develop the core mechanism for realizing the development of personalized adaptive e-learning platform, which is based on the previous learning effort curve research and takes into account the learner characteristics of learning style and self-efficacy. 125 university students from Taiwan are classified into 16 groups according…

  10. Two career couple (United States)

    Sancetta, Constance


    Over 150 members of AGU attended a panel session on “The Two Career Couple: Balancing Personal and Professional Life” at the 1983 AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. The panel was sponsored by the Education and Human Resources Committee and was chaired by Constance Sancetta. On the panel were Alice Newman, of The Aerospace Corporation; Mark Zoback and Mary Lou Zoback of U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park; and Judith Moody of ONWI-Battelle and her husband, Thomas Worsley of Ohio University. The audience included many students but was composed primarily of professionals 30-40, with men and women equally represented.

  11. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik


    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  12. LIA longitudinal coupling impedance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faltens, A.


    The beam generated fields enter into the problems of waveform generation and longitudinal stability. In the former, provision must be made for the longitudinally defocusing forces due to the space charge and the beam loading effects on the accelerating voltage due to the current of a presumably known bunch. In the latter, the concern is for the growth of unintentional perturbations to unacceptably large values through the interaction of the charge and current fluctuations with the rest of the beam and the surrounding structures. These beam generated electric fields may be related to the beam current through a coupling impedance

  13. Load emphasizes muscle effort minimization during selection of arm movement direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wanyue


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Directional preferences during center-out horizontal shoulder-elbow movements were previously established for both the dominant and non-dominant arm with the use of a free-stroke drawing task that required random selection of movement directions. While the preferred directions were mirror-symmetrical in both arms, they were attributed to a tendency specific for the dominant arm to simplify control of interaction torque by actively accelerating one joint and producing largely passive motion at the other joint. No conclusive evidence has been obtained in support of muscle effort minimization as a contributing factor to the directional preferences. Here, we tested whether distal load changes directional preferences, making the influence of muscle effort minimization on the selection of movement direction more apparent. Methods The free-stroke drawing task was performed by the dominant and non-dominant arm with no load and with 0.454 kg load at the wrist. Motion of each arm was limited to rotation of the shoulder and elbow in the horizontal plane. Directional histograms of strokes produced by the fingertip were calculated to assess directional preferences in each arm and load condition. Possible causes for directional preferences were further investigated by studying optimization across directions of a number of cost functions. Results Preferences in both arms to move in the diagonal directions were revealed. The previously suggested tendency to actively accelerate one joint and produce passive motion at the other joint was supported in both arms and load conditions. However, the load increased the tendency to produce strokes in the transverse diagonal directions (perpendicular to the forearm orientation in both arms. Increases in required muscle effort caused by the load suggested that the higher frequency of movements in the transverse directions represented increased influence of muscle effort minimization on the selection of

  14. Load emphasizes muscle effort minimization during selection of arm movement direction. (United States)

    Wang, Wanyue; Dounskaia, Natalia


    Directional preferences during center-out horizontal shoulder-elbow movements were previously established for both the dominant and non-dominant arm with the use of a free-stroke drawing task that required random selection of movement directions. While the preferred directions were mirror-symmetrical in both arms, they were attributed to a tendency specific for the dominant arm to simplify control of interaction torque by actively accelerating one joint and producing largely passive motion at the other joint. No conclusive evidence has been obtained in support of muscle effort minimization as a contributing factor to the directional preferences. Here, we tested whether distal load changes directional preferences, making the influence of muscle effort minimization on the selection of movement direction more apparent. The free-stroke drawing task was performed by the dominant and non-dominant arm with no load and with 0.454 kg load at the wrist. Motion of each arm was limited to rotation of the shoulder and elbow in the horizontal plane. Directional histograms of strokes produced by the fingertip were calculated to assess directional preferences in each arm and load condition. Possible causes for directional preferences were further investigated by studying optimization across directions of a number of cost functions. Preferences in both arms to move in the diagonal directions were revealed. The previously suggested tendency to actively accelerate one joint and produce passive motion at the other joint was supported in both arms and load conditions. However, the load increased the tendency to produce strokes in the transverse diagonal directions (perpendicular to the forearm orientation) in both arms. Increases in required muscle effort caused by the load suggested that the higher frequency of movements in the transverse directions represented increased influence of muscle effort minimization on the selection of movement direction. This interpretation was supported

  15. How much effort should be employed for surveying a low-diversity Amazonian mammal assemblage using line-transects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Mourthé


    Full Text Available Line-transect surveys are commonly used for sampling large mammals, but estimates of the effort needed to reliably surveying low-diversity assemblages of mammals are scarce. Using data from line-transects and species accumulation curves, I examined whether or not a sampling effort previously suggested to survey mammals elsewhere (ca. 85-100 km would be satisfactory for surveying a low-diversity assemblage of large mammals in the Rio Negro basin in northern Amazonia. In total, 14 mammals were recorded after an accumulated effort of 690 km walked. The desired threshold of completeness was only achieved in one of six transects after an average effort of 115 km surveyed. Considering the entire landscape (all transects pooled, survey completeness was reached after a much higher effort. Moreover, the theoretical effort required to achieve completeness was estimated to be 150-360 km per transect, and 512 km for the landscape. Further studies are required to fully understand this issue, but meanwhile it is safest to assume that higher sampling efforts should be employed when surveying low-diversity assemblages through diurnal line-transects in northwestern Amazonia to get robust estimates of mammal richness.

  16. Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol decreases willingness to exert cognitive effort in male rats. (United States)

    Silveira, Mason M; Adams, Wendy K; Morena, Maria; Hill, Matthew N; Winstanley, Catharine A


    Acceptance of cannabis use is growing. However, prolonged use is associated with diminished psychosocial outcomes, potentially mediated by drug-induced cognitive impairments. Δ 9 -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient in cannabis, yet other phytocannabinoids in the plant, such as cannabidiol (CBD), have unique properties. Given that CBD can modulate the undesirable effects of THC, therapeutic agents, such as nabiximols, contain higher CBD:THC ratios than illicit marijuana. We tested the hypothesis that THC impairs a relevant cognitive function for long-term success, namely willingness to exert cognitive effort for greater rewards, and that CBD could attenuate such decision-making impairments. Male Long-Evans rats ( n = 29) performing the rat cognitive effort task (rCET) received acute THC and CBD, independently and concurrently, in addition to other cannabinoids. Rats chose between 2 options differing in reward magnitude, but also in the cognitive effort (attentional load) required to obtain them. We found that THC decreased choice of hard trials without impairing the animals' ability to accurately complete them. Strikingly, this impairment was correlated with CB1 receptor density in the medial prefrontal cortex - an area previously implicated in effortful decision-making. In contrast, CBD did not affect choice. Coadministration of 1:1 CBD:THC matching that in nabiximols modestly attenuated the deleterious effects of THC in "slacker" rats. Only male rats were investigated, and the THC/CBD coadministration experiment was carried out in a subset of individuals. These findings confirm that THC, but not CBD, selectively impairs decision-making involving cognitive effort costs. However, coadministration of CBD only partially ameliorates such THC-induced dysfunction.

  17. New generation of space capabilities resulting from US/RF cooperative efforts (United States)

    Humpherys, Thomas; Misnik, Victor; Sinelshchikov, Valery; Stair, A. T., Jr.; Khatulev, Valery; Carpenter, Jack; Watson, John; Chvanov, Dmitry; Privalsky, Victor


    Previous successful international cooperative efforts offer a wealth of experience in dealing with highly sensitive issues, but cooperative remote sensing for monitoring and understanding the global environmental is in the national interest of all countries. Cooperation between international partners is paramount, particularly with the Russian Federation, due to its technological maturity and strategic political and geographical position in the world. Based on experience gained over a decade of collaborative space research efforts, continued cooperation provides an achievable goal as well as understanding the fabric of our coexistence. Past cooperative space research efforts demonstrate the ability of the US and Russian Federation to develop a framework for cooperation, working together on a complex, state-of-the-art joint satellite program. These efforts consisted of teams of scientists and engineers who overcame numerous cultural, linguistic, engineering approaches and different political environments. Among these major achievements are: (1) field measurement activities with US satellites MSTI and MSX and the Russian RESURS-1 satellite, as well as the joint experimental use of the US FISTA aircraft; (2) successful joint Science, Conceptual and Preliminary Design Reviews; (3) joint publications of scientific research technical papers, (4) Russian investment in development, demonstration and operation of the Monitor-E spacecraft (Yacht satellite bus), (5) successful demonstration of the conversion of the SS-19 into a satellite launch system, and (6) negotiation of contractual and technical assistant agreements. This paper discusses a new generation of science and space capabilities available to the Remote Sensing community. Specific topics include: joint requirements definition process and work allocation for hardware and responsibility for software development; the function, description and status of Russian contributions in providing space component prototypes

  18. Reproductive working effort in Danish little owl (Athene noctua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsegård-Rasmussen, M.; Sunde, P.; Thorup, K.

    Reduced reproductive success, caused by energy constraints during breeding, is suspected to be one of the reasons for an ongoing decline in the Danish population of little owls (Athene noctua). To measure any food stress during the breeding period, working effort was defined as the minimum flight...

  19. School Climate and Leadership: Levers for School Improvement Efforts (United States)

    Costa, Lois


    This qualitative study considers which aspects of school climate support or inhibit student achievement as each aspect relates to school leadership and school reform efforts. Due to the increased responsibility and accountability which schools face during these challenging times, school climate and the role of the school principal formed the basis…

  20. Changing reproductive effort within a semelparous reproductive episode. (United States)

    Hughes, P William; Simons, Andrew M


    • Life-history theory predicts a trade-off between current and future reproduction for iteroparous organisms-as individuals age, the expected value of future reproduction declines, and thus reproductive effort is expected to be higher in later clutches than in earlier. In contrast, models explaining the evolution of semelparity treat semelparous reproduction as instantaneous, with no scope for intraindividual variation. However, semelparous reproduction is also extended, but over shorter time scales; whether there are similar age- or stage-specific changes in reproductive effort within a semelparous episode is unclear. In this study, we assessed whether semelparous individuals increase reproductive effort as residual reproductive value declines by comparing the reproductive phenotype of flowers at five different floral positions along a main inflorescence.• Using the herbaceous monocarp Lobelia inflata, we conducted a longitudinal study of 409 individuals including both laboratory and field populations over three seasons. We recorded six reproductive traits-including the length of three phenological intervals as well as fruit size, seed size, and seed number-for all plants across floral positions produced throughout the reproductive episode.• We found that while the rate of flower initiation did not change, flowers at distal (late) floral positions developed more quickly and contained larger seed than flowers at basal (early) floral positions did.• Our results were consistent with the hypothesis that, like iteroparous organisms, L. inflata increases reproductive effort in response to low residual reproductive value. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  1. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke


    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at

  2. Using standardized fishery data to inform rehabilitation efforts (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jonathan J.; Stewart, Nathaniel T.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.; Porath, Mark T.


