WorldWideScience

Sample records for previous bench-scale experiments

  1. Bench-Scale Experiments to Evaluate ERT as a Monitoring Tool for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Detwiler, R. L.; Carrigan, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Field-scale studies have shown Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to be an effective tool for imaging resistivity anomalies and monitoring changing saturations in the near subsurface. Despite the challenges of implementing ERT in the deep subsurface, it has potential as a surveying technology for visualizing sequestered CO2, in part because it can be localized within the target reservoir. Currently, the technology is being evaluated as part of a geologic sequestration project in Cranfield, MS, where supercritical CO2 is injected to ten thousand feet below the surface. In support of this field-scale activity, we have designed an analog bench-scale experimental system to further evaluate the ability of ERT to quantify both the volume and spatial distribution of gas injected into a saline aquifer. Our translucent sand chambers measure 58cm x 30cm x 1cm and are lined with twenty-one stainless steel electrodes on each long side, inserted into a nonconductive plastic gasket. We fill the chamber with quartz sand with different grain sizes with a filling procedure that generates small-scale layering within the injection zone, which is overlain by a fine-grained layer that serves as a capillary barrier. Prior to gas injection, the porous medium is saturated with a low resistivity salt solution. We then inject gas into the bottom of the injection zone. Buoyant forces drive gas migration into the chamber, resulting in a combination of small-scale trapping in horizontal layers, fingering between the horizontal layers, and large-scale trapping of the gas plume along the upper capillary barrier. During pauses in gas injection, a CCD camera captures high-resolution images, and an ERT data acquisition system scans the chamber. Quantitative visualization techniques are used to process the CCD images resulting in high-resolution measurements of the spatial distribution of the injected gas. These results are directly compared to resistivity fields that result from the inversion

  2. Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 degrees C) at ≥ 900 degrees C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides, are retained within the melt as oxides or salts. Rockwell International has studied the application of MSO to various wastes, including some mixed waste. A unit used by Rockwell to study the mixed waste treatment is presently in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL's studies to date have concentrated on chemical flowsheet questions. Concerns that were studied included carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, NO x , emissions, and metal retention under a variety of conditions. Initial experiments show that CO emissions increase with increasing NaCl content in the melt, increasing temperature, and increasing airflow. Carbon monoxide content is especially high (> 2000 ppm) with high chlorine content (> 10%). Thermal NO x , emissions are relatively low ( x , The metal contents of the melt and of knockout pot samples of condensed salt show high volatilities of Cs as CsCl. Average condensed salt concentrations were 60% for barium and 100% for strontium and cobalt. The cerium disappeared -- perhaps from deposition on the alumina reactor walls

  3. Investigation of mixing enhancement in porous media under helical flow conditions: 3-D bench-scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Ye, Yu; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral mass exchange at the fringe of solute plumes is a fundamental process leading to plume dilution and reactive mixing. Mass transfer between the plume and ambient water can be considerably enhanced by helical flow occurring in three-dimensional heterogeneous anisotropic porous media [1-3]. We...... performed steady-state conservative tracer experiments in a fully three-dimensional flow-through chamber to investigate the effects of helical flow on plume spiraling and deformation, as well as on its dilution [4]. Helical flow was created by packing the porous medium in angled stripes of materials...... with different grain sizes to create blocks with macroscopically anisotropic hydraulic conductivity. The hydraulic conductivity of the blocks was varied in different experiments. Solute concentrations and flow rates were measured at high spatial resolution for samples collected at 49 outlet ports. This allowed...

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial...... solutions are concerned with deposition. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. This work presents a bench scale study of the feasibility of treating APC-residue from a dry system by electrodialysis....... A system resembling conventional electrodialysis was designed and adjusted to fit the high solids content feed solution (10% APC residue, 90% water). Experiments were made in bench scale with raw residue (natural pH > 12), water pre-residue (natural pH > 12), acid pre-washed residue (pH 10), and acid...

  5. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  6. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to the current project, development of the DSRP was done in a laboratory setting, using synthetic gas mixtures to simulate the regeneration off-gas and coal gas feeds. The objective of the current work is to further the development of zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the DSRP for hot-gas cleanup by testing with actual coal gas. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Develop and test an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system with a slipstream of actual coal gas; (2) Test the bench-scale DSRP over an extended period with a slipstream of actual coal gas to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); (3) Expose the DSRP catalyst to actual coal gas for extended periods and then test its activity in a laboratory reactor to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by static exposure to the trace contaminants in coal gas; (4) Design and fabricate a six-fold larger-scale DSRP reactor system for future slipstream testing; (5) Further develop the fluidized-bed DSRP to handle high concentrations (up to 14 percent) of SO 2 that are likely to be encountered when pure air is used for regeneration of desulfurization sorbents; and (6) Conduct extended field testing of the 6X DSRP reactor with actual coal gas and high concentrations of SO 2 . The accomplishment of the first three objectives--testing the DSRP with actual coal gas, integration with hot-gas desulfurization, and catalyst exposure testing--was described previously (Portzer and Gangwal, 1994, 1995; Portzer et al., 1996). This paper summarizes the results of previous work and describes the current activities and plans to accomplish the remaining objectives

  7. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  8. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  9. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    content, additive addition, and the degree of torrefaction on the pelletizing properties and pellet quality, i.e., density, static friction, and pellet strength. Results were compared with pellet production using a bench-scale pelletizer. The results indicate that friction is the key factor when scaling...... up from single-pellet press to bench-scale pelletizer. Tuning moisture content or increasing the die temperature did not ease the pellet production of torrefied wood chips significantly. The addition of rapeseed oil as a lubricant reduced the static friction by half and stabilized pellet production...

  10. Bench scale flotation of spodume/quartz and lepidolite/quartz synthetic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Gontijo, C.F.; Peres, A.E.C.

    1985-01-01

    Based on results of zeta potential determinations and microflotation tests, bench scale flotation experiments were carried out using spodume/quartz and lepodolite/quartz synthetic mixtures. Pure natural samples, further purified in laboratory, and commercial reagents were employed. The minerals were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique. Selectivity between spodume and quartz was achieved through modification with corn starch and between lepidolite and quartz through pH control in the acidic range. (Author) [pt

  11. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Buddle, Stanlee [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Caraher, Joel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Chen, Wei [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Doherty, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Farnum, Rachel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Giammattei, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Hancu, Dan [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Perry, Robert [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Rubinsztajn, Gosia; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2017-05-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO2 with at least 95% CO2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. In the first budget period of the project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major

  12. Recycling of polyethene and polypropene in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor by high temperature pyrolysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Westerhout, R.W.J.; Waanders, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1998-01-01

    The high-temperature pyrolysis of polyethene (PE), polypropene (PP), and mixtures of these polymers was studied in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor (RCR). Experiments showed that the effect of the sand or reactor temperature on the product spectrum obtained is large compared to the effect

  13. In situ remediation of hexavalent chromium with pyrite fines : bench scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathum, S.; Wong, W.P.; Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ remediation technique for chromium contaminated soil with pyrite fines was presented. Past industrial activities and lack of disposal facilities have contributed to a serious problem dealing with chromium, which cannot be eliminated from the environment because it is an element. Both bench-scale and laboratory testing was conducted to confirm the efficiency of the proposed process which successfully converted Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in soil and water. Cr(III) is less toxic and immobile in the environment compared to Cr(VI) which moves freely in the soil matrix, posing a risk to the groundwater quality. pH in the range of 2.0 to 7.6 has no effect on the reactivity of pyrite towards Cr(VI). The optimization of the bench-scale treatment resulted in a large volume of chromium waste, mostly from the control experiments and column hydrology testing. These waste streams were treated according to municipal guidelines before disposal to the environment. Samples of chromium waste before and after treatment were analyzed. Cr (VI) was completely mineralized to below guideline levels. It was determined that several conditions, including contact time between pyrite and Cr(VI), are crucial for complete mineralization of Cr(VI). 13 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  14. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO 2 ) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO 2 produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility

  15. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  16. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  17. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact and versatile laboratory tubular reactor has been designed and fabricated keeping in view of reducing capital cost and minimising energy consumption for gas/vapor-phase heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The reactor is consisted of two coaxial corning glass tubes with a helical coil of glass tube in between the coaxial tubes serving as vaporiser and pre-heater, the catalyst bed is in the inner tube. A schematic diagram of the reactor with detailed dimensions and working principles are described. The attractive feature of the reactor is that the vaporiser, pre-heater and fixed bed reactor are merged in a single compact unit. Thus, the unit minimises separate vaporiser and pre-heater, also avoids separate furnaces used for them and eliminate auxiliary instrumentation such as temperature controller etc. To demonstrate the system operation and illustrate the key features, catalyst screening data and the efficient collection of complete, and accurate intrinsic kinetic data are provided for oxidation of CO over copper chromite catalyst. CO oxidation is an important reaction for auto-exhaust pollution control. The suitability of the versatile nature of the reactor has been ascertained for catalytic reactions where either volatile or vaporizable feeds can be introduced to the reaction zone, e.g. oxidation of iso-octane, reduction of nitric oxide, dehydrogenation of methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol, hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline, etc. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 February 2009, Accepted: 9 May 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2009. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 5-9.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9

  18. Bench scale demonstration and conceptual engineering for DETOXSM catalyzed wet oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslander, J.; Bell, R.; Robertson, D.; Dhooge, P.; Goldblatt, S.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and bench scale studies of the DETOX SM catalyzed wet oxidation process have been performed with the object of developing the process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. Reaction orders, apparent rates, and activation energies have been determined for a range of organic waste surrogates. Reaction intermediates and products have been analyzed. Metals' fates have been determined. Bench scale units have been designed, fabricated, and tested with solid and liquid organic waste surrogates. Results from the laboratory and bench scale studies have been used to develop conceptual designs for application of the process to hazardous and mixed wastes

  19. Crucible melts and bench-scale ISV [in situ vitrification] tests on simulated wastes in INEL [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Reimus, M.A.H.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of eight crucible melt tests and three bench-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test that were performed on simulated metals/soils mixtures containing actual site soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The crucible melt and bench-scale ISV tests are a part of efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assist the INEL in conducting a treatability study on ISV for application to the mixed waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area (SDA). The crucible melt tests were performed to evaluate the effect of various chemical additives and metal oxidation techniques on soil melting temperatures, melt viscosities, metals versus electrode oxidation potentials, and metals incorporation in the glass. The bench-scale ISV tests were performed to supplement the existing ISV data base with information on certain hazardous materials that have not been adequately evaluated in previous ISV tests. These materials included five EP toxicity metals, various volatile organic materials fixed in a cementitious matrix [including carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE)], and asbestos. In addition, the bench-scale test were used to evaluated the effect of the proposed chemical additive on ISV processing performance and product quality. 8 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs

  20. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming : bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb2O5 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, N.R.C.F.; Rizzo, R.C.P.; Calsavara, V.; Takahashi, F.; Almeida, A.A.; Melo, F.R. de; Zschornack, M.A.; Bessani, A.N.; Rodrigues, R.M.O. [State University of Maringa, Maringa (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Lab. of Catalysis; Schmal, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia, Graduate School and Research in Engineering Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute; Cantao, M.P. [Institute of Technology for Development, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. of Materials

    2003-07-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to produce hydrogen from ethanol reforming. This paper presents the bench-scale study unit that uses a 5 per cent copper-niobium2oxygen5 (Cu/Nb2O5) catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the catalyst contained copper oxide in an amorphous form and that the Nb2O5 was highly crystalline. The calcinated catalyst was analysed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and showed that 35 per cent of total copper was on the surface as Cu{sup I} (55 per cent) and Cu{sup II} (45 per cent). The surface area was mainly comprised of meso and macro pores. There was a two-step reduction of Cu{sup II} to Cu at 245 and 306 degrees C, as shown by temperature programmed reduction, as well as a 6 per cent reduction of Nb2O5. An internal reactor with 16 grams (g) of catalyst pellets was contained in the reaction unit. To optimize hydrogen production, reaction temperature and feed rate were varied, and the major by-product was carbon dioxide. Reagents (water and ethanol) were fed into and vaporized in, an electric pre-heater in stoichiometric proportion. Mean conversion increased from 17 per cent to 35 per cent through an increase of reaction temperature from 300 to 400 degrees C. Minor by-products were detected in the form of ethene and ethyl ether. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue in a bench scale rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Michele; Cornacchia, Giacinto; De Gisi, Sabino; Di Canio, Francesco; Freda, Cesare; Garzone, Pietro; Martino, Maria; Valerio, Vito; Villone, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR) can create difficulties when managing, with its production increasing. It is made of different type of plastics, foams, elastomers, wood, glasses and textiles. For this reason, it is complicated to dispose of in a cost effective way, while also respecting the stringent environmental restrictions. Among thermal treatments, pyrolysis seems to offer an environmentally attractive method for the treatment of ASR; it also allows for the recovery of valuable secondary materials/fuels such as pyrolysis oils, chars, and gas. While, there is a great deal of significant research on ASR pyrolysis, the literature on higher scale pyrolysis experiments is limited. To improve current literature, the aim of the study was to investigate the pyrolysis of ASR in a bench scale rotary kiln. The Italian ASR was separated by dry-sieving into two particle size fractions: d30mm. Both the streams were grounded, pelletized and then pyrolyzed in a continuous bench scale rotary kiln at 450, 550 and 650°C. The mass flow rate of the ASR pellets was 200-350g/h and each test ran for about 4-5h. The produced char, pyrolysis oil and syngas were quantified to determine product distribution. They were thoroughly analyzed with regard to their chemical and physical properties. The results show how higher temperatures increase the pyrolysis gas yield (44wt% at 650°C) as well as its heating value. The low heating value (LHV) of syngas ranges between 18 and 26MJ/Nm 3 dry. The highest pyrolysis oil yield (33wt.%) was observed at 550°C and its LHV ranges between 12.5 and 14.5MJ/kg. Furthermore, only two out of the six produced chars respect the LHV limit set by the Italian environmental regulations for landfilling. The obtained results in terms of product distribution and their chemical-physical analyses provide useful information for plant scale-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  3. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  4. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing AB14 Pigment by Electrooxidation in both Pilot and Bench Scale Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Basiri parsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation process was used for the degradation of Acid Brown 14 in both bench and pilot scale reactors. The bench scale one with a working volume of 0.5 L was equipped with platinum plate used as the anode and stainless steel (SS-304 plates as the cathode. The pilot scale reactor had a volume of 9 L and was equipped with SS-304 plates used as both the anode and the cathode. Experiments were run using these reactors to investigate the two parameters of energy consumption and anode efficiency. The bench scale reactor was capable of removing 92% and 36% of the dye and COD, respectively, after 18 min of operation. The pilot scale reactor, however, was capable of removing 87% and 59% of the dye and the COD content, respectively, after 60 min of operation. The kinetic study of both the bench and pilot reactors for dye and COD removals showed that both processes followed a zero order kinetic.

  5. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater: Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Strandberg, G.W.; Morris, M.I.; Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system

  6. Bench scale demonstration of the Supermethanol concept : The synthesis of methanol from glycerol derived syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    An integrated process for the synthesis of methanol from aqueous glycerol involving reforming of the feed to syngas followed by methanol synthesis is successfully demonstrated in a continuous bench scale unit. Glycerol reforming was carried out at pressures of 24-27 MPa and temperatures of 948-998 K

  7. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  8. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  9. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  10. Bench-scale and full-scale studies of nitric oxides reduction by gaseous fuel reburning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Xiang, J.; Sun, L.S.; Hu, S.; Zhu, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers are significant contributors to atmospheric pollution. China has specified more rigorous legal limits for NOx emissions from power plants. As a result of the need to reduce NOx emissions, cost-effective NOx reduction strategies must be explored. This paper presented detailed experimental studies on a gaseous fuel reburning process that was performed in a 36 kilowatt bench-scale down-fired furnace to define the optimal reburning operating conditions when different Chinese coals were fired in the furnace. In addition, the combustion system of a 350 megawatt full-scale boiler was retrofitted according to the experimental results. Finally, the gaseous fuel reburning was applied to the retrofitted full-scale boiler. The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of the key parameters on nitric oxide (NO) reduction efficiency of the reburning process and demonstrate the gaseous fuel reburning on a 350 MWe coal-fired boiler in China. The paper described the experimental procedure with particular reference to the experimental facility and measurement; a schematic diagram of the experimental system; experimental fuels; and characteristics of coals for the reburning experiments. Results that were presented included influence of reburn zone residence time; influence of gaseous reburn fuel per cent; influence of excess air coefficient; and unburned carbon in fly ash. It was concluded that both an above 50 per cent NO reduction efficiency and low carbon loss can be obtained by the gaseous fuel reburning process under the optimal operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  11. Bench-scale arc melter for R ampersand D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800 degrees C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter's ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions

  12. Performance of a bench-scale fast fluidized bed carbonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2014-01-01

    by applying a new experimental method with accurate control of the particle recirculation rate. The experimental results show that the inlet calcium to carbon molar ratio is the main factor on the CO2 capture efficiency in the carbonator, that is, increasing the inlet Ca/C from 4 to 13 results in increasing...... is estimated from experiments under stable operating conditions with constant bed inventory, reactor temperature and exit CO2 concentration. The validated CFB carbonator model was used to simulate different operating conditions relevant for CO2 capture from a power plant and from a cement plant. The results...... the CO2 capture efficiency from 40 to 85% with limestone having a maximum CO2 capture capacity of only 11.5%. Furthermore, a reactor model for a carbonator is developed based on the Kunii-Levenspiels model. A key parameter in the model is the particle distribution along the height of the reactor, which...

  13. An integrated testing facility for bench scale catalyst research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, H.D.; Hogan, R.J.; McMurtrie, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Discovering new catalysts and designing new catalytic processes has long been hindered by equipment that is either designed for hand operation with the data acquisition functions in some stage of automation or is patterned after refinery installations to smaller, pilot plant like facilities. The latter approach has required large vessels (and hence large amounts of experimental catalyst and feedstocks) to be used or the use of improperly fitted control equipment with constant attention to the operation of a small reactor system. Constant attention partially negates the intent of the automation effort. Results from some of these systems are often unsatisfactory because of poor material balances and control. The data from some schemes must then be manually transferred into other databases for use in reports, correlations, etc. An earlier paper from this laboratory (1) described an initial attempt to provide a reliable, reproducible method for more productive catalyst screening, but that system still lacked an automatic data management system and was not flexible with regards to wide range changes of pressure and flow. Also, several different types of experiments could not be run concurrently. Recently, several schemes have appeared (2-6) which deal with distributed systems as they apply to various laboratory and pilot plant operations. This paper describes an automated system that allows for up to 21 reactors to be in operation concurrently with a staff of five people. All units are independently run without normal operator intervention and the system is designed fail safe for unattended operation. It has been used extensively for screening exploratory catalysts, catalytic process optimization, kinetic modeling and increasingly in refinery process optimization.

  14. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho

  15. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  16. Bench-scale evaluation of drinking water treatment parameters on iron particles and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Safiur; Gagnon, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Discoloration of water resulting from suspended iron particles is one of the main customer complaints received by water suppliers. However, understanding of the mechanisms of discoloration as well as role of materials involved in the process is limited. In this study, an array of bench scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of the most common variables (pH, PO4, Cl2 and DOM) on the properties of iron particles and suspensions derived from the oxygenation of Fe(II) ions in NaHCO3 buffered synthetic water systems. The most important factors as well as their rank influencing iron suspension color and turbidity formation were identified for a range of water quality parameters. This was accomplished using a 2(4) full factorial design approach at a 95% confidence level. The statistical analysis revealed that phosphate was found to be the most significant factor to alter color (contribution: 37.9%) and turbidity (contribution: 45.5%) in an iron-water system. A comprehensive study revealed that phosphate and chlorine produced iron suspension with reduced color and turbidity, made ζ-potential more negative, reduced the average particle size, and increased iron suspension stability. In the presence of DOM, color was observed to increase but a reverse trend was observed to decrease the turbidity and to alter particle size distribution. HPSEC results suggest that higher molecular weight fractions of DOM tend to adsorb onto the surfaces of iron particles at early stages, resulting in alteration of the surface charge of iron particles. This in turn limits particles aggregation and makes iron colloids highly stable. In the presence of a phosphate based corrosion inhibitor, this study demonstrated that color and turbidity resulting from suspended iron were lower at a pH value of 6.5 (compared to pH of 8.5). The same trend was observed in presence of DOM. This study also suggested that iron colloid suspension color and turbidity in chlorinated drinking water

  17. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137 Cs and 226 Ra from existing waste solutions

  18. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for biomass pellets requires the investigation of alternative raw materials for pelletizetion. In the present paper, the pelletization process of fescue, alfalfa, sorghum, triticale, miscanthus and willow is studied to determine if results obtained in a single pellet press...... (SPP) can be extrapolated to larger scale pellet mills. The single pellet press was used to find the optimum moisture content and die operating temperature for pellet production. Then, these results were compared with those obtained from a bench-scale pellet mill. A moisture content of around 10 wt...

  19. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  20. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  1. Production of uranium hexafluoride by the catalysed fluorox process: pilot plant and supporting bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janov, J.; Charlton, B.G.; LePage, A.H.; Vilkaitis, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of producing UF 6 by the catalysed reaction of UF 4 with oxygen (the Fluorox process) was investigated in a 150 mm diameter fluidised bed reactor and in supporting bench-scale experiments. The rate of the Fluorox reaction in batch experiments was increased by an order of magnitude with 1 to 5 per cent catalyst (containing 3 to 4 per cent platinum on alumina). The maximum UF 6 production rate at 650 deg. C was 0.9 kg h -1 . However, the platinum catalyst was completely poisoned after production of only 1 and 20 kg UF 6 per kg of catalyst when using respectively French and British UF 4 . Regeneration of the catalyst was demonstrated to be technically feasible by washing with water or ammonium oxalate solution or treating with hydrogen and hydrogen fluoride at 350-650 deg. C. However, since the very fast rate of poisoning would necessitate higher catalyst concentrations and/or frequent regeneration, the catalysed Fluorox process in unlikely to be economically competitive with the direct fluorination of UF 4

  2. Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. PNNL Report on the Development of Bench-scale CFD Simulations for Gas Absorption across a Wetted Wall Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Whyatt, Greg A.; Marcy, Peter; Gattiker, J. R.; Sun, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This report is prepared for the demonstration of hierarchical prediction of carbon capture efficiency of a solvent-based absorption column. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is first developed to simulate the core phenomena of solvent-based carbon capture, i.e., the CO2 physical absorption and chemical reaction, on a simplified geometry of wetted wall column (WWC) at bench scale. Aqueous solutions of ethanolamine (MEA) are commonly selected as a CO2 stream scrubbing liquid. CO2 is captured by both physical and chemical absorption using highly CO2 soluble and reactive solvent, MEA, during the scrubbing process. In order to provide confidence bound on the computational predictions of this complex engineering system, a hierarchical calibration and validation framework is proposed. The overall goal of this effort is to provide a mechanism-based predictive framework with confidence bound for overall mass transfer coefficient of the wetted wall column (WWC) with statistical analyses of the corresponding WWC experiments with increasing physical complexity.

  4. The hot bench scale plant Ester for the vitrification of high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannicini, R.; Strazzer, A.; Cantale, C; Donato, A.; Grossi, G.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the hot bench-scale plant ESTER for the vitrification of the high-level radioactive wastes is described, and the main results of the first radioactive campaign are reported. The ESTER plant, which is placed in the ADECO-ESSOR hot cells of the C.C.R.-EURATOM-ISPRA, has been built and is operated by the ENEA, Departement of Fuel Cycle. It began operating with real radioactive wastes about 1 year ago, solidifying a total of 12 Ci of fission products into 2,02 Kg of borosilicate glass, corresponding to 757 ml of glass. During the vitrification many samples of liquid and gaseous streams have been taken and analyzed. A radioactivity balance in the plant has been calculated, as well as a mass balance of nitrates and of the 137 Cs and 106 Ru volatized in the process

  5. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract

  6. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  7. Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report 4, October--December, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, K.

    1994-01-25

    This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventional coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data.

  8. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  9. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  10. Uncertainty Quantification Analysis of Both Experimental and CFD Simulation Data of a Bench-scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahnam, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Gel, Aytekin [ALPEMI Consulting, LLC, Phoeniz, AZ (United States); Subramaniyan, Arun K. [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Musser, Jordan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Dietiker, Jean-Francois [West Virginia Univ. Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-10-02

    Adequate assessment of the uncertainties in modeling and simulation is becoming an integral part of the simulation based engineering design. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the application of non-intrusive Bayesian uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodology in multiphase (gas-solid) flows with experimental and simulation data, as part of our research efforts to determine the most suited approach for UQ of a bench scale fluidized bed gasifier. UQ analysis was first performed on the available experimental data. Global sensitivity analysis performed as part of the UQ analysis shows that among the three operating factors, steam to oxygen ratio has the most influence on syngas composition in the bench-scale gasifier experiments. An analysis for forward propagation of uncertainties was performed and results show that an increase in steam to oxygen ratio leads to an increase in H2 mole fraction and a decrease in CO mole fraction. These findings are in agreement with the ANOVA analysis performed in the reference experimental study. Another contribution in addition to the UQ analysis is the optimization-based approach to guide to identify next best set of additional experimental samples, should the possibility arise for additional experiments. Hence, the surrogate models constructed as part of the UQ analysis is employed to improve the information gain and make incremental recommendation, should the possibility to add more experiments arise. In the second step, series of simulations were carried out with the open-source computational fluid dynamics software MFiX to reproduce the experimental conditions, where three operating factors, i.e., coal flow rate, coal particle diameter, and steam-to-oxygen ratio, were systematically varied to understand their effect on the syngas composition. Bayesian UQ analysis was performed on the numerical results. As part of Bayesian UQ analysis, a global sensitivity analysis was performed based on the simulation results, which shows

  11. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  12. Performance of Dolomite Calcination in a Bench-Scale Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari Winny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dolomite calcination is one of process steps to prepare calcined dolomite for raw materials in magnesium production. Calcination of dolomite involves heating the raw material at sufficient temperature in order to release the carbon dioxide from its carbonate minerals. This process is commonly conducted in a rotary kiln. There have been a number of calcination studies in a laboratory scale, but the study of dolomite calcination in a larger scale is very scarce. This research is aimed to study the performance of dolomite calcination in a bench-scale rotary kiln with 500 gram of feed. The effect of various parameters, including temperatures, feed rate, rotating frequency, and particle size were examined. The temperature of rotary kiln was varied between 700 and 1000 °C, while the particle size of dolomite was varied between 0.149 – 0.297 mm and up to 10 – 15 mm. The temperature distribution inside the rotary kiln was also measured. It is obtained that a conversion of 92% was attained at operation temperature of 1000 °C, which is at a higher temperature compared to the laboratory scale, where a conversion of 100% was obtained at 900 °C. This imply that the effect of heat transfer also plays important role in the calcination of dolomite especially at a larger scale.

  13. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  14. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Jong-Chol

    2007-01-01

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC 2 H 4 ) 2 S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion

  15. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated

  16. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  17. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  18. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Conversion of Wastewater Solids to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of hydrothermal treatment for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids. Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. Biocrude yields ranged from 25-37%. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating of biocrude resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to crude oil. CHG product gas methane yields on a carbon basis ranged from 47-64%. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below engine limits. The HTL-CHG process resulted in a chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of > 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%.

  19. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  20. Hierarchical calibration and validation for modeling bench-scale solvent-based carbon capture. Part 1: Non-reactive physical mass transfer across the wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation for modeling bench-scale solvent-based carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Xu, Zhijie [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Lai, Canhai [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Whyatt, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Energy and Environment Directorate, Richland WA; Marcy, Peter [Statistical Sciences Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM; Sun, Xin [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA

    2017-04-27

    A hierarchical model calibration and validation is proposed for quantifying the confidence level of mass transfer prediction using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, where the solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture is simulated and simulation results are compared to the parallel bench-scale experimental data. Two unit problems with increasing level of complexity are proposed to breakdown the complex physical/chemical processes of solvent-based CO2 capture into relatively simpler problems to separate the effects of physical transport and chemical reaction. This paper focuses on the calibration and validation of the first unit problem, i.e. the CO2 mass transfer across a falling ethanolamine (MEA) film in absence of chemical reaction. This problem is investigated both experimentally and numerically using nitrous oxide (N2O) as a surrogate for CO2. To capture the motion of gas-liquid interface, a volume of fluid method is employed together with a one-fluid formulation to compute the mass transfer between the two phases. Bench-scale parallel experiments are designed and conducted to validate and calibrate the CFD models using a general Bayesian calibration. Two important transport parameters, e.g. Henry’s constant and gas diffusivity, are calibrated to produce the posterior distributions, which will be used as the input for the second unit problem to address the chemical adsorption of CO2 across the MEA falling film, where both mass transfer and chemical reaction are involved.

  1. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  2. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  3. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  4. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled...... and continuous hydraulic and ammonium loading. Flowrates and flow recirculation around the column are chosen to mimic full-scale hydrodynamic conditions, and minimize axial gradients. A reference ammonium loading rate is calculated based on the average loading experienced in the active zone of the full......-scale filter. Effluent concentrations of ammonium are analyzed when the bench-scale column is subject to reference loading, from which removal rates are calculated. Subsequently, removal rates above the reference loading are measured by imposing short-term loading variations. A critical loading rate...

  5. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C.; Frank, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form

  6. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  7. Technical Approach for In Situ Biological Treatment Research: Bench- Scale Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    cultures derived from ferulic acid-degrading sewage sludge enrichments (Grbic-Galic and Vogel 1987). These cultures utilize exogenously supplied CO2 for...GAC reactor. They observed bioregeneration of the carbon media through desorption of adsorbed phenol and subsequent biogas production . They found that...the contribution of biogas production , adsorption, and biomass production were all important In the removal of phenol. 88 238. Speitel et al. (1989

  8. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available , considerable progress has been made. The earliest developments were in coal combustion. This was formalised in the formation of the NFBC boiler in the early 1980’s for the investigation of utilising discard and duff coals. Work has been done on in-bed sulphur...

  9. Experience gained in pilot-scale and bench-scale fluidised beds processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available , considerable progress has been made. The earliest developments were in coal combustion. Work has been done on in-bed sulphur capture to reduce the sulphur dioxide off-gas content. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led...

  10. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  11. Bench-Scale Evaluation of the Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Wastewater Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2017-10-03

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge (11.9 wt% solids), secondary sludge (9.7 wt% solids), and post-digester sludge (also referred to as digested solids) (16.0 wt% solids). Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. A comprehensive analysis of all feed and effluent phases was also performed. Total mass and carbon balances closed to within ± 15% in all but one case. Biocrude yields from HTL tests were 37%, 25%, and 34% for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. The biocrude yields accounted for 59%, 39%, and 49% of the carbon in the feed for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to that seen with biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating (i.e., upgrading) of the biocrude produced from primary sludge and digested solids resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to petroleum crude oil. CHG product gas consisted primarily of methane, with methane yields (relative to CHG input) on a carbon basis of 47%, 61%, and 64% for aqueous feeds that were the output of HTL tests with primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids, respectively. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below the detection limit and well below fuel input composition limits set by several engine manufacturers. Relative to that of the sludge feeds, the HTL-CHG process resulted in a reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of greater than 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%. The test results, as a whole, support

  12. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McCloskey, Pat [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ananthasayanam, Balajee [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Lee, Julia [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wroczynski, Ron [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Stewart, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McNally, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rownaghi, Ali [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lu, Liu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goizueta, Roberto [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  13. Size distribution of chromate paint aerosol generated in a bench-scale spray booth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

    2005-01-01

    Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosols containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via inhalation of chromate-based paint sprays. Evaluating the particle size distribution of a paint spray aerosol, and the variables that may affect this distribution, is necessary to determine the site and degree of respiratory deposition and the damage that may result from inhaled Cr(VI)-containing paint particles. This study examined the effect of spray gun atomization pressure, aerosol generation source and aerosol aging on the size distribution of chromate-based paint overspray aerosols generated in a bench-scale paint spray booth. The study also determined the effect of particle bounce inside a Marple personal cascade impactor on measured size distributions of paint spray aerosols. Marple personal cascade impactors with a modified inlet were used for sample collection. The data indicated that paint particle bounce did not occur inside the cascade impactors sufficiently to affect size distribution when using uncoated stainless steel or PVC substrate sampling media. A decrease in paint aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) from 8.2 to 7.0 mum was observed as gun atomization pressure increased from 6 to 10 psi. Overspray aerosols were sampled at two locations in the spray booth. A downstream sampling position simulated the exposure of a worker standing between the painted surface and exhaust, a situation encountered in booths with multiple workers. The measured mean MMAD was 7.2 mum. The distance between the painted surface and sampler was varied to sample oversprays of varying ages between 2.8 and 7.7 s. Age was not a significant factor for determining MMAD. Overspray was sampled at a 90 degrees position to simulate a worker standing in front of the surface being painted with air flowing to the worker's side, a common situation in field applications. The resulting overspray MMAD averaged 5.9 mum. Direct-spray aerosols were sampled at ages from 5.3 to 11.7 s

  14. Soluble Microbial Product Characterization of Biofilm Formation in Bench-Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Mines, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The biological process known as activated sludge (AS) in conjunction with membrane separation technology for the treatment of wastewater has been employed for over four decades. While, membrane biological reactors (MBR) are now widely employed, the phenomenon of membrane fouling is still the most significant factor leading to performance decline of MBRs. Although much research has been done on the subject of MBR fouling over the past two decades, many questions remain unanswered, and consensus within the scientific community is rare. However, research has led to one system parameter generally being regarded as a contributor to membrane fouling, extracellular polymeric compounds (EPS). EPS, and more specifically, the soluble fraction of EPS known as soluble microbial products (SMP), must be further investigated in order to better understand membrane fouling. The biological activity and performance of the MBR is affected by myriad operational parameters, which in turn affects the SMP generated. A commonly varied operational parameter is, depending on the specific treatment needs of a MBR, the sludge retention time (SRT). This study aims to characterize the SMP in three bench-scale MBRs as the SRT is gradually lowered. By studying how the SMP change as the operation of the system is altered, greater understanding of how SMP are related to fouling can be achieved. At the onset of the study, a steady state was established in the system with a SRT of 20 days. Upon stabilization of a 20 day SRT, the system was gradually transitioned to a five and a half day SRT, in stepwise adjustments. Initially, both the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and the SMP concentrations were at relatively low values, indicating the presence of minimal amounts of biofilm on the membrane surfaces. As the system was altered and more activated sludge was wasted from the reactors, the SRT inherently decreased. As the lower SRT was transitioned and established, the data from TMP measurements, as well

  15. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  16. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  17. Treatment of waste gas containing low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a bench-scale biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B S; Mudliar, S N; Deshmukh, S C; Banerjee, S; Pandey, R A

    2010-04-01

    Biological treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was investigated in a bench-scale biofilter, packed with compost along with wood chips, and enriched with DMS degrading microorganism Bacillus sphaericus. The biofilter could remove 62-74% of the inlet DMS, at an optimum loading of 0.484 g/m(3)/h with optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 384 s and an average moisture range of 65-70%. The biodegradative products of DMS were sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphate. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biofilter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides B. sphaericus. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lail, Marty

    2017-09-12

    The project aimed to advance RTI’s non-aqueous amine solvent technology by improving the solvent to reduce volatility, demonstrating long-term continuous operation at lab- (0.5 liters solvent) and bench-scale (~120 liters solvent), showing low reboiler heat duty measured during bench-scale testing, evaluating degradation products, building a rate-based process model, and evaluating the techno-economic performance of the process. The project team (RTI, SINTEF, Linde Engineering) and the technology performed well in each area of advancement. The modifications incorporated throughout the project enabled the attainment of target absorber and regenerator conditions for the process. Reboiler duties below 2,000 kJt/kg CO2 were observed in a bench-scale test unit operated at RTI.

