Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y
To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.
Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio
The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Downes, Katheryne L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery before the onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002-2010) with restriction to the first 2 singleton deliveries of nulliparous women at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as (1) vaginal (reference), (2) cesarean delivery before labor onset (prelabor), or (3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by previous delivery mode with the use of logistic regression and was adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, comorbidities, previous pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Most first deliveries were vaginal (82%; n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%; n=3931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%; n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by previous delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (Pdelivery, previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of second delivery previa (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.56). There was no significant association between previous intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa (adjusted odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-2.19). Previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a >2-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, although the approximately 20% increased risk of previa that was associated with previous intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after previous prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering nonmedically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Ding, Xin; Aimainilezi, Adalaiti; Jin, Yan; Abudula, Wuriguli; Yin, Chenghong
To explore the appropriate approach of delivery after cesarean section of Uyghur women in primary hospitals in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. A total of 5 154 women delivered in Luopu County People Hospital, Hetian Prefecture, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region from January 2011 to December 2012. Among them, 178 Uyghur women had cesarean section history. The interval between the previous cesarean section and this delivery varied from 1 year to 17 years. The number of cases attempting vaginal labor and the indications of the previous cesarean section were recorded. The indications for the second cesarean section were analyzed. The gestational weeks at delivery, blood loss in 2 hours after delivery, neonatal birth weight, newborn asphyxia, the rate of postpartum fever (≥ 38 °C) and hospitalization days were compared between the two approaches of delivery. (1) Among the 178 cases, 119 cases attempted vaginal labor, the rate of attempting vaginal labor was 66.9% (119/178). A total of 113 cases succeeded in vaginal delivery (the vaginal delivery group), with the successful rate of attempting vaginal delivery of 95.0% (113/119), and the successful rate of vaginal delivery was 63.5% (113/178). For those 119 women succeeded in vaginal delivery, the indications of the previous cesarean sections were as following: pregnancy complications (68.1%, 81/119), macrosomia(5.0%, 6/119), dystocia (14.3%, 17/119), pregnancies complicated with other diseases (5.0%, 6/119) and cesarean section on maternal request (7.6%, 9/119). (2) 15 cases in the cesarean section group had postpartum hemorrhage, with the incidence of 13.3% (15/113). The mean total labor time was (507 ± 182) minutes. 6 cases attempting vaginal delivery failed and turned to cesarean section. (3) 59 cases received the second cesarean section (the cesarean section group). The rate of second cesarean section was 33.1% (59/178). The indications of the second cesarean section were as following: contracted pelvis (5%, 3
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Mohammed, Abdel-Baset F; Bayo, Arabo I; Abu-Jubara, Mahmoud F
To assess the maternal and neonatal consequences of scheduling elective repeated cesarean section (ERCS) at 39 weeks rather than 38 weeks and to assess the impacts of delivering by emergency cesarean section (CS) before the planned date. Retrospective Cohort study. Patients with previous two or more CS planned for ERCS at term during the period from January to June 2011. Medical records were reviewed for demographic and clinical data, planned timing of CS, emergency cesarean and any adverse maternal or neonatal outcome. Adverse maternal or neonatal outcome. Four hundred and twenty women were included, 71.4% of cases were posted <39 weeks and 28.6% were posted at ≥39 weeks. Patients posted ≥ 39 weeks were more prone to deliver by emergency CS (16.6 vs. 10.6%) and the neonates were less prone to RDS and NICU admission (p < 0.05). Our data support the justification to book patients for ERCS at ≥39 weeks.
Dehlendorf, Christine E; Fox, Edith E; Ali, Rose F; Anderson, Nora C; Reed, Reiley D; Lichtenberg, E Steve
To investigate the association between previous cesarean delivery and medication abortion failure and the association between parity and failure. Data were abstracted from 2035 consecutive charts of women who underwent medication abortion in 2011. All women were at 63 days gestation or less and received mifepristone 200mg orally and misoprostol 800 mcg buccally. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the relationship between failure, defined as requiring either curettage or additional medication, and prior cesarean delivery. We also examined the relationship between failure and parity. Follow-up was available on 1609 (79%) patients. Overall, 4.5% of patients experienced failure. Neither cesarean delivery nor parity was associated with failure; 6.5% of women with prior cesarean delivery experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.83-3.87]. With regard to parity, 4.7% of women with two or more previous births experienced failure, compared to 3.7% of nulliparous women (aOR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.54-2.14). We did not find significant associations between prior cesarean delivery and failure or parity and failure. A previous study of patients who had received a less effective regimen reported significant associations between cesarean delivery and failure and parity and failure. While our results do not rule out the possibility of modest associations due to our limited statistical power, they are reassuring relative to previous findings. Our results suggest that if there are differences in women's odds of medication abortion failure by obstetric history, such differences are unlikely to be large. Providers and patients may factor this information into decision making about methods of pregnancy termination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: Due to the increased number of labour inductions in women with previous cesarean section, the risk of uterine rupture leading to maternal and fetal mortality is also increasing. In this manuscript, we aimed to review the risk of uterine rupture in labour induction of women with prior cesarean section. Materials and Methods: Data from 48 reports belonging to the years 1994 through 2015, obtained via a search on various internet sources by the words "labour induction", "previous cesarean", "uterine scar", "uterine rupture" were used to characterize the risk factors, methods and complications of labour induction in women with previous cesarean section. Results: The success of labour induction after a previous cesarean section is related to a history of prior vaginal delivery, the indication of prior cesarean delivery, age, body mass index and ethnicity. The risk of uterine rupture is lower with mechanical dilatators compared to prostaglandins when they are used for cervical ripening. Oxytocin is associated with an increased risk of uterine rupture in such women but induction and augmentation of labor is an option for all women undergoing a trial of labor after cesarean section. Although some guidelines discourage the use of prostaglandin E1, some others support the use of prostaglandin E1 or E2 for induction of labor in rare situations provided that the women be informed of the higher risk of uterine rupture. Conclusions: Previous uterine surgery is the most common underlying reason for an increased risk of uterine rupture in subsequent trial of labour. When indicated, before considering a labour induction in these patients, a risk assessment should be performed based on various parameters. For prediction of uterine rupture, lower uterine segment may be measured by ultrasonography. Individually selected methods for labour induction should be discussed with the patients since they are mostly associated with increased risk of uterine
Naguib, Ahmad H; Morsi, Hassan M; Borg, Tamer F; Fayed, Salah T; Hemeda, Hosam M
To determine the safety and efficacy of using misoprostol vaginally for second-trimester abortion in women with a single previous cesarean delivery. This prospective observational study was carried out at a university hospital in Egypt with 50 pregnant women with 1 previous cesarean delivery; a gestation of at least 16 weeks but less than 20 weeks (group 1) or 20 or more weeks (group 2); and a need to terminate the pregnancy. The regimen was 4 doses of 200 microg of misoprostol applied vaginally every 4 hours daily, with a 12-hour nightly rest from misoprostol applications, until contractions appeared but not for more than 72 hours. The primary outcome was the induction-to-abortion interval. There were no cases of uterine rupture. Abortion within the study protocol occurred in 45 of the 50 women, for a 90% success rate. There was no significant difference in the induction-to-abortion interval between the 2 groups. Inducing abortion with lower misoprostol doses appear to be safe and effective throughout the second trimester in women with a single previous cesarean delivery. Larger randomized trials are needed to validate these results.
Kwee, A.; Smink, M.; Laar, R. van; Bruinse, H.W.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) rate and risk of uterine rupture in women with a previous early preterm cesarean section. METHODS: Women who delivered their first child by cesarean section between 26 and 34 weeks of gestation were included in a retrospective
Ugwu, George O; Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Onah, Hyacinth E; Egwuatu, Vincent E; Ezugwu, Frank O
Obstetricians in developing countries appear generally reluctant to conduct vaginal delivery in women with a previous Cesarean because of lack of adequate facilities for optimal fetomaternal monitoring. To describe delivery outcomes among women with one previous Cesarean section at a tertiary hospital in Southeast Nigeria. This was a prospective observational study to determine maternal and perinatal outcomes of attempted vaginal birth after Cesarean sections (VBAC) following one previous Cesarean section. Analysis was done with SPSS statistical software version 17.0 for Windows using descriptive and inferential statistics at 95% level of confidence. Two thousand six hundred and ten women delivered in the center during the study period, of whom 395 had one previous Cesarean section. A total of 370 women with one previous Cesarean section had nonrecurrent indications, of whom 355 consenting pregnant women with one previous Cesarean section were studied. A majority of the women (320/355, 90.1%) preferred to have vaginal delivery despite the one previous Cesarean section. However, only approximately 54% (190/355) were found suitable for trial of VBAC, out of whom 50% (95/190 had successful VBAC. Ninety-five women (50.0%) had failed attempt at VBAC and were delivered by emergency Cesarean section while 35 women (9.8%) had emergency Cesarean section for other obstetric indications (apart from failed VBAC). There was no case of uterine rupture or neonatal and maternal deaths recorded in any group. Apgar scores of less than 7 in the first minute were significantly more frequent amongst women who had vaginal delivery when compared to those who had elective repeat Cesarean section (P=0.03). Most women who had one previous Cesarean delivery chose to undergo trial of VBAC, although only about half were considered suitable for VBAC. The maternal and fetal outcomes of trial of VBAC in selected women with one previous Cesarean delivery for non-recurrent indications were good
Barbosa, Angélica Mércia Pascon; Dias, Adriano; Marini, Gabriela; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Witkin, Steven; Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated vaginal squeeze pressure in primiparous women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus two years post-cesarean delivery. METHODS: Primiparous women who delivered by cesarean two years previously were interviewed about the delivery and the occurrence of incontinence. Incontinence was reported by the women and vaginal pressure evaluated by a Perina perineometer. Sixty-three women with gestational diabetes ...
Zhang, Ningyuan; Chen, Hua; Xu, Zhipeng; Wang, Bin; Sun, Haixiang; Hu, Yali
Background What role should previous cesarean section play in affecting clinical pregnancy outcomes and avoiding the complications of in vitro fertilization? In this article, we focus on elective single-embryo transfer (eSET) versus double-embryo transfer (DET) and assess the clinical efficacy and safety of eSET in patients who have a previous cesarean scar. Material/Methods The pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes of 130 patients who had a previous cesarean scar and received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) were retrospectively analyzed. The number of transferred embryos was chosen depending on patients’ desire after acknowledging all benefits and risks, including eSET (eSET group, n=56) and DET (DET group, n=74). A total of 101 patients with previous vaginal delivery receiving IVF-ET in the same period were included as a control group. Results The pregnancy rates, multiple birth rates, abortion rates, ectopic pregnancy rates, gestational age at delivery, preterm birth rates, neonatal birth weight, and take-home baby rates were similar between the previous cesarean section group and the previous vaginal delivery group. A previous cesarean section scar did not affect embryo implantation and pregnancy outcomes in IVF. In the eSET and DET groups of previous cesarean section patients, the embryo implantation rates, pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and take-home baby rates were similar. However, the rate of multiple pregnancies reached 50% in the DET group, which led to more preterm births and lower birth weight. Conclusions Elective single-embryo transfer is a well-accepted strategy to avoid multiple pregnancies and improve the obstetric and neonatal outcomes of singleton pregnancy in IVF patients with a previous cesarean section. PMID:27636504
Full Text Available Unicornuate uterus with noncommunicating rudimentary horn occurs due to incomplete fusion of mullerian ducts. Pregnancy in this horn is a rare phenomenon usually resulting in rupture during second trimester of pregnancy. Prerupture diagnosis of pregnancy in rudimentary horn with ultrasonography is technically difficult, with sensitivity of 30%. We report a case of ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn at 19 weeks in a woman with previous Cesarean delivery. She had a routine malformation scan in which diagnosis was missed. Later she presented to emergency in shock, with massive hemoperitoneum and ruptured horn. So a high index of suspicion is required to save this catastrophic event and associated maternal morbidity and mortality. In our opinion, routine excision of rudimentary horn should be undertaken during nonpregnant state laparoscopically. However, those women who refuse should be adequately counseled regarding potential complications and if pregnancy occurs in rudimentary horn, first trimester laparoscopic excision should be done.
Cuellar Torriente, Martin; Steinberg, Wilhelm J; Joubert, Gina
To establish the safety and efficacy of misoprostol for second-trimester termination of pregnancy among women with one or more previous cesarean deliveries. In a retrospective study, data were reviewed from women attending a reproductive health clinic in Bloemfontein, South Africa, for second-trimester termination between 2010 and 2013. The study group, comprising women with one or more previous cesareans, was compared with a control group, comprising women with no previous cesarean or uterine scarring. Procedure-specific information was compared, including misoprostol use, termination duration, need for other methods (e.g. oxytocin), placenta delivery, termination outcome, and bleeding. The study group comprised 268 women: 231 (86.2%) with one and 37 (13.8%) with two previous cesareans. The control group comprised 266 women. Incomplete abortion was recorded in 223 (85.4%) of 261 women in the study group and 213 (80.4%) of 265 in the control group. The number of women with retained placenta was higher in the study than in the control group (158/261 [60.5%] vs 146/265 [55.1%]; PMisoprostol was safe for second-trimester termination among women with previous cesareans; however, the efficacy of the local regimen was reduced owing to high placental retention. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Melamed, Nir; Hadar, Eran; Keidar, Liron; Peled, Yoav; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv
objective: To assess the effect of the scheduled gestational age for a repeat planned cesarean section (CS) on the risk for adverse pregnancy outcome in women with two or more previous CS. A retrospective cohort study of all women after ≥2 previous CS who were scheduled for a repeat planned CS. Women were divided into two groups at which the planned CS was scheduled: 38-week group or 39-week group. Overall, 377 were enrolled, 264 (70.0%) and 113 (30.0%) in the 38-week and the 39-week groups, respectively. The rate of an unplanned CS was significantly higher in the 39-week versus the 38-week group (23.0% versus 13.3%, p = 0.02). A repeat planned CS scheduled to week 39 was associated with an increased risk of maternal adverse outcome (31.9% versus 21.6%, p = 0.03). There was no significant difference in the rate of adverse neonatal outcome between the two groups (20.8% versus 23.0%, p = 0.5). The lowest rate of any adverse outcome (maternal and/or neonatal) was observed when CS was scheduled to 38 + 1 weeks of gestation. In women after two cesarean sections, scheduling a planned CS at around 39 weeks compared with at around 38 weeks is associated with an increased risk for maternal adverse outcome with no apparent advantage in terms of neonatal outcome.
Sentilhes, Loïc; Vayssière, Christophe; Beucher, Gael; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine; Deruelle, Philippe; Diemunsch, Pierre; Gallot, Denis; Haumonté, Jean-Baptiste; Heimann, Sonia; Kayem, Gilles; Lopez, Emmanuel; Parant, Olivier; Schmitz, Thomas; Sellier, Yann; Rozenberg, Patrick; d'Ercole, Claude
The primary cause of uterine scars is a previous cesarean. In women with a previous cesarean, the risks of maternal complications are rare and similar after a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) and after an elective repeat cesarean delivery (ERCD), but the risk of uterine rupture is higher with TOLAC (level of evidence [LE]2). Maternal morbidity in women with previous cesareans is higher when TOLAC fails than when it leads to successful vaginal delivery (LE2). Although maternal morbidity increases progressively with the number of ERCD, maternal morbidity of TOLAC decreases with the number of successful previous TOLAC (LE2). The risk-benefit ratio considering the risks of short- and long-term maternal complications is favorable to TOLAC in most cases (LE3). Globally, neonatal complications are rare regardless of the mode of delivery for women with previous cesareans. The risks of fetal, perinatal, and neonatal mortality during TOLAC are low. Nonetheless, these risks are significantly higher than those associated with ERCD (LE2). The risks of mask ventilation, intubation for meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and neonatal sepsis all increase in TOLAC (LE2). The risk of transient respiratory distress increases in ERCD (LE2). To reduce this risk, and except in particular situations, ERCD must not be performed before 39 weeks (grade B). TOLAC is possible for women with a previous cesarean before 37 weeks, with 2 previous cesareans, with a uterine malformation, a low vertical incision or an unknown incision, with a myomectomy, postpartum fever, an interval of less than 6 months between the last cesarean delivery and the conception of the following pregnancy, if the obstetric conditions are favorable (professional consensus). ERCD is recommended in women with a scar in the uterine body (grade B) and a history of 3 or more cesareans (professional consensus). Ultrasound assessment of the risk of uterine rupture in women with uterine scars has not been shown to have any
Angélica Mércia Pascon Barbosa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of urinary incontinence and associated vaginal squeeze pressure in primiparous women with and without previous gestational diabetes mellitus two years post-cesarean delivery. METHODS: Primiparous women who delivered by cesarean two years previously were interviewed about the delivery and the occurrence of incontinence. Incontinence was reported by the women and vaginal pressure evaluated by a Perina perineometer. Sixty-three women with gestational diabetes and 98 women without the disease were screened for incontinence and vaginal pressure. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the independent effects of gestational diabetes. RESULTS: The prevalence of gestational incontinence was higher among women with gestational diabetes during their pregnancies (50.8% vs. 31.6% and two years after a cesarean (44.8% vs. 18.4%. Decreased vaginal pressure was also significantly higher among women with gestational diabetes (53.9% vs. 37.8%. Maternal weight gain and newborn weight were risk factors for decreased vaginal pressure. Maternal age, gestational incontinence and decreased vaginal pressure were risk factors for incontinence two years after a cesarean. In a multivariate logistic model, gestational diabetes was an independent risk factor for gestational incontinence. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of incontinence and decreased vaginal pressure two years post-cesarean were elevated among women with gestational diabetes compared to women who were normoglycemic during pregnancy. We confirmed an association between gestational diabetes mellitus and a subsequent decrease of vaginal pressure two years post-cesarean. These results may warrant more comprehensive prospective and translational studies.
Tarney, Christopher M.
Cesarean section is the most common surgery performed in the United States with over 30% of deliveries occurring via this route. This number is likely to increase given decreasing rates of vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC) and primary cesarean delivery on maternal request, which carries the inherent risk for intraoperative complications. Urologic injury is the most common injury at the time of either obstetric or gynecologic surgery, with the bladder being the most frequent organ damaged. Risk factors for bladder injury during cesarean section include previous cesarean delivery, adhesions, emergent cesarean delivery, and cesarean section performed at the time of the second stage of labor. Fortunately, most bladder injuries are recognized at the time of surgery, which is important, as quick recognition and repair are associated with a significant reduction in patient mortality. Although cesarean delivery is a cornerstone of obstetrics, there is a paucity of data in the literature either supporting or refuting specific techniques that are performed today. There is evidence to support double-layer closure of the hysterotomy, the routine use of adhesive barriers, and performing a Pfannenstiel skin incision versus a vertical midline subumbilical incision to decrease the risk for bladder injury during cesarean section. There is also no evidence that supports the creation of a bladder flap, although routinely performed during cesarean section, as a method to reduce the risk of bladder injury. Finally, more research is needed to determine if indwelling catheterization, exteriorization of the uterus, and methods to extend hysterotomy incision lead to bladder injury. PMID:24876830
Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir
The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.
Full Text Available Doua AlSaad,1,2 Sawsan Alobaidly,3 Palli Abdulrouf,1 Binny Thomas,4,5 Afif Ahmed,1 Moza AlHail1 1Department of Pharmacy, Women’s Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 2Public Health Program, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, UK; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Women’s Hospital, 4Clinical Support Service Unit, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; 5Pharmacy and Life Sciences Research Institute, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland Background: Misoprostol is an effective medical method for the management of pregnancy loss. However, data on its efficacy and safety in women with previous cesarean deliveries are limited.Case presentation: We report a 36-year-old patient, gravida 11 para 6, with a diagnosis of missed miscarriage at 15 weeks of gestation. The patient had a significant obstetric history of previous five cesarean deliveries and uterine rupture. Following patient counseling about the medical and surgical options of managing her miscarriage, the patient opted for medical method. Low-dose misoprostol of 100 µg was inserted vaginally and repeated again after 6 hours. The patient had an uneventful complete miscarriage following the second dose of misoprostol. No uterine rupture, no extra vaginal bleeding, and no blood transfusion were observed.Conclusion: We conclude that adopting a low-dose misoprostol protocol could be potentially safe and effective in managing second trimester missed miscarriage in women with repeated cesarean deliveries and/or uterine rupture history. Further studies are needed to confirm these results. Keywords: cesarean section, uterine rupture, prostaglandin E1, misoprostol, second trimester, miscarriage, abortion
Chibber, Rachana; Al-Harmi, Jehad; Foda, Mohamed; Mohammed K, Zeinab; Al-Saleh, Eyad; Mohammed, Asiya Tasneem
To compare the outcome of induced and spontaneous labor in grand multiparous women with one previous lower segment cesarean section (CS), so that the safety of labor induction could be assessed. In 102 women (study group), labor was induced and the outcome was compared with 280 women (control group) who went into spontaneous labor. All 382 women were grand multiparous and had one previous CS. There were no significant difference in oxytocin augmentation, CS, scar dehiscence, fetal birth weight or apgar scores between groups. There was one neonatal death, two still births, one early neonatal death and one congenital malformation in the study group and this was not significant. There was no significant difference in vaginal birth in the study (80.9%) and the control group (83.8%). In this moderate-sized study, induction of labor may be a safe option in grand multiparous women, if there is no absolute induction for repeating CS.
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Aabakke, Anna J M; Krebs, Lone; Ladelund, Steen
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of incisional hernias requiring surgical repair after cesarean delivery over a 10-year period. METHODS: This population- and register-based cohort study identified all women in Denmark with no history of previous abdominal surgery who had a cesarean delivery...... between 1991 and 2000. The cohort was followed from their first until 10 years after their last cesarean delivery within the inclusion period or until the first of the following events: hernia repair, death, emigration, abdominal surgery, or cesarean delivery after the inclusion period. For women who had...... a hernia repair, hospital records regarding the surgery and previous cesarean deliveries were tracked and manually analyzed to validate the relationship between hernia repair and cesarean delivery. Data were analyzed with a competing risk analysis that included each cesarean delivery. RESULTS: We...
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
Cesarean delivery is the most common and important surgical intervention in obstetric practice. Ethics provides essential guidance to obstetricians for offering, recommending, recommending against, and performing cesarean delivery. This chapter provides an ethical framework based on the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. This framework is then used to address two especially ethically challenging clinical topics in cesarean delivery: patient-choice cesarean delivery and trial of labor after cesarean delivery. This chapter emphasizes a preventive ethics approach, designed to prevent ethical conflict in clinical practice. To achieve this goal, a preventive ethics approach uses the informed consent process to offer cesarean delivery as a medically reasonable alternative to vaginal delivery, to recommend cesarean delivery, and to recommend against cesarean delivery. The limited role of shared decision making is also described. The professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics guides this multi-faceted preventive ethics approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir
Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...
Leeman, Lawrence M
In 1970, the cesarean delivery rate in the United States was 5.5% and women receiving prenatal care only required the knowledge that cesarean delivery was an uncommon solution to dire obstetric emergencies. In 2008, when almost one in three women deliver by cesarean, counseling on cesarean delivery must be part of each woman's prenatal care. The content of that discussion varies based on the woman's obstetric history and the anticipated mode of delivery.
Poreba, R; Dudkiewicz, D; Drygalski, M; Poreba, A; Sipiński, A
121 women after previous caesarean section were examined. The amount of successful labours were compared (according to the own diagnostic card) with the foreseeing probability of vaginal labours according to Weinstein's score. 63% pregnant woman was classified to the natural labour on the base of the own diagnostic card, probability of natural labour according to Weinstein's score were more or equal than 67%. There were no agreement between prognostic Weinstein's scale and our own method in the cases of failed attempt of labour followed by caesarean section.
Daltveit, Anne Kjersti; Tollånes, Mette Christophersen; Pihlstrøm, Hege; Irgens, Lorentz M
To assess possible effects of a cesarean delivery on outcome in subsequent pregnancies. Using an historical cohort design, we analyzed 637,497 first and second births among women with two or more single births and 242,812 first, second, and third births among women with three or more single births registered in the population-based Medical Birth Registry of Norway between 1967 and 2003. Compared with a vaginal delivery at first birth, a cesarean delivery at first birth was followed, in a second pregnancy, by increased risks of preeclampsia (odds ratio [OR] 2.9 and corresponding 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8-3.1), small for gestational age (OR 1.5; CI 1.4-1.5), placenta previa (OR 1.5; CI 1.3-1.8, placenta accreta (OR 1.9; CI 1.3-2.8), placental abruption (OR 2.0; CI 1.8-2.2), and uterine rupture (OR 37.4; CI 24.9-56.2). After excluding women with the actual complication at first birth, the corresponding ORs were, in general, lower: 1.7 (CI 1.6-1.8), 1.3 (CI 1.3-1.4), 1.4 (CI 1.2-1.7), 1.9 (CI 1.3-2.8), 1.7 (CI 1.6-1.9), and 37.2 (CI 24.7-55.9), respectively. Corresponding reduction in numbers of cesarean deliveries needed to prevent one case were 114, 56, 1,140, 3,706, 300, and 461. In third births, ORs after repeat cesarean delivery were similar to or lower than the ORs after one cesarean delivery; also here, the exclusion of women with the actual outcome in any of their previous pregnancies tended to reduce the ORs. Cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of complications in a subsequent pregnancy, but excess risks were reduced after excluding women with the actual complication in any of their previous births. To obtain less biased effects of cesarean delivery on subsequent pregnancies, it is important to account for obstetric history. II.
Kapinos, Kandice A; Yakusheva, Olga; Weiss, Marianne
Cesarean delivery accounts for nearly one-third of all births in the U.S. and contributes to an additional $38 billion in healthcare costs each year. Although Cesarean delivery has a long record of improving maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity, increased utilization over time has yielded public health concerns and calls for reductions. Observational evidence suggests Cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal postpartum weight, which may have significant implications for the obesity epidemic. Previous literature, however, typically does not address selection biases stemming from correlations of pre-pregnancy weight and reproductive health with Cesarean delivery. We used fetal malpresentation as a natural experiment as it predicts Cesarean delivery but is uncorrelated with pre-pregnancy weight or maternal health. We used hospital administrative data (including fields used in vital birth record) from the state of Wisconsin from 2006 to 2013 to create a sample of mothers with at least two births. Using propensity score methods, we compared maternal weight prior to the second pregnancy of mothers who delivered via Cesarean due to fetal malpresentation to mothers who deliver vaginally. We found no evidence that Cesarean delivery in the first pregnancy causally leads to greater maternal weight, BMI, or movement to a higher BMI classification prior to the second pregnancy. After accounting for correlations between pre-pregnancy weight, gestational weight gain, and mode of delivery, there is no evidence of a causal link between Cesarean delivery and maternal weight retention.
Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison; Pare, Emmanuelle; Stamilio, David M; Ratcliffe, Sarah; Stevens, Erika; Sammel, Mary; Peipert, Jeffrey
This study was undertaken to compare clinical outcomes in women with 1 versus 2 prior cesarean deliveries who attempt vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) and also to compare clinical outcomes of women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries who attempt VBAC or opt for a repeat cesarean delivery. We performed a secondary analysis of a retrospective cohort study, in which the medical records of more than 25,000 women with a prior cesarean delivery from 16 community and tertiary care hospitals were reviewed by trained nurse abstractors. Information on demographics, obstetric history, medical and social history, and the outcomes of the index pregnancy was obtained. Comparisons of obstetric outcomes were made between women with 1 versus 2 prior cesarean deliveries, and also between women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries who opt for VBAC attempt versus elective repeat cesarean delivery. Both bivariate and multivariate techniques were used for these comparisons. The records of 20,175 women with one previous cesarean section and 3,970 with 2 prior cesarean sections were reviewed. The rate of VBAC success was similar in women with a single prior cesarean delivery (75.5%) compared with those with 2 prior cesarean deliveries (74.6%), though the odds of major morbidity were higher in those with 2 prior cesarean deliveries (adjusted odd ratio[OR] = 1.61 95% CI 1.11-2.33). Among women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries, those who opt for a VBAC attempt had higher odds of major complications compared with those who opt for elective repeat cesarean delivery (adjusted OR = 2.26, 95% CI 1.17-4.37). The likelihood of major complications is higher with a VBAC attempt in women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries compared with those with a single prior cesarean delivery. In women with 2 prior cesarean deliveries, while major complications are increased in those who attempt VBAC relative to elective repeat cesarean delivery, the absolute risk of major complications remains low.
Mbah, Alfred K; Sharma, Puza P; Alio, Amina P; Fombo, Doris W; Bruder, Karen; Salihu, Hamisu M
We examine the association between prior C-section and subsequent pre-eclampsia; and describe the effect of gestational age at prior C-section, and obesity status on this association. The study population included women with two subsequent singleton births in Missouri between 1998 and 2005. The risk for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia was assessed among women with and without prior cesarean delivery. The two groups were followed to their second pregnancy and the occurrence of pre-eclampsia was documented. Additionally, the history of pre-eclampsia, prior cesarean at preterm, and obesity status were examined for their differential effects on the risk of pre-eclamsia. Women with prior C-section were 28% more likely to have pre-eclampsia in their subsequent pregnancy [OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.20-1.37]. However, this result was not significant when women with pre-eclampsia in their first pregnancy were excluded. After this exclusion, a more than threefold increased risk for subsequent pre-eclampsia was observed in women with prior early C-section [OR = 3.15; 95% CI= 2.43-4.08], while the level of risk did not change in the prior late C-section group [OR = 0.90; 95% CI= 0.82-1.00]. Subgroup analysis suggested that obesity status modified the risk of prior early C-section but did not affect the risk for prior late C-section. Preterm C-section in the first pregnancy may be associated with subsequent pre-eclampsia regardless of prior pre-eclampsia status.
Radin, Rose G; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Rothman, Kenneth J; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Sorensen, Henrik T; Riis, Anders H; Kuohung, Wendy; Wise, Lauren A
Studies have shown that cesarean delivery is associated with fewer subsequent births relative to vaginal delivery, but it is unclear whether confounding by pregnancy intention or indication for surgery explained these results. We evaluated the association between cesarean delivery and subsequent fecundability among 910 primiparous women after singleton live birth. In a cohort of Danish women planning pregnancy (2007-2012), obstetrical history was obtained via registry linkage; time-to-pregnancy and covariate data were collected via questionnaire. Fecundability ratios (FRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for potential confounders. Relative to spontaneous vaginal delivery, emergency cesarean delivery with cephalic presentation showed little association with fecundability (FR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.83, 1.3), but cesarean delivery with breech presentation (FR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53, 0.97) and planned cesarean delivery with cephalic presentation (FR = 0.51, 95% CI = 0.25, 1.0) were associated with reduced fecundability. The cesarean-fecundability association varied by previous fetal presentation and emergency status.
Reichman, Orna; Gal, Micahel; Sela, Hen Y; Khayyat, Izzat; Emanuel, Michael; Samueloff, Arnon
Objective We aimed to create a clinical classification to better identify parturients at risk for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Method A retrospective cohort, including all women who delivered at a single tertiary care medical center, between 2006 and 2014. Parturients were grouped by parity and history of cesarean delivery (CD): primiparas, multipara, and multipara with previous CD. Each were further subgrouped by mode of delivery (spontaneous vaginal delivery [SVD], operative vaginal delivery [OVD], emergency or elective CD). In all, 12 subgroups, based on parity, previous cesarean, and mode of delivery, formed the P-C-MoD classification. PPH was defined as a decrease of ≥3 gram% hemoglobin from admission and/or transfusion of blood products. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis was performed to assess risk for PPH, controlling for confounders. Results The crude rate of PPH among 126,693 parturients was 7%. The prevalence differed significantly among independent risk factors: primiparity, 14%; multiparity, 4%; OVD, 22%; and CD, 15%. The P-C-MoD classification, segregated better between parturients at risk for PPH. The prevalence of PPH was highest for primiparous undergoing OVD (27%) compared with multiparous with SVD (3%), odds ratio [OR] = 12.8 (95% confidence interval [CI],11.9-13.9). These finding were consistent in the multivariate analysis OR = 13.1 (95% CI,12.1-14.3). Conclusion Employing the P-C-MoD classification more readily identifies parturients at risk for PPH and is superior to estimations based on single risk factors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Bianca Totta Patrício
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify the validity of trial of labor in women with second pregnancy and previous cesarean section, to observe vaginal deliverance and probable maternal and perinatal complications. Methods: prospective cohort study of labors (03/2010 - 03/2011. The dependent variables analyzed: vaginal delivery or cesarean section, puerperal and perinatal results complications. The control variables were: epidemiological data, previous maternal and perinatal history, maternal and fetal wellness, labor induction, weekly day and hour of labor, moment of information and birth justification to the patient. The statistical comparison used the chi-squared test with 5% significance and the program Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: significance in steady union and married women for cesareans sections, and single in vaginal births (p = 0.004; complete membranes were significant in cesareans sections and rupture of them to vaginal deliveries (p = 0,.001. There was a predominance of cesareans sections during 12:01 - 24:01 hours, and vaginal births from 00:01 - 6:00 hours (p = 0.036. There were no significant events in maternal and fetal complications. Newborns of c-sections were significantly heavier (p = 0.011; extra-uterine vital conditions of 1 and 5 minutes presented no difference between cesarean sections and vaginal births. Conclusion: the trial of labor in 80 patients with second pregnancy and one previous cesarean section avoided the second cesarean section in 42,5% in this patients. The results confirm that trial of labor should be stimulated to labor patients with second pregnancy and one previous cesarean section.
Choi, Hyun Ah; Lee, Yeon Kyung; Ko, Sun Young; Shin, Son Moon
Neonatal clavicle fracture in cesarean delivery is rare and has not been extensively studied. We performed a retrospective review of cesarean deliveries with neonatal clavicle fracture during a 12-year period. Maternal and neonatal factors as well as surgical factors related to cesarean delivery for the fracture were determined and compared to the control group to analyze their significance. Among a total 89 367 deliveries during the study period, 36 286 babies were born via cesarean section. Nineteen cases of clavicle fractures in cesarean section were identified (0.05% of total live births via cesarean section). In the analysis of maternal and neonatal risk factors, birthweight, birthweight ≥ 4000 g and maternal age were significantly associated with clavicle fracture in cesarean section. However, clavicle fractures were not correlated with the selected surgical factors such as indication for cesarean section, skin incision to delivery time and incision type of skin and uterus. Logistic regression analysis showed that birthweight was the major risk factor for clavicle fracture. Clavicle fractures complicated 0.05% of cesarean deliveries. The main risk factor related to a clavicle fracture in cesarean section was the birthweight of an infant. As reported in previous studies associated with vaginal delivery, clavicle fracture is considered to be an unavoidable event and may not be eliminated, even in cesarean delivery.
Bourdon, M; Ceccaldi, P F; Girard, G; Koskas, M; Goffinet, F; Le Ray, C
To study inter-observer variability of decision concerning the route of delivery using pelvimetry in case of one previous cesarean section and abnormal pelvic measures. Observational study conducted in 2014 in 4 university maternity units among 36 obstetricians. Two groups of obstetricians - as they practiced in a center where pelvimetry was routinely performed (n=12) or not (n=24) - had to choose a route of delivery for 10 clinical cases of women with a single uterine scar and a tight pelvis. The "routine pelvimetry" group had pelvimetry results. The group "no pelvimetry" became aware of pelvimetry results as a second step and had to indicate whether this information changed or not their management. The measurement of the inter-observer variability was estimated by estimating the proportion of agreement according to Grant method. The proportion of agreements of an attempted vaginal delivery between obstetricians in the group "routine pelvimetry" was 64.7% (95% CI [61-68.5]) and 97.3% (95% CI [96.4 to 98.3]) in the group "no pelvimetry", prior knowledge of pelvimetry results. An attempted vaginal delivery was decided in 77.5% versus 98.7% (Pcesarean section, in case of tight pelvis discovered after pelvimetry, inter-observer variability of decision concerning the route of delivery is increased. Centers that choose to continue using the routine pelvimetry should develop procedures to limit this variability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
O' Sullivan, R; Abder, R
Myomectomy at the time of cesarean delivery has been traditionally discouraged. Recent literature has challenged this view. We present two cases of large subserosal fibroids that underwent removal without complication at the time of cesarean delivery. We present two patients that underwent myomectomy at the time of cesarean delivery. Case 1 had a 10 cm subserosal leiomyoma removed without complication at the time of a cesarean section for breech presentation. Case two had a fundal myoma removed without incident at the time of primary cesarean delivery for suspected macrosomia. Myomectomy at the time of cesarean section has been traditionally discouraged. Recent studies have questioned this recommendation and demonstrated no significant increase in peri-operative complications when myomectomy is performed at the time cesarean section. Further, there is added benefit in that a future procedure is avoided. Myomectomy at the time of cesarean delivery is both a safe and reasonable procedure.
f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ070 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Vaginal Birth After Cesarean Delivery • What is a vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC)? • What is a trial of labor ...
Downes, Katheryne L.; Hinkle, Stefanie N.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Albert, Paul S.; Grantz, Katherine L.
Objective To examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery prior to onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. Study Design Retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002–2010) with restriction to the first two singleton deliveries of women nulliparous at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as 1) vaginal (reference); 2) cesarean delivery prior to labor onset (prelabor); or 3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by prior delivery mode using logistic regression and adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, co-morbidities, prior pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Results The majority of first deliveries were vaginal (82%, n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%, n=3,931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%, n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by prior delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (Pdelivery, prior prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of second delivery previa (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62 [95% confidence interval, 1.24–5.56]). There was no significant association between prior intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa [adjusted odds ratio, 1.22 (95% confidence interval, 0.68–2.19)]. Conclusion Prior prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a more than two-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, while the approximately 20% increased risk of previa associated with prior intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after prior prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering non-medically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. PMID:25576818
Kainu, J Petter; Halmesmäki, Erja; Korttila, Kari T; Sarvela, P Johanna
Persistent pain after cesarean delivery and vaginal delivery has been the subject of only a few research articles. The primary outcome of our prospective study was the incidence of persistent pain and its association to mode of delivery. We also studied the nature and intensity of pain after delivery. A questionnaire was distributed on postpartum day 2 to 1052 women who had given birth vaginally and to 502 who had undergone cesarean delivery in a tertiary maternity hospital in Helsinki, Finland, in 2010. A second questionnaire was mailed to the women 1 year later. We recorded the women's health history, obstetric history and previous pain history, details of cesarean delivery or vaginal delivery, and description of pain, if present. The incidence of persistent pain at 1 year after delivery was greater after cesarean delivery (85/379 [22%]) than after vaginal delivery (58/713 [8%]: P delivery as a predictor of persistent pain. The incidence of persistent pain graded as moderate or more severe (25/379 [7%] vs 25/713 [4%]: P = .022, relative risk 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.2) was also greater after cesarean delivery than vaginal delivery. The incidence of persistent pain was significantly more common in women with a history of previous pain and among primiparous women in logistic regression analysis. The women with persistent pain had experienced more pain the day after cesarean delivery (P = .023) and during vaginal delivery (P = .030) than those who did not report persistent pain. Complications such as perineal trauma, episiotomy, vacuum extraction, endometritis, wound infection, or ante- or postpartum depression did not predispose women to persistent pain. Dyspareunia was reported by 41% of women after vaginal delivery and by 2% after cesarean delivery among women with persistent pain at 1 year. The incidence of persistent pain at 1 year is greater after cesarean delivery than after vaginal delivery. Pain shortly after cesarean delivery and during vaginal
Viswanathan, Meera; Visco, Anthony G; Hartmann, Katherine; Wechter, Mary Ellen; Gartlehner, Gerald; Wu, Jennifer M; Palmieri, Rachel; Funk, Michele Jonsson; Lux, Linda; Swinson, Tammeka; Lohr, Kathleen N
The RTI International-University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Evidence-based Practice Center (RTI-UNC EPC) systematically reviewed the evidence on the trend and incidence of cesarean delivery (CD) in the United States and in other developed countries, maternal and infant outcomes of cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) compared with planned vaginal delivery (PVD), factors affecting the magnitude of the benefits and harms of CDMR, and future research directions. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Collaboration resources, and Embase and identified 1,406 articles to examine against a priori inclusion criteria. We included studies published from 1990 to the present, written in English. Studies had to include comparison between the key reference group (CDMR or proxies) and PVD. A primary reviewer abstracted detailed data on key variables from included articles; a second senior reviewer confirmed accuracy. We identified 13 articles for trends and incidence of CD, 54 for maternal and infant outcomes, and 5 on modifiers of CDMR. The incidence of CDMR appears to be increasing. However, accurately assessing either its true incidence or trends over time is difficult because currently CDMR is neither a well-recognized clinical entity nor an accurately reported indication for diagnostic coding or reimbursement. Virtually no studies exist on CDMR, so the knowledge base rests chiefly on indirect evidence from proxies possessing unique and significant limitations. Furthermore, most studies compared outcomes by actual routes of delivery, resulting in great uncertainty as to their relevance to planned routes of delivery. Primary CDMR and planned vaginal delivery likely do differ with respect to individual outcomes for either mothers or infants. However, our comprehensive assessment, across many different outcomes, suggests that no major differences exist between primary CDMR and planned vaginal delivery, but the evidence is too weak to conclude definitively that differences
Dude, Annie M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Grobman, William A
Approximately one third of all deliveries in the United States are via cesarean. Previous research indicates weight gain during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. It remains unclear, however, whether and to what degree weight gain between deliveries (ie, interdelivery weight gain) is associated with cesarean delivery in a subsequent pregnancy following a vaginal delivery. The objective of the study was to determine whether interdelivery weight gain is associated with an increased risk of intrapartum cesarean delivery following a vaginal delivery. This was a case-control study of women who had 2 consecutive singleton births of at least 36 weeks' gestation between 2005 and 2016, with a vaginal delivery in the index pregnancy. Women were excluded if they had a contraindication to a trial of labor (eg, fetal malpresentation or placenta previa) in the subsequent pregnancy. Maternal characteristics and delivery outcomes for both pregnancies were abstracted from the medical record. Maternal weight gain between deliveries was measured as the change in body mass index at delivery. Women who underwent a subsequent cesarean delivery were compared with those who had a repeat vaginal delivery using χ 2 statistics for categorical variables and Student t tests or analysis of variance for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine whether interdelivery weight gain remained independently associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery after adjusting for potential confounders. Of 10,396 women who met eligibility criteria and had complete data, 218 (2.1%) had a cesarean delivery in the subsequent pregnancy. Interdelivery weight gain was significantly associated with cesarean delivery and remained significant in multivariable analysis for women with a body mass index increase of at least 2 kg/m 2 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.53, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.27 for a body mass index increase of 2 kg/m 2 to cesarean
Krebs, Lone; Langhoff-Roos, Jens
OBJECTIVE: To compare the maternal complications of elective cesarean delivery for breech at term with those after vaginal or emergency cesarean delivery. METHODS: We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study of 15441 primiparas who delivered singleton breech at term. Information...... was obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Register, the Register of Death Causes, and the Denmark Patient Register. RESULTS: Elective cesarean delivery was associated with lower rates of puerperal fever and pelvic infection (relative risk [RR] 0.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70, 0.92), hemorrhage...
Fatusić, Zlantan; Grgić, Gordana; Musić, Asim; Hudić, Igor
In present clinical practice there is an increasing number of patients with delivery with previous cesarean section which is frequent reason for the repeated one. The most serious complication in labour with previous cesarean section is the rupture of the uterus which is as frequent in labour by natural way as in repeated cesarean section. This is a reason that many of obstetricians do not support attitude "Once cesarean section, always a cesarean". In a retrospective study in five years period beginning January 1, 1998, we analyzed total number of deliveries, total number of cesarean section, way of deliveries with previous cesarean section and frequency of complications. We used Chi2 test and Contigency table. In analyzed period from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2002, we completed 24,194 deliveries at Ob/Gyn Clinic in Tuzla. Out of this number we performed 4073 cesarean sections or 16.83%. Out of 24,194 deliveries we had 1328 (5.49% of all deliveries) deliveries after performed cesarean in previous pregnancy. Out of 1328 deliveries following cesarean we completed by natural way 323 pregnancies or 24.33% and by repeated cesarean 1005 or 75.67%. Previous one cesarean had 1191, previous two cesarean 126, and previous three cesarean had 11 women. Out of 1328 deliveries by previous cesarean we had 12 (0.90%) or 1:111 cases, complicated by intrapartum rupture of the uterus. It was significantly more than in group of deliveries by unscarred uterus (1:16,849 deliveries). Three of 12 ruptures of the uterus were in group by natural way of delivery and 9 cases in group by repeated cesarean, no statistical difference (p>0.05). Out of 12 cases complicated by rupture of the uterus, ten cases were incomplete and two complete rupture of the uterus. Repeated cesarean section by his complications imposes the careful choice of indication for primary cesarean section and by this way make maternal mortality and morbidity significantly lower, specially in the light of the fact
Yamani, Tarik Y.; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A.
A case-control study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to determine the value of computed tomography pelivimetry in patients with a previous cesarean section. Between January 1993 and December 1995, 219 pregnant women with one previous cesarean had antenatal CT pelvimetry for assessment of the pelvis. One hundred and nineteen women did not have CT pelvimetry and served as control. Fifty-one women (51%) in the CT pelvimetry group were delivered by cesarean section. Twenty-three women (23%) underwent elective cesarean section for contracted pelvis based upon the findings of CT pelvimetry and 28 women (28%) underwent emergency cesarean section after trial of labor. In the group who did not have CT pelvimetry, 26 women (21.8%) underwent emergency cesarean section. This was a statistically significant difference (P=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences in birthweight and Apgar scores either group. There was no prenatal or maternal mortality in this study. Computed tomography pelvimetry increased the rate of cesarean delivery without any benefit in the immediate delivery outcomes. Therefore, the practice of documenting the adequacy of the pelvis by CT pelvimetry before vaginal birth after cesarean should be abandoned. (author)
Anna J M Aabakke
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of incisional hernias requiring surgical repair after cesarean delivery over a 10-year period. METHODS: This population- and register-based cohort study identified all women in Denmark with no history of previous abdominal surgery who had a cesarean delivery between 1991 and 2000. The cohort was followed from their first until 10 years after their last cesarean delivery within the inclusion period or until the first of the following events: hernia repair, death, emigration, abdominal surgery, or cesarean delivery after the inclusion period. For women who had a hernia repair, hospital records regarding the surgery and previous cesarean deliveries were tracked and manually analyzed to validate the relationship between hernia repair and cesarean delivery. Data were analyzed with a competing risk analysis that included each cesarean delivery. RESULTS: We identified 57,564 women who had had 68,271 cesarean deliveries during the inclusion period. During follow-up, 134 of these women had a hernia requiring repair. Of these 68 (51% [95% CI 42-60%] were in a midline incision although the transverse incision was the primary approach at cesarean delivery during the inclusion period. The cumulated incidence of a hernia repair within 10 years after a cesarean delivery was 0.197% (95% CI 0.164-0.234%. The risk of a hernia repair was higher during the first 3 years after a cesarean delivery, with an incidence after 3 years of 0.157% (95% CI 0.127-0.187%. CONCLUSIONS: The overall risk of an incisional hernia requiring surgical repair within 10 years after a cesarean delivery was 2 per 1000 deliveries in a population in which the transverse incision was the primary approach at cesarean delivery.
Islam, Mohammad T; Yoshimura, Yukie
To assess the rate of cesarean delivery and its indications at public emergency obstetric care (EmOC) hospitals in a district in Bangladesh. In a retrospective, cross-sectional study, data were extracted from the Safe Motherhood Promotion Project database and operation theater registers for cesarean deliveries at three district and three subdistrict EmOC hospitals in Narsingdi between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Information on cesarean deliveries and their indications, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were analyzed descriptively. Among 3329 deliveries, 1075 (32.3%) occurred by cesarean. The frequency of cesarean delivery ranged from 17.8% (147 of 824 deliveries) to 56.3% (174 of 309) among the six hospitals. Information on indications was available for 1043 cesarean deliveries. The main indications were previous cesarean delivery (251 deliveries, 24.1%), fetal distress (228, 21.9%), and prolonged or obstructed labor (214, 20.5%). There were no maternal deaths, but 10 (1.0%) cesarean deliveries resulted in stillbirth. The overall rate of cesarean delivery was high at EmOC hospitals. Interventions to improve decision making and limit possible unnecessary cesarean operations are needed. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aabakke, Anna J. M.; Krebs, Lone; Ladelund, Steen; Secher, Niels J.
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of incisional hernias requiring surgical repair after cesarean delivery over a 10-year period. METHODS: This population- and register-based cohort study identified all women in Denmark with no history of previous abdominal surgery who had a cesarean delivery between 1991 and 2000. The cohort was followed from their first until 10 years after their last cesarean delivery within the inclusion period or until the first of the following events: hernia repair, ...
Soltsman, Sofia; Perlitz, Yuri; Ben Ami, Moshe; Ben Shlomo, Izhar
The cornerstone of concerns over trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) is the risk of uterine rupture. The purpose of this study was to document the rate of uterine rupture during TOLAC and to delineate its severity and consequences. We retrospectively collected the data on vaginal and cesarean deliveries after a previous cesarean section with specific emphasis on uterine rupture and dehiscence in our center from 2006 through 2013. 22,670 deliveries were registered, with 18.2% rate of cesarean section. 2890 women had a single cesarean scar; of them 1206 delivered vaginally and 194 were re-operated during unsuccessful TOLAC. Seven cases of uterine rupture and 16 cases of dehiscence were recorded. There were no maternal, intrapartum or neonatal deaths, and no cesarean hysterectomy. There was one re-laparotomy, one ICU admission, and one blood transfusion; one neonate was admitted to NICU. TOLAC was successful in 86.1% of cases. Cautious selection and close monitoring of candidates are the cornerstones of successful management of TOLAC. Readily available facilities for emergency cesarean delivery and concerted obstetrical team can save the mother and child from catastrophic complications.
Dec 5, 2017 ... 2017 Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice | Published by Wolters Kluwer ‑ Medknow ... induction of anesthesia and satisfactory anesthesia level, ropivacaine 15 mg and 20 mg dosing regimens are satisfactory for spinal anesthesia. KEYWORDS: Ropivacaine, spinal anesthesia, intrathecal, cesarean section.
Delnord, M.; Blondel, B.; Drewniak, N.; Klungsøyr, K.; Bolumar, F.; Mohangoo, A.; Gissler, M.; Szamotulska, K.; Lack, N.; Nijhuis, J.; Velebil, P.; Sakkeus, L.; Chalmers, J.; Zeitlin, J.; Haidinger, G.; XMartens, G.; Misselwitz, B.; Wenzlaff, P.; Bonham, S.; Jaselioniene, J.; Gatt, M.; Klungsøyr, K.; Barros, H.; Novak, Z.; Gottvall, K.
Background: While international variations in overall cesarean delivery rates are well documented, less information is available for clinical sub-groups. Cesarean data presented by subgroups can be used to evaluate uptake of cesarean reduction policies or to monitor delivery practices for high and
Krieger, Yuval; Walfisch, Asnat; Sheiner, Eyal
To identify trends and risk factors for early surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery (CD). A population-based study comparing characteristics of women who have and have not developed post cesarean SSI was conducted. Deliveries occurred between the years 1988 and 2013 in a tertiary medical center. A multivariable logistic regression model, with backwards elimination, was used to control for confounders. Of the 41 375 cesarean deliveries performed during the study period, 1521 (3.7%) were complicated with SSI. SSI rates significantly deceased over the years, from 7.4% in 1988 to 1.5% in 2012. Using a multivariable regression model, the following independent risk factors for SSI were identified: obesity (OR 2.0; 95% CI, 1.6-2.5); previous CD (OR 1.8; 95% CI, 1.6-2.0); hypertensive disorders (OR 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6); premature rupture of membranes (OR 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.6); gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, OR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4); and recurrent pregnancy losses (OR 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5). Independent risk factors for post-cesarean SSI include obesity, GDM, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, premature rupture of membranes, and recurrent pregnancy losses. Information regarding higher rates of SSI and preventative measures should be provided to these high-risk women prior to surgery.
Landon, Mark B.; Grobman, William A.
The cesarean delivery rate in the United States has risen steadily over the past five decades such that approximately one in three women now undergo cesarean section. The rise in repeat operations and accompanying decline in trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) have been major contributors to this phenomenon. The appropriate use of TOLAC continues to be a topic of interest with the recognition that most women with a history of prior cesarean are candidates for trial of labor. The NICHD MFMU ...
Harper, Lorie M; Kilgore, Meredith; Szychowski, Jeff M; Andrews, William W; Tita, Alan T N
To compare the costs associated with adjunctive azithromycin compared with standard cefazolin antibiotic prophylaxis alone for unscheduled and scheduled cesarean deliveries. A decision analytic model was created to compare cefazolin alone with azithromycin plus cefazolin. Published incidences of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery were used to estimate the baseline incidence of surgical site infection in scheduled and unscheduled cesarean delivery using standard antibiotic prophylaxis. The effectiveness of adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis was obtained from published randomized controlled trials for unscheduled cesarean deliveries. No randomized study of its use in scheduled procedures has been completed. Cost estimates were obtained from published literature, hospital estimates, and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project and considered costs of azithromycin and surgical site infections. A series of sensitivity analyses were conducted by varying parameters in the model based on observed distributions for probabilities and costs. The outcome was cost per cesarean delivery from a health system perspective. For unscheduled cesarean deliveries, cefazolin prophylaxis alone would cost $695 compared with $335 for adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis, resulting in a savings of $360 (95% CI $155-451) per cesarean delivery. In scheduled cesarean deliveries, cefazolin prophylaxis alone would cost $254 compared with $111 for adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis, resulting in a savings of $143 (95% CI 98-157) per cesarean delivery, if proven effective. These findings were robust to a multitude of inputs; as long as adjunctive azithromycin prevented as few as seven additional surgical site infections per 1,000 unscheduled cesarean deliveries and nine additional surgical site infections per 10,000 scheduled cesarean deliveries, adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis was cost-saving. Adjunctive azithromycin prophylaxis is a cost-saving strategy in both unscheduled
Tita, Alan T N; Szychowski, Jeff M; Boggess, Kim; Saade, George; Longo, Sherri; Clark, Erin; Esplin, Sean; Cleary, Kirsten; Wapner, Ron; Letson, Kellett; Owens, Michelle; Abramovici, Adi; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Cutter, Gary; Andrews, William
The addition of azithromycin to standard regimens for antibiotic prophylaxis before cesarean delivery may further reduce the rate of postoperative infection. We evaluated the benefits and safety of azithromycin-based extended-spectrum prophylaxis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean section. In this trial conducted at 14 centers in the United States, we studied 2013 women who had a singleton pregnancy with a gestation of 24 weeks or more and who were undergoing cesarean delivery during labor or after membrane rupture. We randomly assigned 1019 to receive 500 mg of intravenous azithromycin and 994 to receive placebo. All the women were also scheduled to receive standard antibiotic prophylaxis. The primary outcome was a composite of endometritis, wound infection, or other infection occurring within 6 weeks. The primary outcome occurred in 62 women (6.1%) who received azithromycin and in 119 (12.0%) who received placebo (relative risk, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.68; Pazithromycin group and the placebo group in rates of endometritis (3.8% vs. 6.1%, P=0.02), wound infection (2.4% vs. 6.6%, Pazithromycin was more effective than placebo in reducing the risk of postoperative infection. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; C/SOAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01235546 .).
Hehir, Mark P; Ananth, Cande V; Siddiq, Zainab; Flood, Karen; Friedman, Alexander M; D'Alton, Mary E
Cesarean delivery has increased steadily in the United States over recent decades with significant downstream health consequences. The World Health Organization has endorsed the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS) as a global standard to facilitate analysis and comparison of cesarean delivery rates. Our objective was to apply the TGCS to a nationwide cohort in the United States over a 10-year period. This population-based analysis applied the TGCS to all births in the United States from 2005-2014, recorded in the 2003-revised birth certificate format. Over the study 10-year period 27,044,217 deliveries met inclusion criteria. Five parameters (parity including previous cesarean, gestational age, labor onset, fetal presentation and plurality), identifiable on presentation for delivery, were used to classify all women included into one of ten groups. The overall cesarean rate was 31.6%. Group 3 births (singleton, term, cephalic multiparas in spontaneous labor) were most common, while Group 5 births (those with a previous cesarean) accounted for the most cesarean deliveries increasing from 27% of all cesareans in 2005-06 to over 34% in 2013-14. Breech pregnancies (Groups 6 and 7) had cesarean rates above 90%. Primiparous and multiparous women who had a prelabor cesarean [Groups 2(b) and 4(b)] accounted for over one quarter of all cesarean deliveries. Women with a previous cesarean delivery represent an increasing proportion of cesarean deliveries. Use of the Robson criteria allows standardised comparisons of data and identifies clinical scenarios driving changes in cesarean rates. Hospitals and health organisations can use the TGCS to evaluate quality and processes associated with cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background & objective: Although delivering with Cesarean method is preferred in limited cases which has dangerous effects on child or mother's health, rate of cesarean is increasing vastly nowadays. The main purpose of this study was to explore Social, Cultural and Demographic factors related to this phenomenon among pregnant women of Shiraz. Materials & Methods: In this study 600 pregnant women residing in Shiraz were selected using Lin cross size of sample (multistage sampling. Data were collected through the validated questionnaire and analyzed with SPSS software by multi-variables logistic regression and X2 techniques. Results: Research hypotheses about significant relation among these factors (age, age of marriage, education, spouse’s education, occupational status, place of birth, social class status, previous childbirth method, record of barrenness, place of previous childbirth, place of pregnant care, record of cesarean in family and attitude toward cesarean with choice of cesarean have been approved. Research hypotheses about month of pregnancy, number of pregnancy and knowledge of delivery method and cesarean have been rejected. Conclusion: Due to significant positive attitude of women's towards the cesarean, rather than normal delivery, it is necessary to inform them about the advantages of normal delivery and health hazard which might cause by Cesarean to the mother and child. The change of women's attitude about cesarean is needed to avoid further complication.
BARBER, Emma L.; LUNDSBERG, Lisbet; BELANGER, Kathleen; PETTKER, Christian M.; FUNAI, Edmund F.; ILLUZZI, Jessica L.
OBJECTIVE To examine physician-documented indications for cesarean delivery in order to investigate the specific indications contributing to this increase. METHODS We analyzed rates of primary and repeat cesarean delivery, including indications for the procedure, among 32,443 live births at a major academic hospital between 2003–2009. Time trends for each indication were modeled to estimate the absolute and cumulative annualized relative risk of cesarean by indication over time and the relative contribution of each indication to the overall increase in primary cesarean delivery rate. RESULTS The cesarean delivery rate increased from 26% to 36.5% between 2003 and 2009; 50.0% of the increase was attributable to an increase in primary cesarean delivery. Among the documented indications, nonreassuring fetal status, arrest of dilation, multiple gestation, pre-eclampsia, suspected macrosomia, and maternal request increased over time, while arrest of descent, malpresentation, maternal-fetal indications, and other obstetric indications (eg, cord prolapse, placenta previa) did not increase. The relative contributions of each indication to the total increase in primary cesarean rate were: Non-reassuring fetal status (32%), labor arrest disorders (18%), multiple gestation (16%), suspected macrosomia (10%), pre-eclampsia (10%), maternal request (8%), maternal-fetal conditions (5%), and other obstetric conditions (1%). CONCLUSION Primary cesarean births accounted for 50% of the increasing cesarean rate. Among primary cesareans, more subjective indications (nonreassuring fetal status and arrest of dilation) contributed larger proportions than more objective indications (malpresentation, maternal-fetal, and obstetric conditions). PMID:21646928
Contag, Stephen A
We compared outcomes for neonates with forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial in laboring, low-risk, nulliparous women at >or=36 weeks\\' gestation. Neonatal outcomes after use of forceps, vacuum, and cesarean were compared among women in the second stage of labor at station +1 or below (thirds scale) for failure of descent or nonreassuring fetal status. Nine hundred ninety women were included in this analysis: 549 (55%) with an indication for delivery of failure of descent and 441 (45%) for a nonreassuring fetal status. Umbilical cord gases were available for 87% of neonates. We found no differences in the base excess (P = 0.35 and 0.78 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) or frequencies of pH below 7.0 (P = 0.73 and 0.34 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) among the three delivery methods. Birth outcomes and umbilical cord blood gas values were similar for those neonates with a forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. The occurrence of significant fetal acidemia was not different among the three delivery methods regardless of the indication.
Following a failed induction of labor with a deteriorating maternal condition despite resuscitation, emergency cesarean delivery was offered with good maternal outcome. Cesarean delivery could avert further disease progression and possible maternal death in cases of severe preterm placental abruption where vaginal ...