    Lakes and reservoirs progress through an aging process often accelerated by human activities, resulting in degradation or loss of ecosystem services. Resource managers thus attempt to slow or reverse the negative effects of aging using a myriad of rehabilitation strategies. Sustained monitoring programs to assess the efficacy of rehabilitation strategies are often limited; however, long-term standardized fishery surveys may be a valuable data source from which to begin evaluation. We present 3 case studies using standardized fishery survey data to assess rehabilitation efforts stemming from the Nebraska Aquatic Habitat Plan, a large-scale program with the mission to rehabilitate waterbodies within the state. The case studies highlight that biotic responses to rehabilitation efforts can be assessed, to an extent, using standardized fishery data; however, there were specific areas where minor increases in effort would clarify the effectiveness of rehabilitation techniques. Management of lakes and reservoirs can be streamlined by maximizing the utility of such datasets to work smarter, not harder. To facilitate such efforts, we stress collecting both biotic (e.g., fish lengths and weight) and abiotic (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity) data during standardized fishery surveys and designing rehabilitation actions with an appropriate experimental design.

  3. Principal efforts in improving the understanding of Climate impact of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Principal efforts in improving the understanding of Climate impact of aerosols -. New and enhanced satellite borne sensors. Focused field experiments. Establishment and enhancement of ground based networks. Development and deployment of new and enhanced ...

  4. Implementation of Pre-Operative Checklist: An Effort to Reduce ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Implementation of Pre-Operative Checklist: An Effort to Reduce Delays in. Surgery and ... insight to develop a pre-operative checklist to ensure that patients were prepared for surgery and to minimize disruptions ... documentation audit was conducted in May 2014, showing 59% compliance in completing the checklist. Since.

  5. Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Zeelenberg, M.


    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels

  6. Performance Standards and Employee Effort: Evidence from Teacher Absences (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth


    The 2001 No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased accountability pressure in U.S. public schools by threatening to impose sanctions on Title-1 schools that failed to make adequate yearly progress (AYP) in consecutive years. Difference-in-difference estimates of the effect of failing AYP in the first year of NCLB on teacher effort in the…

  7. Components of Effortful Control and Their Relations to Children's Shyness (United States)

    Eggum-Wilkens, Natalie D.; Reichenberg, Ray E.; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L.


    Relations between children's (n = 213) mother-reported effortful control components (attention focusing, attention shifting, inhibitory control at 42 months; activational control at 72 months) and mother-reported shyness trajectories across 42, 54, 72, and 84 months of age were examined. In growth models, shyness decreased. Inhibitory control and…

  8. Efforts to Develop a 300°C Solder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norann, Randy A [Perma Works LLC


    This paper covers the efforts made to find a 300°C electrical solder solution for geothermal well monitoring and logging tools by Perma Works LLC. This paper covers: why a high temperature solder is needed, what makes for a good solder, testing flux, testing conductive epoxy and testing intermetallic bonds. Future areas of research are suggested.

  9. Separate valuation subsystems for delay and effort decision costs. (United States)

    Prévost, Charlotte; Pessiglione, Mathias; Météreau, Elise; Cléry-Melin, Marie-Laure; Dreher, Jean-Claude


    Decision making consists of choosing among available options on the basis of a valuation of their potential costs and benefits. Most theoretical models of decision making in behavioral economics, psychology, and computer science propose that the desirability of outcomes expected from alternative options can be quantified by utility functions. These utility functions allow a decision maker to assign subjective values to each option under consideration by weighting the likely benefits and costs resulting from an action and to select the one with the highest subjective value. Here, we used model-based neuroimaging to test whether the human brain uses separate valuation systems for rewards (erotic stimuli) associated with different types of costs, namely, delay and effort. We show that humans devalue rewards associated with physical effort in a strikingly similar fashion to those they devalue that are associated with delays, and that a single computational model derived from economics theory can account for the behavior observed in both delay discounting and effort discounting. However, our neuroimaging data reveal that the human brain uses distinct valuation subsystems for different types of costs, reflecting in opposite fashion delayed reward and future energetic expenses. The ventral striatum and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex represent the increasing subjective value of delayed rewards, whereas a distinct network, composed of the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula, represent the decreasing value of the effortful option, coding the expected expense of energy. Together, these data demonstrate that the valuation processes underlying different types of costs can be fractionated at the cerebral level.

  10. A critic of maternal mortality reduction efforts in Nigeria | Adinma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gaps identified to militate against maternal mortality reduction efforts include discontinuity and disconnect in government policies and programmes; legislation and other services emanating from change in government or between the executive and legislature within the same government; poor leadership of the health sector ...

  11. Shopping Effort Classification: Implications for Segmenting the College Student Market (United States)

    Wright, Robert E.; Palmer, John C.; Eidson, Vicky; Griswold, Melissa


    Market segmentation strategies based on levels of consumer shopping effort have long been utilized by marketing professionals. Such strategies can be beneficial in assisting marketers with development of appropriate marketing mix variables for segments. However, these types of strategies have not been assessed by researchers examining segmentation…

  12. Efforts towards the development of recombinant Vaccines against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida. In this review an ...

  13. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye


    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  14. Child Welfare Privatization: Reform Efforts in the States. Briefing. (United States)

    Sells, Julia K.

    The number of children in foster care has nearly doubled in recent years. Despite reform efforts, the U.S. child welfare system is not increasing the number of children who get adopted. The federal government spends over $12 billion annually on child welfare programs, but the growing government bureaucracy has allowed the problems to worsen. The…

  15. Mothers' Teaching Strategies and Children's Effortful Control: A Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Eggum, Natalie D.; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne


    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal…

  16. Effort-Reporting and Cost Analysis of Medical Education (United States)

    Stoddart, Greg L.


    This paper presents a historical review of applications of effort-reporting in medical education, comments on key methodological issues and describes a revised methodology of a 2-step estimating process that is flexible enough to accommodate a multidisciplinary medical education. (Editor/PG)

  17. Assessment of Sustainable Yield and Optimum Fishing Effort for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    The tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L. 1758) stock of Lake Hawassa, Ethiopia, was assessed to estimate sustainable ... would be obtained at an F-factor of 1.0, it was concluded that the current level of fishing effort ..... length based cohort analysis were used as reference and these were increased and/or decreased by certain ...


    Fernandez-Garcia, D.; de Vries, L.; Pool, M.; Sapriza, G.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Bolster, D.; Tartakovsky, D. M.


    The release of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) such as petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents in the subsurface is a severe source of groundwater and vapor contamination. Because these liquids are essentially immiscible due to low solubility, these contaminants get slowly dissolved in groundwater and/or volatilized in the vadoze zone threatening the environment and public health over a long period. Many remediation technologies and strategies have been developed in the last decades for restoring the water quality properties of these contaminated sites. The failure of an on-site treatment technology application is often due to the unnoticed presence of dissolved NAPL entrapped in low permeability areas (heterogeneity) and/or the remaining of substantial amounts of pure phase after remediation efforts. Full understanding of the impact of remediation efforts is complicated due to the role of many interlink physical and biochemical processes taking place through several potential pathways of exposure to multiple receptors in a highly unknown heterogeneous environment. Due to these difficulties, the design of remediation strategies and definition of remediation endpoints have been traditionally determined without quantifying the risk associated with the failure of such efforts. We conduct a probabilistic risk assessment of the likelihood of success of an on-site NAPL treatment technology that easily integrates all aspects of the problem (causes, pathways, and receptors). Thus, the methodology allows combining the probability of failure of a remediation effort due to multiple causes, each one associated to several pathways and receptors.

  19. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ünal, Ayca Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N = 69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving

  20. A technique for estimating maximum harvesting effort in a stochastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    realistic environmental variability the maximum harvesting effort is less than what is estimated in the deterministic model. This method also enables us to find out the safe regions in the parametric space for which the chance of extinction of the species is minimized. A real life fishery problem has been considered to obtain.

  1. Preference for rewards that follow greater effort and greater delay. (United States)

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Delevoye-Turrell, Yvonne; Zentall, Thomas R


    Humans prefer (conditioned) rewards that follow greater effort (Aronson & Mills, 1959). This phenomenon can be interpreted as evidence for cognitive dissonance (or as justification of effort) but may also result from (1) the contrast between the relatively greater effort and the signal for reinforcement or (2) the delay reduction signaled by the conditioned reinforcer. In the present study, we examined the effect of prior force and prior time to produce stimuli associated with equal reinforcement. As expected, pressing with greater force or for a longer time was less preferred than pressing with less force or for a shorter time. However, participants preferred the conditioned reinforcer that followed greater force and more time. Furthermore, participants preferred a long duration with no force requirement over a shorter duration with a high force requirement and, consistent with the contrast account but not with the delay reduction account, they preferred the conditioned stimulus that followed the less preferred, shorter duration, high-force event. Within-trial contrast provides a more parsimonious account than justification of effort, and a more complete account than delay reduction.

  2. The Vatican and Unesco Link Efforts for World Literacy (United States)

    Ryan, Leo V., Brother


    The problem of functional literacy has been recognized as a moral issue and offers a special challenge to religious authorities. Founded at the Vatican level in March 1969, the Committee on Human Development was commissioned to promote and animate efforts in: (a) basic education; (b) leadership training; (c) vocational education; (d) opinion…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the industry. 4. Within a closed population i.e. in the absence of any significant bull or semen importation, the rate of genetic improvement is related to the effect- ive size of the breeding population. The percentage of stud cows in milk recording and. A.I. is, therefore, of cardinal importance in any effort to effect maximum rates ...

  4. Preservation and Conservation Efforts of Ajami Manuscript in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the efforts of preservation and conservation of Ajami Manuscript. It reports the role of Ajami not only as an ethnic or national but also a regional system of writing for information and communication. The study underscores the assumption that Ajami is no longer a preserve of the Muslim Hausa speaking ...

  5. Effort thrombosis: A case study and discussion | Collins | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paget-Schroetter syndrome or effort thrombosis is a rare condition with potentially severe consequences, affecting young and otherwise healthy athletes. Its classic clinical presentation should be rapidly identified to promote early diagnosis and treatment. This prevents recurrences and long-term complications such as ...

  6. Survey of European Community efforts in RF heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consoli, T.


    The present paper briefly reviews the efforts made over the last 10 years, with particular emphasis on the period from 1978 to 1980. The RF heating experiments within EC are presented: low frequency heating; heating at medium frequencies (ICRH); RF heating at low hybrid frequency; heating at the ECR frequency. The plan of Tore-Supra is given

  7. Role of effort in stimulating luck: Its parapsychology implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    goalpost) to score goals. The other category was made up of teams that made lesser efforts on the target (goal post) to score goals. The unwanted variables in the study were controlled through quality control, as only the matches watched by the ...

  8. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort - slides (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roof projects...

  9. Green Roof Research through EPA's Regional Applied Research Effort (United States)

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) allows the Regions of the EPA to choose research projects to be performed in partnership with EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD). Over the last decade, several green roo...