  19. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  20. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming: bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Machado, N.R.C. [State Univ. of Maringa (UEM), Chemical Engineering Dept., Lab. of Catalysis, Maringa (Brazil); Schmal, M. [PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ Cidade Univ., Centro de Tecnologia, Graduate School and Research in Engineering Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute, Rio De Janeiro (Brazil); Cantao, M.P. [LACTEC, Dept. of Materials, Inst. of Technology for Development, Curitiba (Brazil)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    As an alternative route for hydrogen production, ethanol reforming was studied in a bench-scale unit using a 5%Cu/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-Ray Diffraction analysis has shown that this catalyst contains copper oxide in an amorphous form, or in particles smaller than 20 nm, while the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is highly crystalline. Analysis of the calcinated catalyst by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed that 35% of total copper was on the surface as Cu{sup I} (55%) or Cu{sup II} (45%). The catalyst presented a low surface area (35 m{sup 2}/g), mainly from meso and macropores, as textural analysis revealed. Temperature Programmed Reduction showed a two-step reduction of Cu{sup II} to Cu, at 245{sup o}C and 306{sup o}C. It was also observed the reduction of 6% of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The reaction unit consisted of an integral reactor with 16 g of catalyst pellets, approximately 3 mm x 5 mm in size. Reaction temperature and feed rate were varied to optimize hydrogen production, with CO{sub 2} as the main byproduct. Reagents (water and ethanol) in stoichiometric proportion were fed into an electric pre-heater and vaporized. An increase on reaction temperature from 300{sup o}C to 400{sup o}C has led to an increase in mean conversion from 17% to 35%. Ethene and ethyl ether were also detected as minor byproducts. (author)

  1. Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane [Aspen Aerogels, Northborough, MA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The primary objective of this project was scaling up and evaluating a novel Amine Functionalized Aerogel (AFA) sorbent in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. The project team (Aspen Aerogels, University of Akron, ADA-ES, and Longtail Consulting) has carried out numerous tests and optimization studies to demonstrate the CO2 capture performance of the AFA sorbent in all its forms: powder, pellet, and bead. The CO2 capture target performance of the AFA sorbent (all forms) were set at > 12 wt.% and > 6 wt.% for total and working CO2 capacity, respectively (@ 40 °C adsorption / 100 – 120 °C desorption). The optimized AFA powders outperformed the performance targets by more than 30%, for the total CO2 capacity (14 - 20 wt.%), and an average of 10 % more for working CO2 capacity (6.6 – 7.0 wt.%, and could be as high as 9.6 wt. % when desorbed at 120 °C). The University of Akron developed binder formulations, pellet production methods, and post treatment technology for increased resistance to attrition and flue gas contaminants. In pellet form the AFA total CO2 capacity was ~ 12 wt.% (over 85% capacity retention of that of the powder), and there was less than 13% degradation in CO2 capture capacity after 20 cycles in the presence of 40 ppm SO2. ADA-ES assessed the performance of the AFA powder, pellet, and bead by analyzing sorption isotherms, water uptake analysis, cycling stability, jet cup attrition and crush tests. At bench scale, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer properties of the AFA sorbent pellet in fluidized bed conditions were evaluated at Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (PSRI). After the process design requirements were completed, by Longtail Consulting LLC, a techno-economic analysis was achieved using guidance from The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) report. This report provides the necessary framework to estimate costs for a temperature swing post

  2. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using plain water with surfactants as an enhancer was used to study the remediation of soil contaminated with (i an organic contaminant (engine lubricant oil and (ii an inorganic contaminant (heavy metal. The lubricant engine oil was used at different percentages (by dry weight of the soil to artificially contaminate the soil. It was found that geotechnical properties of the soil underwent large modifications on account of mixing with the lubricant oil. The sorption experiments were conducted with cadmium metal in aqueous medium at different initial concentration of the metal and at varying pH values of the sorbing medium. For the remediation of contaminated soil matrices, a nonionic surfactant was used for the restoration of geotechnical properties of lubricant oil contaminated soil samples, whereas an anionic surfactant was employed to desorb cadmium from the contaminated soil matrix. The surfactant in case of soil contaminated with the lubricant oil was able to restore properties to an extent of 98% vis-à-vis the virgin soil, while up to 54% cadmium was desorbed from the contaminated soil matrix in surfactant aided desorption experiments.

  3. In-situ biogas upgrading during anaerobic digestion of food waste amended with walnut shell biochar at bench scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Shen, Yanwen; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia A; Schoene, Robin P; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2017-06-01

    A modified version of an in-situ CO 2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters produced biogas with 77.5%-98.1% CH 4 content by removing 40%-96% of the CO 2 compared with the control digesters at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions. In a direct comparison at 1.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 , the fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters (85.7% CH 4 content and 61% CO 2 removal) outperformed the coarse walnut shell biochar amended digesters (78.9% CH 4 content and 51% CO 2 removal). Biochar addition also increased alkalinity as CaCO 3 from 2800 mg L -1 in the control digesters to 4800-6800 mg L -1 , providing process stability for food waste anaerobic digestion.

  4. Bench scale synthesis of p-hydroxybenzoic acid using whole-cell nitrilase of Gordonia terrae mutant E9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Virender; Thakur, Neerja; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2015-07-01

    Mutants of Gordonia terrae were generated using chemical mutagens for better activity, stability and higher substrate/product tolerance of its nitrilase enzyme. Mutant E9 showed two-time increase in activity and tolerated p-hydroxybenzonitrile (p-HBN) up to 50 mM. Response surface methodology and inducer mediation approach further enhanced the production of enzyme to 2.5-fold. The bench scale production of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) was carried out in a fed-batch reaction (500-mL scale) using whole-cell nitrilase of mutant E9 in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at 40 °C. Total six feedings each at an interval of 45 min resulted in accumulation of 360 mM (21.6 g) of p-HBA with a purity of 99%. The catalytic and volumetric productivity of bioprocess using mutant G. terrae was improved to 1.8 g h(-1) g DCW (-1) and 43.2 g L(-1), respectively, from 0.78 g h(-1) g DCW (-1) and 28.8 g L(-1) using resting cells of wild strain. K m and V max of purified nitrilase from mutant E9 were 55 U mg(-1) and 1.8 mM for p-HBN with a higher turnover number of 36 s(-1) × 10(-3).

  5. Modeling a bench-scale alternating aerobic/anoxic activated sludge system for nitrogen removal using a modified ASM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunook; Noh, Soohong; Colosimo, Mark

    2009-07-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1), developed by The International Association of Water Pollution Research and Control, was applied to model dynamics of NH4+, and NO3- in a bench scale alternating aerobic-anoxic (AAA) activated sludge system for nitrogen removal. The model was modified by eliminating inert soluble COD (S(I)) and inert particulate COD (X(I)) from the model's state variables as these two variables are not involved in any biological reaction and are not readily measurable with conventional routine COD analysis. It was assumed that the soluble COD and particulate COD of wastewater represent readily biodegradable COD (S(S)) and slowly biodegradable (X(S)) in the model, respectively. In addition, alkalinity was also removed from the model, since alkalinity of an AAA system remains stable due to the cyclic modes of the system. Even with the elimination of the three state variables and the assumption made, the model could reasonably predict the NH4+ and NO3- dynamics of the AAA system, and effluent NH4+ and NO3- concentrations with adjustment of only a few kinetic parameters. Compared to the original ASM1, it is expected that the modified ASM1 presented in this study can be more easily utilized by engineers in designing or operating an AAA system in practice, since it requires simple characterization of wastewater COD.

  6. 15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by ozone under bench-scale plug flow and full-scale hydraulic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, P W M H; van der Helm, A W C; Dullemont, Y J; Rietveld, L C; van Dijk, J C; Medema, G J

    2006-10-01

    To determine the disinfection efficacy of ozonation, water companies can apply several disinfection calculation methods. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of the T10 and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) method to extrapolate inactivation rates of ozone sensitive microorganisms observed in laboratory tests to full-scale ozonation in drinking water treatment. The inactivation efficacy of the ozonation at the Amsterdam water treatment works was assessed by determining Escherichia coli concentrations in large volume samples before and after ozonation over a period of 1 year. The inactivation of dosed E. coli WR1 was tested in a bench-scale dissolved ozone plug flow reactor (DOPFR) on the same feed water as the full-scale ozonation in which a concentrated ozone solution in Milli-Q water was dosed. Applying the T10 method on the inactivation rates observed in the DOPFR strongly overestimated the inactivation capacity of the full-scale ozonation. The expected inactivation based on the CSTR method (LT2ESWTR) approached the observed inactivation at full-scale. Therefore, the CSTR method should be preferred to calculate inactivation of ozone sensitive organisms such as E. coli, viruses, Giardia and Campylobacter by full-scale ozonation.

  8. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations, and process engineering. Final report, February 1977-December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, J.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Brown, L.C.; O' Keefe, D.R.; Allen, C.L.

    1982-05-01

    The sulfur-iodine water-splitting cycle is characterized by the following three reactions: 2H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ + 2HI; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + 1/2 O/sub 2/; and 2HI ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/. This cycle was developed at General Atomic after several critical features in the above reactions were discovered. These involved phase separations, catalytic reactions, etc. Estimates of the energy efficiency of this economically reasonable advanced state-of-the-art processing unit produced sufficiently high values (to approx.47%) to warrant cycle development effort. The DOE contract was largely directed toward the engineering development of this cycle, including a small demonstration unit (CLCD), a bench-scale unit, engineering design, and costing. The work has resulted in a design that is projected to produce H/sub 2/ at prices not yet generally competitive with fossil-fuel-produced H/sub 2/ but are projected to be favorably competitive with respect to H/sub 2/ from fossil fuels in the future.

  10. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. BENCH-SCALE VISUALIZATION OF DNAPL REMEDIATION PROCESSES IN ANALOG HETEROGENEOUS AQUIFERS: SURFACTANT FLOODS, AND IN SITU OXIDATION USING PERMANGANATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have conducted well-controlled DNAPL remediation experiments using surfactants (Aerosol MA and Tween 80) to increase solubility and an oxidant (permanganate) to chemically degrade the DNAPL. Photographs and digital image analysis illustrate previously unobserved interactions b...

  12. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have established TDS wastewater regulations and the US EPA has proposed a benchmark conductivity limit to reduce TDS impacts in streams near mining sites. Traditional CMW treatment effectively removes some TDS components, but is not effective in removing major salt ions due to their higher solubility. This paper describes the basic principles, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of various TDS removal technologies (adsorption, bioremediation, capacitive deionization, desalination, electro-chemical ion exchange, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation, and reverse osmosis) that have at least been tested in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Recent discussions about new regulations to include total dissolved solids TDS) limits would propel interest in the TDS removal technologies focused on coal mine water. TDS removal is not a new concept and has been developed using different technologies for a number of applications, but coal mine water has unique characteristics (depending on the site, mining process, and solid-water-oxygen interactions), which make it unlikely to have a single technology predominating over others. What are some novel technolog

  13. Analysis of previous perceptual and motor experience in breaststroke kick learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Bettina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the variables that influence motor learning is the learner’s previous experience, which may provide perceptual and motor elements to be transferred to a novel motor skill. For swimming skills, several motor experiences may prove effective. Purpose. The aim was to analyse the influence of previous experience in playing in water, swimming lessons, and music or dance lessons on learning the breaststroke kick. Methods. The study involved 39 Physical Education students possessing basic swimming skills, but not the breaststroke, who performed 400 acquisition trials followed by 50 retention and 50 transfer trials, during which stroke index as well as rhythmic and spatial configuration indices were mapped, and answered a yes/no questionnaire regarding previous experience. Data were analysed by ANOVA (p = 0.05 and the effect size (Cohen’s d ≥0.8 indicating large effect size. Results. The whole sample improved their stroke index and spatial configuration index, but not their rhythmic configuration index. Although differences between groups were not significant, two types of experience showed large practical effects on learning: childhood water playing experience only showed major practically relevant positive effects, and no experience in any of the three fields hampered the learning process. Conclusions. The results point towards diverse impact of previous experience regarding rhythmic activities, swimming lessons, and especially with playing in water during childhood, on learning the breaststroke kick.

  14. Do emotional intelligence and previous caring experience influence student nurse performance? A comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenhouse, Rosie; Snowden, Austyn; Young, Jenny; Carver, Fiona; Carver, Hannah; Brown, Norrie

    2016-08-01

    Reports of poor nursing care have focused attention on values based selection of candidates onto nursing programmes. Values based selection lacks clarity and valid measures. Previous caring experience might lead to better care. Emotional intelligence (EI) might be associated with performance, is conceptualised and measurable. To examine the impact of 1) previous caring experience, 2) emotional intelligence 3) social connection scores on performance and retention in a cohort of first year nursing and midwifery students in Scotland. A longitudinal, quasi experimental design. Adult and mental health nursing, and midwifery programmes in a Scottish University. Adult, mental health and midwifery students (n=598) completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-short form and Schutte's Emotional Intelligence Scale on entry to their programmes at a Scottish University, alongside demographic and previous caring experience data. Social connection was calculated from a subset of questions identified within the TEIQue-SF in a prior factor and Rasch analysis. Student performance was calculated as the mean mark across the year. Withdrawal data were gathered. 598 students completed baseline measures. 315 students declared previous caring experience, 277 not. An independent-samples t-test identified that those without previous caring experience scored higher on performance (57.33±11.38) than those with previous caring experience (54.87±11.19), a statistically significant difference of 2.47 (95% CI, 0.54 to 4.38), t(533)=2.52, p=.012. Emotional intelligence scores were not associated with performance. Social connection scores for those withdrawing (mean rank=249) and those remaining (mean rank=304.75) were statistically significantly different, U=15,300, z=-2.61, p$_amp_$lt;0.009. Previous caring experience led to worse performance in this cohort. Emotional intelligence was not a useful indicator of performance. Lower scores on the social connection factor were associated

  15. Effect of temperature downshifts on a bench-scale hybrid A/O system: Process performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hexi; Li, Xiangkun; Chu, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effect of temperature downshifts on process performance and bacterial community dynamics was investigated in a bench-scale hybrid A/O system treating real domestic wastewater. Results showed that the average COD removal in this system reached 90.5%, 89.1% and 90.3% for Run 1 (25 °C), Run 2 (15 °C) and Run 3 (10 °C), respectively, and variations in temperature barely affected the effluent COD concentration. The average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N were 98.4%, 97.8%, 95.7%, and that of TN were 77.1%, 61.8%, 72% at 25 °C, 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Although the hybrid system was subjected to low temperature, this process effectively removed NH4(+)-N and TN even at 10 °C with the average effluent concentrations of 2.4 mg/L and 14.3 mg/L, respectively. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that when the operation temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C, the richness and diversity indexes of the system decreased in the sludge samples, while underwent an increase in the biofilm samples. Furthermore, the major heterotrophic bacteria consisted of Lewinella, Lutimonas, Chitinophaga and Fluviicola at 10 °C, which could be central to effective COD removal at low temperature. Additionally, Azospira, one denitrifying-related genus increased from 0.4% to 4.45% in the biofilm samples, with a stable TN removal in response to temperature downshifts. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira increased significantly in the biofilm samples, implying that the attached biofilm contributed to more nitrification at low temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation.The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70 degrees C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques.Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results

  17. Archaeal and bacterial community dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria Jesus; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Osorio, Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2016-07-01

    Two-stage technologies have been developed for anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. In this study, the archaeal and bacterial community structure dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester treating urban sewage sludge have been studied by the means of high-throughput sequencing techniques and physicochemical parameters such as pH, dried sludge, volatile dried sludge, acid concentration, alkalinity, and biogas generation. The coupled analyses of archaeal and bacterial communities and physicochemical parameters showed a direct relationship between archaeal and bacterial populations and bioprocess performance during start-up and working operation of a two-stage anaerobic digester. Moreover, results demonstrated that archaeal and bacterial community structure was affected by changes in the acid/alkalinity ratio in the bioprocess. Thus, a predominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at high-value acid/alkaline ratio, while a predominance of Methanomassilicoccaeceae archaea and Methanoculleus genus was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at low-value acid/alkaline ratio. Biodiversity tag-iTag sequencing studies showed that methanogenic archaea can be also detected in the acidogenic bioreactor, although its biological activity was decreased after 4 months of operation as supported by physicochemical analyses. Also, studies of the VFA producers and VFA consumers microbial populations showed as these microbiota were directly affected by the physicochemical parameters generated in the bioreactors. We suggest that the results obtained in our study could be useful for future implementations of two-stage anaerobic digestion processes at both bench- and full-scale.

  18. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  19. Long- term effects of previous experience determine nutrient discrimination abilities in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spitzer Kathrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foraging behaviour is an essential ecological process linking different trophic levels. A central assumption of foraging theory is that food selection maximises the fitness of the consumer. It remains unknown, however, whether animals use innate or learned behaviour to discriminate food rewards. While many studies demonstrated that previous experience is a strong determinant of complex food choices such as diet mixing, the response to simple nutritional stimuli, such as sugar concentrations, is often believed to be innate. Results Here we show that previous experience determines the ability to track changes in sugar composition in same-aged individuals of a short-lived migratory songbird, the garden warbler (Sylvia borin. Although birds received identical foods for seven months prior to the experiment, wild-caught birds achieved higher sugar intake rates than hand-raised birds when confronted with alternative, differently coloured, novel food types. Hand-raised and wild birds did not differ in their initial colour selection or overall food intake, but wild birds were quicker to adjust food choice to varying sugar intake. Conclusion Over a period of at least seven months, broader previous experience translates into a higher plasticity of food choice leading to higher nutrient intake. Our results thus highlight the need to address previous long-term experience in foraging experiments. Furthermore, they show that hand-raised animals are often poor surrogates for testing the foraging behaviour of wild animals.

  20. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  1. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul M.; Fimmen, Ryan; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  2. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; Trigt, van Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree

  3. Impact of Vocational Interests, Previous Academic Experience, Gender and Age on Situational Judgement Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R.; van Trigt, Anke M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-01-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the…

  4. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  5. Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

    2008-12-01

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr

  6. Permeable reactive biobarriers for in situ Cr(VI) reduction: bench scale tests using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Gerlach, Robin; Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Apel, William A; Petersen, James N

    2008-12-15

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr

  7. Simulatedin vivoElectrophysiology Experiments Provide Previously Inaccessible Insights into Visual Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Maria; Price, Nicholas SC

    2016-01-01

    Lecture content and practical laboratory classes are ideally complementary. However, the types of experiments that have led to our detailed understanding of sensory neuroscience are often not amenable to classroom experimentation as they require expensive equipment, time-consuming surgeries, specialized experimental techniques, and the use of animals. While sometimes feasible in small group teaching, these experiments are not suitable for large cohorts of students. Previous attempts to expose students to sensory neuroscience experiments include: the use of electrophysiology preparations in invertebrates, data-driven simulations that do not replicate the experience of conducting an experiment, or simply observing an experiment in a research laboratory. We developed an online simulation of a visual neuroscience experiment in which extracellular recordings are made from a motion sensitive neuron. Students have control over stimulation parameters (direction and contrast) and can see and hear the action potential responses to stimuli as they are presented. The simulation provides an intuitive way for students to gain insight into neurophysiology, including experimental design, data collection and data analysis. Our simulation allows large cohorts of students to cost-effectively "experience" the results of animal research without ethical concerns, to be exposed to realistic data variability, and to develop their understanding of how sensory neuroscience experiments are conducted.

  8. Impact of Previous Pharmacy Work Experience on Pharmacy School Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R.; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). Methods The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. Results No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Conclusions Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses. PMID:20498735

  9. Stress and blood donation: effects of music and previous donation experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, E; Singh, A P; Cunningham-Snell, N

    1997-05-01

    Making a blood donation, especially for first-time donors, can be a stressful experience. These feelings of stress may inhibit donors from returning. This paper applies stress theory to this particular problem. The effects of a stress management intervention (the provision of music) and previous donor experience were examined in relation to pre- and post-donation mood, environmental appraisals and coping behaviour. Results indicated that the provision of music had detrimental effects on environmental appraisals for those who have donated up to two times previously, but beneficial effects for those who had donated three times before. These effects were, to an extent, moderated by coping processes but not perceived control. It is recommended that the provision of music is not used as a stress management technique in the context of blood donation.

  10. Important biological information uncovered in previously unaligned reads from chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments (ChIP-Seq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouma, Wilberforce Zachary; Mejia-Guerra, Maria Katherine; Yilmaz, Alper; Pareja-Tobes, Pablo; Li, Wei; Doseff, Andrea I.; Grotewold, Erich

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the architecture of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) relies on chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) methods that provide genome-wide transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs). ChIP-Seq furnishes millions of short reads that, after alignment, describe the genome-wide binding sites of a particular TF. However, in all organisms investigated an average of 40% of reads fail to align to the corresponding genome, with some datasets having as much as 80% of reads failing to align. We describe here the provenance of previously unaligned reads in ChIP-Seq experiments from animals and plants. We show that a substantial portion corresponds to sequences of bacterial and metazoan origin, irrespective of the ChIP-Seq chromatin source. Unforeseen was the finding that 30%–40% of unaligned reads were actually alignable. To validate these observations, we investigated the characteristics of the previously unaligned reads corresponding to TAL1, a human TF involved in lineage specification of hemopoietic cells. We show that, while unmapped ChIP-Seq read datasets contain foreign DNA sequences, additional TFBSs can be identified from the previously unaligned ChIP-Seq reads. Our results indicate that the re-evaluation of previously unaligned reads from ChIP-Seq experiments will significantly contribute to TF target identification and determination of emerging properties of GRNs. PMID:25727450

  11. Impact of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on Situational Judgement Test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schripsema, Nienke R; van Trigt, Anke M; Borleffs, Jan C C; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2017-05-01

    Situational Judgement Tests (SJTs) are increasingly implemented in medical school admissions. In this paper, we investigate the effects of vocational interests, previous academic experience, gender and age on SJT performance. The SJT was part of the selection process for the Bachelor's degree programme in Medicine at University of Groningen, the Netherlands. All applicants for the academic year 2015-2016 were included and had to choose between learning communities Global Health (n = 126), Sustainable Care (n = 149), Intramural Care (n = 225), or Molecular Medicine (n = 116). This choice was used as a proxy for vocational interest. In addition, all graduate-entry applicants for academic year 2015-2016 (n = 213) were included to examine the effect of previous academic experience on performance. We used MANCOVA analyses with Bonferroni post hoc multiple comparisons tests for applicant performance on a six-scenario SJT. The MANCOVA analyses showed that for all scenarios, the independent variables were significantly related to performance (Pillai's Trace: 0.02-0.47, p performance on three scenarios (p performance on two scenarios (p performance, as was previous academic experience. Gender and age were related to performance on SJT scenarios in different settings. Especially the first effect might be helpful in selecting appropriate candidates for areas of health care in which more professionals are needed.

  12. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  13. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  14. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  15. "My math and me": Nursing students' previous experiences in learning mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røykenes, Kari

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, 11 narratives about former experiences in learning of mathematics written by nursing students are thematically analyzed. Most students had a positive relationship with the subject in primary school, when they found mathematics fun and were able to master the subject. For some, a change occurred in the transition to lower secondary school. The reasons for this change was found in the subject (increased difficulty), the teachers (movement of teachers, numerous substitute teachers), the class environment and size (many pupils, noise), and the student him- or herself (silent and anonymous pupil). This change was also found in the transition from lower to higher secondary school. By contrast, some students had experienced changes that were positive, and their mathematics teacher was a significant factor in this positive change. The paper emphasizes the importance of previous experiences in learning mathematics to nursing students when learning about drug calculation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Differences between previously married and never married 'gay' men: family background, childhood experiences and current attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Daryl J

    2004-01-01

    Despite a large body of literature on the development of sexual orientation, little is known about why some gay men have been (or remain) married to a woman. In the current study, a self-selected sample of 43 never married gay men ('never married') and 26 gay men who were married to a woman ('previously married') completed a self-report questionnaire. Hypotheses were based on five possible explanations for gay men's marriages: (a) differences in sexual orientation (i.e., bisexuality); (b) internalized homophobia; (c) religious intolerance; (d) confusion created because of childhood/adolescent sexual experiences; and/or (e) poor psychological adjustment. Previously married described their families' religious beliefs as more fundamentalist than never married. No differences were found between married' and never married' ratings of their sexual orientation and identity, and levels of homophobia and self-depreciation. Family adaptability and family cohesion and the degree to which respondents reported having experienced child maltreatment did not distinguish between previously married and never married. The results highlight how little is understood of the reasons why gay men marry, and the need to develop an adequate theoretical model.

  17. Reciprocity, culture and human cooperation: previous insights and a new cross-cultural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt

    2009-03-27

    Understanding the proximate and ultimate sources of human cooperation is a fundamental issue in all behavioural sciences. In this paper, we review the experimental evidence on how people solve cooperation problems. Existing studies show without doubt that direct and indirect reciprocity are important determinants of successful cooperation. We also discuss the insights from a large literature on the role of peer punishment in sustaining cooperation. The experiments demonstrate that many people are 'strong reciprocators' who are willing to cooperate and punish others even if there are no gains from future cooperation or any other reputational gains. We document this in new one-shot experiments, which we conducted in four cities in Russia and Switzerland. Our cross-cultural approach allows us furthermore to investigate how the cultural background influences strong reciprocity. Our results show that culture has a strong influence on positive and in especially strong negative reciprocity. In particular, we find large cross-cultural differences in 'antisocial punishment' of pro-social cooperators. Further cross-cultural research and experiments involving different socio-demographic groups document that the antisocial punishment is much more widespread than previously assumed. Understanding antisocial punishment is an important task for future research because antisocial punishment is a strong inhibitor of cooperation.

  18. The relationship of previous training and experience of journal peer reviewers to subsequent review quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Callaham

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Peer review is considered crucial to the selection and publication of quality science, but very little is known about the previous experiences and training that might identify high-quality peer reviewers. The reviewer selection processes of most journals, and thus the qualifications of their reviewers, are ill defined. More objective selection of peer reviewers might improve the journal peer review process and thus the quality of published science. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 306 experienced reviewers (71% of all those associated with a specialty journal completed a survey of past training and experiences postulated to improve peer review skills. Reviewers performed 2,856 reviews of 1,484 separate manuscripts during a four-year study period, all prospectively rated on a standardized quality scale by editors. Multivariable analysis revealed that most variables, including academic rank, formal training in critical appraisal or statistics, or status as principal investigator of a grant, failed to predict performance of higher-quality reviews. The only significant predictors of quality were working in a university-operated hospital versus other teaching environment and relative youth (under ten years of experience after finishing training. Being on an editorial board and doing formal grant (study section review were each predictors for only one of our two comparisons. However, the predictive power of all variables was weak. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that there are no easily identifiable types of formal training or experience that predict reviewer performance. Skill in scientific peer review may be as ill defined and hard to impart as is "common sense." Without a better understanding of those skills, it seems unlikely journals and editors will be successful in systematically improving their selection of reviewers. This inability to predict performance makes it imperative that all but the smallest journals implement routine review ratings

  19. The Importance of Business Model Factors for Cloud Computing Adoption: Role of Previous Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogataj Habjan Kristina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Bringing several opportunities for more effective and efficient IT governance and service exploitation, cloud computing is expected to impact the European and global economies significantly. Market data show that despite many advantages and promised benefits the adoption of cloud computing is not as fast and widespread as foreseen. This situation shows the need for further exploration of the potentials of cloud computing and its implementation on the market. The purpose of this research was to identify individual business model factors with the highest impact on cloud computing adoption. In addition, the aim was to identify the differences in opinion regarding the importance of business model factors on cloud computing adoption according to companies’ previous experiences with cloud computing services.

  20. Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism: the effect of human values, gender, and previous sexual experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Valeschka M; Gouveia, Valdiney V; Sousa, Deliane M; Lima, Tiago J; Freires, Leogildo A

    2012-08-01

    Despite theoretical associations, there is a lack of empirical studies on the axiological basis of sexual liberalism-conservatism. Two studies demonstrated important associations between these constructs for young adults. In Study 1, participants were 353 undergraduate students with a mean age of 20.13 (SD = 1.84), who completed the Sexual Liberalism-Conservatism Scale and the Basic Values Survey. In Study 2, participants were 269 undergraduate students, with a mean age of 20.3 (SD = 1.82), who completed a social desirability scale in addition to Study 1 instruments. Results showed how values can predict sexual liberalism-conservatism after controlling for social desirability. Attitudes towards one's own sexual behavior were more conservative whereas attitudes towards other's sexual behavior were more liberal. Gender was not a significant predictor of sexual attitudes whereas previous sexual experience showed a significant association to this construct. In general, results corroborated previous findings, showing that participants with a tendency to present socially desirable answers also tended to present themselves as sexually conservative.

  1. Decomposing experience-driven attention: opposite attentional effects of previously predictive cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhicheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin; He, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A central function of the brain is to track the dynamic statistical regularities in the environment—such as what predicts what over time. How does this statistical learning process alter sensory and attentional processes? Drawing upon animal conditioning and predictive coding, we developed a learning procedure that revealed two distinct components through which prior learning-experience controls attention. During learning, a visual search task was used in which the target randomly appeared at one of several locations but always inside an encloser of a particular color—the learned color served to direct attention to the target location. During test, the color no longer predicted the target location. When the same search task was used in the subsequent test, we found that the learned color continued to attract attention despite the behavior being counterproductive for the task and despite the presence of a completely predictive cue. However, when tested with a flanker task that had minimal location uncertainty—the target was at the fixation surrounded by a distractor—participants were better at ignoring distractors in the learned color than other colors. Evidently, previously predictive cues capture attention in the same search task but can be better suppressed in a flanker task. These results demonstrate opposing components—capture and inhibition—in experience-driven attention, with their manifestations crucially dependent on task context. We conclude that associative learning enhances context-sensitive top-down modulation while reduces bottom-up sensory drive and facilitates suppression, supporting a learning-based predictive coding account. PMID:27068051

  2. EVALUATION OF THE TREATABILITY OF MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATE IN A SBR AND BY COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION ON A BENCH SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fleck

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes bench scale sequential, biological and coagulation-flocculation treatment of mature leachate for the removal of nitrogen and biodegradable and recalcitrant carbonaceous material. The biological stage was conducted on two SBRs, one of which inoculated with nitrifying sludge, another without an inoculum, for 152 and 133 days, respectively. The coagulation-flocculation stage used four coagulants at different doses and pH adjustments. The treatment conducted on the inoculated SBR when a pH control was used produced mean removals of BOD5, COD and TKN of 69.6%, 38.5% and 51.6%, respectively, and practically complete denitrification. Coagulation-flocculation applied to the effluent of the inoculated biological reactor showed a superior effectiveness of the ferric coagulants, when the pH was adjusted to close to 6.0, producing removals of turbidity, COD and true color close to 95%, 78% and 92%, respectively.

  3. Do previous sports experiences influence the effect of an enrichment programme in basketball skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Sara; Mateus, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime; Leite, Nuno

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an enrichment programme in motor, technical and tactical basketball skills, when accounting for the age of youth sport specialisation. Seventy-six college students (age: M = 20.4, SD = 1.9) were allocated according to three different paths: (i) non-structured (n = 14), (ii) early specialisation (n = 34), and (iii) late specialisation (n = 28), according to information previously provided by the participants about the quantity and type of sporting activities performed throughout their sporting careers. Then, the participants of each path were randomly distributed across control and experimental groups. Variables under study included agility, technical skills circuit, as well as tactical actions performed in a 4-on-4 full-court basketball game. The results indicated improvements in the early and late specialisation paths namely in the experimental training groups. However, the late specialisation path revealed larger benefits, in contrast with the non-structured path, which showed less sensitivity to the enrichment programme, mostly sustained in physical literacy and differential learning. Higher improvements were observed in agility, and also in reducing the number of unsuccessful actions performed during the game. Overall, this study provided evidence of how early sports experiences affect basketball skill acquisition and contribute to adapt to new contexts with motor and technical-tactical challenges. In addition, a path supported by late specialisation might present several advantages in sport performance achievement.

  4. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Changyong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, Yuexi, E-mail: zhouyuexi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Sun, Qingliang [School of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Fu, Liya [Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yu, Ruozhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m{sup 3} h{sup −1}) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD{sub 5}/COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L{sup −1} for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L{sup −1} for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L{sup −1} on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L{sup −1}. There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  5. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m 3 h −1 ) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD 5 /COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L −1 for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L −1 for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L −1 on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L −1 . There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  6. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  7. TU-CD-BRD-01: Making Incident Learning Practical and Useful: Challenges and Previous Experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzell, G.

    2015-01-01

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiences to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample time set

  8. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Bernarda Ludermir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. METHODS A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18–49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. RESULTS Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89–3.63 and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01–2.13, sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68–6.38 and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.12. The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43–3.02 and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07–2.47, who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86–8.27, and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57–16.45. CONCLUSIONS Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help

  9. Previous experience of family violence and intimate partner violence in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludermir, Ana Bernarda; Araújo, Thália Velho Barreto de; Valongueiro, Sandra Alves; Muniz, Maria Luísa Corrêa; Silva, Elisabete Pereira

    2017-01-01

    To estimate differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. A nested case-control study was carried out within a cohort study with 1,120 pregnant women aged 18-49 years old, who were registered in the Family Health Strategy of the city of Recife, State of Pernambuco, Brazil, between 2005 and 2006. The cases were the 233 women who reported intimate partner violence in pregnancy and the controls were the 499 women who did not report it. Partner violence in pregnancy and previous experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members were assessed with a standardized questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were modeled to identify differential associations between the exposure to violence in the family of origin and victimization and perpetration of intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Having seen the mother suffer intimate partner violence was associated with physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.62; 95%CI 1.89-3.63) and in adolescence (OR = 1.47; 95%CI 1.01-2.13), sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.28; 95%CI 1.68-6.38) and intimate partner violence during pregnancy (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.01 - 2.12). The intimate partner violence during pregnancy was frequent in women who reported more episodes of physical violence in childhood (OR = 2.08; 95%CI 1.43-3.02) and adolescence (OR = 1.63; 95%CI 1.07-2.47), who suffered sexual violence in childhood (OR = 3.92; 95%CI 1.86-8.27), and who perpetrated violence against the partner (OR = 8.67; 95%CI 4.57-16.45). Experiences of violence committed by parents or other family members emerge as strong risk factors for intimate partner violence in pregnancy. Identifying and understanding protective and risk factors for the emergence of intimate partner violence in pregnancy and its maintenance may help policymakers and health service managers to develop intervention strategies.

  10. The Impact of an International Cultural Experience on Previously Held Stereotypes by American Student Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Loretta; Bengiamin, Marlene; Downey, Vicki Wessman

    2001-01-01

    Examined stereotypes held by U.S. student nurses before and after participating in an educational experience in Russia. The experience was intended to prepare them to be effective nurses in multicultural health care settings. Data from student interviews indicated that the experience changed students' stereotyped attitudes about Russian culture…

  11. Previous Experiences with Epilepsy and Effectiveness of Information to Change Public Perception of Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutteling, Jan M.; Seydel, E.R.; Wiegman, O.

    1986-01-01

    Differences with regard to the effectiveness of health information and attitude change are suggested between people with direct, behavioral experiences with a health topic and people with indirect, nonbehavioral experiences. The effects of three different methods of health education about epilepsy,

  12. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  13. The Role of Previous Experience and Attitudes toward Statistics in Statistics Assessment Outcomes among Undergraduate Psychology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen K.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that students' cognitions about statistics are related to their performance in statistics assessments. The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of the relationships between undergraduate psychology students' previous experiences of maths, statistics and computing; their attitudes toward statistics;…

  14. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer: single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocvirk Janja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients’ register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer.

  15. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 9. Results of Bench-Scale and Pilot Plant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task 1 are not severe...50 REFERENCES. ............................ 51 APPENDIX A: LCI Test Report on Expanded-Bed Al Hydroprocessing of 300*F+ Great Plains Tar ...recovered by gravity separation. The heaviest portion of the tar oil, which contains about 20 percent coal dust, is recycled to the gasifiers. The recycle

  16. The Impact of Previous Online Course Experience RN Students' Perceptions of Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, Emily; Barczyk, Casimir; Ralston-Berg, Penny; Buckenmeyer, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore whether experienced online students (who have completed seven or more online courses) perceive the quality of their courses differently than novice online students (who have completed three or fewer online courses) or students with an intermediate level of online course experience (those who have completed…

  17. Is the ability to perform transurethral resection of the prostate influenced by the surgeon's previous experience?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Cury

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of the urologist's experience on the surgical results and complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate without the use of a video camera were randomly allocated into three groups according to the urologist's experience: a urologist having done 25 transurethral resections of the prostate (Group I - 24 patients; a urologist having done 50 transurethral resections of the prostate (Group II - 24 patients; a senior urologist with vast transurethral resection of the prostate experience (Group III - 19 patients. The following were recorded: the weight of resected tissue, the duration of the resection procedure, the volume of irrigation used, the amount of irrigation absorbed and the hemoglobin and sodium levels in the serum during the procedure. RESULTS: There were no differences between the groups in the amount of irrigation fluid used per operation, the amount of irrigation fluid absorbed or hematocrit and hemoglobin variation during the procedure. The weight of resected tissue per minute was approximately four times higher in group III than in groups I and II. The mean absorbed irrigation fluid was similar between the groups, with no statistical difference between them (p=0.24. Four patients (6% presented with TUR syndrome, without a significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: The senior urologist was capable of resecting four times more tissue per time unit than the more inexperienced surgeons. Therefore, a surgeon's experience may be important to reduce the risk of secondary TURP due to recurring adenomas or adenomas that were incompletely resected. However, the incidence of complications was the same between the three groups.

  18. TDT-3R Clean Multi Fuels. ECN contribution to WP3. Lab-/bench-scale pyrolysis test of biomass and analysis of byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Zwart, R.W.R.; Boersma, A.R.