Objectives. I examined the relationship between insurance coverage, which may influence physician incentives and maternal choices, and cesarean delivery before labor. Methods. I analyzed hospital discharge data for mothers without previous cesarean deliveries in New Jersey between 2004 and 2007, with adjustment for maternal age, race, marital status, and maternal, fetal, and placental conditions. Results. Nearly 1 in 7 women (13.9%) had a cesarean delivery without laboring. Insurance status was strongly associated with cesarean birth. Women insured by Medicaid (adjusted relative risk [ARR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84, 0.91) or self-paying (ARR = 0.81; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.85) had a significantly lower likelihood, and women insured by BlueCross (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.09) or standard commercial plans (ARR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.10) had a significantly higher likelihood of cesarean delivery than did women insured by commercial health maintenance organizations. These associations persisted in subsets restricted to lower-risk women and in qualitative sensitivity analyses for a hypothetical single, binary, unmeasured confounder. Conclusions. Insurance status has a small, independent impact on whether a woman without a previous cesarean delivery proceeds to labor or has a cesarean delivery without labor. PMID:21940911
Gonzalez Fiol, A; Meng, M-L; Danhakl, V; Kim, M; Miller, R; Smiley, R
Knowledge of hospital-specific average cesarean delivery operative times, and factors influencing length of surgery, can serve as a guide for anesthesiologists when choosing the optimal anesthetic technique. The aim of this study was to determine operative times and the factors influencing those times for cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective review of all 1348 cesarean deliveries performed at an academic hospital in 2011. The primary outcome was mean operative time for first, second, third and fourth or more cesarean deliveries. The secondary goal was to identify factors influencing operative time. Variables included age, body mass index, previous surgery, gestational age, urgency of cesarean delivery, anesthesia type, surgeon's seniority, layers closed, and performance of tubal ligation. Mean (standard deviation) operative times for first (n=857), second (n=353), third (n=108) and fourth or more (n=30) cesarean deliveries were 56 (19), 60 (19), 69 (28) and 82 (31) minutes, respectively (P cesarean delivery or the presence of other factors that could increase operative time may warrant catheter-based anesthetic techniques or the addition of adjunctive medications to prolong spinal anesthetic block. Institutional and individual surgeon factors may play an even more important role in determining surgical time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Landon, Mark B.; Grobman, William A.
The cesarean delivery rate in the United States has risen steadily over the past five decades such that approximately one in three women now undergo cesarean section. The rise in repeat operations and accompanying decline in trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) have been major contributors to this phenomenon. The appropriate use of TOLAC continues to be a topic of interest with the recognition that most women with a history of prior cesarean are candidates for trial of labor. The NICHD MFMU Network Cesarean Registry conducted from 1999–2002 provided contemporary data concerning the risks and benefits of TOLAC which in turn have helped inform practitioners and women considering their options for childbirth following cesarean delivery. PMID:27210023
Huang, Xin; Lei, Jun; Tan, Hongzhuan; Walker, Mark; Zhou, Jia; Wen, Shi Wu
To examine impact of cesarean delivery in first pregnancy on neonatal mortality and morbidity in second pregnancy. Retrospective cohort study using 1995-2002 US birth registration data. Neonatal mortality and morbidity in second pregnancy of cesarean deliveries in the first pregnancy were compared with vaginal deliveries in the first pregnancy. A total of 9,643,175 singleton second births were eligible in the analysis after excluding those with unknown delivery method (1,801,339 with a previous cesarean delivery and 7,841,836 with a previous vaginal delivery). Compared with vaginal delivery group, infants born to mothers with a previous cesarean delivery had increased risks of assisted ventilation (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.46, 1.49), low Apgar's score (OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.12, 1.17), seizure (OR=1.36, 95% CI 1.27, 1.45), fetal distress (OR=1.46, 95% CI 1.44, 1.47), and asphyxia-related neonatal death (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.29, 1.52). The association between mode of delivery in first pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in second pregnancy remained the same after excluding women with chronic health problems or adverse birth history and adjusting for potential confounding factors. Cesarean delivery in first pregnancy is associated with increased risks of neonatal morbidity and mortality in second pregnancy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tully, Kristin P; Ball, Helen L
providers in a variety of vaginal delivery scenarios (non-progressive labor, breech presentation, and/or after previous cesarean). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.
of sufficient experience for providers in a variety of vaginal delivery scenarios (non-progressive labor, breech presentation, and/or after previous cesarean). PMID:23540373
Milcent, Carine; Zbiri, Saad
Cesarean deliveries are widely used in many high- and middle-income countries. This overuse both increases costs and lowers quality of care and is thus a major concern in the healthcare industry. The study first examines the impact of prenatal care utilization on cesarean delivery rates. It then determines whether socioeconomic status affects the use of prenatal care and thereby influences the cesarean delivery decision. Using exclusive French delivery data over the 2008-2014 period, with multilevel logit models, and controlling for relevant patient and hospital characteristics, we show that women who do not participate in prenatal education have an increased probability of a cesarean delivery compared to those who do. The study further indicates that attendance at prenatal education varies according to socioeconomic status. Low socioeconomic women are more likely to have cesarean deliveries and less likely to participate in prenatal education. This result emphasizes the importance of focusing on pregnancy health education, particularly for low-income women, as a potential way to limit unnecessary cesarean deliveries. Future studies would ideally investigate the effect of interventions promoting such as care participation on cesarean delivery rates.
Alanis, Mark C; Villers, Margaret S; Law, Tameeka L; Steadman, Elizabeth M; Robinson, Christopher J
The objective of the study was to determine predictors of cesarean delivery morbidity associated with massive obesity. This was an institutional review board-approved retrospective study of massively obese women (body mass index, > or = 50 kg/m(2)) undergoing cesarean delivery. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the strength of association between wound complication and various predictors. Fifty-eight of 194 patients (30%) had a wound complication. Most (90%) were wound disruptions, and 86% were diagnosed after hospital discharge (median postoperative day, 8.5; interquartile range, 6-12). Subcutaneous drains and smoking, but not labor or ruptured membranes, were independently associated with wound complication after controlling for various confounders. Vertical abdominal incisions were associated with increased operative time, blood loss, and vertical hysterotomy. Women with a body mass index > or = 50 kg/m(2) have a much greater risk for cesarean wound complications than previously reported. Avoidance of subcutaneous drains and increased use of transverse abdominal wall incisions should be considered in massively obese parturients to reduce operative morbidity. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Schachter-Safrai, Natali; Karavani, Gilad; Haj-Yahya, Rani; Ofek Shlomai, Noa; Porat, Shay
Twin vaginal delivery presents a unique clinical challenge for obstetricians. The Twin Birth Study demonstrated the safety of planned vaginal delivery regarding neonatal outcomes. However, that study lacked a description of the risk factors associated with and the outcome of unplanned cesarean section. The aim of this study is to identify potential risk factors for cesarean section and delivery related neonatal morbidity and mortality in women with twin pregnancy attempting vaginal delivery. A retrospective cohort study including 1070 women with twin pregnancy that underwent a trial of labor between 2003 and 2015. The study population was divided according to the mode of delivery: vaginal delivery, combined vaginal-cesarean and intrapartum cesarean delivery of both twins. Several risk factors and neonatal outcomes were examined by both univariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression analysis. The rate of vaginal delivery of both twins was 88.3%, whereas the rates of combined vaginal cesarean and unplanned cesarean delivery were 4.6% and 7.1%, respectively. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be independently associated with cesarean delivery for both twins. Additionally, nonvertex presentation of twin B was independently associated with combined vaginal-cesarean delivery. The proportion of neonates with Apgar score cesarean group compared with those delivered by the vaginal route alone. Nulliparity and nonvertex presentation of twin B were found to be associated with intrapartum cesarean delivery in twin pregnancies. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Duarte, Sónia; Saraiva, Alexandra; Lagarto, Filipa; Susano, Maria João; Oliveira, Ricardo; Nunes, Catarina S.; Pina, Pedro; Lemos, Paulo; Machado, Humberto S.
Background: Cesarean section rates have risen markedly worldwide. Considering the potential harm caused by this mode of delivery, and the general concern in reducing its incidence, it would be useful to individualize the risk of non-planned cesareans, and if there is any possibility, reduce that risk, and anesthesiologists should take part of this risk evaluation. In recent studies, many factors have been related with a higher risk of cesarean, and controversy still surrounds labor analges...
Full Text Available "nBackground: The perception of impairment of sexual function after childbirth in vaginal delivery (as a complication makes pregnant women to request elective cesarean section. But this conception is more related to culture. Therefore we studied women's sexual health after childbirth to assess whether women who underwent cesarean section experienced better sexual health in the postnatal period than women with vaginal births. "nMethods: A cohort study was conducted on 303 primiparous women who had delivered vaginaly and 315 primiparous delivered by elective cesarean section in seven private hospitals in Tehran, employing data of demographic characteristics like age, education, BMI, obstetric history (weight gain in pregnancy, history of pelvic pain and vaginal discharge, stress incontinence history (prepregnancy and during pregnancy and effect of delivery on sexual satisfaction in several follow-ups until 12 months after delivery. "nResults: Sexual satisfaction after delivery in vaginal group was significantly more than cesarean group. (76% vs 60%, p<0.0001. There was no relation between pelvic pain & delivery type (in several follow- up. "nConclusions: Instead of social conception of have more sexual satisfaction after cesarean delivery, outcomes from this study provide no basis for advocating cesarean section as a way to protect women's sexual function after childbirth. Therefore Request of cesarean section by mother for having more sexual satisfaction after childbirth is not logic.
Bertholdt, Charline; Menard, Sophie; Delorme, Pierre; Lamau, Marie-Charlotte; Goffinet, François; Le Ray, Camille
At the same time as survival is increasing among premature babies born before 26 weeks of gestation, the rates of cesarean deliveries before 26 weeks is also rising. Our purpose was to compare the frequency of intraoperative adverse events during cesarean deliveries in two gestational age groups: 24-25 weeks and 26-27 weeks. This single-center retrospective cohort study included all women with cesarean deliveries performed before 28 +0 weeks from 2007 through 2015. It compared the frequency of intraoperative adverse events between two groups: those at 24-25 weeks of gestation and at 26-27 weeks. Intraoperative adverse events were a classical incision, transplacental incision, difficulty in fetal extraction (explicitly mentioned in the surgical report), postpartum hemorrhage (≥500 mL of blood loss), and injury to internal organs. A composite outcome including at least one of these events enabled us to analyze the risk factors for intraoperative adverse events with univariate and multivariable analysis. Stratified analyses by the indication for the cesarean were performed. We compared 74 cesarean deliveries at 24-25 weeks of gestation and 214 at 26-27 weeks. Intraoperative adverse events occurred at higher rates in the 24-25-week group (63.5 vs. 30.8%, p cesarean. These results should help obstetricians and women making decisions about cesarean deliveries at these extremely low gestational ages. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Velem?nsk?, Milo?; Velem?nsk?, Milo?; Piskorzov?, Martina; Ba?kov?, Martina; T?thov?, Val?rie; Str?nsk?, Pravoslav
Summary Background The number of incoming expectant women who have previously experienced cesarean section has increased. This work sought to find the frequency and connections between vaginal deliveries, cesarean sections, and iterative cesarean sections from 2004 to 2008. Material/Methods In all, 828 women with previous cesarean sections were included. From this group, 8282 vaginal deliveries were performed. During these years, 828 women had a history of the cesarean section; in these women...
Rosenbloom, Joshua I; Stout, Molly J; Tuuli, Methodius G; Woolfolk, Candice L; López, Julia D; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G
In 2010 the Consortium on Safe Labor published labor curves. It was proposed that the rate of cesarean delivery could be lowered by avoiding the diagnosis of arrest of dilation before 6 cm. However, there is little information on the uptake of the guidelines and on changes in cesarean delivery rates that may have occurred. The objective of the study was to test the following hypotheses: (1) among patients laboring at term, rates of arrest of dilation disorders have decreased, leading to a decrease in the rate of cesarean delivery; (2) in the second stage, pushing duration prior to diagnosis of arrest of descent has increased, also leading to a reduction in the rate of cesarean delivery for this indication. As a secondary aim, we investigated changes in maternal and neonatal morbidity. This was a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study of all patients presenting at ≥37 weeks' gestation from 2010 through 2014 with a nonanomalous vertex singleton and no prior history of cesarean delivery. Rates of cesarean delivery, arrest of dilation, and changes in rates of maternal and neonatal morbidity were calculated in crude and adjusted models. Cervical dilation at diagnosis of the arrest of dilation, time spent at the maximal dilation prior to diagnosis of arrest of dilation, and time in the second stage prior to the diagnosis of arrest of descent were compared over the study period. There were 7845 eligible patients. The cesarean delivery rate in 2010 was 15.8% and, in 2014, 17.7% (P trend = .51). In patients undergoing cesarean delivery for the arrest of dilation, the median cervical dilation at the time of cesarean delivery was at 5.5 cm in 2010 and 6.0 cm in 2014 (P trend = .94). In these patients, there was an increase in the time spent at last dilation: 3.8 hours in 2010 to 5.2 hours in 2014 (P trend = .02). There was no change in the frequency of patients diagnosed with the arrest of dilation at cesarean deliveries for the arrest of descent. The median
Bowman, Zachary S; Smith, Ken R; Silver, Robert M
This study aims to examine the risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in women with prior cesarean delivery. Women with a history of at least one cesarean delivery in the state of Utah during 1996 to 2011 were identified and compared with women with vaginal delivery only. The primary outcome was subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression and stratified by first, second, or third live births. Model covariates included maternal age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, gravidity, and prior ectopic pregnancy. Overall, 260,249 women with at least one live birth were identified. After exclusions, 255,082, 154,930, and 70,228 women had at least one, two, and three prior live births that lead to 531, 199, and 62 subsequent ectopic pregnancies, respectively. Women who had one prior cesarean delivery were not at increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy in relation to women with no prior cesarean delivery. However, women with two of two, two of three, or three of three prior cesareans had increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy with odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.54 (1.06-2.22), 3.50 (1.49-8.24), and 1.99 (1.00-3.98), respectively. History of two or three cesarean deliveries is associated with increased risk for subsequent ectopic pregnancy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Lipschuetz, Michal; Cohen, Sarah M; Israel, Ariel; Baron, Joel; Porat, Shay; Valsky, Dan V; Yagel, Oren; Amsalem, Hagai; Kabiri, Doron; Gilboa, Yinon; Sivan, Eyal; Unger, Ron; Schiff, Eyal; Hershkovitz, Reli; Yagel, Simcha
Persistently high rates of cesarean deliveries are cause for concern for physicians, patients, and health systems. Prelabor assessment might be refined by identifying factors that help predict an individual patient's risk of cesarean delivery. Such factors may contribute to patient safety and satisfaction as well as health system planning and resource allocation. In an earlier study, neonatal head circumference was shown to be more strongly associated with delivery mode and other outcome measures than neonatal birthweight. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the association of sonographically measured fetal head circumference measured within 1 week of delivery with delivery mode. This was a multicenter electronic medical record-based study of birth outcomes of primiparous women with term (37-42 weeks) singleton fetuses presenting for ultrasound with fetal biometry within 1 week of delivery. Fetal head circumference and estimated fetal weight were correlated with maternal background, obstetric, and neonatal outcome parameters. Elective cesarean deliveries were excluded. Multinomial regression analysis provided adjusted odds ratios for instrumental delivery and unplanned cesarean delivery when the fetal head circumference was ≥35 cm or estimated fetal weight ≥3900 g, while controlling for possible confounders. In all, 11,500 cases were collected; 906 elective cesarean deliveries were excluded. A fetal head circumference ≥35 cm increased the risk for unplanned cesarean delivery: 174 fetuses with fetal head circumference ≥35 cm (32%) were delivered by cesarean, vs 1712 (17%) when fetal head circumference cesarean delivery by an adjusted odds ratio of 1.75 (95% confidence interval, 1.4-2.18) controlling for gestational age, fetal gender, and epidural anesthesia. The rate of prolonged second stage of labor was significantly increased when either the fetal head circumference was ≥35 cm or the estimated fetal weight ≥3900 g, from 22.7% in the total
Full Text Available Spontaneous uterine rupture during pregnancy can cause severe complications, even maternal and fetal demise. We report successful management of a spontaneous fundal uterine rupture in a 32 week pregnant who had undergone two previous cesarean sections due to preterm delivery. We explain causes of spontaneous uterine rupture and the management of this rare event in the presented case report.
De Bonrostro Torralba, Carlos; Tejero Cabrejas, Eva Lucía; Marti Gamboa, Sabina; Lapresta Moros, María; Campillos Maza, Jose Manuel; Castán Mateo, Sergio
We analysed the efficacy and safety of double-balloon catheter for cervical ripening in women with a previous cesarean section and which were the most important variables associated with an increased risk of repeated cesarean delivery. We designed an observational retrospective study of 418 women with unfavourable cervices (Bishop Score cesarean delivery, and induction of labour with a double-balloon catheter. Baseline maternal data and perinatal outcomes were recorded for a descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analysis. A p value cesarean section were dystocia in the previous pregnancy (OR 1.744; CI 95% 1.066-2.846), the absence of previous vaginal delivery (OR 2.590; CI 95% 1.066-6.290), suspected fetal macrosomia (OR 2.410; CI 95% 0.959-6.054), and duration of oxytocin induction period (OR 1.005; CI 95% 1.004-1.006). The area under the curve was 0.789 (p cesarean delivery and unfavourable cervix. In our study, most women could have a vaginal delivery in spite of their risk factors for cesarean delivery. A multivariate model based on some clinical variables has moderate predictive value for intrapartum cesarean section.
Grasch, Jennifer L; Thompson, Jennifer L; Newton, J Michael; Zhai, Amy W; Osmundson, Sarah S
To examine whether labor compared with planned cesarean delivery is associated with increased maternal and neonatal morbidity. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all women with body mass indexes (BMIs) at delivery of 50 or greater delivering a live fetus at 34 weeks of gestation of greater between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2015. Pregnancies with multiple gestations and major fetal anomalies were excluded. The primary outcome was a composite of maternal and neonatal morbidity and was estimated to be 50% in superobese women based on institutional data. A sample size of 338 women determined the study period and was selected to show a 30% difference in the incidence of the primary outcome between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders. There were 344 women with BMIs of 50 or greater who met eligibility criteria, of whom 201 (58%) labored and 143 (42%) underwent planned cesarean delivery. Women who labored were younger, more likely to be nulliparous, and less likely to have pre-existing diabetes. Among women who labored, 45% underwent a cesarean delivery, most commonly for labor arrest (61%) or nonreassuring fetal status (28%). Composite maternal and neonatal morbidity was reduced among women who labored even after adjusting for age, parity, pre-existing diabetes, and prior cesarean delivery (adjusted odds ratio 0.42, 95% CI 0.24-0.75). In the subgroup of women (n=234) who underwent a cesarean delivery, whether planned (n=143) or after labor (n=91), there were no differences in maternal and neonatal morbidity except that severe maternal morbidity was increased in women (n=12) who labored (8.8% compared with 2.1%, relative risk 4.2, 95% CI 1.14-15.4). Despite high rates of cesarean delivery in women with superobesity, labor is associated with lower composite maternal and neonatal morbidity. Severe maternal morbidity may be higher in women who require a cesarean delivery after labor.
Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bisgaard, Hans
OBJECTIVE: To assess our prospective mother-child cohort and the national registry data to analyze the risk of asthma by delivery mode and whether cesarean delivery before or after membrane rupture affects this risk differently. STUDY DESIGN: The Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma...... in Childhood2000 is a high-risk birth cohort of 411 Danish children. Asthma was diagnosed prospectively by physicians at the research site, and associations with cesarean delivery were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models. From the Danish national prospective registry we included data from 1997......-2010. Childhood asthma was defined from recurrent use of inhaled corticosteroids filled at pharmacies. Cesarean delivery was classified as either before or after rupture of membranes, and the risk of asthma was compared with vaginal delivery. Results were adjusted stepwise for age and calendar year, sex, birth...
Hantoushzadeh S; Shariat M; Rahimi Foroushani A; Ramezanzadeh F; Masoumi M
"nBackground: The perception of impairment of sexual function after childbirth in vaginal delivery (as a complication) makes pregnant women to request elective cesarean section. But this conception is more related to culture. Therefore we studied women's sexual health after childbirth to assess whether women who underwent cesarean section experienced better sexual health in the postnatal period than women with vaginal births. "nMethods: A cohort study was conducted on 303 primi...
Ruiter, Laura; Eschbach, Sanne J.; Burgers, Mara; Rengerink, Katrien Oude; van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Goes, Birgit Y. van der; Mol, Ben W. J.; Graaf, Irene M. de; Pajkrt, Eva
Objective The objective of this study was to identify the predictors of emergency delivery in women with placenta previa. Methods This is a retrospective study of pregnancies complicated by placenta previa, scheduled for a cesarean delivery between 2001 and 2011. Using univariable and multivariable
Derbent, Aysel Uysal; Karabulut, Aysun; Yıldırım, Melahat; Simavlı, Serap Aynur; Turhan, Nilgün Öztürk
To predict the risk of cesarean delivery (CS) for multiparous women who have undergone previous vaginal delivery. A prospective observational study was performed, among multiparous pregnancies that were between 38 and 41 gestational weeks and had a singleton, vertex presentation fetus. Women's physical activity score, obstetric history, intrapartum and postpartum events were assessed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore risk factors associated with CS. Of the 245 total 83.7% had spontaneous labor and 16.3% were induced. Seventy-five percent of the induced women required CS, whereas only 19.5% of those with spontaneous labor required CS (pcesarean delivery among previously vaginally delivered women and maternal weight gain, physical activity score, cervical dilatation, and fetal weight are most accurate parameters in the prediction of the risk of CS delivery. Intrapartum CS has an increased risk of maternal morbidity.
Easter, Sarah Rae; Robinson, Julian N; Carusi, Daniela; Little, Sarah E
The objective of this study was to test whether hospitals experienced in twin delivery have lower rates of cesarean delivery for twins. We divided obstetric hospitals in the 2011 National Inpatient Sample by quartile of annual twin deliveries and compared twin cesarean delivery rates between hospitals with weighted linear regression. We used Pearson's coefficients to correlate a hospital's twin cesarean delivery rate to its overall cesarean delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) rates. Annual twin delivery volume ranged from 1 to 506 across the 547 analyzed hospitals with a median of 10 and mode of 3. Adjusted rates of cesarean delivery were independent of delivery volume with a rate of 75.5 versus 74.8% in the lowest and highest volume hospitals ( p = 0.09 across quartiles). A hospital's cesarean delivery rate for twins moderately correlated with the overall cesarean rate ( r = 0.52, p cesarean delivery rates at higher volume hospitals. Twin cesarean delivery rates correlate with other obstetric parameters such as singleton cesarean delivery and VBAC rates suggesting twin cesarean delivery rate is more closely related to a hospital's general obstetric practice than its twin delivery volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Kok, N.; Ruiter, L.; Lindeboom, R.; de Groot, C.; Pajkrt, E.; Mol, B. W.; Kazemier, B. M.
To determine neonatal and short term maternal outcomes according to intentional mode of delivery following a cesarean delivery (CD). Women pregnant after CD between January 2000 and December 2007 were categorized according to whether they had an elective repeat CD (ERCD) or a Trial of Labor (TOL).
... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Changes in Cesarean Delivery Rates by Gestational Age: United States, 1996– ... origin, National Vital Statistics System The singleton birth cesarean delivery rate increased from 1998 to 2009 but ...
Plevani, Cristina; Incerti, Maddalena; Del Sorbo, Davide; Pintucci, Armando; Vergani, Patrizia; Merlino, Luca; Locatelli, Anna
Cesarean delivery rates are rising due to multiple factors, including less use of operative vaginal delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery, which often reflect local obstetric practices. Objectives of the study were to analyze the relations between cesarean delivery, these practices, and perinatal outcomes. We included all deliveries in the 72 hospitals of Lombardia, a region in northern Italy, during the year 2013. The delivery certificate was used as data source. Pearson's correlation coefficient and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. We included 87 896 deliveries. The number of deliveries per hospital ranged from 140 to 6123. The rate of cesarean delivery was 28.3% (range 9.9-86.4%), operative vaginal delivery 4.7% (range 0.2-10.0%), and vaginal birth after cesarean 17.3% (range 0-79.2%). We found a significant inverse correlation between rates of overall cesarean delivery and operative vaginal delivery (r = -0.25, p = 0.04). The correlation between rate of overall cesarean delivery and vaginal birth after cesarean was also inverse and significant (r = -0.57, p cesarean delivery rate and the rates of Apgar score at 5 min cesarean delivery, could reduce the rising cesarean delivery rate. This will require a change in obstetric culture, continuing education of healthcare providers, and leadership. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Corine J. Verhoeven
Full Text Available Objective. To identify potential risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women at term. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Cases were parous women in whom the induction of labor had resulted in a cesarean delivery. For each case, we used the data of two successful inductions as controls. Successful induction was defined as a vaginal delivery after the induction of labor. The study was limited to term singleton pregnancies with a child in cephalic position. Results. Between 1995 and 2010, labor was induced in 2548 parous women, of whom 80 had a cesarean delivery (3%. These 80 cases were compared to the data of 160 parous women with a successful induction of labor. In the multivariate analysis history of preterm delivery (odds ratio (OR 5.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 25, maternal height (OR 0.87 (95% CI 0.80 to 0.95 and dilatation at the start of induction (OR 0.43 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.98 were associated with failed induction. Conclusion. In multiparous women, the risk of cesarean delivery following labor induction increases with previous preterm delivery, short maternal height, and limited dilatation at the start of induction.
Kaur, Gurpreet; Jain, Sandhya; Sharma, Abha; Vaid, Neelam Bala
Hematometra resulting from partial or complete obstruction of lower genital tract may be congenital or acquired. Commonest congenital causes are imperforate hymen and transverse vaginal septum. Acquired causes are senile atrophy of endocervical canal, scarring of the isthmus by synechiae, radiation and endocervical malignancy or due to surgical procedures. Various surgical procedures associated with hematometra are dilatation and curettage, cone biopsy, endometrial ablation, cryocoagulation and electrocautery. Hematometra following an abortion or cesarean delivery is rare. We report a case of hematometra following obstruction of outflow tract due to prior cesarean delivery.
Inocêncio, Gonçalo; Braga, António; Lima, Tânia; Vieira, Bruna; Zulmira, Rosa; Carinhas, Maria; Gonçalves, Joaquim; Silva, Clara
To discover the differences between women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who delivered vaginally and those who delivered by cesarean section, and to assess the cesarean rate in this group of women. We divided all pregnant women with GDM into 2 groups: those who had vaginal delivery and those who gave birth by cesarean section (retrospective study of 6 years). We evaluated 460 births at term (≥ 37 weeks' gestation), for a total of 240 vaginal births and 220 cesarean births. All occurred in our institution. Of all the variables that were compared between the 2 groups, we found statistically significant differences (p history of macrosomia and gestational age at the time of beginning insulin treatment. Pregnant women with GDM and previous history of macrosomia are more likely to be submitted to cesarean section. Also, the initiation of insulin treatment at an early gestational age is associated with a higher chance of a woman delivering by cesarean section. The cesarean section rate in women with GDM was 47.8%.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the optimum dose of ropivacaine by comparing three different dosing regimens of isobaric ropivacaine 1% (naropin 10 mg/ml, Astra Zeneca) administered intrathecally and to demonstrate the effects of anesthesia in pregnant women scheduled for cesarean section.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the optimum dose of ropivacaine by comparing three different dosing regimens of isobaric ropivacaine 1% (naropin 10 mg/ml, Astra Zeneca) administered intrathecally and to demonstrate the effects of anesthesia in pregnant women scheduled for cesarean section.
de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M. J.; de Groot, Christianne J.; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein
Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the
Lucovnik, M; Blajic, I; Verdenik, I; Mirkovic, T; Stopar Pintaric, T
The Ten Group Classification System (TGCS) allows critical analysis according to the obstetric characteristics of women in labor: singleton or multiple pregnancy, nulliparous, multiparous, or multiparous with a previous cesarean delivery, cephalic, breech presentation or other malpresentation, spontaneous or induced labor, and term or preterm births. Labor outcomes associated with epidural analgesia may be different among the different labor classification groups. The aim of this study was to explore associations between epidural analgesia and cesarean delivery, and epidural analgesia and assisted vaginal delivery, in women classified using the TGCS. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System data for the period 2007-2014 were analyzed. All women after spontaneous onset or induction of labor were classified according to the TGCS, within which cesarean and vaginal assisted delivery rates were investigated (P cesarean delivery rates. Women in group 1 (nulliparous term women with singleton fetuses in cephalic presentation in spontaneous labor) with epidural analgesia had a higher cesarean delivery rate. In most TGCS groups women with epidural analgesia had higher assisted vaginal delivery rates. Epidural analgesia is associated with different effects on cesarean delivery and assisted vaginal delivery rates in different TGCS groups. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hc, C.; Yahya, M.S.; Mooi, C.S.
Objective: To identify the risk factors for cesarean delivery among primigravida at Hospital Serdang. Methodology: This was a case control study which involved total 260 of 130 primigravida patients that underwent cesarean section (cases) and 130 primigravida patients that underwent vaginal delivery (control) at obstetrics and gynaecology department of Hospital Serdang, Malaysia from January until June 2013. A standardized proforma was used to collect the data of each primigravida patient presenting in spontaneous labour at term with singleton pregnancy with either caesarean or vaginal delivery. Results: Majority of the cases were Malaysian (86.9%) and mostly were from Malay ethnic group (75.4%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, presence of hypertension status (odds ratio (OR) 5.7, 95% CI; 1.56-20.84) and gestational age less than 40 weeks (OR 2.60, 95% CI 1.34-5.02), fetal weight more than 3000 gm (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1-2.95), were associated with higher odds of cesarean delivery. Conclusion: Primigravida with presence of hypertension, having gestational age less than 40 weeks and heavier fetus were associated with higher odds of cesarean delivery. (author)
Dweik, Diána; Girasek, Edmond; Töreki, Annamária; Mészáros, Gyula; Pál, Attila
To assess birth preferences in a sample of Hungarian pregnant women and identify determinants of ambivalence or clear choices for cesarean section throughout pregnancy. Follow-up two-point questionnaire survey. University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in Hungary. A total of 413 women with singleton pregnancies where there was no awareness of medical contradictions to vaginal delivery, attending for routine ultrasound examination in mid-pregnancy from November 2011 to March 2012. Questionnaires completed in mid- and late pregnancy (gestational weeks 18-22 and 35-37) including the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire A. Prevalence of women preferring cesarean section or being uncertain about what delivery route to choose, in case they had the choice; their demographic characteristics, attitudes toward birth issues and their Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire A scores, compared with women consistent in their preference for vaginal delivery. Of the 413 respondents, 365 (88.4%) were consistent in their preference for vaginal delivery. In logistic regression models the important contributors to describing preferences for cesarean section or uncertain preferences were previous cesarean section and maternal belief that cesarean section is more beneficial than vaginal delivery. The majority of pregnant women preferred vaginal delivery to cesarean section. Neither a higher Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire A score nor sociodemographic differences were important determinants of a preference for cesarean section or for an uncertain preference. On the other hand, previous cesarean section and certain preconceived maternal attitudes towards delivery were characteristic for these women. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Studsgaard, Anne; Skorstengaard, Malene; Glavind, Julie
OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes with trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) or elective repeat cesarean delivery on maternal request (ERCD-MR). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish university hospital. POPULATION: Women with TOLAC (n = 1161) and women with ERCD-MR (n = 622) between 2003...... and 2010. Exclusion criteria were diabetes, two prior cesarean sections, index cesarean at a different hospital, a delivery after the index cesarean, twin gestation, gestational age ... registration of the deliveries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adverse neonatal outcomes, risk factors for emergency cesarean, and uterine rupture in case of TOLAC. RESULTS: TOLAC was associated with an increased risk of neonatal depression [odds ratio (OR) 3.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-19.1] and neonatal...
Full Text Available Background/Aim. The optimal method of delivery for breech presentation at term still remains a matter of controversy. This is probably due to the fact that the skills of vaginal breech delivery are being lost. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors: mother's age, parity, labor's duration, estimated neonatal birth weight for the mode of breech presentation delivery at term as well as the influence of the delivery mode on neonatal outcome. Methods. A retrospective study of 401 terms (more than 37 week's gestation breech deliveries at the Institute of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Belgrade, from 2007 to 2008 was made. The following groups with respect to mode of delivery were included: the group I - vaginal delivery (VD in 139 patients; the group II - urgent cesarean section (UCS in 128 patients; and the group III - elective cesarean section (ECS in 134 patients. Mother's age, parity, duration of VD, neonatal birth weight (BW, the Apgar score at 5th minute, and duration of stay in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU vere determined. Neonatal mortality and major neonatal morbidity were compared according to the route of delivery. Fetuses and neonates with hemolytic disease and fetal and neonatal anomalies were excluded from the study. For statistical analyses we performed Student's t test, χ2 likelihood ratio, Kruskall-Wallis test, Mann Whitney test, and ANOVA. Results. The mean age of patients in the group I was 28.29 ± 4.97 years, in the group II 29.68 ± 5.92 years and in the group III 30.06 ± 5.41 years. Difference in mother's age between the group I and III was significant (p = 0.022. In the group III there were 73.9% nuliparous similarly to the gropu II (73.4%. We performed ECS in 54.6% of the nuliparous older than 35 years, and 54.4% multiparous younger than 35 years were delivered by VD. The use of oxytocin for stimulation of vaginal labor was not associated with its duration (p = 0.706. Lowset maneuver was performed in 88.5% of
Hesselman, Susanne; Högberg, Ulf; Jonsson, Maria
Cesarean delivery is performed frequently worldwide, and follow-up studies that report complications at subsequent surgery are warranted. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between a previous abdominal delivery and complications during a subsequent hysterectomy and to estimate the fraction of complications that are driven by the presence of adhesions. This was a longitudinal population-based register study of 25354 women who underwent a benign hysterectomy at 46 hospital units in Sweden 2000-2014. Adhesions were found in 45% of the women with a history of cesarean delivery. Organ injury affected 2.2% of the women. The risk of organ injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.74; 95% confidence interval, 1.41-2.15) and postoperative infection (adjusted odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.39) was increased with previous cesarean delivery, irrespective of whether adhesions were present or not. The direct effect on organ injury by a personal history of cesarean delivery was estimated to 73%, and only 27% was mediated by the presence of adhesions. Previous cesarean delivery was a predictor of bladder injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.40-2.47) and bowel injury (adjusted odds ratio, 1.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.03), but not ureter injury. A personal history of other abdominal surgeries was associated with bowel injury (adjusted odds ratio, 2.27; 95% confidence interval, 1.37-3.78), and the presence of endometriosis increased the risk of ureter injury (adjusted odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-3.44). Previous cesarean delivery is associated with an increased risk of complications during a subsequent hysterectomy, but the risk is only partly attributable to the presence of adhesions. Previous cesarean delivery and presence of endometriosis were major predisposing factors of organ injury at the time of the hysterectomy, whereas background and perioperative characteristics were of minor importance
Peng Chiong Tan
Conclusion: In women who have had prior vaginal birth attempting a trial of labor after cesarean, a vaginal delivery before cesarean delivery is an independent risk factor for repeat cesarean. Women with two or more prior vaginal births have a similar risk for repeat cesarean and neonatal admission to women with only one prior vaginal birth.
Brock, Clifton O; Govindappagari, Shravya; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia
Objective The objective of this study is to determine the maternal and neonatal morbidity associated with attempting operative vaginal delivery (OVD) compared with the alternative of a laboring repeat cesarean delivery (LRCD) in women attempting a trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC). Methods This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective study designed to assess perinatal outcomes of OVD in women with a prior uterine scar. The study includes women who attempted TOLAC and reached +2 station with a fully dilated cervix. Composites on neonatal and maternal morbidity were compared between women in whom OVD was attempted and those who underwent LRCD by fitting multivariate logistic regression models. Results In total, 6,489 women attempting TOLAC reached 2+ station with a fully dilated cervix. Of these, 5,640 (86.9%) had a spontaneous vaginal delivery, 762 (11.7%) underwent attempted OVD, and 87 (1.3%) had an LRCD. Compared with attempting OVD, LRCD was associated with greater neonatal morbidity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.41; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-5.15) and less maternal morbidity (OR: 0.28; 95% CI: 0.14-0.55). Maternal morbidity of OVD is driven by perineal injury. Conclusion In laboring women with a previous uterine scar, attempting OVD is associated with greater maternal and less neonatal morbidity than LRCD. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika
Introduction Studies suggest delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may impact the development of the immune system. Meta-analyses on CS and risks of type I diabetes mellitus and asthma have found risks increased by 20%. Three different mechanisms have been proposed by which CS may influence immune...
Huang, Yu-Chen; Tsai, Shen-Kou; Huang, Chi-Hsiang; Wang, Mao-Hsien; Lin, Pei-Lin; Chen, Li-Kuei; Lin, Chen-Jung; Sun, Wei-Zen
Postpartum uterine contraction pain is a common phenomenon after Cesarean delivery. We investigated the effectiveness of tenoxicam in reducing uterine contraction pain. We enrolled 120 consecutive non-breastfeeding women who were scheduled for elective Cesarean delivery. After the administration of spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine and intrathecal morphine 0.15 mg injection, the patients were randomly divided into two groups. Group I received placebo (normal saline) iv injection, and Group II received tenoxicam 40 mg iv injection after clamping the umbilical cord. Verbal analogue scale of wound pain and uterine contraction pain were recorded at two, four, eight,16, and 24 hr after Cesarean delivery. There was no significant difference in wound pain scores between the two groups (all scores pain scores and required less supplemental meperidine medication than did the placebo group (8.5% vs 41.4%, P <0.05). The incidences of nausea or vomiting, pruritus, and bleeding were not significantly different between groups. Intravenous tenoxicam 40 mg significantly reduced the intensity of uterine cramps in patients undergoing Cesarean delivery without increasing side effects.
He, Liang; Xu, Jun-Mei; Liu, Su-Mei; Chen, Zhi-Jun; Li, Xin; Zhu, Rong
Shivering associated with spinal anesthesia during Cesarean delivery is an uncomfortable experience for the parturient, which may also cause adverse effects. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we sought to evaluate the effect of intrathecal dexmedetomidine, administered as an adjunct to hyperbaric bupivacaine for Cesarean delivery, on the incidence and severity of shivering associated with spinal anesthesia. Patients undergoing Cesarean delivery were randomly allocated to three groups of 30 patients each. Experimental treatments were added to hyperbaric bupivacaine as follows: Patients in group I (control) were administered isotonic saline. Patients in groups II and III received dexmedetomidine (2.5, 5 µg, respectively), mixed with isotonic saline. Shivering was observed in 11, 10 and 2 patients in groups I, II and III, respectively. The incidence of shivering in group III was significantly lower than that in groups I (p=0.005) and II (p=0.01). The severity of shivering was significantly different between the three groups (p=0.01). There were no significant inter-group differences with respect to mean arterial pressure and heart rate at any time point after administration of intrathecal local anesthesia (p>0.05). Intrathecal dexmedetomidine (5 µg) administered as an adjunct to hyperbaric bupivacaine during Cesarean delivery significantly reduced the incidence and intensity of shivering associated with spinal anesthesia.
Ethnic differences in birth weight and cesarean deliveries in Zaria, Nigeria. B Danborno, A Afegbua. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy Vol. 5(1) 2006: 21-24. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
İlhan, Gülşah; Atmaca, Fatma V; Çümen, Ayşenur; Zebitay, Ali G; Güngör, Emre S; Karasu, Ayşe F G
The circadian timing system has a rhythm and one of the roles of this system is the mediation of hormonal and metabolic adaptations to lactation. This study was conducted to determine whether the time to stage II lactogenesis differed in women who underwent cesarean section (CS) in the daytime (DT) or night-time (NT). This study was conducted at Süleymaniye Research and Education Hospital between June and December 2016. Two hundred and eighty-eight mothers who had a cesarean delivery and their healthy singleton neonates were included. Clinical and demographic data of the mothers and neonates, time of initiation of breastfeeding and time to stage II lactogenesis were analyzed according to DT or NT CS groups. There were no statistically significant differences in age, gravida, parity, body mass index, week of gestation at birth, postoperative hemoglobin level, cesarean indications, anesthesia type, previous history of breastfeeding, transfusion need, Apgar scores or birth weight-height of neonates between the DT and NT CS groups. While the time of initiation of breastfeeding did not differ statistically in terms of DT or NT CS groups, the time to stage II lactogenesis was significantly longer in the NT CS group. NT cesarean delivery is a risk factor for the delayed onset of lactogenesis. The results of this study may be useful to clinical practitioners counseling mothers who undergo NT cesarean delivery. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M.; Landy, Helain J.; Iqbal, Sara N.; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L.
Background Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. Objective We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index kg/m2 classes to identify the factors contributing to the increase rate of cesarean among obese women. Study design In the Consortium of Safe Labor study between 2002 and 2008, we calculated indications for primary cesarean including failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, non-reassuring fetal heart tracing, malpresentation, elective, hypertensive disease, multiple gestation, placenta previa or vasa previa, failed induction, human immunodeficiency virus or active herpes simplex virus, history of uterine scar, fetal indication, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, and failed operative delivery. For women with primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, dilation at the last recorded cervical examination was evaluated. Women were categorized according to body mass index on admission: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), obese class I (30.0-34.9), II (35.0-39.9), and III (≥40). Cochran-Armitage Trend Test and Chi-square tests were performed. Results Of 66,502 nulliparous and 76,961 multiparous women in the study population, 19,431 nulliparous (29.2%) and 7,329 multiparous women (9.5%) underwent primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, malpresentation, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, and non-reassuring fetal heart tracing were the common indications for primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, the rates of primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion increased with increasing body mass index (normal weight, class I, II and III obesity in nulliparous: 33.2%, 41.6%, 46
Haumonte, J-B; Raylet, M; Christophe, M; Mauviel, F; Bertrand, A; Desbriere, R; d'Ercole, C
To validate Grobman nomogram for predicting vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) in a French population and adapt it. Multicenter retrospective study of maternal and obstetric factors associated with VBAC between May 2012 and May 2013 in 6 maternity units. External validation and adaptation of the prenatal and intrapartum Grobman nomograms for vaginal birth prediction after cesarean delivery in a French cohort. The study included 523 women with previous cesarean deliveries; 70% underwent a trial of labor for a subsequent delivery (n=367) with a success rate of 65% (n=240). In the univariate analysis, 5 factors were associated with successful VBAC: previous vaginal delivery before the cesarean (P6 (P=0.03). A potentially recurrent indication (defined as arrest of dilation or descent as the indication for the previous cesarean) (P=0.039), a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy (P=0.05), and labor induction (P=0.017) were each associated with failed VBAC. External validation of the prenatal and intrapartum Grobman nomograms showed an area under the ROC curve of 69% (95% CI: 0.638, 0.736) and 65% (95% CI: 0.599, 0.700) respectively. Adaptation of the nomogram to the French cohort resulted in the inclusion of the following factors: maternal age, body mass index at last prenatal visit, hypertensive disorder, gestational age at delivery, recurring indication, cervical dilatation, and induction of labor. Its area under the curve to predict successful VBAC was 78% (95% CI: 0.738, 0.825). The nomogram to predict VBAC developed by Grobman et al. is validated in the French population. Adaptation to the French population, by excluding ethnicity, appeared to improve its performance. Impact of the nomogram use on the caesarean section rate has to be validated in a randomized control trial. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Tuuli, Methodius G; Liu, Jingxia; Stout, Molly J; Martin, Shannon; Cahill, Alison G; Odibo, Anthony O; Colditz, Graham A; Macones, George A
Preoperative skin antisepsis has the potential to decrease the risk of surgical-site infection. However, evidence is limited to guide the choice of antiseptic agent at cesarean delivery, which is the most common major surgical procedure among women in the United States. In this single-center, randomized, controlled trial, we evaluated whether the use of chlorhexidine-alcohol for preoperative skin antisepsis was superior to the use of iodine-alcohol for the prevention of surgical-site infection after cesarean delivery. We randomly assigned patients undergoing cesarean delivery to skin preparation with either chlorhexidine-alcohol or iodine-alcohol. The primary outcome was superficial or deep surgical-site infection within 30 days after cesarean delivery, on the basis of definitions from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. From September 2011 through June 2015, a total of 1147 patients were enrolled; 572 patients were assigned to chlorhexidine-alcohol and 575 to iodine-alcohol. In an intention-to-treat analysis, surgical-site infection was diagnosed in 23 patients (4.0%) in the chlorhexidine-alcohol group and in 42 (7.3%) in the iodine-alcohol group (relative risk, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.34 to 0.90; P=0.02). The rate of superficial surgical-site infection was 3.0% in the chlorhexidine-alcohol group and 4.9% in the iodine-alcohol group (P=0.10); the rate of deep infection was 1.0% and 2.4%, respectively (P=0.07). The frequency of adverse skin reactions was similar in the two groups. The use of chlorhexidine-alcohol for preoperative skin antisepsis resulted in a significantly lower risk of surgical-site infection after cesarean delivery than did the use of iodine-alcohol. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01472549.).
Latifnejad-Roudsari, Robab; Zakerihamidi, Maryam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
Background: Data was reported in Iran in 2013 has shown that almost 42 percent of deliveries in public hospitals and 90 percent in private hospitals were carried out with cesarean section. This high rate of cesarean requires careful consideration. It seems that making decision for cesarean is done under the influence of cultural perceptions and beliefs. So, this study was conducted to explore pregnant women's preferences and perceptions regarding cesarean delivery. Materials and Methods: A focused ethnographic study was used. 12 pregnant women and 10 delivered women, seven midwives, seven gynecologist and nine non-pregnant women referred to the health clinics of Tonekabon, who selected purposively, were included in the study. To collect data semi-structured in-depth interviews and participant observation were used. Study rigor was confirmed through prolonged engagement, member check, expert debriefing, and thick description of the data. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and MAXQDA software. Results: Four themes emerged from the data including personal beliefs, fear of vaginal delivery, cultural norms and values and also social network. These concepts played main roles in how women develop meanings toward caesarean, which affected their perceptions and preferences in relation to caesarean delivery. Conclusion: Most of pregnant women believed that fear of vaginal delivery is a major factor to choose caesarean delivery. Hence, midwives and physicians could help them through improving the quality of prenatal care and giving them positive perception towards vaginal delivery through presenting useful information about the nature of different modes of delivery, and their advantages and disadvantages, as well as the alternative ways to control labor pain. PMID:25949249
Palatnik, Anna; Grobman, William A
Previous studies of induction of labor in the setting of trial of labor after cesarean have compared women undergoing trial of labor after cesarean to those undergoing spontaneous labor. However, the clinically relevant comparison is to those undergoing expectant management. The objective of this study was to compare obstetric outcomes between women undergoing induction of labor and those undergoing expectant management ≥39 weeks of gestation. This was a secondary analysis of data from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Registry that included women with singleton gestations at a gestational age of ≥39 weeks and a history of 1 low transverse cesarean delivery. Outcomes of induction at 39, 40, and 41 weeks were compared to expectant management beyond each gestational age period using univariable and multivariable analyses. Women with scheduled repeat cesarean deliveries done for the indication of prior cesarean delivery were excluded from the analysis. In all, 12,676 women were eligible for analysis. The rate of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) was higher among women undergoing induction of labor at 39 weeks compared to expectant management (73.8% vs 61.3%, P < .001). The risk of uterine rupture also was higher among women undergoing induction of labor at 39 weeks compared to expectant management (1.4% vs 0.5%, P = .006, respectively). In multivariable analysis, induction of labor at 39 weeks remained associated with a significantly higher chance of VBAC and uterine rupture (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.67; and odds ratio, 2.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.22-6.12, respectively). Induction of labor at 39 weeks, when compared to expectant management, was associated with a higher chance of VBAC but also of uterine rupture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kjos, S L; Berkowitz, K; Xiang, A
To identify independent risk factors for Cesarean delivery in women with pregnancy complicated by diabetes. Retrospective analysis of pregnancies from 5735 diabetic women delivering liveborn infants. Maternal demographic, medical, obstetric historical factors and index pregnancy obstetric, glycemic and neonatal outcome parameters were evaluated for association with Cesarean delivery after a trial of labor. Individual risk factors were analyzed for association by chi2 and ANOVA. Independent predictors of Cesarean delivery and adjusted relative risk (RR) were identified by stepwise logistic regression. Trial of labor was permitted in 90.8% and 59.4% of women without (n = 4643) and with prior Cesarean delivery (n = 1092) and was successful in 85.2% and 56.9%, respectively. Eleven independent predictors were found. Five were related to obstetric history and maternal age: prior Cesarean delivery (RR 5.34, 95% CI 3.94-7.25), no prior live birth (RR 3.17, 95% CI 1.98-5.07), no prior vaginal delivery (RR 2.28, 95% CI 1.50-3.44), prior stillbirth (RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.09-2.68%) and maternal age > or = 35 years (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.20-1.93). Two were related to the severity of diabetes at entry to diabetes care: requiring insulin (RR 1.53, 95% CI 1.20-1.93) and highest fasting plasma glucose level (RR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Two were related to obstetric factors: pre-eclampsia/hypertension (RR 2.56, 95% CI 2.00-3.27) and labor induction (RR 3.32, 95% CI 2.70-4.10). The remaining two were birth weight (per 250 g, RR 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.17) and pre-delivery body mass index (RR, 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05). The majority of predictors were not modifiable, relating to obstetric history, maternal age and diabetes severity. Possible modifiable interventions to avoid/improve labor induction, and decrease birth weight and maternal weight gain might decrease risk of Cesarean delivery. Future studies must address these multiple predictors.
Carvalho, B; Coleman, L; Saxena, A; Fuller, A J; Riley, E T
Studies examining the effects of various analgesics and anesthetics on postoperative pain following cesarean delivery conventionally use the scheduled cesarean population. This study compares postoperative analgesic requirements and recovery profiles in women undergoing scheduled cesarean compared to unplanned cesarean delivery following labor. We postulated that unplanned cesarean deliveries may increase postoperative analgesic requirements. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 200 cesarean deliveries at Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, California. We examined the records of 100 patients who underwent scheduled cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia (hyperbaric bupivacaine 12 mg with intrathecal fentanyl 10 microg and morphine 200 microg) and 100 patients that following a trail of labor required unplanned cesarean under epidural anesthesia (10-25 mL 2% lidocaine top-up with epidural morphine 4 mg after clamping of the umbilical cord). We recorded pain scores, analgesic consumption, time to first analgesic request, side effects, and length of hospital stay. We found no differences in postoperative pain scores and analgesic consumption between scheduled and unplanned cesarean deliveries for up to five days postoperatively. There were no differences in treatment of side effects such as nausea, vomiting, or pruritus (P>0.05). The results indicate that women experience similar pain and analgesic requirements after scheduled compared to unplanned cesarean delivery. This suggests that the non-scheduled cesarean population may be a suitable pain model to study pain management strategies; and that alterations in pain management are not necessary for the unplanned cesarean delivery population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... QUESTIONS LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE FAQ006 Cesarean Birth (C-section) • What is cesarean birth? • What are the reasons for cesarean birth? • Is a cesarean birth necessary if I have ...
Duggal, Neena; Poddatoori, Vineela; Poddatorri, Vineela; Noroozkhani, Sara; Siddik-Ahmad, R Iram; Caughey, Aaron B
To evaluate whether supplemental perioperative oxygen decreases surgical site wound infections or endometritis. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Patients who were to undergo cesarean delivery were recruited and randomly allocated to either 30% or 80% oxygen during the cesarean delivery and for 1 hour after surgery. The obstetricians and patients were blinded to the concentration of oxygen used. Patients were evaluated for wound infection or endometritis during their hospital stay and by 6 weeks postpartum. The primary end point was a composite of either surgical site infection or endometritis. Eight hundred thirty-one patients were recruited. Of these, 415 participants received 30% oxygen perioperatively and 416 received 80% oxygen. The groups were well matched for age, race, parity, diabetes, number of previous cesarean deliveries, and scheduled compared with unscheduled cesarean deliveries. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. There was no difference in the primary composite outcome (8.2% in women who received 30% oxygen compared with 8.2% in women who received 80% oxygen, P=.89), no difference in surgical site infection in the two groups (5.5% compared with 5.8%, P=.98), and no significant difference in endometritis in the two groups (2.7% compared with 2.4%, P=.66), respectively. Women who received 80% supplemental oxygen perioperatively did not have a lower rate of a surgical site infection or endometritis as compared with women who received 30% supplemental oxygen concentration. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clincaltrials.gov, NCT00876005. I.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how the country of origin affects the probability of being delivered by cesarean section when giving birth at public Portuguese hospitals. STUDY DESIGN: Women delivered of a singleton birth (n = 8228, recruited from five public level III maternities (April 2005-August 2006 during the procedure of assembling a birth cohort, were classified according to the country of origin and her migration status as Portuguese (n = 7908, non-Portuguese European (n = 84, African (n = 77 and Brazilian (n = 159. A Poisson model was used to evaluate the association between country of birth and cesarean section that was measured by adjusted prevalence ratio (PR and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI. RESULTS: The cesarean section rate varied from 32.1% in non-Portuguese European to 48.4% in Brazilian women (p = 0.008. After adjustment for potential confounders and compared to Portuguese women as a reference, Brazilian women presented significantly higher prevalence of cesarean section (PR = 1.26; 95%CI: 1.08-1.47. The effect was more evident among multiparous women (PR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.12-1.73 and it was observed when cesarean section was performed either before labor (PR = 1.43; 95%CI: 0.99-2.06 or during labor (PR = 1.30; 95%CI: 1.07-1.58. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cesarean section was significantly higher among Brazilian women and it was independent of the presence of any known risk factors or usual clinical indications, suggesting that cultural background influences the mode of delivery overcoming the expected standard of care and outcomes in public health services.
Aabakke, Anna J M; Hare, Kristine J; Krebs, Lone
OBJECTIVE: To compare patient preference for either sharp incision with scissors or blunt manual cleavage of the fascia at cesarean delivery in a randomized controlled trial in which each woman was her own control. STUDY DESIGN: Women undergoing primary cesarean delivery (n=34) were randomized...... to side distribution of sharp or blunt incision of the fascia (sharp right and blunt left or blunt right and sharp left) and followed three months postoperatively. The primary outcome was patient preference for the right or left side of the scar 3 months postoperatively and modeled by polytomous logistic...... difference was found in patient preference with regard to sharp or blunt incision of the fascia, nor was there a significant difference in postoperative pain scores. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: www.clinicaltrials.org;NCT01297725....
Full Text Available Introduction - Fat embolism is a rare form of nonthrombotic embolization. Limited literature exists regarding the diagnosis of fat embolism during the perinatal period. We present the first case of maternal death that resulted from nontraumatic fat embolization following Cesarean delivery. Case Description - A 29-year-old gravida 1 with a complex medical and surgical history underwent a primary Cesarean delivery at term. On postoperative day 2 the patient was found to be unresponsive. Despite resuscitative efforts, the patient succumbed. Autopsy findings were remarkable for diffuse pulmonary fat emboli. Furthermore, there was no histological evidence of either amniotic fluid embolism or thromboembolism. The primary cause of death was attributed to nontraumatic fat embolization. Discussion - Multiple risk factors may have contributed to the development of nontraumatic fat embolization in our patient. Obstetricians should maintain a high level of suspicion for nontraumatic fat embolization in cases of maternal respiratory decompression and sudden maternal mortality.
Ramirez, Mildred M; Gilbert, Sharon; Landon, Mark B; Rouse, Dwight J; Spong, Catherine Y; Varner, Michael W; Caritis, Steve N; Wapner, Ronald J; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; Carpenter, Marshall; Peaceman, Alan M; O'Sullivan, Mary J; Sibai, Baha M; Langer, Oded; Thorp, John M; Mercer, Brian M
We describe obstetric outcomes in a group of patients with prior cesarean delivery (CD) presenting with an intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD). A secondary analysis of an observational study of women with prior CD was performed. All antepartum singleton pregnancies with a prior CD and IUFD ≥20 weeks' gestation or 500 g were evaluated. Two hundred nine patients met inclusion criteria for analysis. The mean gestational age ± standard deviation at delivery was 31.3 ± 6.5 weeks. The trial of labor rate was 75.6% (158/209), and the vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) success rate was 86.7%. Labor induction or augmentation occurred in 83.3% of attempted VBAC. Uterine rupture occurred in five women (2.4%), and in 3.4% of those being induced but none of these required hysterectomy. Women with a history of previous CD and an IUFD often undergo trial of labor with a high VBAC success rate. Uterine rupture complicates 2.4% of such cases. © Thieme Medical Publishers.
Fabbri, Daniele; Monfardini, Chiara; Castaldini, Ilaria; Protonotari, Adalgisa
Physicians are often alleged responsible for the manipulation of delivery timing. We investigate this issue in a setting that negates the influence of financial incentives on physician's behavior. Working on a sample of women admitted at the onset of labor in a big public hospital in Italy we estimate a model for the exact time of delivery as driven by individual Indication to Cesarean Section (ICS) and covariates. We find that ICS does not affect the day of delivery but leads to a circadian rhythm in the likelihood of delivery. The pattern is consistent with the postponement of high ICS deliveries in the late night\\early morning shift. Our evidence hardly supports the manipulation of timing of births as driven by medical staff's "demand for leisure". Physicians seem to manipulate the exact timing of delivery to reduce exposure to risk factors extant during off-peak periods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lamourdedieu, C; Gnisci, A; Marcelli, M; Heckenroth, H; Gamerre, M; Agostini, A
Effectiveness of cervical ripening with Foley catheter for patients requiring labor induction with a previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions. Prospective unicentric study conducted between 1 April 2011 and 31 October 2013 on 41 patients with medical indication for labor induction with a Bishop's scorecesarean section. Outcomes evaluated were mode of delivery, Bishop's score variations and maternal or neonatal complications. Cervical ripening was performed in 39 patients and 17 (43.5%) were delivered vaginally. A total of 24/39 (61.5%) patients were put into work and 10/39 (25.6%) came into work immediately after removal of the Foley catheter. The average score improvement Bishop was 2.7±0.6 points. No maternal or fetal complication was reported. Foley catheter is an interesting procedure in patients with previous cesarean section and unfavorable cervical conditions requiring labor induction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Bateman, Brian T; Cole, Naida M; Maeda, Ayumi; Burns, Sara M; Houle, Timothy T; Huybrechts, Krista F; Clancy, Caitlin R; Hopp, Stephanie B; Ecker, Jeffrey L; Ende, Holly; Grewe, Kasey; Raposo Corradini, Beatriz; Schoenfeld, Robert E; Sankar, Keerthana; Day, Lori J; Harris, Lynnette; Booth, Jessica L; Flood, Pamela; Bauer, Melissa E; Tsen, Lawrence C; Landau, Ruth; Leffert, Lisa R
To define the amount of opioid analgesics prescribed and consumed after discharge after cesarean delivery. We conducted a survey at six academic medical centers in the United States from September 2014 to March 2016. Women who had undergone a cesarean delivery were contacted by phone 2 weeks after discharge and participated in a structured interview about the opioid prescription they received on discharge and their oral opioid intake while at home. A total of 720 women were enrolled; of these, 615 (85.4%) filled an opioid prescription. The median number of dispensed opioid tablets was 40 (interquartile range 30-40), the median number consumed was 20 (interquartile range 8-30), and leftover was 15 (interquartile range 3-26). Of those with leftover opioids, 95.3% had not disposed of the excess medication at the time of the interview. There was an association between a larger number of tablets dispensed and the number consumed independent of patient characteristics. The amount of opioids dispensed did not correlate with patient satisfaction, pain control, or the need to refill the opioid prescription. The amount of opioid prescribed after cesarean delivery generally exceeds the amount consumed by a significant margin, leading to substantial amounts of leftover opioid medication. Lower opioid prescription correlates with lower consumption without a concomitant increase in pain scores or satisfaction.