  10. Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists (United States)

    Lindow, Megan


    This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists…

  11. A Minimum Effort Control Approach to Guided Munition Path Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borkowski, Jeffrey M


    .... The foundation of this path planning method is found in the principles of minimum effort control optimization. Results demonstrate the ability of the path planning algorithm to determine a path for the munition to follow which is both stable and feasible.

  12. Prosocial apathy for helping others when effort is required. (United States)

    Lockwood, Patricia L; Hamonet, Mathilde; Zhang, Samuel H; Ratnavel, Anya; Salmony, Florentine U; Husain, Masud; Apps, Matthew A J


    Prosocial acts - those that are costly to ourselves but benefit others - are a central component of human co-existence1-3. While the financial and moral costs of prosocial behaviours are well understood4-6, everyday prosocial acts do not typically come at such costs. Instead, they require effort. Here, using computational modelling of an effort-based task we show that people are prosocially apathetic. They are less willing to choose to initiate highly effortful acts that benefit others compared to benefitting themselves. Moreover, even when choosing to initiate effortful prosocial acts, people show superficiality, exerting less force into actions that benefit others than themselves. These findings replicated, were present when the other was anonymous or not, and when choices were made to earn rewards or avoid losses. Importantly, the least prosocially motivated people had higher subclinical levels of psychopathy and social apathy. Thus, although people sometimes 'help out', they are less motivated to benefit others and sometimes 'superficially prosocial', which may characterise everyday prosociality and its disruption in social disorders.

  13. Effort and trust: the underpinnings of active learning. (United States)

    Adams, Seana; Bilimoria, Krish; Malhotra, Neha; Rangachari, P K


    Three undergraduate students and their teacher discuss two crucial issues that form the implicit basis of active learning: effort and trust. They use a single course in a Health Sciences Program to anchor their comments. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Finding Funding for Environmental Education Efforts. ERIC/CSMEE Digest. (United States)

    Heimlich, Joe E.; Puglisi, Dawn D.

    Funds are not always available to finance environmental education efforts in communities and schools. This digest highlights steps for identifying potential sources for funding and how to apply for those funds. Two sources of monetary awards to groups and individuals are grants and gifts. Four steps to identify potential donors and apply for…

  15. Current research efforts of EP study in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, C.M.


    After the successful demonstration of H mode on KSTAR, the problem of fast-ion driven MHD modes such as Alfven eigenmodes (AEs) and the reverse effects on fast ions of MHD modes is under study in KSTAR. In this paper, I will briefly describe some recent efforts of KSTAR on energetic particle physics study. (J.P.N.)

  16. Successful Integration of Pediatrics Into State Health Care Reform Efforts. (United States)

    Shaw, Judith S; Varni, Susan E; Tolmie, Elizabeth Cheng; Mohlman, Mary Kate; Harder, Valerie S

    Health care reform in Vermont promotes patient-centered medical homes (PCMH) and multi-disciplinary community health teams to support population health. This qualitative study describes the expansion of Vermont's health care reform efforts, initially focused on adult primary care, to pediatrics through interviews with project managers and facilitators, CHT members, pediatric practitioners and care coordinators, and community-based providers. Analyses used grounded theory, identifying themes confirmed by repeat occurrence across respondents. Respondents believed that PCMH recognition and financial and community supports would improve care for pediatric patients and families. Respondents shared three main challenges with health care reform efforts: achieving PCMH recognition, adapting community health teams for pediatric patients and families, and defining roles for care coordinators. For health care reform efforts to support pediatric patients and be family-centered, states may need additional resources to understand how pediatric and adult primary care differ and how best to support pediatrics during health care reform efforts. Copyright © 2017 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Community-oriented services in a psychiatric hospital. Effort to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Yaba apa osi” (Yaba to the left side). Consequently, in the year 2000 the hospital stepped up its efforts on destigmatization through public enlightenment programmes and provision of commercial /social as well as general health care services in the institution that would bring or attract the citizenry to its facilities. We carried ...

  18. A critical evalluation of internal revenue generating efforts of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a bid to enhance improvement of local government internal revenue efforts, the federal government has embarked on several policies some of these include; the creation of more local government areas from 96 divisions in 1963 to 774 local government areas in 1993. The local government reform of 1976 and the use of ...

  19. Worker Morale and Effort : Is the Relationship Causal?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, W.H.J.; Fernandez, Roberto M.


    We investigate a unique setting which enables us to distinguish between two theories of work performance. A standard labor supply framework implies a negative effect of the nonpecuniary cost of work on the employee’s effort. In contrast, a model of worker morale that is consistent with a widely used

  20. Efforts - Final technical report on task 4. Physical modelling calidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Christensen, T. W.

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out in Task 4 at DTU Physical modelling-validation on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The report...

  1. Communication Satellite: Nigeria's Efforts at Bridging Digital Divide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines Nigeria's technological efforts so far at bridging the Digital Divide through communication Satellite. This discourse focuses on the uses and challenges of Satellite communication in Nigeria. The paper relies on secondary data to explore the fate of Nigeria nation in the era of digital divide and ...

  2. F‐GHG Emissions Reduction Efforts: FY2015 Supplier Profiles (United States)

    The Supplier Profiles outlined in this document detail the efforts of large‐area flat panel suppliers to reduce their F‐GHG emissions in manufacturing facilities that make today’s large‐area panels used for products such as TVs and computer monitors.

  3. Efforts Towards The Development Of Recombinant Vaccines Against

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by gram-negative bacterium of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) strains. Most of the current vaccines against P. multocida have shortcomings. Presently, there is increasing efforts towards construction of recombinant clone for vaccine development against P. multocida.

  4. The Development of Effortful Control in Children Born Preterm (United States)

    Poehlmann, Julie; Schwichtenberg, A. J. Miller; Shah, Prachi E.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Hahn, Emily; Maleck, Sarah


    This prospective longitudinal study examined emerging effortful control skills at 24- and 36-months postterm in 172 children born preterm (less than 36 weeks gestation). Infant (neonatal health risks), family (sociodemographic risks), and maternal risk factors (depressive symptoms, anger expressions during play interactions) were assessed at six…

  5. Academic Effort and Achievement in Science: Beyond a Gendered Relationship (United States)

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Sweet, Robert


    This study employs the 2004 School Achievement Indicators Program (SAIP) data to examine whether academic effort manifested by greater investments in school and homework does result in higher literacy scores in science for Canadian students. The study compares four gender-immigrant profiles: Canadian-born males, immigrant males, Canadian-born…

  6. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles


    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  7. 45 CFR 1321.49 - State agency maintenance of effort. (United States)


    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State agency maintenance of effort. 1321.49 Section 1321.49 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.49 State...

  8. Economic response to harvest and effort control in fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans

    for fisheries management. The report outlines bio-economic models, which are designed to shed light on the efficiency of different management tools in terms of quota or effort restrictions given the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy about sustainable and economic viable fisheries. The report addresses...... the complexities of biological and economic interaction in a multispecies, multifleet framework and outlines consistent mathematical models....

  9. Anti-Money Laundering Efforts - Failures, Fixes and the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleanu, I.S.


    In this PhD thesis I address important topics in the debate on and the organisation of the Anti-Money Laundering efforts, which are related to the legitimacy and the effectiveness of the Anti-Money Laundering policies. First of all, this thesis provides a reflection on the assessments of concern

  10. Chimera states in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators with biharmonic interaction (United States)

    Cheng, Hongyan; Dai, Qionglin; Wu, Nianping; Feng, Yuee; Li, Haihong; Yang, Junzhong


    Chimera states, which consist of coexisting domains of coherent and incoherent parts, have been observed in a variety of systems. Most of previous works on chimera states have taken into account specific form of interaction between oscillators, for example, sinusoidal coupling or diffusive coupling. Here, we investigate chimera dynamics in nonlocally coupled phase oscillators with biharmonic interaction. We find novel chimera states with features such as that oscillators in the same coherent cluster may split into two groups with a phase difference around π/2 and that oscillators in adjacent coherent clusters may have a phase difference close to π/2. The different impacts of the coupling ranges in the first and the second harmonic interactions on chimera dynamics are investigated based on the synchronous dynamics in globally coupled phase oscillators. Our study suggests a new direction in the field of chimera dynamics.

  11. Controllable coupling of distributed qubits within a microtoroidal cavity network (United States)

    Hu, C.; Xia, Y.; Song, J.


    We propose a scheme to control the coupling between two arbitrary atoms scattered within a quantum network composed of microtoroidal cavities linked by a ring-fibre. The atom-atom effective couplings are induced by pairing of off-resonant Raman transitions. The couplings can be arbitrarily controlled by adjusting classical fields. Compared with the previous scheme [S.B. Zheng, C.P. Yang, F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 82, 042327 (2010)], the present scheme uses microtoroidal cavities with higher coupling efficiency than Fabry-Perot cavities. Furthermore, the scheme is not only suitable for the short-fibre limit, but also for multiple fibre modes. The added fibre modes can play a positive role, especially when the coupling rate between cavity-mode and fibre-mode is not large. In addition, a wider frequency domain of fibre modes can be used in this scheme.

  12. Strong Coupling Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia


    We show that whenever a 4-dimensional theory with N particle species emerges as a consistent low energy description of a 3-brane embedded in an asymptotically-flat (4+d)-dimensional space, the holographic scale of high-dimensional gravity sets the strong coupling scale of the 4D theory. This connection persists in the limit in which gravity can be consistently decoupled. We demonstrate this effect for orbifold planes, as well as for the solitonic branes and string theoretic D-branes. In all cases the emergence of a 4D strong coupling scale from bulk holography is a persistent phenomenon. The effect turns out to be insensitive even to such extreme deformations of the brane action that seemingly shield 4D theory from the bulk gravity effects. A well understood example of such deformation is given by large 4D Einstein term in the 3-brane action, which is known to suppress the strength of 5D gravity at short distances and change the 5D Newton's law into the four-dimensional one. Nevertheless, we observe that the ...

  13. Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters (United States)

    Bandler, Simon


    Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types.

  14. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions (United States)

    Holec, Victoria; Pirot, Heather L.; Euston, David R.


    The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., “courage”). As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm (HRA) but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the HRA. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain tasks. PMID:24478659

  15. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eHolec


    Full Text Available The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., courage. As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the high reward arm. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozzana Sánchez-Aragón


    Full Text Available There are few studies that focus on the influence that contextual aspects have in marital satisfaction (Meléndez, Aleixandre,& Saez, 1993.However, nowadays the reasons for a divorce are related to the actual social situation (Khalfani-Cox, 2009. Thus, the aim of this study is to identify contextual aspects that are associ-ated with marital satisfaction; in order to accomplish this objective, we conducted two studies. The purpose of the first study was to identify recent context aspects that influence marital satisfaction throughout an open question, which was ap-plied to 131 people. The results indicate that the dimensions of economic, labor time, home safety, stress in the environment, and the place where they live influ-ence marital satisfaction. In the second study, based on the information obtained previously, we formed indicators that were applied together with a scale of mari-tal satisfaction to105 couples. The results show that the context is closely related to marital satisfaction. In addition, the results determine that men give greater importance to the economic and employment situation than women do. Overall, this study indicates that sex differences prove that the roles and cultural expecta-tions have remained in the dynamics of the relationship and thus influence the assessment of marital satisfaction.