    2005-11-01

    Under the present conditions it is expected that coal will still be used for a long period as a energy source. Furthermore, biomass is emerging as a new renewable CO2-neutral energy source in the future. Both fuels need significantly lower emissions to meet new (future) European Union environmental norms for sustainable clean energy production. Several technologies and 'end-of pipe' solutions have been developed in the past to reach these stricter emission limits. Examples are integrated combined cycle gasification systems (IGCC) for large scale use (>250 MW capacity). Also, a large number of gas cleaning technologies have been developed. These technologies are up-to-now rather complicated and/or costly and therefore also new solutions have to be developed. The 3R Multifuel process is aimed to offer a solution to these problems, especially for low-rank coals like brown coal, lignite, high sulfur coal, derived fuels and biomass. The objectives for ECN in the Work Package 3 of this project are: (a) to summarise and update data for the potential of biomass and waste streams in Europe for power production; and (b) to select biomass/waste streams to be tested in the lab/bench-scale facility and to generate design data for clean solid fuel production from biomass to be used for a pilot facility in Hungary. TDT-3R stands for Thermal Desorption Technology-Recycle-Reduce-Reuse

  19. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  20. Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of a bench-scale, inert-gas, oil shale retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Fruchter, J.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of heating rates and maximum temperatures on the redistribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium into the shale oil, retort water, and offgas of a 6-kg bench-scale retort. A Green River shale (western) from Colorado and a New Albany shale (eastern) from Kentucky were heated at 1-2{degree}C/min to a maximum temperature of 500{degree}C. The eastern and western shales were also heated at 2{degree}C/min to 750{degree}C and at 10{degree}C/min to 750{degree}C. Real-time monitoring of the offgas stream for mercury was accomplished with Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy or a microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy. Microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy was also used to monitor for arsenic in the offgas during retorting; little or no arsenic was observed in the offgas. Mass balance calculations for arsenic and selenium accounted for essentially 100% of those elements in the spent shale, shale oil, and retort water. The mass balance calculations suggest little offgas component for arsenic and selenium. This agrees with the results of the MPD monitoring of the offgas. These results indicate the potential pathway for mercury to enter the environment is from the offgas. Arsenic and selenium preferential redistribution into the shale oil may present problems during the upgrading process.

  1. Influence of toluene and salinity on biosurfactant production by Bacillus sp.: scale up from flasks to a bench-scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristina Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To select the best biosurfactant producer, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus megatherium, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis were cultured in flasks on media with different salinity [low salinity (LS, Bushnell-Haas (BH and artificial sea water (SW media] supplemented or not with toluene as a model pollutant. Toluene inhibited the growth of all microorganisms and stimulated the biosurfactant production. B. subtilis exhibited the best performance, being able to lower the surface tension (ST in the LS medium to 65.5 mN/min in the absence of toluene, and to 46.5 mN/min in the BH medium in the presence of toluene, corresponding to ST reductions of 13.0 and 27.5 mN/m, respectively. Scaling up the process to a bench-scale fermentor, the best results were obtained in the LS medium, where B. subtilis was able to reduce the toluene concentration from 26.0 to 4.3 g/L within 12 h and ST by 17.2 mN/m within 18 h. The results of this study point out that B. subtilis is an interesting biosurfactant producer, which could be used in the bioremediation of toluene-contaminated water.

  2. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Topical Report EH&S Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Herwig, Mark; Giolando, Salvatore; Green, Dianne; Morall, Donna

    2016-05-11

    GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2 capture solvent (award number DEFE0013687). As part of this program, a technology EH&S assessment (Subtask 5.1) has been completed for a CO2 capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. The assessment focuses on two chemicals used in the process, the aminosilicone solvent, GAP-0, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA), the GAP-0 carbamate formed upon reaction of the GAP-0 with CO2, and two potential byproducts formed in the process, GAP-0/SOx salts and amine-terminated, urea-containing silicone (also referred to as “ureas” in this report). The EH&S assessment identifies and estimates the magnitude of the potential air and water emissions and solid waste generated by the process and reviews the toxicological profiles of the chemicals associated with the process. Details regarding regulatory requirements, engineering controls, and storage and handling procedures are also provided in the following sections.

  3. Characterization of L-asparaginase from marine-derived Aspergillus niger AKV-MKBU, its antiproliferative activity and bench scale production using industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Anjana K; Sachaniya, Bhumi; Dudhagara, Dushyant; Panseriya, Haresh Z; Gosai, Haren; Rawal, Rakesh; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-03-01

    L-asparaginase (LA), an enzyme with anticancer activities, produced by marine-derived Aspergillus niger was subjected to purification and characterization. The purified enzyme was observed to have molecular weight ∼90KDa. The enzyme retained activity over a wide range of pH, i.e. pH 4-10. The enzyme was quite stable in temperature range 20-40°C. Tween 80 and Triton X-100 were observed to enhance LA activity while inhibition of LA activity was observed in presence of heavy metals. The values for K m was found to be 0.8141 mM and V max was 6.228μM/mg/min. The enzyme exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines tested. Successful bench scale production (in 5L bioreacator) of LA using groundnut oil cake as low cost substrate has also been carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Integrating a 250 mL-spinner flask with other stirred bench-scale cell culture devices: a mass transfer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Jose R; Brorson, Kurt A; Moreira, Antonio R; Rao, Govind

    2011-01-01

    The bioprocess development cycle is a complex task that requires a complete understanding of the engineering of the process (e.g., mass transfer, mixing, CO(2) removal, process monitoring, and control) and its affect on cell biology and product quality. Despite their widespread use in bioprocess development, spinner flasks generally lack engineering characterization of critical physical parameters such as k(L)a, P/V, or mixing time. In this study, mass transfer characterization of a 250-mL spinner flask using optical patch-based sensors is presented. The results quantitatively show the effect of the impeller type, liquid filling volume, and agitation speed on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) in a 250-mL spinner flask, and how they can be manipulated to match mass transfer capability at large culture devices. Thus, process understanding in spinner flasks can be improved, and these devices can be seamlessly integrated in a rational scale-up strategy from cell thawing to bench-scale bioreactors (and beyond) in biomanufacturing. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  5. Determination and modeling of the influence of the fluid-dynamics in hydro-treating bench scale plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, T.

    1999-09-16

    At an industrial scale, the hydro-treating of oil fractions is carried out in multiphase fixed bed reactors. The oil and hydrogen cross the catalyst bed, usually in co-current downflow. Since the product specifications are steadily becoming more severe, the testing of new catalysts and of modified operating conditions in pilot plants becomes increasingly important. Although these pilot plants are frequently by a factor of 100 000 smaller than the industrial units, they still have to allow the up-scaling to industrial units. In the literature relatively low conversion degrees in pilot plants are frequently reported, especially in downflow. The significantly lower fluid velocities in pilot plants seem to be responsible for such differences, as the influence of fluid-dynamic non-idealities and of the extra-particle mass transfer phenomena increases with a decrease of the fluid velocities. In the present work, the influence of important fluid-dynamic non-idealities on the hydro-treating of gas oil fractions in pilot plants was examined. This was done on the one hand in experiments with different pilot plants and on the other hand by simulations with an especially developed multiphase model. The phenomena were considered as well in an isolated manner. In order to examine any interactions with the chemical reactions, they were also studied in a reactive system. This methodology was applied to the phenomena, 'axial dispersion'and 'gas-liquid mass transfer'. (author)

  6. Removal of strontium from drinking water by conventional treatment and lime softening in bench-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Alissa J; Lytle, Darren A; Harmon, Stephen; Vu, Kevin; Chait, Hannah; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-10-15

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. Very limited data is available on strontium removal from drinking water and as a result, there is an immediate need for treatment information. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of coagulation/filtration and lime-soda ash softening treatment methods to remove strontium from surface and ground waters. Coagulation/filtration jar test results on natural waters showed that conventional treatment with aluminum and iron coagulants were able to achieve only 12% and 5.9% strontium removal, while lime softening removed as high as 78% from natural strontium-containing ground water. Controlled batch experiments on synthetic water showed that strontium removal during the lime-soda ash softening was affected by pH, calcium concentration and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. In all softening jar tests, the final strontium concentration was directly related to the initial strontium concentration and the removal of strontium was directly associated with calcium removal. Precipitated solids showed well-formed crystals or agglomerates of mixed solids, two polymorphs of calcium carbonate (vaterite and calcite), and strontianite, depending on initial water quality conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that strontium was likely incorporated in the calcium carbonate crystal lattice and was likely responsible for removal during lime softening. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  8. The role of previous experience and attitudes toward statistics in statistics assessment outcomes among undergraduate psychology students

    OpenAIRE

    Dempster, Martin; McCorry, Noleen

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that students’ cognitions about statistics are related to their performance in statistics assessments. The purpose of this research is to examine the nature of the relationships between undergraduate psychology students’ previous experiences of maths, statistics and computing; their attitudes toward statistics; and assessment on a statistics course. Of the variables examined, the strongest predictor of assessment outcome was students’ attitude about their in...

  9. Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer: single center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocvirk, Janja; Moltara, Maja Ebert; Mesti, Tanja; Boc, Marko; Rebersek, Martina; Volk, Neva; Benedik, Jernej; Hlebanja, Zvezdana

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) is mainly a disease of elderly, however, geriatric population is underrepresented in clinical trials. Patient registries represent a tool to assess and follow treatment outcomes in this patient population. The aim of the study was with the help of the patients’ register to determine the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in elderly patients who had previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. The registry of patients with mCRC was designed to prospectively evaluate the safety and efficacy of bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy as well as selection of patients in routine clinical practice. Patient baseline clinical characteristics, pre-specified bevacizumab-related adverse events, and efficacy data were collected, evaluated and compared according to the age categories. Between January 2008 and December 2010, 210 patients with mCRC (median age 63, male 61.4%) started bevacizumab-containing therapy in the 1 st line setting. Majority of the 210 patients received irinotecan-based chemotherapy (68%) as 1 st line treatment and 105 patients (50%) received bevacizumab maintenance therapy. Elderly (≥ 70 years) patients presented 22.9% of all patients and they had worse performance status (PS 1/2, 62.4%) than patients in < 70 years group (PS 1/2, 35.8%). Difference in disease control rate was mainly due to inability to assess response in elderly group (64.6% in elderly and 77.8% in < 70 years group, p = 0.066). The median progression free survival was 10.2 (95% CI, 6.7–16.2) and 11.3 (95% CI, 10.2–12.6) months in elderly and < 70 years group, respectively (p = 0.58). The median overall survival was 18.5 (95% CI, 12.4–28.9) and 27.4 (95% CI, 22.7–31.9) months for elderly and < 70 years group, respectively (p = 0.03). Three-year survival rate was 26% and 37.6% in elderly vs. < 70 years group (p = 0.03). Overall rates of bevacizumab-related adverse events were similar in both groups: proteinuria 21

  10. The relationship between emotional intelligence, previous caring experience and successful completion of a pre-registration nursing/midwifery degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Stenhouse, Rosie; Duers, Lorraine; Marshall, Sarah; Carver, Fiona; Brown, Norrie; Young, Jenny

    2018-02-01

    To examine the relationship between baseline emotional intelligence and prior caring experience with completion of pre-registration nurse and midwifery education. Selection and retention of nursing students is a global challenge. Emotional intelligence is well-conceptualized, measurable and an intuitive prerequisite to nursing values and so might be a useful selection criterion. Previous caring experience may also be associated with successful completion of nurse training. Prospective longitudinal study. Self-report trait and ability emotional intelligence scores were obtained from 876 student nurses from two Scottish Universities before they began training in 2013. Data on previous caring experience were recorded. Relationships between these metrics and successful completion of the course were calculated in SPSS version 23. Nurses completing their programme scored significantly higher on trait emotional intelligence than those that did not complete their programme. Nurses completing their programme also scored significantly higher on social connection scores than those that did not. There was no relationship between "ability" emotional intelligence and completion. Previous caring experience was not statistically significantly related to completion. Students with higher baseline trait emotional intelligence scores were statistically more likely to complete training than those with lower scores. This relationship also held using "Social connection" scores. At best, previous caring experience made no difference to students' chances of completing training. Caution is urged when interpreting these results because the headline findings mask considerable heterogeneity. Neither previous caring experience or global emotional intelligence measures should be used in isolation to recruit nurses. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates' Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo Moon, Hyoung; Kwon Choi, Byoung; Shik Jung, Jae

    2012-01-01

    Although various antecedents of expatriates' cross-cultural adjustment have been addressed, previous international experience, predeparture cross-cultural training, and cultural intelligence (CQ) have been most frequently examined. However, there are few attempts that explore the effects of these antecedents simultaneously or consider the possible…

  12. Pain related to mandibular block injections and its relationship with anxiety and previous experiences with dental anesthetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.; Lindeboom, J.A.; de Jongh, A.; Tuk, J.G.; Hoogstraten, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Anesthetic injections should reassure patients with the prospect of painless treatment, but for some patients it is the main source of their fear. We investigated pain resulting from mandibular block injections in relation to anxiety and previous experience with receiving injections.

  13. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  14. The Effect of Previous Co-Worker Experience on the Survival of Knowledge Intensive Start-Ups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram

    The aim of the paper is to investigate the effect of previous co-worker experience on the survival of knowledge intensive start-ups. For the empirical analysis I use the Danish Integrated Database of Labor Market Research (IDA). This longitudinal employer-employee database allows me to identify co-worker...... experience among all members of the firm. In addition, I will make a distinction between ordinary start-ups and entrepreneurial spin-offs. The results show that previous co-worker experience has a positive effect on new firm survival. This effect appears to be valid predominantly for ordinary start-ups than...

  15. The relationship between emotional intelligence, previous caring experience and mindfulness in student nurses and midwives: a cross sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Austyn; Stenhouse, Rosie; Young, Jenny; Carver, Hannah; Carver, Fiona; Brown, Norrie

    2015-01-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI), previous caring experience and mindfulness training may have a positive impact on nurse education. More evidence is needed to support the use of these variables in nurse recruitment and retention. To explore the relationship between EI, gender, age, programme of study, previous caring experience and mindfulness training. Cross sectional element of longitudinal study. 938year one nursing, midwifery and computing students at two Scottish Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) who entered their programme in September 2013. Participants completed a measure of 'trait' EI: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire Short Form (TEIQue-SF); and 'ability' EI: Schutte's et al. (1998) Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS). Demographics, previous caring experience and previous training in mindfulness were recorded. Relationships between variables were tested using non-parametric tests. Emotional intelligence increased with age on both measures of EI [TEIQ-SF H(5)=15.157 p=0.001; SEIS H(5)=11.388, p=0.044]. Females (n=786) scored higher than males (n=149) on both measures [TEIQ-SF, U=44,931, z=-4.509, pintelligence. Mindfulness training was associated with higher 'ability' emotional intelligence. Implications for recruitment, retention and further research are explored. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  17. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a PhaseChanging Absorbent: Techno-Economic Analysis Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Spiry, Irina [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)

    2017-01-27

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing CO2 capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2 capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. This report presents system and economic analysis for a process that uses a phase changing aminosilicone solvent to remove CO2 from pulverized coal (PC) power plant flue gas. The aminosilicone solvent is a pure 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (GAP-0). Performance of the phase-changing aminosilicone technology is compared to that of a conventional carbon capture system using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA). This analysis demonstrates that the aminosilicone process has significant advantages relative to an MEA-based system. The first-year CO2 removal cost for the phase-changing CO2 capture process is $52.1/tonne, compared to $66.4/tonne for the aqueous amine process. The phase-changing CO2 capture process is less costly than MEA because of advantageous solvent properties that include higher working capacity, lower corrosivity, lower vapor pressure, and lower heat capacity. The phase-changing aminosilicone process has approximately 32% lower equipment capital cost compared to that of the aqueous amine process. However, this solvent is susceptible to thermal degradation at CSTR desorber operating temperatures, which could add as much as $88/tonne to the CO2 capture cost associated with solvent makeup. Future work is focused on mitigating this critical risk by developing an advanced low-temperature desorber that can deliver comparable desorption performance and significantly reduced

  18. The effects of physical separtation treatment on the removal of uranium from contaminated soils at Fernald: A bench-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, K.G.; Krstich, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A bench-scale treatability study incorporating the use of physical separation techniques and chemical dispersants/extractants was conducted on uranium contaminated soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. The soils contained approximately 497 and 450 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of total uranium, respectively. Geotechnical characterization indicated that 77.4 and 74.6 percent of the soil was in the less that 50 micrometer (μm) size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils, respectively. An initial characterization effort indicated that uranium was distributed among all particle size fractions. After each soil was dispersed in water, it was noted that the uranium concentrated in the sand and clay fractions for the ID-A soil (1028 and 1475 mg kg -1 , respectively) and the clay fraction for ID-B soil (2710 mg kg -1 ). Four 1 millimolar (mM) sodium reagent solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and a sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite mixture) and potable water were evaluated for effectiveness in dispersing each soil into single grain separates and extracting total uranium from each of the resulting particle size fractions. Dilute sodium solutions were more effective than water in dispersing the soil. The use of dispersants, as compared to water, on the less than 2 mm size fraction causes a shift in the distribution of uranium out of the sand fraction and into the silt and clay fractions for ID-A soil and into the clay fraction for the ID-B soil. Attrition scrubbing tests were conducted on the less than 2 mm size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils using water and three alkaline extraction solutions, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate. There was little difference among the chemical extractants on their effectiveness in removing uranium from the greater than 53 μm (sand) or less than 53 μm (silt and clay) soil fraction

  19. Relationship between premature loss of primary teeth with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care, and previous caries experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Sandra Aremy; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Lucas-Rincón, Salvador Eduardo; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2016-02-26

    We determine the relationship between premature loss of primary teeth and oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience. This study focused on 833 Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-7. We performed an oral examination to determine caries experience and the simplified oral hygiene index. The dependent variable was the prevalence of at least one missing tooth (or indicated for extraction) of the primary dentition; this variable was coded as 0 = no loss of teeth and 1 = at least one lost primary tooth. The prevalence of at least one missing tooth was 24.7% (n = 206) (95% CI = 21.8-27.7). The variables that were associated with the prevalence of tooth loss (p oral hygiene (OR = 3.24), a lower frequency of brushing (OR = 1.60), an increased consumption of soda (OR = 1.89) and use of dental care (curative: OR = 2.83, preventive: OR = 1.93). This study suggests that the premature loss of teeth in the primary dentition is associated with oral hygiene, consumption of soft drinks, dental care and previous caries experience in Mexican schoolchildren. These data provide relevant information for the design of preventive dentistry programs.

  20. Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations for solvent-based carbon capture. Part 2: Chemical absorption across a wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Lai, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Whyatt, Greg [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Marcy, Peter W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Los Alamos NM; Sun, Xin [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge TN

    2017-10-24

    The first part of this paper (Part 1) presents a numerical model for non-reactive physical mass transfer across a wetted wall column (WWC). In Part 2, we improved the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate chemical absorption occurring in a WWC as a bench-scale study of solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. To generate data for WWC model validation, CO2 mass transfer across a monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was first measured on a WWC experimental apparatus. The numerical model developed in this work has the ability to account for both chemical absorption and desorption of CO2 in MEA. In addition, the overall mass transfer coefficient predicted using traditional/empirical correlations is conducted and compared with CFD prediction results for both steady and wavy falling films. A Bayesian statistical calibration algorithm is adopted to calibrate the reaction rate constants in chemical absorption/desorption of CO2 across a falling film of MEA. The posterior distributions of the two transport properties, i.e., Henry’s constant and gas diffusivity in the non-reacting nitrous oxide (N2O)/MEA system obtained from Part 1 of this study, serves as priors for the calibration of CO2 reaction rate constants after using the N2O/CO2 analogy method. The calibrated model can be used to predict the CO2 mass transfer in a WWC for a wider range of operating conditions.

  1. A 20-year experience with liver transplantation for polycystic liver disease: does previous palliative surgical intervention affect outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, John T; Hiatt, Jonathan R; Busuttil, Ronald W; Agopian, Vatche G

    2014-10-01

    Although it is the only curative treatment for polycystic liver disease (PLD), orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has been reserved for severely symptomatic, malnourished, or refractory patients who are not candidates for palliative disease-directed interventions (DDI). Data on the effect of previous DDIs on post-transplant morbidity and mortality are scarce. We analyzed the outcomes after OLT for PLD recipients, and determined the effects of previous palliative surgical intervention on post-transplantation morbidity and mortality. We performed a retrospective analysis of factors affecting perioperative outcomes after OLT for PLD between 1992 and 2013, including comparisons of recipients with previous major open DDIs (Open DDI, n = 12) with recipients with minimally invasive or no previous DDIs (minimal DDI, n = 16). Over the 20-year period, 28 recipients underwent OLT for PLD, with overall 30-day, 1-, and 5-year graft and patient survivals of 96%, 89%, 75%, and 96%, 93%, 79%, respectively. Compared with the minimal DDI group, open DDI recipients accounted for all 5 deaths, had inferior 90-day and 1- and 5-year survivals (83%, 83%, and 48% vs 100%, 100%, 100%; p = 0.009), and greater intraoperative (42% vs 0%; p = 0.003), total (58% vs 19%; p = 0.031), and Clavien grade IV or greater (50% vs 6%; p = 0.007) postoperative complications, more unplanned reoperations (50% vs 13%; p = 0.003), and longer total hospital (27 days vs 17 days; p = 0.035) and ICU (10 days vs 4 days; p = 0.045) stays. In one of the largest single-institution experiences of OLT for PLD, we report excellent long-term graft and patient survival. Previous open DDIs are associated with increased risks of perioperative morbidity and mortality. Improved identification of PLD patients bound for OLT may mitigate perioperative complications and potentially improve post-transplantation outcomes. Copyright © 2014 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. EVALUATION OF SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY: RESULTS OF BENCH SCALE EXPERIMENTS ON PETROLEUM FUELS CONTAMINATED SOILS - EPA/600/S2-91/023

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through its Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Release Control Branch has undertaken research and development efforts to address the problem of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs). Under this effort, EPA is currently eva...

  3. Does Previous Experience of Floods Stimulate the Adoption of Coping Strategies? Evidence from Cross Sectional Surveys in Nigeria and Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A. Boamah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, hydro-meteorological related disasters, such as floods, account for the majority of the total number of natural disasters. Over the past century, floods have affected 38 million people, claimed several lives and caused substantial economic losses in the region. The goal of this paper is to examine how personality disposition, social network, and socio-demographic factors mitigate the complex relationship between stressful life experiences of floods and ocean surges and the adoption of coping strategies among coastal communities in Nigeria and Tanzania. Generalized linear models (GLM were fitted to cross-sectional survey data on 1003 and 1253 individuals in three contiguous coastal areas in Nigeria and Tanzania, respectively. Marked differences in the type of coping strategies were observed across the two countries. In Tanzania, the zero-order relationships between adoption of coping strategies and age, employment and income disappeared at the multivariate level. Only experience of floods in the past year and social network resources were significant predictors of participants’ adoption of coping strategies, unlike in Nigeria, where a plethora of factors such as experience of ocean surges in the past one year, personality disposition, age, education, experience of flood in the past one year, ethnicity, income, housing quality and employment status were still statistically significant at the multivariate level. Our findings suggest that influence of previous experience on adoption of coping strategies is spatially ubiquitous. Consequently, context-specific policies aimed at encouraging the adoption of flood-related coping strategies in vulnerable locations should be designed based on local needs and orientation.

  4. The Impact of Previous Action on Bargaining—An Experiment on the Emergence of Preferences for Fairness Norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Neumann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The communication of participants to identify an acceptable bargaining outcome in the Nash bargaining game is all about fairness norms. Participants introduce fairness norms which yield a better outcome for themselves in order to convince the other participant of their bargaining proposal. Typically, these fairness norms are in line with theoretical predictions, which support a wide variety of different but fair outcomes the participants can choose from. In this experiment, we play two treatments of the Nash bargaining game: in one treatment, the participants play a dictator game prior to bargaining, and in the other treatment they do not. We find that participants who have not played the dictator game intensively discuss the outcome of the game and come to solutions closer to the equal split of the pie the longer they chat. This effect vanishes as soon as the participants have previous experience from a dictator game: instead of chatting, they establish the fairness norm introduced in the dictator game. Remarkably, if the dictator is unfair in the dictator game, he also gets a higher share of the pie in the Nash bargaining game.

  5. The Impact of Previous Schooling Experiences on a Quaker High School's Graduating Students' College Entrance Exam Scores, Parents' Expectations, and College Acceptance Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galusha, Debbie K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of previous private, public, home, or international schooling experiences on a Quaker high school's graduating students' college entrance composite exam scores, parents' expectations, and college attendance outcomes. The study's results suggest that regardless of previous private, public, home,…

  6. Influence of Previous Crop on Durum Wheat Yield and Yield Stability in a Long-term Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Stellacci

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term experiments are leading indicators of sustainability and serve as an early warning system to detect problems that may compromise future productivity. So the stability of yield is an important parameter to be considered when judging the value of a cropping system relative to others. In a long-term rotation experiment set up in 1972 the influence of different crop sequences on the yields and on yield stability of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. was studied. The complete field experiment is a split-split plot in a randomized complete block design with two replications; the whole experiment considers three crop sequences: 1 three-year crop rotation: sugar-beet, wheat + catch crop, wheat; 2 one-year crop rotation: wheat + catch crop; 3 wheat continuous crop; the split treatments are two different crop residue managements; the split-split plot treatments are 18 different fertilization formulas. Each phase of every crop rotation occurred every year. In this paper only one crop residue management and only one fertilization treatment have been analized. Wheat crops in different rotations are coded as follows: F1: wheat after sugar-beet in three-year crop rotation; F2: wheat after wheat in three-year crop rotation; Fc+i: wheat in wheat + catch crop rotation; Fc: continuous wheat. The following two variables were analysed: grain yield and hectolitre weight. Repeated measures analyses of variance and stability analyses have been perfomed for the two variables. The stability analysis was conducted using: three variance methods, namely the coefficient of variability of Francis and Kannenberg, the ecovalence index of Wricke and the stability variance index of Shukla; the regression method of Eberhart and Russell; a method, proposed by Piepho, that computes the probability of one system outperforming another system. It has turned out that each of the stability methods used has enriched of information the simple variance analysis. The Piepho

  7. Ipilimumab in the real world: the UK expanded access programme experience in previously treated advanced melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saif S; Qian, Wendi; Ellis, Sarah; Mason, Elaine; Khattak, Muhammad A; Gupta, Avinash; Shaw, Heather; Quinton, Amy; Kovarikova, Jarmila; Thillai, Kiruthikah; Rao, Ankit; Board, Ruth; Nobes, Jenny; Dalgleish, Angus; Grumett, Simon; Maraveyas, Anthony; Danson, Sarah; Talbot, Toby; Harries, Mark; Marples, Maria; Plummer, Ruth; Kumar, Satish; Nathan, Paul; Middleton, Mark R; Larkin, James; Lorigan, Paul; Wheater, Matthew; Ottensmeier, Christian H; Corrie, Pippa G

    2015-10-01

    Before licensing, ipilimumab was first made available to previously treated advanced melanoma patients through an expanded access programme (EAP) across Europe. We interrogated data from UK EAP patients to inform future clinical practice. Clinicians registered in the UK EAP provided anonymized patient data using a prespecified variable fields datasheet. Data collected were baseline patient characteristics, treatment delivered, toxicity, response, progression-free survival and overall survival (OS). Data were received for 193 previously treated metastatic melanoma patients, whose primary sites were cutaneous (82%), uveal (8%), mucosal (2%), acral (3%) or unknown (5%). At baseline, 88% of patients had a performance status (PS) of 0-1 and 20% had brain metastases. Of the patients, 53% received all four planned cycles of ipilimumab; the most common reason for stopping early was disease progression, including death from melanoma. Toxicity was recorded for 171 patients, 30% of whom experienced an adverse event of grade 3 or higher, the most common being diarrhoea (13%) and fatigue (9%). At a median follow-up of 23 months, the median progression-free survival and OS were 2.8 and 6.1 months, respectively; the 1-year and 2-year OS rates were 31 and 14.8%, respectively. The 2-year OS was significantly lower for patients with poorer PS (P<0.0001), low albumin concentrations (P<0.0001), the presence of brain metastases (P=0.007) and lactate dehydrogenase levels more than two times the upper limit of normal (P<0.0001) at baseline. These baseline characteristics are negative predictors of benefit from ipilimumab and should be taken into consideration before prescription.

  8. The Impact of Previous Athletic Experience on Current Physical Fitness in Former Collegiate Athletes and Noncollegiate Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Janet E; Docherty, Carrie L

    Physical activity performed at moderate intensity is associated with reduced risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and some types of cancers. However, vigorous physical activity during participation in college athletics may increase the risk of injury, which might limit future physical activity levels. To evaluate differences in current physical fitness levels between former Division I athletes and noncollegiate athletes. Cross-sectional study. Level 3. The sample was recruited from a large midwestern university alumni database and consisted of 2 cohorts: (1) former Division I athletes (n = 100; mean age, 53.1 ± 7.4 years) and (2) nonathletes who were active in college (n = 100; age, 51.4 ± 7.3 years). Individuals answered a demographics questionnaire and completed a physical fitness assessment consisting of 7 measures: percent body fat, 1-mile walk, sit-to-stand test, push-up, half sit-up test, sit and reach test, and back scratch test. Performance was significantly worse for former Division I athletes compared with nonathletes for percent body fat (mean difference, 7.58%; F (1, 198) = 59.91; P sit-to-stand test (mean difference, 4.3 repetitions; F (1, 198) = 6.59; P = 0.01), and push-up test (mean difference, 8.9 repetitions; F (1, 198) = 7.35; P = 0.01). Former Division I athletes may be limited because of previous injury, inhibiting their ability to stay active later in life. It is imperative that clinicians, coaches, and strength and conditioning specialists understand the possible future repercussions from competing at the Division I level.

  9. Bench-Scale Study of Hydrogen Separation Using Pre-Commercial Membranes; Estudio, a Escala de Planta Piloto, del Proceso de Separacion de Hidrogeno mediante Membranas Pre-Comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Marano, M.

    2011-11-10

    This report compiles the research undertaken by CIEMAT over 2009-2011 in the sub-project 8 Purification and Separation of Hydrogen of the PSE H2ENOV Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN. Permeability and hydrogen selectivity of a pre-commercial palladium membrane was studied at bench scale level. The effect of main operating parameters - pressure, temperature and feed-flow-rate- on permeate flow-rate was determined. The influence of other gas components on hydrogen permeation was evaluated. Mixtures of H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} were studied. Although nitrogen and carbon dioxide did not permeate, both components decreased hydrogen permeation rate. Operating the membrane for around 1000 h under various conditions showed a small decrease in hydrogen permeation, but not in selectivity. A literature review was done in order to identify causes for permeation inhibition and reduction and for the definition of procedures for membrane regeneration. (Author) 29 refs.

  10. Increasing Desalination by Mitigating Anolyte pH Imbalance Using Catholyte Effluent Addition in a Multi-Anode Bench Scale Microbial Desalination Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Robert J.

    2013-09-03

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) uses exoelectrogenic bacteria to oxidize organic matter while desalinating water. Protons produced from the oxidation of organics at the anode result in anolyte acidification and reduce performance. A new method was used here to mitigate anolyte acidification based on adding non-buffered saline catholyte effluent from a previous cycle to the anolyte at the beginning of the next cycle. This method was tested using a larger-scale MDC (267 mL) containing four anode brushes and a three cell pair membrane stack. With an anolyte salt concentration increased by an equivalent of 75 mM NaCl using the catholyte effluent, salinity was reduced by 26.0 ± 0.5% (35 g/L NaCl initial solution) in a 10 h cycle, compared to 18.1 ± 2.0% without catholyte addition. This improvement was primarily due to the increase in buffering capacity of the anolyte, although increased conductivity slightly improved performance as well. There was some substrate loss from the anolyte by diffusion into the membrane stack, but this was decreased from 11% to 2.6% by increasing the anolyte conductivity (7.6 to 14 mS/cm). These results demonstrated that catholyte effluent can be utilized as a useful product for mitigating anolyte acidification and improving MDC performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  11. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grieger, Khara Deanne; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance...... on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis...... of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key ‘‘lessons learned’’ from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches...

  12. Assessment of the Relationship between Recurrent High-risk Pregnancy and Mothers’ Previous Experience of Having an Infant Admitted to a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Hantoosh Zadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim:  High-risk pregnancies increase the risk of Intensive Care Unit (ICU and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU admission in mothers and their newborns. In this study, we aimed to identify the association between the recurrence of high-risk pregnancy and mothers’ previous experience of having an infant admitted to NICU. Methods:We performed a cohort, retrospective study to compare subsequent pregnancy outcomes among 232 control subjects and 200 female cases with a previous experience of having a newborn requiring NICU admission due to intrauterine growth retardation, preeclampsia, preterm birth, premature rupture of membranes, and asphyxia. The information about the prevalence of subsequent high-risk pregnancies was gathered via phone calls. Results: As the results indicated, heparin, progesterone, and aspirin were more frequently administered in the case group during subsequent pregnancies, compared to the control group (P

  13. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  14. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  15. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  16. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  17. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful

  18. Polymeric Traypack Integrity: Bench-Scale Unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canavan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Additional experimentation was conducted to determine the applicability of the unit for non-destructive residual gas testing since current destructive tests represent a substantial continuing expense...

  19. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  20. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird(reg s ign) sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method

  1. Eficiencia del proceso de lavado en la obtención del citrato de calcio y magnesio a escala de banco Effectiveness of washout process to obtain calcium and magnesium citrate at bench scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la optimización del proceso tecnológico para obtener citrato de calcio y magnesio a partir de dolomitas, se estudió a escala de banco la etapa de lavado para disminuir el contenido de ácido cítrico libre. Las variantes de lavado estudiadas permitieron disminuir el contenido de ácido cítrico libre por debajo del 3 %, mientras que los valores de calcio y magnesio son similares a los del lote antes de realizar el proceso de lavado. Por otro lado, el estudio toxicológico en ratas, comprobó que los lotes a los cuales se les aplicó las diferentes variantes de lavado no provocaron irritabilidad gástrica a las dosis de 2 000 mg/kg de peso corporal, por lo que se puede afirmar que el proceso de lavado establecido es adecuado para garantizar la calidad de la materia prima.As part of the technological process optomization to obtain calcium citrate and magnesium from dolomites, we studied at bench scale, the washout stage to decrease the free citric acid content. Washout variants allowed to decrease the free citric acid content under 3 %, whereas the calcium and magnesium values are similar to those of batch before to carry out the wahout process. On the other hand, toxicity study in rats, proved that the batches where different washout variables were applied not provoke gastric irritability at doses of 2 000 mg/kg of body weight confirming that above mentioned established process is approproate to guarantee the raw material quality.

  2. Patient's anxiety and fear of anesthesia: effect of gender, age, education, and previous experience of anesthesia. A survey of 400 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavridou, Paraskevi; Dimitriou, Varvara; Manataki, Adamantia; Arnaoutoglou, Elena; Papadopoulos, Georgios

    2013-02-01

    Patients express high anxiety preoperatively, because of fears related to anesthesia and its implications. The purpose of this survey was to gain insight into these fears and to study whether they are affected by patients' sex, age, education, or previous experience of anesthesia. Questionnaires with fixed questions were distributed to consenting, consecutive surgical patients before the pre-anesthetic visit. The questionnaires included patients' demographics and questions related to their fears about anesthesia. Four-hundred questionnaires were collected and analyzed. Eighty-one percent of patients experience preoperative anxiety. The main sources of their anxiety were fear of postoperative pain (84 %), of not waking up after surgery (64.8 %), of being nauseous or vomiting (60.2 %), and of drains and needles (59.5 %). Patients are less concerned about being paralyzed because of anesthesia (33.5 %) or of revealing personal issues (18.8 %). Gender seems to affect patients fears, with women being more afraid (85.3 vs. 75.6 % of men, p = 0.014). The effects of patients' age, level of education, and previous experience of anesthesia are minor, except for individual questions. Sixty-three percent of our patients (mostly women 67.4 vs. 57.4 % of men, p = 0.039) talk about these fears with their relatives, although a vast majority of 95.5 % would prefer to talk with the anesthesiologist and be reassured by him. All patients, mostly women, express fears about anesthesia; this fear leads to preoperative anxiety. Slight differences are observed for some individual questions among patients of different sex, education level, and previous experience of anesthesia.

  3. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  4. Explaining infant feeding: The role of previous personal and vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, and breastfeeding outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartle, Naomi C; Harvey, Kate

    2017-11-01

    Breastfeeding confers important health benefits to both infants and their mothers, but rates are low in the United Kingdom and other developed countries despite widespread promotion. This study examined the relationships between personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding, self-efficacy, the theory of planned behaviour variables of attitudes and subjective norm, and the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks post-natally. A prospective questionnaire study of both first-time mothers (n = 77) and experienced breastfeeders (n = 72) recruited at an antenatal clinic in South East England. Participants completed a questionnaire at 32 weeks pregnant assessing personal and vicarious experience of infant feeding (breastfeeding, formula-feeding, and maternal grandmother's experience of breastfeeding), perceived control, self-efficacy, intentions, attitudes (to breastfeeding and formula-feeding), and subjective norm. Infant feeding behaviour was recorded at 6-8 weeks post-natally. Multiple linear regression modelled the influence of vicarious experience on attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy (but not perceived control) and modelled the influence of attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and past experience on intentions to breastfeed. Logistic regression modelled the likelihood of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks. Previous experience (particularly personal experience of breastfeeding) explained a significant amount of variance in attitudes, subjective norm, and self-efficacy. Intentions to breastfeed were predicted by subjective norm and attitude to formula-feeding and, in experienced mothers, self-efficacy. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks was predicted by intentions and vicarious experience of formula-feeding. Vicarious experience, particularly of formula-feeding, has been shown to influence the behaviour of first-time and experienced mothers both directly and indirectly via attitudes and subjective norm. Interventions that reduce exposure to formula

  5. Analysis of current research addressing complementary use of life-cycle assessment and risk assessment for engineered nanomaterials: have lessons been learned from previous experience with chemicals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieger, Khara D.; Laurent, Alexis; Miseljic, Mirko; Christensen, Frans; Baun, Anders; Olsen, Stig I.