Thuillier, Claire; Roy, Sophie; Peyronnet, Violaine; Quibel, Thibaud; Nlandu, Aurélie; Rozenberg, Patrick
The dramatic rise in cesarean delivery rates worldwide in recent decades, without evidence of a concomitant decrease in cerebral palsy rates, has raised concerns about its potential negative consequences for maternal and infant health. In 2014, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine jointly published an Obstetric Care Consensus for safe prevention of the primary cesarean delivery. We sought to assess whether modification of our protocol to implement these recommendations helped to decrease our primary cesarean delivery rate safely. This is a before-and-after retrospective cohort study at a university referral hospital. In March 2014, the threshold for defining active labor changed from 4 to >6 cm and arrest of first-stage labor from lack of cervical change despite regular contractions after 3 hours of oxytocin administration with amniotomy and epidural anesthesia to no change after 4 hours of adequate or 6 hours of inadequate contractions in women with an epidural. The definition of second-stage arrest of labor changed simultaneously from lack of progress for 3 hours with adequate contractions in women with epidural anesthesia to no progress for ≥4 hours in nulliparas or 3 hours in multiparas with an epidural. We compared maternal and neonatal outcomes over two 1 year periods: from March 2013 to February 2014 (before, preguideline) and from June 2014 to May 2015 (after, postguideline). We included all women with singleton pregnancies at ≥37 weeks' gestation, in vertex presentation, in spontaneous or induced labor, and with epidural anesthesia. We excluded women with an elective or previous cesarean delivery and those with obstetric or fetal complications. This study included 3283 and 3068 women in the before and after periods, respectively. The groups had similar general and obstetric characteristics. The global cesarean delivery rate decreased significantly from 9.4% in the preguideline to 6.9% in
Chen, Cheng; Yan, Yan; Gao, Xiao; Xiang, Shiting; He, Qiong; Zeng, Guangyu; Liu, Shiping; Sha, Tingting; Li, Ling
Mothers are encouraged to exclusively breastfeed for the first 6 months. However, cesarean delivery rates have increased worldwide, which may affect breastfeeding. Research aim: This study aimed to determine the potential effects of cesarean delivery on breastfeeding practices and breastfeeding duration. This was a 6-month cohort study extracted from a 24-month prospective cohort study of mother-infant pairs in three communities in Hunan, China. Data about participants' characteristics, delivery methods, breastfeeding initiation, use of formula in the hospital, exclusive breastfeeding, and any breastfeeding were collected at 1, 3, and 6 months following each infant's birth. The chi-square test, logistic regression model, and Cox proportional hazard regression model were used to examine the relationship between breastfeeding practices and cesarean delivery. The number of women who had a cesarean delivery was 387 (40.6%), and 567 (59.4%) women had a vaginal delivery. The exclusive breastfeeding rates at 1, 3, and 6 months were 80.2%, 67.4%, and 21.5%, respectively. Women who had a cesarean delivery showed a lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding and any breastfeeding than those who had a vaginal delivery ( p cesarean delivery was related with using formula in the hospital and delayed breastfeeding initiation. Cesarean delivery also shortened the breastfeeding duration (hazard ratio = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [1.06, 1.84]). Healthcare professionals should provide more breastfeeding skills to women who have a cesarean delivery and warn mothers about the dangers of elective cesarean section for breastfeeding practices.
Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone
OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...
... Pinterest Email Print What is vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC)? VBAC refers to vaginal delivery of a baby after a previous pregnancy was delivered by cesarean delivery. In the past, pregnant women who had ...
Kjerulff, Kristen H; Attanasio, Laura B; Edmonds, Joyce K; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Repke, John T
Mode of delivery at first childbirth largely determines mode of delivery at subsequent births, so it is particularly important to understand risk factors for cesarean delivery at first childbirth. In this study, we investigated risk factors for cesarean delivery among nulliparous women, with focus on the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery. A prospective cohort study of 2851 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who attempted vaginal delivery at hospitals in Pennsylvania, 2009-2011, was conducted. We used nested logistic regression models and multiple mediational analyses to investigate the role of three groups of variables in explaining the association between labor induction and unplanned cesarean delivery-the confounders of maternal characteristics and indications for induction, and the mediating (intrapartum) factors-including cervical dilatation, labor augmentation, epidural analgesia, dysfunctional labor, dystocia, fetal intolerance of labor, and maternal request of cesarean during labor. More than a third of the women were induced (34.3%) and 24.8% underwent cesarean delivery. Induced women were more likely to deliver by cesarean (35.9%) than women in spontaneous labor (18.9%), unadjusted OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.97-2.79). The intrapartum factors significantly mediated the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery (explaining 76.7% of this association), particularly cervical dilatation cesarean delivery after labor induction among nulliparous women is attributable mainly to lower cervical dilatation at hospital admission and higher rates of labor complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
LINDO, Fiona M.; CARR, Emily S.; REYES, Michelle; GENDRON, Jilene M.; (R), RT; RUIZ, Julio C.; PARKS, Virginia L.; KUEHL, Thomas J.; LARSEN, Wilma I.
Objectives Vaginal delivery is a risk factor in pelvic floor disorders. We previously described changes in the pelvic floor associated with pregnancy and parturition in the squirrel monkey, a species with a human-like pattern of spontaneous age and parity associated pelvic organ prolapse. The potential to prevent or diminish these changes with scheduled cesarean section has not been evaluated. In a randomized, controlled trial, we compare female squirrel monkeys undergoing spontaneous vaginal delivery with those undergoing scheduled primary cesarean section for pelvic floor muscle volumes, muscle contrast changes, and dynamic effects on bladder neck position. Study Design Levator ani, obturator internus, and coccygeus muscle volumes and contrast uptake were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging in 20 nulliparous females examined prior to pregnancy, a few days after delivery, and 3 months post-partum. The position of bladder neck relative to boney reference line also was assessed with abdominal pressure using dynamic magnetic resonance imaging. Results Baseline measurements of 10 females randomly assigned to scheduled primary cesarean sections were not different from those of 10 females assigned to spontaneous vaginal delivery. Levator ani and obturator internus muscle volumes did not differ between groups, while volumes were reduced (p pelvic support of the bladder was not protected by this intervention suggesting that effects of pregnancy and delivery are not uniformly prevented by this procedure. PMID:26366665
van der Ven, A. J.; van Os, M. A.; Kleinrouweler, C. E.; Verhoeven, C. J. M.; de Miranda, E.; Bossuyt, P. M.; de Groot, C. J. M.; Haak, M. C.; Pajkrt, E.; Mol, B. W. J.; Kazemier, B. M.
To evaluate the association between midpregnancy cervical length and postterm delivery and cesarean delivery during labor. In a multicenter cohort study, cervical length was measured in low-risk singleton pregnancies between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation. From this cohort, we identified nulliparous
B. H. Rimawi
Full Text Available Necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome are life-threatening conditions that can be seen after any surgical procedure. With only 4 previous published case reports in the obstetrics and gynecology literature of these two conditions occurring secondary to Clostridium septicum, we describe a case of necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome occurring after a term cesarean delivery caused by this microorganism, requiring aggressive medical and surgical intervention.
Weiner, Stuart; Monge, Janet; Mann, Alan
Human biologic evolution involves a compromise between the physical adaptations for bipedalism with effects on birthing success and the much later increases in encephalization of our species. Much of what comes to define life history parameters like gestation length, and brain and birth weight in our species is best understood from this evolutionary perspective. Human populations have been dealing with the obstetric dilemma for many hundreds of thousands of years and modern biomedicine, using techniques like cesarean sections, has alleviated, but not eliminated, birthing as a "scar" of human evolution. If women begin to demand access to universal cesarean delivery, what will the outcome be for the future of human evolution? We can only speculate on the social, biologic, and demographic costs of this transition.
Koulimaya-Gombet, Cyr Espérance; Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Diallo, Moussa; Dia, Anna; Sène, Codou; Moreau, Jean Charles; Diouf, Alassane
The aim of our study was to determine hospitalization rate for vaginal birth after cesarean section in Pikine, to evaluate the quality of the management of pregnant women with previous cesarean section and to determine prognostic factors of the outcome of a trial of scar. We conducted a retrospective study based on medical records and operational protocols of patients who underwent vaginal birth after cesarean section over the period 1 January 2010 - 31 December 2011. We analyzed socio-demographic data, pregnancy follow-up, therapeutic modalities and prognosis. Data were collected and analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software and SPSS software 17.0. The frequency of vaginal births after cesarean section was 9.6%. The average age of our patients was 29.4 years. Primiparous women accounted for 54%. Short spacing interval between births was found in 52.6% of cases. Based on the number of cesarean sections, the breakdown was as follows: patients with a history of one previous cesarean section (79.8%), patients with a history of two previous caesarean sections (17.9%) and patients with a history of three previous caesarean sections (2.3%). The number of antenatal consultations performed was greater than or equal to 3 in 79.8% of cases. Patients undergoing evacuation accounted for 54.2% and they were already in labor at the time of admission in 81.7% of cases. Trial of scar was authorized in 177 patients (34.3%) and, at the end of this test, 147 patients (83%) had vaginal birth, of whom 21.7% by vacuum extraction. Cesarean section was performed in 71.4% of cases with 245 emergency cesarean sections and 93 scheduled cesarean sections. A history of vaginal birth was a determining factor in normal delivery (p = 0.0001). There was also a significant relationship between mode of admission and decision to perform a cesarean section (p = 0.0001). Maternal mortality was 0.4%. Perinatal mortality rate was 28.2‰ of live births. We are witnessing a dramatic increase of
Froehlich, Rosemary J; Sandoval, Grecio; Bailit, Jennifer L; Grobman, William A; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Thorp, John M; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E
To evaluate the association between documentation of estimated fetal weight, and its value, with cesarean delivery. This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter observational cohort of 115,502 deliveries from 2008 to 2011. Data were abstracted by trained and certified study personnel. We included women at 37 weeks of gestation or greater attempting vaginal delivery with live, nonanomalous, singleton, vertex fetuses and no history of cesarean delivery. Rates and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for women with ultrasonography or clinical estimated fetal weight compared with women without documentation of estimated fetal weight. Further subgroup analyses were performed for estimated fetal weight categories (less than 3,500, 3,500-3,999, and 4,000 g or greater) stratified by diabetic status. Multivariable analyses were performed to adjust for important potential confounding variables. We included 64,030 women. Cesarean delivery rates were 18.5% in the ultrasound estimated fetal weight group, 13.4% in the clinical estimated fetal weight group, and 11.7% in the no documented estimated fetal weight group (Pcesarean delivery was 1.44 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31-1.58, Pcesarean delivery. When ultrasound estimated fetal weight was 4,000 g or greater, the adjusted OR was 2.15 (95% CI 1.55-2.98, Pdelivery at term, documentation of estimated fetal weight (obtained clinically or, particularly, by ultrasonography) was associated with increased odds of cesarean delivery. This relationship was strongest at higher fetal weight estimates, even after controlling for the effects of birth weight and other factors associated with increased cesarean delivery risk.
Full Text Available Offer Erez1, Lena Novack2, Vered Kleitman-Meir1, Doron Dukler1, Idit Erez-Weiss3, Francesca Gotsch4, Moshe Mazor11Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Soroka University Medical Center, 2Department of Epidemiology, 3Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel; 4Obstetrics and Gynecology Departement, Policlinico GB Rossi Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona, ItalyPurpose: To determine the effects of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC versus repeated cesarean sections (RCS after a primary cesarean section (CS, on the rate of intraoperative and postpartum maternal morbidity.Patients and methods: This is a retrospective population-based cohort study. During the study period (1988–2005 there were 200,012 deliveries by 76,985 women at our medical center; 16,365 of them had a primary CS, of which 7429 women delivered a singleton infant after the primary CS, met the inclusion criteria, were included in our study, and were followed for four consecutive deliveries. Patients were divided into three study groups according to the outcome of their consecutive delivery after the primary CS: VBAC (n = 3622, elective CS (n = 1910, or an urgent CS (n = 1897. Survival analysis models were used to investigate the effect of the urgency of CS and the numbers of pregnancy predating the primary CS on peripartum complications.Results: Women who failed a trial of labor had a higher rate of uterine rupture than those who had a VBAC. Patients who delivered by CS had a higher rate of endometritis than those giving birth vaginally. The rate of cesarean hysterectomy and transfer to other departments increased significantly at the fourth consecutive surgery (P = 0.02 and P = 0.003, respectively. VBAC was associated with a 55% reduction in the risk of intrapartum complications in comparison to a planned CS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22–0.89. A greater
Seligman, K; Ramachandran, B; Hegde, P; Riley, E T; El-Sayed, Y Y; Nelson, L M; Butwick, A J
Compared to vaginal delivery, women undergoing cesarean delivery are at increased risk of postpartum hemorrhage. Management approaches may differ between those undergoing prelabor cesarean delivery compared to intrapartum cesarean delivery. We examined surgical interventions, blood component use, and maternal outcomes among those experiencing severe postpartum hemorrhage within the two distinct cesarean delivery cohorts. We performed secondary analyses of data from two cohorts who underwent prelabor cesarean delivery or intrapartum cesarean delivery at a tertiary obstetric center in the United States between 2002 and 2012. Severe postpartum hemorrhage was classified as an estimated blood loss ≥1500mL or receipt of a red blood cell transfusion up to 48h post-cesarean delivery. We examined blood component use, medical and surgical interventions and maternal outcomes. The prelabor cohort comprised 269 women and the intrapartum cohort comprised 278 women. In the prelabor cohort, one third of women received red blood cells intraoperatively or postoperatively, respectively. In the intrapartum cohort, 18% women received red blood cells intraoperatively vs. 44% postoperatively (Pcesarean delivery had the highest rates of morbidity, with 18% requiring hysterectomy and 16% requiring intensive care admission. Our findings provide a snapshot of contemporary transfusion and surgical practices for severe postpartum hemorrhage management during cesarean delivery. To determine optimal transfusion and management practices in this setting, large pragmatic studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A prova de trabalho e a via de parto em primíparas com uma cesárea anterior Factors associated with mode of delivery among primipara women with one previous cesarean section and undergoing a trial of labor
Jacinta Pereira Matias
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar fatores associados à cesárea em mulheres com um único parto anterior por cesárea e submetidas à prova de trabalho de parto. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal retrospectivo, incluindo 1746 mulheres com uma cesárea anterior submetidas à prova de trabalho de parto no segundo parto ocorrendo entre 1986 e 1998. Foram excluídos os casos com atual gestação múltipla e/ou com malformações fetais incompatíveis com a vida. Elas foram divididas pelo tipo de parto atual em dois grupos: cesárea (n=731 e parto vaginal após cesárea (PVAC, n=1015. A análise estatística para a identificação de fatores associados ao tipo de parto foi feita por meio do cálculo da razão de prevalência (RP e IC 95%, sendo feito também o ajuste por idade, excluindo-se os casos com informações ignoradas em cada análise. RESULTADOS: A taxa total de parto vaginal após cesárea foi de 58,1%. Os fatores significativamente associados com parto por cesárea foram: maior idade materna, maior altura uterina (RP 1,5; IC 95% 1,19-1,88, rotura prematura de membranas (1,3; 1,08-1,54, líquido amniótico não claro (1,22; 1,04-1,43 ou com quantidade alterada (1,32; 1,01-1,73, alteração dos batimentos cardíacos fetais (1,96; 1,68-2,28, apresentação não cefálica (2,03; 1,54-2,66, indução do parto (1,74; 1,42-2,11 e ausência de analgesia (2,57; 2,11-3,11. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores associados ao parto por cesárea foram a maior idade, apresentação não-cefálica, rotura prematura de membranas, fetos grandes, necessidade de indução do trabalho de parto, e sinais de comprometimento da vitalidade fetal.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with cesarean section in women with only one previous delivery by cesarean section and undergoing a trial of labor. METHODS: A retrospective cross sectional study was performed from 1986 to 1998 including a total of 1746 women with one prior cesarean section and delivering after a trial of labor
Full Text Available Arrhythmias in pregnancy are common and may cause concern for the well-being of both mother and fetus. Generally, no previous history of heart disease is elicited and majority of the arrhythmias are benign. Bradycardia is commonly seen following subarachnoid block for cesarean section. However, the incidence of subsequent heart block is low. This case report highlights the occurrence of perioperative arrhythmias following sympathetic blockade in pregnant patients and their early detection by vigilant monitoring.
Subramaniam, Akila; Jauk, Victoria C; Figueroa, Dana; Biggio, Joseph R; Owen, John; Tita, Alan T N
Risk factors for post-cesarean wound infection, but not disruption, are well-described in the literature. The primary objective of this study was to identify risk factors for non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a single-center randomized controlled trial of staple versus suture skin closure in women ≥24 weeks' gestation undergoing cesarean delivery. Wound disruption was defined as subcutaneous skin or fascial dehiscence excluding primary wound infections. Composite wound morbidity (disruption or infection) was examined as a secondary outcome. Patient demographics, medical co-morbidities, and intrapartum characteristics were evaluated as potential risk factors using multivariable logistic regression. Of the 398 randomized patients, 340, including 26 with disruptions (7.6%) met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. After multivariable adjustments, African-American race (aOR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1-13.8) and staple - as opposed to suture - wound closure (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 1.8-16.1) remained significant risk factors for disruption; non-significant increases were observed for body mass index ≥30 (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 0.6-7.5), but not for diabetes mellitus (aOR 0.9, 95% CI 0.3-2.9). RESULTS for composite wound morbidity were similar. Skin closure with staples, African-American race, and considering the relatively small sample size, potentially obesity are associated with increased risk of non-infectious post-cesarean wound disruption.
Defline, A; Obadia, M; El Djerbi, A; Plevy, P; Lepercq, J
The doctor-lawyer perspective that we discuss is a maternal refusal to consent to a cesarean delivery for a fetal indication in June 2011. Despite repeated information of the risks during a three-week hospitalization for pre-eclampsia, after being assured of the proper understanding of the seriousness of the situation by the patient and spouse, and after consideration to transfer to another hospital, the reiterated refusal led to a late fetal extraction resulting in term stillbirth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.
Fogelberg, Maria; Baranov, Anton; Herbst, Andreas; Vikhareva, Olga
To determine the true incidence of complete uterine rupture and uterine dehiscence among women delivered by cesarean section after a previous cesarean section. Medical records of all women who delivered at University Hospital in Malmö, Sweden, during 2005-2009 (n = 21 420) were retrieved from the electronic patient record system (EPRS). After adjustment for inaccuracies, 716 women who had undergone repeat cesarean section were identified and their operation reports were reviewed. Descriptions of complete uterine rupture or uterine dehiscence in operation reports were compared with diagnoses registered in EPRS with International Classification of Diseases codes version 10 (ICD-10). Sensitivity and specificity of complete uterine rupture registration were calculated. There were 13 women with a registered diagnosis of uterine rupture. After reviewing medical records of women with repeat cesarean section, seven additional cases of complete uterine rupture, 33 cases of uterine dehiscence and 39 cases of extremely thin myometrium were identified. The incidence of complete uterine rupture and uterine dehiscence for women who delivered by repeat cesarean section was 2.8% and 10.1%, respectively. Diagnosis of complete uterine rupture was underreported in the EPRS by 35% and diagnosis of uterine dehiscence was missing in 100% of cases.
Kaelin Agten, Andrea; Honart, Anne; Monteagudo, Ana; McClelland, Spencer; Basher, Basmy; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E
To assess whether cesarean delivery changes the natural position of the uterus. In this retrospective Institutional Review Board-approved cohort study, we conducted a search of our university gynecologic ultrasonography (US) database. Patients with transvaginal US images before and after either vaginal or cesarean delivery between 2012 and 2015 were included. Women with prior cesarean delivery were excluded. Two readers independently measured antepartum and postpartum flexion angles between the longitudinal axis of the uterine body and the cervix. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to measure inter-reader agreement. Antepartum and postpartum uterine flexion angles were compared between patients with vaginal and cesarean delivery. We included 173 patients (107 vaginal and 66 cesarean delivery). The mean interval between scans ± SD was 18 ± 10 months. Inter-reader agreement for flexion angles was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficients: antepartum, 0.939; postpartum, 0.969; both P cesarean delivery (154.8° ± 45.7°) versus vaginal delivery (145.8° ± 43.7°; P = .216). Mean postpartum flexion angles were higher after cesarean delivery (180.4° ± 51.2°) versus vaginal delivery (152.8° ± 47.7°; P = .001. Differences in antepartum and postpartum flexion angles between cesarean and vaginal delivery were statistically significant (25.6° versus 7.0°; P = .027). Cesarean delivery can change the uterine flexion angle to a more retroflexed position. Therefore, all women with a history of cesarean delivery should undergo a transvaginal US examination before any gynecologic surgery or intrauterine device placement to reduce the possibility of surgical complications. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.
Jeanne M. Marrazzo
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of cesarean deliveries in pregnant women with a history of genital herpes and no active lesions at birth is higher than that in women with no history of genital herpes, and to determine whether this risk was modified by birth facilities' underlying prevalence of cesarean delivery.
Verhoeven, Corine J.; van Uytrecht, Cedric T.; Porath, Martina M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.
Objective. To identify potential risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women at term. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Cases were parous women in whom the induction of labor had resulted in a cesarean delivery. For each case, we used the
Chapman, D J; Young, S; Ferris, A M; Pérez-Escamilla, R
Women at risk for delayed onset of lactation are often advised to pump their breasts before lactogenesis stage II to hasten the timing of this process. The effectiveness of this clinical practice has not been previously evaluated. This study investigates the effects of breast pumping before the onset of lactation on early milk transfer and subsequent breastfeeding duration among women giving birth by cesarean delivery. Sixty women were randomly assigned to either the pumping group (n = 30), which used a double electric breast pump for six 10- to 15-minute sessions from 24 to 72 hours postpartum, or to the control group (n = 30), which held the pump to their breasts without suction for the same amount of time. Milk transfer was assessed by test weighing infants before and after 3 breastfeeding sessions daily. Test weight data were fitted to a second-order polynomial curve, to predict milk transfer over time. Breast pumping between 24 and 72 hours after cesarean delivery did not improve milk transfer. Participants in the pumping group tended to have lower milk transfer than did controls. Primiparae in the pumping group breastfed for ~5 months less than their counterparts in the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant. Breast pumping did not improve milk transfer during the first 72 hours postpartum and may negatively affect breastfeeding duration among primiparous women. lactation, lactogenesis, breast milk, breast pumping, milk expression, breastfeeding, cesarean delivery.
Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L
Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.
Landon, Mark B; Spong, Catherine Y; Thom, Elizabeth; Hauth, John C; Bloom, Steven L; Varner, Michael W; Moawad, Atef H; Caritis, Steve N; Harper, Margaret; Wapner, Ronald J; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; Carpenter, Marshall; Peaceman, Alan M; O'sullivan, Mary J; Sibai, Baha M; Langer, Oded; Thorp, John M; Ramin, Susan M; Mercer, Brian M; Gabbe, Steven G
To determine whether the risk for uterine rupture is increased in women attempting vaginal birth after multiple cesarean deliveries. We conducted a prospective multicenter observational study of women with prior cesarean delivery undergoing trial of labor and elective repeat operation. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared among women attempting vaginal birth after multiple cesarean deliveries and those with a single prior cesarean delivery. We also compared outcomes for women with multiple prior cesarean deliveries undergoing trial of labor with those electing repeat cesarean delivery. Uterine rupture occurred in 9 of 975 (0.9%) women with multiple prior cesarean compared with 115 of 16,915 (0.7%) women with a single prior operation (P = .37). Multivariable analysis confirmed that multiple prior cesarean delivery was not associated with an increased risk for uterine rupture. The rates of hysterectomy (0.6% versus 0.2%, P = .023) and transfusion (3.2% versus 1.6%, P cesarean deliveries compared with women with a single prior cesarean delivery attempting trial of labor. Similarly, a composite of maternal morbidity was increased in women with multiple prior cesarean deliveries undergoing trial of labor compared with those having elective repeat cesarean delivery (odds ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.93). A history of multiple cesarean deliveries is not associated with an increased rate of uterine rupture in women attempting vaginal birth compared with those with a single prior operation. Maternal morbidity is increased with trial of labor after multiple cesarean deliveries, compared with elective repeat cesarean delivery, but the absolute risk for complications is small. Vaginal birth after multiple cesarean deliveries should remain an option for eligible women. II-2.
To assess obstetricians' perceptions surrounding cesarean delivery rates in Turkey. The present cross-sectional descriptive study was performed between May 1 and June 30, 2016. Practicing obstetricians with contact details known by the researchers and those attending a conference in Turkey were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire that collected demographic data and information on participants' opinions, beliefs, knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cesarean delivery. There were 100 obstetricians who responded to the survey. Awareness of high cesarean delivery rates was reported by 96 (96%) participants and 95 (95%) respondents said they were supportive of efforts to reduce it. There were 60 (60%), 83 (83%), and 100 (100%) participants aware of associations between high cesarean delivery rates and increased maternal and infant mortality; increased risk of uterine rupture; and increased risk of placenta previa, placenta accreta, and emergency cesarean hysterectomy, respectively. The most commonly reported reason for high cesarean delivery rates was high compensation costs during medical litigation legal proceedings, reported by all 100 (100%) participants. Participants were generally aware of the risks associated with high cesarean delivery rates. The results suggest that the greatest concern among obstetricians who perform cesarean deliveries was malpractice litigation. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Witt, Whitney P; Wisk, Lauren E; Cheng, Erika R; Mandell, Kara; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Wakeel, Fathima; Godecker, Amy L; Zarak, Dakota
This study takes a lifecourse approach to understanding the factors contributing to delivery methods in the US by identifying preconception and pregnancy-related determinants of medically indicated and non-medically indicated cesarean section (C-section) deliveries. Data are from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative, population-based survey of women delivering a live baby in 2001 (n = 9,350). Three delivery methods were examined: (1) vaginal delivery (reference); (2) medically indicated C-section; and (3) non-medically indicated C-sections. Using multinomial logistic regression, we examined the role of sociodemographics, health, healthcare, stressful life events, pregnancy complications, and history of C-section on the odds of medically indicated and non-medically indicated C-sections, compared to vaginal delivery. 74.2 % of women had a vaginal delivery, 11.6 % had a non-medically indicated C-section, and 14.2 % had a medically indicated C-section. Multivariable analyses revealed that prior C-section was the strongest predictor of both medically indicated and non-medically indicated C-sections. However, we found salient differences between the risk factors for indicated and non-indicated C-sections. Surgical deliveries continue to occur at a high rate in the US despite evidence that they increase the risk for morbidity and mortality among women and their children. Reducing the number of non-medically indicated C-sections is warranted to lower the short- and long-term risks for deleterious health outcomes for women and their babies across the lifecourse. Healthcare providers should address the risk factors for medically indicated C-sections to optimize low-risk delivery methods and improve the survival, health, and well-being of children and their mothers.
Moroz, Leslie; DiNapoli, Marianne; D'Alton, Mary; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgical speed is associated with maternal outcomes in women who have a history of previous cesarean delivery (CD) and who require emergent delivery. This is a secondary analysis of a multicenter, prospective observational study of women with a history of previous CD. Women who attempted a vaginal birth after CD and required emergent CD were dichotomized into those with a skin incision-to-fetal delivery time of ≤2 min (I-D ≤2) or >2 min (I-D >2), based on the mode I-D. Rates of composite maternal complications and specific surgical complications were compared. Seven hundred ninety-three women had an emergency repeat CD: 108 women (13.6%) had I-D ≤2, and 685 women (86.4%) had I-D >2. The composite of maternal morbidity occurred in 36% of women with I-D≤2 and 23% with I-D>2 (P cesarean delivery, surgical speed was associated with an increased risk for maternal complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kehl, Sven; Weiss, Christel; Wamsler, Michael; Beyer, Jana; Dammer, Ulf; Heimrich, Jutta; Faschingbauer, Florian; Sütterlin, Marc; Beckmann, Matthias W; Schleussner, Ekkehard
To evaluate the efficacy of inducing labor using a double-balloon catheter and vaginal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) sequentially, in comparison with vaginal PGE2 alone after previous cesarean section. A total of 264 pregnant women with previous cesarean section undergoing labor induction at term were included in this prospective multicentre cohort study. Induction of labor was performed either by vaginal PGE2 gel or double-balloon catheter followed by vaginal PGE2. The primary outcome measure was the cesarean section rate. The cesarean section rate was 37 % without any statistically significant difference between the two groups (PGE2: n = 41, 37 % vs. balloon catheter/PGE2: n = 41, 42 %; P = 0.438). The median (range) number of applications of PGE2 [2 (1-10) versus 1 (0-8), P cesarean section were "no previous vaginal delivery" (OR 5.391; CI 2.671-10.882) and "no oxytocin augmentation during childbirth" (OR 2.119; CI 1.215-3.695). The sequential application of double-balloon catheter and vaginal PGE2 is as effective as the sole use of vaginal PGE2 with less applications and total amount of PGE2.
Verhoeven, Corine J.; van Uytrecht, Cedric T.; Porath, Martina M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.
Objective. To identify potential risk factors for cesarean delivery following labor induction in multiparous women at term. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study. Cases were parous women in whom the induction of labor had resulted in a cesarean delivery. For each case, we used the data of two successful inductions as controls. Successful induction was defined as a vaginal delivery after the induction of labor. The study was limited to term singleton pregnancies with a child...
Smid, Marcela C; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Manuck, Tracy A; Boggess, Kim A; Stamilio, David M
Objective To estimate the association between maternal super obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 50 kg/m(2)) and neonatal morbidity among neonates born via cesarean delivery (CD). Methods Retrospective cohort of singleton neonates delivered via CD ≥ 37 weeks in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Cesarean Registry. Maternal BMI at delivery was stratified as 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m(2), 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2), and ≥ 50 kg/m(2). Primary outcomes included acute (5-minute Apgar score neonatal injury, and/or transient tachypnea of the newborn) and severe (grade 3 or 4 intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, seizure, respiratory distress syndrome, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meconium aspiration, ventilator support ≥ 2 days, sepsis and/or neonatal death) neonatal morbidity. Odds of neonatal morbidity were estimated for each BMI category adjusting for clinical and operative characteristics. Results Of 41,262 maternal-neonatal dyads, 36% of women were nonobese, 49% had BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m(2), 12% had BMI of 40 to 49.9 kg/m(2), and 3% were super obese. Compared with nonobese women, super obese women had twofold odds of acute (5 vs. 10%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 1.81, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.59-2.73) and severe (3 vs. 6%; aOR: 2.08; 95% CI: 1.59-2.73) neonatal morbidity. Conclusion Among term infants delivered via CD, maternal super obesity is associated with increased risk of neonatal morbidity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Wood, Stephen L; Tang, Selphee; Crawford, Susan
Cesarean delivery is being increasingly used by obstetricians for indicated deliveries in the second stage of labor. Unplanned extension of the uterine incision involving the cervix often occurs with these surgeries. Therefore, we hypothesized that cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor may increase the rate of subsequent spontaneous premature birth. We sought to determine if cesarean delivery in the late first stage of labor or in the second stage of labor increases the risk of a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of matched first and second births from a large Canadian perinatal database. The primary outcomes were spontaneous premature birth cesarean delivery. The protocol and analysis plan was registered prior to obtaining data at Open Science Foundation. In total, 189,021 paired first and second births were identified. The risk of spontaneous preterm delivery cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor (relative risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.73 and relative risk, 2.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.67-2.68, respectively). The risk of perinatal death in the second birth, excluding congenital anomalies, was also correspondingly increased (relative risk, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-1.96). Cesarean delivery in second stage of labor was associated with a 2-fold increase in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation in a subsequent birth. This information may inform management of operative delivery in the second stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gonzales, Gustavo F; Tapia, Vilma L; Fort, Alfredo L; Betran, Ana Pilar
A continuous rise in the rate of cesarean deliveries has been reported in many countries over recent decades. This trend has prompted the emergence of a debate on the risks and benefits associated with cesarean section. The present study was designed to estimate cesarean section rates over time during the period between 2000 and 2010 in Peru and to present outcomes for each mode of delivery. This is a secondary analysis of a large database obtained from the Perinatal Information System, which includes 570,997 pregnant women and their babies from 43 Peruvian public health facilities in three geographical regions: coast, highlands, and jungle. Over 10 years, 558,901 women delivered 563,668 infants weighing at least 500 g. The cesarean section rate increased from 25.5% in 2000 to 29.9% in 2010 (26.9% average; P cesarean than vaginal deliveries (P cesarean section (P cesarean section group than in the vaginal delivery group. Data suggest that cesarean sections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24124393
In 2011, one in three women who gave birth in the United States did so by cesarean delivery. Cesarean birth can be life-saving for the fetus, the mother, or both in certain cases. However, the rapid increase in cesarean birth rates from 1996 to 2011 without clear evidence of concomitant decreases in maternal or neonatal morbidity or mortality raises significant concern that cesarean delivery is overused. Variation in the rates of nulliparous, term, singleton, vertex cesarean births also indicates that clinical practice patterns affect the number of cesarean births performed. The most common indications for primary cesarean delivery include, in order of frequency, labor dystocia, abnormal or indeterminate (formerly, nonreassuring) fetal heart rate tracing, fetal malpresentation, multiple gestation, and suspected fetal macrosomia. Safe reduction of the rate of primary cesarean deliveries will require different approaches for each of these, as well as other, indications. For example, it may be necessary to revisit the definition of labor dystocia because recent data show that contemporary labor progresses at a rate substantially slower than what was historically taught. Additionally, improved and standardized fetal heart rate interpretation and management may have an effect. Increasing women's access to nonmedical interventions during labor, such as continuous labor and delivery support, also has been shown to reduce cesarean birth rates. External cephalic version for breech presentation and a trial of labor for women with twin gestations when the first twin is in cephalic presentation are other of several examples of interventions that can contribute to the safe lowering of the primary cesarean delivery rate.
Full Text Available Gustavo F Gonzales,1–2 Vilma L Tapia,2 Alfredo L Fort,3 Ana Pilar Betran31Department of Biological and Physiological Sciences, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy, 2Instituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru; 3Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, SwitzerlandAbstract: A continuous rise in the rate of cesarean deliveries has been reported in many countries over recent decades. This trend has prompted the emergence of a debate on the risks and benefits associated with cesarean section. The present study was designed to estimate cesarean section rates over time during the period between 2000 and 2010 in Peru and to present outcomes for each mode of delivery. This is a secondary analysis of a large database obtained from the Perinatal Information System, which includes 570,997 pregnant women and their babies from 43 Peruvian public health facilities in three geographical regions: coast, highlands, and jungle. Over 10 years, 558,901 women delivered 563,668 infants weighing at least 500 g. The cesarean section rate increased from 25.5% in 2000 to 29.9% in 2010 (26.9% average; P < 0.01. The rate of stillbirths was lower with cesarean than vaginal deliveries (P < 0.01. On the other hand, and as expected, the rates for preterm births, twin pregnancies, and preeclampsia were higher in women who delivered by cesarean section (P < 0.01. More importantly, the rate of maternal mortality was 5.5 times higher in the cesarean section group than in the vaginal delivery group. Data suggest that cesarean sections are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes.Keywords: elective cesarean, emergency cesarean, geographical regions, cesarean rates over time, adverse outcomes, developing country
Full Text Available Robinson Chukwudi Onoh,1 Justus Ndulue Eze,2 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Lucky Osaheni Lawani,1 Chukwuemeka Anthony Iyoke,3 Peter Onubiwe Nkwo3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital Abakaliki, Abakaliki, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, College of Health Sciences, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria Background: The global rise in cesarean delivery rate has been a major source of public health concern. Aim: To appraise the cesarean deliveries and the associated fetal and maternal outcomes. Materials and methods: The study was a case series with data collected retrospectively from the records of patients delivered by cesarean section at the Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki over a 10-year period, from January 2002 to December 2011. Ethical approval was obtained. Results: Of 14,198 deliveries, 2,323/14,198 (16.4% were by cesarean deliveries. The overall increase of cesarean delivery was 11.1/10 (1.1% per annum from 184/1,512 (12.2% in 2002 to 230/986 (23.3% in 2011. Of 2,097 case folders studied, 1,742/2,097 (83.1% were delivered at term, and in 1,576/2,097 (75.2%, the cesarean deliveries were emergencies. The common indications for cesarean delivery were previous cesarean scars 417/2,097 (19.9% and obstructed labor 331/2,097 (15.8%. There were 296 perinatal deaths, giving a perinatal mortality rate of (296/2,197 134.7/1,000 births. Also, 129/2,097 (6.1% maternal case fatalities occurred, giving a maternal mortality rate of 908.6/100,000 total births. Hemorrhage 57/129 (44.2% and sepsis 41/129 (32.6% were the major causes. Conclusion: The study recorded a significant increase in cesarean delivery rate. Previous cesarean scars and obstructed labors were the main indications. Perinatal and maternal case fatalities were huge. Hence, there is need for continued community education for its reduction
Salman, Lina; Aharony, Shachar; Shmueli, Anat; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Chen, Rony; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat
Urinary bladder injury is a rare complication during cesarean delivery. Little is known on maternal outcome following this injury. To evaluate short and long-term maternal outcome following bladder injury during cesarean delivery. A retrospective case series of all pregnancies complicated by full-thickness bladder injury during cesarean delivery in a single university affiliated tertiary medical center (August 2007-June 2016). Data on demographics, labor and surgery parameters, postpartum sequelae, and cystography were collected and reviewed by study personnel. Short-term maternal outcome included catheterization period, cystography results (if performed), any febrile illness and/or need for second operation prior to maternal discharge. Long term maternal outcome was obtained by searching our urology departmental and ambulatory database for follow up for all women. Univariate analysis was used to compare maternal outcome following first or repeat cesarean delivery. Of 17,326 cesarean deliveries performed during study period, 81 (0.47%) were complicated by bladder injury. Of them, 8 cases (9.9%) occurred during primary cesarean delivery (overall risk in primary cesarean 0.07%). Of the other 73 cases that followed repeated cesarean, adhesions were documented in 55 (75.3%) of them. Six cases (8.2%) had placenta accreta. Bladder injury occurred at peritoneal entry in 55 (67.9%) cases, and involved the bladder dome in 49 (60.5%) of them. Injury was diagnosed during cesarean delivery in all but 3 women, in whom abdominal pain and bloating prompted evaluation on first to third postoperative day. All 3 underwent re-laparotomy with bladder closure without further adverse sequelae. Cystography was performed in 35 patients on median postoperative day 8 (6-11 days). Eleven patients had abnormal findings as follows: 5 urinary leakage, 4 bladder wall irregularity and two urinary reflux. Two of the 11 patients (18%) required additional interventions: One patient required
Kolås, Toril; Hofoss, Dag; Oian, Pål
To explain the variation in decision-to-delivery intervals in emergency cesarean sections in Norway. A seven-month prospective registration of all emergency cesareans provided by 24 maternity units. The clinician in charge filled in a predesigned form for each delivery that obtained detailed information about obstetric history, the pregnancy, indication, the date and time of delivery, decision-to-delivery interval, seniority of the surgeon, and neonatal outcome until hospital discharge. To take account of the clustered nature of our observations, data were analyzed by multilevel regression. 1,511 singleton emergency cesarean sections with known decision-to-delivery interval were included. The average decision-to-delivery interval for all emergency cesarean sections was 52.4 min, for acute cesarean sections 58.7 min, and for urgent emergency operations 11.8 min. Most of the decision-to-delivery interval variation was at patient level, not between departments. Several significant decision-to-delivery interval predictors were identified: 1. abruptio placentae (-54 min), umbilical cord prolapse (-37 min), and fetal stress (-35 min); 2. general anesthesia (versus regional) (-15 min), 3. cesarean sections performed during night-time (-10 min), 4. seniority of the surgeon (-6 min), and 5. cervical opening (for each cm: -6 min). The variance in the decision-to-delivery interval was mainly explained by the different nature of the cesarean sections. The most important predictors, which all acted to reduce decision-to-delivery interval, were the three indications abruptio placentae, cord prolapse, and fetal stress. Sections performed during night-time had significantly reduced decision-to-delivery interval. The size of the maternal units as measured by number of deliveries per year was not a significant predictor.
Horner-Johnson, Willi; Biel, Frances M; Darney, Blair G; Caughey, Aaron B
Although it is likely that childbearing among women with disabilities is increasing, no empirical data have been published on changes over time in the numbers of women with disabilities giving birth. Further, while it is known that women with disabilities are at increased risk of cesarean delivery, temporal trends in cesarean deliveries among women with disabilities have not been examined. To assess time trends in births by any mode and in primary cesarean deliveries among women with physical, sensory, or intellectual/developmental disabilities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked vital records and hospital discharge data from all deliveries in California, 2000-2010 (n = 4,605,061). We identified women with potential disabilities using ICD-9 codes. We used descriptive statistics and visualizations to examine time patterns. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association between disability and primary cesarean delivery, stratified by year. Among all women giving birth, the proportion with a disability increased from 0.27% in 2000 to 0.80% in 2010. Women with disabilities had significantly elevated odds of primary cesarean delivery in each year, but the magnitude of the odds ratio decreased over time from 2.60 (95% CI = 2.25 = 2.99) in 2000 to 1.66 (95% CI = 1.51-1.81) in 2010. Adequate clinician training is needed to address the perinatal care needs of the increasing numbers of women with disabilities giving birth. Continued efforts to understand cesarean delivery patterns and reasons for cesarean deliveries may help guide further reductions in proportions of cesarean deliveries among women with disabilities relative to women without disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kozhimannil, Katy Backes; Law, Michael R.; Virnig, Beth A.
Cesarean delivery is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the United States, and cesarean rates are increasing. Working with 2009 data from 593 US hospitals nationwide, we found that cesarean rates varied tenfold across hospitals, from 7.1 percent to 69.9 percent. Even for women with lower-risk pregnancies, in which more limited variation might be expected, cesarean rates varied fifteen-fold, from 2.4 percent to 36.5 percent. Thus, vast differences in practice patterns are likely to be driving the costly overuse of cesarean delivery in many US hospitals. Because Medicaid pays for nearly half of US births, government efforts to decrease variation are warranted. We focus on four promising directions for reducing these variations, including better coordination of maternity care, more data collection and measurement, tying Medicaid payment to quality improvement, and enhancing patient-centered decision making through public reporting. PMID:23459732
Branco, Anete; Behlau, Mara; Rehder, Maria Inês
Although the option for vaginal delivery is most physiological, the achievement of cesarean section is very common in Brazil. The neonate cry represents the beginning of both processes, physiological adaptation and human vocal communication. The cry emission depends on the functioning of respiratory and laryngeal muscles, which are controlled by the nervous system. The acoustic analysis of neonate cry is useful in the assessment of healthy babies and can be used to characterize the signals of diseases through a previously multidisciplinary diagnosis, with immediate medical intervention. The present study compared the acoustic cry characteristics of 30 healthy newborn after a cesarean section and 30 healthy newborn after a vaginal delivery, of both genders, from the exact moment of birth until the first 5 min of life. Using the softwares VOXMETRIA and GRAM, it was possible to analyze the duration, frequency, intensity, occurrence, localization and inspiratory phonation, besides the type of spectrographic tracings. The acoustic cry characteristics of newborns after a C section and a vaginal delivery could evidence not only harmonic, expiratory, acute and strong emissions, but also emissions rich in sounds and varied in types of melody. The differences found can be related to the physiology of birth.
Hitti, Jane; Walker, Suzan; Benedetti, Thomas J
Hospitals and providers are increasingly held accountable for their cesarean delivery rates. In the perinatal quality improvement arena, there is vigorous debate about whether all hospitals can be held to the same benchmark for an acceptable cesarean rate regardless of patient acuity. However, the causes of variation in hospital cesarean delivery rates are not well understood. We sought to evaluate the association and temporal trends between severity of illness at admission and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate among hospitals in Washington State. We hypothesized that hospitals with higher patient acuity would have higher cesarean delivery rates and that this pattern would persist over time. In this cross-sectional analysis, we analyzed aggregate hospital-level data for all nonmilitary hospitals in Washington State with ≥100 deliveries/y during federal fiscal years 2010 through 2014 (287,031 deliveries). Data were obtained from the Washington State Comprehensive Hospital Abstract Reporting System, which includes inpatient demographic, diagnosis, procedure, and discharge information derived from hospital billing systems. Age, admission diagnoses and procedure codes were converted to patient-level admission severity-of-illness scores using the All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Groups classification system. This system is widely used throughout the United States to adjust hospital data for severity of illness. Mean admission hospital-level severity-of-illness scores were calculated for each fiscal year among the term singleton vertex population with no history of cesarean delivery. We used linear regression to evaluate the association between hospital admission severity of illness and the primary term singleton vertex cesarean delivery rate, calculated Pearson correlation coefficients, and compared regression line slopes and 95% confidence intervals for each fiscal year. Hospitals were diverse with respect to delivery volume, level of care
Rodriguez, Maria I; Say, Lale; Abdulcadir, Jasmine; Hindin, Michelle J
To compare primary indications for cesarean delivery among patients with different female genital mutilation (FGM) status. The present secondary analysis included data from women who underwent trial of labor resulting in cesarean delivery at 28 obstetric centers in six African countries between November 1, 2001, and March 31, 2003. Associations between cesarean delivery indications and FGM status were assessed using descriptive statistics and multivariable multinomial logistic regression. Data from 1659 women (480 patients with no type of FGM and 1179 patients with FGM [any type]) were included; cesarean delivery indications were collapsed into five categories (fetal indications, maternal factors, stage 1 arrest, stage 2 arrest, and other). The incidence of a clear medical indication for cesarean delivery did not differ between the groups (P=0.320). Among patients without a clear indication for cesarean delivery, women with FGM were more likely to have undergone cesarean delivery for maternal factors (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] 3.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-11.71), stage 1 arrest (aRRR 7.74, 95% CI 1.33-45.07), stage 2 arrest (aRRR 6.63, 95% CI 3.74-11.73), or other factors (aRRR 2.41, 95% CI 1.04-5.60) rather than fetal factors compared with women who had no type of FGM. Among women with unclear medical indications, FGM was associated with cesarean delivery being performed for maternal factors or arrest disorders. © 2017 World Health Organization; licensed by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Schroeder, T; Kristensen, J K
We report a case of a vesicouterine fistula subsequent to delivery at cesarean section through the bladder. A first attempt to close the fistula failed but a second operation adhering to the general principles of fistula repair was successful.......We report a case of a vesicouterine fistula subsequent to delivery at cesarean section through the bladder. A first attempt to close the fistula failed but a second operation adhering to the general principles of fistula repair was successful....
Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; John, Grace C.; Krohn, Marijane A.; Corey, Lawrence
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of cesarean deliveries in pregnant women with a history of genital herpes and no active lesions at birth is higher than that in women with no history of genital herpes, and to determine whether this risk was modified by birth facilities' underlying prevalence of cesarean delivery. Methods: This was a retrospective survey. Women who gave birth in Washington state from 1989 to 1991 were identified from the state birth ...
Pomorski, Michał; Woytoń, Robert; Woytoń, Piotr; Kozłowska, Jolanta; Zimmer, Mariusz
The aim of the study was to perform a comparative analysis of complications after vaginal deliveries and cesarean sections and to introduce emotional status of the mother as an indication for a cesarean section. 406 patients after vaginal deliveries and cesarean sections, that took place in the first quarter of 2009, were enrolled into the study. In the studied group of 406 patients, 200 women (49.2%) had cesarean section and 206 women (50.8%) delivered vaginally. In both groups there were no differences in the clinical state of newborns, which were assessed according to the Apgar score, and in umbilical cord blood pH. Hemoglobin concentration evaluated on the second day of puerperium was statistically significantly higher in the group of patients after cesarean section than after vaginal delivery. Episiotomy and laparotomy wound healing complications were observed in 2 (0.97%) and 3 (1.5%) cases, respectively. Due to lack of differences in complication rates between cesarean section and vaginal delivery patients, the emotional status of a pregnant woman should be considered as an indication for cesarean section.
Fuglenes, Dorthe; Oian, Pål; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø
survey of Norwegian obstetricians (n = 716; response rate, 71%) using clinical scenarios. The risk attitude was measured by 6 items from the Jackson Personality Inventory-Revised. RESULTS: The proportion of obstetricians consenting to the cesarean request varied both within and across the scenarios....... The perceived risk of complaints and malpractice litigation was a clear determinant of obstetricians' choice of cesarean in all of the clinical scenarios, whereas no impact was observed for risk attitude. CONCLUSION: Obstetricians' judgments about cesarean request in ambiguous clinical cases vary considerably....... Perceived risk of complaints and litigation is associated with compliance with the requested cesarean....
Algert, Charles S; Morris, Jonathan M; Simpson, Judy M; Ford, Jane B; Roberts, Christine L
To estimate the effect of the onset of labor before a primary cesarean delivery on the risk of uterine rupture if vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) is attempted in the next pregnancy. Longitudinally linked birth records were used to follow women from a primary cesarean delivery to a trial of labor at term for their next birth. The effects of characteristics of both the trial of labor and primary cesarean deliveries on the risk of uterine rupture were examined. Of 10,160 women who had a trial of labor, 39 (0.38%) had a uterine rupture. Women who were induced or augmented for their trial of labor had a greater relative risk (RR) of uterine rupture (crude RR 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.23-8.07). Women whose primary cesarean delivery was planned or followed induction of labor also had an increased risk of uterine rupture (crude RR 2.61, 95% CI 1.24-5.49), and this risk remained after adjustment for other factors. Women with a history of either spontaneous labor or vaginal birth had one uterine rupture for every 460 deliveries; women without this history who required induction or augmentation to proceed with a VBAC attempt had one uterine rupture for every 95 deliveries. Labor before the primary cesarean delivery can decrease the risk of uterine rupture in a subsequent trial of labor. A history of primary cesarean delivery preceded by spontaneous labor is favorable for VBAC. II.
Turner, Michael J
OBJECTIVE: To examine the use of quality control performance charts to analyze cesarean rates nationally. METHODS: Information on cesarean rates was obtained for all 19 Irish maternity hospitals receiving state funding in 2009. All women who underwent cesarean delivery of a live or stillborn infant weighing 500 g or more between January 1 and December 31 were included. Deliveries were classified as elective or emergency. Individual hospitals were not identified in the analysis. RESULTS: The mean rates per hospital of elective and emergency cesarean were 12.9+\\/-2.6% (n=9337) and 13.8+\\/-3.0% (n=9989), respectively-giving an overall mean rate of 26.7+\\/-4.2% (n=19326) per hospital. Cesarean rates were normally distributed. Using a quality control performance chart with a cutoff 2 standard deviations from the mean, 1 hospital was above the normal range for both total and elective cesareans, indicating that its pre-labor obstetric practices warrant clinical review. Another hospital had a mean emergency cesarean rate above the normal range, indicating that its labor ward practices warrant review. CONCLUSION: Quality control performance charts can be used to analyze cesarean rates nationally and, thus, to identify hospitals at which obstetric practices should be reviewed.
Kok, N; Ruiter, L; Lindeboom, R; de Groot, C; Pajkrt, E; Mol, B W; Kazemier, B M
To determine neonatal and short term maternal outcomes according to intentional mode of delivery following a cesarean delivery (CD). Women pregnant after CD between January 2000 and December 2007 were categorized according to whether they had an elective repeat CD (ERCD) or a Trial of Labor (TOL). Prognostically equal ERCD and TOL groups were created using the propensity score matching technique. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess differences in neonatal and maternal outcomes. Women in their second ongoing pregnancy with a history of CD. After ERCD the rates of low 5min Apgar score (OR 0.3, 95%CI 0.2-0.5, p<0.001), meconium aspiration (OR 0.0, 95%CI 0-0.7, p=0.02) and birth trauma (OR 0.08, 95%CI 0.002-0.5, p<0.001) were lower compared to TOL. The rate of transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) appears higher in the ERCD group (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.0-2.8, p=0.04). Uterine rupture (OR 0.1, 95%CI 0.003-0.8, p=0.02) and hemorrhage (OR 0.6, 95%CI 0.5-0.8, p<0.001) occurred less in the ERCD group. Neonatal and short term maternal morbidity appears to be lower after ERCD than after TOL. Only TTN was seen more often after ERCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Josipović, Ljiljana Bilobrk; Stojkanović, Jadranka Dizdarević; Brković, Irma
An increase in Cesarean section birth rate is evident worldwide, especially in developed and developing countries. Since this trend is rapidly gaining epidemic status with unpredictable consequences regarding the reproductive and overall women's health, there is a need for systematic collection and analysis of Cesarean section occurrence data. At this moment, there is no standardized, internationally accepted classification that would be easy to understand and simple to apply. In 2001, Robson Cesarean section classification in ten groups, which might satisfy good classification criteria, was published. In this paper, we have retrospectively collected and sorted the data on Cesarean section births from the "Dr. Fra Mato Nikolić" Croatian Hospital in Nova Bila, according to Robson classification, for the period from January 1st, 1998 to December 31st, 2007. During this period, 6603 women have given birth. Of these, 1010 opted for Cesarean sec- tion (15.30%). The largest group of women giving birth belongs to group 3 (multiparous, single pregnancy, head down, 37 weeks gestation age or more, spontaneous labor), where 49.74% of all the analyzed births belong. The largest group for those with Cesarean sections is group 5 (previous Cesarean section) with 26.93% of all the Cesarean sections. Our results are similar to the results of studies done elsewhere in the world. Robson classification identifies the risk groups with high Cesarean section percentage and is appropriate for long-term tracking and international comparison of the recognized increase of the Cesarean section trend.
Background As part of a National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) Needs Assessment, a special study was undertaken in July 2010 to examine the quality of cesarean deliveries in Afghanistan and examine the utility of direct clinical observation as an assessment method in low-resource settings. Methods This cross-sectional assessment of the quality of cesareans at 14 facilities in Afghanistan included a survey of surgeons regarding their routine cesarean practices, direct observation of 29 cesarean deliveries and comparison of observations with facility records for 34 additional cesareans conducted during the 3 days prior to the observation period at each facility. For both observed cases and record reviews, we assessed time intervals between specified points of care-arrival to the ward, first evaluation, detection of a complication, decision for cesarean, incision, and birth. Results All time intervals with the exception of “decision to skin incision” were longer in the record reviews than in observed cases. Prior cesarean was the most common primary indication for all cases. All mothers in both groups observed survived through one hour postpartum. Among newborns there were two stillbirths (7%) in observed births and seven (21%) record reviews. Although our sample is too small to show statistical significance, the difference is noteworthy. In six of the reviewed cesareans resulting in stillbirth, a fetal heart rate was recorded in the operating theater, although four were recorded as macerated. For the two fresh stillbirths, the cesarean surgeries were recorded as scheduled and not urgent. Conclusions Direct observation of cesarean deliveries enabled us to assess a number of preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative procedures that are often not described in medical records in low resource settings. Comparison of observations with findings from provider interviews and facility records allowed us to infer whether observed practices were typical
Evans, Cherrie Lynn; Kim, Young Mi; Yari, Khalid; Ansari, Nasratullah; Tappis, Hannah
As part of a National Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmONC) Needs Assessment, a special study was undertaken in July 2010 to examine the quality of cesarean deliveries in Afghanistan and examine the utility of direct clinical observation as an assessment method in low-resource settings. This cross-sectional assessment of the quality of cesareans at 14 facilities in Afghanistan included a survey of surgeons regarding their routine cesarean practices, direct observation of 29 cesarean deliveries and comparison of observations with facility records for 34 additional cesareans conducted during the 3 days prior to the observation period at each facility. For both observed cases and record reviews, we assessed time intervals between specified points of care-arrival to the ward, first evaluation, detection of a complication, decision for cesarean, incision, and birth. All time intervals with the exception of "decision to skin incision" were longer in the record reviews than in observed cases. Prior cesarean was the most common primary indication for all cases. All mothers in both groups observed survived through one hour postpartum. Among newborns there were two stillbirths (7%) in observed births and seven (21%) record reviews. Although our sample is too small to show statistical significance, the difference is noteworthy. In six of the reviewed cesareans resulting in stillbirth, a fetal heart rate was recorded in the operating theater, although four were recorded as macerated. For the two fresh stillbirths, the cesarean surgeries were recorded as scheduled and not urgent. Direct observation of cesarean deliveries enabled us to assess a number of preoperative, postoperative, and intraoperative procedures that are often not described in medical records in low resource settings. Comparison of observations with findings from provider interviews and facility records allowed us to infer whether observed practices were typical of providers and facilities and detect
Full Text Available Uterine atony during cesarean delivery is a serious cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Management strategies include medical treatment with uterotonic agents, manual compression of the uterus, and interventional or surgical procedures. A novel technique to compress the uterus by wrapping it with an elastic bandage and its outcome in 3 cases of uterine atony during cesarean section are presented. Our novel method of intermittent wrapping of the uterus during cesarean delivery seems to be a successful additional approach in the management of uterine atony during cesarean delivery and may be an alternative treatment option to other compressing procedures in order to avoid high blood loss and last but not least postpartum hysterectomy.
Altman, Daniel; Ekström, Asa; Forsgren, Catharina; Nordenstam, Johan; Zetterström, Jan
The objective of the study was to compare the prevalence of incontinence disorders in relation with spontaneous vaginal delivery or cesarean section. Two hundred women with spontaneous vaginal deliveries only were compared with 195 women with cesarean deliveries only 10 years after first delivery. When compared with cesarean section, vaginal delivery was associated with an increased frequency of stress urinary incontinence (P = .006) and an increased use of protective pads (P = .008) as well as an increased frequency of fecal urgency (P = .048) and gas incontinence (P = .01). At multivariate regression analysis, mode of delivery showed no significant association with incontinence symptoms other than an increased risk for flatus incontinence in women with a history of obstetric anal sphincter injury (odds ratio 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.5 to 8.9). Incontinence symptoms are more common following spontaneous vaginal delivery when compared with cesarean section 10 years after first delivery. However, cesarean section is not associated with a major reduction of anal and urinary incontinence.
Salim, Raed; Braverman, Meirav; Teitler, Nava; Berkovic, Ilanit; Suliman, Abeer; Shalev, Eliezer
To identify risk factors for infection following cesarean delivery (CD) and to investigate the effect of intervention on modifiable risk factors (MRF). A prospective, two-period cohort intervention study. All CD performed between September 2006 and August 2007 (era 1) and between July 2009 and June 2010 (era 2) were included. Infection control program was implemented before era 2 and included a refresher course in aseptic and scrub techniques to all surgical teams. Infectious morbidity was recognized up to 30 days from the operation. Risk factors were identified by multiple logistic regressions. A total of 1616 women included and analyzed during both eras. Logistic regression revealed that residency (rural as compared to urban), obesity and urgency of the CD were significant risk factors for infection. Prior to intervention, senior obstetricians had a lower infection rate than senior gynecologists (p = 0.02). Within both groups, the incidence in era 2 decreased and was comparable (obstetricians: 5.7 vs. 1.6%; p = 0.005; gynecologists: 12.7 vs. 1.1%; p = 0.003). Among the group of scrub nurses who took part in less than 20 CD during era 1, the intervention reduced significantly the infection rate during era 2 (p = 0.0002). Surgical team is a MRF for infection following CD. Intervention decreased this unintended clinical effect attributed to surgical teams.