  17. Eight previously unidentified mutations found in the OA1 ocular albinism gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dufier Jean-Louis


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ocular albinism type 1 (OA1 is an X-linked ocular disorder characterized by a severe reduction in visual acuity, nystagmus, hypopigmentation of the retinal pigmented epithelium, foveal hypoplasia, macromelanosomes in pigmented skin and eye cells, and misrouting of the optical tracts. This disease is primarily caused by mutations in the OA1 gene. Methods The ophthalmologic phenotype of the patients and their family members was characterized. We screened for mutations in the OA1 gene by direct sequencing of the nine PCR-amplified exons, and for genomic deletions by PCR-amplification of large DNA fragments. Results We sequenced the nine exons of the OA1 gene in 72 individuals and found ten different mutations in seven unrelated families and three sporadic cases. The ten mutations include an amino acid substitution and a premature stop codon previously reported by our team, and eight previously unidentified mutations: three amino acid substitutions, a duplication, a deletion, an insertion and two splice-site mutations. The use of a novel Taq polymerase enabled us to amplify large genomic fragments covering the OA1 gene. and to detect very likely six distinct large deletions. Furthermore, we were able to confirm that there was no deletion in twenty one patients where no mutation had been found. Conclusion The identified mutations affect highly conserved amino acids, cause frameshifts or alternative splicing, thus affecting folding of the OA1 G protein coupled receptor, interactions of OA1 with its G protein and/or binding with its ligand.

  18. Heart rate variability related to effort at work. (United States)

    Uusitalo, Arja; Mets, Terhi; Martinmäki, Kaisu; Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Rusko, Heikki


    Changes in autonomic nervous system function have been related to work stress induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Our purpose was to examine whether various heart rate variability (HRV) measures and new HRV-based relaxation measures are related to self-reported chronic work stress and daily emotions. The relaxation measures are based on neural network modelling of individual baseline heart rate and HRV information. Nineteen healthy hospital workers were studied during two work days during the same work period. Daytime, work time and night time heart rate, as well as physical activity were recorded. An effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire was used to assess chronic work stress. The emotions of stress, irritation and satisfaction were assessed six times during both days. Seventeen subjects had an ERI ratio over 1, indicating imbalance between effort and reward, that is, chronic work stress. Of the daily emotions, satisfaction was the predominant emotion. The daytime relaxation percentage was higher on Day 2 than on Day 1 (4 ± 6% vs. 2 ± 3%, p work time relaxation on the both Days. Chronic work stress correlated with the vagal activity index of HRV. However, effort at work had many HRV correlates: the higher the work effort the lower daytime HRV and relaxation time. Emotions at work were also correlated with work time (stress and satisfaction) and night time (irritation) HRV. These results indicate that daily emotions at work and chronic work stress, especially effort, is associated with cardiac autonomic function. Neural network modelling of individual heart rate and HRV information may provide additional information in stress research in field conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Coupling pathways for dihydroxy aromatics during coal pyrolysis and liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. McMillen; Ripudaman Malhotra; Sou-Jen Chang; S. Esther Nigenda; Gilbert A. St. John [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States). Chemical Science and Technology Laboratory


    Studies with model-compounds and hybrid studies in which model compounds are added to coal experiments were conducted to elucidate the major pathways by which phenols can lead to cross-links during coal conversion. This effort was greatly facilitated by the application of field ionization mass spectrometry (FIMS). For 1,3-dihydroxynaphthalene, FIMS analysis showing the entire sequence of oligomeric coupling products up through pentamers at 688 Da demonstrates unequivocally that the stoichiometry and sequence of reactions at 400{sup o}C involve an initial condensation to eliminate water, followed by an oxidative coupling eliminating the elements of H{sub 2}. Reaction conditions were varied to determine the effect of neutral and basic hydroaromatic solvents, non-donor aromatic solvents, reactor surfaces, metal-oxide additives, and gas atmosphere. Resorcinol (1,3-dihydroxybenzene) couples in a similar manner, but analyzable products are difficult to intercept; evidently the initial coupling products are far more reactive toward coupling than is the starting material. Catechol (1,2-dihydroxybenzene) undergoes self-coupling at a slightly slower rate than resorcinol, while 1,4-dihydroxynaphthalene undergoes dehydroxylation in donor solvents at a rate fast enough to largely block rapid self-coupling of the dihydroxy aromatic. Hybrid experiments with a subbituminous coal (Wyodak) and these Ar(OH){sub 2} show that the coal possesses structures that couple far more rapidly with Ar(OH){sub 2} than the latter do with themselves. Simple phenols inhibit the coupling, but the amine hydroaromatic, tetrahydroquinoline, has no special inhibiting effect, except that it itself tends to couple with Ar(OH){sub 2}. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Electrochemical Single-Molecule Transistors with Optimized Gate Coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osorio, Henrry M.; Catarelli, Samantha; Cea, Pilar


    . These data are rationalized in terms of a two-step electrochemical model for charge transport across the redox bridge. In this model the gate coupling in the ionic liquid is found to be fully effective with a modeled gate coupling parameter, ξ, of unity. This compares to a much lower gate coupling parameter......Electrochemical gating at the single molecule level of viologen molecular bridges in ionic liquids is examined. Contrary to previous data recorded in aqueous electrolytes, a clear and sharp peak in the single molecule conductance versus electrochemical potential data is obtained in ionic liquids...

  1. Molecular states of HeH+. Energies and dynamical couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macias, A.; Riera, A.; Yanez, M.


    We complete the molecular results reported in a previous paper by presenting additional energies (for /sup 1,3/μ states) and radial couplings (between 'μ states) of the HeH + system. These results are needed to treat elastic and inelastic charge-exchange processes when full account is taken of momentum-transfer problems. We also present a formalism to calculate radial couplings between wave functions computed with the use of different variational methods and basis sets. The detailed form of the radial couplings is discussed and related to the Barat-Lichten correlation diagram. The effect of using finite basis sets in calculatig degenerate molecular energies is also discussed

  2. On the Classical Coupling between Gravity and Electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Becker


    Full Text Available Coupling between electromagnetism and gravity, manifested as the distorted Coulomb field of a charge distribution in a gravitational field, has never been observed. A physical system consisting of an electron in a charged shell provides a coupling that is orders of magnitude stronger than for any previously-considered system. A shell voltage of one megavolt is required to establish a gravitationally-induced electromagnetic force equal in magnitude to the force of gravity on an electron. The experimental feasibility of detecting these forces on an electron is discussed. The effect establishes a relation between Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence and the coupling between electromagnetism and gravity.

  3. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST... (United States)


    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  4. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg


    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  5. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: Effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N. van; Jonge, J. de; Meijer, T.; Hamers, J.P.H.


    Aims of the study. The present study investigates the relationship between Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). Background. The ERI model had been used as a theoretical

  6. Klassevirus 1, a previously undescribed member of the family Picornaviridae, is globally widespread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipas James M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is the third leading infectious cause of death worldwide and is estimated to be responsible for approximately 2 million deaths a year. While many infectious causes of diarrhea have been established, approximately 40% of all diarrhea cases are of unknown etiology. In an effort to identify novel viruses that may be causal agents of diarrhea, we used high throughput mass sequencing to analyze stool samples collected from patients with acute diarrhea. Results Sequences with limited similarity to known picornaviruses were detected in a stool sample collected in Australia from a child with acute diarrhea. Using a combination of mass sequencing, RT-PCR, 5' RACE and 3' RACE, a 6383 bp fragment of the viral genome was sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that this virus was highly divergent from, but most closely related to, members of the genus Kobuvirus. We have tentatively named this novel virus klassevirus 1. We also detected klassevirus 1 by RT-PCR in a diarrhea specimen collected from a patient in St. Louis, United States as well as in untreated sewage collected in Barcelona, Spain. Conclusion Klassevirus 1 is a previously undescribed picornavirus that is globally widespread and present on at least three continents. Further investigations to determine whether klassevirus 1 is a human pathogen are needed.

  7. Strong coupling of collection of emitters on hyperbolic meta-material (United States)

    Biehs, Svend-Age; Xu, Chenran; Agarwal, Girish S.


    Recently, considerable effort has been devoted to the realization of a strong coupling regime of the radiation matter interaction in the context of an emitter at a meta surface. The strong interaction is well realized in cavity quantum electrodynamics, which also show that strong coupling is much easier to realize using a collection of emitters. Keeping this in mind, we study if emitters on a hyperbolic meta materials can yield a strong coupling regime. We show that strong coupling can be realized for densities of emitters exceeding a critical value. A way to detect strong coupling between emitters and hyperbolic metamaterials is to use the Kretschman-Raether configuration. The strong coupling appears as the splitting of the reflectivity dip. In the weak coupling regime, the dip position shifts. The shift and splitting can be used to sense active molecules at surfaces.


    KAUST Repository



    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  9. Persistent Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Rural Bangladesh Despite Major Mitigation Efforts (United States)

    Gardner, Renee; Hamadani, Jena; Grandér, Margaretha; Tofail, Fahmida; Nermell, Barbro; Palm, Brita; Kippler, Maria


    Objectives. Elevated arsenic levels in tube-well water in Bangladesh have prompted extensive mitigation projects. We evaluated the effectiveness of long-term mitigation efforts by longitudinally measuring arsenic exposure in pregnant women and their children, the most susceptible population groups. Methods. The study was nested in a population-based nutrition intervention in Matlab, Bangladesh. Mother–child pairs (n = 1951) were followed from 2001 to 2003, beginning in early gestation and continuing to 5 years postpartum. We measured arsenic concentrations in urine (U-As) of the 5-year-old children by using high-performance liquid chromatography online with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and compared them with earlier childhood U-As and maternal U-As during pregnancy. Results. Children had elevated U-As at 5 years old (median = 51 μg/L, 5th–95th percentiles = 16–355 μg/L), and U-As distribution was similar to that observed in the mothers during gestation. Children's U-As at 5 years old significantly correlated with their U-As at 1.5 years old and to maternal U-As during early and late gestation. Conclusions. Despite major mitigation efforts, arsenic exposure remains highly elevated in rural Bangladesh. Further mitigation strategies are required and must be rigorously evaluated for long-term efficacy. PMID:21778503

  10. Wildlife Loss Estimates and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume Three, Hungry Horse Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel


    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Hungry Horse Dam project on the South Fork of the Flathead River and previous mitigation of theses losses. In order to develop and focus mitigation efforts, it was first necessary to estimate wildlife and wildlife hatitat losses attributable to the construction and operation of the project. The purpose of this report was to document the best available information concerning the degree of impacts to target wildlife species. Indirect benefits to wildlife species not listed will be identified during the development of alternative mitigation measures. Wildlife species incurring positive impacts attributable to the project were identified.