    2012-01-01

    While it is generally agreed that successful strategies to address the health and environmental impacts of engineered nanomaterials (NM) should consider the well-established frameworks for conducting life-cycle assessment (LCA) and risk assessment (RA), scientific research, and specific guidance on how to practically apply these methods are still very much under development. This paper evaluates how research efforts have applied LCA and RA together for NM, particularly reflecting on previous experiences with applying these methods to chemicals. Through a literature review and a separate analysis of research focused on applying LCA and RA together for NM, it appears that current research efforts have taken into account some key “lessons learned” from previous experience with chemicals while many key challenges remain for practically applying these methods to NM. We identified two main approaches for using these methods together for NM: “LC-based RA” (traditional RA applied in a life-cycle perspective) and “RA-complemented LCA” (conventional LCA supplemented by RA in specific life-cycle steps). Hence, the latter is the only identified approach which genuinely combines LC- and RA-based methods for NM-risk research efforts to date as the former is rather a continuation of normal RA according to standard assessment procedures (e.g., REACH). Both these approaches along with recommendations for using LCA and RA together for NM are similar to those made previously for chemicals, and thus, there does not appear to be much progress made specific for NM. We have identified one issue in particular that may be specific for NM when applying LCA and RA at this time: the need to establish proper dose metrics within both methods.

  6. Use of Intracervical Foley Catheter for Induction of Labour in Cases of Previous Caesarean Section: Experience of a single tertiary centre in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Hazel; Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Gowri, Vaidayanathan; Al-Azri, Mohammed; Salahuddin, Ayesha

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Most women were 25-35 years old (76.5%) and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%). The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%). Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5%) and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%), although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%), intrapartum fever (4.4%), rupture of the membranes (2.9%) and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%). However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%). The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications.

  7. Assessing the impact of previous experience, and attitudes towards technology, on levels of engagement in a virtual reality based occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaughey, Manus Dr.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current research project was to determine if there were significant differences between patients with higher or lower levels of experience with technology in terms of their level of engagement with virtual reality (VR) in occupational therapy, their future uptake of VR technology in therapy, and their attitudes towards technology. Patients’ experience of technology was also examined in relation to demographic characteristics such as age and education level.\\r\

  8. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Use of Intracervical Foley Catheter for Induction of Labour in Cases of Previous Caesarean Section; Experience of a single tertiary centre in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Gonsalves

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate rates of success and perinatal complications of labour induction using an intracervical Foley catheter among women with a previous Caesarean delivery at a tertiary centre in Oman. Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 68 pregnant women with a history of a previous Caesarean section who were admitted for induction via Foley catheter between January 2011 and December 2013 to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Patient data were collected from electronic and delivery ward records. Results: Most women were 25–35 years old (76.5% and 20 women had had one previous vaginal delivery (29.4%. The most common indication for induction of labour was intrauterine growth restriction with oligohydramnios (27.9%. Most women delivered after 40 gestational weeks (48.5% and there were no neonatal admissions or complications. The majority experienced no complications during the induction period (85.3%, although a few had vaginal bleeding (5.9%, intrapartum fever (4.4%, rupture of the membranes (2.9% and cord prolapse shortly after insertion of the Foley catheter (1.5%. However, no cases of uterine rupture or scar dehiscence were noted. Overall, the success rate of vaginal birth after a previous Caesarean delivery was 69.1%, with the remaining patients undergoing an emergency Caesarean section (30.9%. Conclusion: The use of a Foley catheter in the induction of labour in women with a previous Caesarean delivery appears a safe option with a good success rate and few maternal and fetal complications.

  10. Prescription of oral anticoagulation for patients with atrial fibrillation and previous hospitalization in a cardiology department. Experience in actual practice in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabregat-Andrés, Ó; Cubillos-Arango, A; Chacón-Hernández, N; Montagud, V; Morell, S; Fácila, L

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation is the main reason for oral anticoagulation in our community. New oral anticoagulants (NOACs) overcome the disadvantages of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), although there are scarce data on its use in our community. The aim of our study was to assess the use of NOACs and anticoagulation control using VKA as measured by the time within the therapeutic range (TTR) in an actual clinical scenario. A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of 816 patients admitted to cardiology over a period of 3 years, with a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and anticoagulant treatment at discharge. We assessed the percentage of patients prescribed NOACs and the TTR with VKA. We compared safety and efficacy events during the 15-month follow-up among the patients prescribed NOAC, those prescribed VKA with a good TTR and those with a poor TTR. The percentage of patients prescribed NOAC was 7.6%. Serial INR measurements found that 71.3% of patients had a poor TTR. Although the groups were not comparable, a higher incidence of the combined event was observed in those treated with VKA and a poor TTR compared with those prescribed NOAC (p=.01). For patients with a previous hospitalization in cardiology in a tertiary hospital and a diagnosis of atrial fibrillation, the rate of NOAC prescription is low, and the TTR with VKA was poor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  11. PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PNLC

    PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...

  12. Explaining Research Utilization Among 4-H Faculty, Staff, and Volunteers: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Learning Goal Orientation, Training, and Previous Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Tillman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of factors that facilitate the utilization of research evidence among faculty, staff, and volunteers in the 4-H Youth Development Program is presented in this paper. Participants (N= 368; 86 4-H faculty, 153 staff, and 129 volunteers represented 35 states; structural equation modeling was utilized in the analyses. Results of the path analysis explained 56% of variance in research utilization and 28% in research utilization self-efficacy. Among the factors impacting research utilization, self-efficacy played the most important role. In turn, self-efficacy for research utilization was positively influenced by participants’ learning goal orientation, frequency of 4-H training during the last 12 months, education in research-related areas, and investigative career interests. In addition, 4-H staff who were exposed to research at higher levels reported higher research utilization self-efficacy. The findings reinforce the importance of fostering research utilization self-efficacy among 4-H faculty, staff, and volunteers. Among the suggestions presented are regular 4-H training opportunities and on-going exposure to program evaluation and program improvement experiences.

  13. Influence of previous experience on the preference, food utilization and performance of Ascia monuste orseis wild larvae (Godart) (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) for three different hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, A F K; Zucoloto, F S

    2011-01-01

    The exhaustion of food resources which occurs during the ontogenetic growth of Ascia monuste orseis (Godart) results in the dispersion of older larvae to nearby plants in order to complete their development, which might expose these animals to the nutritional variation of the hosts found. This study aimed to verify whether the food ingested in the beginning of the development influences the larvae host preference and whether the shift to a new host can affect the digestion and performance of A. monuste orseis, using two natural hosts: kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) and rocket (Eruca sativa), or kale and cabbage (B. oleracea var. capitata). Larvae were reared throughout their larval development on a single host or on two different hosts. When a host change was tested, larvae were reared for four instars on a host, and offered the other host plant in the fifth instar. Development time, percentage of pupation and emergence, pupal weight, fecundity and digestive indices were evaluated. The change in feeding preference for kale and for rocket in the fourth instar, when those were the original hosts, respectively, shows that prior experience plays a major role in food preference of immature A. monuste orseis. The shift can be beneficial for larval development, depending on the order of the hosts; in general, larvae fed on kale at the end of the development showed better performance. Our results presented strong evidence of a considerable phenotypic plasticity in A. monuste orseis for host preferences.

  14. Previous Experience a Model of Practice UNAE

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz, Ormary Barberi; Pesántez Palacios, María Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The statements presented in this article represents a preliminary version of the proposed model of pre-professional practices (PPP) of the National University of Education (UNAE) of Ecuador, an urgent institutional necessity is revealed in the descriptive analyzes conducted from technical support - administrative (reports, interviews, testimonials), pedagogical foundations of UNAE (curricular directionality, transverse axes in practice, career plan, approach and diagnostic examination as subj...

  15. Previous experiences shape adaptive mate preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fawcett, Tim W.; Bleay, Colin

    2009-01-01

    Existing models of mate choice assume that individuals have perfect knowledge of their own ability to attract a mate and can adjust their preferences accordingly. However, real animals will typically be uncertain of their own attractiveness. A potentially useful source of information on this is the

  16. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  17. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing

  18. Modified IRC bench-scale arc melter for waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the INEL Research Center (IRC) arc melter facility and its recent modifications. The arc melter can now be used to study volatilization of toxic and high vapor pressure metals and the effects of reducing and oxidizing (redox) states in the melt. The modifications include adding an auger feeder, a gas flow control and monitoring system, an offgas sampling and exhaust system, and a baghouse filter system, as well as improving the electrode drive, slag sampling system, temperature measurement and video monitoring and recording methods, and oxidation lance. In addition to the volatilization and redox studies, the arc melter facility has been used to produce a variety of glass/ceramic waste forms for property evaluation. Waste forms can be produced on a daily basis. Some of the melts performed are described to illustrate the melter's operating characteristics

  19. Thymol Hydrogenation in Bench Scale Trickle Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Lepuru, J.; Barkhuysen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 255-262 ISSN 0352-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * trickle bed reactor * gas-liquid-solid reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2005

  20. Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.B.; Peyton, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 -6 ) to that of a remediation site (10 to 1000 m). Laboratory investigations of biodegradation are usually performed at a relatively small scale, governed by convenience, cost, and expedience. However, extending the results from a laboratory-scale experimental system to the design and operation of a field-scale system introduces (1) additional mass transport mechanisms and limitations; (2) the presence of multiple phases, contants, and competing microorganisms (3) spatial geologic heterogeneities; and (4) subsurface environmental factors that may inhibit bacterial growth such as temperature, pH, nutrient, or redox conditions. Field bioremediation rates may be limited by the availability of one of the necessary constituents for biotransformation: substrate, contaminant, electron acceptor, nutrients, or microorganisms capable of degrading the target compound. The factor that limits the rate of bioremediation may not be the same in the laboratory as it is in the field, thereby leading, to development of unsuccessful remediation strategies

  1. Extended Dry Storage Signature Bench Scale Detector Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    This report is the conceptual design of a detector based on research within the Extended Dry Storage Signature Development project under the DOE-­NE MPACT campaign. This is the second year of the project; from this year’s positive results, the next step is building a prototype and testing with real materials .

  2. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous ion, Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+} is oxidized to Fe{sup 3+} - in the presence of goethite seed particles. Rhenium does not mimic that process; it is not a strong enough reducing agent to duplicate the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Fe{sup 2+} redox reactions. Laboratory tests conducted in parallel with these scaled tests identified modifications to the liquid chemistry necessary to reduce ReO{sub 4}{sup -} and capture rhenium in the solids at levels similar to those achieved by Um (2010) for inclusion of Tc into goethite. By implementing these changes, Re was incorporated into Fe-rich solids for testing at VSL. The changes also changed the phase of iron that was in the slurry product: rather than forming goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), the process produced magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Magnetite was considered by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL to probably be a better product to improve Re retention in the melter because it decomposes at a higher temperature than goethite (1538 C vs. 136 C). The feasibility tests at VSL were conducted using Re-rich magnetite. The tests did not indicate an improved retention of Re in the glass during vitrification, but they did indicate an improved melting rate (+60%), which could have significant impact on HLW processing. It is still to be shown whether the Re is a solid solution in the magnetite as {sup 99}Tc was determined to be in goethite.

  3. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  4. Effect of nutrient sources on bench scale vinegar production using response surface methodology Efeito das fontes de nutrientes sobre a produção de vinagre em escala de bancada, usando-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma M. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate on a bench scale, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient source concentrations in vinegar production, a process that is used by small scale industries in the State of Paraiba. The response surface methodology has been utilized for modeling and optimization of the fermentation process. Initially a 2³ complete factorial design was used, where the effects of initial concentrations of ethyl alcohol, phosphorous and nitrogen sources were observed. After this analysis the concentration range of the nutrient variables were extended and a two level plus a star configuration factorial experimental design was performed. The experimental values are well represented by the linear and quadratic model equations obtained. The optimum concentration of ethanol was 4% in which the yield and the productivity of the acetic acid were maximized to the values of 70% and 0.87 g L-1 h-1 respectively, for a 24 hours fermentation period. The evaluation of the quadratic models showed that the yield of vinegar is maximized from 28.1 to 51.04% and the productivity from 0.69 to 1.29 g L-1 h-1 when the concentration of the nitrogen nutrient in the medium is increased from 0.2 to 2.3 g mL-1. Thus, at the optimized nitrogen nutrient concentration both the yield and the productivity of the vinegar are increased by 1.85 times.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho, estudar em escala de bancada, os efeitos de concentrações de fontes dos nutrientes nitrogênio e fósforo sobre a produção de vinagre de álcool, um processo muito utilizado nas indústrias de pequeno porte do Estado da Paraíba. A metodologia de superfície de resposta foi usada na modelagem e otimização de processo de fermentação acética. Inicialmente, a metodologia de planejamento fatorial completo 2³ foi utilizada, onde os efeitos das concentrações iniciais de etanol, de fontes de fósforo e de nitrogênio foram observados. Após esta análise as faixas das

  5. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  6. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  7. The reaction of fish to light (laboratory experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Potter, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the study on the title subject can contribute to the realization of decreasing the damage to sea trout, caused by cooling water input of thermal power plants and turbines of hydroelectric power plants. Trout can be diverted from the cooling water inlets by means of light screens. Bench-scale experiments were executed to analyze the impact of the rate of the water flow to the reaction of young sea trout (smolts) to light. Also the effectiveness of light bulbs and fluorescence lamps are compared. The smolts show a clear aversion to a small amount of light. For a high water flow and in standing water the aversion reaction to light is considerably smaller or absent

  8. The reaction of fish to light (laboratory experiments)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Potter, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the study on the title subject can contribute to the realization of decreasing the damage to eel, caused by cooling water input of thermal power plants and turbines of hydroelectric power plants. Eel can be diverted from the cooling water inlets by means of light screens. Bench-scale experiments were executed to analyze the impact of the rate of the water flow to the reaction of eel to light. Also the effectiveness of light bulbs and fluorescence lamps are compared. Eel shows a clear aversion to a small amount of light. The diversion percentage decreases with a higher velocity of the water flow. Application of energy-efficient fluorescent lamps is considered to be a good option for diversion light systems

  9. Books average previous decade of economic misery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios

    2014-01-01

    For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.

  10. The superconducting magnet system for the WENDELSTEIN 7-X fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapper, J.

    1995-01-01

    In devices of the TOKAMAK type (JET/Culham, GB, and TFTR/Princeton Laboratory, U.S.A.), successful plasma ignition was achieved, and fusion-induced generation of electricity of some megawatts, for a period of seconds. Experiments of the next generation will tackle the problems of electricity generation sustained over longer periods, for which the STELLARATOR machines are the device of choice, as these, other than the TOKAMAKS, do not require generation of plasma ring currents between 10 and 20 MA. The magnet system in the STELLARATOR devices has to be a superconducting magnet system. At present, bench-scale LT superconductors are available made of materials on the basis of NbTi or Nb 3 Sn, which are applied according to system configuration ( induction at the conductor, current density, temperature, alternating magnetic field load). The paper explains the magnet system intended for use in the planned STELLARATOR WENDELSTEIN 7-X experiments at IPP, Garching. (orig./MM) [de

  11. Placental complications after a previous cesarean section

    OpenAIRE

    Milošević Jelena; Lilić Vekoslav; Tasić Marija; Radović-Janošević Dragana; Stefanović Milan; Antić Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complic...

  12. Sequential UASB and dual media packed-bed reactors for domestic wastewater treatment - experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Raúl; Renman, Gunno

    2016-01-01

    A wastewater treatment system composed of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor followed by a packed-bed reactor (PBR) filled with Sorbulite(®) and Polonite(®) filter material was tested in a laboratory bench-scale experiment. The system was operated for 50 weeks and achieved very efficient total phosphorus (P) removal (99%), 7-day biochemical oxygen demand removal (99%) and pathogenic bacteria reduction (99%). However, total nitrogen was only moderately reduced in the system (40%). A model focusing on simulation of organic material, solids and size of granules was then implemented and validated for the UASB reactor. Good agreement between the simulated and measured results demonstrated the capacity of the model to predict the behaviour of solids and chemical oxygen demand, which is critical for successful P removal and recovery in the PBR.

  13. Assessment of crown fire initiation and spread models in Mediterranean conifer forests by using data from field and laboratory experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez y Silva, F.; Guijarro, M.; Madrigal, J.; Jiménez, E.; Molina, J.R.; Hernando, C.; Vélez, R.; Vega, J.A.

    2017-11-01

    Aims of study: To conduct the first full-scale crown fire experiment carried out in a Mediterranean conifer stand in Spain; to use different data sources to assess crown fire initiation and spread models, and to evaluate the role of convection in crown fire initiation. Area of study: The Sierra Morena mountains (Coordinates ETRS89 30N: X: 284793-285038; Y: 4218650-4218766), southern Spain, and the outdoor facilities of the Lourizán Forest Research Centre, northwestern Spain. Material and methods: The full-scale crown fire experiment was conducted in a young Pinus pinea stand. Field data were compared with data predicted using the most used crown fire spread models. A small-scale experiment was developed with Pinus pinaster trees to evaluate the role of convection in crown fire initiation. Mass loss calorimeter tests were conducted with P. pinea needles to estimate residence time of the flame, which was used to validate the crown fire spread model. Main results: The commonly used crown fire models underestimated the crown fire spread rate observed in the full-scale experiment, but the proposed new integrated approach yielded better fits. Without wind-forced convection, tree crowns did not ignite until flames from an intense surface fire contacted tree foliage. Bench-scale tests based on radiation heat flux therefore offer a limited insight to full-scale phenomena. Research highlights: Existing crown fire behaviour models may underestimate the rate of spread of crown fires in many Mediterranean ecosystems. New bench-scale methods based on flame buoyancy and more crown field experiments allowing detailed measurements of fire behaviour are needed.

  14. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  15. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism experiencing mental health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Heathcote

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available No research has previously been done regarding the phenomenon of adolescents who have previously been involved in Satanism and who experience obstacles in their strive for mental health. Adolescents previously involved in Satanism present behavioral problems like aggressive outbursts, depression, “ psychosis” or suicide attempts, that could lead to suicide. In the phenomenonanalysis semi-structured, phenomenological interviews were performed with the respondents and their parents. The respondents were requested to write a naïve sketch about their life. After completion of the data-control, guidelines for nursing staff were set.

  16. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  17. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background and purpose - Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods - This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results - More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation - Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment.

  18. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  19. Process cells dismantling of EUREX pant: previous activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gili, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the '98-'99 period some process cells of the EUREX pant will be dismantled, in order to place there the liquid wastes conditioning plant 'CORA'. This report resumes the previous activities (plant rinsing campaigns and inactive Cell 014 dismantling), run in the past three years and the drawn experience [it

  20. Uterine rupture without previous caesarean delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Dorthe L. A.; H. Mortensen, Laust; Krebs, Lone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence and patient characteristics of women with uterine rupture during singleton births at term without a previous caesarean delivery. STUDY DESIGN: Population based cohort study. Women with term singleton birth, no record of previous caesarean delivery and planned...... vaginal delivery (n=611,803) were identified in the Danish Medical Birth Registry (1997-2008). Medical records from women recorded with uterine rupture during labour were reviewed to ascertain events of complete uterine rupture. Relative Risk (RR) and adjusted Relative Risk Ratio (aRR) of complete uterine...... rupture with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were ascertained according to characteristics of the women and of the delivery. RESULTS: We identified 20 cases with complete uterine rupture. The incidence of complete uterine rupture among women without previous caesarean delivery was about 3...

  1. Heavy metal contaminant remediation study of western Xiamen Bay sediment, China: laboratory bench scale testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; Feng, Huan; Li, Xiaoxia; Ye, Xin; Jing, Youhai; Ouyang, Tong; Yu, Xingtian; Liang, Rongyuan; Chen, Weiqi

    2009-12-15

    A surface sediment sample (metal removal, whereas agitation, aeration and rotation of the samples in chemical complexation solutions yield much better metal removal efficiency (up to 90%). A low pH condition (e.g., pHliquid ratio (e.g., S:L=1:50) could increase metal removal efficiency. The experimental results suggest that 0.20 M (NH4)2C2O4+0.025 M EDTA combination with solid:liquid ratio=1:50 and 0.50 M ammonium acetate (NH4Ac)+0.025 M EDTA combination with solid:liquid ratio=1:50 are the most effective methods for metal removal from the contaminated sediments. This research provides additional useful information for sediment metal remediation technology development.

  2. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Mark L; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    A range of wastewaters and substrates were examined using mini microbial electrolysis cells (mini MECs) to see if they could be used to predict the performance of larger-scale cube MECs. COD removals and coulombic efficiencies corresponded well between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic wastewaters (DW). Hydrogen was recovered from all samples in cube MECs, but gas composition and volume varied significantly between samples. Evidence for direct conversion of substrate to methane was observed with two of the industrial wastewater samples (IW-1 and IW-3). Overall, mini MECs provided organic treatment data that corresponded well with larger scale reactor results, and therefore it was concluded that they can be a useful platform for screening wastewater sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ullery, Mark L.

    2014-10-01

    A range of wastewaters and substrates were examined using mini microbial electrolysis cells (mini MECs) to see if they could be used to predict the performance of larger-scale cube MECs. COD removals and coulombic efficiencies corresponded well between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic wastewaters (DW). Hydrogen was recovered from all samples in cube MECs, but gas composition and volume varied significantly between samples. Evidence for direct conversion of substrate to methane was observed with two of the industrial wastewater samples (IW-1 and IW-3). Overall, mini MECs provided organic treatment data that corresponded well with larger scale reactor results, and therefore it was concluded that they can be a useful platform for screening wastewater sources. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Development of a bench-scale fluidized bed combustor (FBC) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high technological level of equipment for combustion of fuels, as well as the necessity for rational and efficient use of non-renewable energy resources, has resulted demanding requirements that must be fulfilled by equipment for energy production, via combustion. These requirements form the characteristics of ...

  5. Bacterial communities associated with biofouling materials used in bench-scale hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, Dina; Kansour, Mayada; Radwan, Samir

    2015-03-01

    Biofouling material samples from the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, used as inocula in batch cultures, brought about crude oil and pure-hydrocarbon removal in a mineral medium. Without any added nitrogen fertilizers, the hydrocarbon-removal values were between about 10 and 50 %. Fertilization with NaNO3 alone or together with a mixture of the vitamins thiamine, pyridoxine, vitamin B12, biotin, riboflavin, and folic acid increased the hydrocarbon-removal values, to reach 90 %. Biofouling material samples harbored total bacteria in the magnitude of 10(7) cells g(-1), about 25 % of which were hydrocarbonoclastic. These numbers were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin amendment. The culture-independent analysis of the total bacterioflora revealed the predominance of the gammaproteobacterial genera Marinobacter, Acinetobacter, and Alcanivorax, the Flavobacteriia, Flavobacterium, Gaetbulibacter, and Owenweeksia, and the Alphaproteobacteria Tistrella, Zavarzinia, and others. Most of those bacteria are hydrocarbonoclastic. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria revealed that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Dietzia maris, and Gordonia bronchialis predominated in the fouling materials. In addition, each material had several more-specific hydrocarbonoclastic species, whose frequencies were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin fertilization. The same samples of fouling materials were used in four successive crude-oil-removal cycles without any dramatic loss of their hydrocarbon-removal potential nor of their associated hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. In the fifth cycle, the oil-removal value was reduced by about 50 % in only one of the studied samples. This highlights how firmly biofouling materials were immobilizing the hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

  6. Full-Scale and Bench-Scale Studies on the Removal of Strontium from Water (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strontium (Sr) is a natural and commonly occurring alkaline earth metal which has an oxidation state of +2 under normal environmental conditions. Stable strontium is suspended in water and is dissolved after water runs through rocks and soil. It behaves very similar to calcium. G...

  7. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the grouts for measurements. All of the cured grouts were measured for bleed and set. All of the cured grouts satisfied the bleed and set requirements, where no bleed water was observed on any of the grout samples after one day and all had set within 3 days of curing. This data indicates, for a well mixed product, bleed and set requirement are satisfied for the range of acidic feeds tested in this task. The yield stress measurements provide both an indication on the mixability of the salt solution with dry materials and an indication of how quickly the grout is starting to form structure. The inability to properly mix these two streams into a well mixed grout product will lead to a non-homogeneous mixture that will impact product quality. Product quality issues could be unmixed regions of dry material and hot spots having high concentrations of americium 241. Mixes that were more difficult to incorporate typically resulted in grouts with higher yield stresses. The mixability from these tests will provide Waste Solidification Building (WSB) an indication of which grouts will be more challenging to mix. The first yield stress measurements were statistically compared to a list of variables, specifically the batched chemicals used to make the acidic solutions. The first yield stress was also compared to the physical properties of the acidic solutions, physical and pH properties of the neutralized/pH adjusted solutions, and chemical and physical properties of the grout.

  8. Copper recovery in a bench-scale carrier facilitated tubular supported liquid membrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaka S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of copper ions in a tubular supported liquid membrane using LIX 984NC as a mobile carrier was studied, evaluating the effect of the feed characteristics (flowrate, density, viscosity on the feedside laminar layer of the membrane. A vertical countercurrent, double pipe perspex benchscale reactor consisting of a single hydrophobic PVDF tubular membrane mounted inside was used in all test work. The membrane was impregnated with LIX 984NC and became the support for this organic transport medium. Dilute Copper solution passed through the centre pipe and sulphuric acid as strippant passed through the shell side. Copper was successfully transported from the feedside to the stripside and from the data obtained, a relationship between Schmidt, Reynolds and Sherwood number was achieved of.

  9. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BENCH-SCALE COMPOST TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil bound contamination presents a significant set of problems to those attempting to remediate the soil. Bioremediation has received considerable attention, as a potential answer to the obvious remediation needs. Composting technology represents a promising means to use indigen...

  10. Evaluation of effluents from bench-scale treatment combinations for landfill leachate in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, Mkc

    2014-01-01

    The removal of pollutants in landfill leachate was investigated using constructed wetlands, a trickling filter, alum flocculation and coagulation, and a sequencing batch reactor in various combinations. Thirteen combined operations were investigated involving three out of the four unit treatment methods in series. The study was conducted because unit operations, though achieved reductions in pollutants concentrations had effluent values above the national regulatory guideline values. The suspended solids of effluents were permissible in most treatment processes, while reductions in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia (NH3) of leachates ranged from 80% to 97%; 86% to 97% and 92% to 98% respectively. However, there were significant increases in nitrate (85%) and dissolved oxygen of treatment (218%). In addition, the characteristics of the recommended treatment sequence, involving constructed wetlands, alum and trickling filter produced effluents with reductions in colour (97%), alkalinity (97%), BOD (97%), COD (97%) and NH3 (98%), and in metals, except nickel (29% reduction from the influent values). The recommended treatment combination is suitable for effective leachate management at the landfill. The cost of constructing and operating the recommended treatment combination at the facility, for 5 years, would be NGN6,009,750.00 ($38,036.39). The performance should be monitored on site prior to full adoption if effluent characteristics remain consistently low over dry and wet seasons.

  11. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ravi [Innosepra Limited Liability Company, Middlesex, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  12. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ''blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste

  13. BENCH-SCALE STUDIES TO IDENTIFY PROCESS PARAMETERS CONTROLLING REBURNING WITH PULVERIZED COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report addresses the evaluation of a technology which is a combination of two technologies used to control the atmospheric emission of NOx by stationary sources: (1) combustion modification (controls flame temperature and maximizes fuel-rich residence time to minimize NOx for...

  14. Bench-scale composting of source-separated human faeces for sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwagaba, C; Nalubega, M; Vinnerås, B; Sundberg, C; Jönsson, H

    2009-02-01

    In urine-diverting toilets, urine and faeces are collected separately so that nutrient content can be recycled unmixed. Faeces should be sanitized before use in agriculture fields due to the presence of possible enteric pathogens. Composting of human faeces with food waste was evaluated as a possible method for this treatment. Temperatures were monitored in three 78-L wooden compost reactors fed with faeces-to-food waste substrates (F:FW) in wet weight ratios of 1:0, 3:1 and 1:1, which were observed for approximately 20 days. To achieve temperatures higher than 15 degrees C above ambient, insulation was required for the reactors. Use of 25-mm thick styrofoam insulation around the entire exterior of the compost reactors and turning of the compost twice a week resulted in sanitizing temperatures (>or=50 degrees C) to be maintained for 8 days in the F:FW=1:1 compost and for 4 days in the F:FW=3:1 compost. In these composts, a reduction of >3 log(10) for E. coli and >4 log(10) for Enterococcus spp. was achieved. The F:FW=1:0 compost, which did not maintain >or=50 degrees C for a sufficiently long period, was not sanitized, as the counts of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. increased between days 11 and 15. This research provides useful information on the design and operation of family-size compost units for the treatment of source-separated faeces and starchy food residues, most likely available amongst the less affluent rural/urban society in Uganda.

  15. Recommendations for Filler Material Composition and Delivery Method for Bench-Scale Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report supplements Joint Workplan on Filler Investigations for DPCs (SNL 2017) providing new and some corrected information for use in planning Phase 1 laboratory testing of slurry cements as possible DPC fillers. The scope description is to "Describe a complete laboratory testing program for filler composition, delivery, emplacement in surrogate canisters, and post-test examination. To the extent possible specify filler material and equipment sources." This report includes results from an independent expert review (Dr. Arun Wagh, retired from Argonne National Laboratory and contracted by Sandia) that helped to narrow the range of cement types for consideration, and to provide further guidance on mix variations to optimize injectability, durability, and other aspects of filler performance.

  16. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  17. Removal of enteroviruses from sewage by bench-scale rotary-tube trickling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N A; Chang, S L

    1975-08-01

    The efficacy of a rotary-tube type of trickling filter for removing coxsackievirus A9, poliovirus 1, and echovirus 12 suspended in raw settled sewage was investigated. At filtration rates equivalent to about 10 MGD (million gallons per day)/acre (ca. 3,785 m3/day per acre), the filters removed 95% of the poliovirus, 83% of echovirus 12, and 94% of coxsackievirus A9. Coliform, fecal streptococci, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand removals were remarkably similar, averaging 94, 92, 93, and 95%, respectively. At filtration rates equivalent to about 23 MGD/acre, 59% of the poliovirus, 63% of the echovirus 23, and 81% of the coxsackievirus A9 were removed. Coliform, fecal streptococci, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand removals at this filtration rate were 68, 75, 72, and 56%, respectively. Viruses were assumed to be adsorbed to the biological slime growing in the filters, but attempts to disassociate the viruses from the slime were unsuccessful, indicating that the slime-virus complex is very stable or that the viruses were somehow inactivated. The data indicate that coliform and fecal streptococci reductions in this type sewage treatment process can be used as an index of virus reduction. Disinfection, however, must be used to ensure a virus-free final effluent.

  18. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, M. K.; Srivastava, R. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using...

  19. INTRODUCTION Previous reports have documented a high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pregnancy if they were married, educated, had dental insurance, previously used dental services when not pregnant, or had knowledge about the possible connection between oral health and pregnancy outcome8. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors determining good oral hygiene among pregnant women ...

  20. Empowerment perceptions of educational managers from previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The perceptions of educational manag ers from previously disadvantaged primary and high schools in the Nelson Mandela Metropole regarding the issue of empowerment are outlined and the perceptions of educational managers in terms of various aspects of empowerment at different levels reflected. A literature study ...

  1. Management of choledocholithiasis after previous gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwer, S; Egan, R; Cross, N; Guru Naidu, S; Somasekar, K

    2017-09-01

    Common bile duct stones in patients with a previous gastrectomy can be a technical challenge because of the altered anatomy. This paper presents the successful management of two such patients using non-traditional techniques as conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was not possible.

  2. Heat and Mass Transfer in a Reforming Catalyst Bed: Quantitative Evaluation of the Controlling Factor by Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Yutaka; Fukusako, Shoichiro; Yamada, Masahiko

    Heat and mass transfer characteristics in a reforming catalyst bed have been experimentally investigated. Experiments were carried out with a single bench-scaled reforming tube which was filled with reforming catalyst. The tube wall was uniformly heated, and mixtures of steam and methane or propane were reformed through the catalyst bed. Most part of the reaction was completed in the upper part of the test tube. The effects of space velocity, which is a ratio of volumetric flow rate of process gas to the catalyst volume, steam carbon molar ratio, wall temperature, bed temperature, and catalyst particle diameter on the transport phenomena with chemical reaction, were determined. A correlation to heat transfer coefficient was determined by Nu, Rep, Pr, dp/d, and Da. The prediction of the overall methane conversion rate was also presented.

  3. Previously unknown organomagnesium compounds in astrochemical context

    OpenAIRE

    Ruf, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    We describe the detection of dihydroxymagnesium carboxylates (CHOMg) in astrochemical context. CHOMg was detected in meteorites via ultrahigh-resolving chemical analytics and represents a novel, previously unreported chemical class. Thus, chemical stability was probed via quantum chemical computations, in combination with experimental fragmentation techniques. Results propose the putative formation of green-chemical OH-Grignard-type molecules and triggered fundamental questions within chemica...

  4. [Placental complications after a previous cesarean section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosević, Jelena; Lilić, Vekoslav; Tasić, Marija; Radović-Janosević, Dragana; Stefanović, Milan; Antić, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of cesarean section has been rising in the past 50 years. With the increased number of cesarean sections, the number of pregnancies with the previous cesarean section rises as well. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the previous cesarean section on the development of placental complications: placenta previa, placental abruption and placenta accreta, as well as to determine the influence of the number of previous cesarean sections on the complication development. The research was conducted at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nis covering 10-year-period (from 1995 to 2005) with 32358 deliveries, 1280 deliveries after a previous cesarean section, 131 cases of placenta previa and 118 cases of placental abruption. The experimental groups was presented by the cases of placenta previa or placental abruption with prior cesarean section in obstetrics history, opposite to the control group having the same conditions but without a cesarean section in medical history. The incidence of placenta previa in the control group was 0.33%, opposite to the 1.86% incidence after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections and as high as 14.28% after three cesarean sections in obstetric history. Placental abruption was recorded as placental complication in 0.33% pregnancies in the control group, while its incidence was 1.02% after one cesarean section (pcesarean sections. The difference in the incidence of intrapartal hysterectomy between the group with prior cesarean section (0.86%) and without it (0.006%) shows a high statistical significance (pcesarean section is an important risk factor for the development of placental complications.

  5. Previously infertile couples and the newborn intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, R F; Pruitt, R L; Greenfeld, D

    1989-05-01

    Having a newborn child admitted to a newborn intensive care unit can be a traumatic experience for parents; however, parents who previously have been infertile face unique problems in coping with this situation. The authors discuss the difficulties parents must overcome in resolving their crises and in developing a good relationship with their child, or, in some cases, coming to terms with the child's death or ongoing disability. In addition, the authors offer suggestions for effective social work intervention.

  6. Induced vaginal birth after previous caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akylbek Tussupkaliyev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The rate of operative birth by Caesarean section is constantly rising. In Kazakhstan, it reaches 27 per cent. Research data confirm that the percentage of successful vaginal births after previous Caesarean section is 50–70 per cent. How safe the induction of vaginal birth after Caesarean (VBAC remains unclear. Methodology The studied techniques of labour induction were amniotomy of the foetal bladder with the vulsellum ramus, intravaginal administration of E1 prostaglandin (Misoprostol, and intravenous infusion of Oxytocin-Richter. The assessment of rediness of parturient canals was conducted by Bishop’s score; the labour course was assessed by a partogram. The effectiveness of labour induction techniques was assessed by the number of administered doses, the time of onset of regular labour, the course of labour and the postpartum period and the presence of complications, and the course of the early neonatal period, which implied the assessment of the child’s condition, described in the newborn development record. The foetus was assessed by medical ultrasound and antenatal and intranatal cardiotocography (CTG. Obtained results were analysed with SAS statistical processing software. Results The overall percentage of successful births with intravaginal administration of Misoprostol was 93 per cent (83 of cases. This percentage was higher than in the amniotomy group (relative risk (RR 11.7 and was similar to the oxytocin group (RR 0.83. Amniotomy was effective in 54 per cent (39 of cases, when it induced regular labour. Intravenous oxytocin infusion was effective in 94 per cent (89 of cases. This percentage was higher than that with amniotomy (RR 12.5. Conclusions The success of vaginal delivery after previous Caesarean section can be achieved in almost 70 per cent of cases. At that, labour induction does not decrease this indicator and remains within population boundaries.