Smid, Marcela C; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Boggess, Kim A; Manuck, Tracy A; Stamilio, David M
Multiple studies have demonstrated an association between maternal obesity and postoperative complications, but there is a dearth of information about the impact of obesity on intraoperative complications. To estimate the association between maternal obesity at delivery and major intraoperative complications during cesarean delivery (CD). This is a secondary analysis of the deidentified Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit Cesarean Registry of women with singleton pregnancies. Maternal body mass index (BMI) at delivery was categorized as BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m 2 , BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m 2 , BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m 2 , and BMI ≥ 50 kg/m 2 . The primary outcome, any intraoperative complication, was defined as having at least 1 major intraoperative complication, including perioperative blood transfusion, intraoperative injury (bowel, bladder, ureteral injury; broad ligament hematoma), atony requiring surgical intervention, repeat laparotomy, and hysterectomy. Log-binomial models were used to estimate risk ratios of intraoperative complication in 2 models: model 1 adjusting for maternal race, and preterm delivery <37 weeks; and model 2 adjusting for confounders in Model 1 as well as emergency CD, and type of skin incision. A total of 51,218 women underwent CD; 38% had BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m 2 , 47% BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m 2 , 12% BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m 2 and 3% BMI ≥ 50 kg/m 2 . Having at least 1 intraoperative complication was uncommon (3.4%): 3.8% for BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m 2 , 3.2% BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m 2 , 2.6% BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m 2 and 4.3% BMI ≥ 50 kg/m 2 (P < .001). In the fully adjusted model 2, women with BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m 2 had a lower risk of any intraoperative complication (adjusted risk ratio [ARR], 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89) compared with women with BMI 18.5 to 29.9 kg/m 2 . Women with BMI 30 to 39.9 kg/m 2 (ARR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.03) had a similar risk of any intraoperative complication compared with nonobese women. Among super obese women
Pearson, Greg A; MacKenzie, Ian Z
To observe the incidence of, indications for, and complications associated with second-stage cesarean delivery in 10-year intervals over 30 years. The present analysis of prospectively collected data compared cesarean deliveries during 1976, 1986, 1996, and 2006 at John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford, UK (n=3222). Pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal details were reviewed. The proportion of deliveries by cesarean in the second stage of labor increased from 0.5% (22/4464) in 1976 to 2.1% (124/5998) in 2006 (Pcesarean deliveries during the second stage because of failed instrumental delivery also increased over the study period from 59.1% (13/22) in 1976 to 71.0% (88/124) in 2006. Compared with cesareans at other stages, uterine trauma (Pcesarean delivery. Neonates delivered by second-stage cesarean had lower Apgar scores (Pcesarean earlier in labor. A trend towards an increase in neonatal trauma with second-stage cesarean compared with cesarean delivery before labor or during the first stage did not reach statistical significance. The proportion of deliveries by cesarean in the second stage of labor increased; these deliveries were associated with greater maternal and neonatal morbidity, but were not influenced by the indication for cesarean. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Khadem, Nayereh; Khadivzadeh, Talaat
BACKGROUND: There has always been an asking question with physicians and health staff whether delivery mode can effect on child intelligence. This study was conducted to compare the intelligence quotient (IQ) of school aged children delivered by cesarean section and vaginal delivery in Mashhad, Iran. METHODS: This study conducted in two stages; a cross-sectional section in which 5000 randomly selected children, who were 6-7 years old, attended at 10 Cognitive Examination Posts in Mashhad. The examination was performed by the Exceptional Education and Training Institute affiliated to Ministry of Education for all 6-7 years old children at the entry to the primary school. At the second stage, we selected two matched groups of 189 children who delivered by cesarean section or spontaneous vaginal delivery and then compared their IQ scores. RESULTS: The cesarean delivery group had significantly higher IQ test scores. Maternal and paternal educational levels were related to children’s IQ scores. After adjusting of maternal and paternal education, maternal age and parity, there was not any significant difference between IQ scores of cesarean delivery and natural vaginal delivery groups 101(3.67) vs. 100.7(4.28). CONCLUSIONS: Based on our findings, the association between cesarean deliveries with better cognitive development in children cannot be supported. PMID:21589777
METZ, Torri D.; ALLSHOUSE, Amanda A.; GILBERT, Sara A Babcock; DOYLE, Reina; TONG, Angie; CAREY, J. Christopher
Background Laborist practice models are associated with lower cesarean delivery rates than individual private practice models in several studies; however, this effect is not uniform. Further exploration of laborist models may help us better understand the observed reduction in cesarean delivery rates in some hospitals with implementation of a laborist model. Objective Our objective was to evaluate the degree of variation in primary cesarean delivery rates by individual laborists within a single institution employing a laborist model. In addition, we sought to evaluate whether differences in cesarean delivery rates resulted in different maternal or short-term neonatal outcomes. Study Design At this teaching institution, one laborist (either a generalist or maternal-fetal medicine attending physician) is directly responsible for labor and delivery management during each shift. No patients are followed in a private practice model nor are physicians incentivized to perform deliveries. We retrospectively identified all laborists who delivered nulliparous, term women with cephalic singletons at this institution from 2007-14. Overall and individual primary cesarean delivery rates were reported as percentages with exact Pearson 95% CI. Laborists were grouped by tertile as having low, medium or high cesarean delivery rates. Characteristics of the women delivered, indications for cesarean delivery, and short-term neonatal outcomes were compared between these groups. A binomial regression model of cesarean delivery was estimated, where the relative rates of each laborist compared to the lowest-unadjusted laborist rate were calculated; a second model was estimated to adjust for patient-level maternal characteristics. Results Twenty laborists delivered 2,224 nulliparous, term women with cephalic singletons. The overall cesarean delivery rate was 24.1% (95% CI 21.4-26.8). In an unadjusted binomial model, the overall effect of individual laborist was significant (pcesarean
A case-control study of twins was performed to identify clinical predictions of emergency cesarean delivery in the second-born twin after vaginal delivery of the first twin. The obstetric records were reviewed of all twin vaginal deliveries at the Japanese Red Cross Katsushika Maternity Hospital from 2002 through 2007. There were 206 vaginal deliveries of first twins at >or=33 weeks of gestation. Of these deliveries, nine women (4.4%) underwent an emergency cesarean for the delivery of the second twin. The incidence of cesarean delivery for the second twin was significantly greater in cases with a history of infertility therapy (odds ratio: 5.0, 95% confidence intervals: 1.2-22), gestational age at >or=39 weeks (24, 4.7-120), nonvertex presentation (6.2, 1.5-26), operative delivery of the first twin (6.1, 1.5-24) and intertwin delivery time interval >30 min (7.2, 1.7-30). The most important risk factor of emergency cesarean delivery in the second twin was a gestational age of >or=39 weeks.
Munro, Sarah; Kornelsen, Jude; Corbett, Kitty; Wilcox, Elizabeth; Bansback, Nick; Janssen, Patricia
Repeat cesarean delivery is the single largest contributor to the escalating cesarean rate worldwide. Approximately 80 percent of women with a past cesarean are candidates for vaginal birth after a cesarean (VBAC), but in Canada less than one-third plan VBAC. Emerging evidence suggests that these trends may be due in part to nonclinical factors, including care provider practice patterns and delays in access to surgical and anesthesia services. This study sought to explore maternity care providers' and decision makers' attitudes toward and experiences with providing and planning services for women with a previous cesarean. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with family physicians, midwives, obstetricians, nurses, anesthetists, and health service decision makers recruited from three rural and two urban Canadian communities. Constructivist grounded theory informed iterative data collection and analysis. Analysis of interviews (n = 35) revealed that the factors influencing decisions resulted from interactions between the clinical, organizational, and policy levels of the health care system. Physicians acted as information providers of clinical risks and benefits, with limited discussion of patient preferences. Decision makers serving large hospitals revealed concerns related to liability and patient safety. These stemmed from competing access to surgical resources. To facilitate women's increased access to planned VBAC, it is necessary to address the barriers perceived by care providers and decision makers. Strategies to mitigate concerns include initiating decision support immediately after the primary cesarean, addressing the social risks that influence women's preferences, and managing perceptions of patient and litigation risks through shared decision making. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abebe, Fantu Eyowas; Gebeyehu, Abebaw Worku; Kidane, Ashebir Negasi; Eyassu, Gizached Aynalem
Cesarean section is the commonest obstetric operative procedure worldwide. When used appropriately cesarean sections can improve infant and/or maternal outcomes. However, when used inappropriately the potential harm may exceed the potential benefit of cesarean section. Appreciating the limited information in this area the current study assessed the rate and factors associated with cesarean section in Felegehiwot referral hospital, Bahir Dar, northwest Ethiopia. The study was a retrospective analysis of eligible patient records that included 2967 pregnant women who had underwent either cesarean or vaginal delivery from July 1, 2012 to June 31, 2013. The data were double entered to EPI-INFO 3.5.2 and analyzed with SPSS. Binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify independent factors associated with cesarean section. The proportion of women who underwent cesarean section in this study was 25.4%. Obstructed labor (30.7%), fetal distress (15.9%) and abnormal presentation (13.4%) were the major obstetric indications for cesarean section. The odd of undergoing cesarean section was higher among mothers in rural residence (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.20), mothers reported to have pregnancy risk factors (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.74, 3.07) and lower among mothers in age category of 15-19 (AOR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.43, 0.93). Obstetric factors occurring around birth, including obstructed labor and fetal distress were the main reasons leading to Cesarean Section rather than background characteristics assumed to be a risk. The results imply that there is a need for timely and accurate screening of women during obstetric care and, decision to perform cesarean section should be based on clear, compelling and well-supported justifications.
Quiroz, Lieschen H.; Chang, Howard; Blomquist, Joan L.; Okoh, Yvonne K.; Handa, Victoria L.
We compared the short-term maternal and neonatal outcomes of women who deliver by cesarean without labor compared with women who deliver by cesarean after labor or by vaginal birth. This was a retrospective cohort study of women delivering a first baby from 1998 to 2002. Hospital discharge diagnostic coding identified unlabored cesarean deliveries (UCDs), labored cesarean deliveries (LCDs), and vaginal births (VBs). Medical records were abstracted and mode of delivery confirmed. The three outcomes of interest were maternal bleeding complications, maternal febrile morbidity, and neonatal respiratory complications. Using logistic regression for each outcome, we investigated whether mode of delivery was associated with the outcome, independent of other factors. The study groups included 513 UCDs, 261 LCDs, and 251 VBs. Compared with the UCD group, the adjusted odds of bleeding complications was higher in the LCD comparison group (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21, 4.53) and the VB comparison group (OR 1.96; 95% CI 0.95, 4.02). The incidence of febrile morbidity was similar for both cesarean groups but lower in the VB group. Both comparison groups had lower odds of neonatal complications than the UCD group (OR for LCD comparison group 0.52; 95% CI 0.27, 0.95 and OR for VB comparison group 0.26; 95% CI 0.098, 0.59). Scheduled cesarean is associated with increased odds of neonatal respiratory complications but decreased odds of maternal bleeding complications. PMID:19021093
Full Text Available Objective. To compare the infectious complication rates from cesarean delivery of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected women and HIV-negative women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from HIV-infected women and HIV-negative women, who underwent cesarean delivery at two teaching hospitals. Main outcome measures were infectious postoperative morbidity. Descriptive, comparison analysis, and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Results. One hundred and nineteen HIV-infected women and 264 HIV-negative women delivered by cesarean section and were compared. The HIV-negative women were more likely than the HIV-infected women to deliver by emergent cesarean section (78.0% versus 51.3%, resp., .05. In a multivariate stepwise logistic analysis, emergent cesarean delivery and chorioamnionitis but not HIV infection were associated with increased rate of post-operative endometritis (odds ratio (OR 4.10, 95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.41–11.91, <.01, and OR 3.02, 95% CI 1.13–8.03, <.05, resp.. Conclusion. In our facilities, emergent cesarean delivery and chorioamnionitis but not HIV infection were identified as risk factors for post-operative endometritis.
Skeith, Ashley E; Niu, Brenda; Valent, Amy M; Tuuli, Methodius G; Caughey, Aaron B
To investigate the cost-effectiveness of adding azithromycin to standard cephalosporin regimens of cesarean delivery prophylaxis by considering the maternal outcomes in the current and potential subsequent pregnancies. A cost-effectiveness model was created using TreeAge to compare the outcomes of using azithromycin-cephalosporin with cephalosporin alone in a theoretical cohort of 700,000 women, the approximate number of nonelective cesarean deliveries annually in the United States that occur during labor or after membrane rupture. Outcomes examined included endometritis, wound infection, sepsis, venous thromboembolism, and maternal death in the current pregnancy and uterine rupture, cesarean hysterectomy, and maternal death in subsequent pregnancies, including cost and quality-adjusted life-years for both pregnancies. Probabilities, utilities, and costs were derived from the literature, and a cost-effectiveness threshold was set at $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the robustness of our results. Compared with cephalosporin alone for prophylaxis, our model showed 16,100 fewer cases of endometritis, 17 fewer cases of sepsis, eight fewer cases of venous thromboembolism, and one fewer maternal death with azithromycin-cephalosporin. Additionally, this strategy prevented 36 uterine ruptures and four cesarean hysterectomies in the subsequent pregnancy. Overall, the addition of azithromycin led to both lower costs and higher quality-adjusted life-years when compared with standard cephalosporin prophylaxis. In sensitivity analysis, we found that as long as the cost of azithromycin remained below $930 (baseline cost $27), it was cost-effective. For women who undergo cesarean delivery in labor or after membrane rupture, compared with cephalosporin alone, the addition of azithromycin to cesarean delivery infection prophylaxis is less costly and leads to better maternal outcomes in the index delivery and subsequent deliveries
Kourtis, Athena P; Ellington, Sascha; Pazol, Karen; Flowers, Lisa; Haddad, Lisa; Jamieson, Denise J
To compare rates of complications associated with cesarean delivery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the United States and to investigate trends in such complications across four study cycles spanning the implementation of HAART in the United States (1995-1996, 2000-2001, 2005-2006, 2010-2011). The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is the largest all-payer hospital inpatient care database in the United States; when weighted to account for the complex sampling design, nationally representative estimates are derived. After restricting the study sample to women aged 15-49 years, our study sample consisted of approximately 1 090 000 cesarean delivery hospitalizations annually. Complications associated with cesarean deliveries were categorized as infection, hemorrhage, or surgical trauma, based on groups of specific International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes. Length of hospitalization, hospital charges, and in-hospital deaths were also examined. The rate of complications significantly decreased during the study periods for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. However, rates of infectious complications and surgical trauma associated with cesarean deliveries remained higher among HIV-infected, compared with HIV-uninfected women in 2010-2011, as did prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital deaths. Length of hospitalization decreased over time for cesarean deliveries of HIV-infected women to a greater extent compared with HIV-uninfected women. In the United States, rates of cesarean delivery complications decreased from 1995 to 2011. However, rates of infection, surgical trauma, hospital deaths, and prolonged hospitalization are still higher among HIV-infected women. Clinicians should remain alert to this persistently increased risk of cesarean delivery complications among HIV-infected women.
Kourtis, Athena P.; Ellington, Sascha; Pazol, Karen; Flowers, Lisa; Haddad, Lisa; Jamieson, Denise J.
Objective To compare rates of complications associated with cesarean delivery in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the United States and to investigate trends in such complications across four study cycles spanning the implementation of HAART in the United States (1995–1996, 2000–2001, 2005–2006, 2010–2011). Design The Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is the largest all-payer hospital inpatient care database in the United States; when weighted to account for the complex sampling design, nationally representative estimates are derived. After restricting the study sample to women aged 15–49 years, our study sample consisted of approximately 1 090 000 cesarean delivery hospitalizations annually. Methods Complications associated with cesarean deliveries were categorized as infection, hemorrhage, or surgical trauma, based on groups of specific International Classification of Diseases 9th revision codes. Length of hospitalization, hospital charges, and in-hospital deaths were also examined. Results The rate of complications significantly decreased during the study periods for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. However, rates of infectious complications and surgical trauma associated with cesarean deliveries remained higher among HIV-infected, compared with HIV-uninfected women in 2010–2011, as did prolonged hospital stay and in-hospital deaths. Length of hospitalization decreased over time for cesarean deliveries of HIV-infected women to a greater extent compared with HIV-uninfected women. Conclusion In the United States, rates of cesarean delivery complications decreased from 1995 to 2011. However, rates of infection, surgical trauma, hospital deaths, and prolonged hospitalization are still higher among HIV-infected women. Clinicians should remain alert to this persistently increased risk of cesarean delivery complications among HIV-infected women. PMID:25574961
Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Bachtiar, Hafni; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Fernando, Sunil; Suwanrath, Chitkasaem; Kor-Anantakul, Ounjai; Tuan, Le Anh; Lim, Apiradee; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Manandhar, Bekha; Muchtar, Masrul; Nahar, Lutfan; Hieu, Nguyen Trong; Fang, Pan Xiao; Prasertcharoensuk, Witoon; Radnaabarzar, Erdenetungalag; Sibuea, Daulat; Than, Kyu Kyu; Tharnpaisan, Piangjit; Thach, Tran Son; Rowe, Patrick
To compare the mortality, morbidity of emergency and elective cesarean section with vaginal delivery among Asian teaching hospitals. Hospital based prospective study at 12 centers of 9 countries. 12 591 vaginal deliveries, 3062 elective and 4328 emergency cesarean section were followed up to 5 days postpartum. Maternal deaths (95% CI) per 1000 births among vaginal deliveries being 0.47 (0.17, 1.03) was not significantly different from 0.31 (0.01, 1.73) of elective cesarean section and both rates were significantly lower than 2.87 (1.53, 4.91) per 1000 births of emergency section. The vaginal delivery group had significantly lower incidences of all major complication except significantly higher chance of secondary operations and non-significantly different risk for endometritis. Corresponding neonatal mortality per 1000 deliveries among the three groups were 7 (5.6, 8.6), 2.2 (0.9, 4.6) and 12.4 (9.3, 16.2) (P cesarean section. Maternal complications were increased by cesarean delivery but elective section may reduce neonatal complication.
Ketcheson, Felicia; Woolcott, Christy; Allen, Victoria; Langley, Joanne M
The rate of cesarean delivery is increasing in North America. Surgical site infection following this operation can make it difficult to recover, care for a baby and return home. We aimed to determine the incidence of surgical site infection to 30 days following cesarean delivery, associated risk factors and whether risk factors differed for predischarge versus postdischarge infection. We identified a retrospective cohort in Nova Scotia by linking the provincial perinatal database to hospital admissions and physician billings databases to follow women for 30 days after they had given birth by cesarean delivery between Jan. 1, 1997 and Dec. 31, 2012. Logistic regression with generalized estimating equations was used to determine risk factors for infection. A total of 25 123 women had 33 991 cesarean deliveries over the study period. Of the 25 123, 923 had surgical site infections, giving an incidence rate of 2.7% (95% CI 2.54%-2.89%); the incidence decreased over time. Risk factors for infection (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 1.5) were prepregnancy weight 87.0 kg or more, gaining 30.0 kg or more during pregnancy, chorioamnionitis, maternal blood transfusion, anticoagulation therapy, alcohol or drug abuse, second stage of labour before surgery, delivery in 1997-2000 and delivery in a hospital performing 130-1249 cesarean deliveries annually. Women who gave birth earlier in the study period, those who gave birth in a hospital with 130-949 cesarean deliveries per year and those with more than 1 fetus were at a significantly higher risk for surgical site infection before discharge; women who smoked were at significantly higher risk for surgical site infection after discharge. Most risk factors are known before delivery, and some are potentially modifiable. Although the incidence of surgical site infection decreased over time, targeted clinical and infection prevention and control interventions could further reduce the burden of illness associated with this health
Handan, Eren; Sahiner, Nejla Canbulat; Bal, Meltem Demirgoz; Dissiz, Melike
This experimental study was conducted to determine the level of anxiety in women undergoing multiple cesarean section. Sixty multiple cesarean section referrals were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control groups. Data was collected at the Karaman Public Health Hospital in Turkey, from June 2015 to June 2016. Songs chosen earlier by the patients were played during the cesarean section procedure for the experimental group. The control group was studied without music. Data was collected using a questionnaire form, and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to determine the anxiety levels. The t-test and chi-square test were used to analyse statistically significant differences between the groups. The VAS scores before and during the procedure showed significantly lower scores for the experimental group, compared to the control group (p<0.05). Music therapy reduces the physiological and cognitive responses of anxiety in patients undergoing multiple cesarean section, and can be used in the clinical practice.
Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.
International rates of operative delivery are consistently higher than the World Health Organization determined is appropriate. This suggests that factors other than clinical indications contribute to cesarean section. Data presented here are from interviews with 115 mothers on the postnatal ward of a hospital in Northeast England during February 2006 to March 2009 after the women underwent either unscheduled or scheduled cesarean childbirth. Using thematic content analysis, we found women’s ...
Stjernholm, Ylva Vladic; Nyberg, Annie; Cardell, Monica; Höybye, Charlotte
Maternal S-cortisol levels increase throughout pregnancy and peak in the third trimester. Even higher levels are seen during the physical stress of delivery. Since analgesia for women in labor has improved, it is possible that maternal stress during labor is reduced. The aim of this study was to compare maternal S-cortisol during vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section. Twenty healthy women with spontaneous vaginal delivery and healthy women (n = 20) undergoing elective cesarean section were included in the study. S-cortisol was measured during three stages of spontaneous vaginal delivery (tvd1, tvd2 and tvd3), as well as before and after elective cesarean section (tcs1 and tcs2). In the vaginal delivery group, mean S-cortisol at tvd1 was 1325 ± 521 nmol/L, at tvd2 1559 ± 591 nmol/L and at tvd3 1368 ± 479 nmol/L. In the cesarean section group, mean S-cortisol at tcs1 was 906 ± 243 nmol/L and at tcs2 831 ± 257 nmol/L. S-cortisol was higher in the vaginal delivery group at the onset of labor as compared to the cesarean section preoperative group (p = 0.006). There were also significant differences between S-cortisol levels postpartum as compared to postoperatively (p cesarean section, indicating higher stress levels. A reduction in the hydrocortisone dose at childbirth in women with adrenal insufficiency should be considered, particularly in women undergoing an elective cesarean section.
Atacag, T; Yayci, E; Guler, T; Suer, K; Yayci, F; Deren, S; Cetin, A
The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) with urine samples obtained via catheterization among women undergoing cesarean delivery at term pregnancy. A cross-sectional study involving 159 women in whom cesarean delivery was conducted at term pregnancy after a regular follow-up from first to third trimester. For screening and diagnosis of UTI during antenatal period, the authors used dipstick test and microscopic urinalysis, and urine culture was used in the presence of symptomatic UTI unresponsive to initial antibiotic therapy. A urine sample was obtained immediately after insertion of Foley catheter for urine dipstick test, microscopic urinalysis, and culture during cesarean delivery. Obstetric and UTI data were recorded. Of 159 pregnant women, 95 (59.8%) did not develop UTI during antenatal care. There was no patient with symptomatic UTI at the admission for cesarean delivery. The authors found UTI with urine dipstick and microscopic urinalysis in 12 patients and of them, four patients had no history of UTI, and all the remaining eight patients had asymptomatic UTI during antenatal follow-up. UTI according to urine culture was encountered in three patients, two of them had one episode of UTI, and one had two episodes of UTI during antenatal follow-up. After regular antenatal follow-up screening with urine dipstick, microscopic urinalysis, and counseling of pregnant women regarding UTIs, the frequency of bacteriuria decreases considerably during cesarean delivery.
Borghesi, Yves; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Pigeyre, Marie; Deruelle, Philippe
To identify factors associated with cesarean delivery among women with class III obesity attempting vaginal delivery. In a retrospective study, medical charts were reviewed for women aged 18 years or older with a singleton pregnancy of at least 37 weeks and a body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters) of 40 or higher who were eligible to attempt vaginal delivery at a maternity hospital in Lille, France, between 1999 and 2012. Among 345 eligible women, 301 (87.2%) attempted vaginal delivery; 211 (70.1%) were successful and 90 (29.9%) delivered by cesarean. The frequency of nulliparity was higher among those undergoing cesarean after a trial of labor (64 [71.1%]) than among those who delivered vaginally (57 [27.0%]; Pcesarean (61 [67.8%] vs 96 [45.5%]; Pcesarean among women attempting vaginal delivery (odds ratio [OR] 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-4.22), whereas history of vaginal delivery was protective (OR 0.08, 95% CI 0.04-0.17). Nulliparous women with class III obesity attempting a vaginal delivery should be warned of the high risk of cesarean delivery, especially if they require induction. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Bickford, Celeste D; Janssen, Patricia A
As rates for cesarean births continue to rise, more women are faced with the choice to plan a vaginal or a repeat cesarean birth after a previous cesarean. The objective of this population-based retrospective cohort study was to compare the safety of planned vaginal birth with cesarean birth after 1-2 previous cesarean sections. We identified singleton term births in British Columbia from 2000 to 2008 using data from the British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. Women carrying a singleton fetus in cephalic presentation at term (37-41 weeks of gestation completed) with 1-2 prior cesarean births were included. Those with gestational hypertension, pre-existing diabetes and cardiac disease were excluded. Maternal and neonatal outcomes were classified as either life-threatening or non-life threatening. We compared outcomes among women with none versus at least 1 previous vaginal birth, by planned method of delivery. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for composite outcomes using Poisson regression. Of the 33 812 women in the sample, 5406 had a history of vaginal delivery and 28 406 did not. The composite risk for life-threatening maternal outcomes was elevated among women planning vaginal compared with cesarean birth both with and without a prior vaginal birth (RR 2.06, 95% CI 1.20-3.52) and (2.52, 95% CI 2.04-3.11). Absolute differences (attributable risk [AR]) were 1.01% and 1.31% respectively. Non-life threatening maternal outcomes were decreased among women planning a vaginal birth if they had had at least 1 prior vaginal delivery (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33-0.77; AR 1.17%). The composite risk of intrapartum stillbirth, neonatal death or life-threatening neonatal outcomes did not differ among women planning vaginal or cesarean birth with a prior vaginal delivery and non-life threatening neonatal outcomes were decreased, (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52-0.86); AR 1.92%). After 1 or 2 previous cesarean births, risks for adverse outcomes between planned
Baranov, A; Salvesen, K Å; Vikhareva, O
To validate a prediction model for successful vaginal birth after Cesarean delivery (VBAC) based on sonographic assessment of the hysterotomy scar, in a Swedish population. Data were collected from a prospective cohort study. We recruited non-pregnant women aged 18-35 years who had undergone one previous low-transverse Cesarean delivery at ≥ 37 gestational weeks and had had no other uterine surgery. Participants who subsequently became pregnant underwent transvaginal ultrasound examination of the Cesarean hysterotomy scar at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 and at 19 + 0 to 21 + 6 gestational weeks. Thickness of the myometrium at the thinnest part of the scar area was measured. After delivery, information on pregnancy outcome was retrieved from hospital records. Individual probabilities of successful VBAC were calculated using a previously published model. Predicted individual probabilities were divided into deciles. For each decile, observed VBAC rates were calculated. To assess the accuracy of the prediction model, receiver-operating characteristics curves were constructed and the areas under the curves (AUC) were calculated. Complete sonographic data were available for 120 women. Eighty (67%) women underwent trial of labor after Cesarean delivery (TOLAC) with VBAC occurring in 70 (88%) cases. The scar was visible in all 80 women at the first-trimester scan and in 54 (68%) women at the second-trimester scan. AUC was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.28-0.60) among all women who underwent TOLAC and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.32-0.71) among those with the scar visible sonographically at both ultrasound examinations. The prediction model demonstrated poor accuracy for prediction of successful VBAC in our Swedish population. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Foda, Ashraf A; Abdel Aal, Ibrahim A
The objective of the study was to measure the copeptin levels in maternal serum and umbilical cord serum at cesarean section and vaginal delivery in normotensive pregnancy and pre-eclamptic women. This was a prospective study at Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt. Ninety cases were included. They were divided into six groups: (1) normal pregnancy near term, as a control group, (2) primiparas who had vaginal delivery, (3) primiparas who had vaginal delivery and mild preeclampsia, (4) elective repeat cesarean section, (5) intrapartum cesarean section for indications other than fetal distress, and (6) intrapartum cesarean section for fetal distress. Serum copeptin concentrations were quantified with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mean, standard deviation, and paired t-test were used to test for significant change in quantitative data. The vaginal delivery groups had higher levels of maternal serum copeptin than the elective cesarean section group (P<0.01). Higher maternal serum copeptin levels were found in cases with pre-eclampsia as compared with the normotensive cases. The maternal copeptin levels during intrapartum cesarean section were higher than that during elective repeat cesarean section. There was a significant correlation between maternal copeptin levels and the duration of the first stage. In the presence of fetal distress, umbilical cord serum copeptin levels were significantly higher than other groups. Vaginal delivery can be very painful and stressful, and is accompanied by a marked increase of maternal serum copeptin. Increased maternal levels of serum copeptin were found in cases with pre-eclampsia as compared with the normotensive cases, and it may be helpful in assessing the disease. Intrauterine fetal distress is a strong stimulus to the release of copeptin into the fetal circulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Black, Mairead; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Philip, Sam; Norman, Jane E.; McLernon, David J.
Importance Planned cesarean delivery comprises a significant proportion of births globally, with combined rates of planned and unscheduled cesarean delivery in a number of regions approaching 50%. Observational studies have shown that offspring born by cesarean delivery are at increased risk of ill health in childhood, but these studies have been unable to adjust for some key confounding variables. Additionally, risk of death beyond the neonatal period has not yet been reported for offspring born by planned cesarean delivery. Objective To investigate the relationship between planned cesarean delivery and offspring health problems or death in childhood. Design, Setting, and Participants Population-based data-linkage study of 321 287 term singleton first-born offspring born in Scotland, United Kingdom, between 1993 and 2007, with follow-up until February 2015. Exposures Offspring born by planned cesarean delivery in a first pregnancy were compared with offspring born by unscheduled cesarean delivery and with offspring delivered vaginally. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was asthma requiring hospital admission; secondary outcomes were salbutamol inhaler prescription at age 5 years, obesity at age 5 years, inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes, cancer, and death. Results Compared with offspring born by unscheduled cesarean delivery (n = 56 015 [17.4%]), those born by planned cesarean delivery (12 355 [3.8%]) were at no significantly different risk of asthma requiring hospital admission, salbutamol inhaler prescription at age 5 years, obesity at age 5 years, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, or death but were at increased risk of type 1 diabetes (0.66% vs 0.44%; difference, 0.22% [95% CI, 0.13%-0.31%]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.35 [95% CI, 1.05-1.75]). In comparison with children born vaginally (n = 252 917 [78.7%]), offspring born by planned cesarean delivery were at increased risk of asthma requiring hospital admission (3.73% vs 3
Mohammad Mahdi Majzoobi
Full Text Available Background & aim: Postpartum period is accompanied by significant changes in women’s quality of life. These alterations can affect the health of mothers and children. Considering the importance of postnatal quality of life and its different contributing factors, this study aimed to compare women’s quality of life after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. Methods:This retrospective cohort study included a random sample of 2100 women, referring to Hamadan health care centers for congenital hypothyroidism screening or infant vaccination. The participants’ quality of life was examined, using Short Form-36 (SF-36 questionnaire, evaluating five periods of time including one week, two months, four months, six months, and one year after delivery (either vaginal or cesarean delivery. Data were analyzed using t-test. Results: Quality of life was significantly higher in women with vaginal delivery, compared to women with cesarean section in all periods including one week (68.77 vs. 42.44, two months (69.11 vs. 54.76, four months (78.19 vs. 53.02, six months (75.62 vs. 54.94,and one year(78.43 vs. 53.77 after delivery. Conclusion: Considering women’s higher quality of life after vaginal delivery, compared to cesarean section, it seems that vaginal delivery is a safer and less expensive option, which is recommended for all pregnant women.
The influence of the type of institutional setting on cesarean delivery is well documented. However, the traditional boundaries between public and private providers have become increasingly blurred with the commercialization of the state health sector that allows providers to tailor the quantity and quality of care according to patients' ability to pay. This study examined wealth-related variations in cesarean rates in six lower- and upper-middle income countries: the Dominican Republic, Egypt, Guatemala, Jordan, Pakistan, and the Philippines. Demographic and Health Survey data and a hierarchical regression model were used to assess wealth-related variations in cesarean rates in government and private hospitals while controlling for a wide range of women's socioeconomic and risk profiles. The odds of undergoing a cesarean delivery were greater in private facilities than government hospitals by 58% in Jordan, 129% in Guatemala, and 262% and 279% in the Dominican Republic and Egypt, respectively. Additional analysis involving interactions between the type of facility and wealth quintiles indicated that wealthier women were more likely to undergo a cesarean birth in government hospitals than poorer women in all countries but the Dominican Republic and Guatemala. Moreover, in both Egypt and Jordan, differences in cesarean rates between government and private hospitals were smaller for the wealthier strata than for the nonwealthy. Large wealth-related variations in the mode of delivery across government and private hospitals suggest the need for well-developed guidelines and standards to achieve a more appropriate selection of cases for cesarean delivery. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dong, Yu; Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Yang, Zu-Jing; Chen, Lu; Guo, Yu-Na; Branch, Ware; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Hong
Background The optimal mode of delivery in twin pregnancies remains controversial. A recent randomized trial did not find any benefit of planned cesarean vs. vaginal delivery at 32–38 weeks gestation, but the trial was not powered to detect a moderate effect. We aimed to evaluate the impact of cesarean delivery on perinatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity in twin pregnancies at ≥32 weeks through a large database exploration approach with the power to detect moderate risk differences. Methods In a retrospective birth cohort study using the U.S. matched multiple births, 1995–2000 (the available largest multiple birth dataset), we compared perinatal outcomes in twins (n = 181,810 pregnancies) delivered at 32–41 weeks gestation without congenital anomalies. The primary outcome was a composite of perinatal death and severe neonatal morbidity. Cox regression was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) controlling for the propensity to cesarean delivery, fetal characteristics (sex, birth weight, birth weight discordance, same-sex twin or not) and twin-cluster level dependence. Prospective risks were calculated using the fetuses-at-risk denominators. Results The overall rates of the primary outcome were slightly lower in intended cesarean (6.20%) vs. vaginal (6.45%) deliveries. The aHRs of the primary outcome were in favor of vaginal delivery at 32 (aHR = 1.06, p = 0.03) or 33 (aHR = 1.22, pcesarean delivery at 36 (aHR = 0.94, p = 0.004), 37, 38 and 39+ weeks (aHR: 0.72 to 0.78, all pcesarean vs. vaginal deliveries at 36+ weeks of gestation remained when the analyses were restricted to different-sex (dichorionic) twins (aHR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.80–0.88). Conclusion Cesarean delivery may be beneficial for perinatal outcomes overall in twin pregnancies at ≥36 weeks gestation. PMID:27227678
Cheryl A. Moyer
Full Text Available This research examines whether maternal optimism/pessimism is associated with unplanned Cesarean section deliveries in China. If so, does the association remain after controlling for clinical factors associated with C-sections? A sample of 227 mostly primiparous women in the third trimester of pregnancy was surveyed in a large tertiary care hospital in Beijing, China. Post-delivery data were collected from medical records. In bivariate analysis, both optimism and pessimism were related to unplanned c-section. However, when optimism and pessimism were entered into a regression model together, optimism was no longer statistically significant. Pessimism remained significant, even when adjusting for clinical factors such as previous abortion, previous miscarriage, pregnancy complications, infant gestational age, infant birthweight, labor duration, birth complications, and self-rated difficulty of the pregnancy. This research suggests that maternal mindset during pregnancy has a role in mode of delivery. However, more research is needed to elucidate potential causal pathways and test potential interventions.
Tita, Alan T N
The optimal timing of delivery in the setting of various clinical conditions and scenarios remains one of the most common questions for obstetric providers. Over the past 5-10 years, the optimal timing of delivery at term, particularly for elective repeat cesareans, has been the subject of considerable investigation and discussion. There is an increasing consensus that when women opt for an elective repeat cesarean delivery, it should be performed at term rather than preterm. The recent redefinition of the "term" period into early term (37-38 weeks), full-term (39-40 weeks), late term (41 weeks), and post term designations (≥42 weeks) underscores observed heterogeneity in outcomes following delivery at term. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists currently recommends that elective repeat cesarean delivery be performed at full-term. Herein, the available data to support this recommendation regarding timing of elective repeat cesarean delivery are reviewed, including contributions from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units (MFMU) Network. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Duffield, Adrienne T; Smith, Kathleen A
Impetigo herpetiformis (IH), or generalized pustular psoriasis of pregnancy, is an exceedingly rare, generalized pustular skin eruption occurring during pregnancy associated with hypovolemia, sepsis, hypocalcemia, and airway edema. Fetal outcomes are generally poor, and parturients with IH may present with emergent indications for cesarean delivery due to placental insufficiency. We present a case of IH in a 19-year-old G1P0 who underwent successful general anesthesia for cesarean delivery. Her case highlights the anesthetic implications for patients afflicted with this rare disease, including perioperative pain management, airway concerns, considerations for neuraxial anesthesia, and monitoring challenges.
Caissutti, Claudia; Saccone, Gabriele; Zullo, Fabrizio; Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Felder, Laura; Ciardulli, Andrea; Berghella, Vincenzo
To assess the efficacy of vaginal cleansing before cesarean delivery in reducing postoperative endometritis. MEDLINE, Ovid, EMBASE, Scopus, Clinicaltrials.gov, and Cochrane Library were searched from their inception to January 2017. Selection criteria included all randomized controlled trials comparing vaginal cleansing (ie, intervention group) with a control group (ie, either placebo or no intervention) in women undergoing cesarean delivery. Any method of vaginal cleansing with any type of antiseptic solution was included. The primary outcome was the incidence of endometritis. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model of DerSimonian and Laird to produce summary treatment effects in terms of relative risk (RR) with 95% CI. Sixteen trials (4,837 women) on vaginal cleansing immediately before cesarean delivery were identified as relevant and included in the review. In most of the included studies, 10% povidone-iodine was used as an intervention. The most common way to perform the vaginal cleansing was the use of a sponge stick for approximately 30 seconds. Women who received vaginal cleansing before cesarean delivery had a significantly lower incidence of endometritis (4.5% compared with 8.8%; RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.37-0.72; 15 studies, 4,726 participants) and of postoperative fever (9.4% compared with 14.9%; RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50-0.86; 11 studies, 4,098 participants) compared with the control group. In the planned subgroup analyses, the reduction in the incidence of endometritis with vaginal cleansing was limited to women in labor before cesarean delivery (8.1% compared with 13.8%; RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.28-0.97; four studies, 440 participants) or those with ruptured membranes (4.3% compared with 20.1%; RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.10-0.52; three studies, 272 participants). Vaginal cleansing immediately before cesarean delivery in women in labor and in women with ruptured membranes reduces the risk of postoperative endometritis. Because it is generally inexpensive and a
Kawakita, Tetsuya; Reddy, Uma M; Landy, Helain J; Iqbal, Sara N; Huang, Chun-Chih; Grantz, Katherine L
Obesity is a known risk factor for cesarean delivery. Limited data are available regarding the reasons for the increased rate of primary cesarean in obese women. It is important to identify the factors leading to an increased risk of cesarean to identify opportunities to reduce the primary cesarean rate. We evaluated indications for primary cesarean across body mass index (kg/m(2)) classes to identify the factors contributing to the increased rate of cesarean among obese women. In the Consortium of Safe Labor study from 2002 through 2008, we calculated indications for primary cesarean including failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, nonreassuring fetal heart tracing, malpresentation, elective, hypertensive disease, multiple gestation, placenta previa or vasa previa, failed induction, HIV or active herpes simplex virus, history of uterine scar, fetal indication, placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, macrosomia, and failed operative delivery. For women with primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, dilation at the last recorded cervical examination was evaluated. Women were categorized according to body mass index on admission: normal weight (18.5-24.9), overweight (25.0-29.9), and obese classes I (30.0-34.9), II (35.0-39.9), and III (≥40). Cochran-Armitage trend test and χ(2) tests were performed. Of 66,502 nulliparous and 76,961 multiparous women in the study population, 19,431 nulliparous (29.2%) and 7329 multiparous (9.5%) women underwent primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, malpresentation, failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion, and nonreassuring fetal heart tracing were the common indications for primary cesarean. Regardless of parity, the rates of primary cesarean for failure to progress or cephalopelvic disproportion increased with increasing body mass index (normal weight, overweight, and classes I, II, and III obesity in nulliparous women: 33.2%, 41.6%, 46.4%, 47.4%, and 48.9% [P cesarean for
Zhou, Mi; Chen, Meng; Zhang, Li; He, Guo-Lin; He, Lei; Wei, Qiang; Li, Tao; Liu, Xing-Hui
To investigate the severe adverse pregnancy outcomes in pregnancies with placenta previa and prior cesarean delivery and its risk factors. This retrospective casecontrol study reviewed all pregnancies with placenta previa and prior cesarean delivery delivered by repeat cesarean section in our institution between January 2005 and June 2015,and investigated the incidence of severe adverse pregnancy outcome. A composite of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes (including transfusion of 10 units or more red blood cells,maternal ICU admission,unanticipated injuries,repeat operation,hysterectomy,and maternal death) and other maternal and neonatal outcomes were described. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to quantify the effects of risk factors on severe adverse pregnancy outcomes. There were 478 women with placenta previa and prior cesarean delivery in our hospital over the last decade. The average age of them was 32.5±4.8 years old,most women were beyond 30 years old,the average gravidity and parity were 4 and 1,131 cases (27.4%) had severe adverse pregnancy outcomes. Transfusion of 10 units or more red blood cells happened in 75 cases (15.7%,75/478); 44 cases (9.2%,44/478) necessitated maternal ICU admission; unanticipated bladder injury occurred in 11 cases,but non ureter or bowel injury happened; All 4 repeat operations were due to delayed hemorrhage after conservative management during cesarean delivery,and an emergent hysterectomy was performed for all of the 4 cases. Hysterectomy (107 cases,22.4%) was the most common severe adverse pregnancy outcome. Among all 311 morbidly adherent placenta cases finally confirmed by pathological or surgical findings or both,only 172 (55.3%) were suspected before delivery. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of severe adverse pregnancy outcomes was significantly increased by pernicious placenta previa (i.e. anterior placenta overlying the prior cesarean scar),suspicion of
Pluymen, Linda P M; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; De Jongste, Johan C; Van Rossem, Lenie
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children delivered by cesarean had a higher risk of being overweight from early until late childhood and whether they had a higher blood pressure in adolescence compared with children delivered vaginally. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from a Dutch birth cohort study
Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Feldman, Chelsea; Puechl, Allison; Grotegut, Chad A; Heine, R Phillips
The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with an increased risk of post-operative wound infection in women with chorioamnionitis who undergo cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with clinical chorioamnionitis who underwent cesarean delivery at a tertiary-care center between June 2010 and May 2013. Demographic data, labor and delivery details and post-operative outcomes were collected. Women with and without post-operative wound infections were compared. Of 213 women with clinical chorioamnionitis who underwent cesarean delivery, 32 (15%) developed wound infections. Women with wound infection were more likely to have a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 40 (p = 0.04), chronic hypertension (p = 0.03), leukocytosis on presentation (p = 0.046) or use tobacco (p = 0.002). Women who received ertapenem postpartum were less likely to develop wound infection than those who did not receive antibiotics (p = 0.02) or those that received ampicillin, gentamicin and clindamycin (p = 0.005). Elevated BMI, tobacco use, chronic hypertension and leukocytosis at admission were associated with an increased risk of wound infection. Ertapenem appeared to reduce the risk of post-operative wound infections in women who had chorioamnionitis and underwent cesarean delivery. This could be considered as a treatment option for this high-risk population.
Bateman, Brian T; Franklin, Jessica M; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H; Brennan, Troyen A; Landon, Joan E; Rathmell, James P; Huybrechts, Krista F; Fischer, Michael A; Choudhry, Niteesh K
The incidence of opioid-related death in women has increased 5-fold over the past decade. For many women, their initial opioid exposure will occur in the setting of routine medical care. Approximately 1 in 3 deliveries in the United States is by cesarean, and opioids are commonly prescribed for postsurgical pain management. The objective of this study was to determine the risk that opioid-naïve women prescribed opioids after cesarean delivery will subsequently become consistent prescription opioid users in the year following delivery and to identify predictors for this behavior. We identified women in a database of commercial insurance beneficiaries who underwent cesarean delivery and who were opioid naïve in the year prior to delivery. To identify persistent users of opioids, we used trajectory models, which group together patients with similar patterns of medication filling during follow-up, based on patterns of opioid dispensing in the year following cesarean delivery. We then constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to identify independent risk factors for membership in the persistent user group. A total of 285 of 80,127 (0.36%, 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.40), opioid-naïve women became persistent opioid users (identified using trajectory models based on monthly patterns of opioid dispensing) following cesarean delivery. Demographics and baseline comorbidity predicted such use with moderate discrimination (c statistic = 0.73). Significant predictors included a history of cocaine abuse (risk, 7.41%; adjusted odds ratio, 6.11, 95% confidence interval, 1.03-36.31) and other illicit substance abuse (2.36%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.78, 95% confidence interval, 1.12-6.91), tobacco use (1.45%; adjusted odds ratio, 3.04, 95% confidence interval, 2.03-4.55), back pain (0.69%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.74, 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.29), migraines (0.91%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.14, 95% confidence interval, 1.58-2.90), antidepressant use (1
Full Text Available Background: The cesarean section (C-section has higher risk compared to normal vaginal delivery (NVD. The aim of this population-based study was to evaluate the frequency of mothers′ tendency toward the mode of delivery and the factors that can affect this inclination. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2011 to June 2012 in Fars Province, Iran, and comprised mothers in their 20 th to 30 th weeks of pregnancy. A questionnaire was designed to include, sociodemographic information, maternal knowledge, main sources of knowledge, attitude of the mother, husband, parents, close friends, and gynecologist, regarding the route of delivery, convenience factors, and barriers to choosing NVD, and mother′s preference for the route of delivery. Results: Of 6921 participants, 2197 (31.7% preferred C-section and 4308 (62.2% favored NVD while 416 (6% had no idea regarding the preferred route of delivery. Score of knowledge in 904 (13.1% participants was zero, and 1261 women (18.2% achieved an acceptable level of knowledge. Using binary logistic regression, positive history of previous abortion and/or infertility, higher education level of mother and husband, mother′s unacceptable level of knowledge regarding complications of C-section, and mother′s and husband′s positive attitude toward C-section were determinant factors in choosing C-section as a preferred route of delivery. Conclusion: Appropriate measures should be taken to raise awareness and knowledge of mothers and all families about complications of the C-section. Establishment of clinics for painless NVD and assuring mothers of benefits and lower complications of NVD can reduce the tendency for C-sections.
Lotfi, Razieh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Dovom, Marzieh Rostami; Torkestani, Farahnaz; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Sajedinejad, Sima
Background: With the change in population policy from birth control toward encouraging birth and population growth in Iran, repeated cesarean deliveries as a main reason of cesarean section are associated with more potential adverse consequences. The aim of this research was to explore effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in Iran. Methods: A mixed methodological study was designed and implemented. First, using a qualitative approach, concepts and influencing factors of increased cesarean delivery were explored. Based on the findings of this phase of the study, a questionnaire including the proposed strategies to reduce cesarean delivery was developed. Then in a quantitative phase, the questionnaire was assessed by key informants from across the country and evaluated to obtain more effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery. Ten participants in the qualitative study included policy makers from the Ministry of Health, obstetricians, midwives and anthropologists. In the next step, 141 participants from private and public hospitals, insurance experts, Academic Associations of Midwifery, and policy makers in Maternity Health Affairs of Ministry of Health were invited to assess and provide feedback on the strategies that work to reduce cesarean deliveries. Results: Qualitative data analysis showed four concept related to increased cesarean delivery rates including; “standardization”, “education”, “amending regulations”, and “performance supervision”. Effective strategies extracted from qualitative data were rated by participants then, using ACCEPT derived from A as attainability, C as costing, C as complication, E as effectiveness, P as popularity, and T as timing table 19 strategies were detected as priorities. Conclusions: Although developing effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates is complex process because of the multi-factorial nature of increased cesarean deliveries, in this study we have achieved strategies
Lotfi, Razieh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Dovom, Marzieh Rostami; Torkestani, Farahnaz; Abedini, Mehrandokht; Sajedinejad, Sima
With the change in population policy from birth control toward encouraging birth and population growth in Iran, repeated cesarean deliveries as a main reason of cesarean section are associated with more potential adverse consequences. The aim of this research was to explore effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates in Iran. A mixed methodological study was designed and implemented. First, using a qualitative approach, concepts and influencing factors of increased cesarean delivery were explored. Based on the findings of this phase of the study, a questionnaire including the proposed strategies to reduce cesarean delivery was developed. Then in a quantitative phase, the questionnaire was assessed by key informants from across the country and evaluated to obtain more effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery. Ten participants in the qualitative study included policy makers from the Ministry of Health, obstetricians, midwives and anthropologists. In the next step, 141 participants from private and public hospitals, insurance experts, Academic Associations of Midwifery, and policy makers in Maternity Health Affairs of Ministry of Health were invited to assess and provide feedback on the strategies that work to reduce cesarean deliveries. Qualitative data analysis showed four concept related to increased cesarean delivery rates including; "standardization", "education", "amending regulations", and "performance supervision". Effective strategies extracted from qualitative data were rated by participants then, using ACCEPT derived from A as attainability, C as costing, C as complication, E as effectiveness, P as popularity, and T as timing table 19 strategies were detected as priorities. Although developing effective strategies to reduce cesarean delivery rates is complex process because of the multi-factorial nature of increased cesarean deliveries, in this study we have achieved strategies that in the context of Iran could work.
Subramaniam, Akila; Jauk, Victoria Chapman; Goss, Amy Reed; Alvarez, Mitchell Dean; Reese, Crystal; Edwards, Rodney Kirk
To compare maternal and neonatal outcomes between planned cesarean delivery and induction of labor in women with class III obesity (body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2)). In this retrospective cohort study, we identified all women with a body mass index ≥40 kg/m(2) who delivered a singleton at our institution from January 2007 to February 2013 via planned cesarean or induction of labor (regardless of eventual delivery route) at 37-41 weeks. Patients in spontaneous labor were excluded. The primary outcome was a composite of maternal morbidity including death as well as operative, infection, and thromboembolic complications. The secondary outcome was a neonatal morbidity composite. Additional outcomes included individual components of the composites. Student t, χ(2), and Fisher exact tests were used for statistical analysis. To calculate adjusted odds ratios, covariates were analyzed via multivariable logistic regression. There are 661 mother-infant pairs that met enrollment criteria-399 inductions and 262 cesareans. Groups were similar in terms of prepregnancy weight, pregnancy weight gain, and delivery body mass index. Of the 399 inductions, 258 had cervical ripening (64.7%) and 163 (40.9%) had a cesarean delivery. After multivariable adjustments, there was no significant difference in the maternal morbidity composite (adjusted odds ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-1.77) or in the neonatal morbidity composite (adjusted odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.37-1.77) between the induction and cesarean groups. In term pregnant women with class III obesity, planned cesarean does not appear to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity compared with induction of labor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Phillippi, Julia C; Ryan, Sharon L; Knupp, Amy M; Dietrich, Mary S; Thung, Stephen F
Friedman, the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists/Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (ACOG/SMFM) support different active labor diagnostic guidelines. Our aims were to compare likelihoods for cesarean delivery among women admitted before vs in active labor by diagnostic guideline (within-guideline comparisons) and between women admitted in active labor per one or more of the guidelines (between-guideline comparisons). Active labor diagnostic guidelines were retrospectively applied to cervical examination data from nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset (n = 2573). Generalized linear models were used to determine outcome likelihoods within- and between-guideline groups. At admission, 15.7%, 48.3%, and 10.1% of nulliparous women were in active labor per Friedman, NICE, and ACOG/SMFM diagnostic guidelines, respectively. Cesarean delivery was more likely among women admitted before vs in active labor per the Friedman (AOR 1.75 [95% CI 1.08-2.82] or NICE guideline (AOR 2.55 [95% CI 1.84-3.53]). Between guidelines, cesarean delivery was less likely among women admitted in active labor per the NICE guideline, as compared with the ACOG/SMFM guideline (AOR 0.55 [95% CI 0.35-0.88]). Many nulliparous women are admitted to the hospital before active labor onset. These women are significantly more likely to have a cesarean delivery. Diagnosing active labor before admission or before intervention to speed labor may be one component of a multi-faceted approach to decreasing the primary cesarean rate in the United States. The NICE diagnostic guideline is more inclusive than Friedman or ACOG/SMFM guidelines and its use may be the most clinically useful for safely lowering cesarean rates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ekström, Asa; Altman, Daniel; Wiklund, Ingela; Larsson, Christina; Andolf, Ellika
We compared the prevalence and risk of lower urinary tract symptoms in healthy primiparous women in relation to vaginal birth or elective cesarean section 9 months after delivery. We performed a prospective controlled cohort study including 220 women delivered by elective cesarean section and 215 by vaginal birth. All subjects received an identical questionnaire on lower urinary tract symptoms in late pregnancy, at 3 and 9 months postpartum. Two hundred twenty subjects underwent elective cesarean section, and 215 subjects underwent vaginal delivery. After childbirth, the 3-month questionnaire was completed by 389/435 subjects (89%) and the 9-month questionnaire by 376/435 subjects (86%). In the vaginal delivery cohort, all lower urinary tract symptoms increased significantly at 9 months follow-up. When compared to cesarean section, the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after vaginal delivery was significantly increased both at 3 (p delivery was the only obstetrical predictor for SUI [relative risk (RR) 8.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9-42] and for urinary urgency (RR 7.3 95% CI 1.7-32) at 9 months follow-up. A history of SUI before pregnancy (OR 5.2, 95% CI 1.5-19) and at 3 months follow-up (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7-8.5) were independent predictors for SUI at 9 months follow-up. Vaginal delivery is associated with an increased risk for lower urinary tract symptoms 9 months after childbirth when compared to elective cesarean section.
Ilhan, Gülşah; Verit Atmaca, Fatma Ferda; Kaya, Abdurrahman; Ergin, Ahmet Hasan; Gökmen Karasu, Ayşe Filiz; Turfan, Mehtap
To determine the prevalence of wound infection following cesarean delivery, risk factors, common bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity. The study population consisted of 5787 cesarean deliveries. All of the patients received 2 g doses of cephazolin perioperatively for antibiotic prophylaxis. Patients with wound infection who had two doses of 1 g cephazolin postoperatively and who were continued on oral preparations of 500 mg of cephuroxime twice daily for 5 days after hospital discharge were included in Group A. Patients with wound infection whose postoperative antibiotics and antibiotics after discharge were omitted were included in Group B. Patient related variables, gestational age, co-morbidities, cesarean section indications, neonatal intensive care requirements were assessed. Risk factors were evaluated according to the type of the procedure (elective or emergent) and administered antibiotic protocol. The incidence of wound infection following cesarean section was 0,37% in elective operations and 5,4% in emergency cases. On the other hand, wound infection rate was found to be 1,35% in antibiotic receiving group (Group A) and 1,12% in the group not receiving antibiotics (Group B). Increased rate of wound infections were remarkable in emergency cases and postoperative antibiotics did not have a major impact in reducing the rate of wound infection following cesarean section. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We present a case of acute colonic pseudo obstruction (Ogilvie′s Syndrome) post Cesarean Section in a 35 years old Arabic patient with co-existing systemic lupus erythematosus. Due to developed complications-perforations of the colon and peritonitis, the patient required laparotomy and right hemicolectomy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Ogilvie′s syndrome, reported from the Middle East. The possible etiologic factors, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic work up and...
McDonnell, John G
The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is an effective method of providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing midline abdominal wall incisions. We evaluated its analgesic efficacy over the first 48 postoperative hours after cesarean delivery performed through a Pfannensteil incision, in a randomized controlled, double-blind, clinical trial.
Maaløe, Nanna; Aabakke, Anna J M; Secher, Niels J
While transverse incision is the recommended entry technique for cesarean delivery in high-income countries, it is our experience that midline incision is still used routinely in many low-income settings. Accordingly, international guidelines lack uniformity on this matter. Although evidence...
Letter to the Editor: Re: A Five-year Survey of Cesarean Delivery at a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. VO Ajuzieogu, AO Amucheazi. Abstract. Letter to the editor - no abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .
Barrett, Jon F. R.; Hannah, Mary E.; Hutton, Eileen K.; Willan, Andrew R.; Allen, Alexander C.; Armson, B. Anthony; Gafni, Amiram; Joseph, K. S.; Mason, Dalah; Ohlsson, Arne; Ross, Susan; Sanchez, J. Johanna; Asztalos, Elizabeth V.; Farrell, Scott; Hanigsberg, Julia E.; Leduc, Line; Okun, Nanette; Bracken, Michael; Crowley, Patricia; Donner, Allan; Duley, Lelia; Ehrenkranz, Richard; Thorpe, Kevin; Castaldi, Jose Luis; Bertin, Marta Susana; Partida, Yamil; Galimberti, Diana; Messina, Analia; Voto, Liliana S.; Voto, Geraldine N.; Prieto, Marìa Josè; Buraschi, Fernanda; Sexer, Hèctor; Palermo, Mario; Varela, Dolores Montes; Savransky, Ricardo; Dunaievsky, Armando; Andina, Elsa; Laterra, Cristina; Susacasa, Sandra; Frailuna, Maria Alejandra; Almansa, Silvina Ramirez; Barrere, Maria Beatriz; García, Horacio; Rivero, Mabel; Gomez, Elena Elizabet; Schinini, Josefina; Ahlbom, Monica; Aguirre, Jesus Daniel; de Lourdes Martín, Raquel; Videla, Arturo; Mesas, Walter; Arias, Carlos; Castagnola, Maria Cecilia; Gorostiaga, Raul Abalos; Curioni, Miguel; Mohedano, Maria; Dip, Viviana; Roque, Alicia; Duhalde, Esteban Marcos; Dodd, Jodie; Deussen, Andrea; Crowther, Caroline; Gardener, Glenn; Chaplin, Jackie; Wilkins, Danielle; Mahomed, Kassam; Green, Anne; Baade, Robert; Haran, Mano; Hanafy, Ash; Davis, Greg; Roberts, Lynne; Tucker, Stephen; Duncan, Christine; Watson, David; Lawrence, Annemarie; Laubach, Monika; Breugelmans, Ria; Calderon, Iracema; Martins, Anice; Magalhães, Claudia; Cecatti, Jose Guilherme; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Rosado, Luiza; Vidal, Augusto Cortizo; de Souza, Goianice Ribeiro; Maia Filho, Nelson Lourenço; Santana, Danielly Scaranello Nunes; de Sa, Renato Augusto Moreira; Marcolino, Luciano; Marques, Caio Coelho; Zanella, Pedro Luis; Milan, Carla; Bollis, Márcia Dalmolin; Steibel, Gustavo; Ayub, Antonio C. K.; Moreira, Simone; Lima, Antonio Carlos Barbosa; Scavuzzi, Adriana; de Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; de Moraes Filho, Olimpio Barbosa; Carvalho, Simone Angélica Leita Silva; Bornia, Rita Guerios; da Silva, Nancy Ribeiro; Spinola, Renata; Lopes, Laudelino Marques; Sass, Nelson; Korkes, Henri; Chalem, Elisa; Yokota, Eliana Junko Morita; Ribeiro, Ana J.; Wood, Stephen; Miller, Leslie; McLeod, Lynne; Fanning, Cora; Mueller, Valerie; Gregorovich, Sandra; Moore, Elaine; Gratton, Robert; Kennedy, Laura; Scheufler, Peter; Reid, Donna; Klam, Stephanie; Daitchman, Rhona; Farquharson, Duncan; Harrison, Kristy; Kulkarni, Ramesh; Scarfone, Rhonda; Laplante, Joanne; Carson, George; Williams, Suzanne; Rosman, David; Nemtean, Debbie; Olatunbosun, Femi; Pierson, Kathleen; Crane, Joan; Hutchens, Donna; Zaltz, Arthur; Brown, Melissa; Ornstein, Melanie; Visram, Soraya; Bordin, Jennifer; Siurna, Hiliary; Petruskavich, Shelly; Gagnon, Alain; Lee, Jennifer M.; Fernandez, Ariadna; Kaye, Stephen; Haslauer, Kelly-Ann; Cundiff, Geoffrey; Gomez, Ricardo; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Neculman, Karla Silva; Valenzuela, Luis Leighton; Leiva, Erika Madariaga; Cabrera, Juan Guillermo Romo; Ravanal, Mónica Molina; Orrego, Rodrigo Schiaffino; Matijevic, Ratko; Makhlouf, Ahmad; Saber, Osama; Abdelradey, Tarek; Kirss, Fred; Rull, Kristiina; Vaas, Pille; Hopp, Hartmut; Nonnenmacher, Andreas; Michaelis, Silke; Hasbargen, Uwe; Delius, Maria; Antsaklis, Aris; Drakakis, Peter; Major, Tamás; Bartha, Tünde; Salim, Raed; Harel, Linda; Chayen, Benny; Siev, Sima; Hallak, Mordechai; Mei-Dan, Elad; Gonen, Ron; Wolff, Leslie; Sadan, Oscar; Mansour-Schwake, Dalia; Petchinkin, Liana; Hakim, Marwan; Perlitz, Yuri; Ben-Ami, Moshe; Pansky, Samuel; Simms-Stewart, Donnette; Wilson, Monifa; El-Zibdeh, Mazen; AlFaris, Lama; Heres, Marion; Sluis, Aafje; Roumen, Frans J. M. E.; Rinkens, Jeannine; Willekes, Christine; Alleman, Sjaak; van Zandvoort, Simone Gordijn; Porath, Martina M.; Verhoeven, Corine; Mol, Ben Willem; Radfar, Forough; Khan, Sultana; Preis, Krzysztof; Swiatkowska-Freund, Malgorzata; Krasomski, Grzegorz; Kesiak, Marcin; Krekora, Michael; Zych, Katarzyna; Wilczynski, Jan; Breborowicz, Grzegorz; Dera, Anna; ur Rahman, Sajjad; Al-Jassim, Amal Abdullah; Stamatian, Florin; Caracostea, Gabriela; Gojnic, Miroslava; Fazlagic, Amira; Perovic, Milan; Vasiljevic, Brankica; Stefanovic, Toma; Gonce, Anna; Rodriguez, Sara Herrero; Massanes, Marta; Moratonas, Elena Carreras; Rodriguez, Carlota Rodo; Martinez, Silvia Arevalo; Llurba, Elisa; Franch, Anna Suy; de la Calle, Maria; Dans, Fernando; Sancha, Marta; Lopez, Sara; Palomo, Maria Luisa Canete; del Valle, María Dolores Maldonado; Martín, María Nieves Rodríguez; Delgado, Carolina Lázaro-Carrasco; Fournier, María Carmen Jiménez; Ojutiku, Dale; Masuku, Maxwell; Goodsell, Kerry; Southam, Donna; Tuffnell, Derek; Germaine, Tracey; Palethorpe, Rebecca; Farrar, Diane; Wright, Janet; Al-Taher, Hamed; Meehan, Helen; Bricker, Leanne; Dower, Michelle; Houghton, Gillian; Pascall, Angela; Longworth, Heather; Sau, Ashis; Thornton, James; Fisher, Joanne; Houda, Mohammed; Simm, Andy; Bugg, George; Deshpande, Ruta; Davis, Yvette; Holloway, Fiona; Welch, Ross; Hollands, Heidi; Young, Peter; Hinshaw, Kim; Bargh, Amanda; Edmundson, Dawn; Cameron, Helen; Alonso, Justo; Austt, Alfonso Garcia; Ortiz, Alejandra; Burgis, Judith; Brown, Stanette; Gregg, Anthony; Borowski, Kristi; Fleener, Diedre; Deaver, John; Sumersille, Melanie; Aronoff, Christine; Bland, Kimberly; Kontopoulos, Eftichia; Rivero, Yvette; Lovett, Stuart M.; Zatinsky, Shana; Diogo, Mary; Coonrod, Dean V.; Jimenez, Blanca Flor; Chan, Sunny; Hewson, Sheila A.; Hoac, Trinh; Kowal, Christine; Mangoff, Kathryn; Mergler, Sonya; Shi, Michael
Twin birth is associated with a higher risk of adverse perinatal outcomes than singleton birth. It is unclear whether planned cesarean section results in a lower risk of adverse outcomes than planned vaginal delivery in twin pregnancy. We randomly assigned women between 32 weeks 0 days and 38 weeks
Zafar, B.; Shehzad, F.; Safdar, C.A.