  11. Variation in working effort in Danish Little Owls Athene noctua

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holsegård-Rasmussen, Miriam H.; Sunde, Peter; Thorup, Kasper


    Locomotion is costly and should therefore serve a purpose according to the principle of optimal behaviour. In this light, we studied variation in nocturnal activity of radio-tagged Little Owls Athene noctua in Denmark where, after a decline of at least 30 years, the species is threatened...... with extinction. The study is based on 143 one-hour surveys of breeding and 274 surveys of non-breeding Little Owls (27 territorial individuals on 14 territories). Working effort is calculated as the total linear distance between all observed consecutive telemetry fixes during one-hour surveys (Minimum Flight...... Distance, MFD). The effort peaked during the post-hatching dependency period with males flying longer distances and having fewer inactivity periods than females. This might suggest that also after hatching, males provide more food to the nest than females. Non-breeding owls were completely inactive in 13...

  12. Physics Education Research efforts to promote diversity: Challenges and opportunities (United States)

    Brahmia, Suzanne


    We begin this talk with a brief description of the gender and ethnic diversity of the physics community. We then discuss several current efforts within Physics Education Research that have the potential to further our understanding of issues surrounding underrepresentation. These efforts include research into (1) the role of community and strategies for developing effective communities; (2) physics identity and self-efficacy; (3) the affordances that students from underrepresented groups bring to physics learning; (4) socioeconomics and its impact on mathematization. One of the challenges to conducting this research is the relatively small proportion of underrepresented minority students in current physics classes, and the small number of women in physics and engineering majors. In collaboration with Stephen Kanim, New Mexico State University.

  13. Future Efforts in Flynn Effect Research: Balancing Reductionism with Holism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Mingroni


    Full Text Available After nearly thirty years of concerted effort by many investigators, the cause or causes of the secular gains in IQ test scores, known as the Flynn effect, remain elusive. In this target article, I offer six suggestions as to how we might proceed in our efforts to solve this intractable mystery. The suggestions are as follows: (1 compare parents to children; (2 consider other traits and conditions; (3 compare siblings; (4 conduct more and better intervention programs; (5 use subtest profile data in context; and (6 quantify the potential contribution of heterosis. This last section contains new simulations of the process of heterosis, which provide a plausible scenario whereby rapid secular changes in multiple genetically influenced traits are possible. If there is any theme to the present paper, it is that future study designs should be simpler and more highly focused, coordinating multiple studies on single populations.

  14. Audit quality in ASEAN region: some efforts and comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyasari Irma


    Full Text Available This paper discusses how Asian economies are responding to the increased global attention on audit quality (AQ issues. It shows some of the efforts taken by the countries collectively as a region; as well as individual countries’ measures. The data is obtained from various reports available in public domain including the information available on various relevant websites. The discussion shows how Asian countries are working through an informal organization they established, called the ASEAN Audit Regulators Group (AARG in enhancing AQ. Comparison among five ASEAN countries shows variations in term of how much each country has progressed with respect to their efforts in straightening AQ. Some countries are more advanced than the other. This paper contributes to the literature on audit quality by providing insights into how ASEAN as a region responded to the global demand on improving AQ and the gaps in auditing literature on comparative progress of these nations.

  15. Effort for payment. A tale of two markets. (United States)

    Heyman, James; Ariely, Dan


    The standard model of labor is one in which individuals trade their time and energy in return for monetary rewards. Building on Fiske's relational theory (1992), we propose that there are two types of markets that determine relationships between effort and payment: monetary and social. We hypothesize that monetary markets are highly sensitive to the magnitude of compensation, whereas social markets are not. This perspective can shed light on the well-established observation that people sometimes expend more effort in exchange for no payment (a social market) than they expend when they receive low payment (a monetary market). Three experiments support these ideas. The experimental evidence also demonstrates that mixed markets (markets that include aspects of both social and monetary markets) more closely resemble monetary than social markets.

  16. Aspects of Romania's Economic Efforts in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe


    Full Text Available Romania's participation in the Second World War was caused by loss of an area ofapproximately 1/3 of the national territory and has 6 million inhabitants, for the three neighbors of theRomanian state, that the Soviet Union, Hungary and Bulgaria will bethe reason fundamental ofRomania's participation in military operations on both fronts, east and west of the Second World War.Although Romania's war economic effort, amounted to the enormous amount of 1,200,000,000dollars in 1938 currency, a situationan honorable fourth place in the hierarchy of the United Nationsthat led the fight against Germany, co-belligerent status, the country justly deserved our will berefused for political reasons known only to the Great Powers. Of all the states, are in a situationsomewhat similar to that of Romania, no one made an effort not so much military or economic indefeating Germany.

  17. A Real-Effort Experiment on Gift Exchange with Temptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We conduct a real-effort experiment to test whether workers reciprocate generous wages by managers when workers are tempted to surf the internet. Further, we investigate how an active policy of restricting the usage of the internet affects the workers' motivation. We observe that the temptation...... of the internet hampers workers' willingness to reciprocate fair wages. Yet, when the manager makes an active choice not to deny internet access, workers perceive the "freedom from control" as a gift which they reciprocate with high effort. Whether the positive "freedom from control" aspect or the negative...... temptation aspects dominates depends on the worker's reciprocity: for highly reciprocal workers the control aspect dominates; for non-reciprocal workers the temptation aspect dominates....

  18. Regularization in global sound equalization based on effort variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, John; Jacobsen, Finn


    Sound equalization in closed spaces can be significantly improved by generating propagating waves that are naturally associated with the geometry, as, for example, plane waves in rectangular enclosures. This paper presents a control approach termed effort variation regularization based on this idea....... Effort variation equalization involves modifying the conventional cost function in sound equalization, which is based on minimizing least-squares reproduction errors, by adding a term that is proportional to the squared deviations between complex source strengths, calculated independently for the sources...... at each of the two walls perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Simulation results in a two-dimensional room of irregular shape and in a rectangular room with sources randomly distributed on two opposite walls demonstrate that the proposed technique leads to smaller global reproduction errors...

  19. Tax effort and oil royalties in the Brazilian municipalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Slaibe Postali


    Full Text Available This paper estimates a stochastic production frontier, to investigate whether municipalities covered by oil royalties in the last decade have reduced their tax effort in Brazil. The issue is relevant to the prospect of a substantial increase in these revenues and the new rules for distribution of the funds, established by Law No. 12.734/2012. The inputs were provided by personnel and capital expenditures, whereas the product was defined as the municipal tax collection. With the purpose of overcoming the endogeneity problems due to reverse causality of output on inputs, we used the lagged independent variable as instruments in the inefficiency equation. The data set is composed of a panel of Brazilian municipalities from 2002 to 2011. The results indicate that oil revenues have a negative impact on the estimated efficiencies, signaling reduced fiscal effort by the benefiting municipalities.

  20. Measuring progress of collaborative action in a community health effort


    Vicki L. Collie-Akers; Stephen B. Fawcett; Jerry A. Schultz


    OBJECTIVE: To measure the progress made by the collaborative actions of multisectorial partners in a community health effort using a systematic method to document and evaluate community/system changes over time. METHODS: This was a community-based participatory research project engaging community partners of the Latino Health for All Coalition, which based on the Health for All model, addresses health inequity in a low-income neighborhood in Kansas City, Kansas, United States of America. Guid...

  1. Seasonal abundance, distribution and catch per unit effort of fishes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Catch per unit effort (CPUE) of fish in the Krom estuary was obtained by means of gill-nets. Each net consisted of five 100m sections, 3 m deep with stretched mesh sizes of. 55; 70; 85; 110 and 145 mm covering an area of 150 m2. •. The nets were set for 12-h periods (from dusk till dawn) across the estuary during week days ...

  2. An evaluation of the 2003 tax reform effort in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Rogério L. F.


    Full Text Available This paper provides an assessment of the tax-reform effort launched by the newly elected Lula government in 2003. It analyzes how the envisaged reform had to be changed and scaled down, in the wake of strong political resistance, after a failed attempt to develop a consensual proposal, fully supported by state-governors. The main effective changes are then evaluated. Challenges ahead are discussed at the end.

  3. Audit mode change, corporate governance and audit effort


    Cao, Limei; Li, Wanfu; Zhang, Limin


    This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the ri...

  4. Vena Cava Responsiveness to Controlled Isovolumetric Respiratory Efforts. (United States)

    Folino, Anna; Benzo, Marco; Pasquero, Paolo; Laguzzi, Andrea; Mesin, Luca; Messere, Alessandro; Porta, Massimo; Roatta, Silvestro


    Respirophasic variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) size is affected by large variability with spontaneous breathing. This study aims at characterizing the dependence of IVC size on controlled changes in intrathoracic pressure. Ten healthy subjects, in supine position, performed controlled isovolumetric respiratory efforts at functional residual capacity, attaining positive (5, 10, and 15 mmHg) and negative (-5, -10, and -15 mmHg) alveolar pressure levels. The isovolumetric constraint implies that equivalent changes are exhibited by alveolar and intrathoracic pressures during respiratory tasks. The IVC cross-sectional area equal to 2.88 ± 0.43 cm 2 at baseline (alveolar pressure = 0 mmHg) was progressively decreased by both expiratory and inspiratory efforts of increasing strength, with diaphragmatic efforts producing larger effects than thoracic ones: -55 ± 15% decrease, at +15 mmHg of alveolar pressure (P < .01), -80 ± 33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg diaphragmatic (P < .01), -33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg thoracic. Significant IVC changes in size (P < .01) and pulsatility (P < .05), along with non significant reduction in the response to respiratory efforts, were also observed during the first 30 minutes of supine rest, detecting an increase in vascular filling, and taking place after switching from the standing to the supine position. This study quantified the dependence of the IVC cross-sectional area on controlled intrathoracic pressure changes and evidenced the stronger influence of diaphragmatic over thoracic activity. Individual variability in thoracic/diaphragmatic respiratory pattern should be considered in the interpretation of the respirophasic modulations of IVC size. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Optimization of TTEthernet Networks to Support Best-Effort Traffic


    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul


    This paper focuses on the optimization of the TTEthernet communication protocol, which offers three traffic classes: time-triggered (TT), sent according to static schedules, rate-constrained (RC) that has bounded end-to-end latency, and best-effort (BE), the classic Ethernet traffic, with no timing guarantees. In our earlier work we have proposed an optimization approach named DOTTS that performs the routing, scheduling and packing / fragmenting of TT and RC messages, such that the TT and RC ...

  6. Summary Report of Summer 2009 NGSI Human Capital Development Efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, A.; Dreicer, M.; Essner, J.; Gaffney, A.; Reed, J.; Williams, R.


    In 2009, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) engaged in several activities to support NA-24's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This report outlines LLNL's efforts to support Human Capital Development (HCD), one of five key components of NGSI managed by Dunbar Lockwood in the Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243). There were five main LLNL summer safeguards HCD efforts sponsored by NGSI: (1) A joint Monterey Institute of International Studies/Center for Nonproliferation Studies-LLNL International Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis Course; (2) A Summer Safeguards Policy Internship Program at LLNL; (3) A Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards Internship; (4) Safeguards Technology Internships; and (5) A joint LLNL-INL Summer Safeguards Lecture Series. In this report, we provide an overview of these five initiatives, an analysis of lessons learned, an update on the NGSI FY09 post-doc, and an update on students who participated in previous NGSI-sponsored LLNL safeguards HCD efforts.