  7. Transverse dispersion: From laboratory experiments to field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grathwohl, Peter; Rügner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    Transverse dispersion is relevant for dilution of contaminant plumes in groundwater and in many cases controls the length of steady state plumes during natural attenuation. Also dissolution kinetics of NAPLs in porous media and mass transfer of vapor phase compounds across the capillary fringe (e.g. supply of oxygen) is limited by transverse dispersion. In bench scale laboratory experiments typically very small dispersion coefficients are observed. Transverse dispersivities determined in DNAPL pool dissolution experiments in coarse sands are less than 0.1 mm which agrees with results from lab experiments on dilution of tracers and transfer of oxygen across the capillary fringe. Such low dispersivities lead to long-term persistence of DNAPL pools of many decades to centuries which is confirmed e.g. for chlorinated solvents and coal tars by observations at contaminated sites. However, larger scale investigations, e.g. determination of the length of steady state plumes or reduction of mass fluxes of biodegradable compounds suggest that transverse dispersivities at field scale are up to 3 orders of magnitude higher (1 -10 cm). Reasons for this discrepancy are still unclear, but may be partly explained by processes enhancing transverse mixing such as flow focusing due to aquifer geometries or high permeability inclusions and helical groundwater flow induced by herringbone structures in sediments.

  8. Stimuli previously associated with reinforcement mitigate resurgence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Andrew R; Browning, Kaitlyn O; Shahan, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    Resurgence refers to the recurrence of an extinguished target behavior following subsequent suspension of alternative reinforcement. Delivery of reinforcers during extinction of alternative behavior has been shown to mitigate resurgence. The present experiment aimed to determine whether delivering stimuli associated with reinforcers during resurgence testing similarly mitigates resurgence. Three groups of rats pressed target levers for food according to variable-interval 15-s schedules during Phase 1. In Phase 2, lever pressing was extinguished, and an alternative nose-poke response produced alternative reinforcement according to a variable-interval 15-s schedule. Food reinforcement was always associated with illumination of the food aperture and an audible click from the pellet dispenser during Phases 1 and 2. Phase 3 treatments differed between groups. For one group, nose poking continued to produce food and food-correlated stimuli. Both of these consequences were suspended for a second group. Finally, nose poking produced food-correlated stimuli but not food for a third group. Target-lever pressing resurged in the group that received no consequences and in the group that received only food-correlated stimuli for nose poking. Resurgence, however, was smaller for the group that received food-correlated stimuli than for the group that received no consequences for nose poking. Target-lever pressing did not increase between phases in the group that continued to receive food and associated stimuli. Thus, delivery of stimuli associated with food reinforcement after suspension of food reduced but did not eliminate resurgence of extinguished lever pressing. These findings contribute to potential methodologies for preventing relapse of extinguished problem behavior in clinical settings. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Response to health insurance by previously uninsured rural children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilford, J M; Robbins, J M; Shema, S J; Farmer, F L

    1999-08-01

    To examine the healthcare utilization and costs of previously uninsured rural children. Four years of claims data from a school-based health insurance program located in the Mississippi Delta. All children who were not Medicaid-eligible or were uninsured, were eligible for limited benefits under the program. The 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) was used to compare utilization of services. The study represents a natural experiment in the provision of insurance benefits to a previously uninsured population. Premiums for the claims cost were set with little or no information on expected use of services. Claims from the insurer were used to form a panel data set. Mixed model logistic and linear regressions were estimated to determine the response to insurance for several categories of health services. The use of services increased over time and approached the level of utilization in the NMES. Conditional medical expenditures also increased over time. Actuarial estimates of claims cost greatly exceeded actual claims cost. The provision of a limited medical, dental, and optical benefit package cost approximately $20-$24 per member per month in claims paid. An important uncertainty in providing health insurance to previously uninsured populations is whether a pent-up demand exists for health services. Evidence of a pent-up demand for medical services was not supported in this study of rural school-age children. States considering partnerships with private insurers to implement the State Children's Health Insurance Program could lower premium costs by assembling basic data on previously uninsured children.

  10. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Amer; Stempel, Michelle; Cody, Hiram S; Port, Elisa R

    2008-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in breast cancer, but many clinical scenarios questioning the validity of SLN biopsy remain. Here we describe our experience with reoperative-SLN (re-SLN) biopsy after previous mastectomy. Review of the SLN database from September 1996 to December 2007 yielded 20 procedures done in the setting of previous mastectomy. SLN biopsy was performed using radioisotope with or without blue dye injection superior to the mastectomy incision, in the skin flap in all patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%), re-SLN biopsy was performed for local or regional recurrence after mastectomy. Re-SLN biopsy was successful in 13 of 20 patients (65%) after previous mastectomy. Of the 13 patients, 2 had positive re-SLN, and completion axillary dissection was performed, with 1 having additional positive nodes. In the 11 patients with negative re-SLN, 2 patients underwent completion axillary dissection demonstrating additional negative nodes. One patient with a negative re-SLN experienced chest wall recurrence combined with axillary recurrence 11 months after re-SLN biopsy. All others remained free of local or axillary recurrence. Re-SLN biopsy was unsuccessful in 7 of 20 patients (35%). In three of seven patients, axillary dissection was performed, yielding positive nodes in two of the three. The remaining four of seven patients all had previous modified radical mastectomy, so underwent no additional axillary surgery. In this small series, re-SLN was successful after previous mastectomy, and this procedure may play some role when axillary staging is warranted after mastectomy.

  11. Rates of induced abortion in Denmark according to age, previous births and previous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Louise H. Hansen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whereas the effects of various socio-demographic determinants on a woman's risk of having an abortion are relatively well-documented, less attention has been given to the effect of previous abortions and births. Objective: To study the effect of previous abortions and births on Danish women's risk of an abortion, in addition to a number of demographic and personal characteristics. Data and methods: From the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset we obtained data on the number of live births and induced abortions by year (1981-2001, age (16-39, county of residence and marital status. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the influence of the explanatory variables on the probability of having an abortion in a relevant year. Main findings and conclusion: A woman's risk of having an abortion increases with the number of previous births and previous abortions. Some interactions were was found in the way a woman's risk of abortion varies with calendar year, age and parity. The risk of an abortion for women with no children decreases while the risk of an abortion for women with children increases over time. Furthermore, the risk of an abortion decreases with age, but relatively more so for women with children compared to childless women. Trends for teenagers are discussed in a separate section.

  12. Congruency sequence effects are driven by previous-trial congruency, not previous-trial response conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Weissman, Daniel H.; Carp, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Congruency effects in distracter interference tasks are often smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. However, the sources of such congruency sequence effects (CSEs) are controversial. The conflict monitoring model of cognitive control links CSEs to the detection and resolution of response conflict. In contrast, competing theories attribute CSEs to attentional or affective processes that vary with previous-trial congruency (incongruent vs. congruent). The present study s...

  13. Day-and-Night Closed-Loop Glucose Control in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Under Free-Living Conditions: Results of a Single-Arm 1-Month Experience Compared With a Previously Reported Feasibility Study of Evening and Night at Home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renard, Eric; Farret, Anne; Kropff, Jort; Bruttomesso, Daniela; Messori, Mirko; Place, Jerome; Visentin, Roberto; Calore, Roberta; Toffanin, Chiara; Di Palma, Federico; Lanzola, Giordano; Magni, Paolo; Boscari, Federico; Galasso, Silvia; Avogaro, Angelo; Keith-Hynes, Patrick; Kovatchev, Boris; del Favero, Simone; Cobelli, Claudio; Magni, Lalo; DeVries, J. Hans

    2016-01-01

    After testing of a wearable artificial pancreas (AP) during evening and night (E/N-AP) under free-living conditions in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), we investigated AP during day and night (D/N-AP) for 1 month. Twenty adult patients with T1D who completed a previous randomized crossover study

  14. Deepwater Gulf of Mexico more profitable than previously thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, M.J.K.; Hyde, S.T.

    1997-01-01

    Economic evaluations and recent experience show that the deepwater Gulf of Mexico (GOM) is much more profitable than previously thought. Four factors contributing to the changed viewpoint are: First, deepwater reservoirs have proved to have excellent productive capacity, distribution, and continuity when compared to correlative-age shelf deltaic sands. Second, improved technologies and lower perceived risks have lowered the cost of floating production systems (FPSs). Third, projects now get on-line quicker. Fourth, a collection of other important factors are: Reduced geologic risk and associated high success rates for deepwater GOM wells due primarily to improved seismic imaging and processing tools (3D, AVO, etc.); absence of any political risk in the deepwater GOM (common overseas, and very significant in some international areas); and positive impact of deepwater federal royalty relief. This article uses hypothetical reserve distributions and price forecasts to illustrate indicative economics of deepwater prospects. Economics of Shell Oil Co.'s three deepwater projects are also discussed

  15. Science Support for Space-Based Droplet Combustion: Drop Tower Experiments and Detailed Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchese, Anthony J.; Dryer, Frederick L.

    1997-01-01

    This program supports the engineering design, data analysis, and data interpretation requirements for the study of initially single component, spherically symmetric, isolated droplet combustion studies. Experimental emphasis is on the study of simple alcohols (methanol, ethanol) and alkanes (n-heptane, n-decane) as fuels with time dependent measurements of drop size, flame-stand-off, liquid-phase composition, and finally, extinction. Experiments have included bench-scale studies at Princeton, studies in the 2.2 and 5.18 drop towers at NASA-LeRC, and both the Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion (FSDC-1, FSDC-2) and the free Droplet Combustion Experiment (DCE) studies aboard the shuttle. Test matrix and data interpretation are performed through spherically-symmetric, time-dependent numerical computations which embody detailed sub-models for physical and chemical processes. The computed burning rate, flame stand-off, and extinction diameter are compared with the respective measurements for each individual experiment. In particular, the data from FSDC-1 and subsequent space-based experiments provide the opportunity to compare all three types of data simultaneously with the computed parameters. Recent numerical efforts are extending the computational tools to consider time dependent, axisymmetric 2-dimensional reactive flow situations.

  16. Gasification experience with biomass and wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, H.P.; Adlhoch, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Cologne (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The HTW process is particularly favourable for the gasification of low-rank feedstocks. During various tests - performed in b-bench- scale, pilot-scale and industrial scale units - consequences with regard to feedstock preparation. Gasification behaviour, corrosion, emission and residual matter were carefully studied for a large number of different feedstocks. Information is now available for optimal utilisation of several types of biomass and waste materials in relation to plant operation, emission and residue utilization. Different types of biomass were tested in bench-scale conditions in an atmospheric HTW process development unit. Industrial-scale experience concerning biomass is available from the Gasification plant at Oulu, Finland, which operated from 1988 to 1991, producing ammonia synthesis gas from dried Finnish peat. During several test campaigns performed at the HTW demonstration plant sewage sludge, loaded coke and used plastics were co-gasified at feeding rates of up to 5 t/h. Operability, conversion efficiency, syngas contaminants, solid residue characteristics and emissions were monitored very carefully. Co-gasification in a dried lignite mixture allows synthesis gas for methanol production to be obtained also from waste materials. Thus, waste is converted into a useful chemical feedstock. For both sewage sludge and loaded coke, conversion efficiency and syngas yield were sufficient. Within the scope of a solid residue characterization various contaminants, including chlorine, sulphur, heavy metals and other trace elements or organic compounds, their formation and/or release were detected. Emissions were well below the limits. However, an increase in the benzene and naphthalene concentrations in the crude gas occurred. Thus, a commercial application requires additional gas treatment. In the next few years, feedstock recycling of mixed plastics household waste from Duales System Deutschland GmbH will call for a plant capacity of 350 000 to 400 000

  17. Real-World Experiences with the Combination Treatment of Ledipasvir plus Sofosbuvir for 12 Weeks in HCV Genotype 1-Infected Japanese Patients: Achievement of a Sustained Virological Response in Previous Users of Peginterferon plus Ribavirin with HCV NS3/4A Inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Tatsuo; Yasui, Shin; Nakamura, Masato; Suzuki, Eiichiro; Arai, Makoto; Ooka, Yoshihiko; Ogasawara, Sadahisa; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Saito, Tomoko; Haga, Yuki; Takahashi, Koji; Sasaki, Reina; Wu, Shuang; Nakamoto, Shingo; Tawada, Akinobu; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Imazeki, Fumio; Kato, Naoya; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2017-04-25

    The aim of this study was to characterize the treatment response and serious adverse events of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir therapies in Japanese patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (GT1). This retrospective study analyzed 240 Japanese HCV GT1 patients treated for 12 weeks with 90 mg of ledipasvir plus 400 mg of sofosbuvir daily. Sustained virological response at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) was achieved in 236 of 240 (98.3%) patients. Among treatment-naïve patients, SVR12 was achieved in 136 of 138 (98.6%) patients, and among treatment-experienced patients, SVR12 was achieved in 100 of 102 (98.0%) patients. In patients previously treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin with various HCV NS3/4A inhibitors, 100% SVR rates (25/25) were achieved. Two relapsers had HCV NS5A resistance-associated variants (RAVs), but no HCV NS5B-S282 was observed after they relapsed. We experienced two patients with cardiac events during treatment. In conclusion, combination of ledipasvir plus sofosbuvir for 12 weeks is a potential therapy for HCV GT1 patients. Caution is needed for HCV NS5A RAVs, which were selected by HCV NS5A inhibitors and cardiac adverse events.

  18. Re-Encountering Individuals Who Previously Engaged in Joint Gaze Modulates Subsequent Gaze Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmaso, Mario; Edwards, S. Gareth; Bayliss, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which previous experience of joint gaze with people (i.e., looking toward the same object) modulates later gaze cueing of attention elicited by those individuals. Participants in Experiments 1 and 2a/b first completed a saccade/antisaccade task while a to-be-ignored face either looked at, or away from, the participants'…

  19. Uranium Release from Acidic Weathered Hanford Sediments: Single-Pass Flow-Through and Column Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, South Korea; Wang, Zheming [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Reinoso-Maset, Estela [Sierra; Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Mueller, Karl T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Perdrial, Nicolas [Department; Department; O’Day, Peggy A. [Sierra; Chorover, Jon [Department

    2017-09-21

    The reaction of acidic radioactive waste with sediments can induce mineral transformation reactions that, in turn, control contaminant fate. Here, sediment weathering by synthetic uranium-containing acid solutions was investigated using bench-scale experiments to simulate waste disposal conditions at Hanford’s cribs, USA. During acid weathering, the presence of phosphate exerted a strong influence over uranium mineralogy and a rapidly precipitated, crystalline uranium phosphate phase (meta-ankoleite [K(UO2)(PO4)·3H2O]) was identified using spectroscopic and diffraction-based techniques. In phosphate-free system, uranium oxyhydroxide minerals such as K-compreignacite [K2(UO2)6O4(OH)6·7H2O] were formed. Single-pass flow-through (SPFT) and column leaching experiments using synthetic Hanford pore water showed that uranium precipitated as meta-ankoleite during acid weathering was strongly retained in the sediments, with an average release rate of 2.67E-12 mol g-1 s-1. In the absence of phosphate, uranium release was controlled by dissolution of uranium oxyhydroxide (compreignacite-type) mineral with a release rate of 1.05-2.42E-10 mol g-1 s-1. The uranium mineralogy and release rates determined for both systems in this study support the development of accurate U-release models for prediction of contaminant transport. These results suggest that phosphate minerals may be a good candidate for uranium remediation approaches at contaminated sites.

  20. 22 CFR 40.91 - Certain aliens previously removed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens previously removed. 40.91... IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.91 Certain aliens previously removed. (a) 5-year bar. An alien who has been found inadmissible, whether as a result...

  1. Determining root correspondence between previously and newly detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, N Reginald

    2014-06-17

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  2. Indoor Secondary Pollutants from Household Product Emissions inthe Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Lunden, Melissa M.; Singer, Brett C.; Coleman,Beverly K.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-10-01

    Ozone-driven chemistry is a major source of indoor secondary pollutants of health concern. This study investigates secondary air pollutants formed from reactions between constituents of household products and ozone. Gas-phase product emissions were introduced along with ozone at constant rates into a 198-L Teflon-lined reaction chamber. Gas-phase concentrations of reactive terpenoids and oxidation products were measured. Formaldehyde was a predominant oxidation byproduct for the three studied products, with yields under most conditions of 20-30% with respect to ozone consumed. Acetaldehyde, acetone, glycolaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid were each also detected for two or three of the products. Immediately upon mixing of reactants, a scanning mobility particle sizer detected particle nucleation events that were followed by a significant degree of ultrafine particle growth. The production of secondary gaseous pollutants and particles depended primarily on the ozone level and was influenced by other parameters such as the air-exchange rate. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the range 0.04-200 x 10{sup 5} molecules cm{sup -3} were measured. OH concentrations were observed to vary strongly with residual ozone level in the chamber, which was in the range 1-25 ppb, as is consistent with expectations from a simplified kinetic model. In a separate test, we exposed the dry residue of two products to ozone in the chamber and observed the formation of gas-phase and particle-phase secondary oxidation products.

  3. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  4. An optimisation approach for culturing shear-sensitive dinoflagellate microalgae in bench-scale bubble column photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, L; García-Camacho, F; Sánchez-Mirón, A; Contreras-Gómez, A; Molina-Grima, E

    2015-12-01

    The dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum was grown in bubble column photobioreactors and a genetic algorithm-based stochastic search strategy used to find optimal values for the culture parameters gas flow rate, culture height, and nozzle sparger diameter. Cell production, concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane fluidity and photosynthetic efficiency were studied throughout the culture period. Gas-flow rates below 0.26Lmin(-1), culture heights over 1.25m and a nozzle diameter of 1.5mm were found to provide the optimal conditions for cell growth, with an increase of 60% in cell production with respect to the control culture. Non-optimal conditions produced a sufficiently high shear stress to negatively affect cell growth and even produce cell death. Cell physiology was also severely affected in stressed cultures. The production of ROS increased by up to 200%, whereas cell membrane fluidity decreased by 60% relative to control cultures. Photosynthetic efficiency decreased concomitantly with membrane fluidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Removal of Strontium from Drinking Water by Conventional Treatment and Lime Softening in Bench-Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. There is very little data available on strontium removal from drinking water. As a result, there is an immedia...

  6. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  7. Two-stage alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of wood to biocrude in a continuous bench-scale system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Grigoras, Ionela; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt

    2017-01-01

    Feedstock pumpability is one of the main obstacles for continuous processing of biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), due to their tendency to form heterogeneous slurries. In this work, a novel strategy is proposed to ensure lignocellulosic feed pumpability in HTL processing, even while...

  8. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Summary of bench-scale tests for FY 1986 and FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, T.L.

    1987-09-01

    Processes to reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acid are being demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids such as HF-HNO/sub 3/, etch solutions containing Zr as a major metal impurity, and HNO/sub 3/ strip solution containing Cu as a major metal impurity are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ containing U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup -/ to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup -2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in a downstream precipitation step. 10 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Effects of turbulence modelling on prediction of flow characteristics in a bench-scale anaerobic gas-lift digester

    OpenAIRE

    Coughtrie, AR; Borman, DJ; Sleigh, PA

    2013-01-01

    Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-∊, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) ar...

  10. Effects of turbulence modelling on prediction of flow characteristics in a bench-scale anaerobic gas-lift digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughtrie, A R; Borman, D J; Sleigh, P A

    2013-06-01

    Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-∊, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) are particularly sensitive to the turbulence model implemented; the Transition-SST model was found to be the most robust for capturing mixing behaviour and predicting separation reliably. Therefore, Transition-SST is recommended over k-∊ models for use in comparable mixing problems. A comparison of results obtained using multiphase Euler-Lagrange and singlephase approaches are presented. The results support the validity of the singlephase modelling assumptions in obtaining reliable predictions of the reactor flow. Solver independence of results was verified by comparing two independent finite-volume solvers (Fluent-13.0sp2 and OpenFOAM-2.0.1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intermediate pyrolysis of agro-industrial biomasses in bench-scale pyrolyser: Product yields and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinwala, Farha; Mohanty, Pravakar; Parmar, Snehal; Patel, Anant; Pant, Kamal K

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis of woody biomass, agro-residues and seed was carried out at 500 ± 10 °C in a fixed bed pyrolyser. Bio-oil yield was found varying from 20.5% to 47.5%, whereas the biochar and pyrolysis gas ranged from 27.5% to 40% and 24.5% to 40.5%, respectively. Pyrolysis gas was measured for flame temperature along with CO, CO2, H2, CH4 and other gases composition. HHV of biochar (29.4 MJ/kg) and pyrolitic gas (8.6 MJ/kg) of woody biomass was higher analogous to sub-bituminous coal and steam gasification based producer gas respectively, whereas HHV of bio-oil obtained from seed (25.6 MJ/kg) was significantly more than husks, shells and straws. TGA-DTG studies showed the husks as potential source for the pyrolysis. Bio-oils as a major by-product of intermediate pyrolysis have several applications like substitute of furnace oil, extraction of fine chemicals, whereas biochar as a soil amendment for enhancing soil fertility and gases for thermal application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bench-Scale Development of a Hybrid Membrane-Absorption CO{sub 2} Capture Process: Preliminary Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Brice; Kniep, Jay; Pingjiao, Hao; Baker, Richard; Rochelle, Gary; Chen, Eric; Frailie, Peter; Ding, Junyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2014-03-31

    This report describes a study of capture costs for a hybrid membrane-absorption capture system based on Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)’s low-pressure membrane contactors and the University of Texas at Austin’s 5 m piperazine (PZ) Advanced Flash Stripper (AFS; 5 m PZ AFS) based CO2 capture system. The report is submitted for NETL review, and may be superseded by a final topical report on this topic that will be submitted to satisfy the Task 2 report requirement of the current project (DE-FE0013118).

  13. Evaluation of adipic acid addition to a bench-scale Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, G.P.

    1981-12-01

    An experimental laboratory study testing the effectiveness of adipic acid in the Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD system has been sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. Additionally, economic calculations for the cost effectiveness of usng adipic acid in a commercial scale CT-121 FGD system have been performed. The results of this study indicate that although adipic acid can increase the SO/sub 2/ removal capability of the CT-121 system, it is not an economically attractive process improvement. This result is due to the CT-121 process chemistry which minimizes limestone consumption and sludge volume without the need of adipic acid. These two areas realize major cost savings when adipic is used in a conventional limestone FGD system. The economic evaluation indicates even though a lower gas-side pressue drop is achieved when adipic acid is used, the savings in electrical costs are insufficient to offset the cost of adipic acid.

  14. The stability of aerobic granular sludge treating municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in a bench scale sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Shi, Ya-Fei; Wang, Jing; Bai, Jun; Zhou, Xuan-Yue; Jiang, Guo-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yang; Liu, Fu-Biao

    2014-10-01

    Inoculated with mature aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor, gradually increasing the proportion of municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in influent, aerobic granular sludge was domesticated after 84 days and maintained its structure during the operation. The domesticated AGS was yellowish-brown, dense and irregular spherical shape, average size was 1.49 mm, water content and specific density were 98.13% and 1.0114, the SVI and settling velocity were 40 ml/g and 46.5m/h. After 38 days, NO3(-)-N accumulated obviously in the reactor as lack of carbon sources. When adding 1-3g solid CH3COONa at 4.5 and 5.5h of each cycle from the 57th day, the removal rate of TN rose to above 90% after 20 days, where effective COD removal and denitrification were realized in a single bioreactor. Finally, the removal rates of COD, TP, TN and NH4(+)-N were higher than 95%, 88%, 96% and 99%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization studies. Final technical progress report, May 1995--May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. Around 1 billion liters of high level waste tank supernatant are present at Hanford, Savannah River Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The largest quantity of these wastes is in the 149 single shell tanks at Hanford which hold up to 1 million gallons each. These tank waste are typically 4 to 5 molar in nitrate and contain radionuclides, various salts, and heavy metals. INEL high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.7 and 0.6 grams per liter of chromium and mercury, respectively. SRP high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.2 g/L of chromium. Other heavy metals could well be present at lower levels in theses tank wastes. The major components present in these wastes are summarized in Appendix A. These wastes are currently regulated and managed by the DOE. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) DOE is subject to RCRA, which would apply to these tank supernatants. Stabilization of this waste is difficult because nitrates are very mobile. Additionally, vitrification of these wastes produces large quantities of hard-to-manage NO{sub x} emissions. The conversion of sodium nitrate to ammonia is discussed.

  16. Scaling up for the industrial production of rifamycin B; optimization of the process conditions in bench-scale fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewaida F. El-Sedawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of fermentation process conditions using a gene amplified variant of Amycolatopsis mediterranei (NCH was carried out. The use of aeration level 1.5 vvm increased the yield by 16.6% (from 13.81 to 16.1 g/l upon controlling the temperature at 28 °C. Adjustment of the aeration level at 1.5 vvm for 3 days then controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO at 30% saturation further increased the yield to 17.8 g/l. The optimum pH was 6.5 for 3 days then 7 thereafter when a production yield of 16.1 g/l was recorded using an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm. Controlling the pH at constant value (6.5 or 7 all through the fermentation process decreased the yield by 5–21%. Controlling the temperature at 30 °C for 3 days then 28 °C thereafter slightly increased the yield by 5% upon using an aeration rate of 1 vvm while it decreased upon using an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm. Integration of the most optimum conditions increased the production yield by 22% from 13.81 to 17.8 g/l.

  17. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, April--June, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-13

    The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  18. A bench-scale study on the removal and recovery of phosphate by hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Fang, Wenkan; Xing, Mingchao; Wu, Deyi, E-mail: dywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Owing to the easy magnetic separation from water for reuse, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great interest as adsorbents. Herein hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2}) were created by a facile method and a bench–scale study was undertaken to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism to remove phosphate at low concentrations. Results indicated that phosphate removal by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} was fast (95% of phosphate removal within 10 min) and nearly complete removal could be achieved at the adsorbent dosage >0.6 g/L. In tap water or wastewater where competitive anions coexist, regulation of pH was found to be quite effective to augment the performance of phosphate removal. In pH–lowered adsorption systems, phosphate removal followed a good pattern similarly to pure water, i.e., a continuous high efficiency removal followed by a rapid saturation. Adsorption–desorption–regeneration studies showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} could be repeatedly used for phosphate removal and adsorbed phosphate could be stripped for recovery. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus suggested that NaOH-P fraction was dominant. We also found that the adsorption reaction of phosphate with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} shifted the isoelectric point of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} from ~9.0 to ~3.0. FTIR measurements further showed the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. The formation of the monodentate (ZrO)PO{sub 2}(OH) complex was proposed. - Highlights: • Hydrous zirconia–coated magnetite was used for phosphate capture. • Regulation of pH was able to enhance P removal in the presence of coexisting ions. • Phosphate was coordinated onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. • The material could be easily separated from water for reuse by a magnet. • Desorption of phosphate from the material could be achieved with NaOH treatment.

  19. CFD modeling of space-time evolution of fast pyrolysis products in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A.A.; Mtui, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    A model for the evolution of pyrolysis products in a fluidized bed has been developed. In this study the unsteady constitutive transport equations for inert gas flow and decomposition kinetics were modeled using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT-12. The Eulerarian-Eulerian multiphase model system described herein is a fluidized bed of sand externally heated to a predetermined temperature prior to introduction of agricultural biomass. We predict the spontaneous emergence of pyrolysis vapors, char and non-condensable (permanent) gases and confirm the observation that the kinetics are fast and that bio-oil vapor evolution is accomplished in a few seconds, and occupying two-thirds of the spatial volume of the reactor as widely reported in the open literature. The model could be advantageous in the virtual design of fast pyrolysis reactors and their optimization to meet economic scales required for distributed or satellite units. - Highlights: ► We model the evolution of pyrolysis products in a fluidized bed via CFD. ► We predict the spontaneous emergence of pyrolysis products. ► We confirm the experimental observation that the kinetics are fast. ► And that bio-oil vapor evolution is accomplished in a few seconds. ► The model is advantageous in the virtual design of fast pyrolysis reactors.

  20. Autochthonous bioaugmentation with environmental samples rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria for bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nedaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Sorkhoh, Naser; Radwan, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Oil-contaminated seawater and desert soil batches were bioaugmented with suspensions of pea (Pisum sativum) rhizosphere and soil with long history of oil pollution. Oil consumption was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in the bioremediation batches were counted using a mineral medium with oil vapor as a sole carbon source and characterized by their 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-gene sequences. Most of the oil was consumed during the first 2-4 months, and the oil-removal rate decreased or ceased thereafter due to nutrient and oxygen depletion. Supplying the batches with NaNO3 (nitrogen fertilization) at a late phase of bioremediation resulted in reenhanced oil consumption and bacterial growth. In the seawater batches bioaugmented with rhizospheric suspension, the autochthonous rhizospheric bacterial species Microbacterium oxidans and Rhodococcus spp. were established and contributed to oil-removal. The rhizosphere-bioaugmented soil batches selectively favored Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, Caulobacter segnis, and Ensifer adherens. In seawater batches bioaugmented with long-contaminated soil, the predominant oil-removing bacterium was the marine species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. In soil batches on the other hand, the autochthonous inhabitants of the long-contaminated soil, Pseudomonas and Massilia species were established and contributed to oil removal. It was concluded that the use of rhizospheric bacteria for inoculating seawater and desert soil and of bacteria in long-contaminated soil for inoculating desert soil follows the concept of "autochthonous bioaugmentation." Inoculating seawater with bacteria in long-contaminated soil, on the other hand, merits the designation "allochthonous bioaugmentation."

  1. Patch tests in children: a review of 13 years of experience in comparison with previous data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milingou, Maria; Tagka, Anna; Armenaka, Melina; Kimpouri, Konstantina; Kouimintzis, Dimitris; Katsarou, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    The true prevalence of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children remains unknown. Our aim was to compare the results of patch tests in children with suspected ACD between two different periods of time and identify possible changes in emerging allergens. We compared contact allergens, gender, age distribution, and personal history of atopic dermatitis (AD), in correlation with the positivity of patch tests, between two equal periods of time (232 children tested during 1980-1993, period A, and 255 children during 1994-2007, period B) in the same region and in the same institution. Patch test positivity was 47.8% in period A, and 60% in period B (p = 0.083). The most common allergens in period A were: nickel sulfate (16.3%), cobalt chloride (8.6%), fragrance mix (7.3%), potassium dichromate (4.3%), and thimerosal only (1.7%). In period B, the allergen distribution was as follows: nickel sulfate (21.56%), thimerosal (18.03%), cobalt chloride (12.9%), potassium dichromate (9.4%), and fragrance mix (4.7%). Girls were more likely to have a positive patch test compared with boys, with reactions in 53% of girls and 39% of boys in period A (p = 0.003), and 61% of girls and 58% of boys in period B (p = 0.691). Twenty-nine per cent of patients with positive results had a personal history of AD in period A and 44% in period B (p = 0.015). Differences in the positivity of allergens between different time periods reflect changes in habits, of allergens exposure or preventive measures.

  2. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz Manuel Márquez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik’s Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students’ acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in different practices has made students understand, at a basic level, the functioning of this language.

  3. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C.; Dann, Sara M.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Kotarba, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle. PMID:25621288

  4. The influence of previous sport experiences in transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine how players’ positional data can be used to assess the transfer of behaviour patterns among team sports (basketball, football and rugby) in early specialized and diversified sport careers. Thirty-four college students were divided into early specialization and early diversification groups, according to information provided by a questionnaire designed to obtain detailed information about their sports career. In-game derived variables were calculated based on ...

  5. How Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) weigh geometric cues depends on their previous experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, James F; Kelly, Debbie M

    2015-07-01

    Following passive disorientation, Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana) learned to search for a hidden food reward located in one corner of a rectangular-shaped enclosure that contained either identical or distinct features in each corner. Identical features allowed for explicit learning of geometric cues, whereas distinct features allowed for both explicit learning of featural cues and incidental learning of geometric cues. Birds that only learned about geometry incidentally (group Distinct) weighed features greater than geometry when the two cues were placed in conflict. However, birds that received explicit training with geometry, in addition to feature training (groups Distinct-Identical and Identical-Distinct), weighed geometry heavier relative to features. Cue preference by the birds also depended on the order in which learning was experienced; if explicit training with geometry followed that of features (group Distinct-Identical), then both geometry and features were weighed equally, but if explicit training with geometry training preceded that of features (group Identical-Distinct), the birds weighed geometry greater than features. Results suggest both a heightened sensitivity to geometric cues by Clark's nutcrackers relative to other species of birds and an increased sensitivity to any spatial cue (either features or geometry) that has proven both stable and reliable.

  6. Translational Science Project Team Managers: Qualitative Insights and Implications from Current and Previous Postdoctoral Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C; Dann, Sara M; Finnerty, Celeste C; Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    The development of leadership and project management skills is increasingly important to the evolution of translational science and team-based endeavors. Team science is dependent upon individuals at various stages in their careers, inclusive of postdocs. Data from case histories, as well as from interviews with current and former postdocs, and those supervising postdocs, indicate six essential tasks required of project managers in multidisciplinary translational teams, along with eight skill-related themes critical to their success. To optimize the opportunities available and to ensure sequential development of team project management skills, a life cycle model for the development of translational team skills is proposed, ranging from graduate trainees, postdocs, assistant professors, and finally to mature scientists. Specific goals, challenges and project management roles and tasks are recommended for each stage for the life cycle.

  7. A Latin Functionalist Dictionary as a Self-Learning Language Device: Previous Experiences to Digitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Manuel; Chaves, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The application of a methodology based on S.C. Dik's Functionalist Grammar linguistic principles, which is addressed to the teaching of Latin to secondary students, has resulted in a quantitative improvement in students' acquisition process of knowledge. To do so, we have used a self-learning tool, an ad hoc dictionary, of which the use in…

  8. Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannheimer, R. J.; Grimley, T. A.; Park, J. T.; Morrow, T. B.

    1987-04-01

    The structure of non-Newtonian slurries in laminar, transitional, and turbulent flow regimes in pipes is studied. Experiments are conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside pipe diameter of 51 mm. Flow measurements including turbulence quantities such as Reynolds stress are taken with a two-component laser-Doppler velocimeter in a transparent test section with a transparent model slurry. Two transparent model slurries have been developed with non-Newtonian rheological properties. Silica gel particles with diameters on the order of one micron are suspended in two different hydrocarbon liquid mixtures with viscosities of 1.19 and 6.39 cS. In rheological measurements with a concentric cylinder viscometer, slurries from both liquid mixtures exhibited slip. From a linear regression analysis with a power-law model, slurries with the higher viscosity fluid had yield values of 80 and 30 dyn/sq cm for silica gel concentrations of 5.6 and 4.0% by weight, respectively, and the exponents were 0.584 and 0.763. The measured refractive index for the transparent slurries is 1.454 where the difference in refractive index between the fluid and silica gel is estimated to be less than 0.001. Bench scale tests with large diameter silica gel particles on the order of 100 microns have produced slurries with excessive turbidity. A silica gel manufactured by a different process which may form a less turbid slurry is currently under investigation.

  9. 2 CFR 1.215 - Relationship to previous issuances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuances. 1.215 Section 1.215 Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction toSubtitle A § 1.215 Relationship to previous issuances. Although some of the guidance was...

  10. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 230.45 Section 230.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a...

  11. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis in grazing areas of Mupfurudzi ... Plant attributes for Julbernadia globiflora and Brachystegia spiciformis were measured in previously cultivated and uncultivated sites making up rangelands of the scheme.

  12. 49 CFR 173.23 - Previously authorized packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Previously authorized packaging. 173.23 Section... REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.23 Previously authorized packaging. (a) When the regulations specify a packaging with a specification marking...

  13. 75 FR 76056 - FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Sunshine Act Meeting FEDERAL REGISTER CITATION OF PREVIOUS ANNOUNCEMENT: STATUS: Closed meeting. PLACE: 100 F Street, NE., Washington, DC. DATE AND TIME OF PREVIOUSLY ANNOUNCED MEETING: Thursday, December 9, 2010 at 2 p.m. CHANGE IN THE MEETING: Time change. The closed...

  14. Triple outlet right ventricle: a previously unknown cardiac malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingo, Jennifer E; Carroll, Sheila J; Crystal, Matthew A

    2015-03-01

    We present the case of an infant with three distinct outflow tracts from the right ventricle. Three outlets from the heart have been previously named the "Tritruncal Heart". We review the two previously reported cases of tritruncal hearts and describe the anatomy, diagnosis, surgical management, and outcome of our case. Embryologic implications are also discussed.