Objective of study is to compare peri-operative complications between exteriorization and intraabdominal repair of uterus after cesarean delivery. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Pakistan Ordinance Factory Hospital, Wah Cantt, from 1st April 2010 to 30th September 2010. Material and Methods: Patients planned for 1st cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated by lottery method to exteriorized (A) or in situ uterine repair (B) group. Patients with history of uterine surgeries and cesarean section were excluded from study. Variables analyzed were operation time, peri-operative hemoglobin (Hb) fall, nausea and vomiting during the cesarean delivery. Results: The study analyzed 170 patients and divided them in 2 groups, having no significant difference with respect to maternal demographics, procedure statistics and indication of cesarean section. Significant difference was observed in operation time being 32.78 min in exteriorized group and 36.38 min in situ uterine repair group (p-value 0.0001). Hb percent fall was 0.85 g/dl and 0.92 g/dl respectively in both groups (p-value 0.62) Nausea and vomiting was 23.5 percent in group A and 11.8 percent in group B (p-value 0.02, 0.04 respectively) Conclusion: Peri-operative complications like operative time and Hb fall are less in uterine repair after temporary exteriorization as compared to intra-abdominal repair of uterus after cesarean delivery. Nausea and vomiting were increased in exteriorized group but proper regional anesthetic technique and achieving adequate analgesia can reduce patient discomfort. (author)
Paramsothy, Pathmaja; Lin, Yvonne S; Kernic, Mary A; Foster-Schubert, Karen E
Along with the rising prevalence of obesity, rates of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and associated adverse outcomes also have increased. We conducted a population-based, retrospective cohort study to assess the association of weight gain between pregnancies with cesarean delivery for the subsequent pregnancy among women with a history of GDM. Using linked birth-certificate data for women with at least two singleton births in Washington State during the period from 1992-2005, we identified 2,753 women with GDM who delivered vaginally at the baseline pregnancy (first pregnancy on record). The interpregnancy weight change (subsequent-baseline prepregnancy weight) for each woman was calculated and assigned to one of three categories: weight loss (more than 10 lb), weight stable (+/-10 lb), or weight gain (more than 10 lb). Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate the risk (odds ratio [OR]) of cesarean delivery at the subsequent pregnancy among the weight-gain and weight-loss groups relative to the weight-stable category. Among 2,581 eligible women, 10.9% lost more than 10 lb between pregnancies, 54.0% were weight-stable, and 35.1% gained more than 10 lb. Women who gained more than 10 lb had an adjusted OR for subsequent cesarean delivery of 1.70 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-2.49, 9.7% of women who gained weight), whereas the adjusted OR for women who lost weight was 0.55 (95% CI 0.28-1.10, 4.7% of women who lost weight). Women with a history of GDM who gained more than 10 lb between pregnancies are at increased risk of future cesarean delivery. Appropriate weight management among women with a history of GDM may result in decreased cesarean delivery rates along with decreases in associated excess risks and costs. II.
Gedikbasi, Ali; Akyol, Alpaslan; Asar, Emel; Bingol, Banu; Uncu, Remzi; Sargin, Akif; Ceylan, Yavuz
To determine the risk factors causing re-laparotomy and the indications, management and outcomes of re-laparotomy after a cesarean section. We had, during the study period of January 2002 to January 2007, 28,799 cesarean sections and 35 cases with re-laparotomy. We studied the patients' age, parity, indications for cesarean section and indications for re-laparotomy, time interval after cesarean section to reopening of the abdomen, type of surgery, need for blood transfusion and span of hospital stay. The incidence of re-laparotomy was 0.12%. Cases with placental abruption and previous cesarean > or =3 had a higher risk for re-laparotomy. Procedures that were performed at re-laparotomy were drainage and resuturing of hematomas (n = 8), resuturing of uterus and securing hemostasis with stitches (n = 10), bladder repair (n = 1), herniation repair (n = 1), total abdominal hysterectomy (n = 2), subtotal abdominal hysterectomy (n = 5), and draining and resuturing of broad ligament, parametrium, abdominal wound, and cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue due to infection and abscess formation (n = 8). Two cases required admission into the intensive care unit. We had one case with maternal mortality. Majority of the complications were revealed at an early period and these were hemorrhagic cases mostly. Although the rate of re-laparotomy after cesarean section is low, several actions must be undertaken to decrease the need for re-laparotomy. In particular, cases with placental abruption and previous cesarean > or =3 are with higher risk for re-laparotomy and have a 15-fold risk for re-laparotomy after cesarean section.
Li, Hong-tian; Trasande, Leonardo; Zhu, Li-ping; Ye, Rong-wei; Zhou, Yu-bo; Liu, Jian-meng
Cesarean delivery may reduce placental-fetal transfusion and thus increase the risk of early childhood anemia compared with vaginal delivery, but this notion has not been carefully studied in longitudinal cohorts. The aim was to assess the association of cesarean delivery with anemia in infants and children in 2 longitudinal Chinese birth cohorts from different socioeconomic settings. Cohort 1 was recruited from 5 counties in northeastern China and cohort 2 from 21 counties or cities in southeastern China. Cohort 1 involved 17,423 infants born during 2006-2009 to mothers with early pregnancy baseline hemoglobin concentrations ranging from 100 to 177 g/L, whereas cohort 2 involved 122,777 children born during 1993-1996 to mothers with baseline hemoglobin concentrations ranging from 60 to 190 g/L. The main outcomes were anemia at 6 and 12 mo in cohort 1 and at 58 mo in cohort 2. Multiple logistic regressions were used to estimate adjusted ORs of anemia for cesarean compared with vaginal delivery. Stratified analyses were performed by pre- and postlabor cesarean delivery and according to maternal baseline hemoglobin concentration (≤109, 110-119, 120-129, and ≥130 g/L). Cesarean delivery was not associated with anemia at 6 mo in cohort 1 (adjusted OR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.93, 1.19); however, cesarean delivery was associated with increased anemia at 12 mo in cohort 1 (adjusted OR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.37) and at 58 mo in cohort 2 (adjusted OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.15). The positive associations for anemia at 12 and 58 mo were consistent across maternal hemoglobin subgroups and persisted for cesarean delivery subtypes. Cesarean delivery is likely associated with anemia in children, which suggests a possible need for exploring changes in obstetric care that might prevent anemia in cesarean-delivered children. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Darney, Blair G; Biel, Frances M; Quigley, Brian P; Caughey, Aaron B; Horner-Johnson, Willi
Little is known about the relationship between disability and mode of delivery. Prior research has indicated elevated risk of cesarean delivery among women with certain disabilities, but has not examined patterns across multiple types of disability or by parity. This study sought to determine whether physical, sensory, or intellectual and developmental disabilities are independently associated with primary cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all deliveries in California from 2000 to 2010 using linked birth certificate and hospital discharge data. We identified physical, sensory, and intellectual and developmental disabilities using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, clinical modification codes. We used logistic regression to examine the association of these disabilities and primary cesarean delivery, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbidities, and stratified by parity. In our sample, 0.45% of deliveries (20,894/4,610,955) were to women with disabilities. A greater proportion of women with disabilities were nulliparous, had public insurance, and had comorbidities (e.g., gestational diabetes) compared with women without disabilities (p disabilities was twice that in women without disabilities (32.7% vs. 16.3%; p disabilities due to injuries compared with women without disabilities (57.8% vs. 16.3%; p type. More attention is needed to this population to ensure better understanding of care practices that may impact maternal and perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
José Guilherme Cecatti
Full Text Available Objetivo: avaliar a via de parto em um grupo de gestantes primíparas de baixa renda com uma cesárea anterior e os fatores associados à repetição da cesárea no segundo parto. Pacientes e Métodos: realizou-se um estudo caso-controle com 356 gestantes atendidas de janeiro de 1993 a janeiro de 1996 na Maternidade do CAISM/UNICAMP. Constituíram os casos as 153 gestantes que tiveram o segundo parto por cesárea, e os controles, as 203 que tiveram o segundo parto vaginal. Para a análise utilizaram-se médias, desvio padrão, teste t de Student, teste de Mann-Whitney, chi² e "odds ratio" (OR e IC 95% para cada possível fator associado à realização de cesárea no segundo parto. Resultados: a via do segundo parto foi vaginal em 57% das vezes. Dentre as diversas variáveis estudadas, as que mostraram estar significativamente associadas à realização de cesárea no segundo parto foram: maior idade materna (para mulheres com 35 anos ou mais, OR = 16,4, antecedente de abortamento (OR = 2,09, indução do trabalho de parto (OR = 3,83, rotura prematura de membranas (OR = 2 ,83, a não-realização de analgesia durante o período de dilatação (OR = 5,3, o diagnóstico de algum sinal de vitalidade fetal alterada (OR = 2,7 e a ocorrência do parto à tarde (OR = 1,92. Conclusões: os resultados indicam que os fatores associados à repetição de cesárea em mulheres com uma cicatriz de cesárea nesta população são predominantemente médicos, mas há a possibilidade de se proporem intervenções dirigidas a diminuir o índice de repetição de cesáreas.Purpose: to evaluate the route of delivery in a group of low-income primipara pregnant women with a previous cesarean section, and the factors associated with the repetition of the cesarean section on the second delivery. Patients and Methods: it was a case-control study including 356 women who were assisted at the Maternity of CAISM/UNICAMP during the period between January 1993 and January
Meena Naresh Satia; Kimaya A. Mali; Rakhi Sikarwar
Background: In modern day obstetric practice we encounter increasing number of patients with history of caesarean section because of rise in primary caesarean due to changing trends in their indications. There is increasing fear and anxiety by obstetricians for managing these cases from medico legal point of view. Present study was done to look at the feto-maternal outcome and for appropriate mode of delivery and overall to conduct the proper management of patients with previous one lower...
Lee, Hyun Joo; Jeon, Gyeong Sik; Kim, Man Deuk; Kim, Sang Heum; Lee, Jong Tae; Choi, Min Jeong
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial embolization of the pelvic arteries for the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) associated with cesarean section compared with vaginal delivery. A retrospective analysis of 176 patients undergoing transcatheter arterial embolization of the pelvic arteries for PPH from January 2006 through August 2011 was conducted at two institutions. The mean patient age was 33.9 years (range, 24-46 years). Data including delivery details, hematology and coagulation results, embolization details, and clinical outcomes were collected. Technical success was defined as cessation of bleeding on angiography or angiographically successful embolization of the bleeding artery. Clinical success was defined as the obviation of repeated embolization or surgical intervention. The technical success rate was 98.8% (n = 174), and the clinical success rate was 89.7% (n = 158). Among 176 patients, 71 had cesarean sections, and 105 underwent normal vaginal deliveries. Of the 105 patients who underwent normal vaginal deliveries, 11 (10.5%) required repeat embolization or surgical intervention. Of the 71 patients who had cesarean sections, 7 (9.8%) required repeat embolization or surgical intervention. The clinical success rate and complication rate were not related to the mode of delivery. All women resumed menses after transcatheter arterial embolization, and most (n = 125) described their menses as unchanged. Subsequent spontaneous pregnancies occurred in 13 women. The cesarean mode of delivery is not a predictor of poorer outcomes of transcatheter arterial embolization; however, further study is needed to clarify this relationship. Copyright © 2013 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lappen, Justin R; Hackney, David N; Bailit, Jennifer L
The prevailing obstetric practice of planned cesarean delivery for triplet gestations is largely empiric and data on the optimal route of delivery are limited. The primary objectives of this study are to determine the likelihood of success in an attempted vaginal delivery and assess maternal and neonatal outcomes of attempted vaginal vs planned cesarean delivery of triplets using a multiinstitution obstetric cohort. We performed a retrospective cohort study using data from the Consortium on Safe Labor, identifying triplet pregnancies with delivery at a gestational age ≥28 weeks. Women with a history of cesarean delivery and pregnancies complicated by chromosomal or congenital anomalies, twin-twin transfusion syndrome, or a fetal demise were excluded. The attempted vaginal group included all women with spontaneous or induced labor and excluded all women delivering by prelabor cesarean delivery, including those coded as elective or for fetal malpresentation. Primary maternal outcomes included infection (composite of chorioamnionitis, endometritis, wound separation, and wound infection), blood transfusion, or transfer to the intensive care unit. Primary neonatal outcomes included neonatal asphyxia, mechanical ventilation, and composite neonatal morbidity, consisting of ≥1 of the following: birth injury, 5-minute Apgar delivery group was restricted to include only women with evidence of induction or augmentation or labor. 188 triplet sets were identified of which 80 sets (240 neonates) met inclusion criteria and 24 sets (30%) had an attempted vaginal delivery. The rate of successful attempted vaginal delivery was 16.7% (4 triplet sets; 12 neonates). No women had a combined mode of delivery. Women attempting vaginal delivery were more likely to have preterm labor (45.8 vs 12.5%, P delivery did not differ by mode of delivery. Attempted vaginal delivery was associated with a higher risk of maternal transfusion (20.8% vs 3.6%, P = .01) and neonatal mechanical
Kennare, Robyn; Tucker, Graeme; Heard, Adrian; Chan, Annabelle
To estimate the risks of cesarean first birth, compared with vaginal first birth, for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes in the second birth. Population-based retrospective cohort study of all singleton, second births in the South Australian perinatal data collection 1998 to 2003 comparing outcomes for 8,725 women who underwent a cesarean delivery for their first birth with 27,313 women who underwent a vaginal first birth. Predictor variables include age, indigenous status, smoking, pregnancy interval, medical and obstetric complications, gestation, patient type, hospital category, and history of ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, stillbirth or termination of pregnancy. The cesarean delivery cohort had increased risks for malpresentation (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.65-2.06), placenta previa (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.30-2.11), antepartum hemorrhage (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41), placenta accreta (OR 18.79, 95% CI 2.28-864.6), prolonged labor (OR 5.89, 95% CI 3.91-8.89), emergency cesarean (relative risk 9.37, 95% CI 8.98-9.76) and uterine rupture (OR 84.42, 95% CI 14.64-infinity), preterm birth (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31), low birth weight (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.48), small for gestational age (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02-1.23), stillbirth (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.04-2.32), and unexplained stillbirth (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.26-4.37). The range of the number of primary cesarean deliveries needed to harm included 134 for one additional preterm birth, up to 1,536 for one additional placenta accreta. Cesarean delivery is associated with increased risks for adverse obstetric and perinatal outcomes in the subsequent birth. However, some risks may be due to confounding factors related to the indication for the first cesarean. II.
Muoto, Ifeoma; Darney, Blair G; Lau, Bernard; Cheng, Yvonne W; Tomlinson, Mark W; Neilson, Duncan R; Friedman, Steven A; Rogovoy, Joanne; Caughey, Aaron B; Snowden, Jonathan M
To assess the use and timing of scheduled cesareans and other categories of cesarean delivery and the prevalence of neonatal morbidity among cesareans in Oregon before and after the implementation of Oregon's statewide policy limiting elective early deliveries. Oregon vital statistics records, 2008-2013. Retrospective cohort study, with multivariable logistic regression, regression controlling for time trends, and interrupted time series analyses, to compare the odds of different categories of cesarean delivery and the odds of neonatal morbidity pre- and postpolicy. We analyzed vital statistics data on all term births in Oregon (2008-2013), excluding births in 2011. The odds of early-term scheduled cesareans decreased postpolicy (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.70; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.66-0.74). In the postpolicy period, there were mixed findings regarding assisted neonatal ventilation and neonatal intensive care unit admission, with regression models indicating higher postpolicy odds in some categories, but lower postpolicy odds after controlling for time trends. Oregon's hard stop policy limiting elective early-term cesarean delivery was associated with lower odds of cesarean delivery in the category of women who were targeted by the policy; more research is needed on impact of such policies on neonatal outcomes. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Psenkova, Petra; Bucko, Marek; Braticak, Michal; Baneszova, Ruth; Zahumensky, Jozef
To identify the frequency of cesarean delivery for non-obstetric indications before and after the introduction of specific measures to lower the rate of elective cesarean, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the introduced measures. In the present single-center retrospective cohort study at University Hospital Trnava, Trnava, Slovak Republic, the frequency of elective cesarean was evaluated before (January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014) and after (January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016) the implementation of specific measures applied in January 2015 to confirm the indications for primary cesarean delivery. The frequency of elective cesarean delivery for non-obstetric indications was compared between the two periods. Before the intervention in 2015, 229 (2.9%) of 7768 women had elective cesarean deliveries for non-obstetric indications. After implementation of the intervention, the frequency decreased to 27 (0.8%) of 3203 women (Pdelivery for non-obstetric indications was reduced significantly by introducing specific reasonable measures. These included all non-obstetric indications for cesarean delivery being approved by a leading specialist of the related department, close cooperation with professionals from other specialties, and, additionally, staff attending professional educational lectures. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Durnwald, Celeste P; Rouse, Dwight J; Leveno, Kenneth J; Spong, Catherine Y; MacPherson, Cora; Varner, Michael W; Moawad, Atef H; Caritis, Steve N; Harper, Margaret; Wapner, Ronald J; Sorokin, Yoram; Miodovnik, Menachem; Carpenter, Marshall; Peaceman, Alan M; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Sibai, Baha; Langer, Oded; Thorp, John M; Ramin, Susan M; Mercer, Brian M; Gabbe, Steven G
This study was undertaken to compare success rates of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC) delivery, and uterine rupture as well as maternal/perinatal outcomes between women with preterm and term pregnancies undergoing trial of labor (TOL), and to compare maternal and neonatal morbidities in those women with preterm pregnancies undergoing a TOL versus repeat cesarean delivery without labor (RCD). Prospective 4-year observational study of women with a singleton gestation and a prior cesarean delivery at 19 academic centers. Clinical characteristics, maternal complications and VBAC delivery success for those with a preterm (24(0)-36(6) weeks) TOL, preterm RCD and term TOL (> or = 37 weeks) were analyzed. Among 3119 preterm pregnancies with prior cesarean delivery, 2338 (75%) underwent a TOL. 15,331 women undergoing TOL at term were also analyzed as a control group. TOL success rates for preterm and term pregnancies were similar (72.8% vs 73.3%, P = .64). Rates of uterine rupture (0.34% vs 0.74%, P = .03) and dehiscence (0.26% vs 0.67%, P = .02) were lower in preterm compared with term TOL. Thromboembolic disease, coagulopathy and transfusion were more common in women undergoing a preterm TOL than those at term. Among women undergoing a preterm TOL, rates of uterine dehiscence, coagulopathy, transfusion, and endometritis were similar to those having a preterm RCD. After controlling for gestational age at delivery and race, neonatal outcomes such as Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) admission, intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, and ventilatory support were similar in both groups except for a higher rate of respiratory distress syndrome in those delivered after a TOL. The likelihood of VBAC success after TOL in preterm pregnancies is comparable to term gestations, with a lower risk of uterine rupture. Perinatal outcomes are similar with preterm TOL and RCD. TOL should be considered as an option for women undergoing preterm delivery with a history of prior cesarean
Uwagbai, Omici N; Wittich, Arthur C
A case of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta found during scheduled repeat low transverse Cesarean section will be discussed within this article. First described in the 1900s, Couvelaire syndrome, also known as uteroplacental apoplexy, is a rare form of nonfatal placenta abruption complication. The case involves a 30-year-old gravida 3 para 2 otherwise healthy female with an uncomplicated pregnancy and two previous cesarean deliveries without complication. She received routine prenatal care. During her pregnancy, she did not experience any symptoms such as vaginal bleeding or abdominal pain. After delivering a healthy female, there were several unsuccessful attempts to remove the placenta from the uterus. Upon inspection, the uterus was found have dark purple patches with ecchymosis and indurations, diagnostic of Couvelaire uterus. Furthermore, there was high clinical suspicion for placenta accreta as the 30-minute mark approached without placenta detachment. A telephonic emergency review with the wet desk radiologist of the 18-week ultrasound revealed high suspicion for placenta accreta. A Cesarean hysterectomy was performed for prevention of significant hemorrhage. This case report may be the first documented association of Couvelaire uterus with placenta accreta. Providers should be vigilant in monitoring for antenatal bleeding, timing of placenta separation, and postpartum hemorrhage. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Full Text Available Background: Cesarean delivery is the most common surgical procedure and this prevalence is on the rise. Given these trends, cesarean wound complications, such as disruption or infection, remain an important cause of post-cesarean morbidity. Methods: We conducted a single-center randomized controlled trial that included women with viable pregnancies (≥24 weeks undergoing cesarean delivery at Motahary University Hospital, Urmia, Iran from April to November 2014. All cesarean types were included: scheduled or unscheduled and primary or repeat cesareans. Women were excluded for the following reasons: inability to obtain informed consent, immune compromising disease (e.g. AIDS, chronic steroid use, diabetic mellitus and BMI≥30. Of 266 women, 133 were randomized to staples and 133 women to suture group. Results: The mean±SD age of the staples group was 27.6±5.4 years and mean±SD age of suture was 28.7±5.9 years. Multiparity is the most frequent in both groups that by using Chi-square test, no significant differences were observed between the two groups (P=0.393. The most frequent indication for cesarean section in both groups was history of cesarean section in staple 40 cases (30.1% and suture 32 cases (24.1%. The survey was conducted using the Chi-square test was not significant (P=0.381. Pain at 6 weeks postoperatively was significantly less in the staple group (P=0.001. Operative time was longer with suture closure (4.68±0.67 versus 1.03±0.07 minute, P<0.001. The Vancouver scale score was significantly less in suture closure (6.6±0.8 versus 7.5±0.9, P=0.001. Wound disruption was significantly less in suture closure (3.8% versus 11.3%, P=0.017. Conclusion: The staple group had low pain and operation time but had a significant wound disruption and scar. The patients who have suffered a significant wound disruption were affected by age (P=0.022 and BMI (P=0.001 at compared those who were not affected by factors such as age or high BMI as
Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Bardey, David; Castano-Yepes, Ramon
To assess the issue of hospital variations in Colombia and to contribute to the methodology on health care variations by using a model that clusters the variance between hospitals while accounting for individual-level reimbursement rates and objective health-status variables. We used data on all births (N = 11,954) taking place in a contributory-regimen insurer network in Colombia during 2007. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to account for the share of unexplained variance between hospitals. In addition, an alternative variance decomposition specification was further carried out to measure the proportion of such unexplained variance due to the region effect. Hospitals account for 20% of the variation in performing cesarean sections, whereas region explains only one-third of such variance. Variables accounting for preferences on the demand side as well as reimbursement rates are found to predict the probability of performing cesarean sections. Hospital variations explain large variances within a single-payer's network. Because this insurer company is highly regarded in terms of performance and finance, these results might provide a lower bound for the scale of hospital variation in the Colombian health care market. Such lower bound provides guidance on the relevance of this issue for Colombia. Some factors such as demand-side preferences and physician reimbursement rates increase variations in health care even within a single-payer network. This is a source of inefficiencies, threatening the quality of health care and financial sustainability. The proposed methodology should be considered in further research on health care variations. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Broekman, Evelien A.; Versteeg, Henneke; Vos, Louwerens D.; Dijksterhuis, Marja G.; Papatsonis, Dimitri N.
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of temporary balloon occlusion of the internal iliac artery before uterine incision to prevent massive obstetric hemorrhage during cesarean delivery among patients with anterior placenta previa. Methods In a retrospective cohort study conducted at Amphia
Menderes, Gulden; Athar Ali, Nishath; Aagaard, Kjersti; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh
To estimate the incidence of surgical-site infection with use of chlorhexidine-alcohol compared with povidone-iodine among women undergoing cesarean deliveries. This was a retrospective cohort review of 1,000 consecutive cases in women who underwent cesarean delivery over a 1-year interval. The primary outcome was any surgical-site infection within 30 days (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criterion). Mean age and parity were equivalent (29.8±5.9 years; 2.6±1.4). Women were similar regarding baseline characteristics, including acknowledged surgical-site infection comorbidities (body mass index [BMI, calculated as weight (kg)/[height (m)]2], gestational diabetes, smoking; P>.05). Method of skin incision closure was different, with 91% among povidine-iodine compared with 81% among chlorhexidine-alcohol using staples (Pcesarean delivery (29% compared with 46%; Pinfection, the overall rate was similar between the two groups (5% [n=25] chlorhexidine and 5.8% [n=29] povidone-iodine; P=.58). In multivariable analysis and after control for potential confounders, odds for surgical-site infection remained similar between the two groups (adjusted odds ratio 0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.41-1.33; P=.32). The only significant predictor of surgical-site infection was duration of cesarean delivery, in which every 1-minute increase in duration increased the odds for infection by 1.3% (adjusted odds ratio 1.013, 95% CI 1.004-1.022; P=.004). The single significant predictor of surgical-site infection is operative time. Cleansing with povidone-iodine may be a cost-effective and equally efficacious alternative to chlorhexidine-alcohol among women undergoing cesarean deliveries. II.
Kinney Michelle A O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal cardiovascular and pulmonary events during labor and delivery may result in adverse maternal and fetal outcome. Potential etiologies include primary cardiac events, pulmonary embolism, eclampsia, maternal hemorrhage, and adverse medication events. Remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia is an alternative when conventional neuraxial analgesia for labor is contraindicated. Although remifentanil is a commonly used analgesic, its use for labor analgesia is not clearly defined. Case presentation We present an unexpected and unique case of remifentanil toxicity resulting in the need for an emergent bedside cesarean delivery. A 30-year-old G3P2 woman receiving subcutaneous heparin anticoagulation due to a recent deep vein thrombosis developed cardiopulmonary arrest during labor induction due to remifentanil toxicity. Conclusion A rapid discussion among the attending obstetric, anesthesia, and nursing teams resulted in consensus to perform an emergent bedside cesarean delivery resulting in an excellent fetal outcome. During maternal cardiopulmonary arrest, a prompt decision to perform a bedside cesarean delivery is essential to avoid significant maternal and fetal morbidity. Under these conditions, rapid collaboration among obstetric, anesthesia, and nursing personnel, and an extensive multi-layered safety process are integral components to optimize maternal and fetal outcomes.
Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...
Kok, N.; Wiersma, I. C.; Opmeer, B. C.; de Graaf, I. M.; Mol, B. W.; Pajkrt, E.
Along with the increasing rate of cesarean section (CS) births has been a concomitant decrease in the rate of vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), mostly due to concerns about uterine rupture during a trial of labor (TOL). The risk of uterine rupture in laboring women with a previous CS must be
Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...
George, Ronald B; McKeen, Dolores M; Dominguez, Jennifer E; Allen, Terrence K; Doyle, Patricia A; Habib, Ashraf S
Hypotension is common after spinal anesthesia for Cesarean delivery. It is associated with nausea, vomiting, and fetal acidosis. Previous research on phenylephrine excluded obese subjects. We compared the incidence of intraoperative nausea and vomiting (IONV) in obese patients who received a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion vs those who received bolus dosing for the treatment of spinal-induced hypotension. In this multicentre, double-blinded randomized controlled trial, 160 obese women undergoing elective Cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to receive a prophylactic phenylephrine infusion initiated at 50 μg·min -1 (and titrated according to a predefined algorithm) or 100 μg phenylephrine boluses to treat hypotension. Maternal systolic blood pressure was maintained within 20% of baseline. The primary study outcome was the incidence of IONV. Intraoperative nausea and vomiting were significantly reduced in the infusion group compared to the bolus group (46% vs 75%, respectively; relative risk [RR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 0.80; P < 0.001). This was associated with significantly reduced need for intraoperative rescue antiemetics (26% vs 42%, respectively; RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.97; P = 0.04), but no difference in the incidence of vomiting. Postoperative vomiting at two hours was reduced in the infusion group (11% vs 25%; RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.90; P = 0.02);however, there were no differences in the incidence or severity of postoperative nausea, need for rescue antiemetics at two hours and 24 hr, or the incidence of postoperative vomiting at 24 hr. In obese women undergoing Cesarean delivery with spinal anesthesia, prophylactic phenylephrine infusion was associated with less intraoperative nausea, less need for rescue antiemetics, and reduced early postoperative vomiting. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01481740). Registered 22 July 2011.
Shinar, Shiri; Blecher, Yair; Alpern, Sharon; Many, Ariel; Ashwal, Eran; Amikam, Uri; Cohen, Aviad
Sterilization via bilateral total salpingectomy is slowly replacing partial salpingectomy, as it is believed to decrease the incidence of ovarian cancer. Our objective was to compare short-term intra and post-operative complication rates of bilateral total salpingectomy versus partial salpingectomy performed during the course of a cesarean delivery. A large series of tubal sterilizations during cesarean sections were studied in a single tertiary medical center between 1/2014 and 8/2016 before and after a policy change was made, switching from partial salpingectomy to total salpingectomy. Patients who underwent bilateral partial salpingectomy using the modified Pomeroy technique were compared with those who underwent total salpingectomy. Operative length, estimated blood loss, postpartum fever, wound infection, need for re-laparotomy, hospitalization length, and blood transfusions were compared. During the study period, 149 women met inclusion criteria. Fifty parturients underwent bilateral total salpingectomy and 99 underwent partial salpingectomy in the course of the cesarean section. Demographic, obstetrical, and surgical characteristics were similar in both groups. Mean cesarean section duration was comparable for partial salpingectomy and total salpingectomy (a median of 35 min in both groups, P = 0.92). Complications were rare in both groups with no significant differences in rates of postpartum fever, wound infection, re-laparotomy, hospitalization length, estimated blood loss, transfusions, and readmissions within 1-month postpartum. Rates of short-term complications are similar in patients undergoing bilateral partial salpingectomy and total salpingectomy during cesarean deliveries, making the latter a feasible alternative to the former.
The high incidence of PSH with most of the pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods suggests the need for multimodal protocols for prevention and management of this problem. PSH in cesarean delivery is a common daily situation facing all anesthetists; thus, future research should focus on simple and rapid protocols that can be easily applied by anesthetists with moderate and low experience with minimal need to complex devices or costly drugs.
Levi, Erika E; Stuart, Gretchen S; Zerden, Matthew L; Garrett, Joanne M; Bryant, Amy G
To compare intrauterine device (IUD) use at 6 months postpartum among women who underwent intracesarean delivery (during cesarean delivery) IUD placement compared with women who planned for interval IUD placement 6 or more weeks postpartum. In this nonblinded randomized trial, women who were undergoing a cesarean delivery and desired an IUD were randomized to intracesarean delivery or interval IUD placement. The primary outcome was IUD use at 6 months postpartum. A sample size of 112 (56 in each group) was planned to detect a 15% difference in IUD use at 6 months postpartum between groups. From March 2012 to June 2014, 172 women were screened and 112 women were randomized into the trial. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Data regarding IUD use at 6 months postpartum were available for 98 women, 48 and 50 women in the intracesarean delivery and interval groups, respectively. A larger proportion of the women in the intracesarean delivery group were using an IUD at 6 months postpartum (40/48 [83%]) compared with those in the interval group (32/50 [64%], relative risk 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.02-1.66). Among the 56 women randomized to interval IUD insertion, 22 (39%) of them never received an IUD; 14 (25%) never returned for IUD placement, five (9%) women declined an IUD, and three (5%) had a failed IUD placement. Intrauterine device placement at the time of cesarean delivery leads to a higher proportion of IUD use at 6 months postpartum when compared with interval IUD placement. I.
Prabhu, Malavika; McQuaid-Hanson, Emily; Hopp, Stephanie; Burns, Sara M; Leffert, Lisa R; Landau, Ruth; Lauffenburger, Julie C; Choudhry, Niteesh K; Kaimal, Anjali; Bateman, Brian T
To assess whether a shared decision-making intervention decreases the quantity of oxycodone tablets prescribed after cesarean delivery. A tablet computer-based decision aid formed the basis of a shared decision-making session to guide opioid prescribing after cesarean delivery. Women first received information on typical trajectories of pain resolution and expected opioid use after cesarean delivery and then chose the number of tablets of 5 mg oxycodone they would be prescribed up to the institutional standard prescription of 40 tablets. From April 11, 2016, to June 10, 2016, 105 women were screened, 75 were eligible, and 51 consented to participate; one patient was excluded after enrollment as a result of prolonged hospitalization. The median number of tablets (5 mg oxycodone) women chose for their prescription was 20.0 (interquartile range 15.0-25.0), which was less than the standard 40-tablet prescription (Pleftover opioid medication after treatment of acute postcesarean pain. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02770612.
Campo-Engelstein, Lisa; Howland, Lauren E; Parker, Wendy M; Burcher, Paul
Media interest in cesarean delivery has grown in recent years driven both by rising cesarean delivery rates and the decision by the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology (ACOG) to permit elective cesarean (EC) delivery. A content analysis of United States newspaper and magazine articles from 2000 to 2013 (n = 131 articles) was completed to understand how the news media portrays ECs. The majority of articles (71.8%) emphasized reasons to support women having an EC, while 38.2 percent of the articles exhibited themes of physician support for ECs. Relatively few articles mentioned reasons against ECs either from the women's perspective (11.5%) or the practitioners' (3.8%). The most common themes given for women choosing ECs were convenience/scheduling (48.9%), avoidance of pain or fear of labor (29.8%), and physical harm to women from vaginal birth (17.6%). Doctors' perspectives were less prevalent in the media than women's perspectives, but when mentioned they were almost exclusively in support of ECs for reasons including avoiding malpractice (28.2%), avoiding physical harm to the woman or baby (16.8%), and timing/scheduling (14.5%). Media coverage suggests ECs are widely accepted by both women and doctors, with women choosing an EC mainly for convenience/scheduling and fear. However, 43 percent of doctors surveyed by ACOG said they were not willing to perform the procedure, and surveys report that mothers rarely request an EC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Westcott, Jill M; Crockett, Libby; Qiu, Fang; Berg, Teresa G
The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of cyanoacrylate skin glue following subcuticular skin closure was associated with a decrease in wound outcomes in comparison with subcuticular closure plus Steri-strips at cesarean delivery. This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing cesarean delivery at a single center over a two-year period. The primary outcome of wound infection and secondary outcomes of wound separation and composite wound complication rate were assessed throughout the six-week postpartum period. Of 660 women who met inclusion criteria, 35 (5.3%) experienced a wound infection and 90 (13.6%) experienced a wound separation. The composite wound complication rate was 16.4% (n = 108). Of the 515 cases with a skin coverage method noted, use of skin glue was associated with a marginal decrease in wound infections (p = 0.057), as well as a significantly reduced incidence of wound separation (p = 0.03) and composite wound complications (p = 0.006). Cyanoacrylate skin glue may be superior to Steri-strips for wound separation and composite wound complication rates when utilized with subcuticular suture at the time of cesarean delivery and may yield some benefit for prevention of wound infection.
Leinani Aiono-Le Tagaloa
Full Text Available The aim of this survey was to review cesarean delivery anesthetic practices. An online survey was sent to members of the Society of Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (SOAP. The mode of anesthesia, preferred neuraxial local anesthetic and opioid agents, postoperative analgesic regimens, and monitoring modalities were assessed. 384 responses from 1,081 online survey requests were received (response rate = 36%. Spinal anesthesia is most commonly used for elective cesarean delivery (85% respondents, with 90% of these respondents preferring hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.75%. 79% used intrathecal fentanyl and 77% used morphine (median [range] dose 200 mcg [50–400]. 91% use respiratory rate, 61% use sedation scores, and 30% use pulse oximetry to monitor for postoperative respiratory depression after administration of neuraxial opioids. Postoperative analgesic regimens include: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, acetaminophen, oxycodone, and hydrocodone by 81%, 45%, 25%, and 27% respondents respectively. The majority of respondents use spinal anesthesia and neuraxial opioids for cesarean delivery anesthesia. There is marked variability in practices for monitoring respiratory depression postdelivery and for providing postoperative analgesia. These results may not be indicative of overall practice in the United States due to the select group of anesthesiologists surveyed and the low response rate.
Maged, Ahmed M; Helal, Omneya M; Elsherbini, Moutaz M; Eid, Marwa M; Elkomy, Rasha O; Dahab, Sherif; Elsissy, Maha H
To study the efficacy and safety of preoperative intravenous tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss during and after elective lower-segment cesarean delivery. A single-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study was undertaken of women undergoing elective lower-segment cesarean delivery of a full-term singleton pregnancy at a center in Cairo, Egypt, between November 2013 and November 2014. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using computer-generated random numbers to receive either 1g tranexamic acid or 5% glucose 15 minutes before surgery. Preoperative and postoperative complete blood count, hematocrit values, and maternal weight were used to calculate the estimated blood loss (EBL) during cesarean, which was the primary outcome. Analyses included women who received their assigned treatment, whose surgery was 90 minutes or less, and who completed follow-up. Analyses included 100 women in each group. Mean EBL was significantly higher in the placebo group (700.3 ± 143.9 mL) than in the tranexamic acid group (459.4 ±7 5.4 mL; Pcesarean delivery. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry:ACTRN12615000312549. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kavanagh, T; Jee, R; Kilpatrick, N; Douglas, J
Klippel-Feil syndrome is defined by congenital fusion of two or more cervical vertebrae and can be associated with abnormalities in multiple systems. Management poses challenges to the anesthesiologist, particularly in pregnancy. Cervical spine immobility and instability can make the management of the airway fraught with danger and vertebral column distortion may make neuraxial anesthesia unreliable. We present the management of a nulliparous patient with features consistent with Type I Klippel-Feil syndrome undergoing elective cesarean delivery. The patient had a potentially difficult airway and features consistent with an unstable cervical spine and severe thoracic and lumbar scoliosis. A combined spinal-epidural technique was used which initially provided satisfactory anesthesia, but ultimately proved inadequate despite use of the epidural component. Satisfactory anesthesia for surgery was eventually achieved with the addition of an intravenous remifentanil infusion. We review previous case reports discussing anesthetic management of parturients with Klippel-Feil syndrome, and describe the challenges encountered and lessons learned from management of this case. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Shaaban, Omar M; Hassanin, Ahmed I; Ibraheem, Alaa A
To evaluate the feasibility of using the Robson Ten Group Classification System (TGCS) for cesarean delivery (CD) indications at institutional level. Prospective clinical audits of women delivering by CD at Women's Health Hospital, Assiut, Egypt, were conducted in 2008 and 2011. The CD rates overall and in each Robson group were calculated, as was the contribution of each group to the overall CD rate. In addition, the CD indications in each group were analyzed. The CD rate was 32% (443/1357) in 2008 and 38% (626/1628) in 2011. The most common CD indication at both time intervals was a previous CD. Multiparas without uterine scar, a single cephalic term pregnancy, and spontaneous labor (Robson Group 3) comprised the largest group of women undergoing CD, followed by nulliparas with a single cephalic term pregnancy and spontaneous labor (Group 1), and multiparas with a scarred uterus and a single cephalic term pregnancy (Group 5). Group 5 was the largest contributor (30%) to the overall CD rate, followed by Groups 1 and 4 (10% each). The TGCS can be applied at institutional level. It helps in planning strategies for specific subgroups of women to reduce CD rates and improve outcomes. © 2013.
Bateman, Brian T.; Franklin, Jessica M.; Bykov, Katsiaryna; Avorn, Jerry; Shrank, William H.; Brennan, Troyen A.; Landon, Joan E.; Rathmell, James P.; Huybrechts, Krista F.; Fischer, Michael A.; Choudhry, Niteesh K.
Background The incidence of opioid-related death in women has increased five-fold over the past decade. For many women, their initial opioid exposure will occur in the setting of routine medical care. Approximately 1 in 3 deliveries in the U.S. is by Cesarean and opioids are commonly prescribed for post-surgical pain management. Objective The objective of this study was to determine the risk that opioid naïve women prescribed opioids after Cesarean delivery will subsequently become consistent prescription opioid users in the year following delivery, and to identify predictors for this behavior. Study Design We identified women in a database of commercial insurance beneficiaries who underwent Cesarean delivery and who were opioid-naïve in the year prior to delivery. To identify persistent users of opioids, we used trajectory models, which group together patients with similar patterns of medication filling during follow-up, based on patterns of opioid dispensing in the year following Cesarean delivery. We then constructed a multivariable logistic regression model to identify independent risk factors for membership in the persistent user group. Results 285 of 80,127 (0.36%, 95% confidence interval 0.32 to 0.40), opioid-naïve women became persistent opioid users (identified using trajectory models based on monthly patterns of opioid dispensing) following Cesarean delivery. Demographics and baseline comorbidity predicted such use with moderate discrimination (c statistic = 0.73). Significant predictors included a history of cocaine abuse (risk 7.41%; adjusted odds ratio 6.11, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 36.31) and other illicit substance abuse (2.36%; adjusted odds ratio 2.78, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 6.91), tobacco use (1.45%; adjusted odds ratio 3.04, 95% confidence interval 2.03 to 4.55), back pain (0.69%; adjusted odds ratio 1.74, 95% confidence interval 1.33 to 2.29), migraines (0.91%; adjusted odds ratio 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.58 to 2
Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Zahra; Khalajabadi-Farahani, Farideh
Iran has the second highest rate of cesarean section in the world. the corresponding rate in the third metropolitan city of Iran, Isfahan, is even higher. This paper aimed to assess correlates and determinants of intention for cesarean section versus normal vaginal delivery (NVD) among pregnant women in Isfahan. A study was conducted among 400 pregnant women aged 18-38 years, with gestational age of 24-40 weeks who attended labor clinics of nine hospitals in Isfahan during June and July 2014. Probability proportional to size was used to estimate the number of cases required to be selected for each hospital. T-test, chi-square and logistic regression analysis were employed to analyze the data. Mean age of women was 26.6±4.4 years. Multivariate analysis identified selected factors as determinants of intention for CS. These were "the role of physician" (OR=1.33, pcesarean section" and "individualism" influence CS decision through subjective norm. Choosing cesarean section voluntarily is a multifaceted decision which is shaped by various factors; hence, comprehensive interventions are suggested to discourage voluntary cesarean section. These interventions need to encompass changes in physicians' role, social norms, body image and correcting misperceptions among women towards CS and NVD during prenatal courses.
Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Zahra; Khalajabadi-Farahani, Farideh
Background: Iran has the second highest rate of cesarean section in the world. the corresponding rate in the third metropolitan city of Iran, Isfahan, is even higher. This paper aimed to assess correlates and determinants of intention for cesarean section versus normal vaginal delivery (NVD) among pregnant women in Isfahan. Methods: A study was conducted among 400 pregnant women aged 18–38 years, with gestational age of 24–40 weeks who attended labor clinics of nine hospitals in Isfahan during June and July 2014. Probability proportional to size was used to estimate the number of cases required to be selected for each hospital. T-test, chi-square and logistic regression analysis were employed to analyze the data. Results: Mean age of women was 26.6±4.4 years. Multivariate analysis identified selected factors as determinants of intention for CS. These were “the role of physician” (OR=1.33, pcesarean section” and “individualism” influence CS decision through subjective norm. Conclusion: Choosing cesarean section voluntarily is a multifaceted decision which is shaped by various factors; hence, comprehensive interventions are suggested to discourage voluntary cesarean section. These interventions need to encompass changes in physicians’ role, social norms, body image and correcting misperceptions among women towards CS and NVD during prenatal courses. PMID:27921002
Ngai, Ivan M; Van Arsdale, Anne; Govindappagari, Shravya; Judge, Nancy E; Neto, Nicole K; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Bernstein, Peter S; Garry, David J
To compare chlorhexidine with alcohol, povidone-iodine with alcohol, and both applied sequentially to estimate their relative effectiveness in prevention of surgical site infections after cesarean delivery. Women undergoing nonemergent cesarean birth at greater than 37 0/7 weeks of gestation were randomly allocated to one of three antiseptic skin preparations: povidone-iodine with alcohol, chlorhexidine with alcohol, or the sequential combination of both solutions. The primary outcome was surgical site infection reported within the first 30 days postpartum. Based on a surgical site infection rate of 12%, an anticipated 50% reduction for the combination group relative to either single skin preparation group, with a power of 0.90 and an α of 0.05, 430 women per group were needed to detect a difference. From January 2013 to July 2014, 1,404 women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: povidone-iodine with alcohol (n=463), chlorhexidine with alcohol (n=474), or both (n=467). The groups were similar with respect to demographics, medical disorders, indication for cesarean delivery, operative time, and blood loss. The overall rate of surgical site infection-4.3%-was lower than anticipated. The skin preparation groups had similar surgical site infection rates: povidone-iodine 4.6%, chlorhexidine with alcohol 4.5%, and sequential 3.9% (P=.85). The skin preparation techniques resulted in similar rates of surgical site infections. Our study provides no support for any particular method of skin preparation before cesarean delivery. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01870583. I.
Verspyck, Eric; Douysset, Xavier; Roman, Horace; Marret, Stephane; Marpeau, Loïc
To compare maternal outcomes after transection and after avoiding incision of the anterior placenta previa during cesarean delivery. In a retrospective study, records were reviewed for women who had anterior placenta previa and delivered by cesarean after 24 weeks of pregnancy at a tertiary center in Rouen, France. During period A (January 2000 to December 2006), the protocol was to systematically transect the placenta when it was unavoidable. During period B (January 2007 to December 2010), the technique was to avoid incision by circumventing the placenta and passing a hand around its margin. Logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors associated with maternal transfusion of packed red blood cells. Eighty-four women were included (period A: n=43; period B: n=41). During period B, there was a reduction in frequency of intraoperative hemorrhage (>1000 mL) (P=0.02), intraoperative hemoglobin loss (P=0.005), and frequency of blood transfusion (P=0.02) as compared with period A. In multivariable analysis, period B was associated with a reduced risk of maternal transfusion (odds ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.82; P=0.02). Avoiding incision of the anterior placenta previa was found to reduce frequency of maternal blood transfusion during or after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Metz, Torri D.; Stoddard, Gregory J.; Henry, Erick; Jackson, Marc; Holmgren, Calla; Esplin, Sean
OBJECTIVE To create a simple tool for predicting the likelihood of successful trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC) during the pregnancy after a primary cesarean delivery using variables available at the time of admission. METHODS Data for all deliveries at 14 regional hospitals over an 8-year period were reviewed. Women with one cesarean delivery and one subsequent delivery were included. Variables associated with successful VBAC were identified using multivariable logistic regression. Points were assigned to these characteristics, with weighting based on the coefficients in the regression model to calculate an integer VBAC score. The VBAC score was correlated with TOLAC success rate and was externally validated in an independent cohort using a logistic regression model. RESULTS A total of 5,445 women met inclusion criteria. Of those women, 1,170 (21.5%) underwent TOLAC. Of the women who underwent trial of labor, 938 (80%) had a successful VBAC. AVBAC score was generated based on the Bishop score (cervical examination) at the time of admission, with points added for history of vaginal birth, age younger than 35 years, absence of recurrent indication, and body mass index less than 30. Women with a VBAC score less than 10 had a likelihood of TOLAC success less than 50%. Women with a VBAC score more than 16 had a TOLAC success rate more than 85%. The model performed well in an independent cohort with an area under the curve of 0.80 (95% confidence interval 0.76–0.84). CONCLUSIONS Prediction of TOLAC success at the time of admission is highly dependent on the initial cervical examination. This simple VBAC score can be utilized when counseling women considering TOLAC. PMID:23921867
Wang, Eileen; Hesketh, Therese
In 2010, China's cesarean delivery (CD) rates increased to one of the highest in the world, a significant proportion of which were without medical indication. However, recent studies have indicated some declines, coinciding with national and local efforts to promote vaginal birth, as well as the relaxation of the one-child policy. Considering these trends, we aimed to qualitatively explore attitudes towards childbirth and experiences of delivery decision-making among women and physicians. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 45 postpartum women and 7 healthcare providers at one county-level and one provincial-level maternity hospital in Zhejiang Province. We also collected routine data from 2007 to 2016 and observed doctor-patient interactions and hospital facilities as context for the interviews. Interviews were recorded, translated and transcribed into English, and then analyzed using a framework approach. From 2007 to 2016, cesarean delivery rates at the county-level and provincial-level hospital decreased from 46% to 32% and 68% to 44%, respectively. For low-risk women, vaginal birth was the primary choice of delivery method, encouraged by doctors and nurse-midwives. Elective CD was not as widely accepted, in contrast to previous years. Women were aware of and took into consideration the consequences of CD for future pregnancies. Among those who delivered vaginally, women viewed the existing pain relief methods, epidurals and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, with caution or uncertainty. Even when requested, epidurals were only given under certain circumstances. For multiparas with previous CD, repeat CD remains the norm. Both women and professionals were cautious about vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) given the associated risks. In China, changes in family planning policy and efforts to promote vaginal birth have greatly changed the culture of delivery decision-making, leading to decreased CD rates. This demonstrates the
Eslami, Saeid; Aslani, Azam; Tara, Fatemeh; Ghalichi, Leila; Erfanian, Fatemeh; Abu-Hanna, Ameen
Cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR) is one of the main reasons for cesarean delivery in Iran, and women often need help in making a decision about the delivery options available to them. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of a computerized decision aid (CDA) system
Mackeen, A Dhanya; Packard, Roger E; Ota, Erika; Berghella, Vincenzo; Baxter, Jason K
Given the continued rise in cesarean birth rate and the increased risk of surgical site infections after cesarean birth compared with vaginal birth, effective interventions must be established for prevention of surgical site infections. Prophylactic intravenous (IV) antibiotic administration 60 minutes prior to skin incision is recommended for abdominal gynecologic surgery; however, administration of prophylactic antibiotics has traditionally been withheld until after neonatal umbilical cord clamping during cesarean delivery due to the concern for potential transfer of antibiotics to the neonate. To compare the effects of cesarean antibiotic prophylaxis administered preoperatively versus after neonatal cord clamp on postoperative infectious complications for both the mother and the neonate. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 March 2014) and reference lists of retrieved papers. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing maternal and neonatal outcomes following prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to skin incision versus after neonatal cord clamping during cesarean delivery. Cluster-RCTs were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-RCT and trials using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion in this review. Studies published in abstract form only were eligible for inclusion if sufficient information was available in the report. At least two review authors independently assessed the studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias, abstracted data and checked entries for accuracy. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 10 studies (12 trial reports) from which 5041 women contributed data for the primary outcome. The overall risk of bias was low.When comparing prophylactic intravenous (IV) antibiotic administration in women undergoing cesarean delivery, there was a reduction in composite maternal infectious morbidity (risk ratio (RR) 0.57, 95% confidence
Hans, Punit; Rohatgi, Renu
To construct a hybrid model classification for cesarean section (CS) deliveries based on the woman-characteristics (Robson's classification with additional layers of indications for CS, keeping in view low-resource settings available in India). This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Nalanda Medical College, Patna. All the women delivered from January 2016 to May 2016 in the labor ward were included. Results obtained were compared with the values obtained for India, from secondary analysis of WHO multi-country survey (2010-2011) by Joshua Vogel and colleagues' study published in "The Lancet Global Health." The three classifications (indication-based, Robson's and hybrid model) applied for categorization of the cesarean deliveries from the same sample of data and a semiqualitative evaluations done, considering the main characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of each classification system. The total number of women delivered during study period was 1462, out of which CS deliveries were 471. Overall, CS rate calculated for NMCH, hospital in this specified period, was 32.21% ( p = 0.001). Hybrid model scored 23/23, and scores of Robson classification and indication-based classification were 21/23 and 10/23, respectively. Single-study centre and referral bias are the limitations of the study. Given the flexibility of the classifications, we constructed a hybrid model based on the woman-characteristics system with additional layers of other classification. Indication-based classification answers why, Robson classification answers on whom, while through our hybrid model we get to know why and on whom cesarean deliveries are being performed.
Shaaban, Mohamed M; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed Ali; Ahmed, Waleed S; Khadr, Zeinab; El-Sayed, Hesham F
(1) To investigate Egyptian obstetricians' views towards cesarean delivery on maternal request, (2) to investigate Egyptian obstetricians' views towards some of the "potentially neglected" or controversial obstetrical skills or maneuvers as external cephalic version (ECV), fetal scalp pH measurement or tubal ligation during CS and (3) to examine the effect of professional level on the above factors. This is a descriptive study performed at the 8th annual Obstetrics and Gynecology conference of Suez Canal University held at Ismailia city in Egypt in June 2011 via a structured self administered questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed to 223 conference attendants from the three professional levels (consultants, specialists and registrars) working at the two major institutions in Egypt: University and Ministry of Health. The structured questionnaire was based on informed opinion and professional guidelines. In total, 167 (75%) completed the questionnaire. Cesarean delivery on maternal request was accepted by 66% of the studied group and acceptance was significantly higher among consultants. There was no difference in all physicians' practices of cesarean section in both private and public settings. Limited access to medical equipment such as cardiotocogram (CTG) was shown in consultant group reflecting improper private sector preparations. The study revealed that 59% of obstetricians accepted vaginal breech delivery, and only 14% would consider ECV. Fetal scalp pH taking in cases of abnormal CTG was accepted by only 16.3% and 49% rejected the practice of instrumental delivery. There were significant differences among the three professional and the two institutional groups regarding these attitudes. There were different views regarding tubal sterilization during CS. Lack of knowledge, the need to improve some clinical skills and some professional attitudes may shed light on rising CS rates in Egypt.
El Behery, Manal M; El Sayed, Gamal Abbas; El Hameed, Azza A Abd; Soliman, Badeea S; Abdelsalam, Walid A; Bahaa, Abeer
To assess and compare the effectiveness and safety of single IV polus dose of carbetocin, versus IV oxytocin infusion in the prevention of PPH in obese nulliparous women undergoing emergency Cesarean Delivery. A double-blinded randomized-controlled trial was conducted on 180 pregnant women with BMI >30. Women were randomized to receive either oxytocin or carbetocin during C.S. The primary outcome measure was major primary PPH >1000 ml within 24 h of delivery as per the definition of PPH by the World Health Organization Secondary outcome measures were hemoglobin and hematocrit changes pre- and post-delivery, use of further ecobolics, uterine tone 2 and 12-h postpartum and adverse effects. A significant difference in the amount of estimated blood loss or the incidence of primary postpartum haemorrhage (>1000 ml) in both groups. Haemoglobin levels before and 24-h postpartum was similar. None from the carbetocin group versus 71.5% in oxytocin group needed additional utrotonics (p postpartum (p oxytocin infusion for maintaining adequate uterine tone and preventing postpartum bleeding in obese nulliparous women undergoing emergency cesarean delivery, both has similar safety profile and minor hemodynamic effect.
Jauniaux, Eric; Bhide, Amar
Women with a history of previous cesarean delivery, presenting with a placenta previa, have become the largest group with the highest risk for placenta previa accreta. The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasound imaging in the prenatal diagnosis of placenta accreta and the impact of the depth of villous invasion on management in women presenting with placenta previa or low-lying placenta and with 1 or more prior cesarean deliveries. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, clinicalTrials.gov, and MEDLINE for studies published between 1982 and November 2016. Criteria for the study were cohort studies that provided data on previous mode of delivery, placenta previa, or low-lying placenta on prenatal ultrasound imaging and pregnancy outcome. The initial search identified 171 records, of which 5 retrospective and 9 prospective cohort studies were eligible for inclusion in the quantitative analysis. The studies were scored on methodological quality using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool. The 14 cohort studies included 3889 pregnancies presenting with placenta previa or low-lying placenta and 1 or more prior cesarean deliveries screened for placenta accreta. There were 328 cases of placenta previa accreta (8.4%), of which 298 (90.9%) were diagnosed prenatally by ultrasound. The incidence of placenta previa accreta was 4.1% in women with 1 prior cesarean and 13.3% in women with ≥2 previous cesarean deliveries. The pooled performance of ultrasound for the antenatal detection of placenta previa accreta was higher in prospective than retrospective studies, with a diagnostic odds ratios of 228.5 (95% confidence interval, 67.2-776.9) and 80.8 (95% confidence interval, 13.0-501.4), respectively. Only 2 studies provided detailed data on the relationship between the depth of villous invasion and the number of previous cesarean deliveries, independently of the depth of the villous invasion. A cesarean hysterectomy was performed in
Adkins, Royce T; Bressman, Phillip L; Bressman, Patricia B; Lucas, Theresa L
To assess adverse events associated with radiofrequency endometrial ablation in treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding in patients with a history of low transverse cesarean delivery (C-section group) and patients who delivered vaginally (vaginal delivery group). Retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Community-based gynecology practice in the United States. The study included 194 patients (100 in the C-section group and 94 in the vaginal delivery group), aged 21 to 55 years, with a history of heavy menstrual bleeding. NovaSure endometrial ablation procedures were performed from April 2004 through December 2010. Demographic characteristics, gynecologic and pregnancy history, and procedure setting were compared between groups. Intraoperative and postoperative adverse events that occurred within 72 hours of the procedure were summarized. The C-section and vaginal delivery groups were similar for demographic characteristics with the exception of age (mean [SD], 40.6 [5.0] years vs 42.5 [5.3] years, respectively; p = .01). Parity was significantly higher in the C-section group compared with the vaginal delivery group (2.4 [0.9] vs 2.1 [0.7]; p = .006). Adverse events commonly associated with endometrial ablation occurred in 3 patients in the C-section group and 5 patients in the vaginal delivery group (p = .68). In addition, 1 patient failed the pre-ablation cavity integrity assessment; therefore, ablation was not performed. All events resolved without sequelae. No uterine perforation or bowel or bladder injury occurred in any patient. Radiofrequency endometrial ablation performed in a community practice was well tolerated in patients with a history of low transverse cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Temming, Lorene A; Raghuraman, Nandini; Carter, Ebony B; Stout, Molly J; Rampersad, Roxane M; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G; Tuuli, Methodius G
A number of evidence-based interventions have been proposed to reduce post-cesarean delivery wound complications. Examples of such interventions include appropriate timing of preoperative antibiotics, appropriate choice of skin antisepsis, closure of the subcutaneous layer if subcutaneous depth is ≥2 cm, and subcuticular skin closure with suture rather than staples. However, the collective impact of these measures is unclear. We sought to estimate the impact of a group of evidence-based surgical measures (prophylactic antibiotics administered before skin incision, chlorhexidine-alcohol for skin antisepsis, closure of subcutaneous layer, and subcuticular skin closure with suture) on wound complications after cesarean delivery and to estimate residual risk factors for wound complications. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of chlorhexidine-alcohol vs iodine-alcohol for skin antisepsis at cesarean delivery from 2011-2015. The primary outcome for this analysis was a composite of wound complications that included surgical site infection, cellulitis, seroma, hematoma, and separation within 30 days. Risk of wound complications in women who received all 4 evidence-based measures (prophylactic antibiotics within 60 minutes of cesarean delivery and before skin incision, chlorhexidine-alcohol for skin antisepsis with 3 minutes of drying time before incision, closure of subcutaneous layer if ≥2 cm of depth, and subcuticular skin closure with suture) were compared with those women who did not. We performed logistic regression analysis limited to patients who received all the evidence-based measures to estimate residual risk factors for wound complications and surgical site infection. Of 1082 patients with follow-up data, 349 (32.3%) received all the evidence-based measures, and 733 (67.7%) did not. The risk of wound complications was significantly lower in patients who received all the evidence-based measures compared with those who
Andziak, Marta; Beta, Jarosław; Barwijuk, Michal; Issat, Tadeusz; Jakimiuk, Artur J
The aim of the study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and tolerability of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine. Our observational study included 50 women who underwent a Misgav-Ladach or modified Misgav-Ladach cesarean section. Automated PCA infusion device (Medima S-PCA Syringe Pump, Medima, Krakow, Poland) was used for postoperative pain control. Time of morphine administration or initiation of intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV PCA) with morphine was recorded, as well as post-operative pain at rest assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS). All patients were followed up for 24 hours after discharge from the operating room, taking into account patient records, worst pain score at rest, number of IV PCA attempts, and drug consumption. Median of total morphine doses used during the postoperative period was 42.9mg (IQR 35.6-48.5), with median infusion time of 687.0 min. (IQR 531.0-757.5). Pain severity and total drug consumption improved after the first 3 hours following cesarean delivery (p PCA attempts per patient was 33 (IQR: 24-37), with median of 11 placebo attempts (IQR: 3-27). Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine is an efficient and acceptable analgesic method in women undergoing cesarean section.
Memon, Hafsa; Handa, Victoria L
Pelvic floor disorders affect women of all ages and are associated with significant economic burden and poor quality of life. Current literature suggests an association between childbirth and these disorders. In this review, we summarize recent advancements in our understanding of this association. Vaginal childbirth appears to be strongly associated with stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. There is less evidence to suggest an association between vaginal delivery and overactive bladder symptoms. History of more than one perineal laceration increases the likelihood of developing prolapse. Similar association has not been established for episiotomy. Disruption or denervation of structural components of pelvic floor support system, particularly levator ani muscle complex, is associated with later development of pelvic floor disorders. Imbalance in homeostasis of connective tissue remodeling of the vaginal wall from overstretching during childbirth is another possible mechanism. Pelvic floor disorders represent a significant health problem affecting women of all ages. Identification of potential modifiable risk factors and advancement in understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is crucial for primary and secondary prevention of these disorders and for improvement in treatment strategies.