  7. Fatigue induced by physical and mental exertion increases perception of effort and impairs subsequent endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux


    Full Text Available Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance.

  8. Summary Report of Summer 2009 NGSI Human Capital Development Efforts at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougan, A; Dreicer, M; Essner, J; Gaffney, A; Reed, J; Williams, R


    In 2009, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) engaged in several activities to support NA-24's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI). This report outlines LLNL's efforts to support Human Capital Development (HCD), one of five key components of NGSI managed by Dunbar Lockwood in the Office of International Regimes and Agreements (NA-243). There were five main LLNL summer safeguards HCD efforts sponsored by NGSI: (1) A joint Monterey Institute of International Studies/Center for Nonproliferation Studies-LLNL International Safeguards Policy and Information Analysis Course; (2) A Summer Safeguards Policy Internship Program at LLNL; (3) A Training in Environmental Sample Analysis for IAEA Safeguards Internship; (4) Safeguards Technology Internships; and (5) A joint LLNL-INL Summer Safeguards Lecture Series. In this report, we provide an overview of these five initiatives, an analysis of lessons learned, an update on the NGSI FY09 post-doc, and an update on students who participated in previous NGSI-sponsored LLNL safeguards HCD efforts.

  9. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes. (United States)

    Querino, Emanuel; Dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro


    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task's cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes.

  10. Exoatmospheric intercepts using zero effort miss steering for midcourse guidance (United States)

    Newman, Brett

    The suitability of proportional navigation, or an equivalent zero effort miss formulation, for exatmospheric intercepts during midcourse guidance, followed by a ballistic coast to the endgame, is addressed. The problem is formulated in terms of relative motion in a general, three dimensional framework. The proposed guidance law for the commanded thrust vector orientation consists of the sum of two terms: (1) along the line of sight unit direction and (2) along the zero effort miss component perpendicular to the line of sight and proportional to the miss itself and a guidance gain. If the guidance law is to be suitable for longer range targeting applications with significant ballistic coasting after burnout, determination of the zero effort miss must account for the different gravitational accelerations experienced by each vehicle. The proposed miss determination techniques employ approximations for the true differential gravity effect and thus, are less accurate than a direct numerical propagation of the governing equations, but more accurate than a baseline determination, which assumes equal accelerations for both vehicles. Approximations considered are constant, linear, quadratic, and linearized inverse square models. Theoretical results are applied to a numerical engagement scenario and the resulting performance is evaluated in terms of the miss distances determined from nonlinear simulation.

  11. Spacecraft intercept guidance using zero effort miss steering (United States)

    Newman, Brett

    The suitability of proportional navigation, or an equivalent zero effort miss formulation, for spacecraft intercepts during midcourse guidance, followed by a ballistic coast to the endgame, is addressed. The problem is formulated in terms of relative motion in a general 3D framework. The proposed guidance law for the commanded thrust vector orientation consists of the sum of two terms: (1) along the line of sight unit direction and (2) along the zero effort miss component perpendicular to the line of sight and proportional to the miss itself and a guidance gain. If the guidance law is to be suitable for longer range targeting applications with significant ballistic coasting after burnout, determination of the zero effort miss must account for the different gravitational accelerations experienced by each vehicle. The proposed miss determination techniques employ approximations for the true differential gravity effect. Theoretical results are applied to a numerical engagement scenario and the resulting performance is evaluated in terms of the miss distances determined from nonlinear simulation.

  12. Motivational climate, behaviour regulation and perceived effort in soccer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Monteiro


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to test the integration of two motivational theoretical models (self-determination theory and the achievement goal theory to analyze the impact of motivational climate in the regulation of motivation and athletes´ effort perception. Participated in the study 460 athletes (male football players at both regional and national level, on the categories of beginners, youth, juniors and seniors, with 17.42 ± 4.37 years-old. The quality of the structural equation model was examined by the Chi-square value and some complementary model fit indices. The results support the model fit (S-Bχ²= 288.84, df= 147, p< 0.001, S-Bχ²/df= 1.96, SRMR= 0.049, NNFI= 0.912, CFI= 0.924, RMSEA= 0.046, 90%IC RMSEA= 0.038−0.054, suggesting that a motivational task-oriented climate has a significant positive effect on autonomous motivation, which in turn has a significant positive effect on athletes' effort perception. On the other hand, an ego-oriented environment had a positive effect on the controlled motivation, which in turn had a negative effect on athletes' effort perception, although not significant.

  13. Examining human resources' efforts to develop a culturally competent workforce. (United States)

    Whitman, Marilyn V; Valpuesta, Domingo


    The increasing diversification of the nation's population poses significant challenges in providing care that meets the needs of culturally diverse patients. Human resource management plays a vital role in developing a more culturally competent workforce. This exploratory study examines current efforts by human resource directors (HRDs) in Alabama's general hospitals to recruit more diverse candidates, train staff, and make language access resources available. A questionnaire was developed based on the Office of Minority Health's Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services standards. The HRDs of the 101 Alabama general hospitals served as the study's target population. A sample of 61 responses, or 60.4% of the population, was obtained. The findings indicate that most HRDs are focusing their efforts on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse candidates and training clerical and nursing staff to care for culturally and linguistically diverse patients. Less effort is being focused on recruiting candidates who speak a different language, and only 44.3% have a trained interpreter on the staff. The HRDs who indicated that they work closely with organizations that provide support to diverse groups were more likely to recruit diverse employees and have racially/ethnically and linguistically diverse individuals in leadership positions. It is crucial that health care organizations take the necessary steps to diversify their workforce to broaden access, improve the quality and equity of care, and capture a greater market share.

  14. [Sincerity of effort: isokinetic evaluation of knee extension]. (United States)

    Colombo, R; Demaiti, G; Sartorio, F; Orlandini, D; Vercelli, S; Ferriero, G


    The aim of this study was to find a reliable method to evaluate the sincerity of the muscular maximal effort performed in a dynamometric isokinetic test of knee flexion-extension. The coefficient of variation of the peak torque (CV) and 3 new indices were analysed: (1) the average coefficient of variation calculated on the complete peak torque curve (CVM); (2) the slope of the regression line in an endurance test (PRR); (3) the correlation coefficient of the peak torques in the same endurance test (CCR). Twenty healthy subjects underwent assessment in two different trials, maximal (MX) and 50% submaximal (SMX), with 20 minutes of rest between trials. Each trial consisted of 4 tests, each of 3 repetitions, at angular speed of 30, 180, 30, and 180 degrees/s, respectively, and 1 test of 15 repetitions at 240 degrees/s. Our findings confirmed the ability of CV to detect a high percentage of sincere efforts: at 30 degrees/s Sensibility (Sns)=100% and Specificity (Spc)=70%; at 180 degrees/s Sns=75%, Spc=95%. The 3 new indices here proposed showed high characteristics of Sns and Spc, generally better than those of CV. CVM showed at 180 degrees/s Sns=90% and Spc=100%, while at 30 degrees/s Sns=90%, Spc=75%. PRR was the best index identifying all the efforts, except one (Sns=100%, Spc=95%). The CCR coefficient showed Sns and Spc values both of 90%.

  15. Casimir Interaction from Magnetically Coupled Eddy Currents (United States)

    Intravaia, Francesco; Henkel, Carsten


    We study the quantum and thermal fluctuations of eddy (Foucault) currents in thick metallic plates. A Casimir interaction between two plates arises from the coupling via quasistatic magnetic fields. As a function of distance, the relevant eddy current modes cross over from a quantum to a thermal regime. These modes alone reproduce previously discussed thermal anomalies of the electromagnetic Casimir interaction between good conductors. In particular, they provide a physical picture for the Casimir entropy whose nonzero value at zero temperature arises from a correlated, glassy state.

  16. Synchronizability of coupled PWL maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polynikis, A.; Di Bernardo, M.; Hogan, S.J.


    In this paper we discuss the phenomenon of synchronization of chaotic systems in the case of coupled piecewise linear (PWL) continuous and discontinuous one-dimensional maps. We present numerical results for two examples of coupled systems consisting of two PWL maps. We illustrate how the coupled system can achieve synchronization and discuss the nature of the bifurcation that occurs at a critical value of the coupling strength. We then determine this critical coupling using linear stability analysis. We discuss the effects of variation of the parameters of the PWL maps on the critical coupling and present different bifurcation scenarios obtained for different sets of values of these parameters. Finally, we discuss an extension of our work to the synchronizability of networks consisting of two or more PWL maps. We show how the synchronizability of a network of PWL maps can be improved by tuning the map parameters.

  17. Coupled Surface and Groundwater Hydrological Modeling in a Changing Climate. (United States)

    Sridhar, Venkataramana; Billah, Mirza M; Hildreth, John W


    Many current watershed modeling efforts now incorporate surface water and groundwater for managing water resources since the exchanges between groundwater and surface water need a special focus considering the changing climate. The influence of groundwater dynamics on water and energy balance components is investigated in the Snake River Basin (SRB) by coupling the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and MODFLOW models (VIC-MF) for the period of 1986 through 2042. A 4.4% increase in base flows and a 10.3% decrease in peak flows are estimated by VIC-MF compared to the VIC model in SRB. The VIC-MF model shows significant improvement in the streamflow simulation (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE] of 0.84) at King Hill, where the VIC model could not capture the effect of spring discharge in the streamflow simulation (NSE of -0.30); however, the streamflow estimates show an overall decreasing trend. Two climate scenarios representing median and high radiative-forcings such as representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5 show an average increase in the water table elevations between 2.1 and 2.6 m (6.9 and 8.5 feet) through the year 2042. The spatial patterns of these exchanges show a higher groundwater elevation of 15 m (50 feet) in the downstream area and a lower elevation of up to 3 m (10 feet) in the upstream area. Broadly, this study supports results of previous work demonstrating that integrated assessment of groundwater-surface water enables stakeholders to balance pumping, recharge and base flow needs and to manage the watersheds that are subjected to human pressures more sustainably. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  18. [The diagnostic value of delta-R and delta-Q as positive criteria of the ergometry test in a group of patients with angina pectoris of effort]. (United States)

    Doria, G; Cangemi, F; Gulizia, M; Cuocina, N; Tosto, A; Circo, A


    ECG-exercise tests were performed in 29 patients affected by effort chest pain. All patients underwent coronary angiography and/or revealed positive results in the cycloergometer effort test. The aim of the study was to evaluate ultrasonic variations in the R and Q waves due to maximal effort, so as to increase the information provided by the effort ECG. In the coronary angiographic test, 21 out of 29 patients revealed significant hemodynamic coronary stenosis; 10 patients were affected by previous myocardial necrosis; 8 patients showed no hemodynamic coronary lesions (OV). In the OV patients a statistically significant increase was observed in the Q wave at maximal effort in comparison with average basal values; on the other hand, there was a decrease, although not significant, in voltage at peak effort in patients with coronary stenosis. R wave amplitude was smaller in comparison to basal values in OV patients, while a significant increase was observed in the 21 patients with coronary lesions.