  15. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  16. Implant breast reconstruction after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persichetti, Paolo; Cagli, Barbara; Simone, Pierfranco; Cogliandro, Annalisa; Fortunato, Lucio; Altomare, Vittorio; Trodella, Lucio

    2009-04-01

    The most common surgical approach in case of local tumor recurrence after quadrantectomy and radiotherapy is salvage mastectomy. Breast reconstruction is the subsequent phase of the treatment and the plastic surgeon has to operate on previously irradiated and manipulated tissues. The medical literature highlights that breast reconstruction with tissue expanders is not a pursuable option, considering previous radiotherapy a contraindication. The purpose of this retrospective study is to evaluate the influence of previous radiotherapy on 2-stage breast reconstruction (tissue expander/implant). Only patients with analogous timing of radiation therapy and the same demolitive and reconstructive procedures were recruited. The results of this study prove that, after salvage mastectomy in previously irradiated patients, implant reconstruction is still possible. Further comparative studies are, of course, advisable to draw any conclusion on the possibility to perform implant reconstruction in previously irradiated patients.

  17. No discrimination against previous mates in a sexually cannibalistic spider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromhage, Lutz; Schneider, Jutta M.

    2005-09-01

    In several animal species, females discriminate against previous mates in subsequent mating decisions, increasing the potential for multiple paternity. In spiders, female choice may take the form of selective sexual cannibalism, which has been shown to bias paternity in favor of particular males. If cannibalistic attacks function to restrict a male's paternity, females may have little interest to remate with males having survived such an attack. We therefore studied the possibility of female discrimination against previous mates in sexually cannibalistic Argiope bruennichi, where females almost always attack their mate at the onset of copulation. We compared mating latency and copulation duration of males having experienced a previous copulation either with the same or with a different female, but found no evidence for discrimination against previous mates. However, males copulated significantly shorter when inserting into a used, compared to a previously unused, genital pore of the female.

  18. Tubal anastomosis after previous sterilization: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Seeters, Jacoba A H; Chua, Su Jen; Mol, Ben W J; Koks, Carolien A M

    2017-05-01

    Female sterilization is one of the most common contraceptive methods. A small number of women, however, opt for reversal of sterilization procedures after they experience regret. Procedures can be performed by laparotomy or laparoscopy, with or without robotic assistance. Another commonly utilized alternative is IVF. The choice between surgery and IVF is often influenced by reimbursement politics for that particular geographic location. We evaluated the fertility outcomes of different surgical methods available for the reversal of female sterilization, compared these to IVF and assessed the prognostic factors for success. Two search strategies were employed. Firstly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies presenting fertility outcomes of sterilization reversal up to July 2016. Data on the following outcomes were collected: pregnancy rate, ectopic pregnancy rate, cost of the procedure and operative time. Eligible study designs included prospective or retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies, case-control studies and case series. No age restriction was applied. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from tubal infertility from any other reason (e.g. infection, endometriosis and adhesions from previous surgery) and studies including sterilization reversal procedures were then evaluated: female age, BMI and duration and method of sterilization. Secondly, we searched for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies that compared reversal of sterilization to IVF and evaluated them for pregnancy outcomes and cost effectiveness. We included 37 studies that investigated a total of 10 689 women. No randomized controlled trials were found. Most studies were retrospective cohort studies of a moderate quality. The pooled pregnancy rate after sterilization reversal was 42-69%, with heterogeneity seen from the different methods utilized. The reported ectopic pregnancy rate was 4-8%. The only prognostic factor affecting the

  19. Influence of previous participation in physical activity on its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... participation can influence perceptions of PA among the students. Physical activity promotion programmes should consider the role of these factors which should be emphasised from childhood. Keywords: physical activity, students, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, previous participation, sedentary lifestyle, Rwanda

  20. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family planning clinic in Northern Nigeria. Amina Mohammed‑Durosinlorun, Joel Adze, Stephen Bature, Caleb Mohammed, Matthew Taingson, Amina Abubakar, Austin Ojabo, Lydia Airede ...

  1. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  2. Delivery outcomes at term after one previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani-Zamzami, Tarik Y

    2007-12-01

    To determine the maternal and perinatal outcomes at term in women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no history of vaginal birth. This is a case-control study conducted at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1, 1999 and December 31, 2002. One hundred sixty-two women with one previous cesarean delivery and with no previous vaginal birth were compared with 324 control women. The cesarean section rate was higher in the study group 40 (24.7%) versus 23 (7.1%) in the control group and was statistically significant (phistory of vaginal delivery are considered less favorable, the vaginal birth after cesarean section success rate may be even lower if the indication for previous primary cesarean delivery was failure to progress, and may be associated with increased risk of uterine rupture. Further study is required to confirm our findings.

  3. [Influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Haoran; Shi, Wei; Zhou, Yingfang; Wu, Beisheng; Peng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on gynecological laparoscopic operation. A retrospective analysis of 3 283 cases of gynecological diseases by laparoscopic operation patients in Peking University First Hospital from 2007 January to 2012 December, among them, 719 (21.90%) patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery history (study Group), 2 564 (78.10%)patients have no history of abdominopelvic surgery (control group). Study group 719 patients, previous operation times: one time in 525 cases, 194 cases were multiple; previous operation: 185 cases of gynecological surgery, 305 cases of obstetric surgery, 108 cases of general surgery, and 121 complex surgery (include at least two kinds of surgery); previous operative approach: 650 cases laparotomy and 69 cases laparoscopy. Compared two groups of patients with abdominopelvic adhesion and the gynecologic laparoscopic operation situation, analyzed the influence of previous abdominopelvic surgery on abdominopelvic adhesion on and gynecological laparoscopic operation. The incidence of abdominopelvic adhesion in the patients with previous abdominopelvic surgery was 51.2% (368/719), which was significantly higher than that of 8.2% (211/2 564)in patients without previous abdominopelvic surgery (P surgery (23.1%, 166/719) was significantly higher than that in the control group (3.3% , 85/2 564;P laparotomy was 0.6% (4/719) significantly more than the control groups (0.1%, 2/2 564; P = 0.023). Compared with other groups, patients with gynecological or complex surgery or multiple operation history presented more severe abdominopelvic adhesion both in the score and degree (P laparotomy showed no statistical difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The laparoscopic operation could be carried out successfully and safely in patients with a history of various abdominopelvic operations, but the conversion rate increases, for patients with a history of multiple operation because of pelvic adhesion

  4. Previous toothache, dental visits and caries presence among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Dental pain is an ache or soreness within or around a tooth. It has a wide range of etiology, the commonest being dental caries. Dental pain is one of the main reasons for seeking dental care. Objectives: To assess the relationship between experiences of toothache, dental visits and caries experience among ...

  5. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2011-01-01

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  6. Secondary recurrent miscarriage is associated with previous male birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ooi, Poh Veh

    2012-01-31

    Secondary recurrent miscarriage (RM) is defined as three or more consecutive pregnancy losses after delivery of a viable infant. Previous reports suggest that a firstborn male child is associated with less favourable subsequent reproductive potential, possibly due to maternal immunisation against male-specific minor histocompatibility antigens. In a retrospective cohort study of 85 cases of secondary RM we aimed to determine if secondary RM was associated with (i) gender of previous child, maternal age, or duration of miscarriage history, and (ii) increased risk of pregnancy complications. Fifty-three women (62.0%; 53\\/85) gave birth to a male child prior to RM compared to 32 (38.0%; 32\\/85) who gave birth to a female child (p=0.002). The majority (91.7%; 78\\/85) had uncomplicated, term deliveries and normal birth weight neonates, with one quarter of the women previously delivered by Caesarean section. All had routine RM investigations and 19.0% (16\\/85) had an abnormal result. Fifty-seven women conceived again and 33.3% (19\\/57) miscarried, but there was no significant difference in failure rates between those with a previous male or female child (13\\/32 vs. 6\\/25, p=0.2). When patients with abnormal results were excluded, or when women with only one previous child were considered, there was still no difference in these rates. A previous male birth may be associated with an increased risk of secondary RM but numbers preclude concluding whether this increases recurrence risk. The suggested association with previous male birth provides a basis for further investigations at a molecular level.

  7. 2 CFR 225.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relationship to previous issuance. 225.45 Section 225.45 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR STATE, LOCAL, AND INDIAN TRIBAL GOVERNMENTS (OMB CIRCULAR A-87) § 225.45 Relationship to...

  8. Cryptococcal meningitis in a previously healthy child | Chimowa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An 8-year-old previously healthy female presented with a 3 weeks history of headache, neck stiffness, deafness, fever and vomiting and was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. She had documented hearing loss and was referred to tertiary-level care after treatment with fluconazole did not improve her neurological ...

  9. Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid fish stock depletion in previously unexploited seamounts: the case of Beryx splendens from the Sierra Leone Rise (Gulf of Guinea) ... A spectral analysis and red-noise spectra procedure (REDFIT) algorithm was used to identify the red-noise spectrum from the gaps in the observed time-series of catch per unit effort by ...

  10. Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obstructive pulmonary disease in patients with previous tuberculosis: Pathophysiology of a community-based cohort. B.W. Allwood, R Gillespie, M Galperin-Aizenberg, M Bateman, H Olckers, L Taborda-Barata, G.L. Calligaro, Q Said-Hartley, R van Zyl-Smit, C.B. Cooper, E van Rikxoort, J Goldin, N Beyers, E.D. Bateman ...

  11. Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Balance and bilateral skills of selected previously disadvantaged children aged 9 to 12 years. Eileen K Africa, Karel J Van Deventer. Abstract. The main aim of the study was to design an appropriate motor skills development programme that could be implemented in any primary school to improve the fundamental motor ...

  12. Outcome Of Pregnancy Following A Previous Lower Segment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous ceasarean section is an important variable that influences patient management in subsequent pregnancies. A trial of vaginal delivery in such patients is a feasible alternative to a secondary section, thus aiding to reduce the ceasarean section rate and its associated co-morbidities. Objective: To ...

  13. Suburethral sling procedures after previous surgery for urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To compare the outcome of suburethral sling procedures (tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), obturator tape (Ob-tape)) for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women with previous surgery for SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Methods. A comparative, descriptive, retrospective study was done using information ...

  14. 5 CFR 532.405 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 532.405 Section 532.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... rate may be based upon a rate of pay received during a temporary promotion, so long as the temporary...

  15. 24 CFR 1710.552 - Previously accepted state filings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of Substantially Equivalent State Law § 1710.552 Previously accepted state filings. (a) Materials... and contracts or agreements contain notice of purchaser's revocation rights. In addition see § 1715.15..., unless the developer is obligated to do so in the contract. (b) If any such filing becomes inactive or...

  16. 5 CFR 9701.352 - Use of highest previous rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Pay and Pay Administration Pay Administration § 9701.352 Use of... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of highest previous rate. 9701.352 Section 9701.352 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT...

  17. Bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment in a previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, we present a case of an 11‑year‑old previously undiagnosed sickle cell disease Nigerian girl with severe acute bilateral orbital infarction and retinal detachment to highlight that hemoglobinopathy induced orbital infarction should be considered in African children with acute onset proptosis with or without ...

  18. The effect of previous traumatic injury on homicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Russell L; Davis, Gregory G; Levitan, Emily B; MacLennan, Paul A; Redden, David T; McGwin, Gerald

    2014-07-01

    Research has reported that a strong risk factor for traumatic injury is having a previous injury (i.e., recidivism). To date, the only study examining the relationship between recidivism and homicide reported strong associations, but was limited by possible selection bias. The current matched case-control study utilized coroner's data from 2004 to 2008. Subjects were linked to trauma registry data to determine whether the person had a previous traumatic injury. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for the association between homicide and recidivism. Homicide risk was increased for those having a previous traumatic injury (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.09-2.99) or a previous intentional injury (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.24-5.17). These results suggest an association between homicide and injury recidivism, and that trauma centers may be an effective setting for screening individuals for secondary prevention efforts of homicide through violence prevention programs. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  19. "Battered Women" and Previous Victimization: Is the Question Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudim, Laurie, Comp.; And Others

    This report discusses battered women and the role of their previous victimization. After a literature review on family violence in general, these topics are discussed: (1) family violence and the patriarchy; (2) the historical background of family violence; (3) intergenerational cycle of violence; and (4) psychological literature's four ways…

  20. Choice of contraception after previous operative delivery at a family ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Age, education, religion, parity, prior contraception, and interval from the last delivery were significantly associated with the current choice of contraception (P 0.05). Overall, when comparing the pattern among those with a previous operative delivery and those without, ...

  1. The job satisfaction of principals of previously disadvantaged schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to identify influences on the job satisfaction of previously disadvantaged school principals in North-West Province. Evans's theory of job satisfaction, morale and motivation was useful as a conceptual framework. A mixedmethods explanatory research design was important in discovering issues with ...

  2. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study on timing of antenatal care booking at public health facilities in ... Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted to collect data from 630 pregnant women who were attending antenatal care service at 10 governmental ...

  3. Research Note Effects of previous cultivation on regeneration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of previous cultivation on regeneration potential under miombo woodlands in a resettlement area, a spatial product of Zimbabwe's land reforms. We predicted that cultivation would affect population structure, regeneration, recruitment and potential grazing capacity of rangelands. Plant attributes ...

  4. Mondor's Disease of the Breast in a Nigerian Woman Previously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... Case Report. How to cite this article: Olarinoye-Akorede SA, Silas BT. Mondor's disease of the breast in a Nigerian woman previously treated for invasive ductal carcinoma in the ... and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms. For reprints .... malignancy. Financial support and sponsorship.

  5. 44 CFR 402.5 - Forwarding commodities previously shipped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forwarding commodities... commodities previously shipped. Order T-1 applies to transportation on or discharge from ships documented... ship or aircraft, before the issuance of Order T-1, had transported restricted commodities manifested...

  6. Development of the integrated, in-situ remediation technology. Topical report for tasks No. 8 and No. 10 entitled: Laboratory and pilot scale experiments of Lasagna{trademark} process, September 26, 1994--May 25, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Sa V.; Athmer, C.J.; Sheridan, P.W. [and others

    1997-04-01

    Contamination in low permeability soils poses a significant technical challenge to in-situ remediation efforts. Poor accessibility to the contaminants and difficulty in delivery of treatment reagents have rendered existing in-situ treatments such as bioremediation, vapor extraction, pump and treat rather ineffective when applied to low permeability soils present at many contaminated sites. This technology is an integrated in-situ treatment in which established geotechnical methods are used to install degradation zones directly in the contaminated W and electro-osmosis is utilized to move the contaminants back and forth through those zones until the treatment is completed. This topical report summarizes the results of the lab and pilot sized Lasagna{trademark} experiments conducted at Monsanto. Experiments were conducted with kaofinite and an actual Paducah soil in units ranging from bench-scale containing kg-quantity of soil to pilot-scale containing about half a ton of soil having various treatment zone configurations. The obtained data support the feasibility of scaling up this technology with respect to electrokinetic parameters as well as removal of organic contaminants. A mathematical model was developed that was successful in predicting the temperature rises in the soil. The information and experience gained from these experiments along with the modeling effort enabled us to successfully design and operate a larger field experiment at a DOE TCE-contaminated clay site.

  7. Previously unreported abnormalities in Wolfram Syndrome Type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akturk, Halis Kaan; Yasa, Seda

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is a rare autosomal recessive disease with non-autoimmune childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes and optic atrophy. WFS type 2 (WFS2) differs from WFS type 1 (WFS1) with upper intestinal ulcers, bleeding tendency and the lack ofdiabetes insipidus. Li-fespan is short due to related comorbidities. Only a few familieshave been reported with this syndrome with the CISD2 mutation. Here we report two siblings with a clinical diagnosis of WFS2, previously misdiagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy-related blindness. We report possible additional clinical and laboratory findings that have not been pre-viously reported, such as asymptomatic hypoparathyroidism, osteomalacia, growth hormone (GH) deficiency and hepatomegaly. Even though not a requirement for the diagnosis of WFS2 currently, our case series confirm hypogonadotropic hypogonadism to be also a feature of this syndrome, as reported before. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  8. Nicotine Elicits Methamphetamine-Seeking in Rats Previously Administered Nicotine

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, N. M.; Harrod, S. B.; Bardo, M. T.

    2009-01-01

    Research has indicated a high correlation between psychostimulant use and tobacco cigarette smoking in human substance abusers. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of acute and repeated nicotine administration on responding for intravenous methamphetamine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion) in a rodent model of self-administration, as well as the potential of nicotine to induce reinstatement of previously extinguished drug-taking behavior in male Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, ...

  9. Influence of previous knowledge in Torrance tests of creative thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren, María; Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas CONICET

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974) performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertisin...

  10. Previous climatic alterations are caused by the sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2003-01-01

    The article surveys the scientific results of previous research into the contribution of the sun to climatic alterations. The author concludes that there is evidence of eight cold periods after the last ice age and that the alterations largely were due to climate effects from the sun. However, these effects are only causing a fraction of the registered global warming. It is assumed that the human activities are contributing to the rest of the greenhouse effect

  11. Event Sequence Variability in Healthy Swallowing: Building on Previous Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Sonja M.; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M.

    2014-01-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired-events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs, which always occurred in a stereotyped order as well as a most-common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigate overall event sequencing and the same four paired-events in a sample of swallows by healthy, young (under 45 years old) volunt...

  12. Prevalence and significance of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinillo, Arsenio; Beneventi, Fausta; Ramoni, Véronique; Caporali, Roberto; Locatelli, Elena; Simonetta, Margherita; Cavagnoli, Chiara; Alpini, Claudia; Albonico, Giulia; Prisco, Elena; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the rates of previously undiagnosed rheumatic diseases during the first trimester of pregnancy and their impact on the pregnancy outcome. Pregnant women in their first trimester were screened using a two-step approach using a self-administered 10-item questionnaire and subsequent testing for rheumatic autoantibodies (antinuclear antibody, anti-double-stranded DNA, anti-extractable nuclear antigen, anticardiolipin antibodies, anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulant) and evaluation by a rheumatologist. Overall, the complications of pregnancy evaluated included fetal loss, pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, fetal growth restriction, delivery at less than 34 weeks, neonatal resuscitation and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Out of the 2458 women screened, the authors identified 62 (2.5%) women with previously undiagnosed undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) and 24 (0.98%) women with previously undiagnosed definite systemic rheumatic disease. The prevalences were seven (0.28%) for systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjogren's syndrome, six (0.24%) for rheumatoid arthritis, three (0.12%) for antiphospholipid syndrome and one (0.04%) for systemic sclerosis. In multiple exact logistic regression, after adjustment for potential confounders, the OR of overall complications of pregnancy were 2.81 (95% CI 1.29 to 6.18) in women with UCTD and 4.57 (95% CI 1.57 to 13.57) in those with definite diseases, respectively, compared with asymptomatic controls. In our population approximately 2.5% and 1% of first trimester pregnant women had a previously undiagnosed UCTD and definite systemic rheumatic disease, respectively. These conditions were associated with significant negative effects on the outcome of pregnancy.

  13. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  14. Event sequence variability in healthy swallowing: building on previous findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Leigh, Chelsea; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-04-01

    This study builds on previous work by Kendall, Leonard, and McKenzie, which investigated event sequence variability for 12 paired events during swallowing by healthy volunteers. They identified four event pairs that always occurred in a stereotyped order and a most common occurring overall order of events during swallowing. In the current study, we investigated overall event sequencing and the same four paired events in a sample of swallows by healthy young (under 45 years old) volunteers. Data were collected during a 16-swallow lateral videofluoroscopy protocol, which included manipulations of bolus volume, barium density, bolus viscosity, and swallow cueing. Our results agreed with previous findings that variable event sequencing is found in healthy swallowing, and, in regard to obligatory sequencing of two paired events, movement of the arytenoids toward the base of the epiglottis begins prior to upper esophageal sphincter (UES) opening and maximum hyolaryngeal approximation occurs after UES opening. However, our data failed to replicate the previous findings that there is obligatory sequencing of maximum pharyngeal constriction after maximal UES distension and the UES opens before bolus arrival at the UES. The most common observed overall event sequence reported by Kendall et al. was observed in only 4/293 swallows in our dataset. Manipulations of bolus volume, bolus viscosity, barium concentration, swallow cueing, and swallow repetitions could not completely account for the differences observed between the two studies.

  15. Prevalence of Infraumbilical Adhesions in Women With Previous Laparoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Lowell; Wong, Herb; Liu, C. Y.; Phelps, John Y.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of intraabdominal adhesions to the umbilicus following gynecologic laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of all gynecologic laparoscopic procedures in a private practice setting to identify patients with a repeat laparoscopy who had a history of a previous laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. Patients with a history of other surgeries were excluded. All repeat laparoscopies used a left upper quadrant entry technique where the abdominal cavity was surveyed for adhesions. We also reviewed adverse events attributable to the left upper quadrant entry approach. Results: We identified 151 patients who underwent a second laparoscopy and had a previous umbilical scar. Thirty-two of the 151 (21.2%) patients with a history of a laparoscopy had evidence of adhesions to the umbilical undersurface. No adverse events or injuries were attributed to the left upper quadrant entry technique. Conclusions: Adhesions to the umbilical undersurface occur in 21.2% of patients who have undergone a prior laparoscopy through an umbilical incision. For this reason, we recommend an alternate location for entry in patients with an umbilical scar from a previous laparoscopy. PMID:17651555

  16. Graduated driver licensing. [previously called: The graduated driving licence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Young novice drivers have a very high risk of being involved in a road crash. In the United States (US), Canada, Australia and New Zealand this problem has been tackled by first letting learner drivers gain driving experience under safe conditions before allowing them to take the driving test. The

  17. Investigating the effect of previous treatments on wheat biomass over multiple spatial frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, A. E.; Castellanos, M. T.; Cartagena, M. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Lark, R. M.

    2010-09-01

    In this study we use the maximum overlap discrete packet transform (MODWPT) to investigate residual effects on wheat biomass of fertigation treatments applied to a previous crop. The wheat crop covered nine subplots from a previous experiment on melon response to fertigation. Each subplot had previously received a different level of applied nitrogen. Many factors affect wheat biomass, causing it to vary at different spatial frequencies. We hypothesize that these will include residual effects from fertilizer application (at relatively low spatial frequencies) and the local influence of individual plants from the previous melon crop (at high frequency). To test this hypothesis we use the MODWPT to identify the dominant spatial frequencies of wheat biomass variation, and analyse the relationship to both the previous fertilizer application and the location of individual melon plants in the previous crop. The MODWPT is particularly appropriate for this because it allows us first to identify the key spatial frequencies in the wheat biomass objectively and to analyse them, and their relationship to hypothesized driving factors without any assumptions of uniformity (stationarity) of wheat-biomass variation. The results showed that the applied nitrogen dominated the wheat biomass response, and that there was a noticeable component of wheat-biomass variation at the spatial frequency that corresponds to the melon cropping. We expected wheat biomass to be negatively correlated with the position of melons in the previous crop, due to uptake of the applied nitrogen. The MODWPT, which allows us to detect changes in correlation between variables at different frequencies, showed that such a relationship was found across part of the experiment but not uniformly.

  18. Optimization of hydraulic machinery by exploiting previous successful designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, S A; Giannakoglou, K C [National Technical University of Athens, Parallel CFD and Optimization Unit, PO Box 64069, Athens 15710 (Greece); Weissenberger, S; Grafenberger, P, E-mail: stelios.Kyriacou@gmail.co [Andritz HYDRO, RD, Lunzerstrasse 78, 4031 Linz (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    A design-optimization method for hydraulic machinery is proposed. Optimal designs are obtained using the appropriate CFD evaluation software driven by an evolutionary algorithm which is also assisted by artificial neural networks used as surrogate evaluation models or metamodels. As shown in a previous IAHR paper by the same authors, such an optimization method substantially reduces the CPU cost, since the metamodels can discard numerous non-promising candidate solutions generated during the evolution, at almost negligible CPU cost, without evaluating them by means of the costly CFD tool. The present paper extends the optimization method of the previous paper by making it capable to accommodate and exploit pieces of useful information archived during previous relevant successful designs. So, instead of parameterizing the geometry of the hydraulic machine components, which inevitably leads to many design variables, enough to slow down the design procedure, in the proposed method all new designs are expressed as weighted combinations of the archived ones. The archived designs act as the design space bases. The role of the optimization algorithms is to find the set (or sets, for more than one objectives, where the Pareto front of non-dominated solutions is sought) of weight values, corresponding to the hydraulic machine configuration(s) with optimal performance. Since the number of weights is much less that the number of design variables of the conventional shape parameterization, the design space dimension reduces and the CPU cost of the metamodel-assisted evolutionary algorithm is much lower. The design of a Francis runner is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed method.

  19. Haemophilus influenzae type f meningitis in a previously healthy boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronit, Andreas; Berg, Ronan M G; Bruunsgaard, Helle

    2013-01-01

    Non-serotype b strains of Haemophilus influenzae are extremely rare causes of acute bacterial meningitis in immunocompetent individuals. We report a case of acute bacterial meningitis in a 14-year-old boy, who was previously healthy and had been immunised against H influenzae serotype b (Hib......). The causative pathogen was identified as H influenzae serotype f (Hif), and was successfully treated with ceftriaxone. An immunological evaluation revealed transient low levels of immunoglobulins but no apparent immunodeficiency was found 2 years after the clinical insult....

  20. The long-term consequences of previous hyperthyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelm Brandt Kristensen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    vascular state. While it is biologically plausible that these changes may induce long-term consequences, the insight into morbidity as well as mortality in patients with previous hyperthyroidism is limited. The reasons for this are a combination of inadequately powered studies, varying definitions......,400 non-hyperthyroid control individuals (matched for age and sex), all identified from a random 5% sample of the Danish background population (n=339,481). In the second study population, 625 same-sex twin pairs, discordant for hyperthyroidism, were included. For each individual, the degree of co...

  1. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. © 2014 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  2. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Ann; Kinch, Lisa N; de Souza Santos, Marcela; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim; Salomon, Dor

    2016-07-26

    Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells. The pan-genome of the genus Vibrio is a potential reservoir of unidentified toxins that can provide insight into how members of this genus have successfully risen as emerging pathogens worldwide. We focused on Vibrio proteolyticus, a marine bacterium that was previously implicated in virulence toward marine animals, and characterized its interaction with eukaryotic cells. We found that this bacterium causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and leads to cell death. Using a

  3. HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN PATIENTS WITH PREVIOUS OPEN HEART SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sh. Saitgareev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart Transplantation (HTx to date remains the most effective and radical method of treatment of patients with end-stage heart failure. The defi cit of donor hearts is forcing to resort increasingly to the use of different longterm mechanical circulatory support systems, including as a «bridge» to the follow-up HTx. According to the ISHLT Registry the number of recipients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass surgery increased from 40% in the period from 2004 to 2008 to 49.6% for the period from 2009 to 2015. HTx performed in repeated patients, on the one hand, involves considerable technical diffi culties and high risks; on the other hand, there is often no alternative medical intervention to HTx, and if not dictated by absolute contradictions the denial of the surgery is equivalent to 100% mortality. This review summarizes the results of a number of published studies aimed at understanding the immediate and late results of HTx in patients, previously underwent open heart surgery. The effect of resternotomy during HTx and that of the specifi c features associated with its implementation in recipients previously operated on open heart, and its effects on the immediate and long-term survival were considered in this review. Results of studies analyzing the risk factors for perioperative complications in repeated recipients were also demonstrated. Separately, HTx risks after implantation of prolonged mechanical circulatory support systems were examined. The literature does not allow to clearly defi ning the impact factor of earlier performed open heart surgery on the course of perioperative period and on the prognosis of survival in recipients who underwent HTx. On the other hand, subject to the regular fl ow of HTx and the perioperative period the risks in this clinical situation are justifi ed as a long-term prognosis of recipients previously conducted open heart surgery and are comparable to those of patients who underwent primary HTx. Studies

  4. Fulminant Pneumococcal Pericarditis in a Previously Healthy Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpkov, Cvetan; Nath, Ermin; Moon, Michael; Windram, Jonathan; Graham, Michelle M

    2017-04-01

    Purulent pericarditis is a rare acutely life-threatening condition. Initial symptoms, signs, and investigations can be nonspecific. Echocardiography is invaluable for establishing the diagnosis and initial management. We present a case of a previously healthy patient with purulent pericarditis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in the absence of a primary focus of infection. The patient deteriorated rapidly with cardiac tamponade and septic shock and was managed successfully by a combined medical and surgical approach. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  6. Incidence of Acneform Lesions in Previously Chemically Damaged Persons-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Dabiri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Chemical gas weapons especially nitrogen mustard which was used in Iraq-Iran war against Iranian troops have several harmful effects on skin. Some other chemical agents also can cause acne form lesions on skin. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of acneform in previously chemically damaged soldiers and non chemically damaged persons. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive and analytical study, 180 chemically damaged soldiers, who have been referred to dermatology clinic between 2000 – 2004, and forty non-chemically damaged people, were chosen randomly and examined for acneform lesions. SPSS software was used for statistic analysis of the data. Results: The mean age of the experimental group was 37.5 ± 5.2 and that of the control group was 38.7 ± 5.9 years. The mean percentage of chemical damage in cases was 31 percent and the time after the chemical damage was 15.2 ± 1.1 years. Ninety seven cases (53.9 percent of the subjects and 19 people (47.5 percent of the control group had some degree of acne. No significant correlation was found in incidence, degree of lesions, site of lesions and age of subjects between two groups. No significant correlation was noted between percentage of chemical damage and incidence and degree of lesions in case group. Conclusion: Incidence of acneform lesions among previously chemically injured peoples was not higher than the normal cases.

  7. Intravitreal ranibizumab for diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Caroline Schmidt; Ostri, Christoffer; Brynskov, Troels

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is little information about the efficacy of intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition in vitrectomized eyes. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF (ranibizumab) on diabetic macular oedema in previously vitrectomized eyes. METHODS: A nationwide...... retrospective review of medical records from 2010 to 2013. RESULTS: We identified 33 previously vitrectomized eyes in 28 patients treated with ranibizumab injections for diabetic macular oedema. Median follow-up was 323 days (interquartile range 72-1404 days). Baseline mean visual acuity was 0.57 logMAR (95% CI...... 0.13-1.01) before injections. After an average of 4.7 injections (range 1-15), mean visual acuity remained stable at 0.54 logMAR (95% CI 0.13-0.95) with a mean improvement of 0.03 (p = 0. 45, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.06). In 12 eyes (36%), visual acuity improved 0.1 logMAR or more, in 12 eyes (36%), vision...

  8. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  9. Kidnapping Detection and Recognition in Previous Unknown Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unaware event referred to as kidnapping makes the estimation result of localization incorrect. In a previous unknown environment, incorrect localization result causes incorrect mapping result in Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM by kidnapping. In this situation, the explored area and unexplored area are divided to make the kidnapping recovery difficult. To provide sufficient information on kidnapping, a framework to judge whether kidnapping has occurred and to identify the type of kidnapping with filter-based SLAM is proposed. The framework is called double kidnapping detection and recognition (DKDR by performing two checks before and after the “update” process with different metrics in real time. To explain one of the principles of DKDR, we describe a property of filter-based SLAM that corrects the mapping result of the environment using the current observations after the “update” process. Two classical filter-based SLAM algorithms, Extend Kalman Filter (EKF SLAM and Particle Filter (PF SLAM, are modified to show that DKDR can be simply and widely applied in existing filter-based SLAM algorithms. Furthermore, a technique to determine the adapted thresholds of metrics in real time without previous data is presented. Both simulated and experimental results demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the proposed method.

  10. Efforts to promote vaginal delivery after a previous cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamai, Yoko; Imanishi, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the results of vaginal delivery in patients with a past history of cesarean section. The type of delivery, interventions during delivery, and the prognoses of the mothers and babies were examined in 145 women with a history of cesarean section over the 10-year period from January 2000 to December 2009. A scheduled cesarean section was performed in 27 cases. Vaginal delivery was recommended in 118 cases and the success rate was 94.9% (112/118). Uterine rupture was observed in one patient who experienced a natural rupture at home and whose previous cesarean section was an inverse T incision. No cases required a blood transfusion or hysterectomy. The prognoses of both mothers and babies were good and the vaginal delivery success rate was 94.9%. Uterine rupture was observed in one case. Vaginal delivery with previous cesarean section should be considered in cases with expectation and informed consent. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  11. Social and physical health of homeless adults previously treated for mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, L; Linn, L S

    1988-05-01

    A total of 529 homeless adults in Los Angeles County were surveyed to determine the relationship between their previous use of mental health services and their physical health status, utilization of medical services, personal habits affecting health, experience of injury and victimization, and perceived needs. Homeless adults with a previous psychiatric hospitalization were more likely to have experienced serious physical symptoms during the previous month than those who had used only outpatient mental health services or who had never used mental health services. They reported more reasons for not obtaining needed medical care, were more likely to obtained food from garbage cans, and had the least adequate personal hygiene. However, they did not differ from the other groups on most measures of nutrition, social relations, and financial status. The most frequently expressed needs of the homeless were for improved social relations, employment, shelter, and money.

  12. Incidence of previously undetected disease in routine paediatric otolaryngology admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, H; Robinson, P

    1996-06-01

    The process of clerking routine pre-operative admissions involves the house officer taking a full medical history and performing a full physical examination. The diagnostic yield is thought to be low, and the educational value to the house officer is also small. This study addresses the question as to whether routine physical examination is always indicated. One hundred and nine children admitted for routine Otolaryngology procedures were prospectively studied to identify the importance of examination in the pre-operative assessment of patients. The results showed that 51 per cent of the children admitted had risk factors. The medical history was sufficient to identify these risk factors in all patients with the exception of one cardiac condition. This study concludes that a suitable alternative to the current process of clerking such as a standardized nurse history could be safely and efficiently undertaken. Eliminating the tiny percentage of previously unrecognized disease would be a prerequisite for such a change.

  13. Percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy in a patient with previous esophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre, R A; Scott, J S; Unger, S W

    1991-04-01

    Establishment of a percutaneous endoscopic jejunostomy via direct jejunal puncture was accomplished in a 45-year-old woman five years after a partial esophagectomy with cervical esophagogastrostomy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The patient had recurrence of the cancer at the anastomotic site with subsequent inability to eat, necessitating a feeding tube for prolonged enteral nutrition. Although percutaneous puncture of the jejunum has been previously described, it has been limited to patients who had undergone partial or complete gastrectomies with Bilroth II anastomoses. This case report of direct endoscopic jejunal tube placement in a patient after esophagectomy further establishes this procedure as a viable alternative to surgically placed feeding tubes in patients with altered gastric anatomy.

  14. Surgical treatment of breast cancer in previously augmented patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanas, Yvonne L; Leong, Darren S; Da Lio, Andrew; Waldron, Kathleen; Watson, James P; Chang, Helena; Shaw, William W

    2003-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is increasing each year. Concomitantly, cosmetic breast augmentation has become the second most often performed cosmetic surgical procedure. As the augmented patient population ages, an increasing number of breast cancer cases among previously augmented women can be anticipated. The surgical treatment of these patients is controversial, with several questions remaining unanswered. Is breast conservation therapy feasible in this patient population and can these patients retain their implants? A retrospective review of all breast cancer patients with a history of previous augmentation mammaplasty who were treated at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between 1991 and 2001 was performed. During the study period, 58 patients were treated. Thirty patients (52 percent) were treated with a modified radical mastectomy with implant removal. Twenty-eight patients (48 percent) underwent breast conservation therapy, which consisted of lumpectomy, axillary lymph node dissection, and radiotherapy. Twenty-two of the patients who underwent breast conservation therapy initially retained their implants. Eleven of those 22 patients (50 percent) ultimately required completion mastectomies with implant removal because of implant complications (two patients), local recurrences (five patients), or the inability to obtain negative margins (four patients). Nine additional patients experienced complications resulting from their implants, including contracture, erosion, pain, and rupture. The data illustrate that breast conservation therapy with maintenance of the implant is not ideal for the majority of augmented patients. Breast conservation therapy with explantation and mastopexy might be appropriate for rare patients with large volumes of native breast tissue. Mastectomy with immediate reconstruction might be a more suitable choice for these patients.