Papathoma, Evangelia; Triga, Maria; Fouzas, Sotirios; Dimitriou, Gabriel
Delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may predispose to allergic disorders, presumably due to alterations in the establishment of normal gut microbiota in early infancy. In this study, we sought to investigate the association between CS and physician-diagnosed food allergy and atopic dermatitis during the first 3 years of life, using data from a homogeneous, population-based, birth cohort. A total of 459 children born and cared for in the same tertiary maternity unit were examined at birth and followed up at 1, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months of age. Participants with symptoms suggestive of food allergy or atopic dermatitis were evaluated by a pediatric allergy specialist to confirm the diagnosis based on well-defined criteria. The rate of CS was 50.8% (n = 233). Food allergy was diagnosed in 24 participants (5.2%) while atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 62 children (13.5%). Cesarean section (OR 3.15; 95% CI 1.14-8.70), atopic dermatitis of the child (OR 3.01; 95% CI 1.18-7.80), parental atopy (OR 4.33; 95% CI 1.73-12.1), and gestational age (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.07-2.37) were significant and independent predictors of food allergy. Children with at least one allergic parent delivered by CS had higher probability of developing food allergy compared with vaginally delivered children of non-allergic parents (OR 10.0; 95% CI 3.06-32.7). Conversely, the effect of CS on atopic dermatitis was not significant (OR 1.35; 95% CI 0.74-2.47). Delivery by CS predisposes to the development of food allergy but not atopic dermatitis in early childhood. Cesarean section delivery seems to upregulate the immune response to food allergens, especially in children with allergic predisposition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Schjoldager, Birgit T B G; Mikkelsen, Emmeli; Lykke, Malene R; Præst, Jørgen; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Heslet, Lars; Secher, Niels J; Salvig, Jannie D; Uldbjerg, Niels
During cesarean delivery in patients with placenta previa, hemorrhaging after removal of the placenta is often challenging. In this condition, the extraordinarily high concentration of tissue factor at the placenta site may constitute a principle of treatment as it activates coagulation very effectively. The presumption, however, is that tissue factor is bound to activated factor VII. We hypothesized that topical application of recombinant activated factor VII at the placenta site reduces bleeding without affecting intravascular coagulation. We included 5 cases with planned cesarean delivery for placenta previa. After removal of the placenta, the surgeon applied a swab soaked in recombinant activated factor VII containing saline (1 mg in 246 mL) to the placenta site for 2 minutes; this treatment was repeated once if the bleeding did not decrease sufficiently. We documented the treatment on video recordings and measured blood loss. Furthermore, we determined hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, international normalized ratio, activated partial thrombin time, fibrinogen (functional), factor VII:clot, and thrombin generation in peripheral blood prior to and 15 minutes after removal of the placenta. We also tested these blood coagulation variables in 5 women with cesarean delivery planned for other reasons. Mann-Whitney test was used for unpaired data. In all 5 cases, the uterotomy was closed under practically dry conditions and the median blood loss was 490 (range 300-800) mL. There were no adverse effects of recombinant activated factor VII and we did not measure factor VII to enter the circulation. Neither did we observe changes in thrombin generation, fibrinogen, activated partial thrombin time, international normalized ratio, and platelet count in the peripheral circulation (all P values >.20). This study indicates that in patients with placenta previa, topical recombinant activated factor VII may diminish bleeding from the placenta site without initiation
Felder, Laura; Paternostro, Amanda; Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Baxter, Jason; Berghella, Vincenzo
Endometritis is a postpartum complication that is more common after cesarean delivery. It frequently requires intravenous antibiotic administration, prolonged hospital stays, and carries a risk of sepsis or abscess formation. Precesarean vaginal preparation has been shown to decrease the risk of endometritis in patients who have labored or have ruptured membranes. The objective of this study was to assess the practical implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery and the subsequent effect on endometritis rates in a clinical setting. This is a before-after retrospective cohort study evaluating the first 6 months of implementation of a vaginal cleansing protocol at a single institution. The primary outcome was the rate of implementation. Secondary outcomes included endometritis and other postoperative complications. The rate of implementation after 6 months was 68.3% (p < .001) and postoperative endometritis rates decreased from 14.0% before implementation to 11.7% after implementation (p .49, OR 0.77, CI 0.36-1.62). Postoperative fever decreased from 22.3% to 18.3% (p .256, OR 0.70, CI 0.37-1.30) and infectious wound complications were 4.5% and 5.8%, respectively (p .76, OR 1.07, CI 0.69-3.64). Implementation of a protocol for vaginal cleansing prior to cesarean delivery in women with ruptured membranes or in labor has high uptake, but in almost a third of eligible women it was not performed. The implementation, has led to a clinical, although not statistical, decrease in postoperative endometritis. Continued research is needed to explore how to improve uptake of this quality improvement measure.
Hallworth, Stephen P; Fernando, Roshan; Columb, Malachy O; Stocks, Gary M
Posture and baricity during induction of spinal anesthesia with intrathecal drugs are believed to be important in determining spread within the cerebrospinal fluid. In this double-blind prospective study, 150 patients undergoing elective cesarean delivery were randomized to receive a hyperbaric, isobaric, or hypobaric intrathecal solution of 10 mg bupivacaine during spinal anesthesia induced in either the sitting or right lateral position. After an intrathecal injection using a combined-spinal technique patients were placed in the supine wedged position. We determined the densities of the three intrathecal solutions from a previously validated formula and measured using a DMA-450 density meter. Data collection included sensory level, motor block, episodes of hypotension, and ephedrine use. Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and Cuzick's trend. In the lateral position, baricity had no effect on the spread of sensory levels for bupivacaine compared to the sitting position, where there was a statistically significant difference in spread with the hypobaric solution producing higher levels of analgesia than the hyperbaric solution (P = 0.002). However, the overall differences in maximal spread only differed by one dermatome, with the hyperbaric solution achieving a median maximum sensory level to T3 compared with T2 for the isobaric and hypobaric solutions. Motor block was significantly (P = 0.029) reduced with increasing baricity and this trend was significant (P = 0.033) for the lateral position only. Hypotension incidence and ephedrine use increased with decreasing baricity (P = 0.003 and 0.004 respectively), with the hypobaric sitting group having the most frequent incidence of hypotension (76%) as well as cervical blocks (24%; P = 0.032).
Valent, Amy M.; DeArmond, Chris; Houston, Judy M.; Reddy, Srinidhi; Masters, Heather R.; Gold, Alison; Boldt, Michael; DeFranco, Emily; Evans, Arthur T.
Importance The rate of obesity among US women has been increasing, and obesity is associated with increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery. The optimal perioperative antibiotic prophylactic regimen in this high-risk population undergoing cesarean delivery is unknown. Objective To determine rates of SSI among obese women who receive prophylactic oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery for the prevention of SSI in obese women (prepregnancy BMI ≥30) who had received standard intravenous preoperative cephalosporin prophylaxis. Randomization was stratified by intact vs rupture of membranes prior to delivery. The study was conducted at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, an academic and urban setting, between October 2010 and December 2015, with final follow-up through February 2016. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral cephalexin, 500 mg, and metronidazole, 500 mg (n = 202 participants), vs identical-appearing placebo (n = 201 participants) every 8 hours for a total of 48 hours following cesarean delivery. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was SSI, defined as any superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections within 30 days after cesarean delivery. Results Among 403 randomized participants who were included (mean age, 28 [SD, 6] years; mean BMI, 39.7 [SD, 7.8]), 382 (94.6%) completed the trial. The overall rate of SSI was 10.9% (95% CI, 7.9%-14.0%). Surgical site infection was diagnosed in 13 women (6.4%) in the cephalexin-metronidazole group vs 31 women (15.4%) in the placebo group (difference, 9.0% [95% CI, 2.9%-15.0%]; relative risk, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.22-0.77]; P = .01). There were no serious adverse events, including
Vilchez, Gustavo; Chelliah, Anushka; Bratley, Elaine; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Sokol, Robert
The current recommendation is to delay elective repeat cesarean deliveries (ERCD) until 39 weeks to decrease prematurity risks. Prior reports suggest accelerated maturity of fetuses according to race (African-Americans and Asians). To analyze the effect of the Hispanic ethnicity on the prematurity risk after ERCD. The US Natality Database from 2004 to 2008 was reviewed. Inclusion criteria were singleton delivery, no trial of labor, repeat cesarean. Exclusion criteria were fetal anomalies, history of diabetes/hypertension related disorders. Outcomes analyzed were Apgar score, assisted ventilation, intensive care admission, surfactant/antibiotic use and seizures. Two groups were identified: non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Hispanic Whites (HW). Regression analysis was performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios. Deliveries at 36-40 weeks were studied with 40 weeks as the reference group. A total of 930421 ERCDs were identified, 396823 NHW and 236733 HW. For NHW, the risk of prematurity was lower at 39 weeks. For HW, there was no difference in the risks of prematurity at/beyond 38 weeks. There appears to be accelerated maturity with no increase in prematurity risk at 38 weeks in HW delivered by ERCD. Ethnicity can be considered for patient counseling and decision making regarding optimal timing of elective interventions.
Tawfik, Mohamed Mohamed; Badran, Basma Abed; Eisa, Ahmed Amin; Barakat, Rafik Ibrahim
The management of pregnant patients with traumatic brain injury is challenging. A multidisciplinary team approach is mandatory, and management should be individualized according to the type and extent of injury, maternal status, gestational age, and fetal status. We report a 27-year-old term primigravida presenting after head injury with Glasgow coma scale score 11 and anisocoria. Depressed temporal bone fracture and acute epidural hematoma were diagnosed, necessitating an urgent neurosurgery. Her fetus was viable with no signs of distress and no detected placental abnormalities. Cesarean delivery was performed followed by craniotomy in the same setting under general anesthesia with good outcome of the patient and her baby. PMID:25829914
Full Text Available Cesarean delivery has increased significantly during the last decades. This study aimed to investigate the association between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding.A cohort was created retrospectively using data from a population-based maternal and child health surveillance system, which covers 27 study sites in China from 1993 to 2006. The cohort consisted of 431,704 women for analysis, including 22,462 women with planned cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR and 409,242 women with planned vaginal delivery (VD. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between mode of delivery and method of feeding adjusting for selected covariates. In this cohort, 398,176 (92.2% women exclusively breastfed their baby, 28,798 (6.7% women chose mixed feeding, and 4,730 (1.1% women chose formula feeding before hospital discharge. Women who planned CDMR were less likely to exclusively breastfeed and more likely to formula feed their babies than those who planned VD. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.89 for exclusive breastfeeding and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45-1.79 for formula feeding. Associations between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding in the south, north, rural and urban areas yielded similar results.This study demonstrated that planned CDMR was associated with a lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding and a higher rate of formula feeding in a low-risk Chinese population.
Shrestha, B; Marhatha, R; Giri, A; Jaisi, S; Maskey, U
Surgical site infection is one of the most common complications following Lower Segment Cesarean Section, which accounts for prolonged hospital stay thereby increasing expense. Prophylactic antibiotics in cesarean section reduces surgical site infection significantly. The best protection is provided when tissue level of antibiotics are adequate before incision, without prejudice to neonatal infectious morbidity. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of surgical site wound infection with prophylactic antibiotics given before skin incision and after cord clamping following delivery of baby. This was a prospective, hospital based study, in which hundred cases of cesarean deliveries who received antibiotics prophylaxis one hour before the skin incision were compared with another 100 cases where antibiotic was given after cord clamping following delivery of the baby. Surgical site infection occurred in 3% of women who received antibiotics prophylaxis before skin incision as compared to 6% in whom antibiotic was given after cord clamping. It was statistically not significant (p = 0.465).
... within a few days, barring complications like wound infections. One concern that many women have is whether they'll be able to have a normal delivery after having a cesarean. The answer depends on what the reasons were ...
Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Darwish, Atef; Abdelaleem, Ahmad A; Mansur, Manal
To assess use of the C-Model in a tertiary hospital setting in terms of its validity and utility for optimizing the cesarean delivery (CD) rate. A prospective observational study included women admitted for delivery at a university teaching hospital in Assiut, Egypt, in 2015. The women were asked about the demographic and obstetric information needed to calculate the probability of CD using the WHO C-Model. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve comparing the predicted and observed CD rates was constructed. In addition, the mean predicted CD rates were compared with the mean observed CD rates in the 10 groups of the Robson classification. In total, 1000 women were recruited; 38.6% had a previous CD and 13.5% had complications during the current pregnancy. The final mode of delivery was vaginal delivery in 38.7% and CD in 61.3%; the predicted CD rate for this cohort was 45.0%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.928 (95% confidence interval 0.912-0.945). Comparison of the predicted and observed CD rates in the 10 Robson groups showed an overuse of CD ranging from 2% to 50%. The WHO C-Model is valid and can be used in hospital settings to optimize CD rates. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Katy B Kozhimannil
Full Text Available Cesarean delivery is the most common inpatient surgery in the United States, where 1.3 million cesarean sections occur annually, and rates vary widely by hospital. Identifying sources of variation in cesarean use is crucial to improving the consistency and quality of obstetric care. We used hospital discharge records to examine the extent to which variability in the likelihood of cesarean section across US hospitals was attributable to individual women's clinical diagnoses.Using data from the 2009 and 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project--a 20% sample of US hospitals--we analyzed data for 1,475,457 births in 1,373 hospitals. We fitted multilevel logistic regression models (patients nested in hospitals. The outcome was cesarean (versus vaginal delivery. Covariates included diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy, hypertension in pregnancy, hemorrhage during pregnancy or placental complications, fetal distress, and fetal disproportion or obstructed labor; maternal age, race/ethnicity, and insurance status; and hospital size and location/teaching status. The cesarean section prevalence was 22.0% (95% confidence interval 22.0% to 22.1% among women with no prior cesareans. In unadjusted models, the between-hospital variation in the individual risk of primary cesarean section was 0.14 (95% credible interval 0.12 to 0.15. The difference in the probability of having a cesarean delivery between hospitals was 25 percentage points. Hospital variability did not decrease after adjusting for patient diagnoses, socio-demographics, and hospital characteristics (0.16 [95% credible interval 0.14 to 0.18]. A limitation is that these data, while nationally representative, did not contain information on parity or gestational age.Variability across hospitals in the individual risk of cesarean section is not decreased by accounting for differences in maternal diagnoses. These findings highlight the need for more comprehensive or
Kozhimannil, Katy B.; Arcaya, Mariana C.; Subramanian, S. V.
Background Cesarean delivery is the most common inpatient surgery in the United States, where 1.3 million cesarean sections occur annually, and rates vary widely by hospital. Identifying sources of variation in cesarean use is crucial to improving the consistency and quality of obstetric care. We used hospital discharge records to examine the extent to which variability in the likelihood of cesarean section across US hospitals was attributable to individual women's clinical diagnoses. Methods and Findings Using data from the 2009 and 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project—a 20% sample of US hospitals—we analyzed data for 1,475,457 births in 1,373 hospitals. We fitted multilevel logistic regression models (patients nested in hospitals). The outcome was cesarean (versus vaginal) delivery. Covariates included diagnosis of diabetes in pregnancy, hypertension in pregnancy, hemorrhage during pregnancy or placental complications, fetal distress, and fetal disproportion or obstructed labor; maternal age, race/ethnicity, and insurance status; and hospital size and location/teaching status. The cesarean section prevalence was 22.0% (95% confidence interval 22.0% to 22.1%) among women with no prior cesareans. In unadjusted models, the between-hospital variation in the individual risk of primary cesarean section was 0.14 (95% credible interval 0.12 to 0.15). The difference in the probability of having a cesarean delivery between hospitals was 25 percentage points. Hospital variability did not decrease after adjusting for patient diagnoses, socio-demographics, and hospital characteristics (0.16 [95% credible interval 0.14 to 0.18]). A limitation is that these data, while nationally representative, did not contain information on parity or gestational age. Conclusions Variability across hospitals in the individual risk of cesarean section is not decreased by accounting for differences in maternal diagnoses. These findings highlight
Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo; Boccolini, Patricia de Moraes Mello
Prelacteal feeds (ie, foods other than breast milk offered before the milk comes in) have been identified as a risk factor for shorter breastfeeding duration and neonatal mortality. This study aimed to test for socioeconomic inequities on the risk of milk-based prelacteal feeding associated with cesarean section delivery. We conducted secondary cross-sectional data analyses of 7 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Latin American and Caribbean countries between 2005 and 2010 (N = 49 253 women with children younger than 3 years of age). Multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association between cesarean section delivery and the risk of milk-based prelacteal feeding in the total samples as well as within the lowest and highest wealth quintile subsamples by country and in the pooled sample. Almost one-third of newborns received milk-based (22.9%) prelacteal feeds. Prelacteal feeding prevalence varied from 17.6% in Guiana to 55% in Dominican Republic. Cesarean section delivery was associated with significantly higher odds of introduction of milk-based prelacteals in all countries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range, 2.34 in Bolivia to 4.50 in Peru). The association between cesarean section delivery and risk of milk-based prelacteal feeds was stronger among the poorest than wealthiest women (AOR [95% confidence interval], 2.94 [2.58-3.67] vs 2.17 [1.85-2.54]). Women of lower socioeconomic status may need additional breastfeeding support after cesarean section delivery to prevent the introduction of milk-based prelacteals. Reducing the rates of cesarean section deliveries is likely to reduce the prevalence of prelacteal feeding. © The Author(s) 2014.
van Brummen, Henriette Jorien; Bruinse, Hein W; van de Pol, Geerte; Heintz, A Peter M; van der Vaart, C Huub
A prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of pregnancy and childbirth in nulliparous pregnant women. The focus of this paper is on the difference in the prevalences and risk factors for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) between woman who delivered vaginally or by cesarean and secondly the effect of LUTS on the quality of life between these two groups was analyzed. Included were 344 nulliparous pregnant women who completed four questionnaires with the Urogenital Distress Inventory and the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ). Two groups were formed: vaginal delivery group (VD), which included spontaneous vaginal delivery and an instrumental vaginal delivery and cesarean delivery group (CD). No statistical significant differences were found in the prevalences of LUTS during pregnancy between the two groups. Three months after childbirth, urgency and urge urinary incontinence (UUI) are less prevalent in the CD group, but no statistical difference was found 1 year postpartum. Stress incontinence was significantly more prevalent in the VD group at 3 and 12 months postpartum. The presence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in early pregnancy is predictive for SUI both in the VD as in CD group. A woman who underwent a CD and had SUI in early pregnancy had an 18 times higher risk of having SUI in year postpartum. Women were more embarrassed by urinary frequency after a VD. After a CD, 9% experienced urge urinary incontinence. Urge incontinence affected the emotional functioning more after a cesarean, but the domain scores on the IIQ were low, indicating a minor restriction in lifestyle. In conclusion, after childbirth, SUI was significantly more prevalent in the group who delivered vaginally. Besides a vaginal delivery, we found both in the VD and in the CD group that the presence of SUI in early pregnancy increased the risk for SUI 1 year after childbirth. Further research is necessary to evaluate the effect of SUI in early pregnancy on SUI
Kose, E A; Honca, M; Dal, D; Akinci, S B; Aypar, U
To compare the efficacy and safety of ketamine 0.25 mg/kg with ketamine 0.5 mg/kg to prevent shivering in patients undergoing Cesarean delivery. Prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study. Operating rooms and postoperative recovery rooms. 120 ASA physical status 1 and 2 pregnant women scheduled for Cesarean delivery during spinal anesthesia. Patient characteristics, anesthetic and surgical details, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes, and side effects of the study drugs were recorded. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry, tympanic temperature, severity of shivering, and degree of sedation were recorded before intrathecal injection and thereafter every 5 minutes. Patients were randomized to three groups: saline (Group C, n=30), intravenous (IV) ketamine 0.25 mg/kg (Group K-0.25, n=30), or IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg (Group K-0.5, n=30). Grade 3 or 4 shivering was treated with IV meperidine 25 mg and the prophylaxis was regarded as ineffective. The number of shivering patients was significantly less in Group K-0.25 and in Group K-0.5 than in Group C (P = 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively). The tympanic temperature values of Group C were lower at all times of the study than in either ketamine group. Median sedation scores of Group K-0.5 were significantly higher than in Group K-0.25 or Group C at 10, 20, 30, and 40 minutes after spinal anesthesia. Prophylactic IV ketamine 0.25 mg/kg was as effective as IV ketamine 0.5 mg/kg in preventing shivering in patients undergoing Cesarean section during spinal anesthesia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is classifying the pressure wedge for the reduction of cesarean delivery into class II (special controls). The special controls that apply to the device type are identified in this order and will be part of the codified language for the pressure wedge for the reduction of cesarean delivery's classification. We are taking this action because we have determined that classifying the device into class II (special controls) will provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device. We believe this action will also enhance patients' access to beneficial innovative devices, in part by reducing regulatory burdens.
Kayman-Kose, Seda; Arioz, Dagistan Tolga; Toktas, Hasan; Koken, Gulengul; Kanat-Pektas, Mine; Kose, Mesut; Yilmazer, Mehmet
The present study aims to determine the efficiency and reliability of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in the management of pain related with uterine contractions after vaginal delivery and the pain related with both abdominal incision uterine contractions after cesarean section. A hundred healthy women who underwent cesarean section under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to the placebo group (Group 1) or the TENS group (Group 2), while 100 women who delivered by vaginal route without episiotomy were randomized into the placebo group (Group 3) or the TENS group (Group 4). The patients in Group 2 had statistically lower visual analog scale (VAS) and verbal numerical scale (VNS) scores than the patients in Group 1 (p TENS (p = 0.006). The need for analgesics at the eighth hour of vaginal delivery was statistically similar in the patients who were treated with TENS and the patients who received placebo (p = 0.830). TENS is an effective, reliable, practical and easily available modality of treatment for postpartum pain.
Hong, Deok-Ho; Kim, Eugene; Kyeong, Kyu-Sang; Hong, Seung Hwa; Jeong, Eun-Hwan
To demonstrate the safety of fetal delivery through placental incision in a placenta previa pregnancy. We examined the medical records of 80 women with singleton pregnancy diagnosed with placenta previa who underwent cesarean section between May 2010 and May 2015 at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chungbuk National University Hospital. Among the women with placenta previa, those who did not have the placenta in the uterine incision site gave birth via conventional uterine incision, while those with anterior placenta previa or had placenta attached to the uterine incision site gave birth via uterine incision plus placental incision. We compared the postoperative hemoglobin level and duration of hospital stay for the mother and newborn of the two groups. There was no difference between the placental incision group and non-incision group in terms of preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin change, the amount of blood transfusions required by the mother, newborns with 1-min or 5-min Apgar scores below 7 points or showing signs of acidosis on umbilical cord blood gas analysis result of pH below 7.20. Moreover, neonatal hemoglobin levels did not differ between the two groups. Fetal delivery through placental incision during cesarean section for placenta previa pregnancy does not negatively influence the prognosis of the mother or the newborn, and therefore, is considered a safe surgical technique.
Full Text Available Uterine rupture is the primary concern when a patient chooses a trial of labor after a cesarean section. Bladder rupture accompanied by uterine rupture should be taken into consideration if gross hematuria occurs. We report the case of a patient with uterine rupture during a trial of labor after cesarean delivery. She had a normal course of labor and no classic signs of uterine rupture. However, gross hematuria was noted after repair of the episiotomy. The patient began to complain of progressive abdominal pain, gross hematuria and oliguria. Cystoscopy revealed a direct communication between the bladder and the uterus. When opening the bladder peritoneum, rupture sites over the anterior uterus and posterior wall of the bladder were noted. Following primary repair of both wounds, a Foley catheter was left in place for 12 days. The patient had achieved a full recovery by the 2-year follow-up examination. Bladder injury and uterine rupture can occur at any time during labor. Gross hematuria immediately after delivery is the most common presentation. Cystoscopy is a good tool to identify the severity of bladder injury.
Ragab, Ahmed; Barakat, Rafik; Alsammani, Mohamed A
To determine the optimum time for misoprostol administration to minimize blood loss during and after elective cesarean delivery. A randomized clinical trial was conducted at Mansoura University Hospital, Egypt, between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2014. Eligible participants had full-term pregnancies, were scheduled to have a cesarean, and had normal fetal heart tracing. Patients were randomly allocated into two equal groups using computer-generated tables and sealed opaque envelopes. Misoprostol (400μg, given rectally) was given either before (group 1) or after (group 2) surgery. Patients, investigators, and data analysts were not masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was blood loss. A total of 348 women were included (174 in each group). Blood loss was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2 (570±240 vs 844±270mL; Pcesarean delivery. The frequency of complications was not affected by time of administration. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of massage to the sacral region after cesarean delivery instead of employing a urinary catheter for the prevention of urinary retention. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Material and Methods: This interventional study population consisted of 60 women who were divided into two intervention groups and one control group. For the first intervention group, the sacral region was massaged every hour 10-15 minutes after cesarean delivery and every 30 minutes after a voiding sensation for the second intervention group. No interventions were made in the control group, although routine hospital services were provided. Socio-demographic data were collected using a questionnaire developed by the researchers. Other data were collected via observation. Results: Fifteen percent (15% of the women in the first intervention group needed to void 2 hours after cesarean delivery, 35% after 3 hours, and the mean time to void after delivery was 3.4±0.8 hours. Forty percent (40% of the women in the second intervention group needed to void after 5 hours, and the mean time to void after delivery was 5.5±0.8 hours. Sixty percent (60% of the women in the control group needed to void 6 hours later, and the mean time to void after delivery was 6.2±0.7 hours. Urinary retention was not observed in the first intervention group. Our statistical analysis showed a significant difference between the three groups in terms of mean times to void after cesarean delivery (p<0.05. Conclusion: In order to facilitate voiding and to prevent urinary retention, which is seen as a post-cesarean complication, massaging the sacral region could be recommended instead of urinary catheter insertion. Additional studies with larger groups are also recommended.
Peleg, David; Ahmad, Ronan Said; Warsof, Steven L; Marcus-Braun, Naama; Sciaky-Tamir, Yael; Ben Shachar, Inbar
Knotless barbed sutures are monofilament sutures with barbs cut into them. These sutures self-anchor, maintaining tissue approximation without the need for surgical knots. The hypothesis of this study was that knotless barbed suture could be used on the myometrium to close the hysterotomy at cesarean delivery. The objective was to compare uterine closure time, need for additional sutures, and blood loss between this and a conventional suture. This was a prospective, unblinded, randomized controlled trial conducted at the Ziv Medical Center, Zefat, Israel. The primary outcome was the length of time needed to close the uterine incision, which was measured from the start of the first suture on the uterus until obtaining uterine hemostasis. To minimize provider bias, women were randomized by sealed envelopes that were opened in the operating room just prior to uterine closure with either a bidirectional knotless barbed suture or conventional suture. Secondary outcomes included the number of additional hemostatic sutures needed and blood loss during incision closure. Patients were enrolled from August 2016 until March 2017. One hundred two women were randomized. Fifty-one had uterine closure with knotless barbed suture and 51 with conventional suture. The groups were similar for demographics as well as number of previous cesarean deliveries. Uterine closure time using the knotless barbed suture was significantly shorter than the conventional suture by a mean of 1 minute 43 seconds (P barbed sutures were associated with a lower need for hemostatic sutures (median 0 vs 1, P barbed suture is a reasonable alternative to conventional sutures because it reduced the closure time of the uterine incision. There was also less need for additional hemostatic sutures and slightly reduced estimated blood loss. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Oliphant, Sallie S; Bochenska, Katarzyna; Tolge, Madeline E; Catov, Janet M; Zyczynski, Halina M
To determine the incidence of lower urinary tract (LUT) injury at the time of Cesarean delivery (CD) and to identify factors associated with LUT injury. Cases of LUT injury at delivery between 2001 and 2012, were identified by ICD-9 code. Chart review was utilized for verification and descriptive data collection. LUT injury incidence rates were calculated using annual delivery totals and trends over time were calculated using simple linear regression. LUT injury was classified as full-thickness bladder injury (including ureteral injury) or partial-thickness bladder injury based on degree of injury and post-operative intervention. Each case was year-matched to generate two CD controls. Logistic regression analysis was performed using maternal, delivery, and health system characteristics to identify factors associated with full or partial injury. Appropriate statistical analyses were performed with significance at p LUT injury did not vary significantly (p = 0.658). Of the 72 LUT injuries reported, 39 (54 %) were full-thickness bladder, 2 (3 %) ureteral, and 31 (43 %) were partial-thickness bladder injuries. Full injury, controlling for repeat CD, was associated with increasing maternal age, transfusion, and active second stage of labor. Partial injury, was associated with increasing maternal age and delivery in the first half of the academic year. Despite an increasing volume of CDs, LUT injury remained relatively uncommon (0.3 % of all CDs). Full and partial bladder injuries have unique risk profiles.
Kwon, Ha Yan; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong Won; Kim, Young-Han
To evaluate the risk of emergency cesarean section according to the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain per the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. A retrospective analysis of data from 2,765 women with singleton full-term births (2009 to 2012) who attempted a vaginal delivery was conducted. Pregnancies with preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, diabetes, planned cesarean section, placenta previa, or cesarean section due to fetal anomalies or intrauterine growth restriction were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for emergency cesarean section were calculated after adjusting for prepregnancy BMI or gestational weight gain. Three-hundred and fifty nine (13.0%) women underwent emergency cesarean section. The adjusted OR for overweight, obese, and extremely obese women indicated a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery. Gestational weight gain by Institute of Medicine guidelines was not associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. However, inadequate and excessive weight gain in obese women was highly associated with an increased risk of emergency cesarean section, compared to these in normal BMI (OR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.36 to 22.72; OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.05 to 12.54; respectively), while there was no significant difference between normal BMI and obese women with adequate weight gain. Obese women should be provided special advice before and during pregnancy for controlling weight and careful consideration should be needed at the time of vaginal delivery to avoid emergency cesarean section.
Kwon, Ha Yan; Kwon, Ja-Young; Park, Yong Won
Objective To evaluate the risk of emergency cesarean section according to the prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain per the 2009 Institute of Medicine guidelines. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from 2,765 women with singleton full-term births (2009 to 2012) who attempted a vaginal delivery was conducted. Pregnancies with preeclampsia, chronic hypertension, diabetes, planned cesarean section, placenta previa, or cesarean section due to fetal anomalies or intrauterine growth restriction were excluded. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) for emergency cesarean section were calculated after adjusting for prepregnancy BMI or gestational weight gain. Results Three-hundred and fifty nine (13.0%) women underwent emergency cesarean section. The adjusted OR for overweight, obese, and extremely obese women indicated a significantly increased risk of cesarean delivery. Gestational weight gain by Institute of Medicine guidelines was not associated with an increased risk of cesarean delivery. However, inadequate and excessive weight gain in obese women was highly associated with an increased risk of emergency cesarean section, compared to these in normal BMI (OR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.36 to 22.72; OR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.05 to 12.54; respectively), while there was no significant difference between normal BMI and obese women with adequate weight gain. Conclusion Obese women should be provided special advice before and during pregnancy for controlling weight and careful consideration should be needed at the time of vaginal delivery to avoid emergency cesarean section. PMID:27200306
Kaboré, Boezemwendé; Soudouem, Georges; Seck, Ibrahima; Millogo, Tieba; Evariste Yaméogo, Wambi Maurice; Kouanda, Seni
To identify the risk factors for surgical site infection after cesarean delivery in a rural area in eastern Burkina Faso. A matched case-control study was conducted in Fada N'Gourma Regional Hospital Center and the Diapaga Medical Center with Surgical Antenna using data from 2011-2014. A total of 99 cases of surgical site infection after cesarean delivery were included in the study. Each case was matched with a control patient similar for age, admission date, and facility where the cesarean took place. Risk factors were identified using conditional logistic regression. Multivariate analysis identified hyperthermia at admission (OR 2.37; P=0.035), the presence of caput succedaneum in newborns (OR 7.07; P=0.001), and difficult delivery (OR 3.69; P=0. 019) as risk factors for surgical site infection. Provision of quality prenatal care, use of the partograph during labor, and the responsiveness of health workers during labor can reduce surgical site infection after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Chien, Li-Nien; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Shao, Yu-Hsuan Joni; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiou, Hung-Yi
The rates of Cesarean delivery (C-section) have risen to >30 % in numerous countries. Increased risk of autism has been shown in neonates delivered by C-section. This study examined the incidence of autism in neonates delivered vaginally, by C-section with regional anesthesia (RA), and by C-section with general anesthesia (GA) to evaluate the…
Siggers, R. H.; Thymann, Thomas; Jensen, Bent B.
Although preterm birth and formula feeding increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), the influences of cesarean section (CS) and vaginal delivery (VD) are unknown. Therefore, gut characteristics and NEC incidence and severity were evaluated in preterm pigs (92% gestation) delivered...
Conclusion: Even though our result did not necessarily represent the true recurrence rate, our study provided some evidence about the likelihood of fertility and recurrence risk for future pregnancies after previous CSP.
Full Text Available Background: Opioid-induced side effects such as nausea and vomiting and pruritus are common and may be more debilitating than pain itself. We performed a study to assess the efficacy of dexamethasone in reducing postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pruritus in patients receiving neuraxial anesthesia with meperidine. Methods: Fifty-two women undergoing cesarean section were enrolled in the study. The control group and dexamethasone group received intravenously normal saline and dexamethasone, respectively, before spinal anesthesia. The occurrence of postoperative nausea, vomiting, and pruritus was assessed for 24 h in both groups. Results: The overall incidence of nausea and vomiting during the 24 h follow-up period was 37% and 22.2% for group saline and 20% and 12% for group dexamethasone, respectively (P=0.175, 0.469. The incidence of pruritus was not significantly different between the two groups. Pruritus severity was significantly less in the dexamethasone group than in the saline group (P=0.019. Conclusion: Prophylactic dexamethasone does not reduce the incidence of subarachnoid meperidine-induced nausea, vomiting, and pruritus in women undergoing cesarean delivery.
Mokhtar, Ali M.; Elsakka, Ahmed I.; Ali, Hassan M.
Background: Anxiety is a concern in obstetrics, especially in preeclamptic mothers. Sedation is not commonly used in parturients for fear of adverse neonatal effect. We investigated maternal and neonatal outcome of midazolam as an adjuvant to spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial, in which eighty preeclamptic parturients received either an intravenous dose of 0.035 mg/kg of midazolam or an equal volume of normal saline, 30 min before spinal anesthesia. Maternal anxiety was assessed using Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS); postoperative maternal satisfaction was assessed using Maternal Satisfaction Scale for Cesarean Section (MSSCS). Newborns were assessed using Apgar score, Neonatal Neurologic and Adaptive Capacity Score (NACS), and umbilical artery blood gases. Results: Mothers premedicated with midazolam showed a lower level of preoperative anxiety and a higher degree of postoperative satisfaction than the control group. There were no between-group differences regarding the neonatal outcome. Conclusion: Preeclamptic parturients premedicated with midazolam (0.035 mg/kg) before spinal anesthesia have lower anxiety and higher postoperative satisfaction levels, with no adverse effects on the newborns. PMID:27746564
Guendelman, Sylvia; Gemmill, Alison; Thornton, Dorothy; Walker, Dilys; Harvey, Michael; Walsh, Julia; Perez-Cuevas, Ricardo
Mexico has the second-highest prevalence of cesarean deliveries in the Americas, behind Brazil. Having had a previous cesarean delivery is highly predictive of having subsequent cesarean deliveries, yet evidence on the drivers of primary (that is, first-time) cesarean deliveries is sparse. Using 2014 Mexican birth certificate data and performing population-level analyses of data on 600,124 first-time mothers giving birth after at least thirty-seven weeks of gestation, we examined the prevalence and determinants of primary cesarean deliveries. We found a very high prevalence of cesarean deliveries among these women-48.7 percent-and wide variations across insurance coverage types. Enrollees in Seguro Popular, the public health insurance program introduced in 2003 for the previously uninsured and gradually rolled out nationally, had a cesarean rate of 40 percent, while women insured through the Social Security Institute for Civil Servants had a rate of 78 percent. The lower risk of primary cesarean deliveries among Seguro Popular enrollees persisted after adjustment for covariates. Rates of primary cesarean deliveries were particularly high in private birthing facilities for all first-time mothers. Reducing the rate of cesarean deliveries in Mexico will require interventions across types of insurance and birthing facilities and will also require targeted public health messaging. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.
Vinding, Rebecca Kofod; Sejersen, Tobias Steen; Chawes, Bo L
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of cesarean delivery (CD) is rising worldwide, and so is childhood obesity. Studies have shown associations between these factors. We examined the development of BMI from birth through childhood to determine whether CDs were associated with differences...... in growth and obesity. METHODS: Term children from the birth cohorts Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2000 (COPSAC2000) and COPSAC2010 were included. Height, length, and weight measurements were collected prospectively until 5 years in COPSAC2010 and until 13 years in COPSAC2000. Dual...... months of age, but this difference did not track into later childhood. Our study does not support the hypothesis that CD leads to later overweight....
Moulton, Laura J; Munoz, Jessian L; Lachiewicz, Mark; Liu, Xiaobo; Goje, Oluwatosin
To identify the rate of surgical site infection (SSI) after Cesarean delivery (CD) and determine risk factors predictive for infection at a large academic institution. This was a retrospective cohort study in women undergoing CD during 2013. SSIs were defined by Centers for Disease Control (CDC) criteria. Chi square and t-tests were used for bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify SSI risk factors. In 2419 patients, the rate of SSI was 5.5% (n = 133) with cellulitis in 4.9% (n = 118), deep incisional infection in 0.6% (n = 15) and intra-abdominal infection in 0.3% (n = 7). On multivariate analysis, SSI was higher among CD for labor arrest (OR 2.4; 95%CI 1.6-3.5; p infection control interventions.
Zanfini, Bruno Antonio; Dell'Anna, Antonio Maria; Catarci, Stefano; Frassanito, Luciano; Vagnoni, Salvatore; Draisci, Gaetano
Malaria is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. Nonetheless, several cases of malaria have been reported in Western countries involving travelers from endemic areas, though very few involve pregnant women. In this article, we report a case of a young woman born in Sierra Leone who had been living in Italy for two years. She was admitted to our hospital with malaise; worsening of her condition led to Plasmodium falciparum infection diagnosis early during her hospital stay, as well as an urgent cesarean delivery. We briefly discuss the features of malaria in pregnancy, the difficulties associated with early diagnosis, and the possible fetal and maternal implications, and also consider how the disease may affect anesthetic management.
Chen, Chunqin; Lin, Feikai; Wang, Xiaoyun; Jiang, Yaping; Wu, Sufang
This study was aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the second-trimester medical abortions using mifepristone and ethacridine lactate in women with placenta previa and/or prior cesarean deliveries. The patients who underwent a second-trimester pregnancy termination from January 2009 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The eligible patients were assigned to four groups based on placentation and cesarean history. The abortion interval (AI), blood loss, hospital stays, incidence of curettage, and transfusion were reviewed. Two women underwent cesarean sections for placenta increta. Finally, 443 patients were enrolled in this study, including 92 with placenta previa, 153 with prior cesarean deliveries, 36 with the both factors, and 236 with normal placentation and no cesarean delivery history. All the included cases had a successful vaginal delivery. There was no significant difference in AI, hospital stay, rate of hemorrhage, and transfusion among the four groups. Patients with prior cesarean section had higher blood loss than the normal group (P = 0.0017), as well as patients with both placenta previa and prior cesarean (P = 0.0018). However, there was no obvious blood loss in patients with placenta previa when compared with normal placetal patients (P = 0.23). No uterine rupture occurred in all patients. Mifepristone combined with ethacridine lactate is safe and effective for patients with low placentation or/and prior cesarean in the second-trimester pregnancy termination.
Eldaba, Ahmed A.; Amr, Yasser M.
Background and Aims: This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of intravenous (IV) granisetron in the prevention of hypotension and bradycardia during spinal anesthesia in cesarean delivery. Material and Methods: A total of 200 parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group I was given 1 mg granisetron diluted in 10 ml normal saline slowly IV, 5 min before spinal anesthesia. Group II was given 10 ml of normal saline, 5 min before spinal anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were recorded every 3 min until the end of surgery (for 45 min). The total consumption of vasopressors and atropine were recorded. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were also assessed. Results: Serial mean arterial blood pressure and HR values for 45 min after onset of spinal anesthesia were decreased significantly in group II, P cesarean section significantly reduces hypotension, bradycardia and vasopressors usage. PMID:26330710
Gutman, Yaira; Tabak, Nili
Objective. In recent years, more and more delivery rooms have allowed husbands/partners to be present during a Cesarean section Nonetheless, many still oppose the idea. The study is designed to investigate the attitudes of Israeli gynecologists, anesthetists, operating-room nurses, and midwives on this issue. Design. The study's theoretical model comes from Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action. A self-administered questionnaire was submitted to convenience sample. Subjects. 96 gynecologists, anesthetists, midwives, and operating-room nurses. Results. Significant differences were found between the occupational subgroups. Most of the findings supported the four hypotheses tested and confirmed earlier studies designed to verify the theoretical model. Conclusions. The main conclusion drawn is that delivery and operating-room staff need to be trained in the skills needed to promote the active participation of the baby's father in delivery and, if necessary, in a Cesarean section. PMID:21994815
Full Text Available Objective. In recent years, more and more delivery rooms have allowed husbands/partners to be present during a Cesarean section Nonetheless, many still oppose the idea. The study is designed to investigate the attitudes of Israeli gynecologists, anesthetists, operating-room nurses, and midwives on this issue. Design. The study's theoretical model comes from Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action. A self-administered questionnaire was submitted to convenience sample. Subjects. 96 gynecologists, anesthetists, midwives, and operating-room nurses. Results. Significant differences were found between the occupational subgroups. Most of the findings supported the four hypotheses tested and confirmed earlier studies designed to verify the theoretical model. Conclusions. The main conclusion drawn is that delivery and operating-room staff need to be trained in the skills needed to promote the active participation of the baby's father in delivery and, if necessary, in a Cesarean section.
Kiefer, Daniel G; Muscat, Jolene C; Santorelli, Jarrett; Chavez, Martin R; Ananth, Cande V; Smulian, John C; Vintzileos, Anthony M
The rising cesarean birth rate has drawn attention to risks associated with repeat cesarean birth. Prevention of adhesions with adhesion barriers has been promoted as a way to decrease operative difficulty. However, robust data demonstrating effectiveness of such interventions are lacking. We report data from a multicenter trial designed to evaluate the short-term safety and effectiveness of a modified sodium hyaluronic acid (HA)-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) absorbable adhesion barrier for reduction of adhesions following cesarean delivery. Patients who underwent primary or repeat cesarean delivery were included in this multicenter, single-blinded (patient), randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized into either HA-CMC (N = 380) or no treatment (N = 373). No other modifications to their treatment were part of the protocol. Short-term safety data were collected following randomization. The location and density of adhesions (primary outcome) were assessed at their subsequent delivery using a validated tool, which can also be used to derive an adhesion score that ranges from 0-12. No differences in baseline characteristics, postoperative course, or incidence of complications between the groups following randomization were noted. Eighty patients from the HA-CMC group and 92 controls returned for subsequent deliveries. Adhesions in any location were reported in 75.6% of the HA-CMC group and 75.9% of the controls (P = .99). There was no significant difference in the median adhesion score; 2 (range 0-10) for the HA-CMC group vs 2 (range 0-8) for the control group (P = .65). One third of the HA-CMC patients met the definition for severe adhesions (adhesion score >4) compared to 15.5% in the control group (P = .052). There were no significant differences in the time from incision to delivery (P = .56). Uterine dehiscence in the next pregnancy was reported in 2 patients in HA-CMC group vs 1 in the control group (P = .60). Although we did not identify any short
Scolari Childress, Katherine M; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Ward, Donald G; Berger, Kinley; Gross, Gilad A
Surgical site infections (SSIs) are an important cause of morbidity following cesarean delivery, particularly in obese patients. Methods to reduce SSIs after cesarean delivery would have an important impact in obese obstetric patients. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Alexis O cesarean delivery retractor, a barrier self-retaining retractor, reduces SSIs and wound disruptions in obese patients undergoing cesarean delivery. This was a randomized controlled trial of obese women (body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) undergoing nonemergent cesarean delivery. Patients were randomized to the treatment group (using the Alexis O cesarean delivery retractor) or to the control group (using conventional handheld retractors). The primary outcome was SSI or wound disruption during the 30 day postoperative period. Secondary outcomes included operative time, estimated blood loss, change in hemoglobin, antiemetic use, length of postoperative hospital stay, hospital readmission, and other postoperative complications. A total of 301 patients were enrolled in the study. One hundred forty-four patients were randomized to the treatment group and 157 to the control group. Baseline characteristics and indications for cesarean delivery were similar between the 2 groups. Median body mass index was 40.1 kg/m(2). There were no significant differences between the treatment and the control group in the primary outcome of SSI or wound disruption rates at the 30 day assessment (20.6% vs 17.6%, P = .62), during the postoperative inpatient hospitalization or at the 1-2 week postoperative visit. There were also no differences in the primary outcome when adjusting for obesity class or thickness of the subcuticular layer. Patients in the treatment group had lower rates of uterine exteriorization (54.3% vs 87.3%, P cesarean delivery deliveries did not decrease SSI or wound disruption rates in an obese population. Its use as a retractor should be left to the discretion of the surgeon
Othman, Essam Rashad; Fayez, Margaret Fathy; El Aal, Diaa Eldeen Mohamed Abd; El-Dine Mohamed, Hazem Saad; Abbas, Ahmed Mohammed; Ali, Mohammed Khairy
This study compares the efficacy of sublingual misoprostol versus intravenous oxytocin in reducing bleeding during and after cesarean delivery. A randomized clinical trial conducted on 120 pregnant women at term (37-40 weeks) gestation scheduled for elective cesarean delivery, who were assigned to either sublingual misoprostol 400 μg or intravenous infusion of 20 units of oxytocin after delivery of the neonate. The main outcome measures were blood loss at and 2 hours after cesarean delivery, change in hematocrit value, need for any additional oxytocic drugs, and drug-related side effects. The overall mean blood loss was significantly lower in the misoprostol group compared to the oxytocin group (490.75 ± 159.90 mL vs. 601.08 ± 299.49 mL; p = 0.025). However, changes in hematocrit level (pre- and postpartum) was comparable between both groups. There was a need for additional oxytocic therapy in 16.7% and 23.3% after use of misoprostol and oxytocin, respectively (p = 0.361). Incidence of side effects such as shivering and metallic taste were significantly higher in the misoprostol group compared to the oxytocin group (p misoprostol is more effective than intravenous infusion of oxytocin in reducing blood loss during and after cesarean delivery. However, occurrence of temporary side effects such as shivering and metallic taste was more frequent with the use of misoprostol. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Quality assurance in labor and delivery is needed. The method must be simple and consistent, and be of universal value. It needs to be clinically relevant, robust, and prospective, and must incorporate epidemiological variables. The 10-Group Classification System (TGCS) is a simple method providing a common starting point for further detailed analysis within which all perinatal events and outcomes can be measured and compared. The system is demonstrated in the present paper using data for 2013 from the National Maternity Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Interpretation of the classification can be easily taught. The standard table can provide much insight into the philosophy of care in the population of women studied and also provide information on data quality. With standardization of audit of events and outcomes, any differences in either sizes of groups, events or outcomes can be explained only by poor data collection, significant epidemiological variables, or differences in practice. In April 2015, WHO proposed that the TGCS (also known as the Robson classification) is used as a global standard for assessing, monitoring, and comparing cesarean delivery rates within and between healthcare facilities.
Bernstein, Charles N; Banerjee, Ankona; Targownik, Laura E; Singh, Harminder; Ghia, Jean Eric; Burchill, Charles; Chateau, Dan; Roos, Leslie L
Mode of birth affects development of the intestinal microbiota, and microbial dysbiosis has been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We performed a population-based analysis to determine whether mode of delivery (cesarean section vs. vaginal delivery) affects risk of IBD. We collected data from the University of Manitoba IBD Epidemiology Database, which contains records on all Manitobans diagnosed with IBD from 1984 through 2010. Starting in 1970, 6-digit family health registration numbers were used in Manitoba to link mothers with their offspring. Maternal health records, including dates and modes of delivery and siblings of individuals with IBD, were identified. We obtained data on 1671 individuals with IBD and 10,488 controls (individuals without IBD, matched by age, sex, and area of residence at IBD diagnosis) linked to mothers' obstetrical records. Higher proportions of urban than rural residents were delivered by cesarean section for IBD cases (12.8% vs. 9.7%, P = .05) and controls (13.3% vs. 9.4%, P cesarean section (13.5% vs. 8.4%, P = .01). Overall, there was no difference in the percentage of IBD cases born by cesarean section (11.6%) vs. controls (11.7%, P = .93). In multivariate analysis, birth by cesarean section was not associated with an increased risk of subsequent IBD, controlling for age, sex, urban residence, and income (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-1.23). Persons with IBD were no more likely to have been born by cesarean section than their siblings without IBD (1740 siblings from 1615 families) (11.6% vs. 11.3%; odds ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-1.80; P = .79). People with IBD were not more likely to have been born via cesarean section than controls or siblings without IBD. These findings indicate that events of the immediate postpartum period that shape the developing intestinal microbiome do not affect risk for IBD. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rifai, Rami Al
Background: Cesarean delivery conducted without medical indication places mothers and infants at risk for adverse outcomes. This study assessed changes in trends of, and factors associated with, cesarean deliveries in Jordan, from 2002 to 2012. Methods: Data for ever-married women ages 15–49 years from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 Jordan Population and Family Health Surveys were used. Analyses were restricted to mothers who responded to a question regarding the hospital-based mode of delivery for their last birth occurring within the 5 years preceding each survey (2002, N = 3,450; 2007, N = 6,307; 2012, N = 6,365). Normal birth weight infants and singleton births were used as markers for births that were potentially low risk for cesarean delivery, because low/high birth weight and multiple births are among the main obstetric variables that have been documented to increase risk of cesareans. Weighted descriptive and multivariate analyses were conducted using 4 logistic regression models: (1) among all mothers; and among mothers stratified (2) by place of delivery; (3) by birth weight of infants; and (4) by singleton vs. multiple births. Results: The cesarean delivery rate increased significantly over time, from 18.2% in 2002, to 20.1% in 2007, to 30.3% in 2012. Place of delivery, birth weight, and birth multiplicity were significantly associated with cesarean delivery after adjusting for confounding factors. Between 2002 and 2012, the rate increased by 99% in public hospitals vs. 70% in private hospitals; by 93% among normal birth weight infants vs. 73% among low/high birth weight infants; and by 92% among singleton births vs. 29% among multiple births. The changes were significant across all categories except among multiple births. Further stratification revealed that the cesarean delivery rate was 2.29 times higher in university teaching hospitals (UTHs) than in private hospitals (Pcesarean delivery rate among births that may have been at low risk for
Gr?nebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B.; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A.
The United States is with 37,451 home births in 2014 the country with the largest absolute number of home births among all developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and risks of a 5-minute Apgar score of zero and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in women with a history of prior cesarean delivery for planned home vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), compared to hospital VBAC and hospital birth cesarean deliveries for term normal weight infa...
Papiernik, E; Hessabi, M; Dubourdieu, C; Zeitlin, J
The study is a critical analysis of the decisions to induce labour or schedule cesareans in the practice of a third level referral centre, with as outcome criterion the reduction of fetal death. 783 women pregnant with twins were included from 1.1.1993 to 31.12.1998, in three groups: originally booked, referred for care during pregnancy, or transferred from another institution. The results show that an important proportion of preterm deliveries result from a medical decision to induce labour or from a scheduled cesarean in the originally booked group with even higher proportions in groups of referred and transferred women. These results are discussed in relation to fetal death rates and causes. Deaths related to fetal growth restriction were not observed in women originally booked for care. The hospital bias has been discussed. The conclusion is that decisions to minimize fetal deaths in twin pregnancies increased preterm deliveries by medical decision.
Lonnée, Herman A; Madzimbamuto, Farai; Erlandsen, Ole R M; Vassenden, Astrid; Chikumba, Edson; Dimba, Rutenda; Myhre, Arne K; Ray, Sunanda
Cesarean delivery is the most common surgical procedure in low- and middle-income countries, so provision of anesthesia services can be measured in relation to it. This study aimed to assess the type of anesthesia used for cesarean delivery, the level of training of anesthesia providers, and to document the availability of essential anesthetic drugs and equipment in provincial, district, and mission hospitals in Zimbabwe. In this cross-sectional survey of 8 provincial, 21 district, and 13 mission hospitals, anesthetic providers were interviewed on site using a structured questionnaire adapted from standard instruments developed by the World Federation of Societies of Anaesthesiologists and the World Health Organization. The anesthetic workforce for the hospitals in this survey constituted 22% who were medical officers and 77% nurse anesthetists (NAs); 55% of NAs were recognized independent anesthetic providers, while 26% were qualified as assistants to anesthetic providers and 19% had no formal training in anesthesia. The only specialist physician anesthetist was part time in a provincial hospital. Spinal anesthesia was the most commonly used method for cesarean delivery (81%) in the 3 months before interview, with 19% general anesthesia of which 4% was ketamine without airway intubation. The mean institutional cesarean delivery rate was 13.6% of live births, although 5 district hospitals were table tilt or wedge, and insufficient blood supplies. Postoperative analgesia management was reported inadequate. This study identified areas where anesthetic provision and care could be improved. Provincial hospitals, where district/mission hospitals refer difficult cases, did not have the higher level anesthesia expertise required to manage these cases. More intensive mentorship and supervision from senior clinicians is essential to address the shortcomings identified in this survey, such as the implementation of evidence-based safe practices, supply chain failures, high
Full Text Available Anterior mediastinal mass is a rare pathology that presents considerable anesthetic challenges due to cardiopulmonary compromise. We present a case that was referred to us in the third trimester of pregnancy with severe breathlessness and orthopnea. An elective cesarean delivery was performed under combined spinal epidural anesthesia with a favorable outcome. We discuss the perioperative considerations in these patients with a review of the literature.
Glavind, Julie; Milidou, Ioanna; Uldbjerg, Niels; Maimburg, Rikke; Henriksen, Tine B
We aimed to investigate if labor onset before planned cesarean delivery (CD) affects the risk of neonatal admission, respiratory distress, or neonatal infectious morbidity. Our cohort included singleton term pregnant women with intended CD who delivered at Aarhus University Hospital from 1990 to 2012. Two groups of women were identified: women with intended CD performed before labor (nonlabor CD) and women with intended CD performed after spontaneous labor onset (labor-onset CD); in both groups there was no other maternal or fetal medical indication for an immediate CD or for early-term CD scheduling. Data were stratified in early-term (37-38 weeks) and full-term (39-40 weeks) deliveries. The main outcome measures were neonatal admission, respiratory distress and neonatal infectious morbidity. Among 103 919 live births, 5071 deliveries were nonlabor CDs and 731 were labor-onset CDs. Compared to nonlabor CD, labor-onset CD was associated with similar risks of neonatal admission and respiratory distress, both at early and full term, but with a two- to three-fold increased risk of newborn septicemia or antibiotic treatment at early term. Labor onset at early term was associated with a lower risk of maternal blood loss of more than 500 mL, but with a higher risk of postoperative antibiotic treatment and endometritis. Labor onset before planned CD was not associated with a decrease in neonatal respiratory morbidity, but may be associated with increased risks of neonatal infection. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Chen, Zhenyu; Li, Ju; Shen, Jian; Jin, Jiaxi; Zhang, Wei; Zhong, Wan
To evaluate direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery with hemostatic gelatin sponge particles to treat pernicious placenta previa coexisting with placenta accreta during cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted of data from women with pernicious placenta previa and placenta accreta who underwent direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery at a center in China between September 1, 2013, and February 28, 2015. Information regarding surgical procedures, operative data, and outcomes during hospitalization were obtained from medical records. The procedure was successful in all 16 cases included. Mean operative time was 78 minutes (range 65-90) and mean estimated blood loss was 1550 mL (range 1000-2500). Complications such as fever, buttock pain, or acute limb ischemia were not observed. The procedure was performed after partial cystectomy for two patients with bladder invasion. Postoperative Doppler imaging indicated uterine recovery and normalized uterine blood flow in all patients. Direct puncture embolization of the internal iliac artery during cesarean delivery was a safe, effective, simple, and rapid method to control hemorrhage among women with pernicious placenta previa and placenta accreta. Copyright Â© 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, Ned L; Glover, Melanie M; Crisp, Catrina; Acton, Angus L; Mckenna, David S
To determine if supplemental perioperative oxygen will reduce surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery. This is a randomized, controlled trial evaluating SSI following either 30% or 80% fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) during and 2 hours after cesarean delivery. Anesthesia providers administered FIO2 via a high-flow oxygen blender. Subjects, surgeons, and wound evaluation teams were blinded. Serial wound evaluations were performed. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models, Fisher exact test, and t test. In all, 179 women were randomized, and 160 subjects were included in the analysis. There were 12/83 (14.5%) SSIs in the control group versus 10/77 (13.0%) in the investigational group (p = 0.82). Caucasian race, increased body mass index, and longer operative time were identified as significant risk factors for infection (p = 0.026, odds ratio 0.283; p = 0.05, odds ratio = 1.058; p = 0.037, odds ratio = 1.038, respectively). Perioperative oxygenation with 80% Fio2 is not effective in reducing SSI following cesarean delivery. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Hong, Fanzhen; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yuan; Sun, Wenjuan; Hong, Haijie; Xu, Yongping
To determine the effectiveness and cost of antibiotic chemoprophylaxis in reducing infectious morbidity in low-risk women undergoing elective cesarean delivery. A prospective randomized clinical trial was performed at a single tertiary care center in Jinan, China between November 2012 and December 2013. Women were randomized to receive either antibiotic prophylaxis or no antibiotics prior to elective cesarean delivery at term. The infectious morbidity (fever, surgical site infection - SSI, endometritis and urinary tract infection), routine blood tests and hospital costs were measured. Total of 414 women were enrolled into the study; and 202 women received antibiotic chemoprophylaxis and 212 women received no antibiotics. Demographic and clinical characteristics were similar between the two groups. Total of one case in the treatment group and four case in the non-treatment group developed endometritis, giving the postoperative infection rate of 1.2%, which was not statistically significant between the two groups (χ(2) = 1.679, p = 0.195). The secondary outcomes were also not different between the two groups, except the costs of hospitalization, which was significantly higher in the treatment group (p cesarean delivery at term, prophylactic antibiotics did not reduce the risk of postoperative infection, but significantly increased the cost of hospitalization.
Elbohoty, Ahmed E H; Mohammed, Walid E; Sweed, Mohamed; Bahaa Eldin, Ahmed M; Nabhan, Ashraf; Abd-El-Maeboud, Karim H I
To compare the effectiveness and safety of carbetocin, misoprostol, and oxytocin for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage following cesarean deliveries. A double-blind randomized controlled trial enrolled patients with a singleton pregnancy scheduled for an elective cesarean delivery at a maternity hospital in Cairo, Egypt, between October 1, 2012 and June 30, 2013. Participants were randomized using a computer-generated sequence to receive treatment with carbetocin, misoprostol, or oxytocin. The primary outcome was the occurrence of uterine atony necessitating additional uterotonics. Per-protocol analyses were performed. Patients, investigators, and data analysts were masked to treatment assignments. The present study enrolled 263 patients; data were analyzed from 88 patients treated with carbetocin, 89 treated with misoprostol, and 86 women treated with oxytocin. Further uterotonics were needed for the treatment of 5 (6%) patients who were treated with carbetocin, 20 (22%) patients treated with misoprostol, and 11 (13%) patients treated with oxytocin. In the prevention of uterine atony, carbetocin was comparable with oxytocin (RR 0.41, 95%CI 0.14-1.25) and superior to misoprostol (RR 0.21, 95%CI 0.07-0.58). Additional uterotonics were needed less frequently by patients treated with carbetocin. Carbetocin was comparable to oxytocin and superior to misoprostol in the prevention of uterine atony following an elective cesarean delivery. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02053922. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ehsanipoor, Robert M; Saccone, Gabriele; Seligman, Neil S; Pierce-Williams, Rebecca A M; Ciardulli, Andrea; Berghella, Vincenzo
The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine have emphasized the need to promote vaginal delivery and have offered recommendations to safely prevent primary cesarean delivery. However, there has been limited discussion regarding management of intravenous fluids and other aspects of labor management that may influence mode of delivery. Therefore the aim of our study was to determine whether an intravenous fluid rate of 250 vs. 125 mL/h is associated with a difference in cesarean delivery rate. Searches were performed in MEDLINE, OVID, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials. We included all randomized controlled trials comparing intravenous fluid rates of 250 vs. 125 mL/h in nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at term with singleton pregnancies at ≥36 weeks. Studies were included regardless of the type of intravenous fluids used and regardless of whether oral intake was restricted during labor. Studies including multiparous women or women whose labor was induced were excluded. The primary outcome was the incidence of cesarean delivery. We planned to assess a subgroup analysis according to type of fluids used and according to restriction of oral fluid intake. Seven trials including 1215 nulliparous women in spontaneous labor at term were analyzed; 593 (48.8%) in the 250 mL/h group, and 622 (51.2%) in the 125 mL/h group. Five studies used lactated Ringer's solution, one used normal saline in dextrose water, and in one study it was unclear which intravenous fluid was used. Women who received intravenous fluids at 250 mL/h had a significantly lower incidence of cesarean delivery for any indication (12.5 vs. 18.1%; RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.53-0.92; seven studies, 1215 participants; I 2 = 0%) and for dystocia (4.9 vs. 7.7%; RR
Peeters, Jos A. H.; Penninx, Josien P. M.; Mol, Ben Willem; Bongers, Marlies Y.