  19. ESPC Coupled Global Prediction System (United States)


    through an improvement to the sea ice albedo . Fig. 3: 2-m Temperature bias (deg C) of 120-h forecasts for the month of May 2014 for the Arctic...forecast system (NAVGEM) and ocean- sea ice forecast system (HYCOM/CICE) have never been coupled at high resolution. The coupled processes will be...winds and currents across the interface. The sea - ice component of this project requires modification of CICE versions 4 and 5 to run in the coupled

  20. Risk Factor Associated with Negative Spouse HIV Seroconversion among Sero-Different Couples: A Nested Case-Control Retrospective Survey Study in 30 Counties in Rural China. (United States)

    Tang, Houlin; Wu, Zunyou; Mao, Yurong; Cepeda, Javier; Morano, Jamie


    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and condom use have been proven to reduce the risk of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among HIV sero-different couples, but its full implementation remains a challenge. This study aims to assess HIV seroconversion rate of HIV-negative spouse and its associated risk factors among HIV sero-different couples in rural China. An open cohort of HIV sero-different couples enrolled in 30 counties in China between October 1, 2010, and September 30, 2012, and followed-up to December 31, 2012, was constructed retrospectively. A nested case-control study of risk factors of HIV seroconversion among sero-different couples was conducted in April and May of 2013, based on the open cohort. Sero-different couples with the HIV-negative spouse seroconverting at least 3 months after the previous negative diagnosis during cohort observation period were labeled as "case couples". The "control couples" were selected randomly from the same cohort that did not have the HIV-negative spouse seroconversion during the same period. The "case couples" and "control couples" were matched on gender, age, and region of residence. Sexual behaviors among HIV sero-different couples before and after the index spouses notifying their HIV infection status to their HIV-negative spouses were collected via face-to-face interview. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess factors associated with HIV seroconversion among HIV sero-different couples. Of 4481 HIV sero-different couples, a total of 53 seroconversions were observed within 5218 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate was 1.02 (95%CI: 0.76-1.33) per 100 person-years. Forty "case couples" confirmed HIV-negative spouse seroconversions infected via marital sexual transmission, were matched to 80 "control couples". Of the 120 couples, 81(67.5%) were receiving ART, and 70 (58.3%) reported consistently used condoms during intercourse after the index spouse was


    Efforts concern an analysis of frequency conversion systems. The energy transfers in three-frequency circuits coupled through a nonlinear magnetic...core are studied. Rules are given to determine the type of nonlinear characteristic needed to make energy transfers possible for given frequency...combinations. General energy relations of the Manley Rowe type are discussed, examining the validity and limitations of these relations for the practical

  2. Three types of shyness in Chinese children and the relation to effortful control. (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M; Yu, Lidong; Zhang, Zengxiu


    Two studies were conducted to further differentiate 3 forms of shyness previously identified in Chinese children--shyness toward strangers, anxious shyness, and regulated shyness--by examining the relation of the 3 forms of shyness to children's inhibited behavior, physiological reactivity (measured by heart period [HP]), and effortful control. In Study 1 (N = 237; M age = 9.17 years), the authors examined the 3 forms of shyness in relation to children's inhibited behavior and HP assessed in 3 conditions: at baseline, during a stranger encounter, and in a card-sorting task with social evaluative cues. Results of confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 3-factor model of shyness. Shyness toward strangers was associated with children's inhibition (positively) and HP (negatively) in the stranger encounter and children's HP (negatively) in the card-sorting session, whereas anxious shyness was related to children's inhibition (positively) and HP (negatively) in the card-sorting session. Regulated shyness was not associated with children's inhibition in any session but was negatively related to HP in the stranger encounter session. In Study 2 (N = 208; M age = 6.57 years), the authors examined children's shyness toward strangers and effortful control at age 6 years in relation to anxious and regulated shyness 2 years later. Results showed shyness toward strangers was related to regulated shyness among children with high or moderate effortful control, and shyness toward strangers was related to anxious shyness among children with low or moderate effortful control. Findings support a multidimensional view of shyness in Chinese children.

  3. Performance assessment of coupled processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.


    The author considers all processes to be coupled. For example, a waste package heats the surrounding rock and its pore water, creating gradients in density and pressure that result in increased water flow. That process can be described as coupled, in that the flow is a consequence of heating. In a narrower sense, one speaks also of the more weakly coupled transport processes, expressed by the Onsager reciprocal relations, that state that a transport current, i.e., flux, of heat is accompanied by a small transport current of material, as evidenced in isotope separation by thermal diffusion, the Thompson effect in thermoelectricity, etc. This paper presents a performance assessment of coupled processes

  4. Cosmological tests of coupled Galileons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brax, Philippe; Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine; Gubitosi, Giulia


    We investigate the cosmological properties of Galileon models which admit Minkowski space as a stable solution in vacuum. This is motivated by stable, positive tension brane world constructions that give rise to Galileons. We include both conformal and disformal couplings to matter and focus on constraints on the theory that arise because of these couplings. The disformal coupling to baryonic matter is extremely constrained by astrophysical and particle physics effects. The disformal coupling to photons induces a cosmological variation of the speed of light and therefore distorsions of the Cosmic Microwave Background spectrum which are known to be very small. The conformal coupling to baryons leads to a variation of particle masses since Big Bang Nucleosynthesis which is also tightly constrained. We consider the background cosmology of Galileon models coupled to Cold Dark Matter (CDM), photons and baryons and impose that the speed of light and particle masses respect the observational bounds on cosmological time scales. We find that requiring that the equation of state for the Galileon models must be close to -1 now restricts severely their parameter space and can only be achieved with a combination of the conformal and disformal couplings. This leads to large variations of particle masses and the speed of light which are not compatible with observations. As a result, we find that cosmological Galileon models are viable dark energy theories coupled to dark matter but their couplings, both disformal and conformal, to baryons and photons must be heavily suppressed making them only sensitive to CDM

  5. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor


    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex......-valued parameters which allows us to analyze the dispersion properties also in presence of finite Q factors for the coupled resonator states. Near the band-edge the group velocity saturates at a finite value vg/c µ p1/Q while in the band center, the group velocity is unaffected by a finite Q factor as compared...

  6. Zero-momentum coupling induced transitions of ground states in Rashba spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (United States)

    Jin, Jingjing; Zhang, Suying; Han, Wei


    We investigate the transitions of ground states induced by zero momentum (ZM) coupling in pseudospin-1/2 Rashba spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a harmonic trap. In a weak harmonic trap, the condensate presents a plane wave (PW) state, a stripe state or a spin polarized ZM state, and the particle distribution of the stripe state is weighted equally at two points in the momentum space without ZM coupling. The presence of ZM coupling induces an imbalanced particle distribution in the momentum space, and leads to the decrease of the amplitude of the stripe state. When its strength exceeds a critical value, the system experiences the transition from stripe phase to PW phase. The boundary of these two phases is shifted and a new phase diagram spanned by the ZM coupling and the interatomic interactions is obtained. The presence of ZM coupling can also achieve the transition from ZM phase to PW phase. In a strong harmonic trap, the condensate exhibits a vortex lattice state without ZM coupling. For the positive effective Rabi frequency of ZM coupling, the condensate is driven from a vortex lattice state to a vortex-free lattice state and finally to a PW state with the increase of coupling strength. In addition, for the negative effective Rabi frequency, the condensate is driven from a vortex lattice state to a stripe state, and finally to a PW state. The stripe state found in the strong harmonic trap is different from that in previous works because of its nonzero superfluid velocity along the stripes. We also discuss the influences of the ZM coupling on the spin textures, and indicate that the spin textures are squeezed transversely by the ZM coupling.

  7. Conformally Coupled General Relativity (United States)

    Arbuzov, Andrej; Latosh, Boris


    Gravity model developed in the series of papers \\cite{Arbuzov:2009zza,Arbuzov:2010fz,Pervushin:2011gz} is revisited. Model is based on Ogievetsky theorem that specifies structure of general coordinate transformation group. The theorem is implemented in the context of Noether theorem with the use of nonlinear representation technique. Canonical quantization is performed with the use of reparametrization-invariant time and ADM foliation techniques. Basic quantum features of the models are discussed. Mistakes occurred in the previous papers are corrected.

  8. Coupled processes in geomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.


    The safe operation of an underground repository for the disposal of nuclear wastes, and the isolation of these wastes form the accessible environment, may be affected adversely by the formation of new fractures in the rock close to these excavations or by movements across pre-existing fractures. Both phenomena may so enhance the permeability of the rock as to allow possibly contaminated groundwater to reach the accessible environment. For hard rocks, the formation of new fractures in the regions of high stress concentration adjacent to excavations is analyzed in terms of breakouts or spalling. In rocksalt, creep may allow the stress adjacent to excavations to decrease below the hydrostatic pressure so that hydraulic fractures may form, or the extension of layers other than salt may produce new hydraulic conduits. The deformation of fractures in response to changes in stress pore pressure and temperature are analyzed for pre-existing fractures, as is also the shear stability of the fractures. Experience and in situ testing are seen to be of the greatest importance in identifying and understanding coupled phenomenon in geomechanics

  9. Coupled processes in geomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, N.G.W.


    The safe operation of an underground repository for the disposal of nuclear wastes and the isolation of these wastes from the accessible environment, may be affected adversely by the formation of new fractures in the rock close to these excavations or by movements across pre-existing fractures. Both phenomena may so enhance the permeability of the rock as to allow possibly contaminated groundwater to reach the accessible environment. For hard rocks, the formation of new fractures in the regions of high stress concentration adjacent to excavations is analyzed in terms of breakouts or spalling. In rocksalt, creep may allow the stress adjacent to excavations to decrease below the hydrostatic pressure so that hydraulic fractures may form, or the extension of layers other than salt may produce new hydraulic conduits. The deformation of fractures in response to changes in stress pore pressure, and temperature are analyzed for pre-existing fractures, as is also the shear stability of the fractures. Experience and in situ testing are seen to be of the greatest importance in identifying and understanding coupled phenomenon in geomechanics

  10. Stirring Strongly Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Rajagopal, Krishna; Wiedemann, Urs Achim


    We determine the energy it takes to move a test quark along a circle of radius L with angular frequency w through the strongly coupled plasma of N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills (SYM) theory. We find that for most values of L and w the energy deposited by stirring the plasma in this way is governed either by the drag force acting on a test quark moving through the plasma in a straight line with speed v=Lw or by the energy radiated by a quark in circular motion in the absence of any plasma, whichever is larger. There is a continuous crossover from the drag-dominated regime to the radiation-dominated regime. In the crossover regime we find evidence for significant destructive interference between energy loss due to drag and that due to radiation as if in vacuum. The rotating quark thus serves as a model system in which the relative strength of, and interplay between, two different mechanisms of parton energy loss is accessible via a controlled classical gravity calculation. We close by speculating on the implicati...