  15. Effect of previous induced abortions on postabortion contraception selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Melissa; Roston, Alicia; Keith, Louis; Patel, Ashlesha

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to compare contraceptive method selection in women undergoing their first pregnancy termination versus women undergoing repeat pregnancy termination in an urban abortion clinic. We hypothesized that women undergoing repeat abortions will select highly effective contraceptives (intrauterine device, subdermal implant, tubal ligation) more often than patients undergoing their first abortion. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all women undergoing first-trimester surgical abortion at John H. Stroger, Jr., Hospital of Cook County from October 1, 2009, to October 31, 2011. We compared contraceptive method selection in the postabortion period after receipt of contraceptive counseling for 7466 women, stratifying women by history of no prior abortion versus one or more abortions. Of the 7466 women, 48.6% (3625) had no history of previous abortion. After controlling for age, race and number of living children, women with a history of abortion were more likely to select a highly effective method [odds ratio (OR) 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.33]. Most significantly, having living children was the strongest predictor of a highly effective method with an OR of 3.17 (95% CI 2.69-3.75). In women having a first-trimester abortion, the factors most predictive of selecting a highly effective method for postabortion contraception include history of previous abortion and having living children. The latter holds true independent of abortion history. This paper is unique in its ability to demonstrate the high interest in highly effective contraceptive selection in high-risk, low-income women with prior abortion history. Efforts to integrate provision of highly effective methods of contraception for postabortion care are essential for the reduction of future unintended pregnancies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Typing DNA profiles from previously enhanced fingerprints using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Jennifer E L; Taylor, Duncan; Handt, Oliva; Linacre, Adrian

    2017-07-01

    Fingermarks are a source of human identification both through the ridge patterns and DNA profiling. Typing nuclear STR DNA markers from previously enhanced fingermarks provides an alternative method of utilising the limited fingermark deposit that can be left behind during a criminal act. Dusting with fingerprint powders is a standard method used in classical fingermark enhancement and can affect DNA data. The ability to generate informative DNA profiles from powdered fingerprints using direct PCR swabs was investigated. Direct PCR was used as the opportunity to generate usable DNA profiles after performing any of the standard DNA extraction processes is minimal. Omitting the extraction step will, for many samples, be the key to success if there is limited sample DNA. DNA profiles were generated by direct PCR from 160 fingermarks after treatment with one of the following dactyloscopic fingerprint powders: white hadonite; silver aluminium; HiFi Volcano silk black; or black magnetic fingerprint powder. This was achieved by a combination of an optimised double-swabbing technique and swab media, omission of the extraction step to minimise loss of critical low-template DNA, and additional AmpliTaq Gold ® DNA polymerase to boost the PCR. Ninety eight out of 160 samples (61%) were considered 'up-loadable' to the Australian National Criminal Investigation DNA Database (NCIDD). The method described required a minimum of working steps, equipment and reagents, and was completed within 4h. Direct PCR allows the generation of DNA profiles from enhanced prints without the need to increase PCR cycle numbers beyond manufacturer's recommendations. Particular emphasis was placed on preventing contamination by applying strict protocols and avoiding the use of previously used fingerprint brushes. Based on this extensive survey, the data provided indicate minimal effects of any of these four powders on the chance of obtaining DNA profiles from enhanced fingermarks. Copyright © 2017

  17. Is Previous Respiratory Disease a Risk Factor for Lung Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Rachel; Schüz, Joachim; Straif, Kurt; Stücker, Isabelle; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Brenner, Darren R.; De Matteis, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Guida, Florence; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Siemiatycki, Jack; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Zaridze, David; Field, John K.; McLaughlin, John; Demers, Paul; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Peter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Kendzia, Benjamin; Peters, Susan; Behrens, Thomas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brüning, Thomas; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Previous respiratory diseases have been associated with increased risk of lung cancer. Respiratory conditions often co-occur and few studies have investigated multiple conditions simultaneously. Objectives: Investigate lung cancer risk associated with chronic bronchitis, emphysema, tuberculosis, pneumonia, and asthma. Methods: The SYNERGY project pooled information on previous respiratory diseases from 12,739 case subjects and 14,945 control subjects from 7 case–control studies conducted in Europe and Canada. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between individual diseases adjusting for co-occurring conditions, and patterns of respiratory disease diagnoses and lung cancer. Analyses were stratified by sex, and adjusted for age, center, ever-employed in a high-risk occupation, education, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and time since quitting smoking. Measurements and Main Results: Chronic bronchitis and emphysema were positively associated with lung cancer, after accounting for other respiratory diseases and smoking (e.g., in men: odds ratio [OR], 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20–1.48 and OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.21–1.87, respectively). A positive relationship was observed between lung cancer and pneumonia diagnosed 2 years or less before lung cancer (OR, 3.31; 95% CI, 2.33–4.70 for men), but not longer. Co-occurrence of chronic bronchitis and emphysema and/or pneumonia had a stronger positive association with lung cancer than chronic bronchitis “only.” Asthma had an inverse association with lung cancer, the association being stronger with an asthma diagnosis 5 years or more before lung cancer compared with shorter. Conclusions: Findings from this large international case–control consortium indicate that after accounting for co-occurring respiratory diseases, chronic bronchitis and emphysema continue to have a positive association with lung cancer. PMID:25054566

  18. The Influence of Previous Strategy Use on Individuals' Subsequent Strategy Choice: Findings from a Numerosity Judgement Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viki Schillemans

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We conducted two experiments to test whether individuals' strategy choices in a numerosity judgement task are affected by the strategy that was used on the previous trials. Both experiments demonstrated that a previously used strategy indeed influences individuals' strategy choices. Individuals were more inclined to reuse the strategy that they had used on the previous trials. However, this study also demonstrated that this influence is limited to those items that do not have a strong association with a specific strategy. Possible underlying mechanisms for the observed effect are discussed.

  19. Visual working memory supports the inhibition of previously processed information: evidence from preview search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aidroos, Naseem; Emrich, Stephen M; Ferber, Susanne; Pratt, Jay

    2012-06-01

    In four experiments we assessed whether visual working memory (VWM) maintains a record of previously processed visual information, allowing old information to be inhibited, and new information to be prioritized. Specifically, we evaluated whether VWM contributes to the inhibition (i.e., visual marking) of previewed distractors in a preview search. We evaluated this proposal by testing three predictions. First, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that preview inhibition is more effective when the number of previewed distractors is below VWM capacity than above; an effect that can only be observed at small preview set sizes (Experiment 2A) and when observers are allowed to move their eyes freely (Experiment 2B). Second, Experiment 3 shows that, when quantified as the number of inhibited distractors, the magnitude of the preview effect is stable across different search difficulties. Third, Experiment 4 demonstrates that individual differences in preview inhibition are correlated with individual differences in VWM capacity. These findings provide converging evidence that VWM supports the inhibition of previewed distractors. More generally, these findings demonstrate how VWM contributes to the efficiency of human visual information processing--VWM prioritizes new information by inhibiting old information from being reselected for attention.

  20. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  1. Cerebral Metastasis from a Previously Undiagnosed Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Biroli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain metastases arise in 10%–40% of all cancer patients. Up to one third of the patients do not have previous cancer history. We report a case of a 67-years-old male patient who presented with confusion, tremor, and apraxia. A brain MRI revealed an isolated right temporal lobe lesion. A thorax-abdomen-pelvis CT scan showed no primary lesion. The patient underwent a craniotomy with gross-total resection. Histopathology revealed an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma. A colonoscopy found no primary lesion, but a PET-CT scan showed elevated FDG uptake in the appendiceal nodule. A right hemicolectomy was performed, and the specimen showed a moderately differentiated mucinous appendiceal adenocarcinoma. Whole brain radiotherapy was administrated. A subsequent thorax-abdomen CT scan revealed multiple lung and hepatic metastasis. Seven months later, the patient died of disease progression. In cases of undiagnosed primary lesions, patients present in better general condition, but overall survival does not change. Eventual identification of the primary tumor does not affect survival. PET/CT might be a helpful tool in detecting lesions of the appendiceal region. To the best of our knowledge, such a case was never reported in the literature, and an appendiceal malignancy should be suspected in patients with brain metastasis from an undiagnosed primary tumor.

  2. Influence of Previous Knowledge in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Aranguren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the influence of study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT, 1974 performance. Several hypotheses were postulated to explore the possible effects of previous knowledge in TTCT verbal and TTCT figural university students’ outcomes. Participants in this study included 418 students from five study fields: Psychology;Philosophy and Literature, Music; Engineering; and Journalism and Advertising (Communication Sciences. Results found in this research seem to indicate that there in none influence of the study field, expertise and recreational activities participation in neither of the TTCT tests. Instead, the findings seem to suggest some kind of interaction between certain skills needed to succeed in specific studies fields and performance on creativity tests, such as the TTCT. These results imply that TTCT is a useful and valid instrument to measure creativity and that some cognitive process involved in innovative thinking can be promoted using different intervention programs in schools and universities regardless the students study field.

  3. New Strategies for Cultivation and Detection of Previously Uncultured Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Bradley S.; Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Wertz, John T.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Breznak, John A.

    2004-01-01

    An integrative approach was used to obtain pure cultures of previously uncultivated members of the divisions Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia from agricultural soil and from the guts of wood-feeding termites. Some elements of the cultivation procedure included the following: the use of agar media with little or no added nutrients; relatively long periods of incubation (more than 30 days); protection of cells from exogenous peroxides; and inclusion of humic acids or a humic acid analogue (anthraquinone disulfonate) and quorum-signaling compounds (acyl homoserine lactones) in growth media. The bacteria were incubated in the presence of air and in hypoxic (1 to 2% O2 [vol/vol]) and anoxic atmospheres. Some bacteria were incubated with elevated concentrations of CO2 (5% [vol/vol]). Significantly more Acidobacteria were found on isolation plates that had been incubated with 5% CO2. A simple, high-throughput, PCR-based surveillance method (plate wash PCR) was developed. This method greatly facilitated detection and ultimate isolation of target bacteria from as many as 1,000 colonies of nontarget microbes growing on the same agar plates. Results illustrate the power of integrating culture methods with molecular techniques to isolate bacteria from phylogenetic groups underrepresented in culture. PMID:15294811

  4. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  5. Multispecies Coevolution Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Previous Search History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danping Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid coevolution particle swarm optimization algorithm with dynamic multispecies strategy based on K-means clustering and nonrevisit strategy based on Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree (called MCPSO-PSH is proposed. Previous search history memorized into the Binary Space Partitioning fitness tree can effectively restrain the individuals’ revisit phenomenon. The whole population is partitioned into several subspecies and cooperative coevolution is realized by an information communication mechanism between subspecies, which can enhance the global search ability of particles and avoid premature convergence to local optimum. To demonstrate the power of the method, comparisons between the proposed algorithm and state-of-the-art algorithms are grouped into two categories: 10 basic benchmark functions (10-dimensional and 30-dimensional, 10 CEC2005 benchmark functions (30-dimensional, and a real-world problem (multilevel image segmentation problems. Experimental results show that MCPSO-PSH displays a competitive performance compared to the other swarm-based or evolutionary algorithms in terms of solution accuracy and statistical tests.

  6. High-Grade Leiomyosarcoma Arising in a Previously Replanted Limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany J. Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoma development has been associated with genetics, irradiation, viral infections, and immunodeficiency. Reports of sarcomas arising in the setting of prior trauma, as in burn scars or fracture sites, are rare. We report a case of a leiomyosarcoma arising in an arm that had previously been replanted at the level of the elbow joint following traumatic amputation when the patient was eight years old. He presented twenty-four years later with a 10.8 cm mass in the replanted arm located on the volar forearm. The tumor was completely resected and pathology examination showed a high-grade, subfascial spindle cell sarcoma diagnosed as a grade 3 leiomyosarcoma with stage pT2bNxMx. The patient underwent treatment with brachytherapy, reconstruction with a free flap, and subsequently chemotherapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of leiomyosarcoma developing in a replanted extremity. Development of leiomyosarcoma in this case could be related to revascularization, scar formation, or chronic injury after replantation. The patient remains healthy without signs of recurrence at three-year follow-up.

  7. Coronary collateral vessels in patients with previous myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Ozaki, M.

    1987-01-01

    To assess the degree of collateral vessels after myocardial infarction, coronary angiograms, left ventriculograms, and exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigrams of 36 patients with previous myocardial infarction were reviewed. All 36 patients had total occlusion of infarct-related coronary artery and no more than 70% stenosis in other coronary arteries. In 19 of 36 patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group A), good collaterals were observed in 10 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 2 patients. In 17 of 36 patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise (Group B), good collaterals were seen in 2 patients, intermediate collaterals in 7 patients, and poor collaterals in 8 patients (p less than 0.025). Left ventricular contractions in the infarcted area were normal or hypokinetic in 10 patients and akinetic or dyskinetic in 9 patients in Group A. In Group B, 1 patient had hypokinetic contraction and 16 patients had akinetic or dyskinetic contraction (p less than 0.005). Thus, patients with transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise had well developed collaterals and preserved left ventricular contraction, compared to those in patients without transient reduction of thallium-201 uptake in the infarcted area during exercise. These results suggest that the presence of viable myocardium in the infarcted area might be related to the degree of collateral vessels

  8. Motivational activities based on previous knowledge of students

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, J. A.; Gómez-Robledo, L.; Huertas, R.; Perales, F. J.

    2014-07-01

    Academic results depend strongly on the individual circumstances of students: background, motivation and aptitude. We think that academic activities conducted to increase motivation must be tuned to the special situation of the students. Main goal of this work is analyze the students in the first year of the Degree in Optics and Optometry in the University of Granada and the suitability of an activity designed for those students. Initial data were obtained from a survey inquiring about the reasons to choose this degree, their knowledge of it, and previous academic backgrounds. Results show that: 1) the group is quite heterogeneous, since students have very different background. 2) Reasons to choose the Degree in Optics and Optometry are also very different, and in many cases were selected as a second option. 3) Knowledge and motivations about the Degree are in general quite low. Trying to increase the motivation of the students we designed an academic activity in which we show different topics studied in the Degree. Results show that students that have been involved in this activity are the most motivated and most satisfied with their election of the degree.

  9. Pertussis-associated persistent cough in previously vaccinated children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Principi, Nicola; Litt, David; Terranova, Leonardo; Picca, Marina; Malvaso, Concetta; Vitale, Cettina; Fry, Norman K; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the role of Bordetella pertussis infection, 96 otherwise healthy 7- to 17-year-old subjects who were suffering from a cough lasting from 2 to 8 weeks were prospectively recruited. At enrolment, a nasopharyngeal swab and an oral fluid sample were obtained to search for pertussis infection by the detection of B. pertussis DNA and/or an elevated titre of anti-pertussis toxin IgG. Evidence of pertussis infection was found in 18 (18.7 %; 95 % confidence interval, 11.5-28.0) cases. In 15 cases, the disease occurred despite booster administration. In two cases, pertussis was diagnosed less than 2 years after the booster injection, whereas in the other cases it was diagnosed between 2 and 9 years after the booster dose. This study used non-invasive testing to show that pertussis is one of the most important causes of long-lasting cough in school-age subjects. Moreover, the protection offered by acellular pertussis vaccines currently wanes more rapidly than previously thought.

  10. Optimal temperature for malaria transmission is dramaticallylower than previously predicted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Eerin A.; Paaijmans, Krijin P.; Johnson, Leah R.; Balzer, Christian; Ben-Horin, Tal; de Moor, Emily; McNally, Amy; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.; Smith, Thomas C.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of mosquito vectors and malaria parasites affect the incidence, seasonal transmission and geographical range of malaria. Most malaria models to date assume constant or linear responses of mosquito and parasite life-history traits to temperature, predicting optimal transmission at 31 °C. These models are at odds with field observations of transmission dating back nearly a century. We build a model with more realistic ecological assumptions about the thermal physiology of insects. Our model, which includes empirically derived nonlinear thermal responses, predicts optimal malaria transmission at 25 °C (6 °C lower than previous models). Moreover, the model predicts that transmission decreases dramatically at temperatures > 28 °C, altering predictions about how climate change will affect malaria. A large data set on malaria transmission risk in Africa validates both the 25 °C optimum and the decline above 28 °C. Using these more accurate nonlinear thermal-response models will aid in understanding the effects of current and future temperature regimes on disease transmission.

  11. Removal of trace organic chemicals in onsite wastewater soil treatment units: a laboratory experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerlink, Jennifer; Martínez-Hernández, Virtudes; Higgins, Christopher P; Drewes, Jörg E

    2012-10-15

    Onsite wastewater treatment is used by 20% of residences in the United States. The ability of these systems, specifically soil treatment units (STUs), to attenuate trace organic chemicals (TOrCs) is not well understood. TOrCs released by STUs pose a potential risk to downstream groundwater and hydraulically-connected surface water that may be used as a drinking water source. A series of bench-scale experiments were conducted using sand columns to represent STUs and to evaluate the efficacy of TOrC attenuation as a function of hydraulic loading rate (1, 4, 8, 12, and 30 cm/day). Each hydraulic loading rate was examined using triplicate experimental columns. Columns were initially seeded with raw wastewater to establish a microbial community, after which they were fed with synthetic wastewater and spiked with 17 TOrCs, in four equal doses per day, to provide a consistent influent water quality. After an initial start-up phase, effluent from all columns consistently demonstrated >90% reductions in dissolved organic carbon and nearly complete (>85%) oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, comparable to the performance of field STUs. The results of this study suggest STUs are capable of attenuating many TOrCs present in domestic wastewater, but attenuation is compound-specific. A subset of TOrCs exhibited an inverse relationship with hydraulic loading rate and attenuation efficiency. Atenolol, cimetidine, and TCPP were more effectively attenuated over time in each experiment, suggesting that the microbial community evolved to a stage where these TOrCs were more effectively biotransformed. Aerobic conditions as compared to anaerobic conditions resulted in more efficient attenuation of acetaminophen and cimetidine. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fazio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B, bad (Group D, and minimal handling (Group C conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation. Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation. Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.

  13. Repeat immigration: A previously unobserved source of heterogeneity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhya, Siddartha; Scott, Kirk; Smith, Christopher D

    2017-07-01

    Register data allow for nuanced analyses of heterogeneities between sub-groups which are not observable in other data sources. One heterogeneity for which register data is particularly useful is in identifying unique migration histories of immigrant populations, a group of interest across disciplines. Years since migration is a commonly used measure of integration in studies seeking to understand the outcomes of immigrants. This study constructs detailed migration histories to test whether misclassified migrations may mask important heterogeneities. In doing so, we identify a previously understudied group of migrants called repeat immigrants, and show that they differ systematically from permanent immigrants. In addition, we quantify the degree to which migration information is misreported in the registers. The analysis is carried out in two steps. First, we estimate income trajectories for repeat immigrants and permanent immigrants to understand the degree to which they differ. Second, we test data validity by cross-referencing migration information with changes in income to determine whether there are inconsistencies indicating misreporting. From the first part of the analysis, the results indicate that repeat immigrants systematically differ from permanent immigrants in terms of income trajectories. Furthermore, income trajectories differ based on the way in which years since migration is calculated. The second part of the analysis suggests that misreported migration events, while present, are negligible. Repeat immigrants differ in terms of income trajectories, and may differ in terms of other outcomes as well. Furthermore, this study underlines that Swedish registers provide a reliable data source to analyze groups which are unidentifiable in other data sources.

  14. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  15. Human stool contains a previously unrecognized diversity of novel astroviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guoyan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human astroviruses are a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease. Since their discovery in 1975, 8 closely related serotypes have been described in humans, and more recently, two new astrovirus species, astrovirus MLB1 and astrovirus VA1, were identified in diarrhea patients. In this study, we used consensus astrovirus primers targeting the RNA polymerase to define the diversity of astroviruses present in pediatric patients with diarrhea on two continents. From 416 stool specimens comprising two different cohorts from Vellore, India, 35 samples were positive. These positive samples were analyzed further by either sequencing of the ~400 bp amplicon generated by the consensus PCR or by performing additional RT-PCR specific for individual astroviruses. 19 samples contained the classic human astrovirus serotypes 1-8 while 7 samples were positive for the recently described astrovirus MLB1. Strikingly, from samples that were positive in the consensus PCR screen but negative in the specific PCR assays, five samples contained sequences that were highly divergent from all previously described astroviruses. Sequence analysis suggested that three novel astroviruses, tentatively named astroviruses VA2, MLB2 and VA3, were present in these five patient specimens (AstV-VA2 in 2 patients, AstV-MLB2 in 2 patients and AstV-VA3 in one patient. Using the same RT-PCR screening strategy, 13 samples out of 466 tested stool specimens collected in St. Louis, USA were positive. Nine samples were positive for the classic human astroviruses. One sample was positive for AstV-VA2, and 3 samples were positive for AstV-MLB2 demonstrating that these two viruses are globally widespread. Collectively, these findings underscore the tremendous diversity of astroviruses present in fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Given that a significant fraction of diarrhea etiologies is currently unknown, it is plausible that these or other yet unrecognized astroviruses may be

  16. Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease: analysis of previously proposed risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Harlak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease is a source of one of the most common surgical problems among young adults. While male gender, obesity, occupations requiring sitting, deep natal clefts, excessive body hair, poor body hygiene and excessive sweating are described as the main risk factors for this disease, most of these need to be verified with a clinical trial. The present study aimed to evaluate the value and effect of these factors on pilonidal disease. METHOD: Previously proposed main risk factors were evaluated in a prospective case control study that included 587 patients with pilonidal disease and 2,780 healthy control patients. RESULTS: Stiffness of body hair, number of baths and time spent seated per day were the three most predictive risk factors. Adjusted odds ratios were 9.23, 6.33 and 4.03, respectively (p<0.001. With an adjusted odds ratio of 1.3 (p<.001, body mass index was another risk factor. Family history was not statistically different between the groups and there was no specific occupation associated with the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hairy people who sit down for more than six hours a day and those who take a bath two or less times per week are at a 219-fold increased risk for sacrococcygeal pilonidal disease than those without these risk factors. For people with a great deal of hair, there is a greater need for them to clean their intergluteal sulcus. People who engage in work that requires sitting in a seat for long periods of time should choose more comfortable seats and should also try to stand whenever possible.

  17. Gastrointestinal tolerability with ibandronate after previous weekly bisphosphonate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Derman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Richard Derman1, Joseph D Kohles2, Ann Babbitt31Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Hospital, Newark, DE, USA; 2Roche, Nutley, NJ, USA; 3Greater Portland Bone and Joint Specialists, Portland, ME, USAAbstract: Data from two open-label trials (PRIOR and CURRENT of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteopenia were evaluated to assess whether monthly oral and quarterly intravenous (IV ibandronate dosing improved self-reported gastrointestinal (GI tolerability for patients who had previously experienced GI irritation with bisphosphonate (BP use. In PRIOR, women who had discontinued daily or weekly BP treatment due to GI intolerance received monthly oral or quarterly IV ibandronate for 12 months. The CURRENT subanalysis included women receiving weekly BP treatment who switched to monthly oral ibandronate for six months. GI symptom severity and frequency were assessed using the Osteoporosis Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire™. In PRIOR, mean GI tolerability scores increased significantly at month 1 from screening for both treatment groups (oral: 79.3 versus 54.1; IV: 84.4 versus 51.0; p < 0.001 for both. Most patients reported improvement in GI symptom severity and frequency from baseline at all post-screening assessments (>90% at Month 10. In the CURRENT subanalysis >60% of patients reported improvements in heartburn or acid reflux and >70% indicated improvement in other stomach upset at month 6. Postmenopausal women with GI irritability with daily or weekly BPs experienced improvement in symptoms with extended dosing monthly or quarterly ibandronate compared with baseline.Keywords: ibandronate, osteoporosis, bisphosphonate, gastrointestinal

  18. Volume 10, Issue 11-12© 2001 WILEY-VCH Verlag Berlin GmbH, Fed. Rep. of GermanySave Title to My ProfileSet E-Mail Alert Previous Issue | Next Issue > Full Issue Listing-->Volume 10, Issue 11-12, Pages 887-984(November 2001)Original PaperImaging of atomic orbitals with the Atomic Force Microscope - experiments and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessibl, F. J.; Bielefeldt, H.; Hembacher, S.; Mannhart, J.

    2001-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a mechanical profiling technique that allows to image surfaces with atomic resolution. Recent progress in reducing the noise of this technique has led to a resolution level where previously undetectable symmetries of the images of single atoms are observed. These symmetries are related to the nature of the interatomic forces. The Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is studied by AFM with various tips and AFM images are simulated with chemical and electrostatic model forces. The calculation of images from the tip-sample forces is explained in detail and the implications of the imaging parameters are discussed. Because the structure of the Si(111)-(7 × 7) surface is known very well, the shape of the adatom images is used to determine the tip structure. The observability of atomic orbitals by AFM and scanning tunneling microscopy is discussed.

  19. Repetition of previously novel melodies sometimes increases both remember and know responses in recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, J M; Kaminska, Z; Dixon, M; Java, R I

    1996-09-01

    Recognition memory for previously novel melodies was tested in three experiments in which subjects usedremember andknow responses to report experiences of recollection, or of familiarity in the absence of recollection, for each melody they recognized. Some of the melodies were taken from Polish folk songs and presented vocally, but without the words. Others were taken from obscure pieces of classical music, presented as single-line melodies. Prior to the test, the melodies were repeated for varying numbers of study trials. Repetition of the Polish melodies increased both remember and know responses, while repetition of classical melodies increased remember but not know responses. When subjects were instructed to report guesses, guess responses were inversely related to remember and know responses and there were more guesses to lures than to targets. These findings establish that remembering and knowing are fully independent functionally and, by the same token, they provide further evidence against the idea that response exclusivity causes increases in remembering to force decreases in knowing. The findings also suggest that simultaneous increases in remembering and knowing occurred because the Polish melodies came from a genre for which the subjects had relatively little previous experience.

  20. New study reveals twice as many asteroids as previously believed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-05-01

    The ISO satellite Credits: ESA ISO An artist's impression of the ISO spacecraft. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search indicates that there are between 1.1 million and 1.9 million 'space rocks' larger than 1 kilometre in diameter in the so-called 'main asteroid belt', about twice as many as previously believed. However, astronomers think it is premature to revise current assessments of the risk of the Earth being hit by an asteroid. Despite being in our own Solar System, asteroids can be more difficult to study than very distant galaxies. With sizes of up to one thousand kilometres in diameter, the brightness of these rocky objects may vary considerably in just a few minutes. They move very quickly with respect to the stars - they have been dubbed 'vermin of the sky' because they often appear as trails on long exposure images. This elusiveness explains why their actual number and size distribution remains uncertain. Most of the almost 40,000 asteroids catalogued so far (1) orbit the Sun forming the 'main asteroid belt', between Mars and Jupiter, too far to pose any threat to Earth. However, space-watchers do keep a closer eye on another category of asteroids, the 'Near Earth Asteroids' or 'NEAs', which are those whose orbits cross, or are likely to cross, that of our planet. The ISO Deep Asteroid Search (IDAS), the first systematic search for these objects performed in infrared light, focused on main belt asteroids. Because it is impossible to simply point the telescope at the whole main belt and count, astronomers choose selected regions of the belt and then use a theoretical model to extrapolate the data to the whole belt. Edward Tedesco (TerraSystems, Inc., New Hampshire, United States) and François-Xavier Desert (Observatoire de Grenoble, France) observed their main belt selected areas in 1996 and 1997 with ESA's ISO. They found that in the middle region of the belt the density of asteroids was 160 asteroids larger than 1 kilometre per square degree - an area of the

  1. Initial results of CyberKnife treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himei, Kengo; Katsui, Kuniaki; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CyberKnife for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer. Thirty-one patients with recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer were treated with a CyberKnife from July 1999 to March 2002 at Okayama Kyokuto Hospital were retrospectively studied. The accumulated dose was 28-80 Gy (median 60 Gy). The interval between CyberKnife treatment and previous radiotherapy was 0.4-429.5 months (median 16.3 months). Primary lesions were nasopharynx: 7, maxillary sinus: 6, tongue: 5, ethmoid sinus: 3, and others: 1. The pathology was squamous cell carcinoma: 25, adenoid cystic carcinoma: 4, and others: 2. Symptoms were pain: 8, and nasal bleeding: 2. The prescribed dose was 15.0-40.3 Gy (median 32.3 Gy) as for the marginal dose. The response rate (complete response (CR)+partial response (PR)) and local control rate (CR+PR+no change (NC)) was 74% and 94% respectively. Pain disappeared for 4 cases, relief was obtained for 4 cases and no change for 2 cases and nasal bleeding disappeared for 2 cases for an improvement of symptoms. An adverse effects were observed as mucositis in 5 cases and neck swelling in one case. Prognosis of recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer was estimated as poor. Our early experience shows that CyberKnife is expected to be feasible treatment for recurrent previously irradiated head and neck cancer, and for the reduction adverse effects and maintenance of useful quality of life (QOL) for patients. (author)

  2. The emotional harbinger effect: Poor context memory for cues that previously predicted something arousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Mara; Knight, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    A key function of memory is to use past experience to predict when something important might happen next. Indeed, cues that previously predicted arousing events (emotional harbingers) garner more attention than other cues. However, the current series of five experiments demonstrates that people have poorer memory for the context of emotional harbinger cues than of neutral harbinger cues. Participants first learned that some harbinger cues (neutral tones or faces) predicted emotionally arousing pictures and others predicted neutral pictures. Then they studied associations between the harbinger cues and new contextual details. They were worse at remembering associations with emotional harbingers than with neutral harbingers. Memory was impaired not only for the association between emotional harbingers and nearby digits but also for contextual details that overlapped with or were intrinsic to the emotional harbingers. However, new cues that were inherently emotionally arousing did not yield the same memory impairments as the emotional harbingers. Thus, emotional harbinger cues seem to suffer more from proactive interference than do neutral harbinger cues, impairing formation of new associations with cues that previously predicted something arousing. PMID:19102596

  3. Improvements to previous algorithms to predict gene structure and isoform concentrations using Affymetrix Exon arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aramburu Ander

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exon arrays provide a way to measure the expression of different isoforms of genes in an organism. Most of the procedures to deal with these arrays are focused on gene expression or on exon expression. Although the only biological analytes that can be properly assigned a concentration are transcripts, there are very few algorithms that focus on them. The reason is that previously developed summarization methods do not work well if applied to transcripts. In addition, gene structure prediction, i.e., the correspondence between probes and novel isoforms, is a field which is still unexplored. Results We have modified and adapted a previous algorithm to take advantage of the special characteristics of the Affymetrix exon arrays. The structure and concentration of transcripts -some of them possibly unknown- in microarray experiments were predicted using this algorithm. Simulations showed that the suggested modifications improved both specificity (SP and sensitivity (ST of the predictions. The algorithm was also applied to different real datasets showing its effectiveness and the concordance with PCR validated results. Conclusions The proposed algorithm shows a substantial improvement in the performance over the previous version. This improvement is mainly due to the exploitation of the redundancy of the Affymetrix exon arrays. An R-Package of SPACE with the updated algorithms have been developed and is freely available.

  4. 75 FR 39143 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University); AST...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... (previously Precision Helicopters, LLC); Robinson Air Crane, Inc.; San Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins... (Previously Hawkins & Powers Aviation); S.M. &T. Aircraft (Previously Us Helicopter Inc., UNC Helicopters, Inc...

  5. Geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford University. Third annual report for the period October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.

    1983-09-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: heat extraction from hydrothermal reservoirs; radon reservoir engineering; well test analysis and bench scale experiments; field applications; workshop, seminars, and technical information; reinjection technology; and seismic monitoring of vapor/liquid interfaces. (MHR)

  6. The Belle II Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, J

    2017-01-01

    Set to begin data taking at the end of 2018, the Belle II experiment is the next-generation B-factory experiment hosted at KEK in Tsukuba, Japan. The experiment represents the cumulative effort from the collaboration of experimental and detector physics, computing, and software development. Taking everything learned from the previous Belle experiment, which ran from 1998 to 2010, Belle II aims to probe deeper than ever before into the field of heavy quark physics. By achieving an integrated luminosity of 50 ab−1 and accumulating 50 times more data than the previous experiment across its lifetime, along with a rewritten analysis framework, the Belle II experiment will push the high precision frontier of high energy physics. This paper will give an overview of the key components and development activities that make the Belle II experiment possible.

  7. Different Pathways to Juvenile Delinquency: Characteristics of Early and Late Starters in a Sample of Previously Incarcerated Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alltucker, Kevin W.; Bullis, Michael; Close, Daniel; Yovanoff, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We examined the differences between early and late start juvenile delinquents in a sample of 531 previously incarcerated youth in Oregon's juvenile justice system. Data were analyzed with logistic regression to predict early start delinquency based on four explanatory variables: foster care experience, family criminality, special education…

  8. Clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Riza Odabasi

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine clinical outcomes of Laparoscopically Assisted Vaginal Hysterectomy (LAVH at patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery.\tDesign: A clinical observational, prospective, non randomised trial comparing outcomes of 13 patients who had previous abdominopelvic surgery with outcomes of 19 patients who had not surgery.\tSetting: Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.\tPatients: Thirty-two subjects [average age 51,1±6,9 (37-66] who had indication of total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral\tsalpingooferectomy due to benign pathologies.\tInterventions: According to ACOG, LAVH was performed by using the Garry technique at the trocar insertions, the Reich technique\tat the laparoscopic phase and the Heaney technique at the vaginal phase by the same operator. After adhesiolysis and diagnostic procedures, ureters were dissected medially. By coagulating, bilateral round and infundibulopelvic ligaments were cut after the\tmobilisation of bladder. The operation was completed by the same operation team by vaginal approach consequently. At all operations, 80 W unipolar or 150 W bipolar diathermic dissection and 25-35 W unipolar diathermic cutting were performed.\tMain outcome measures: Age, parity, menopausal status, preoperative indications, type of previous abdominopelvic surgey and incision, intraoperative indications, adhesion scores, rate of unintended laparotomy, operative time, uterus weight, loss of blood,\tcomplications, postoperative pain scores and analgesic requirements, time necessary for returning to normal intestinal function, length of hospitalisation and rate of readmission to hospital.\tRESULTS: When compared with the patients who had not previous abdominopelvic surgery, all adhesion scores, uterus weight, operative time and the number of total postoperative complications were found significantly high at patients who had previous\tsurgery. Loss of blood, the rate

  9. Pressure pain threshold changes after repeated mechano-nociceptive stimulation of the trapezius muscle: possible influence of previous pain experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölund, Bengt H; Persson, Ann L

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relation between repeated noxious pressure over the trapezius muscle and changes in pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in a before-after trial design. A conditioning series of 30 mechano-nociceptive stimuli was applied manually with a handheld algometer probe, and PPTs were measured ...

  10. Wellness Tourism among Seniors in Taiwan: Previous Experience, Service Encounter Expectations, Organizational Characteristics, Employee Characteristics, and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaung-Hwa Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the influence of the service encounter expectations of senior customers during wellness tours on customer satisfaction. The organizational attributes of hotels, organizational characteristics and employee characteristics, were adopted as mediating variables. A total of 346 valid questionnaires were retrieved from 50 year-old and above seniors in Taiwan. The results showed that the service encounter expectations of seniors had an indirect influence on customer satisfaction and the organizational attributes mediated the service encounter expectations of seniors and customer satisfaction. The moment of truth in the interactions between service staff members and seniors represents the pivotal management implication of this study.

  11. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  12. Type I Thyroplasty in Previously Irradiated Patients: Assessing Safety and Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, David E; Al-Bar, Mohammad H

    2015-10-01

    (1) Review and report our experience performing medialization thyroplasty (MT) in previously irradiated patients and (2) compare complications and voice outcomes in 2 cohorts (irradiated vs nonradiated) to evaluate safety and efficacy. Case series with chart review. Academic medical center. All patients (44 total) who underwent MT from 2011 to 2015. Demographic data, complications, and acoustic and subjective voice outcome parameters were collected. The complication rates and voice outcome results were compared between 2 cohorts: patients with a history of radiation to the neck versus those with no radiation history. There were 7 previously irradiated patients and 37 nonradiated patients, with median follow-up of 314 and 538 days, respectively. One complication was noted in each group, and this complication rate was not significantly different (P = .26). Both cohorts demonstrated significant postoperative improvement in subjective voice assessment (P = .04, P < .0001) as well as maximum phonation time (P = .02, .001) when compared with preoperative data. Our study suggests that MT can be safely and effectively performed in irradiated patients. We found no statistically significant difference in the safety of performing MT in irradiated versus nonradiated patients, and there was significant improvement in subjective voice parameters and maximum phonation time in both groups. A larger prospective study is required to statistically determine whether the significant improvements in objective parameters seen in the nonradiated group are present in irradiated patients as well. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. Manufacturing of Nanostructured Rings from Previously ECAE-Processed AA5083 Alloy by Isothermal Forging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Luis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of a functional hollow mechanical element or ring of the AA5083 alloy previously equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE processed, which presents a submicrometric microstructure, is dealt with. For this purpose, the design of two isothermal forging dies (preform and final shape is carried out using the design of experiments (DOE methodology. Moreover, after manufacturing the dies and carrying out tests so as to achieve real rings, the mechanical properties of these rings are analysed as well as their microstructure. Furthermore, a comparison between the different forged rings is made from ECAE-processed material subjected to different heat treatments, previous to the forging stage. On the other hand, the ring forging process is modelled through the use of finite element simulation in order to improve the die design and to study the force required for the isothermal forging, the damage value, and the strain the material predeformed by ECAE has undergone. With this present research work, it is intended to improve the knowledge about the mechanical properties of nanostructured material and the applicability of this material to industrial processes that allow the manufacturing of functional parts.