To assess whether, among other prognostic factors, a history of Cesarean section is associated with endometrial ablation failure in the treatment of menorrhagia. Study design We compared women who had failed ablation to women who had successful ablation for menorrhagia in a case-control study.
Whitaker, Amy K; Endres, Loraine K; Mistretta, Stephanie Q; Gilliam, Melissa L
This trial was designed to compare levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) use at 1 year after delivery between women randomized to postplacental insertion at the time of cesarean delivery and delayed insertion 4-8 weeks after delivery. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at two urban medical centers. Eligible pregnant women with planned cesarean deliveries were randomized to immediate postplacental insertion during cesarean or delayed insertion after 4-8 weeks. We used intention-to-treat analysis for the primary outcome of LNG-IUD use 12 months after delivery. Forty-two women were randomized, 20 into the postplacental group and 22 in the delayed group. Although confirmed use of the LNG-IUD 12 months after delivery was higher in the postplacental group (60.0% vs. 40.9%, p=.35), this difference was not statistically significance. Expulsion was significantly more common in the postplacental group (20.0% vs. 0%, p=.04). There were significant differences between the two sites in baseline population characteristics, follow-up and expulsion. The trial did not answer the intended question as it was halted early due to slow enrollment. Our results show higher expulsion after postplacental insertion compared to delayed insertion but suggest similar IUD use at 12 months. Moreover, it provides valuable lessons regarding a randomized controlled trial of postplacental LNG-IUD placement due to the challenges of estimating effect size and the nature of the population who might benefit from immediate insertion. Postplacental insertion of an IUD may improve use of highly effective contraception during the postpartum period. While our results suggest higher expulsion after postplacental insertion compared to delayed insertion and similar IUD use at 12 months, our trial was insufficient to definitively test our hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Viegas, Osborn A C; Lee, Pei Sue; Lim, Keng Joo; Ravichandran, Jeganathan
The association between fetal sex and outcome of pregnancy and labor has been well documented in western populations. However, no studies in Malaysia or other developing countries have examined the effect of fetal sex on such outcomes.The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of fetal sex on the outcome of labor at term in a cohort of Malaysian nulliparae.A retrospective observational study was designed using data from 4644 Malaysian nulliparae who gave birth consecutively to singleton male babies at Hospital Sultanah Aminah, Johor Bahru, after normal full-term pregnancies.The results of this study indicate that mothers giving birth to male infants have a greater risk of requiring cesarean delivery because male babies are heavier and have statistically significantly greater head circumference (P < .001). These findings concur with those obtained in western populations and suggest that the differences in outcome observed are biological, not dictated by race, ethnicity, or environmental conditions. Such information could help in the antenatal assessment of Malaysian patients and stimulate more comprehensive studies of the mechanisms involved in this sex-based difference in outcomes. Reasons for such differences are proposed.
Shree, Raj; Park, Seo Young; Beigi, Richard H; Dunn, Shannon L; Krans, Elizabeth E
This study aims to identify risk factors for cesarean delivery (CD) surgical site infection (SSI). study design: Retrospective analysis of 2,739 CDs performed at the University of Pittsburgh in 2011. CD SSIs were defined using National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) criteria. Chi-square test and t-test were used for bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression was used to identify SSI risk factors. Of 2,739 CDs, 178 (6.5%) were complicated by SSI. Patients with a SSI were more likely to have Medicaid, have resident physicians perform the CD, an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class of ≥ 3, chorioamnionitis, tobacco use, and labor before CD. In multivariable analysis, labor (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.65-3.38), chorioamnionitis (OR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.25-3.83), resident teaching service (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.54-3.00), tobacco use (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.04-2.70), ASA class ≥ 3 (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06-2.39), and CDs performed for nonreassuring fetal status (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.26-0.67) were significantly associated with CD SSI. Multiple patient, provider, and procedure-specific risk factors contribute to CD SSI risk which may be targeted in infection-control efforts. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Benzouina, Soukayna; Boubkraoui, Mohamed El-mahdi; Mrabet, Mustapha; Chahid, Naima; Kharbach, Aicha; El-hassani, Amine; Barkat, Amina
Introduction Perinatal mortality rates have come down in cesarean sections, but fetal morbidity is still high in comparison to vaginal delivery and the complications are more commonly seen in emergency than in elective cesarean sections. The objective of the study was to compare the fetal outcome and the indications in elective versus emergency cesarean section performed in a tertiary maternity hospital. Methods This comparative cross-sectional prospective study of all the cases undergoing elective and emergency cesarean section for any indication at Souissi maternity hospital of Rabat, Morocco, was carried from January 1, to February 28, 2014. Data were analyzed with emphasis on fetal outcome and cesarean sections indications. Mothers who had definite antenatal complications that would adversely affect fetal outcome were excluded from the study. Results There was 588 (17.83%) cesarean sections among 3297 births of which emergency cesarean section accounted for 446 (75.85%) and elective cesarean section for 142 cases (24.15%). Of the various factors analyzed in relation to the two types of cesarean sections, statistically significant associations were found between emergency cesarean section and younger mothers (P cesarean section performed under general anesthesia (P cesarean section was fetal distress (30.49%), while the most frequent indication in elective cesarean section was previous cesarean delivery (47.18%). Conclusion The overall fetal complications rate was higher in emergency cesarean section than in elective cesarean section. Early recognition and referral of mothers who are likely to undergo cesarean section may reduce the incidence of emergency cesarean sections and thus decrease fetal complications. PMID:27347286
Yan, Jianqin; Wang, Ruike; Wang, Ying; Xu, Mu
Objective The addition of lipophilic opioids to local anesthetics for spinal anesthesia has become a widely used strategy for cesarean anesthesia. A meta-analysis to quantify the benefits and risks of combining sufentanil with bupivacaine for patients undergoing cesarean delivery was conducted. Methods A comprehensive literature search without language or date limitation was performed to identify clinical trials that compared the addition of sufentanil to bupivacaine with bupivacaine alone for spinal anesthesia in healthy parturients choosing cesarean delivery. The Q and I2 tests were used to assess heterogeneity of the data. Data from each trial were combined using relative ratios (RRs) for dichotomous data or weighted mean differences (WMDs) for continuous data and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for each trial. Sensitivity analysis was conducted by removing one study a time to assess the quality and consistency of the results. Begg’s funnel plots and Egger’s linear regression test were used to detect any publication bias. Results This study included 9 trials containing 578 patients in the final meta-analysis. Sufentanil addition provided a better analgesia quality with less breakthrough pain during surgery than bupivacaine alone (RR = 0.10, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.18, P bupivacaine-alone group (WMD = −1.0 min, 95% CI −1.5 to −0.58, P Bupivacaine and sufentanil combination is superior to that of bupivacaine alone for spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery in analgesia quality. Women receiving the combined two drugs had less breakthrough pain, shorter sensory block onset time, and longer first analgesic request time. However, the addition of sufentanil to bupivacaine increased the incidence of pruritus. PMID:27032092
Zhang, Yihui; Gu, Ning; Wang, Zhiqun; Zheng, Mingming; Hu, Yali; Dai, Yimin
To analyze the initial effect following the relaxation of China's population control policy on the cesarean delivery (CD) rate using the 10-Group Classification System (TGCS). A retrospective study included all deliveries at a center in Nanjing, China, during 2014-2015. The deliveries were classified using the TGCS. The obstetric populations and the CD rates in each group were compared between 2014 and 2015. Overall, 11 006 deliveries were analyzed. The overall CD rate increased from 28.3% (1623/5737) in 2014 to 33.8% (1782/5269) in 2015 (Pone-third of all CDs-were nulliparous women with a single cephalic term pregnancy and induced labor or prelabor CD (group 2); the CD rate in this group increased from 27.2% to 31.4%. Moreover, the proportion of women with a single cephalic term pregnancy with previous CD (group 5) steeply increased from 6.4% to 10.4% of all deliveries; the CD rate in this group during 2014-2015 was 76.6%. With China ending its one-child policy, the characteristics of the obstetric population changed. Women with a single cephalic term pregnancy with previous CD were the largest contributor to the CD rate increase. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Ragab, Ahmed; Hamed, Hossam O; Alsammani, Mohamed A; Shalaby, Hend; Nabeil, Hanan; Barakat, Rafik; Fetih, Ahmed N
To compare the expulsion rate of Nova-T380, Multiload 375, and Copper-T380A intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) inserted during cesarean delivery. A comparative randomized study was conducted between January 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, in three maternity centers in Egypt and Saudi Arabia. All women scheduled for an elective cesarean and accepting intraoperative insertion of an IUCD were randomly allocated to receive the Nova-T380 (group 1), Multiload 375 (group 2), or Cu-T380A (group 3) using a computer-generated table. Researchers and participants were not masked to the type of IUCD. Follow-up was for 1 year. The primary outcome was IUCD expulsion (complete or partial [i.e. displacement]). Each group contained 40 participants. At 1 year, expulsion had been reported for 5 (13%) women in group 1, 2 (5%) in group 2, and 6 (15%) in group 3 (P>0.05 for all). The frequency of displacement was significantly lower in group 2 (5 [13%] participants) than in group 1 (15 [38%]; P=0.001) and group 3 (14 [35%]; P=0.008). Despite a comparable risk of expulsion following IUCD insertion during cesarean delivery, the Multiload 375 device showed the lowest risk of displacement. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jo, Ji Hye; Choi, Yong Hee; Wie, Jeong Ha; Ko, Hyun Sun; Park, In Yang; Shin, Jong Chul
To evaluate the significance of fetal Doppler parameters in predicting adverse neonatal outcomes and the risk of cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status, in severe small for gestational age (SGA) fetuses of late preterm and term gestation. Fetal brain and umbilical artery (UmA) Doppler parameters of cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) and UmA pulsatility index (PI) were evaluated in a cohort of 184 SGA fetuses between 34 and 41 weeks gestational age, who were less than the 5th percentile. The risks of neonatal morbidities and cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status were analyzed. Univariate analysis revealed that abnormal CPR was significantly associated with cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status ( P =0.018), but not with neonatal morbidities. However, abnormal CPR did not increase the risk of cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Abnormal CPR with abnormal PI of UmA was associated with low Apgar score at 1 minute ( P =0.048), mechanical ventilation ( P =0.013) and cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status ( P cesarean delivery for non-reassuring fetal status (adjusted odds ratio, 7.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-41.3; P =0.033), but did not increase risk of low Apgar score or mechanical ventilation in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Abnormal CPR with abnormal PI of UmA increases the risk of cesarean delivery for non-reassuring fetal status, in severe SGA fetuses of late preterm and term. Monitoring of CPR and PI of UmA can help guide management including maternal hospitalization and fetal monitoring.
Full Text Available Objectives. This study aims to analyze the cesarean section (CS rates and vaginal delivery rates in tertiary hospitals of China, explore the costs of two different deliveries, and examine the relative influencing factors of the costs in both CS and vaginal deliveries. Methods. 30,168 anonymized obstetric medical cases were selected from three sample tertiary hospitals in Chongqing Municipality from 2011 to 2013. Chi-square test was used to compare the distributions of CS and vaginal deliveries under different indicators. Mann–Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis test were adopted to analyze the differences under different items. Multiple linear regression was used to determine the influencing factors of the costs of different delivery modes. Results. (1 The rates of CS were 69%, 65.5%, and 59.2% in the three sample tertiary hospitals in Chongqing from 2011 to 2013. (2 The costs and the length of stay of CS were greater than those of vaginal delivery, which had significant differences (P<0.005. (3 The areas, length of stay, age, medical insurance, and modes of delivery were the influencing factors of both CS and vaginal delivery costs. Discussion. The high CS rates in China must be paid significant attention. The indicators of two modes of delivery should be regulated strictly. CS rate reduction and saving medical resources will be the benefits if vaginal delivery is chosen by pregnant women.
Nam, Jin Young; Choi, Young; Kim, Juyeong; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol
The relationships between breastfeeding discontinuation and cesarean section delivery, and the occurrence of postpartum depression (PPD) remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association of breastfeeding discontinuation and cesarean section delivery with PPD during the first 6 months after delivery. Data were extracted from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort for 81,447 women who delivered during 2004-2013. PPD status was determined using the diagnosis code at outpatient or inpatient visit during the 6-month postpartum period. Breastfeeding discontinuation and cesarean section delivery were identified from prescription of lactation suppression drugs and diagnosis, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios. Of the 81,447 women, 666 (0.82%) had PPD. PPD risk was higher in women who discontinued breastfeeding than in those who continued breastfeeding (hazard ratio=3.23, Pcesarean section delivery than in those with vaginal delivery (hazard ratio=1.26, P=0.0040), and in women with cesarean section delivery who discontinued breastfeeding than in those with vaginal delivery who continued breastfeeding (hazard ratio=4.92, Pcesarean section delivery were associated with PPD during the 6-month postpartum period. Our results support the implementation of breastfeeding promoting policies, and PPD screening and treatment programs during the early postpartum period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kovacheva, V P; Soens, M A; Tsen, L C
Serum uric acid is a marker for oxidative stress in preeclampsia. Because oxidative stress can result in diminished uterine contractility and impaired vascular relaxation, we hypothesized that an elevated serum uric acid level in women undergoing neuraxial anesthesia for cesarean delivery would be associated with greater uterine atony, as measured by supplemental uterotonic agent use and blood loss, and less hypotension, as measured by total vasopressor use. All records of patients (n=2527) undergoing cesarean delivery in 2009 were reviewed. Serum uric acid was measured within 24h of delivery in 509 patients; data from 345 patients with singleton pregnancies undergoing neuraxial anesthesia were analyzed. Demographic data, medical and obstetric history, anesthetic management and peripartum course were evaluated. ANOVA, Chi-square, and multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Increased serum uric acid correlated positively with preeclampsia and the need for supplemental uterotonic agents (odds ratio 1.53, 95%CI 1.2-2.0, P=0.002), but not blood loss. The presence of preeclampsia also correlated with greater supplemental uterotonic agent use (P=0.01). The correlation between serum uric acid and post-spinal vasopressor use (i.e., none, moderate, and high) was of borderline significance (P=0.05). In patients without diabetes, serum uric acid levels correlated inversely with post-spinal vasopressor use (P=0.04). Elevated serum uric acid in parturients undergoing cesarean delivery with neuraxial anesthesia correlated with increased use of supplemental uterotonic agents and decreased use of post-spinal vasopressors. Further validation of this study is required to determine if serum uric acid in parturients can serve as a reliable predictor for higher and lower occurrences of uterine atony and spinal-induced hypotension, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fábio Roberto Cabar
relationship between previous cesarean section and abruptio placentae. METHODS: a retrospective study reviewed 6495 deliveries between April 2001 and January 2004. The adopted inclusion criteria were: clinical diagnosis of abruptio placentae confirmed by placental examination after delivery, single pregnancy, birth weight >500 g, gestational age >22 weeks and no history of abdominal trauma. Five controls were selected for each abruptio placentae case and were matched for the following parameters: parity, gestational age ( 30 weeks, maternal arterial hypertension during pregnancy, presence of nonobstetrical uterine scar, premature rupture of membranes and polyhydramnios. Statistical analysis of continuous variables was perfomed by Student's t test. Statistical significance of the comparisons of categorical variables was evaluated by the chi2 test or by the Fisher exact test. p values <0.05 were considered to be significant. RESULTS: thirty-four cases of abruptio placentae were included (incidence 0.52%. The control group included 170 cases that fulfilled the matching criteria. The incidence of previous cesarean section in the abruptio placentae group was 26.5% (9 cases and in the control group it was 21.2% (36 cases. No significant difference was found between the groups (p=0.65, OR=1.34, CI 95%=0.53-3.34. CONCLUSION: the present study was not able to demonstrate association between abruptio placentae and previous cesarean section.
Spiegelman, Jessica; Mourad, Mirella; Melka, Stephanie; Gupta, Simi; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Rebarber, Andrei; Saltzman, Daniel H; Fox, Nathan S
The objective was to identify risk factors associated with blood transfusion in patients undergoing high-order Cesarean delivery (CD). This was a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing third or more CD by a single maternal-fetal medicine practice between 2005 and 2016. We compared risk factors between women who did and did not receive a red blood cell transfusion during the operation or before discharge. Repeat analysis was performed after excluding women with placenta previa. A total of 514 patients were included, 18 of whom (3.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2%-5.5%) received a blood transfusion. Placenta previa was the most significant risk factor for transfusion (61.1% of patients who received a transfusion vs. 1% of patients who did not; p blood transfusion. After women who had placenta previa were excluded, the incidence of blood transfusion was seven of 498 (1.4%; 95% CI, 0.7%-2.9%). Risk factors significantly associated with blood transfusion in the absence of previa were prophylactic anticoagulation during pregnancy and having labored. The incidence of transfusion in patients with no placenta previa, no anticoagulation, and no labor was 0.7% (95% CI, 0.3%-2.1%). Placenta previa was the most predictive risk factor for transfusion with a positive predictive value of 68.8% and a negative predictive value of 98.4%. In patients undergoing a third or more CD, only placenta previa, prophylactic anticoagulation during pregnancy, and having labored are independently associated with requiring a blood transfusion. These data can be used to guide physician ordering of prepared blood products preoperatively. © 2017 AABB.
Full Text Available Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS protocols have been described for patients undergoing colon surgery. Similar protocols for cesarean delivery (CD have been developed recently. CD is one of the most commonly performed surgical procedures, and adoption of ERAS protocols following CD might benefit patients and the health-care system. We aimed to determine which Serbian hospitals reported ERAS protocols, which elements of ERAS protocols were used in CD patients, and whether ERAS and non-ERAS hospitals differed. The survey was sent to all hospitals with obstetric services and 46 of 49 responded. The questionnaire asked whether ERAS protocols had been formally adopted for surgical patients and about their use in CD patients. Specific questions on elements described in other obstetric ERAS protocols for CD included preoperative patient preparation, type of anesthesia and temperature monitoring used for CD, maternal/neonatal contact, and time to discharge. ERAS protocols are used in 24% of surveyed hospitals, 84% admit the patient the day before elective CDs, 87% use a maternal bowel preparation morning on the day of CD, and 80% administer maternal deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis. Only 33% remove IV in the first postoperative day, and 89% of women do not eat solid food until the day following their CD. Neuraxial anesthesia is used in 46% of elective CDs in ERAS hospitals compared to 9% in non-ERAS hospitals (P < 0.01, and neuraxial narcotics for post CD analgesia are given more often in ERAS hospitals. Thirty-six percentage of ERAS patients are discharged within 3 days vs. none in the non-ERAS group. Few elements of ERAS protocols reported from other centers outside Serbia are employed in Serbian hospitals performing CD. Despite significant changes that have been made recently in CD care, enhanced recovery after CD could be significantly improved in Serbian hospitals.
Colmorn, Lotte B.; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Jakobsson, Maija
BACKGROUND: Previous caesarean delivery and intended mode of delivery after caesarean are well-known individual risk factors for uterine rupture. We examined if different national rates of uterine rupture are associated with differences in national rates of previous caesarean delivery and intende...
Bogot, Naama R; Rottenstreich, Misagv; Nabulsi, Rinad M; Turner, Yonatan; Farkash, Rivka; Samueloff, Arnon; Grisaru-Granovsky, Sorina
To evaluate whether the characteristics of the radiological uterine myometrial discontinuity (RMD) is associated with maternal-neonatal outcomes and post-cesarean section (CS) complications. A secondary aim was to describe the evolution of the CT uterine surgical incision and the related outcome of a subsequent trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC). Single center retrospective cohort study of CT scans was performed within 6 weeks from cesarean delivery. Demographic characteristics of patients were recorded (age, intrapartum fever, CS data, and hospital stay length). Abdominopelvic CT scans were performed using a multidetector CT (16 or 256 slice) with intravenous contrast material. CT analysis was performed by two radiologists in consensus. The RMD seen as low attenuation gap in expected incision site was assessed for: visualization, thickness, and presence of gas. Logistic regression analysis was fitted to assess the relationship of the delivery-CT time interval with the presence of RMD and gas. Of a total of 75,791 births during the study period there were 8775 CS (11.6%). The study group consisted of 101 CTs in 84 woman after CS. RMD defined in 73 (72.2%) of all CT exams; the mean RMD thickness was 7 mm ± 3.9, "RMD gas" observed in 15 (17.9%) of CT exams. RMD thickness or gas presence were strongly associated with a CS-1st CT exam time interval of less than 7 days, OR 5.8 [CI 1.5-22.6], p = 0.010, but not with maternal, delivery, or neonatal characteristics. A subsequent successful vaginal birth was achieved in 75% of the patients with no uterine rupture, regardless of the RMD gas presence. RMD gas visualization on CT is not associated with febrile morbidity, cesarean characteristics, and subsequent TOLAC results. RMD gas is a normal post-operative finding and should not lead to changes in the postpartum delivery complication management or recommendations for the future mode of delivery.
Grünebaum, Amos; McCullough, Laurence B; Arabin, Birgit; Chervenak, Frank A
The United States is with 37,451 home births in 2014 the country with the largest absolute number of home births among all developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and risks of a 5-minute Apgar score of zero and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in women with a history of prior cesarean delivery for planned home vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC), compared to hospital VBAC and hospital birth cesarean deliveries for term normal weight infants in the United States from 2007-2014. We report in this study outcomes of women who had one or more prior cesarean deliveries and included women who had a successful vaginal birth after a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) at home and in the hospital, and a repeat cesarean delivery in the hospital. We excluded preterm births (cesarean deliveries, a significantly higher incidence and risk of a 5-minute Apgar score of 0 of 1 in 890 (11.24/10,000, relative risk 9.04, 95% confidence interval 4-20.39, p<.0001) and an incidence of neonatal seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction of 1 in 814 (Incidence: 12.27/10,000, relative risk 11.19, 95% confidence interval 5.13-24.29, p<.0001). Because of the significantly increased neonatal risks, obstetric providers should therefore not offer or perform planned home TOLACs and for those desiring a VBAC should strongly recommend a planned TOLAC in the appropriate hospital setting. We emphasize that this stance should be accompanied by effective efforts to make TOLAC available in the appropriate hospital setting.
Full Text Available The United States is with 37,451 home births in 2014 the country with the largest absolute number of home births among all developed countries. The purpose of this study was to examine the occurrence and risks of a 5-minute Apgar score of zero and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in women with a history of prior cesarean delivery for planned home vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC, compared to hospital VBAC and hospital birth cesarean deliveries for term normal weight infants in the United States from 2007-2014. We report in this study outcomes of women who had one or more prior cesarean deliveries and included women who had a successful vaginal birth after a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC at home and in the hospital, and a repeat cesarean delivery in the hospital. We excluded preterm births (<37 weeks and infants weighing under 2500 g. Hospital VBACS were the reference. Women with a planned home birth VBAC had an approximately 10-fold and higher increase in adverse neonatal outcomes when compared to hospital VBACS and hospital repeat cesarean deliveries, a significantly higher incidence and risk of a 5-minute Apgar score of 0 of 1 in 890 (11.24/10,000, relative risk 9.04, 95% confidence interval 4-20.39, p<.0001 and an incidence of neonatal seizures or severe neurologic dysfunction of 1 in 814 (Incidence: 12.27/10,000, relative risk 11.19, 95% confidence interval 5.13-24.29, p<.0001. Because of the significantly increased neonatal risks, obstetric providers should therefore not offer or perform planned home TOLACs and for those desiring a VBAC should strongly recommend a planned TOLAC in the appropriate hospital setting. We emphasize that this stance should be accompanied by effective efforts to make TOLAC available in the appropriate hospital setting.
Ali Elnabtity, Ali Mohamed; Selim, Mohamed Foad
Background: Ephedrine was conventionally regarded as the first-choice drug to maintain maternal blood pressure during spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery, due to its stimulant activity on α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Norepinephrine is a weak β-adrenergic and potent α-adrenergic receptor agonist. Therefore, it may be suitable for maintaining blood pressure with less chronotropic effects compared to ephedrine. Patients and Methods: One hundred and forty healthy patients having cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were randomized to Group N (n = 61) who received a prophylactic bolus of norepinephrine 5 μg intravenous (i.v.) at the time of intrathecal block or Group E (n = 61) who received a prophylactic bolus of i.v. ephedrine 10 mg. Rescue i.v. bolus interventions of norepinephrine 5 μg or ephedrine 10 mg were given as required to maintain systolic blood pressure. Maternal and fetal hemodynamic variables, Apgar score, and number of boluses of vasopressors used were recorded. Results: The numbers of maternal hypotension and hypertension episodes and the frequency of bradycardia and tachycardia were significantly lower in Group N compared with Group E (P = 0.02, 0.003, 0.0002, and 0.008, respectively). The number of boluses of vasopressors used was also lower in Group N (P = 0.005). Uterine artery pulsatility index was lower in Group N compared to Group E (P = 0.01) when measured 5 min after spinal anesthesia. Moreover, it was higher at 5 min in Group E when compared with the baseline readings in the same group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Norepinephrine is a suitable and potent drug to counterbalance the hemodynamic effects of spinal anesthesia during cesarean delivery.
Valent, Amy M; DeArmond, Chris; Houston, Judy M; Reddy, Srinidhi; Masters, Heather R; Gold, Alison; Boldt, Michael; DeFranco, Emily; Evans, Arthur T; Warshak, Carri R
The rate of obesity among US women has been increasing, and obesity is associated with increased risk of surgical site infection (SSI) following cesarean delivery. The optimal perioperative antibiotic prophylactic regimen in this high-risk population undergoing cesarean delivery is unknown. To determine rates of SSI among obese women who receive prophylactic oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial comparing oral cephalexin and metronidazole vs placebo for 48 hours following cesarean delivery for the prevention of SSI in obese women (prepregnancy BMI ≥30) who had received standard intravenous preoperative cephalosporin prophylaxis. Randomization was stratified by intact vs rupture of membranes prior to delivery. The study was conducted at the University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, an academic and urban setting, between October 2010 and December 2015, with final follow-up through February 2016. Participants were randomly assigned to receive oral cephalexin, 500 mg, and metronidazole, 500 mg (n = 202 participants), vs identical-appearing placebo (n = 201 participants) every 8 hours for a total of 48 hours following cesarean delivery. The primary outcome was SSI, defined as any superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections within 30 days after cesarean delivery. Among 403 randomized participants who were included (mean age, 28 [SD, 6] years; mean BMI, 39.7 [SD, 7.8]), 382 (94.6%) completed the trial. The overall rate of SSI was 10.9% (95% CI, 7.9%-14.0%). Surgical site infection was diagnosed in 13 women (6.4%) in the cephalexin-metronidazole group vs 31 women (15.4%) in the placebo group (difference, 9.0% [95% CI, 2.9%-15.0%]; relative risk, 0.41 [95% CI, 0.22-0.77]; P = .01). There were no serious adverse events, including allergic reaction, reported in either the antibiotic group or the placebo group. Among obese women
Dumas, Anne Marie; Girard, Raphaële; Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Tissot-Guerraz, Françoise; Vincent-Bouletreau, Agnès; Berland, Michel
Our purpose was to evaluate maternal nosocomial infection rates according to the incision technique used for caesarean delivery, in a routine surveillance study. This was a prospective study of 5123 cesarean deliveries (43.2% Joel-Cohen, 56.8% Pfannenstiel incisions) in 35 maternity units (Mater Sud Est network). Data on routine surveillance variables, operative duration, and three additional variables (manual removal of the placenta, uterine exteriorization, and/or cleaning of the parieto-colic gutter) were collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for infection. The overall nosocomial infection and endometritis rates were higher for the Joel-Cohen than Pfannenstiel incision (4.5% vs. 3.3%, 0.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively). The higher rate of nosocomial infections with the Joel-Cohen incision was due to a greater proportion of patients presenting risk factors (i.e., emergency delivery, primary cesarean, blood loss > or =800 mL, no manual removal of the placenta and no uterine exteriorization). However, the Joel-Cohen technique was an independent risk factor for endometritis. The Joel-Cohen technique is faster than the Pfannenstiel technique but is associated with a higher incidence of endometritis.
Matthews, Kathy C; Williamson, John; Gupta, Simi; Lam-Rachlin, Jennifer; Saltzman, Daniel H; Rebarber, Andrei; Fox, Nathan S
To assess the association of a sonographic estimated fetal weight (sonoEFW) with the risk of cesarean delivery in women with macrosomic or small for gestational age (SGA) infants. Retrospective cohort of singleton deliveries >24 weeks by one MFM practice from 2005 to 2014. We included all patients who delivered an infant with macrosomia (birth weight ≥4000 g) or SGA (birth weight cesarean delivery between patients who did and did not have a sonoEFW within four weeks of delivery. Regression analysis was performed to control for any differences in baseline characteristics. In patients with macrosomic infants (n = 352), the risk of cesarean delivery was significantly higher in the sonoEFW group (45.3% versus 17.6%, aOR 2.144, 95% CI: 1.06-4.34). When we restricted the analysis to the subgroup of 265 patients who attempted vaginal delivery, our results were similar (22.3% versus 9.1%, aOR 2.73, 95% CI: 1.15-6.48). In patients with an SGA infant (n = 614), the risk of cesarean delivery was not higher in the sonoEFW group (37.4% versus 24.1%, aOR 1.23, 95% CI: 0.80-2.07), nor in those who attempted vaginal delivery (19.8% versus 13.7%, aOR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.62-2.21). A sonoEFW prior to delivery is independently associated with cesarean delivery in women with macrosomic infants, but not those with SGA infants. This should be considered when deciding to obtain a sonoEFW at the end of pregnancy, particularly if not for an accepted indication.
Puia, Denise M.
A descriptive study design was used to describe the decision of women having a cesarean surgery. The Cesarean Birth Decision Survey was used to collect data from 101 postpartum women who underwent a cesarean. Most of the surgeries were to primipara women who reported doctor recommendation and increased safety for the baby as the main reasons for the cesarean. Those women who had repeat cesarean surgery all cited their previous cesarean as the main reason for the current surgery. Women’s knowledge of cesarean surgery needs to be assessed early in pregnancy so that appropriate education may be provided. Accurate and ongoing information may decrease the number of women choosing a cesarean surgery. PMID:24868134
Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Sakala, Carol
Objective To determine whether patient-perceived pressure from clinicians for labor induction or cesarean delivery is significantly associated with having these procedures. Data Sources/Study Setting Listening to Mothers III, a nationally representative survey of women 18–45 years who delivered a singleton infant in a U.S. hospital July 2011–June 2012 (N = 2,400). Study Design Multivariate logistic regression analysis of factors associated with perceived pressure and estimation of odds of induction and cesarean given perceived pressure. Principal Findings Overall, 14.8 percent of respondents perceived pressure from a clinician for labor induction and 13.3 percent for cesarean delivery. Women who perceived pressure for labor induction had higher odds of induction overall (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 3.51; 95 percent confidence interval [CI]: 2.5–5.0) and without medical reason (aOR: 2.13; 95 percent CI: 1.3–3.4) compared with women who did not perceive pressure. Those perceiving pressure for cesarean delivery had higher odds of cesarean overall (aOR: 5.17; 95 percent CI: 3.2–8.4), without medical reason (aOR: 6.13; 95 percent CI: 3.4–11.1), and unplanned cesarean (aOR: 6.70; 95 percent CI: 4.0–11.3). Conclusions Patient-perceived pressure from clinicians significantly predicts labor induction and cesarean delivery. Efforts to reduce provider–patient miscommunication and minimize potentially unnecessary procedures may be warranted. PMID:25250981
Çıtak Karakaya, İlkim; Yüksel, İnci; Akbayrak, Türkan; Demirtürk, Funda; Karakaya, Mehmet Gürhan; Ozyüncü, Özgür; Beksaç, Sinan
To investigate the effects of a physiotherapy program on incision pain and functional activities in the early post-cesarean period. Fifty women were evaluated after Cesarean operation with regard to times of ambulation and return of bowel activity, intensity of incision pain, difficulty in functional activities and number of analgesics required additional to routine pain control procedure. Twenty-four women received only routine nursing care, and a physiotherapy program was applied to the study group (n = 26), additionally. Postoperative ambulation and return of bowel activity were earlier in the study group (p physiotherapy program in the early post-cesarean period in a wider perspective than the current literature, and are considered to be valuable for increasing the quality and productivity of the postnatal care, therefore improving well-being after childbirth.
Cesarean section rates have risen dramatically in China within the past 25 years, particularly driven by non-medical factors and maternal requests. One major reason women request cesareans is the fear of labor pain, in a country where a minority of women are given any form of pain relief during labor. Drawing upon ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with 26 postpartum women and 8 providers at a Shanghai district hospital in June and July of 2015, this article elucidates how perceptions of labor pain and the environment of pain relief constructs the cesarean on maternal request. In particular, many women feared labor pain and, in a context without effective pharmacological pain relief or social support during labor, they came to view cesarean sections as a way to negotiate their labor pain. In some cases, women would request cesarean sections during labor as an expression of their pain and a call for a response to their suffering. However, physicians, under recent state policy, deny such requests, particularly as they do not view pain as a reasonable indication for a cesarean birth. This disconnect leads to a mismatch in goals for the experience of birth. To reduce unnecessary C-sections, policy makers should instead address the lack of pain relief during childbirth and develop other means of improving the childbirth experience that may relieve maternal anxiety, such as allowing family members to support the laboring woman and integrating a midwifery model for low-risk births within China's maternal-services system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bostanci Ergen, Evrim; Ozkaya, Enis; Eser, Ahmet; Abide Yayla, Cigdem; Kilicci, Cetin; Yenidede, Ilter; Eser, Semra Kayatas; Karateke, Ates
The aim of this retrospective analysis was to show the readmission rate of cases with and without early discharge following vaginal or cesarean delivery. After exclusion of cases with pregnancy, delivery and neonatal complications, a total of 14,460 cases who delivered at Zeynep Kamil Women and Children's Health Training and Research Hospital were retrospectively screened from hospital database. Subjects were divided into two groups as Group 1: early discharge (n = 6802) and Group 2: late discharge (n = 7658). Groups were compared in terms of readmission rates and indications for readmission. There were 6802 cases with early discharge whereas the remaining women were discharged after 24 h for vaginal delivery and 48 h following cesarean delivery on regular bases. Among cases with early discharge, 205 (3%) cases readmitted to emergency service with variable indications, while there were 216 (2.8%) readmitted women who were discharged on regular bases. Most common indication for readmission was wound infection in both groups. Neonatal sex distributions were similar between groups (p > .05), where as there was a higher rate of cesarean deliveries in Group 2 (p discharge (p discharges following vaginal or cesarean delivery without any mortality or permanent morbidity and cost analyses revealed 68 Turkish liras lower cost with early discharge.
Full Text Available Objective: This study investigated the efficacy of bupivacaine wound infusion for pain control and opioid sparing effect after cesarean delivery.Materials and methods: We conducted a randomized double blind, placebo controlled clinical trial on 60 parturients undergoing cesarean section at a university hospital in Tehran. Patients were randomized to receive a pump infusion system that was filled with either 0.25% bupivacaine or equal volume of distilled water. A catheter was placed above the fascia and connected to electronic pump for 24 hours. Postoperative analog pain scores and morphine consumption were assessed at 6, 12 and 24 hours. Also time interval to first ambulation, length of hospitalization, complications and patient satisfaction were recorded. Data were analyzed using the SPSS software and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Mann-Whitney u-test, student t-test and chi-square were used. Results: There were no differences in patient demographics and length of hospitalization and patient-generated resting pain scores between the two groups. Pain scores after coughing and leg raise during the first 6 postoperative hours were significantly less in the Bupivacaine group (P<0.001. The total dose of morphine consumption during the 24 hours study period was 2.5 ± 2.5 mg vs. 7.3 ± 2.7 mg for the bupivacaine and control groups, respectively (P<0.001. Compared with the control group, time to first ambulation was shorter in the bupivacaine group (11± 5h vs. 16 ± 4h (P< 0.01. Conclusion: Bupivacaine wound infusion was a simple and safe technique that provides effective analgesia and reduces morphine requirements after cesarean delivery.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: An important cause of delayed recovery from abdominal surgery is delay in return of bowel Function. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chewing sugar free gum after elective Cesarean-delivery on return of bowel function in primiparous women in Hajar hospital of Shahrekord.Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 120 patients, who were scheduled for elective cesarean were randomly allocated to 2 groups of gum-chewing group (n=60 and control group (n=60 postoperatively. The patients in the gum-chewing group chewed postoperatively sugar free gum 4 times daily as soon as they recovered from anesthesia till the time they passed flatus or defecated. Control group recieved routine postoperative dietary management. The mean scores of postoperative time interval to first hearing of normal bowel sounds, passage of flatus, defecation and sensation of bowel movement were compared between the two groups. The data were then analyzed using chi square and t-test (p<0.05.Results: The mean postoperative time interval to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds (6.5+/-1.5 versus 12.5+/- 2.5 hours, the first passage of flatus (12.2+/-2.0 vs.22.4+/-4.1 hours, first sensation of bowel movement (7.4+/-1.7 versus 15.7+/-3.4 hours and defecation (15.5+/-2.5 versus 23.4+/-4.8 hours were significantly lower in the gum-chewing group compared with control group. (p<0.001. The staying period in the hospital (0.96+/-0.18 versus 1.1+/-34 days was significantly shorter in gum-chewing group. (p<0.001.Conclusion: Chewing gum after elective Cesarean-Delivery is safe, inexpensive and helpful which is well tolerated, and associated with rapid resumption of intestinal function and speeds recovery shorter hospital stay.
Safdari Dehcheshmeh F
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: An important cause of delayed recovery from abdominal surgery is delay in return of bowel Function. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chewing sugar free gum after elective Cesarean-delivery on return of bowel function in primiparous women in Hajar hospital of Shahrekord.Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 120 patients, who were scheduled for elective cesarean were randomly allocated to 2 groups of gum-chewing group (n=60 and control group (n=60 postoperatively. The patients in the gum-chewing group chewed postoperatively sugar free gum 4 times daily as soon as they recovered from anesthesia till the time they passed flatus or defecated. Control group recieved routine postoperative dietary management. The mean scores of postoperative time interval to first hearing of normal bowel sounds, passage of flatus, defecation and sensation of bowel movement were compared between the two groups. The data were then analyzed using chi square and t-test (p<0.05.Results: The mean postoperative time interval to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds (6.5+/-1.5 versus 12.5+/- 2.5 hours, the first passage of flatus (12.2+/-2.0 vs.22.4+/-4.1 hours, first sensation of bowel movement (7.4+/-1.7 versus 15.7+/-3.4 hours and defecation (15.5+/-2.5 versus 23.4+/-4.8 hours were significantly lower in the gum-chewing group compared with control group. (p<0.001. The staying period in the hospital (0.96+/-0.18 versus 1.1+/-34 days was significantly shorter in gum-chewing group. (p<0.001.Conclusion: Chewing gum after elective Cesarean-Delivery is safe, inexpensive and helpful which is well tolerated, and associated with rapid resumption of intestinal function and speeds recovery shorter hospital stay.
Kutlesic, Marija S; Kutlesic, Ranko M; Mostic-Ilic, Tatjana
The induction-delivery time during Cesarean section is traditionally conducted under light anesthesia because of the possibility of anesthesia-induced neonatal respiratory depression. The serious consequences of such an approach could be the increased risk of maternal intraoperative awareness and exaggerated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular stress response to laryngoscopy, endotracheal intubation, and surgical stimuli. Here, we briefly discuss the various pharmacological options for attenuation of stress response to endotracheal intubation during Cesarean delivery and then focus on remifentanil, its pharmacokinetic properties, and its use in anesthesia, both in clinical studies and case reports. Remifentanil intravenous bolus doses of 0.5-1 μg/kg before the induction to anesthesia provide the best compromise between attenuating maternal stress response and minimizing the possibility of neonatal respiratory depression. Although neonatal respiratory depression, if present, usually resolves in a few minutes without the need for prolonged resuscitation measures, health care workers skilled at neonatal resuscitation should be present in the operating room whenever remifentanil is used.
El-Khayat, Waleed; Elsharkawi, Mohamed; Hassan, Amr
To compare extra-abdominal repair of the uterine incision at cesarean delivery with in situ repair. The present study was a double-blind randomized controlled trial conducted at a university hospital in Egypt during 2012-2013, and included women with an indication for cesarean delivery. Extra-abdominal repair was used in group 1 (n=500) and in situ repair in group 2 (n=500). The primary outcome measure was the surgery duration. Surgery duration was significantly longer in group 1 than group 2 (49.9±2.3 minutes vs 39.9±1.8 minutes; P<0.001). More patients in group 1 than in group 2 had postoperative moderate-to-severe pain (165 [33.0%] vs 115 [23.0%]; P=0.001) and needed additional postoperative analgesia (100 [20.0%] vs 50 [10.0%]; P<0.001). Moreover, mean time to bowel movement was longer in group 1 than in group 2 (17.0±2.7 hours vs 14.0±1.9 hours; P<0.001). In situ uterine closure is more advantageous than extra-abdominal repair in terms of surgery duration, postoperative pain and need for additional analgesia, and return of bowel movement. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01723605. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bellur, S; Jain, M; Cuthbertson, D; Krakow, D; Shapiro, JR; Steiner, RD; Smith, PA; Bober, MB; Hart, T; Krischer, J; Mullins, M; Byers, PH; Pepin, M; Durigova, M; Glorieux, FH; Rauch, F; Sutton, VR; Lee, B; Nagamani, SC
Purpose Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) predisposes to recurrent fractures. The moderate-to-severe forms of OI present with antenatal fractures and the mode of delivery that would be safest for the fetus is not known. Methods We conducted systematic analyses on the largest cohort of individuals (n=540) with OI enrolled to-date in the OI Linked Clinical Research Centers. Self-reported at-birth fracture rates were compared in individuals with OI types I, III, and IV. Multivariate analyses utilizing backward-elimination logistic regression model building were performed to assess the effect of multiple covariates including method of delivery on fracture-related outcomes. Results When accounting for other covariates, at-birth fracture rates did not differ based on whether delivery was by vaginal route or by cesarean section (CS). Increased birth weight conferred higher risk for fractures irrespective of the delivery method. In utero fracture, maternal history of OI, and breech presentation were strong predictors for choosing CS for delivery. Conclusion Our study, the largest to analyze the effect of various factors on at-birth fracture rates in OI shows that delivery by CS is not associated with decreased fracture rate. With the limitation that the fracture data were self-reported in this cohort, these results suggest that CS should be performed only for other maternal or fetal indications, but not for the sole purpose of fracture prevention in OI. PMID:26426884
Van de Mheen, L.; Schuit, E.; Liem, S. M. S.; Lim, A. C.; Bekedam, D. J.; Goossens, S. M. T. A.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Porath, M. M.; Oudijk, M. A.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Woiski, M. D.; De Graaf, I.; Sikkema, J. M.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Van Eijk, J.; De Groot, C. J. M.; Van Pampus, M. G.; Mol, B. W. J.
Objective To determine whether second-trimester cervical length (CL) in women with a twin pregnancy is associated with the risk of emergency Cesarean section. Methods This was a secondary analysis of two randomized trials conducted in 57 hospitals in The Netherlands. We assessed the univariable
CONCLUSIONS: This case study suggests that even though as microperforated hymen surgery in puberty can permit pregnancy and intervention with cesarean section and hymenotomy is a good option to reduce the resulting perioperative complications which indirectly affect the increase of the fertilisation and improvement of later sexual life.
José Guilherme Cecatti
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with a vaginal second delivery in women who had one previous cesarean section. METHODS: A nested case-control study was carried out as a secondary data analysis of an original retrospective, population-based cohort study of women who delivered their first child during 1985 in the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, and who were interviewed 10 years later in 1995. The study population consisted of 1 352 women who had their first delivery by cesarean section and who had also had at least one subsequent delivery. The group of cases (150 women, around 11% of the sample consisted of women who had a vaginal second delivery, and the control group was made up of 1 202 women who had a cesarean section at second delivery. For each possible associated factor we calculated the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. For ordered categorical variables the c² test for trend was used. Unconditional multivariate regression analysis was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio for each associated factor. RESULTS: The factors significantly associated with vaginal delivery were monthly family income below 5-fold the Brazilian minimum monthly wage, reliance on the Brazilian national health system for healthcare, low maternal age, and first cesarean section indicated because of fetal breech or transverse presentation, or twin pregnancy. Among those women who also had a cesarean section at their second delivery, only 11% had undergone a trial of labor. CONCLUSIONS: The main determining factors for a vaginal second delivery in women with a previous cesarean section were unfavorable social and economic factors.OBJETIVO: Determinar qué factores se asocian con el parto vaginal en mujeres que han tenido una cesárea. MÉTODOS: Un estudio anidado de casos y testigos se llevó a cabo en forma de un análisis de datos secundarios procedentes de un estudio de cohorte -original, retrospectivo y de carácter poblacional- en mujeres
Nivatpumin, P; Thamvittayakul, V
Maternal hypotension is common after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery. We compared the effects of prophylactic ephedrine with ondansetron on post-spinal blood pressure. One hundred and sixty-eight term, singleton parturients were enrolled in this prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive either prophylactic intravenous ephedrine 10mg (Group E), ondansetron 8mg (Group O) or normal saline (Group P) immediately after spinal anesthesia. The primary outcome was maternal blood pressure between spinal block and delivery; secondary outcomes were nausea and vomiting scores, Apgar scores, numbers requiring intraoperative vasoconstrictors and the dose of vasoconstrictors required. Fifty-six patients were recruited to each group, but two in Group P were excluded from the analysis owing to protocol violations. There were no significant differences between the groups in maternal systolic, diastolic or mean arterial pressures, or the proportion of patients experiencing hypotension. The proportion of patients in Group E requiring intraoperative ephedrine or any vasoconstrictor (ephedrine and/or norepinephrine) was significantly lower than that in Group P (P=0.023 and 0.034, respectively). The proportion of patients in Group O requiring intraoperative norepinephrine was significantly lower than that in Group P (P=0.02). There was no difference in the proportions of patients in Groups E and O requiring any vasoconstrictors (P=0.34). There was no significant difference in maternal blood pressure in women administered prophylactic ephedrine or ondansetron after spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery compared with placebo. Ephedrine reduced the proportion of patients requiring a rescue vasoconstrictor before delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ahmed A Eldaba
Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of intravenous (IV granisetron in the prevention of hypotension and bradycardia during spinal anesthesia in cesarean delivery. Material and Methods: A total of 200 parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group I was given 1 mg granisetron diluted in 10 ml normal saline slowly IV, 5 min before spinal anesthesia. Group II was given 10 ml of normal saline, 5 min before spinal anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR were recorded every 3 min until the end of surgery (for 45 min. The total consumption of vasopressors and atropine were recorded. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were also assessed. Results: Serial mean arterial blood pressure and HR values for 45 min after onset of spinal anesthesia were decreased significantly in group II, P < 0.0001. The incidence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia was 64% in group II and 3% in group I (P < 0.0001. The total doses of ephedrine (4.07 ± 3.87 mg vs 10.7 ± 8.9 mg, P < 0.0001, phenylephrine (0.0 microg vs 23.2 ± 55.1 microg, P < 0.0001, and atropine (0.0 mg vs 0.35 ± 0.49 mg P < 0.0001 consumed in both the groups respectively, were significantly less in group I versus group II. Conclusion: Premedication with 1 mg IV granisetron before spinal anesthesia in an elective cesarean section significantly reduces hypotension, bradycardia and vasopressors usage.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cesarean section by maternal request is the one performed on a pregnant woman without medical indication and without contraindication to vaginal delivery. There is great controversy over requested cesarean section. Potential risks include complications in subsequent pregnancies, such as uterine rupture, placenta previa and accreta. Potential benefits of requested cesareans include a lower risk of postpartum hemorrhage in the first cesarean and fewer surgical complications compared with vaginal delivery. Cesarean section by request should never be performed before 39 weeks.
Midilli, Tulay Sagkal; Eser, Ismet
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Reiki on pain, anxiety, and hemodynamic parameters on postoperative days 1 and 2 in patients who had undergone cesarean delivery. The design of this study was a randomized, controlled clinical trial. The study took place between February and July 2011 in the Obstetrical Unit at Odemis Public Hospital in Izmir, Turkey. Ninety patients equalized by age and number of births were randomly assigned to either a Reiki group or a control group (a rest without treatment). Treatment applied to both groups in the first 24 and 48 hours after delivery for a total of 30 minutes to 10 identified regions of the body for 3 minutes each. Reiki was applied for 2 days once a day (in the first 24 and 48 hours) within 4-8 hours of the administration of standard analgesic, which was administered intravenously by a nurse. A visual analog scale and the State Anxiety Inventory were used to measure pain and anxiety. Hemodynamic parameters, including blood pressure (systolic and diastolic), pulse and breathing rates, and analgesic requirements also were recorded. Statistically significant differences in pain intensity (p = .000), anxiety value (p = .000), and breathing rate (p = .000) measured over time were found between the two groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the two groups in the time (p = .000) and number (p = .000) of analgesics needed after Reiki application and a rest without treatment. Results showed that Reiki application reduced the intensity of pain, the value of anxiety, and the breathing rate, as well as the need for and number of analgesics. However, it did not affect blood pressure or pulse rate. Reiki application as a nursing intervention is recommended as a pain and anxiety-relieving method in women after cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Armstrong, Joanne; McDermott, Patricia; Saade, George R; Srinivas, Sindhu K
In 2015, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine developed a low risk for cesarean delivery definition based on administrative claims-based diagnosis codes described by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine definition is a clinical enrichment of 2 available measures from the Joint Commission and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality measures. The Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine measure excludes diagnosis codes that represent clinically relevant risk factors that are absolute or relative contraindications to vaginal birth while retaining diagnosis codes such as labor disorders that are discretionary risk factors for cesarean delivery. The introduction of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification in October 2015 expanded the number of available diagnosis codes and enabled a greater depth and breadth of clinical description. These coding improvements further enhance the clinical validity of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine definition and its potential utility in tracking progress toward the goal of safely lowering the US cesarean delivery rate. This report updates the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine definition of low risk for cesarean delivery using International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification coding. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Batista, Elicéia Marcia; Conde, Délio Marques; Do Amaral, Waldemar Naves; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi
To compare pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength between women undergoing vaginal delivery, cesarean section, and nulliparae, investigating the factors associated with PFM strength, and observing the correlation between vaginal digital palpation and use of a perineometer. A cross-sectional study was conducted, including 31 women following vaginal delivery, 30 women following cesarean section, and 30 nulliparous women. PFM strength was measured by vaginal digital palpation and use of a perineometer. Multiple linear regression analysis with adjustment for covariables was used to compare the mean PFM strength and identify its associated factors. The mean PFM strength of women undergoing vaginal delivery and cesarean section was 25.6 ± 14.5 cmH(2)O and 39.6 ± 22.0 cmH(2)O (p history of vaginal delivery compared to those undergoing cesarean section. Non-white race/ethnicity negatively affected PFM strength. Our data suggest that vaginal digital palpation may be used in clinical practice because of its expressive correlation with use of a perineometer.
Bischoff, Karin; Nothacker, Monika; Lehane, Cornelius; Lang, Britta; Meerpohl, Joerg; Schmucker, Christine
Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Experimental and clinical studies indicate that prolonged oxytocin exposure in the first or second stage of labour may be associated with impaired uterine contractility and an increased risk of atonic PPH. Therefore, particularly labouring women requiring cesarean delivery constitute a subset of patients that may exhibit an unpredictable response to oxytocin. We mapped the evidence for comparative studies investigating the hypothesis whether the risk for PPH is increased in women requiring cesarean section after induction or augmentation of labour. We performed a systematic literature search for clinical trials in Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library (May 2016). Additionally we searched for ongoing or unpublished trials in clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO registry platform. We identified a total of 36 controlled trials investigating the exogenous use of oxytocin in cesarean section. Data were extracted for study key characteristics and the current literature literature was described narratively. Our evidence map shows that the majority of studies investigating the outcome PPH focused on prophylactic oxytocin use compared to other uterotonic agents in the third stage of labour. Only 2 dose-response studies investigated the required oxytocin dose to prevent uterine atony after cesarean delivery for labour arrest. These studies support the hypotheses that labouring women exposed to exogenous oxytocin require a higher oxytocin dose after delivery than non-labouring women to prevent uterine atony after cesarean section. However, the study findings are flawed by limitations of the study design as well as the outcome selection. No clinical trial was identified that directly compared exogenous oxytocin versus no oxytocin application before intrapartum cesarean delivery. Despite some evidence from dose-response studies that the use of oxytocin may increase the
Carter, Ebony B; Temming, Lorene A; Fowler, Susan; Eppes, Catherine; Gross, Gilad; Srinivas, Sindhu K; Macones, George A; Colditz, Graham A; Tuuli, Methodius G
To estimate the association of implementation of evidence-based bundles with surgical site infection rates after cesarean delivery. We searched MEDLINE through PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We searched electronic databases for randomized controlled trials and observational studies comparing evidence-based infection prevention bundles for cesarean delivery, defined as implementation of three or more processes proven to prevent surgical site infection such as chlorhexidine skin preparation, antibiotic prophylaxis, and hair clipping, with usual care. The primary outcome was overall surgical site infection, defined using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network criteria. Secondary outcomes were superficial or deep surgical site infection and endometritis. Quality of studies and heterogeneity were assessed using validated measures. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs were calculated using random-effects models. Numbers needed to treat were estimated for outcomes with significant reduction. We found no randomized controlled trials. Fourteen preintervention and postintervention studies met inclusion criteria. Eight were full-text articles, and six were published abstracts. Quality of most of the primary studies was adequate with regard to the intervention, but modest in terms of implementation. The rate of surgical site infection was significantly lower after implementing an evidence-based bundle (14 studies: pooled rates 6.2% baseline compared with 2.0% intervention, pooled RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.25-0.43, number needed to treat=24). Evidence-based bundles were also associated with a lower rate of superficial or deep surgical site infection (six studies: pooled rate 5.9% baseline compared with 1.1% intervention, pooled RR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.32, number needed to treat=21). The rate of endometritis was low at baseline and not significantly different after
Lappen, Justin R; Hackney, David N; Bailit, Jennifer L
To evaluate outcomes of induction of labor, compared with expectant management, in women attempting trial of labor after cesarean delivery (TOLAC) in a large obstetric cohort. We performed a secondary analysis of data from the Consortium on Safe Labor that included women with term (37 weeks of gestation or greater) singleton gestations and a history of one prior cesarean delivery who attempted TOLAC. Induction of labor was compared with expectant management by week of gestation from 37 to 40 weeks in both high- and low-risk cohorts. The primary outcome was failed TOLAC. Secondary outcomes included composite maternal morbidity (hysterectomy, transfusion, intensive care unit (ICU) transfer, venous thromboembolism, death), composite neonatal morbidity (5-minute Apgar score less than 5, cord pH less than 7.0, asphyxia, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, neonatal death), and neonatal ICU admission. Multivariate logistic regression was performed with adjustment for confounding factors. We identified 6,033 women attempting TOLAC of whom 1,626 (27.0%) underwent induction of labor and 4,407 (73.0%) did not. Compared with expectant management, induction was associated with an increased risk of failed TOLAC at 37-39 weeks of gestation but not at 40 weeks of gestation (37 weeks of gestation, 48.5% compared with 34.3%, adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-2.28]; 38 weeks of gestation, 47.0% compared with 33.0%, adjusted OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.29-2.34; 39 weeks of gestation, 45.6% compared with 29.8%, adjusted OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.76-2.67; 40 weeks of gestation, 37.9% compared with 29.4%, adjusted OR 1.21, 95% CI 0.90-1.66). Induction was associated with an increased risk of composite maternal morbidity at 39 weeks of gestation (adjusted OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.22-2.87) and neonatal ICU admission at 37 weeks of gestation (adjusted OR 2.51, 95% CI 1.62-3.90). Induction was not associated with an increased risk of neonatal morbidity. Induction of labor in women with
Marino, Riccardo; Capriglione, Stella; Morosetti, Giulia; Di Angelo Antonio, Silvia; Miranda, Andrea; Pazzola, Marta; Lopez, Salvatore; Patrizi, Lodovico; Angioli, Roberto; Stella, Paolo
Cesarean presents increased risk of adverse outcomes, such as endometritis, bacteremia, peritonitis, and maternal fever. This retrospective study aims to evaluate, for the first time in Literature, the effects Betadine washing versus normal saline washing after uterine closure in women undergoing cesarean delivery (CD) at ≥36 gestational weeks. Of the 2080 patients identified retrospectively for the analysis at Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of San Camillo Hospital of Rome, 1042 were assigned to "Betadine group" and 1038 to "No Betadine group". There were no differences noted for maternal and obstetric characteristics. The outcomes of the present study were to evaluate the incidence of postoperative infections or fever; the reduction of blood white cells among preoperative and postoperative exams; mean and median time of intestinal recanalization, of postoperative ambulation and of 24-h post-CD pain, evaluated using VAS scale. Betadine group patients reported a statistically significant lower white cells increment, a lower mean time to ambulation and intestinal recanalization after CD and a lower 24-h post-CD pain and infections. Betadine intraperitoneal irrigation during CD seems to improve postoperative CD outcomes and patients' quality of life.
Seung Ju Kim
Full Text Available Since 2011, specialty hospitals in South Korea have been known for providing high- quality care in specific clinical areas. Much research related to specialty hospitals and their performance in many such areas has been performed, but investigations about their performance in obstetrics and gynecology are lacking. Thus, we aimed to compare specialty vs. non-specialty hospitals with respect to mode of obstetric delivery, especially the costs and length of stay related to Cesarean section (CS procedures, and to provide evidence to policy-makers for evaluating the success of hospitals that specialize in obstetric and gynecological (OBGYN care.We obtained National Health Insurance claim data from 2012 to 2014, which included information from 418,141 OBGYN cases at 214 hospitals. We used a generalized estimating equation model to identify a potential association between the likelihood of CS at specialty hospitals compared with other hospitals. We also evaluated medical costs and length of stay in specialty hospitals according to type of delivery.We found that 150,256 (35.9% total deliveries were performed by CS. The odds ratio of CS was significantly lower in specialty hospitals (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.93-0.96compared to other hospitals Medical costs (0.74% and length of stay (1% in CS cases increased in specialty hospitals, although length of stay following vaginal delivery was lower (0.57% in specialty hospitals compared with other hospitals.We determined that specialty hospitals are significantly associated with a lower likelihood of CS delivery and shorter length of stay after vaginal delivery. Although they are also associated with higher costs for delivery, the increased cost could be due to the high level of intensive care provided, which leads to improve quality of care. Policy-makers should consider incentive programs to maintain performance of specialty hospitals and promote efficiency that could reduce medical costs accrued by patients.
Gavilanes, Patricio; Morales, Maria Fernanda; Velasco, Stiward; Teran, Enrique
To assess the effect of sublingual misoprostol compared to intravenous oxytocin for blood loss during cesarean delivery in women living at high altitude. In a randomized trial, conducted in Quito, Ecuador (2800 m above sea level), 100 women received either sublingual misoprostol (400 µg) or intravenous oxytocin (10 IU). Bleeding in the misoprostol was no different than in the oxytocin group. Shivering was reported in 66% of women in the misoprostol group. Sublingual misoprostol might be a valid alternative to oxytocin reduce intra-operative blood loss during cesarean section in women living at high altitude.
Weiniger, Carolyn F; Krichevsky, Anya; Mankuta, David; Eventov Friedman, Smadar
Early-term cesarean delivery (CD) increases neonatal respiratory morbidity; however planned later-term cesarean delivery (CD) may generate urgent CD related to spontaneous onset of labor. We investigated maternal and neonatal morbidity for planned early (37/38 week) versus later-term (39/40 weeks) CD. Our primary study aim was to investigate severe maternal morbidity and general anesthesia rates according to early versus later-term CD. Our secondary study aims were to investigate the rate of urgent surgery and other measures of maternal morbidity, and neonatal morbidity, according to early versus later-term CD and according to urgent versus elective planned CD. In our retrospective, ethically approved study of planned CD we compared maternal morbidity and neonatal respiratory morbidity, for early versus later-term CD. Among 370 early versus 300 later-term CD, women who delivered at later-term CD had significantly higher rates of urgent surgery 101 (33.7%) versus 85 (23.0%) at early-term, p = 0.002; spontaneous onset of labor 85 (28.3%) versus 67 (18.1%), p = 0.0002 and outof-hours surgery 101 (33.7%) versus 64 (17.3%), p < 0.0001. The frequency of neonatal respiratory morbidity composite was 10 (2.7%) for early versus 1 (0.3%) for later-term CD, p = 0.03. Later-term CD was not associated with increased maternal morbidity or use of general anesthesia in our tertiary institution. Prior reports of increased neonatal respiratory morbidity at early term CD were confirmed. Of concern, later-term CD was associated with urgent and outof-hours CD.