  11. Transactive memory systems scale for couples: development and validation. (United States)

    Hewitt, Lauren Y; Roberts, Lynne D


    People in romantic relationships can develop shared memory systems by pooling their cognitive resources, allowing each person access to more information but with less cognitive effort. Research examining such memory systems in romantic couples largely focuses on remembering word lists or performing lab-based tasks, but these types of activities do not capture the processes underlying couples' transactive memory systems, and may not be representative of the ways in which romantic couples use their shared memory systems in everyday life. We adapted an existing measure of transactive memory systems for use with romantic couples (TMSS-C), and conducted an initial validation study. In total, 397 participants who each identified as being a member of a romantic relationship of at least 3 months duration completed the study. The data provided a good fit to the anticipated three-factor structure of the components of couples' transactive memory systems (specialization, credibility and coordination), and there was reasonable evidence of both convergent and divergent validity, as well as strong evidence of test-retest reliability across a 2-week period. The TMSS-C provides a valuable tool that can quickly and easily capture the underlying components of romantic couples' transactive memory systems. It has potential to help us better understand this intriguing feature of romantic relationships, and how shared memory systems might be associated with other important features of romantic relationships.

  12. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report II. Breckinridge Project design basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Breckinridge Project is a pioneer endeavor involving the engineering, construction, and operation of a commercial facility that will convert 23,000 tons per day of run-of-mine, high-sulfur coal into 50,000 barrels per day of liquid hydrocarbons equivalent to those produced from crude oil. The Initial Effort, now complete, was executed under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-80OR20717 between the Department of Energy and the Participants, Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc., and Airco Energy Company, Inc. The Initial Effort produced a preliminary design, capital estimate, and economic analysis of the commercial plant, as well as a plan for the design, construction, and operation of that plant. The extensive and rigorous attention given to environmental, socioeconomic, safety, and health considerations is indicative of the high priority these issues will continue to receive throughout the life of the project. The Breckinridge Energy Company, a partnership of several major corporations, is being formed to finance, own, and manage the Breckinridge Project. Report II is intended for the reader who is primarily interested in less detailed discussion of the coal liquefaction process and Breckinridge facility than presented in the eleven volumes of Reports IV and V. The overview section describes the project goals and briefly introduces the coal liquefaction process. The report continues with a discussion of the history of the project and the H-COAL process from its concept to the proposed commercialization technology. The report describes the site, the Breckinridge Facility, and concludes with a summary of the eleven reports that contain the deliverable documentation of the Initial Effort or Development Phase of the project.

  13. When can efforts to control nuisance and invasive species backfire? (United States)

    Zipkin, E.F.; Kraft, C.E.; Cooch, E.G.; Sullivan, P.J.


    Population control through harvest has the potential to reduce the abundance of nuisance and invasive species. However, demographic structure and density-dependent processes can confound removal efforts and lead to undesirable consequences, such as overcompensation (an increase in abundance in response to harvest) and instability (population cycling or chaos). Recent empirical studies have demonstrated the potential for increased mortality (such as that caused by harvest) to lead to overcompensation and instability in plant, insect, and fish populations. We developed a general population model with juvenile and adult stages to help determine the conditions under which control harvest efforts can produce unintended outcomes. Analytical and simulation analyses of the model demonstrated that the potential for overcompensation as a result of harvest was significant for species with high fecundity, even when annual stage-specific survivorship values were fairly low. Population instability as a result of harvest occurred less frequently and was only possible with harvest strategies that targeted adults when both fecundity and adult survivorship were high. We considered these results in conjunction with current literature on nuisance and invasive species to propose general guidelines for assessing the risks associated with control harvest based on life history characteristics of target populations. Our results suggest that species with high per capita fecundity (over discrete breeding periods), short juvenile stages, and fairly constant survivorship rates are most likely to respond undesirably to harvest. It is difficult to determine the extent to which overcompensation and instability could occur during real-world removal efforts, and more empirical removal studies should be undertaken to evaluate population-level responses to control harvests. Nevertheless, our results identify key issues that have been seldom acknowledged and are potentially generic across taxa

  14. Structural Relations among Negative Affect, Mate Value, and Mating Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Randi Kirsner


    Full Text Available We compared the ability of models based on evolutionary economic theory and Life History (LH Theory to explain relations among self-reported negative affect, mate value, and mating effort. Method: Two hundred thirty-eight undergraduates provided multiple measures of these latent constructs, permitting us to test a priori predictions based on Kirsner, Figueredo, and Jacobs (2003. We compared the fit of the initial model to the fit of five alternative theory-driven models using nested model comparisons of Structural Equations Models. Rejecting less parsimonious and explanatory models eliminated the original model. Two equally parsimonious models explained the data pattern well. The first, based on evolutionary economic theory, specified that Negative Affect increases both Personal Mate Value and Mating Effort via the direct effects specified in the original model. The second, based on LH Theory, specified that Negative Affect, Personal Mate Value, and Mating Effort relate spuriously through a common latent construct, the LH Factor. The primary limitation of the present study is generalizability. We used self-reports taken from a young, university-based sample that included a spectrum of affective states. We cannot know how well these models generalize to an older population or to actual behavior. Both models predict the presence of a rich pattern of mate acquisition and retention behaviors, including an alarming set of behavioral tactics often not considered or targeted during treatment. Moreover, each model suggests a unique set of problems may arise after an effective intervention. We describe several ways to distinguish these models empirically.

  15. Overview of California's Efforts to Understand and Reduce Methane Sources (United States)

    Croes, B. E.; Chen, Y.; Duren, R. M.; Falk, M.; Franco, G.; Herner, J.; Ingram, W.; Kuwayama, T.; McCarthy, R.; Scheehle, E.; Vijayan, A.


    Methane is an important short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) and also has significant health implications as a tropospheric ozone precursor. As part of a comprehensive effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions overall by 40% from 1990 levels by 2030, California has proposed an SLCP Strategy that includes a 40% reduction of methane emissions from 2013 levels by 2030, with goals to reduce oil and gas related emissions and capture methane emissions from dairy operations and organic waste. A recent analysis of satellite data found a large methane "hot spot" over the Central Valley in California, likely the second largest over the entire U.S. In light of this finding, the California legislature passed Assembly Bill 1496 in 2015, which requires the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to undertake measurements to understand the sources of methane hot spots, evaluate life-cycle emissions from natural gas imported into California, and update relevant policies and programs. There is growing evidence in the recent scientific literature suggesting that a small fraction of methane sources within a category emit disproportionately higher emissions than their counterparts, usually referred to as "super emitters". As such, controlling these sources may provide a lower cost opportunity for methane reductions needed to meet near- and long-term climate goals. In order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of sources contributing to "hot spots", CARB, the California Energy Commission, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are implementing a large-scale statewide methane survey using a tiered monitoring and measurement program, which will include airborne and ground-level measurements of the various regions and source sectors in the State. This presentation will discuss research and program implementation efforts to evaluate and mitigate methane super emitters and hot spots. These efforts are expected to improve our understanding of methane emission source distributions

  16. Belpex and trilateral market coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document describes the operation of Belpex, the Belgian power transmission spot market, and its linking with the French (Powernext) and Dutch (APX) auction-style day-ahead spot markets. A last part deals with the extension of this trilateral market to other European countries. Content: Belpex day-ahead market (DAM) (Goals of the DAM: Provide consumers with a wider choice of electrical energy sources, Enable the ARP's to optimize their portfolio in terms of imbalance costs, Reduce trade and credit risks for market players compared with the risks involved in concluding bilateral contracts, Provide economic players with a transparent price benchmark, Stimulate the opening of the electricity market); Market model Product (description, Contracts, Collateral calculation, From 12 January to launch date Corporate and Legal Aspects, Next developments); Trilateral Market Coupling (What is market coupling and what are the benefits?, Implementation of trilateral market coupling ('TLC') in France/Belgium/Netherlands, From Trilateral to Multilateral, Implementation of Trilateral Market Coupling (TLC) in France/Belgium/Netherlands, Decentralized market coupling mechanism, influence of import and export on area prices); Decentralized market coupling (2 countries Situations: unconstrained/constrained, Decentralized market coupling: 3 countries, High Level Properties of Market Coupling, Maximize flow until prices across link converge (or ATC limit reached), Power flows from low price area to high price area, Implementing a decentralized technical approach, Market Coupling Daily Process, Impact on Existing Exchange Arrangements, Implementing a decentralized contractual approach, TLC Project Process); From Trilateral to Multilateral (Geographic extensions, Towards an Open and Multilateral Market Coupling, Management of Interconnection Capacities, Interconnection Capacities: current situation, TSO Roles and Responsibilities in the TLC, Other Import/Export products on the

  17. Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance in harmonic chains with nonlinear system-bath coupling (United States)

    Ming, Yi; Li, Hui-Min; Ding, Ze-Jun


    Thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance were realized in harmonic chains in this work. We used the generalized Caldeira-Leggett model to study the heat flow. In contrast to most previous studies considering only the linear system-bath coupling, we considered the nonlinear system-bath coupling based on recent experiment [Eichler et al., Nat. Nanotech. 6, 339 (2011), 10.1038/nnano.2011.71]. When the linear coupling constant is weak, the multiphonon processes induced by the nonlinear coupling allow more phonons transport across the system-bath interface and hence the heat current is enhanced. Consequently, thermal rectification and negative differential thermal conductance are achieved when the nonlinear couplings are asymmetric. However, when the linear coupling constant is strong, the umklapp processes dominate the multiphonon processes. Nonlinear coupling suppresses the heat current. Thermal rectification is also achieved. But the direction of rectification is reversed compared to the results of weak linear coupling constant.

  18. Optimization of TTEthernet Networks to Support Best-Effort Traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul


    This paper focuses on the optimization of the TTEthernet communication protocol, which offers three traffic classes: time-triggered (TT), sent according to static schedules, rate-constrained (RC) that has bounded end-to-end latency, and best-effort (BE), the classic Ethernet traffic, with no timing...... guarantees. In our earlier work we have proposed an optimization approach named DOTTS that performs the routing, scheduling and packing / fragmenting of TT and RC messages, such that the TT and RC traffic is schedulable. Although backwards compatibility with classic Ethernet networks is one of TTEthernet...

  19. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA (United States)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin


    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  20. How is your biobank handling disaster recovery efforts? (United States)

    Baird, Philip M; Benes, Francine M; Chan, Chun-Hung; Eng, Chon Boon; Groover, Kathleen H; Prodanovic, Zdenka; Rawley-Payne, Melissa; Kizza, Rosie; Hia, Chris; Abouhamze, Amer


    Recent years have seen a great many natural disasters-superstorms, droughts, earthquakes, among others-as well as, in the biobanking world, the constant threat of man-made disaster with everything from freezer malfunctions to theft. To help inform the increasingly important issue of protection from, and recovery after, disasters, Biopreservation and Biobanking put forth the question to our community of experts: How is your biobank handling disaster recovery efforts? Following is a selection of responses. Additionally, please see the Supplementary Information for contingency planning recommendations for biobanks and a threats assessment checklist from Intelsius ( supplementary material can be accessed from the online article at ).