Oh, Ah-Young; Hwang, Jung-Won; Song, In-Ae; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Ryu, Jung-Hee; Park, Hee-Pyoung; Jeon, Yeong-Tae; Do, Sang-Hwan
Prophylactic fluid preloading before spinal anesthesia has been a routine procedure to prevent maternal hypotension during cesarean delivery. Unlike colloid, timing of infusion of crystalloid may be important because of its short stay in intravascular space. We hypothesized that crystalloid loading just after intrathecal injection compared to preload would be more effective in preventing maternal hypotension. In this prospective controlled study, sixty parturients were randomized to receive 15 ml/kg of crystalloid before (preload group) or after (coload group) intrathecal drug injection for spinal anesthesia. Hypotension was defined if systolic arterial pressure decreased below 80% of baseline and ephedrine was administered to treat hypotension. The incidence of hypotension and the total dose of ephedrine were checked. Blood pressure, heart rate and nausea before childbirth were assessed. Neonatal outcomes were evaluated with Apgar scores and umbilical blood gas analysis. The incidence of hypotension was lower in the coload group compared to the preload group (53% vs. 83%, P = 0.026). The blood pressure showed the bigger drop during spinal anesthesia in the preload group (34 ± 13 vs. 25 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.002) and smaller dose of ephedrine was required in the coload group (7.5 [0-30] vs. 15 [0-40] mg, P = 0.015). The incidence of nausea was also lower in the coload group (27% vs. 60%, P = 0.019). Neonatal outcome measures were comparable between two groups. In case of using crystalloids for cesarean delivery, coload is more effective than preload for the prevention of maternal hypotension after spinal anesthesia. Clinical Research Information Service KCT0000324 (Jan 12(th), 2012).
Stoll, Kathrin; Edmonds, Joyce Katherine; Hall, Wendy A
Fear of birth and mode of delivery preferences are similar among pregnant and nonpregnant women, suggesting that attitudes toward birth are formed in young adulthood or earlier. Understanding why some young women fear birth and prefer obstetric interventions can inform public health initiatives aimed at reducing fear and promoting birth as a normal life event. We conducted an online survey with 752 American nulliparous young women to assess their preferences and attitudes toward childbirth. We identified explanatory variables associated with reported fear of childbirth and cesarean delivery (CD) preferences. A preference for CD was reported by 14 percent of young women and 27 percent had scores indicating elevated fear of birth. Fear of birth increased the likelihood of cesarean preference (adjusted relative risk (ARR) 3.84 [95% CI 2.49-5.95]) as did a family history of CD (ARR 1.65 [95% CI 1.13-2.42]). The likelihood of reporting elevated childbirth fear was increased among young women who reported concerns about the physical changes pregnancy and birth have on women's bodies (ARR 2.04 [95% CI 1.50-2.78]). Young women who reported a high degree of confidence in their knowledge about childbirth were significantly less likely to report childbirth fear (ARR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42-0.87]). Access to childbirth information was also associated with a decreased likelihood of fear of birth (ARR 0.75 [95% CI 0.59-0.95]). Young women reporting high levels of childbirth fear are nearly four times more likely to prefer a CD. Specific fears, such as worries over the influence of pregnancy and birth on the female body, need to be addressed before pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
García-Benítez, Carlos Quesnel; López-Rioja, Miguel de Jesús; Monzalbo-Núñez, Diana Elena
To compare the beginning and evolution of labor variables such as demographic characteristics, obstetric and perinatal outcomes of patients with vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Observational, retrospective and retro elective trial purposes of comparative analysis, were divided into groups by the onset of labor; spontaneously versus induction and by the labor evolution; spontaneously versus conduction. Being analyzing by Student's T and Fisher test. According the ACOG criteria. 136 patients with prior cesarean section were eligible to labor. The indications of previous cesarean have a trend of a non-recurring etiology, being the elective cesarean section the most common. Regarding the onset, 78% was spontaneous and 22% had an induction. Comparing the demographic characteristics it stands a greater number of deliveries, history of vaginal delivery, a higher Bishop score, fetal weight estimated lower and higher intergenesic period. As a perinatal prognosis, the study has shown be safe with a positive outcome. Conclusions:Vaginal birth after cesarean is safe, that should be offered to all women with a low transverse incision, with an intergenesic period greater than 18 months, whit a singleton pregnancy, in a cephalic presentation, with an appropriate fetal weight, and without obstetric contraindications of vaginal delivery.
F Safdari Dehcheshmeh
Full Text Available
Background and Objectives: An important cause of delayed recovery from abdominal surgery is delay in return of bowel Function. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of chewing sugar free gum after elective Cesarean-delivery on return of bowel function in primiparous women in Hajar hospital of Shahrekord. Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 120 patients, who were scheduled for elective cesarean were randomly allocated to 2 groups of gum-chewing group (n=60 and control group (n=60 postoperatively. The patients in the gum-chewing group chewed postoperatively sugar free gum 4 times daily as soon as they recovered from anesthesia till the time they passed flatus or defecated. Control group recieved routine postoperative dietary management. The mean scores of postoperative time interval to first hearing of normal bowel sounds, passage of flatus, defecation and sensation of bowel movement were compared between the two groups. The data were then analyzed using chi square and t-test (p<0.05. Results: The mean postoperative time interval to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds (6.5+/-1.5 versus 12.5+/- 2.5 hours, the first passage of flatus (12.2+/-2.0 vs.22.4+/-4.1 hours, first sensation of bowel movement (7.4+/-1.7 versus 15.7+/-3.4 hours and defecation (15.5+/-2.5 versus 23.4+/-4.8 hours were significantly lower in the gum-chewing group compared with control group. (p<0.001. The staying period in the hospital (0.96+/-0.18 versus 1.1+/-34 days was significantly shorter in gum-chewing group. (p<0.001. Conclusion: Chewing gum after elective Cesarean-Delivery is safe, inexpensive and helpful which is well tolerated, and associated with rapid resumption of intestinal function and speeds recovery shorter hospital stay.
Towers, Craig V; Shelton, Sarah; van Nes, Jaclyn; Gregory, Emily; Liske, Emily; Smalley, Arion; Mobley, Edward; Faircloth, Barbara; Fortner, Kim B
The United States currently has an opioid use disorder epidemic and research evaluating ways to minimize the use of opioids postsurgery are needed. One of these options is intravenous acetaminophen. If the use of preoperative intravenous acetaminophen was found to be effective for cesarean delivery, this would be beneficial for both the mother and breast-feeding neonate. The primary study objective was to see if maternal opioid use was significantly less in the postoperative period for the study group that received 1 g of intravenous acetaminophen preoperatively compared with a control group that received placebo. The secondary objectives were to evaluate maternal length of stay and pain scores postoperatively, and assess the acetaminophen level in cord blood at delivery. This study was a prospective double-blinded randomized placebo-controlled trial. All pregnant patients who entered labor and delivery for a scheduled cesarean from November 2015 through April 2017 were eligible. Once consented, the medication was supplied by the pharmacy department, which performed the blinded randomization. Both the study drug of 1000 mg (1 g) of acetaminophen and placebo of normal saline were distributed as unmarked 100-mL bags administered over 15 minutes just prior to incision. No study personnel from the obstetric or anesthesia departments had any access to the randomization. Based on a power analysis using the published surgical data results, the goal was to obtain a minimum of 100 patients (50 patients in each arm). Primary data collection included demographics, number of opioid doses and morphine milligram equivalents administered to the patient postoperatively, length of stay postdelivery, pain scores, and newborn cord blood acetaminophen levels. Exclusions were maternal acetaminophen allergy, receipt of acetaminophen in the prior 24 hours, opioid use disorder, and hepatitis/liver impairment. Statistics involved χ 2 , Fisher exact, and the Student t test where
Yoo, Kyung Y; Jeong, Cheol W; Kang, Myung W; Kim, Seok J; Chung, Sung T; Shin, Min H; Lee, JongUn
An end-tidal concentration of 1% sevoflurane (1% ET(SEVO)) in 50% nitrous oxide (N(2)O) during elective cesarean delivery has been associated with bispectral index (BIS) values >60, which are associated with an increased risk of awareness. We hypothesized that BIS values during sevoflurane-N(2)O general anesthesia for cesarean delivery would be lower in women with prior labor compared with women without prior labor. Forty patients undergoing cesarean delivery were enrolled in this observational study. One group had urgent surgery after labor (labor group, n = 20) and the other had elective surgery without labor (control group, n = 20). General anesthesia was induced with thiopental 4 mg/kg, followed by succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg, and maintained with 1% ET(SEVO) and 50% N(2)O in oxygen. BIS values, systolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate, plasma stress hormone concentrations, Apgar scores, and postoperative analgesia variables were assessed and compared between groups. BIS values during the period between intubation and delivery were lower in the labor group than in the control group (P labor group than in the control group both at baseline and at delivery. Systolic arterial blood pressure, heart rate, Apgar scores, surgical characteristics, and plasma concentrations of vasopressin and cortisol were not different between groups. Postoperative visual analog scale pain scores were similar between groups, while the labor group consumed less analgesics (P labor was associated with lower intraoperative BIS values during sevoflurane/N(2)O general anesthesia and reduced postoperative analgesic consumption in women undergoing cesarean delivery compared with women without prior labor.
Oonagh E Keag
Full Text Available Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016 reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death.Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017, supplemented by manual searches. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs and large (more than 1,000 participants prospective cohort studies with greater than or equal to one-year follow-up comparing outcomes of women delivering by cesarean delivery and by vaginal delivery. Two assessors screened 30,327 abstracts. Studies were graded for risk of bias by two assessors using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN Methodology Checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies. Results were pooled in fixed effects meta-analyses or in random effects models when significant heterogeneity was present (I2 ≥ 40%. One RCT and 79 cohort studies (all from high income countries were included, involving 29,928,274 participants. Compared to vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk of urinary incontinence, odds ratio (OR 0.56 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.66; n = 58,900; 8 studies and pelvic organ prolapse (OR 0.29, 0.17 to 0.51; n = 39,208; 2 studies. Children delivered by cesarean delivery had increased risk of asthma up to the age of 12 years (OR 1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; n = 887,960; 13 studies and obesity up to the age of 5 years (OR 1.59, 1.33 to 1.90; n = 64,113; 6 studies. Pregnancy after cesarean delivery was associated with
Keag, Oonagh E.; Stock, Sarah J.
Background Cesarean birth rates continue to rise worldwide with recent (2016) reported rates of 24.5% in Western Europe, 32% in North America, and 41% in South America. The objective of this systematic review is to describe the long-term risks and benefits of cesarean delivery for mother, baby, and subsequent pregnancies. The primary maternal outcome was pelvic floor dysfunction, the primary baby outcome was asthma, and the primary subsequent pregnancy outcome was perinatal death. Methods and findings Medline, Embase, Cochrane, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases were systematically searched for published studies in human subjects (last search 25 May 2017), supplemented by manual searches. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and large (more than 1,000 participants) prospective cohort studies with greater than or equal to one-year follow-up comparing outcomes of women delivering by cesarean delivery and by vaginal delivery. Two assessors screened 30,327 abstracts. Studies were graded for risk of bias by two assessors using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) Methodology Checklist and the Risk of Bias Assessment tool for Non-Randomized Studies. Results were pooled in fixed effects meta-analyses or in random effects models when significant heterogeneity was present (I2 ≥ 40%). One RCT and 79 cohort studies (all from high income countries) were included, involving 29,928,274 participants. Compared to vaginal delivery, cesarean delivery was associated with decreased risk of urinary incontinence, odds ratio (OR) 0.56 (95% CI 0.47 to 0.66; n = 58,900; 8 studies) and pelvic organ prolapse (OR 0.29, 0.17 to 0.51; n = 39,208; 2 studies). Children delivered by cesarean delivery had increased risk of asthma up to the age of 12 years (OR 1.21, 1.11 to 1.32; n = 887,960; 13 studies) and obesity up to the age of 5 years (OR 1.59, 1.33 to 1.90; n = 64,113; 6 studies). Pregnancy after cesarean
Pyykönen, Aura; Gissler, Mika; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Bergholt, Thomas; Rasmussen, Steen C; Smárason, Alexander; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður I; Másdóttir, Birna B; Källén, Karin; Klungsoyr, Kari; Albrechtsen, Susanne; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Tapper, Anna-Maija
The cesarean rates are low but increasing in most Nordic countries. Using the Robson classification, we analyzed which obstetric groups have contributed to the changes in the cesarean rates. Retrospective population-based registry study including all deliveries (3 398 586) between 2000 and 2011 in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The Robson group distribution, cesarean rate and contribution of each Robson group were analyzed nationally for four 3-year time periods. For each country, we analyzed which groups contributed to the change in the total cesarean rate. Between the first and the last time period studied, the total cesarean rates increased in Denmark (16.4 to 20.7%), Norway (14.4 to 16.5%) and Sweden (15.5 to 17.1%), but towards the end of our study, the cesarean rates stabilized or even decreased. The increase was explained mainly by increases in the absolute contribution from R5 (women with previous cesarean) and R2a (induced labor on nulliparous). In Finland, the cesarean rate decreased slightly (16.5 to 16.2%) mainly due to decrease among R5 and R6-R7 (breech presentation, nulliparous/multiparous). In Iceland, the cesarean rate decreased in all parturient groups (17.6 to 15.3%), most essentially among nulliparous women despite the increased induction rates. The increased total cesarean rates in the Nordic countries are explained by increased cesarean rates among nulliparous women, and by an increased percentage of women with previous cesarean. Meanwhile, induction rates on nulliparous increased significantly, but the impact on the total cesarean rate was unclear. The Robson classification facilitates benchmarking and targeting efforts for lowering the cesarean rates. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Han, Yuan; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Qingchun; Ding, Ke; Han, Liu; Dong, Mengmeng; Xu, Yifan; Ge, Lei
Cor triloculare biventriculare accounts for approximately 0.31% of cases of congenital heart disease (CHD). Moreover, people with cor triloculare biventriculare always have shorter life spans, and cases of gestation are rare. There have been various related reports of cor triloculare biventriculare in recent years. We described an emergency cesarean section of a 30-year-old, 38-weeks-pregnant woman suffering from cardiac insufficiency and fetal distress. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia was performed safely, and a male baby was smoothly delivered 10 min after the procedure without any adverse outcome on the mother or newborn. After surgery, we advised that the patient submit to an echocardiogram examination, which revealed the congenital heart disease cor triloculare biventriculare. Combined spinal-epidural anesthesia was administered to a patient with cor triloculare biventricularethis with good effect, ensuring the patient's safety and meeting the need for emergency surgery.
Teixeira, Clara Elisa Frare de Avelar; Braga, Angélica de Fátima de Assunção; Braga, Franklin Sarmento da Silva; Carvalho, Vanessa Henriques; Costa, Rafael Miranda da; Brighenti, Giselle Ioná Teixeira
Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare congenital vascular disease characterized by cutaneous hemangiomas, varicosities, and limb asymmetry, which may evolve with coagulation disorders and hemorrhage as more frequent complications in pregnant patients. Pregnancy is not advised in women with this syndrome due to increased obstetric risk. Female patient, 29 years old, 99kg, 167cm, BMI 35.4kg.m -2 , physical status ASA III, with 27 weeks of gestational age and diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. She was admitted to attempt inhibition of preterm labor. As manifestations of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, the patient presented with cerebral and cutaneous hemangioma, mainly in the trunk and lumbar region, paresis in the left upper and lower limbs, and limb asymmetry, requiring the use of a walking stick. Physical examination revealed absence of airway vascular malformations and Mallampati class 3. Laboratory tests were normal and abdominal angiotomography showed irregular uterus, with multiple varices and vessels of arterial origin and bilateral periadnexal varices. She evolved with failure in preterm labor inhibition, and cesarean section under total intravenous anesthesia was indicated. Monitoring, central and peripheral venous access, radial artery catheterization, and diuresis were performed. Cesarean section was performed with median incision and longitudinal uterine body section for fetal extraction. Two episodes of arterial hypotension were seen intraoperatively. The postoperative evolution was uneventful. The choice of anesthesia was dependent on the clinical manifestations and the lack of imaging tests proving the absence of neuraxial hemangiomas. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Iitani, Yukako; Tsuda, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yumiko; Moriyama, Yoshinori; Nakano, Tomoko; Imai, Kenji; Kotani, Tomomi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka
We examined the effect of simulation training for medical staff on the decision-to-delivery interval (DDI) in cases of emergent cesarean delivery and the effect of a shortened DDI on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Our hospital is a tertiary perinatal center. As the simulation training was performed in March 2014, the study population was divided into two groups: pretraining group (November 2011-March 2014, 29 months: n = 15) and post-training group (April 2014-August 2016, 29 months: n = 35). The DDI was significantly shorter in the post-training group than in the pretraining group (p = .009). In particular, the decision-to-entering the operating room interval was significantly shorter in the post-training group than in the pretraining group (p = .003). The umbilical artery pH was significantly better in post-training group than in the pretraining group (p = .019). Furthermore, the umbilical artery pH was significantly improved by simulation training only in "irreversible" cases (p = .012). The DDI was significantly shortened by introducing simulation training. We also demonstrated a beneficial effect of the simulation training on the umbilical artery pH, especially in "irreversible" cases, without increasing the rate of maternal adverse outcome.
Lyerly, Anne Drapkin; Little, Margaret Olivia
Determining approach to delivery after a previous cesarean is among the most contentious areas of obstetrics. We present a framework for ethically responsible guidelines and practice regarding vaginal birth after cesarean. We describe ethical complexities of 3 key issues that mark the debate: the cesarean delivery rate, safety, and patient autonomy. We then describe a taxonomy of considerations that should inform a responsible framework for guideline development and highlight critical distinctions between types of guidelines that have been blurred in the past. We then forward 2 central claims. First, in otherwise uncomplicated birth after a single previous cesarean, both vaginal birth after cesarean and repeat cesarean should be regarded as reasonable options; women, rather than policymakers, providers, insurance carriers, or hospitals, should determine delivery approach. Second, in complicated cases, providers and policymakers should carefully calibrate the strength of evidence to ensure differential risk and cost are adequate to justify directive guidelines given important variations in values women bring to childbirth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hernández-Castro, Flavio; López-Serna, Norberto; Treviño-Salinas, Emilio M; Soria-López, Juan A; Sordia-Hernández, Luis H; Cárdenas-Estrada, Eloy
To determine whether buccal misoprostol during cesarean delivery in conjunction with active management of the third stage of labor reduces the need for additional uterotonic drugs. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed in Monterrey, Mexico, between February 2008 and December 2013. Eligible women had risk factors for uterine atony and were to undergo cesarean delivery under epidural block. Using a computer-generated sequence and blocks of six, patients were randomly assigned to receive 400μg misoprostol or 800μg placebo buccally after cord clamping. Both groups received an intravenous oxytocin infusion. The primary outcome was the need for additional uterotonic drugs. Analyses were performed per protocol. Patients, investigators, and data analysts were masked to group assignment. A total of 120 women were included in analyses (60 in each group). At least one additional uterotonic drug was required in 24 (40%) women in the placebo group versus 6 (10%) women in the misoprostol group (relative risk 0.16; 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.44). No adverse effects due to misoprostol were recorded. Buccal misoprostol during cesarean delivery reduced the need for additional uterotonic drugs to treat uterine atony. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT01733329. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available A pregnant woman presented with acute upper abdominal pain and nausea at 15 weeks' gestation. She had a history of cesarean delivery for abruption after the removal of a Shirodkar cerclage that was placed because of cervical shortening caused by conization. She became pregnant again 14 months later. Ultrasonography revealed no significant findings, and a single intrauterine pregnancy with positive fetal heart activity was confirmed. An intestinal obstruction was suspected because abdominal radiography showed multiple air–fluid levels in the colon. Over the 3 hours following admission, her symptoms gradually worsened, and plain abdominal computed tomography (CT showed a large hemorrhage in the abdominal cavity, but the uterine wall appeared intact at this time. Subsequently, dynamic CT revealed discontinuity of the uterine muscle layer. During laparotomy, uterine rupture with complete opening of the uterine wall at the site of the previous transverse scar was identified. A dead fetus was located within the amniotic sac in a blood-filled abdominal cavity. She received a total of 10 units of packed red blood cells and 6 units of fresh frozen plasma for the resuscitation. She was discharged on the eighth postoperative day without any complications.
McKenzie, Christine P; Carvalho, Brendan; Riley, Edward T
Intrathecal catheter devices using a catheter-over-needle design and softer flexible material have been introduced to clinical practice with the aim of reducing some of the complications such as postdural puncture headaches and paresthesias seen with previous versions of intrathecal catheters. We present a case series of 5 cesarean deliveries using the Wiley Spinal intrathecal system (Epimed, Johnstown, New York), which was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. The intrathecal catheter system consists of a flexible 23-gauge intrathecal cannula over a 27-gauge pencil-point spinal needle. The placement of the intrathecal catheter was successful in all 5 cases; however, paresthesias in 3 cases and postdural puncture headaches in 2 cases complicated the placement and use of the device. Although the unique catheter-over-needle design facilitates the use of smaller-gauge spinal needles for dural puncture and larger-gauge catheters for medication administration, this case series using the Wiley Spinal suggests that paresthesias and postdural puncture headaches may still limit its widespread utilization. Future studies are needed to determine the true incidence of complications and to determine the role of continuous spinal anesthesia in the obstetric population.
Xiong, Chao; Zhou, Aifen; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yaqi; Qiu, Lin; Yao, Cong; Wang, Youjie; Zhang, Bin
China has one of the highest rates of cesarean sections in the world. However, limited epidemiological studies have evaluated the risk factors for cesarean section among Chinese women. Thus, the aim of this cohort study was to investigate the associations between pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain (GWG) and the risk of cesarean section in China. A total of 57,891 women with singleton, live-born, term pregnancies were included in this analysis. We found that women who were overweight or obese before pregnancy had an elevated risk of cesarean section. Women with a total GWG above the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations had an adjusted OR for cesarean section of 1.45 (95% CI, 1.40-1.51) compared with women who had GWG within the IOM recommendations. Women with excessive BMI gain during pregnancy also had an increased risk of cesarean section. When stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, there was a significant association between excessive GWG and increased odds of cesarean section across all pre-pregnancy BMI categories. These results suggest that weight control efforts before and during pregnancy may help to reduce the rate of cesarean sections.
Balki, Mrinalini; Chakravarty, Subrata; Salman, Aliya; Wax, Randy S
The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a teaching plan consisting of didactic teaching and repeated simulations on the performance of anesthesia residents in the management of general anesthesia (GA) for emergency Cesarean delivery (CD). Twenty-one postgraduate year 2 (PGY2) and 3 (PGY3) anesthesia residents from the University of Toronto were recruited in this prospective cohort study. All participants received didactic teaching in the management of GA for emergency CD, which was followed one week later by assessment of performance in the same scenario using a high-fidelity simulator. Another simulation assessment was repeated two months later in the same scenario. All simulation video recordings were assessed by two blinded experts using a validated checklist and an Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) scale in order to rate their technical and non-technical skills, respectively. The participants' performance (based on the above scales) in the two simulation sessions were then compared. Nineteen residents completed both simulation sessions. There was an improvement in the mean (SD) weighted checklist score from 64.5% (7.1%) in session 1 to 76.7% (6.7%) in session 2 (P Didactic teaching followed by simulation sessions enhances not only the technical skills but also the non-technical skills of residents, most likely due to the feedback received after the first simulation session. Repeated simulation sessions may help prepare residents to deal more effectively with similar critical situations in clinical practice with minimum errors.
Raja, J.F.; Bangash, K.T.; Mahmud, G.
Objective: To develop a scoring system for the prediction of successful vaginal birth after caesarean section, following induction of labour with intra-vaginal E2 gel (Glandin). Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011, at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences in Islamabad. Trial of labour in previous one caesarean section, undergoing induction with intra-vaginal E2 gel, was attempted in 100 women. They were scored according to six variables; maternal age; gestation; indications of previous caesarean; history of vaginal birth either before or after the previous caesarean; Bishop score and body mass index. Multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop the scoring system. Results: Of the total, 67 (67%) women delivered vaginally, while 33 (33%) ended in repeat caesarean delivery. Among the subjects, 55 (55%) women had no history of vaginal delivery either before or after previous caesarean section; 15 (15%) had history of vaginal births both before and after the previous caesarean; while 30 (30%) had vaginal delivery only after the previous caesarean section. Rates of successful vaginal birth after caesarean increased from 38% in women having a score of 0-3 to 58% in patients scoring 4-6. Among those having a score of 7-9 and 10-12, the success rates were 71% and 86% respectively. Conclusion: Increasing scores correlated with the increasing probability of vaginal birth after caesarean undergoing induction of labour. The admission VBAC scoring system is useful in counselling women with previous caesarean for the option of induction of labour or repeat caesarean delivery. (author)
Mridha, Malay K; Matias, Susana L; Paul, Rina Rani; Hussain, Sohrab; Sarker, Mostofa; Hossain, Mokbul; Peerson, Janet M; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G
Background: Pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery are common in Bangladesh. Objective: We evaluated the effect of lipid-based nutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women (LNS-PL) on pregnancy and childbirth complications and cesarean delivery. Methods: We conducted the Rang-Din Nutrition Study, a cluster-randomized controlled effectiveness trial within a community health program in rural Bangladesh. We enrolled 4011 pregnant women in early pregnancy. Women in 48 clusters received iron and folic acid (IFA; 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d) and women in 16 clusters received LNS-PL (20 g/d, 118 kcal) containing essential fatty acids and 22 vitamins and minerals. Pregnancy and childbirth complications and the cesarean delivery rate were secondary outcomes of the study. Results: Women in the LNS-PL group did not differ significantly from the IFA group with respect to mean systolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (113 and 112 mm Hg; P = 0.17), diastolic blood pressure at 36 wk gestation (68.9 and 68.7 mmHg; P = 0.88), or mean total number of pregnancy and childbirth complications (0.32 and 0.31; P = 0.86). They also did not differ significantly with respect to the prevalence of high blood pressure at 36 wk (1.74% and 2.03%; P = 0.62), antepartum hemorrhage (0.83% and 1.39%; P = 0.21), prolonged labor (8.34% and 8.79%; P = 0.68), early rupture of membranes (9.30% and 8.45%; P = 0.43), convulsions (1.57% and 1.08%; P = 0.24), high blood pressure in labor (1.54% and 1.19%; P = 0.46), obstructed labor (2.83% and 2.91%; P = 0.90), any complications during pregnancy or childbirth (35.9% and 37.1%; P = 0.64), episiotomy (6.31% and 6.44%; P = 0.90), or cesarean delivery (15.6% and 14.2%; P = 0.48). Conclusion: Compared with IFA, antenatal LNS-PL did not increase or decrease pregnancy and childbirth complications or cesarean delivery among women in rural Bangladesh. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715038. © 2017 American
Full Text Available Chewing gum has been reported to enhance bowel function. However, the efficacy remains unclear for women undergoing cesarean delivery. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of chewing gum for recovering intestinal function following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library were searched to identify English language randomized controlled trials comparing chewing gum with other procedures for promoting the recovery of intestinal function after cesarean delivery. Two of the authors independently extracted data from the eligibility studies, and Review Manager Version 5.2 was used to pool the data. Finally, five randomized controlled trials involving 882 patients were included and all the trials were considered as at high risk of bias. The pooled findings showed that chewing gum after cesarean delivery can significantly shorten the time to first flatus [standardized mean difference (SMD = −0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI = −1.01 to −0.14; p < 0.001]; time to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds (SMD = −0.69; 95% CI = −1.20 to −0.17; p = 0.009; I² = 92%. Time to the first defecation (SMD = −0.53; 95% CI = −1.61 to −0.07; p = 0.07; I² = 92% and length of hospital stay (SMD = −0.59; 95% CI = −1.18 to 0.00; p = 0.05; I² = 93% were also reduced in the chewing gum group; however, these results were not statistically significant. The current evidence suggests that chewing gum has a positive effect on intestinal function recovery following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. However, more large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these results.
Full Text Available AIM Our primary aim is to analyze of maternal and fetal outcome in spinal versus epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery in severe pre-eclampsia. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty parturients (60 with severe pre-eclampsia posted for cesarean section were randomized into two groups of thirty (30 each for either spinal anesthesia that is group S or epidural anesthesia that is group E. Spinal group (group S, n=30 received 10mg (2ml of 0.5% of hyperbaric bupivacaine solution intrathecally in left lateral decubitus or sitting position at L3-4 lumbar space with 25G quincke-babcock spinal needle. Patients received 6l/min of oxygen through Hudson’s face mask throughout the surgery. In Epidural group (group E, n=30, after thorough aseptic precautions, an 18G Tuohy’s epidural needle inserted at the L3-4 lumbar space with the patient in lateral decubitus or sitting position. Three ml of 1.5% lidocaine with was given as a test dose. After ruling out any intrathecal injection of the drug, initially 8ml of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine given and the vitals monitored. Then 3ml top-ups of the same bupivacaine solution is given in a graded manner slowly, simultaneously checking the height of block. A blockade upto T4 to T6 is required. Vitals are carefully monitored and oxygen is provided 6l/min throughout the procedure and surgery. Blood pressure (systolic, mean, diastolic, pulse rate, oxygen saturation are recorded immediately after giving anesthesia, every minute for first 10mins, then every 3mins for the rest of the surgery. Then vitals are also noted post-operatively for the first 24hrs. Apgar score after 1 and 5 minutes, of the newborn baby is also recorded. Other parameters noted were incidence and duration of hypotension or hypertension both intra-operatively and post-operatively, any usage of vasopressors (ephedrine and its dose, convulsions, renal failure, pulmonary edema, requirement for ICU stay and the number of days in the mother, and the incidence of
Browning, Roger M; Fellingham, William H; O'Loughlin, Edmond J; Brown, Nicholas A; Paech, Michael J
Cesarean delivery is commonly performed under regional anesthesia, which is often associated with maternal shivering. This can cause distress and interfere with monitoring. The study objective was to evaluate the antishivering efficacy of ondansetron, which reduces the incidence and severity of shivering in nonobstetric patients. We hypothesized that there would be a significant decrease in the incidence and/or severity of shivering in women who are given intravenous ondansetron 8 mg before combined spinal epidural (CSE) anesthesia, when compared with placebo. This was a randomized, double-blinded, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial of 118 women scheduled for elective cesarean surgery. Women received either intravenous ondansetron 8 mg (n = 58) or saline (n = 60) before CSE anesthesia (intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% 2.2-2.5 mL plus fentanyl 15 μg). The incidence and severity of shivering, measured on a validated 5-point scale, and other outcomes, such as nausea, pruritus, headache, or satisfaction, were assessed at 3 time points during the surgery and postoperative period. The incidence of shivering at any time point did not differ significantly between groups: ondansetron 41% versus placebo 47% (P = 0.54). The incidence of severe shivering at any time was not significantly different: ondansetron 32% versus placebo 33% (P = 0.79). There were no significant differences between the groups for any secondary outcomes. Intravenous ondansetron 8 mg before performing CSE anesthesia in women undergoing elective cesarean delivery does not decrease the incidence or severity of shivering.
Objective: To compare the obstetric outcome in terms of risk of low birth weight, preterm delivery, cesarean section rate and anemia in primigravid adolescents and older primigravida. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, from July to December 2012. Methodology: Three hundred primigravid women presenting to department of obstetrics and gynecology of Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Lahore, having live singleton pregnancy, including 150 adolescents (A/sup 2/ 19 years) and 150 adults (A/sup 3/ 20 years) were studied. Obstetric outcome in terms of gestational age at delivery, infant's birth weight, presence of anemia and cesarean section rate was compared between two groups. Results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Chi-square test was applied with 0.05 as level of significance. Results: The mean age of adolescent subjects was 17.3 + 1.5 years and of adults 25.6 + 3.4 years. Mean gestational age at delivery was similar in two groups (39.2 weeks and 39.4 weeks, p = 0.37). Adolescents were more likely to have a preterm delivery (11.2% vs. 4.9%, p = 0.04) and low birth weight infants (19.3% vs. 8.2%, p = 0.005) than adults. Adolescents were more likely to be anemic (46% vs. 32%, p = 0.01) than adults. However, cesarean section rate was not statistically different between two groups. Conclusion: This study showed that primiparous adolescents have significantly higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preterm delivery, low birth weight infants and anemia as compared to adult primiparas. (author)
Cantone, Daniela; Pelullo, Concetta Paola; Cancellieri, Mariagrazia; Attena, Francesco
Among European Countries, Italy has the highest rate of cesarean section (36.8%), and in the Campania region this rate reaches 60.0%. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether participation in antenatal classes during pregnancy reduces the rate of cesarean delivery in southern Italy. We selected three local health authorities, with the lowest, the highest, and an intermediate rate of cesarean delivery. The study included 1893 mothers who brought their children for vaccination and were interviewed about their participation in antenatal classes and their obstetric history. The main causes of cesarean section given in the interview were clinical indications (61.0%), previous cesarean section (31.0%) and woman's request (8.0%). When we excluded emergency cesarean delivery, we found a moderate association between participation in antenatal classes and cesarean section reduction (relative risk=1.27; 95% CI=1.08-1.49; in percentage values from 49.3% to 38.8%). Private hospitals and the two local health authorities with higher baseline rates of cesarean section showed an enhanced reduction of these rates. Our paper shows moderate efficacy of antenatal classes, which reduced the occurrence of cesarean section by about 10%. However, the cesarean section rate remained high. As it is possible that different classes have a different level of efficacy, a further study on a standardized model of an antenatal classes is in progress, to assess its efficacy in term of cesarean section reduction, with the purpose of its widespread implementation to the whole region. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Cesarean section (C-section) is surgery to deliver a baby. The baby is taken out through the mother's ... are able to have a vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). NIH: National Institute of Child Health and ...
Preventing the First Cesarean Delivery: Summary of a Joint Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Workshop
Spong, Catherine Y.; Berghella, Vincenzo; Wenstrom, Katharine D.; Mercer, Brian M.; Saade, George R.
With over one-third of pregnancies in the United States being delivered by cesarean and the growing knowledge of morbidities associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened a workshop to address the concept of preventing the first cesarean. The available information on maternal and fetal factors, labor management and induction, and non-medical factors leading to the first cesarean were reviewed as well as the implications of the first cesarean on future reproductive health. Key points were identified to assist with reduction in cesarean rates including that labor induction should be performed primarily for medical indication; if done for non-medical indications, the gestational age should be at least 39 weeks or more and the cervix should be favorable, especially in the nulliparous patient. Review of the current literature demonstrates the importance of adhering to appropriate definitions for failed induction and arrest of labor progress. The diagnosis of “failed induction” should only be made after an adequate attempt. Adequate time for normal latent and active phases of the first stage, and for the second stage, should be allowed, as long as the maternal and fetal conditions permit. The adequate time for each of these stages appears to be longer than traditionally estimated. Operative vaginal delivery is an acceptable birth method when indicated, and can safely prevent cesarean delivery. Given the progressively declining use, it is critical that training and experience in operative vaginal delivery is facilitated and encouraged. When discussing the first cesarean with a patient, counseling should include its effect on future reproductive health. PMID:23090537
CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustín; NIETO, Aníbal; ROSAS-BERMUDEZ, Anyeli; ROMERO, Roberto
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic misoprostol use at cesarean delivery for reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Seventeen studies (3174 women) were included of which 7 evaluated misoprostol versus oxytocin and 8 evaluated misoprostol plus oxytocin versus oxytocin. Overall, there were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage between sublingual or oral misoprostol and oxytocin. Rectal misoprostol, compared with oxytocin, was associated with a significant reduction in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. The combined use of sublingual misoprostol and oxytocin, compared with the use of oxytocin alone, was associated with a significant reduction in the mean decrease in hematocrit (mean difference, −2.1%; 95% confidence interval [CI], −3.4 to −0.8) and use of additional uterotonic agents (relative risk, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.62). Compared with oxytocin alone, buccal misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the use of additional uterotonic agents; rectal misoprostol plus oxytocin decreased intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, mean fall in hematocrit, and use of additional uterotonic agents; and intrauterine misoprostol plus oxytocin reduced the mean fall in hemoglobin and hematocrit. Women receiving misoprostol, alone or combined with oxytocin, had a higher risk of shivering and pyrexia. CONCLUSION Misoprostol combined with oxytocin appears to be more effective than oxytocin alone in reducing intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage during caesarean section. There were no significant differences in intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage when misoprostol was compared to oxytocin. However, these findings were based on a few trials with methodological limitations. PMID:23507545
Vallejo, Manuel C; Attaallah, Ahmed F; Shapiro, Robert E; Elzamzamy, Osama M; Mueller, Michael G; Eller, Warren S
We aimed to determine the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after cesarean delivery (CD) and identify the risk factors in a rural population. We identified 218 SSI patients by International Classification of Disease codes and matched them with 3131 parturients (control) from the electronic record database in a time-matched retrospective quality assurance analysis. The incidence of SSI after CD was 7.0 %. Risk factors included higher body mass index (BMI) [40.30 ± 10.60 kg/m 2 SSI (95 % CI 38.73-41.87) vs 34.05 ± 8.24 kg/m 2 control (95 % CI 33.75-34.35, P < 0.001)], years of education [13.28 ± 2.44 years SSI (95 % CI 12.9-13.66) vs 14.07 ± 2.81 years control (95 % CI 13.96-14.18, P < 0.001)], number of prior births [2 (1-9) SSI vs 1 (1-11) control (P < 0.001)], tobacco use (OR 1.49; 95 % CI 1.06-2.09, P = 0.03), prior diagnosis of hypertension (OR 1.80; 95 % CI 1.34-2.42, P < 0.001), gestational diabetes (OR 1.59; 95 % CI 1.18-2.13, P = 0.003), and an emergency/STAT CD (OR 1.6; 95 % CI 1.1-2.3, P = 0.01). Risk factors for SSI after CD included higher BMI, less years of education, higher prior births, tobacco use, prior diagnosis of hypertension, gestational diabetes, and emergency/STAT CD. The presence of ruptured membranes was protective against SSI.
Full Text Available Aim: To present the indications and primary caesarean section (CS rates of a secondary level hospital. Material and Method: This is a retrospective review of the births recorded at a secondary health center between March 2009 and December 2015. The number of patients with primary CS and repeat CS, total number of births, caesarean indications, and complications were assessed. Results: A total of 6535 live births were recorded during a seven-year-long study period. The mean age of the patients was determined as 26.7 ± 6.0 years (range of age: 15-47 years. Delivery by CS was performed in 20.5% of the total births. Of the caesarean births, 27.8% were primary CS and 72.2% were repeat CS. The mean primary and repeat CS rates during the study period were calculated as 5.7% and 14.8% respectively. The primary CS rate was 8.8% in 2009 and this number decreased to 4.3% in 2015. The most frequently encountered primary CS indications were malpresentation (33.9% followed by fetal distress (23.3% and failure of labour induction (14.8% respectively. No intestinal injury was determined in any patient who underwent caesarean delivery. In the repeat CS group, only one patient had a bladder injury that was successfully repaired. Discussion: The rates of primary caesarean section determined in this study are very low. These low rates can be attributed to several factors such as informing and encouraging patients about vaginal birth, avoiding CS on maternal request, and applying amniotic membrane stripping at term pregnancies.
Yuan, Changzheng; Gaskins, Audrey J; Blaine, Arianna I; Zhang, Cuilin; Gillman, Matthew W; Missmer, Stacey A; Field, Alison E; Chavarro, Jorge E
Cesarean birth has been associated with higher risk of obesity in offspring, but previous studies have focused primarily on childhood obesity and have been hampered by limited control for confounders. To investigate the association between cesarean birth and risk of obesity in offspring. A prospective cohort study was conducted from September 1, 1996, to December 31, 2012, among participants of the Growing Up Today Study, including 22 068 offspring born to 15 271 women, followed up via questionnaire from ages 9 to 14 through ages 20 to 28 years. Data analysis was conducted from October 10, 2015, to June 14, 2016. Birth by cesarean delivery. Risk of obesity based on International Obesity Task Force or World Health Organization body mass index cutoffs, depending on age. Secondary outcomes included risks of obesity associated with changes in mode of delivery and differences in risk between siblings whose modes of birth were discordant. Of the 22 068 offspring (20 950 white; 9359 male and 12 709 female), 4921 individuals (22.3%) were born by cesarean delivery. The cumulative risk of obesity through the end of follow-up was 13% among all participants. The adjusted risk ratio for obesity among offspring delivered via cesarean birth vs those delivered via vaginal birth was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.06-1.26; P = .002). This association was stronger among women without known indications for cesarean delivery (adjusted risk ratio, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09-1.54; P = .004). Offspring delivered via vaginal birth among women who had undergone a previous cesarean delivery had a 31% (95% CI, 17%-47%) lower risk of obesity compared with those born to women with repeated cesarean deliveries. In within-family analysis, individuals born by cesarean delivery had 64% (8%-148%) higher odds of obesity than did their siblings born via vaginal delivery. Cesarean birth was associated with offspring obesity after accounting for major confounding factors. Although additional research is
Almeida, M A; Araujo Júnior, E; Camano, L; Peixoto, A B; Martins, W P; Mattar, R
To evaluate the incidence of, indications of, and maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality rates in cesarean sections in a private health service in Brazil. Retrospective and observational study. Private health service in Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil. The patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire to determine maternal age, gestational age at the time of delivery, number of previous deliveries, type of delivery performed, duration of labor, indications for cesarean delivery, point at which cesarean section was performed, physician responsible for delivery, and maternal morbidity, fetal morbidity, and fetal mortality rates. A descriptive analysis of the data was conducted. Students t-test was performed to compare quantitative variables, and Fishers exact test was performed for categorical variables. A total of 584 patients were evaluated. Of these, 91.8% (536/584) had cesarean sections, while only 8.2% (48/584) had vaginal deliveries. There were no reports of forceps-assisted vaginal deliveries. In 87.49% of the deliveries, the number of gestational weeks was more than 37. In terms of indications for performing cesarean section, 48.5% were for maternal causes, 30.41% were for fetal causes, and 17.17% were elective. Maternal re-hospitalization due to puerperal complications was necessary in 10.42% of the vaginal deliveries and in 0.93% of the cesarean deliveries (pcesarean section. Of the newborns with complications at birth, 40.59% (41/101) had to be admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. There were no cases of maternal death. There were seven cases of fetal/neonatal death. We observed that the vast majority of deliveries in the private sector are performed by cesarean section, without labor, and by the patients obstetrician. We found no serious maternal complications or increased neonatal morbidity rates associated with cesarean section.
Burke, Naomi; Burke, Gerard; Breathnach, Fionnuala; McAuliffe, Fionnuala; Morrison, John J; Turner, Michael; Dornan, Samina; Higgins, John R; Cotter, Amanda; Geary, Michael; McParland, Peter; Daly, Sean; Cody, Fiona; Dicker, Pat; Tully, Elizabeth; Malone, Fergal D
In contemporary practice many nulliparous women require intervention during childbirth such as operative vaginal delivery or cesarean delivery (CD). Despite the knowledge that the increasing rate of CD is associated with increasing maternal age, obesity and larger infant birthweight, we lack a reliable method to predict the requirement for such potentially hazardous obstetric procedures during labor and delivery. This issue is important, as there are greater rates of morbidity and mortality associated with unplanned CD performed in labor compared with scheduled CDs. A prediction algorithm to identify women at risk of an unplanned CD could help reduced labor associated morbidity. In this primary analysis of the Genesis study, our objective was to prospectively assess the use of prenatally determined, maternal and fetal, anthropomorphic, clinical, and ultrasound features to develop a predictive tool for unplanned CD in the term nulliparous woman, before the onset of labor. The Genesis study recruited 2336 nulliparous women with a vertex presentation between 39+0 and 40+6 weeks' gestation in a prospective multicenter national study to examine predictors of CD. At recruitment, a detailed clinical evaluation and ultrasound assessment were performed. To reduce bias from knowledge of these data potentially influencing mode of delivery, women, midwives, and obstetricians were blinded to the ultrasound data. All hypothetical prenatal risk factors for unplanned CD were assessed as a composite. Multiple logistic regression analysis and mathematical modeling was used to develop a risk evaluation tool for CD in nulliparous women. Continuous predictors were standardized using z scores. From a total enrolled cohort of 2336 nulliparous participants, 491 (21%) had an unplanned CD. Five parameters were determined to be the best combined predictors of CD. These were advancing maternal age (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.34), shorter maternal height (OR
Full Text Available The development of a proper neonatal microbiota is of great importance, especially for the effects that dysbiosis has in acute and chronic diseases’ onset. The microbiota, particularly the intestinal one, plays a crucial role in maintaining the health of the host, preventing colonization by pathogenic bacteria and significantly influencing the development and maturation of a normal gastrointestinal mucosal immunity. Several factors may interfere with the physiological development of microbiota, such as diseases during pregnancy, type of delivery, maternal nutrition, type of neonatal feeding, use of antibiotics, exposition to hospital environment (e.g., neonatal intensive care unit and genetic factors. Thanks to a proper maternal and neonatal supplementation with specific functional nutrients, it is now possible to correct dysbiosis, thus reducing the risks for the newborn’s health. In this review of the literature, we give an overview of the studies highlighting the composition of the maternal, fetal and neonatal microbiota, the factors potentially responsible for dysbiosis and the use of functional nutrients to prevent diseases’ onset.
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the current study was to laparoscopically investigate the effects of peritoneal nonclosure on the sites, types, and degrees of adhesions developed after primary caesarean section (CS in women complaining of secondary infertility after first CS delivery. Study Design. This was a cross-sectional study, where 250 women suffering from secondary infertility after their first CS had been recruited. They had been classified into group I (n = 89, where both the visceral and parietal peritoneum had been left opened; group II (n = 75, where only the parietal peritoneum had been closed; and group III (n = 86, where both peritoneal layers had been closed. Laparoscopy had been used to classify those adhesions according to the location, severity, and their adverse impact on the reproductive capacity. Results. Both adnexal and nonadnexal adhesions had been found significantly higher in group I, while adnexal types of adhesions were significantly higher after nonclosure of the visceral peritoneum in group II. Laparoscopic tubal surgery performed included tubo-ovariolysis, fimbrioplasty, and neosalpingostomy. Pregnancy rate was found correlating with the adnexal adhesion location and score. Conclusion. Nonclosure of the peritoneum in CS is associated with more adhesion formation, which might adversely affect the future women reproduction.
Manuel C. Vallejo
Full Text Available The ilioinguinal-iliohypogastric (IIIH block is frequently used as multimodal analgesia for lower abdominal surgeries. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of IIIH block using ultrasound visualization for reducing postoperative pain after caesarean delivery (CD in patients receiving intrathecal morphine (ITM under spinal anesthesia. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups for the bilateral IIIH block: Group A = 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine, Group B = 10 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine on one side and 10 mL of a normal saline (NSS placebo block on the opposite side, and Group C = 10 mL of NSS placebo per side. Pain and nausea scores, treatment for pain and nausea, and patient satisfaction were recorded for 48 hours after CD. No differences were noted with respect to pain scores or treatment for pain over the 48 hours. There were no differences to the presence of nausea (P=0.64, treatment for nausea (P=0.21, pruritus (P=0.39, emesis (P=0.35, or patient satisfaction (P=0.29. There were no differences in pain and nausea scores over the measured time periods (MANOVA, P>0.05. In parturients receiving ITM for elective CD, IIIH block offers no additional postoperative benefit for up to 48 hours.
El Khouly, Nabih I; Meligy, Ashraf M
To evaluate the effect of prophylactic ondansetron on spinal anesthesia-induced hypotension and bradycardia among patients undergoing elective cesarean deliveries. A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial enrolled patients aged 20-40years scheduled for elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia between January 1, 2015 and January 31, 2016 at Menoufia University Hospital, Egypt. Patients were randomized to receive intravenous ondansetron 4mg in 10mL of saline or 10mL of saline. Participants and investigators were masked to group assignments. The primary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, measured at baseline, 10-minute intervals to 60minutes, and at 2hours. Per-protocol analyses were performed including patients who delivered under spinal anesthesia. The analyses included 50 patients in each group. Decreases in systolic blood pressure were reduced among patients receiving ondansetron at all time points (P0.05). Among patients who received ondansetron, mean arterial pressure was higher immediately and 30minutes after spinal anesthesia (Pcesarean deliveries under spinal anesthesia. Pan African Clinical Trials Registry: PACTR 201601001397193. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ma, Ke-Zong M; Norton, Edward C; Lee, Shoou-Yih D
Physician-induced demand (PID) is an important theory to test given the longstanding controversy surrounding it. Empirical health economists have been challenged to find natural experiments to test the theory because PID is tantamount to strong income effects. The data requirements are both a strong exogenous change in income and two types of treatment that are substitutes but have different net revenues. The theory implies that an exogenous fall in income would lead physicians to recoup their income by substituting a more expensive treatment for a less expensive treatment. This study takes advantages of the dramatic decline in the Taiwanese fertility rate to examine whether an exogenous and negative income shock to obstetricians and gynecologists (ob/gyns) affected the use of c-sections, which has a higher reimbursement rate than vaginal delivery under Taiwan's National Health Insurance system during the study period, and tocolytic hospitalizations. The primary data were obtained from the 1996 to 2004 National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We hypothesized that a negative income shock to ob/gyns would cause them to provide more c-sections and tocolytic hospitalizations to less medically-informed pregnant women. Multinomial probit and probit models were estimated and the marginal effects of the interaction term were conducted to estimate the impacts of ob/gyn to birth ratio and the information gap. Our results showed that a decline in fertility did not lead ob/gyns to supply more c-sections to less medically-informed pregnant women, and that during fertility decline ob/gyns may supply more tocolytic hospitalizations to compensate their income loss, regardless of pregnant women's access to health information. The exogenous decline in the Taiwanese fertility rate and the use of detailed medical information and demographic attributes of pregnant women allowed us to avoid the endogeneity problem that threatened the validity of prior research. They also
Full Text Available Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs, although most commonly congenital, are usually detected later in life. We present a case of a 25-year-old woman with no previous history of AVM or telangiectasia, who presented with life-threatening hypoxia, hypotension, and pleuritic chest pain in 36th week of gestation. Chest tube placement revealed 4 liters of blood. Patient was subsequently found to have bleeding pulmonary AVM as the source of hemothorax. Successful embolisation of the bleeding vessel followed by thoracoscopic evacuation of the organized clot relieved the hypoxia. Further screening for AVM revealed large splenic AVM for which patient underwent splenectomy in the coming months.
Sepúlveda-Mendoza, Denisse Lorena; Galván-Caudillo, Marisol; Soto-Fuenzalida, Gonzalo Andrés; Méndez-Lozano, Daniel Humberto
BAKCGROUND: Caesarean section is the main proceedings for ending of pregnancy in the world, and currently represents a public health problem. Some factors that benefit the likelihood of vaginal birth after a previous C-section have been described in literature, with scoring tools designed to predict success for trial of labor after a previous cesarean. There are few studies that identify predictors of success for vaginal delivery in Latin-American patients. To identify predictive factors associated to vaginal delivery success in patients with a prior cesarean delivery. Case-control study. We included patients with one previous cesarean delivery admitted at our hospital. The variables analyzed with a logistic regression system to predict vaginal delivery success probabilities. A total of 11 60 patients were included, 668 underwent C-section (considered control group), and 492 patients had a vaginal delivery (considered study group). The Factors associated to vaginal birth after cesarean delivery were maternal age (25.1±5.4 vs 24.7±5.5 years old, OR 0.967, p<0.05), fetal weight (3,253±389 vs 3,383±452 g, OR 0.99, p<0.05), previous vaginal delivery (49 vs 1 8.4%, OR 2.97, p<0.05) and spontaneous labor (90.8 vs 74.1%, OR 3.68, p<0.05, respectively). Maternal age, fetal weight, previous vaginal delivery and spontaneous labor were associated with vaginal delivery success in patients with a previous cesarean delivery.
Ma, Liang-Kun; Liu, Na; Bian, Xu-Ming; Teng, Li-Rong; Qi, Hong; Gong, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Jun-Tao; Yang, Jian-Qiu
To evaluate the effect of elective repeat cesarean section on the maternal and neonatal outcomes. A retrospective clinic- and hospital-based survey was designed for comparing the maternal and neonatal outcomes of elective repeat cesarean section [RCS group (one previous cesarean section) and MRCS group (two or more previous cesarean sections)] and primary cesarean section (FCS group) at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1998 to December 2007. The incidence of repeat cesarean section increased from 1.26% to 7.32%. The mean gestational age at delivery in RCS group (38.1+/-1.8 weeks) and MRCS group (37.3+/-2.5 weeks) were significantly shorter than that in FCS group (38.9+/-2.1 weeks, all Pcomplication was 33.8% and 33.3% in RCS group and MRCS group respectively, and was significantly higher than that in FCS group (7.9%, P0.05). Repeat cesarean section is associated with more complicated surgery technique and increased frequency of maternal morbidity. However, the incidence of neonatal morbidity is similar to primary cesarean section.
Fan, Dazhi; Wu, Shuzhen; Ye, Shaoxin; Wang, Wen; Wang, Lijuan; Fu, Yao; Zeng, Meng; Liu, Yan; Guo, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhengping
Complete placenta previa (CPP) is one of the most problematic types of abnormal placenta, which is further complicated by placenta accreta or percreta that can unexpectedly lead to catastrophic blood loss, infection, multiple complications, emergency hysterectomy, and even death. The present study aimed to assess the efficacy of random placenta margin incision in controlling intraoperative and total blood loss during cesarean section for CPP women. A prospective cohort study, including a total of 100 consecutive pregnant women with CPP, was performed at a tertiary university-affiliated medical center between March 2016 and July 2017. All of them underwent random placenta margin incision, and intraoperative and total blood loss were analyzed. Through antenatal diagnosis using color Doppler, women were further divided into abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) and non-AIP groups, and anterior and posterior placenta groups. The protocol was registered with the Clinical Trial Registry under registration number NCT02695069. Mean maternal age and gestational age at delivery were 32.26 ± 5.03 years old and 36.21 ± 2.07 weeks, respectively. Total duration of the surgical procedure time was 52.50 (42.43-64.00) min. Median estimated intraoperation blood loss was 746.43 (544.44-1092.86) ml. Total blood loss was 875.00 (604.50-1196.67) ml, and 38 (38.0%) had post-partum hemorrhage. The change from baseline in the median hemoglobin level was -0.33 (6.00-13.20). No women underwent hysterectomy due to massive hemorrhage during the study period. No women had an intraoperative urinary bladder injury, postoperative wound infection, and required relaparotomy, owing to intra-abdominal bleeding. The median hospitalization time was 5.41 (4.18-7.58) d. The random placenta margin incision may be a potentially valuable surgical procedure to control the volumes of intraoperative and postoperative blood loss and reduce the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage among women with complete
Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Masho, Saba W
The rate of breastfeeding duration is staggeringly low with only one-quarter of infants in the United States being exclusively breastfed at 6 months. Maternal smoking and mode of delivery have been identified as independent risk factors for shorter breastfeeding duration. This study aims to evaluate the effect of repeat cesarean delivery on breastfeeding duration, taking into account smoking status. Data from the U.S. population-based Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System survey, 2004-2011, were analyzed. Women who delivered a live singleton baby, had a previous birth through cesarean delivery, and provided mode of delivery and breastfeeding information were included in the analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models provided crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All models were stratified by smoking status. Among smokers, women who had repeat cesarean section had a 2-fold higher odds of never breastfeeding (AOR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.38-4.29) and a 4-fold higher odds of breastfeeding 8 weeks or less (AOR = 4.11, 95% CI = 2.08-8.11) compared with women who gave birth vaginally after cesarean section. Among nonsmokers, the odds of never breastfeeding and breastfeeding 8 weeks or less were 2.4 times (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.84-3.03) and 1.4 times (AOR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.15-1.80) higher in women who had repeat cesarean section compared with women who had vaginal birth after cesarean section, respectively. Among women who smoke during pregnancy, the results suggest that repeat cesarean delivery negatively affects breastfeeding duration. Interventions are needed for mothers who smoke during pregnancy and undergo repeat cesarean delivery.
Vallejo, M C; Attaallah, A F; Elzamzamy, O M; Cifarelli, D T; Phelps, A L; Hobbs, G R; Shapiro, R E; Ranganathan, P
During spinal anesthesia for cesarean delivery phenylephrine is the vasopressor of choice but can cause bradycardia. Norepinephrine has both β- and α-adrenergic activity suitable for maintaining blood pressure with less bradycardia. We hypothesized that norepinephrine would be superior to phenylephrine, requiring fewer rescue bolus interventions to maintain blood pressure. Eighty-five parturients having spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery were randomized to Group P (phenylephrine 0.1μg/kg/min) or Group N (norepinephrine 0.05μg/kg/min) fixed-rate infusions. Rescue bolus interventions of phenylephrine 100μg for hypotension, or ephedrine 5mg for bradycardia with hypotension, were given as required to maintain systolic blood pressure. Maternal hemodynamic variables were measured non-invasively. There was no difference between groups in the proportion of patients who required rescue vasopressor boluses (Group P: 65.8% [n=25] vs. Group N: 48.8% [n=21], P=0.12). The proportion of patients who received ⩾1 bolus of phenylephrine was similar between groups (Group P: 52.6% [n=20] vs. Group N: 46.5% [n=20], P=0.58). However, more patients received ⩾1 bolus of ephedrine in the phenylephrine group (Group P: 23.7% [n=9] vs. Group N: 2.3% [n=1], Phypotension and can be considered as an alternative to phenylephrine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available LinLi Luo,* Juan Ni,* Lan Wu, Dong Luo Department of Anesthesiology, West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work and should be considered co-first authors Abstract: Anesthetic management of patients with preexisting diseases is challenging and individualized approaches need to be determined based on patients' complications. We report here a case of ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia in combination with low-dose ketamine during cesarean delivery on a parturient with severe malformations of the skeletal system and airway problems. The ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia was performed in the L1–L2 space, followed by an intravenous administration of ketamine (0.5 mg/kg for sedation and analgesia. Satisfactory anesthesia was provided to the patient and spontaneous ventilation was maintained during the surgery. The mother and the baby were discharged 5 days after surgery, no complications were reported for either of them. Our work demonstrated that an ultrasound-guided epidural anesthesia combined with low-dose ketamine can be used to successfully maintain spontaneous ventilation and provide effective analgesia during surgery and reduce the risk of postoperative anesthesia-related pulmonary infection. Keywords: anesthesia, regional, cesarean delivery, ketamine, ultrasound-guided
Kessous, Roy; Danor, Daniela; Weintraub, Y Adi; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Sergienko, Ruslan; Ohel, Iris; Sheiner, Eyal
To investigate risk factors for relaparotomy after cesarean section (CS). A retrospective case-control study comparing all CS that were complicated with relaparotomy to cesarean deliveries without this complication. Relaparotomy complicated 0.23% (n=80) of CS during the study period (n=34,389). Independent risk factors for relaparotomy following CS from a multivariable logistic regression model were post partum hemorrhage, cervical tears, placenta previa, uterine rupture, placental abruption, severe preeclampsia and previous CS. Most women (51.2%) underwent relaparotomy during the first 24 h after CS. The leading causes for relaparotomy was bleeding (70%) and burst abdomen (8.8%). Hysterectomy was performed in 31.3% of the patients. Risk factors for relaparotomy after CS are previous CS, severe preeclampsia, placenta previa, uterine rupture, placental abruption, cervical tear and PPH. Experienced obstetricians should be involved in such cases and the possibility for complications including relaparotomy should be emphasized.
Rabinerson, David; Ashwal, Eran; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat
According to historic documents, delivery by abdominal and uterine incision was already known to mankind at the beginning of the second millennium BC. This delivery method was eventually referred to as "Cesarean Section" because it was wrongfully attributed to the way by which Julius Caesar was born. The indications for cesarean sections performed in ancient cultures and to the end of the medieval period were mainly kings law, that mandated burial of the fetus separately from his mother, legal rights regarding inheritance of the father or religious motives mandating baptism of the newborn in order to ensure him eternal life in heaven. As from the second half of the 19th century AD, and with improvement in surgical techniques, as well as in the perioperative environment (asepsis, antibiotics, anaesthesia, blood transfusion, etc.), the obstetric outcome of cesarean sections was dramaticay improved, both in terms of maternal, as well as fetal, outcome. Hence, it became very prevalent throughout the world. The emergence of medico-legal medicine and medical ethics issues, have further contributed to the use of cesarean sections as the ultimate solution of every unusual delivery.