  14. Interventions preventing ankle sprains; previous injury and high-risk sport participation as predictors of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Kasper W; van der Zwaard, Babette C; Finch, Caroline F; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert A L M

    2016-06-01

    To describe the association between participants' person-related potential predictor variables and cumulative compliance with interventions for preventing ankle sprains: neuromuscular training, wearing an ankle brace, and a combined training and bracing. Secondary analysis of compliance data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing measures preventing ankle ligament injuries. Ordinal regression with a backward selection method was used to obtain a descriptive statistical model linking participants' person-related potential predictor variables with the monthly cumulative compliance measurements for three interventions preventing ankle ligament injuries. Having had a previous ankle injury was significantly associated with a higher compliance with all of the preventive measures trialed. Overall compliance with bracing and the combined intervention was significantly lower than the compliance with NM training. Per group analysis found that participating in a high-risk sport, like soccer, basketball, and volleyball, was significantly associated with a higher compliance with bracing, or a combined bracing and NM training. In contrast, participating in a high-risk sport was significantly associated with a lower per group compliance with NM training. Future studies should include at least registration of previous ankle sprains, sport participation (high- or low-risk), experience in NM training, and hours of sport exposure as possible predictors of compliance with interventions preventing ankle sprains. Practitioners should take into account these variables when prescribing preventive neuromuscular training or bracing. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic impairments in spatial learning and memory in rats previously exposed to chlorpyrfos or diisopropylfluorophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, A V; Beck, W D; Warner, S; Vandenhuerk, L; Callahan, P M

    2012-01-01

    The acute toxicity of organophosphates (OPs) has been studied extensively; however, much less attention has been given to the subject of repeated exposures that are not associated with overt signs of toxicity (i.e., subthreshold exposures). The objective of this study was to determine if the protracted spatial learning impairments we have observed previously after repeated subthreshold exposures to the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) or the alkylphosphate OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) persisted for longer periods after exposure. Male Wistar rats (beginning at two months of age) were initially injected subcutaneously with CPF (10.0 or 18.0mg/kg) or DFP (0.25 or 0.75 mg/kg) every other day for 30 days. After an extended OP-free washout period (behavioral testing begun 50 days after the last OP exposure), rats previously exposed to CPF, but not DFP, were impaired in a radial arm maze (RAM) win-shift task as well as a delayed non-match to position procedure. Later experiments (i.e., beginning 140 days after the last OP exposure) revealed impairments in the acquisition of a water maze hidden platform task associated with both OPs. However, only rats previously exposed to DFP were impaired in a second phase of testing when the platform location was changed (indicative of deficits of cognitive flexibility). These results indicate, therefore, that repeated, subthreshold exposures to CPF and DFP may lead to chronic deficits in spatial learning and memory (i.e., long after cholinesterase inhibition has abated) and that insecticide and alkylphosphate-based OPs may have differential effects depending on the cognitive domain evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thyroplasty in the previously irradiated neck: A case series and short-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James R; Orbelo, Diana M; Noel, Daniel B; Pittelko, Rebecca L; Maragos, Nicolas E; Ekbom, Dale C

    2016-08-01

    External beam radiation to the neck is widely considered a contraindication for thyroplasty due to concern for infection and implant extrusion. We present a case series of our experience regarding thyroplasty performed in a previously radiated field. Retrospective case study at a tertiary academic referral center. Using the institution's clinical notes search tool, records from 1999 through 2014 documenting thyroplasty and radiation were identified and reviewed. Patients who received external beam radiation to the operative field prior to thyroplasty were included. Data including duration of radiation, timing and specifics of thyroplasty, postoperative complications, risk factors, clinical voice outcomes, and length of follow-up were collected. Fourteen patients met criteria for the study. Of all thyroplasty performed, 11 were Silastic implants, two were Gore-Tex implants, six had concurrent arytenoid adduction, and one was a midline type II thyroplasty. In terms of risk factors for postoperative complications, two were diabetic, none were active smokers, and one had a splenectomy. All patients were given postoperative antibiotics. The median duration of follow-up after surgery was 14.2 months. No patients were found to have postoperative complications. Pre- and postoperative voice data were assessed. Overall, there was improvement in voice outcomes. Thyroplasty may be an option for patients who have previously undergone external beam radiation. Short-term and intermediate outcomes in our patients showed no postoperative complications, and generally voice or dysphagia improved. Careful selection is still warranted when considering thyroplasty in a previously irradiated neck, and long-term outcomes need further study. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:1849-1853, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Previous Preterm Birth and Current Maternal Complications as a Risk Factor of Subsequent Stillbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boubakari Ibrahimou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the association between previous preterm birth and the risk of stillbirth. Methods. This population-based retrospective cohort study analyzed live births and stillbirth records in Missouri (1989–1997. The main outcome of interest was stillbirth occurrence while the exposures were prior preterm birth. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed using logistic regression. Results. Women who had a previous preterm birth have 63% increased odds of stillbirth in singleton pregnancies and 75% increased odds in twins as compared to those who did not have a preterm birth in a prior pregnancy (AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.41–1.88 and AOR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.20–2.56, respectively. The most significant risk factor for stillbirth in singleton pregnancies was uterine bleeding (AOR = 5.89, 95% CI = 5.13–6.76. In twin pregnancies, it was the condition hydramnios/oligohydramnios (AOR = 4.72, 95% CI = 3.70–6.02. Eclampsia was associated with a heightened risk of stillbirth in singletons (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.41–4.12, but not in twins (AOR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.13–7.00. Black mothers were more likely than white to experience stillbirth (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.99–2.22 for singletons and AOR = 1.51, 95% CI = 1.27–1.79 for twins. Conclusion. Stillbirth is a vital public health issue and its etiology is not well understood. Previous history of preterm birth was found to be associated with future stillbirth. Targeted early medical and obstetric care and interventions among women with preterm birth history may potentially reduce the likelihood of stillbirth.

  18. 75 FR 20933 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ... Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US Helicopters, Inc., UNC Helicopter, Inc... Joaquin Helicopters (previously Hawkins and Powers Aviation, Inc.); S.M.&T. Aircraft (previously US...

  19. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture. Manufacturing Plan for Aminosilicone-based CO{sub 2} Absorption Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Kirkland

    2013-02-01

    A commercially cost effective manufacturing plan was developed for GAP-1m, the aminosilicone-based part of the CO{sub 2} capture solvent described in DE-FE0007502, and the small-scale synthesis of GAP-1m was confirmed. The plan utilizes a current intermediate at SiVance LLC to supply the 2013-2015 needs for GE Global Research. Material from this process was supplied to GE Global Research for evaluation and creation of specifications. GE Global Research has since ordered larger quantities (60 liters) for the larger scale evaluations that start in first quarter, 2013. For GE’s much larger future commercial needs, an improved, more economical pathway to make the product was developed after significant laboratory and literature research. Suppliers were identified for all raw materials.

  20. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of River Protection (ORP) is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, immobilization, and disposal of Hanford's tank waste. Currently there are approximately 56 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wastes awaiting treatment. A key aspect of the River Protection Project (RPP) cleanup mission is to construct and operate the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The WTP will separate the tank waste into high-level and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions, both of which will subsequently be vitrified. The projected throughput capacity of the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility is insufficient to complete the RPP mission in the time frame required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, also known as the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA), i.e. December 31, 2047. Therefore, Supplemental Treatment is required both to meet the TPA treatment requirements as well as to more cost effectively complete the tank waste treatment mission. In addition, the WTP LAW vitrification facility off-gas condensate known as WTP Secondary Waste (WTP-SW) will be generated and enriched in volatile components such as {sup 137}Cs, {sup 129}I, {sup 99}Tc, Cl, F, and SO{sub 4} that volatilize at the vitrification temperature of 1150 C in the absence of a continuous cold cap (that could minimize volatilization). The current waste disposal path for the WTP-SW is to process it through the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) is being considered for immobilization of the ETF concentrate that would be generated by processing the WTP-SW. The focus of this current report is the WTP-SW. FBSR offers a moderate temperature (700-750 C) continuous method by which WTP-SW wastes can be processed irrespective of whether they contain organics, nitrates, sulfates/sulfides, chlorides, fluorides, volatile radionuclides or other aqueous components. The FBSR technology can process these wastes into a crystalline ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  1. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH) 2 . The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH) 2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR OUT-OF-TANK DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE VIA WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY: PHASE I - BENCH SCALE TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K

    2006-03-31

    Tank 48H return to service is critical to the processing of high level waste (HLW) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) management has the goal of returning Tank 48H to routine service by January 2010 or as soon as practical. Tank 48H currently holds legacy material containing organic tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds from the operation of the In-Tank Precipitation process. This material is not compatible with the waste treatment facilities at SRS and must be removed or undergo treatment to destroy the organic compounds before the tank can be returned to Tank Farm service. Tank 48H currently contains {approx}240,000 gallons of alkaline slurry with about 2 wt % potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). The main radioactive component in Tank 48H is {sup 137}Cs. The waste also contains {approx}0.15 wt % Monosodium Titanate (MST) which has adsorbed {sup 90}Sr, U, and Pu isotopes. A System Engineering Evaluation of technologies/ideas for the treatment of TPB identified Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a leading alternative technology to the baseline aggregation approach. Over 75 technologies/ideas were evaluated overall. Forty-one technologies/ideas passed the initial screening evaluation. The 41 technologies/ideas were then combined to 16 complete solutions for the disposition of TPB and evaluated in detail. Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is an aqueous phase process in which soluble or suspended waste components are oxidized using molecular oxygen contained in air. The process operates at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 to 320 C and 7 to 210 atmospheres, respectively. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). The basic flow scheme for a typical WAO system is as follows. The waste solution or slurry is pumped through a high-pressure feed pump. An air stream containing sufficient oxygen to meet the oxygen requirements of the waste stream is injected into the pressurized waste stream, and the air/liquid mixture is preheated to the required reactor inlet temperature. The reactor provides sufficient retention time to allow the oxidation to approach the desired level of organic decomposition. Typical reaction time is about 30-120 minutes. Heat exchangers are routinely employed to recover energy contained in the reactor effluent to preheat the waste feed/air entering the reactor. Auxiliary energy, usually steam, is necessary for startup and can provide trim heat if required. Since the oxidation reactions are exothermic, sufficient energy may be released in the reactor to allow the WAO system to operate without any additional heat input. After cooling, the oxidized reactor effluent passes through a pressure control valve where the pressure is reduced. A separator downstream of the pressure control valve allows the depressurized and cooled vapor to separate from the liquid. Typical industrial WAO applications have a feed flow rate of 1 to 220 gallons per minute (gpm) per train, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 10,000 to 150,000 mg/L (higher CODs with dilution). Note that catalysts, such as homogeneous copper and iron, their heterogeneous counterparts, or precious metals can be used to enhance the effectiveness (i.e., to lower temperature, pressure, and residence time as well as increase oxidation efficiencies) of the WAO reaction if deemed necessary.

  3. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  4. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing relatively high concentrations of zirconium and aluminum, representative of the cladding material of the reprocessed fuel that generated the calcine. A separate study to define the CCIM testing needs of these other calcine classifications in currently being prepared under a separate work package (WP-0) and will be provided as a milestone report at the end of this fiscal year.

  5. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of amorphous solid dispersions generated by different bench-scale processes, using griseofulvin as a model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Cui, Yong; Ran, Yingqing; Lubach, Joe; Chou, Kang-Jye; Bao, Linda; Jia, Wei; La, Hank; Hau, Jonathan; Sambrone, Amy; Qin, Ann; Deng, Yuzhong; Wong, Harvey

    2013-04-01

    Drug polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve bioavailability for poorly water-soluble compounds. Spray-drying is the most common process involved in the manufacturing of ASD material. However, spray-drying involves a high investment of material quantity and time. Lower investment manufacturing processes such as fast evaporation and freeze-drying (lyophilization) have been developed to manufacture ASD at the bench level. The general belief is that the overall performance of ASD material is thermodynamically driven and should be independent of the manufacturing process. However, no formal comparison has been made to assess the in vivo performance of material generated by different processes. This study compares the in vitro and in vivo properties of ASD material generated by fast evaporation, lyophilization, and spray-drying methods using griseofulvin as a model compound and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate as the polymer matrix. Our data suggest that despite minor differences in the formulation release properties and stability of the ASD materials, the overall exposure is comparable between the three manufacturing processes under the conditions examined. These results suggest that fast evaporation and lyophilization may be suitable to generate ASD material for oral evaluation. However, caution should be exercised since the general applicability of the present findings will need to be further evaluated.

  6. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is no database. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: This is a review manuscript, there was not data generated under this effort. All data used was...

  7. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have establishe...

  8. Conjoint Psychotherapeutic Experience: Some Dimensions and Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlinsky, David E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Two previous reports have specified the empirical structure of patients' and therapists' experiences in psychotherapeutic sessions. The present report explores the structure of experience within the therapeutic dyad--conjoint experience. (Author/RC)

  9. The effects of previous open renal stone surgery types on PNL outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgor, Faruk; Kucuktopcu, Onur; Ucpinar, Burak; Sarilar, Omer; Erbin, Akif; Yanaral, Fatih; Sahan, Murat; Binbay, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to demonstrate the effect of insicion of renal parenchyma during open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) outcomes. Patients with history of ORSS who underwent PNL operation between June 2005 and June 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups according to their type of previous ORSS. Patients who had a history of ORSS with parenchymal insicion, such as radial nephrotomies, anatrophic nephrolithotomy, lower pole resection, and partial nephrectomy, were included in Group 1. Other patients with a history of open pyelolithotomy were enrolled in Group 2. Preoperative characteristics, perioperative data, stone-free status, and complications were compared between the groups. Stone-free status was defined as complete clearance of stone(s) or presence of residual fragments smaller than 4 mm. The retrospective nature of our study, different experience level of surgeons, and lack of the evaluation of anesthetic agents and cost of procedures were limitations of our study. 123 and 111 patients were enrolled in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Preoperative characteristics were similar between groups. In Group 1, the mean operative time was statistically longer than in Group 2 (p=0.013). Stone-free status was significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p=0.027). Complication rates were similar between groups. Hemorrhage requiring blood transfusion was the most common complication in both groups (10.5% vs. 9.9%). Our study demonstrated that a history of previous ORSS with parenchymal insicion significantly reduces the success rates of PNL procedure.

  10. Wavefront-guided enhancements using the wavelight excimer laser in symptomatic eyes previously treated with LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, A John; Pe, Lawrence H

    2006-04-01

    To describe our clinical experience in wavefront-guided LASIK enhancements using the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO system (WaveLight Technologie AG, Erlangen, Germany) for symptomatic eyes previously treated with standard LASIK. Twenty-six eyes of 20 patients with residual myopia, hyperopia, or mixed astigmatism and/or night vision symptoms after primary standard LASIK were considered for wavefront-guided customized retreatment using the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO WAVE 200 Hz excimer laser system (model 106). Preoperative best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), uncorrected visual acuity, topography with the ALLEGRETTO Topolyzer, wavefront analysis using the ALLEGRETTO WAVE Tscherning Analyzer, and contrast sensitivity were compared to postoperative (enhancement) measurements. Twenty-two of the original 26 eyes underwent wavefront-guided enhancement, 4 were excluded because they did not meet wavefront-guided treatment inclusion guidelines of this study. Mean follow-up was 8 months (range: 6 to 13 months, standard deviation [SD] 2). All patients were within +/- 0.50 diopters (manifest refraction) of intended postoperative refraction. The mean preoperative BSCVA improved from 20/25 (SD +/- 0.12) to 20/18 (SD +/- 0.1) postoperatively. All patients gained at least one line of BSCVA, and a maximum of three lines. There was no loss of BSCVA in any patient. The total amount of high order aberrations (RMSH) decreased from an average of 1.04 (SD +/- 0.22) to 0.46 (SD +/- 0.14) microm. Patients also had a mean improvement in low contrast sensitivity of 59%. Based on this small series, customized wavefront-guided enhancements using the WaveLight ALLEGRETTO system in patients who underwent previous LASIK appear to be safe and effective in correcting residual refractive error, reducing high order aberrations, and improving visual symptoms when reliable and reproducible measurements are achieved.

  11. Mentoring to develop research selfefficacy, with particular reference to previously disadvantaged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Schulze

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of inexperienced researchers is crucial. In response to the lack of research self-efficacy of many previously disadvantaged individuals, the article examines how mentoring can enhance the research self-efficacy of mentees. The study is grounded in the self-efficacy theory (SET – an aspect of the social cognitive theory (SCT. Insights were gained from an in-depth study of SCT, SET and mentoring, and from a completed mentoring project. This led to the formulation of three basic principles. Firstly, institutions need to provide supportive environmental conditions that facilitate research selfefficacy. This implies a supportive and efficient collective system. The possible effects of performance ratings and reward systems at the institution also need to be considered. Secondly, mentoring needs to create opportunities for young researchers to experience successful learning as a result of appropriate action. To this end, mentees need to be involved in actual research projects in small groups. At the same time the mentor needs to facilitate skills development by coaching and encouragement. Thirdly, mentors need to encourage mentees to believe in their ability to successfully complete research projects. This implies encouraging positive emotional states, stimulating self-reflection and self-comparison with others in the group, giving positive evaluative feedback and being an intentional role model.

  12. 75 FR 39192 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (Previously Utah State University), et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    .... (Previously Jamie R. Hill and Southwest Florida Aviation); Tamarack Helicopters, Inc. (Previously Ranger... 6220: Main Rotor Head. Issued in Fort Worth, Texas, on June 5, 2010. Mark R. Schilling, Acting Manager...

  13. 12 CFR 563b.260 - May I use previously executed proxies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I use previously executed proxies? 563b.260... FROM MUTUAL TO STOCK FORM Standard Conversions Proxy Solicitation § 563b.260 May I use previously executed proxies? You may not use previously executed proxies for the plan of conversion vote. If members...

  14. 22 CFR 40.93 - Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aliens unlawfully present after previous... TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Aliens Previously Removed § 40.93 Aliens unlawfully present after previous immigration violation. An alien described...

  15. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Citation of a previously submitted... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may... the citation is necessary. (b) Study previously submitted by another person. If the applicant is not...

  16. Experiment, right or wrong

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Allan

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment, Right or Wrong, Allan Franklin continues his investigation of the history and philosophy of experiment presented in his previous book, The Neglect of Experiment. In this new study, Franklin considers the fallibility and corrigibility of experimental results and presents detailed histories of two such episodes: 1) the experiment and the development of the theory of weak interactions from Fermi's theory in 1934 to the V-A theory of 1957 and 2) atomic parity violation experiments and the Weinberg-Salam unified theory of electroweak interactions of the 1970s and 1980s. In these episodes Franklin demonstrates not only that experimental results can be wrong, but also that theoretical calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory can also be incorrect. In the second episode, Franklin contrasts his view of an "evidence model" of science in which questions of theory choice, confirmation, and refutation are decided on the basis of reliable experimental evidence, with that proposed by the ...

  17. Alkali deposits found in biomass boilers: The behavior of inorganic material in biomass-fired power boilers -- Field and laboratory experiences. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Combustion Research Facility; Miles, T.R.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States); Jenkins, B.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Dayton, D.C.; Milne, T.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Bryers, R.W. [Foster Wheeler Development Corp., Livingston, NJ (United States); Oden, L.L. [Bureau of Mines, Albany, OR (United States). Albany Research Center

    1996-03-01

    This report documents the major findings of the Alkali Deposits Investigation, a collaborative effort to understand the causes of unmanageable ash deposits in biomass-fired electric power boilers. Volume 1 of this report provide an overview of the project, with selected highlights. This volume provides more detail and discussion of the data and implications. This document includes six sections. The first, the introduction, provides the motivation, context, and focus for the investigation. The remaining sections discuss fuel properties, bench-scale combustion tests, a framework for considering ash deposition processes, pilot-scale tests of biomass fuels, and field tests in commercially operating biomass power generation stations. Detailed chemical analyses of eleven biomass fuels representing a broad cross-section of commercially available fuels reveal their properties that relate to ash deposition tendencies. The fuels fall into three broad categories: (1) straws and grasses (herbaceous materials); (2) pits, shells, hulls and other agricultural byproducts of a generally ligneous nature; and (3) woods and waste fuels of commercial interest. This report presents a systematic and reasonably detailed analysis of fuel property, operating condition, and boiler design issues that dictate ash deposit formation and property development. The span of investigations from bench-top experiments to commercial operation and observations including both practical illustrations and theoretical background provide a self-consistent and reasonably robust basis to understand the qualitative nature of ash deposit formation in biomass boilers. While there remain many quantitative details to be pursued, this project encapsulates essentially all of the conceptual aspects of the issue. It provides a basis for understanding and potentially resolving the technical and environmental issues associated with ash deposition during biomass combustion. 81 refs., 124 figs., 76 tabs.

  18. Attribute and topology based change detection in a constellation of previously detected objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieroni, David W.; Beer, Reginald N.

    2016-01-19

    A system that applies attribute and topology based change detection to networks of objects that were detected on previous scans of a structure, roadway, or area of interest. The attributes capture properties or characteristics of the previously detected objects, such as location, time of detection, size, elongation, orientation, etc. The topology of the network of previously detected objects is maintained in a constellation database that stores attributes of previously detected objects and implicitly captures the geometrical structure of the network. A change detection system detects change by comparing the attributes and topology of new objects detected on the latest scan to the constellation database of previously detected objects.

  19. Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Brad G

    2006-08-01

    Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model.

  20. Targeted pathologic evaluation of bone marrow donors identifies previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, Matthew P; Jones, Richard J; Sexauer, Amy; Griffin, C A; Morsberger, Laura A; Batista, Denise A S; Small, Donald; Burns, Kathleen H; Gocke, Christopher D; Vuica-Ross, Milena; Borowitz, Michael J; Duffield, Amy S

    2013-08-01

    Potential bone marrow donors are screened to ensure the safety of both the donor and recipient. At our institution, potential donors with abnormal peripheral blood cell counts, a personal history of malignancy, or age >60 years are evaluated to ensure that they are viable candidates for donation. Evaluation of the marrow includes morphologic, flow cytometric, and cytogenetic studies. A total of 122 potential donors were screened between the years of 2001 and 2011, encompassing approximately 10% of all donors. Of the screened potential donors, the mean age was 59 years and there were 59 men and 63 women. The donors were screened because of age >60 years (n = 33), anemia (n = 22), cytopenias other than anemia (n = 27), elevated peripheral blood counts without a concurrent cytopenia (n = 20), elevated peripheral blood counts with a concurrent cytopenia (n = 10), history of malignancy (n = 4), abnormal peripheral blood differential (n = 3), prior graft failure (n = 1), history of treatment with chemotherapy (n = 1), and body habitus (n = 1). Marrow abnormalities were detected in 9% (11 of 122) of donors. These donors were screened because of anemia (5 of 22, 23%), age >60 years (2 of 33, 6%), history of malignancy (2 of 4, 50%), elevated peripheral blood counts (1 of 20, 5%), and body habitus (1 of 1, 100%). Abnormalities included plasma cell dyscrasia (n = 3), abnormal marrow cellularity (n = 3), clonal cytogenetic abnormalities (n = 2), low-grade myelodysplastic syndrome (1), a mutated JAK2 V617F allele (n = 1), and monoclonal B cell lymphocytosis (n = 1). Our experience indicates that extended screening of potential donors identifies a significant number of donors with previously undiagnosed marrow abnormalities. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Correlates of postpartum depression in first time mothers without previous psychiatric contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvén, S M; Thomopoulos, T P; Kollia, N; Jonsson, M; Skalkidou, A

    2017-02-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder after childbirth. The strongest known predictors are a history of depression and/or a history of PPD. However, for a significant proportion of women, PPD constitutes their first depressive episode. This study aimed to gain further insight into the risk factors for PPD in first time mothers without previous psychiatric contact. Women delivering in Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, from May 2006 to June 2007, were asked to participate and filled out questionnaires five days and six weeks postpartum, containing inter alia the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate logistic regression models, as well as a path analysis, were performed to unveil the complex interplay between the study variables. Of the 653 participating primiparas, 10.3% and 6.4% reported depressive symptoms (EPDS≥12 points) five days and six weeks postpartum, respectively. In the path analysis, a positive association between anxiety proneness and depressive symptoms at five days and six weeks postpartum was identified. For depressive symptoms six weeks after delivery, additional risk factors were detected, namely depressive symptoms five days postpartum and subjective experience of problems with the baby. Caesarean section and assisted vaginal delivery were associated with fewer depressive symptoms at 6 six weeks postpartum. Identification of anxiety proneness, delivery mode and problems with the baby as risk factors for self-reported depressive symptoms postpartum in this group of primiparas can be important in helping health care professionals identify women at increased risk of affective disorders in the perinatal period, and provide a base for early intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Stereotactic external beam irradiation in previously untreated brain tumors in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C R; Souhami, L; Caron, J L; Villemure, J G; Olivier, A; Montes, J; Farmer, J P; Podgorsak, E B

    1994-01-01

    Stereotactically guided external beam irradiation may be a useful form of treatment for small, well-circumscribed, but surgically inaccessible, primary brain tumors that are either benign or of low malignant potential. Between March 1988 and December 1991, 10 children and adolescents with previously untreated primary brain tumors were treated with stereotactic external beam irradiation (SEBI) using a linac-based dynamic technique. Eleven lesions were treated in the 10 patients. Treatment was given using a collimator diameter of 1.5-4 cm (median 2 cm). Single fractions of 18, 20, and 25 Gy were used for 3 lesions in 2 patients. A fractionated schedule delivering a median dose of 42 Gy in 6 fractions over 2 weeks was used in the remaining 8 patients. Morbidity related to treatment was minimal. Three patients suffered a temporary worsening of preexisting neurological symptoms and/or signs at 2, 5, and 5 months posttreatment, with subsequent recovery in all. With a median follow up post-SEBI of 17.5 months (range 5-47 months), improvement in neurological findings related to the lesion was noted for 5 treated lesions; 6 remained clinically stable. Seven of the 11 treated lesions improved radiologically, and only 2 showed evidence of progressive disease. Stereotactic external beam irradiation represents a potentially valuable therapeutic option for selected primary brain tumors in the pediatric and adolescent age group. Morbidity related to the treatment appears acceptable in frequency and type, and preliminary data with regard to response are encouraging. However, in order to assess the impact of such treatment on long-term tumor control and survival, further experience with a larger cohort of patients followed for a longer period of time will be necessary.

  3. The Effect of Single Versus Repeated Previous Strategy Use on Individuals' Subsequent Strategy Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viki Schillemans

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that participants' strategy choices can be influenced by the previously-used strategy. This'perseveration effect' has been demonstrated both after a repeated use of the previous strategy (e.g., Schillemans, Luwel, Bulté, Onghena, & Verschaffel, 2009, but also after a single use of the previous strategy (Lemaire & Lecacheur, 2010. In the present study, we tested whether this perseveration effect would be stronger after a repeated than after a single previous strategy application. We were able to replicate the perseveration effect but we did not find evidence for an influence of the number of previous strategy applications on the strength of this effect. An additional cluster analysis revealed that only about one third of the participants was susceptible for the perseveration effect. The theoretical, methodological, and educational implications of these results are discussed.

  4. Analysis Of Navy Hornet Squadron Mishap Costs With Regard To Previously Flown Flight Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    HORNET SQUADRON MISHAP COSTS WITH REGARD TO PREVIOUSLY FLOWN FLIGHT HOURS by Jason R. Baumann June 2017 Thesis Advisor: Robert Eger Co...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ANALYSIS OF NAVY HORNET SQUADRON MISHAP COSTS WITH REGARD TO PREVIOUSLY FLOWN...flown flight hours with mishap costs . It uses a macro level approach by evaluating how a squadron’s previously flown flight hours affect mishap cost and

  5. 75 FR 26889 - Airworthiness Directives; Arrow Falcon Exporters, Inc. (previously Utah State University) et al...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ....; Southwest Florida Aviation International, Inc. (previously Jamie R. Hill and Southwest Florida Aviation..., 2010. Mark R. Schilling, Acting Manager, Rotorcraft Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service. [FR...

  6. Maternal serum screening marker levels in women with a previous aneuploidy pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin; Staboulidou, Ismini; De Jesus Cruz, Jader; Karagiannis, George; Nicolaides, Kypros H

    2009-12-01

    To re-evaluate in a larger cohort of patients if the maternal serum biochemical markers used in first trimester aneuploidy screening have the same marker distributions in pregnancies with a previous history of aneuploidy compared with those that have no previous history. Information related to previous pregnancy history is routinely recorded as part of first trimester screening in three centres King George, Kings College and Fetal Medicine Centre, London. From the database, records were extracted for women who had a previous pregnancy diagnosed with trisomies 13, 18 or 21. For each woman with a previous aneuploidy, five unaffected pregnancies in women of the same maternal age and with no previous aneuploidy pregnancy were selected as controls. A comparison was made between the marker distributions for pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and free beta-human chronic gonadotrophin (beta-hCG) amongst the cases and controls using nonparametric statistical tests. A series of 8240 controls were compared against group of 1032 cases with a previous trisomy 21, 293 with a previous trisomy 18 and 158 with a previous trisomy 13. Cases with multiple previous trisomies were excluded. There were no significant differences in the level of free beta-hCG; however, in cases of trisomy 21 and trisomy 13 the levels of PAPP-A were increased by 5 and 16%, respectively. Risk calculation algorithms may need to take account of the increased PAPP-A levels in women with a previous trisomy 21 or trisomy 13. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is an option for patients with localized breast recurrences after previous external-beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus-Tiefenbacher, Uta; Bauer, Lelia; Scheda, Antonella; Schoeber, Carola; Schaefer, Joerg; Steil, Volker; Wenz, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    For patients suffering of recurrent breast cancer within the irradiated breast, generally mastectomy is recommended. The normal tissue tolerance does not permit a second full-dose course of radiotherapy to the entire breast after a second breast-conserving surgery (BCS). A novel option is to treat these patients with partial breast irradiation (PBI). This approach is based on the hypothesis that re-irradiation of a limited volume will be effective and result in an acceptable frequency of side effects. The following report presents a single center experience with intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) during excision of recurrent breast cancer in the previously irradiated breast. Between 4/02 and 11/06, 15 patients were treated for in-breast recurrences at a median of 10 years (3–25) after previous EBRT (10 recurrences in the initial tumor bed, 3 elsewhere in-breast failures, 2 invasive recurrences after previous DCIS). Additional 2 patients were selected for IORT with new primary breast cancer after previous partial breast EBRT for treatment of Hodgkin's disease. IORT with a single dose of 14.7 – 20 Gy 50 kV X-rays at the applicator surface was delivered with the Intrabeam™-device (Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany). After a median follow-up of 26 months (1–60), no local recurrence occurred. 14 out of 17 patients are alive and free of disease progression. Two patients are alive with distant metastases. One patient died 26 months after BCS/IORT due to pulmonary metastases diagnosed 19 months after BCS/IORT. Acute toxicity after IORT was mild with no Grade 3/4 toxicities and cosmetic outcome showed excellent/good/fair results in 7/7/3 cases. IORT for recurrent breast cancer using low energy X-rays is a valuable option for patients with recurrent breast cancer after previous radiotherapy

  8. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Florens N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, Nico A.; Delhaas, Tammo; Helbing, Wim A.; Lam, Jan; Sobotka-Plojhar, Marta A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, Narayanswani

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  9. Sudden unexpected death in children with a previously diagnosed cardiovascular disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, F.N.; Cohen, Joeri; Blom, N.A.; Delhaas, T.; Helbing, W.A.; Lam, J.; Sobotka-Plojhar, M.A.; Temmerman, Arno M.; Sreeram, N.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is known that children with previously diagnosed heart defects die suddenly. The causes of death are often unknown. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify all infants and children within the Netherlands with previously diagnosed heart disease who had a sudden unexpected death

  10. 12 CFR 1.7 - Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously contracted; holding period; disposal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pursuant to paragraph (a) of this section in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles. (d... previously contracted; holding period; disposal; accounting treatment; non-speculative purpose. 1.7 Section 1...; accounting treatment; non-speculative purpose. (a) Securities held in satisfaction of debts previously...

  11. Does the patients′ educational level and previous counseling affect their medication knowledge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmalik M Alkatheri

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The education level of the patient and previous counseling are positively linked to medication knowledge. Knowledge of the medications′ side effects proved to be the most difficult task for the participants in this study, requiring the highest level of education, and was improved by previous counseling.

  12. Nitrogen rate and previous crop effects on some agronomic traits of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a previous crop x N rate interaction for seed yield during both years while significant previous crop x N rate interactions were determined for 1000 seed weight and seed weight of each ear in 2005. This study suggested that N rates and corn cultivars might result significant differences on tasseling period, ear silk ...

  13. Hepatitis B immunisation in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B or with unknown exposure status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathew, Joseph L; El Dib, Regina; Mathew, Preethy J

    2008-01-01

    The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established.......The benefits and harms of hepatitis B vaccination in persons not previously exposed to hepatitis B infection or with unknown exposure status have not been established....

  14. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Requirements for Previously Consented Exports of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requirements for 1) Exports from Canada, Chile, Mexico, or non-OECD countries 40 CFR Part 262 Subparts A-D, and previous E 2) Exports for Recovery from OECD Countries Listed in 40 CFR Section 262.58(a)(1) 40 CFR Part 262, Subparts A-D, previous E and H.

  15. ATLANTIC DIP: simplifying the follow-up of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noctor, E

    2013-11-01

    Previous gestational diabetes (GDM) is associated with a significant lifetime risk of type 2 diabetes. In this study, we assessed the performance of HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) measurements against that of 75 g oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) for the follow-up screening of women with previous GDM.

  16. 14 CFR 121.406 - Credit for previous CRM/DRM training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for previous CRM/DRM training. 121... previous CRM/DRM training. (a) For flightcrew members, the Administrator may credit CRM training received... initial ground CRM training required by § 121.422. (d) In granting credit for initial ground CRM or DRM...

  17. National Rates of Uterine Rupture are not Associated with Rates of Previous Caesarean Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colmorn, Lotte B.; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Jakobsson, Maija

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous caesarean delivery and intended mode of delivery after caesarean are well-known individual risk factors for uterine rupture. We examined if different national rates of uterine rupture are associated with differences in national rates of previous caesarean delivery and intende...

  18. Radioiodine treatment of recurrent hyperthyroidism in patients previously treated for Graves' disease by subtotal thyroidectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, H; Laurberg, P

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy is often employed for treatment of patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, after previous thyroid surgery. Little is known about the outcome of this treatment compared to patients with no previous surgery. A total of 20 patients who had received surgical...

  19. Should previous mammograms be digitised in the transition to digital mammography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Phillips, S.; Gale, A.G.; Wallis, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Breast screening specificity is improved if previous mammograms are available, which presents a challenge when converting to digital mammography. Two display options were investigated: mounting previous film mammograms on a multiviewer adjacent to the workstation, or digitising them for soft copy display. Eight qualified screen readers were videotaped undertaking routine screen reading for two 45-min sessions in each scenario. Analysis of gross eye and head movements showed that when digitised, previous mammograms were examined a greater number of times per case (p=0.03), due to a combination of being used in 19% more cases (p=0.04) and where used, looked at a greater number of times (28% increase, p=0.04). Digitising previous mammograms reduced both the average time taken per case by 18% (p=0.04) and the participants' perceptions of workload (p < 0.05). Digitising previous analogue mammograms may be advantageous, in particular in increasing their level of use. (orig.)

  20. Should previous mammograms be digitised in the transition to digital mammography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Phillips, S.; Gale, A.G. [Loughborough University, Applied Vision Research Centre, Leicestershire (United Kingdom); Wallis, M.G. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-15

    Breast screening specificity is improved if previous mammograms are available, which presents a challenge when converting to digital mammography. Two display options were investigated: mounting previous film mammograms on a multiviewer adjacent to the workstation, or digitising them for soft copy display. Eight qualified screen readers were videotaped undertaking routine screen reading for two 45-min sessions in each scenario. Analysis of gross eye and head movements showed that when digitised, previous mammograms were examined a greater number of times per case (p=0.03), due to a combination of being used in 19% more cases (p=0.04) and where used, looked at a greater number of times (28% increase, p=0.04). Digitising previous mammograms reduced both the average time taken per case by 18% (p=0.04) and the participants' perceptions of workload (p < 0.05). Digitising previous analogue mammograms may be advantageous, in particular in increasing their level of use. (orig.)

  1. Effect of previous abdominal surgery on outcomes following laparoscopic colorectal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Okuda, Junji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Kondo, Keisaku; Asai, Keiko; Kayano, Hajime; Masubuchi, Shinsuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2013-03-01

    The impact of previous abdominal surgeries on the need for conversion to open surgery and on short-term outcomes during/after laparoscopic colectomy was retrospectively investigated. This retrospective cohort study was conducted from December 1996 through December 2009. This study was conducted at Osaka Medical College Hospital. A total of 1701 consecutive patients who had undergone laparoscopic resection of the colon and rectum were classified as not having previous abdominal surgery (n = 1121) or as having previous abdominal surgery (n = 580). Short-term outcomes were recorded, and risk factors for conversion to open surgery were analyzed. There were no significant differences in operative time, blood loss, number of lymph nodes removed, or conversion rate between the groups. The rate of inadvertent enterotomy was significantly higher in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (0.9% versus 0.1%; p = 0.03), and the postoperative recovery time was significantly longer in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group. Ileus was more frequent in the previous abdominal surgery group than in the not having previous abdominal surgery group (3.8% versus 2.1%; p = 0.04). Significant risk factors for conversion to open surgery were T stage ≥3 (OR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.89-3.75), median incision (OR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.23-9.41), upper median incision (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.29-5.42), lower median incision (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.12), and transverse colectomy (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.29-2.41). The incidence of successfully completed laparoscopic colectomy after previous abdominal surgery remains high, and the short-term outcomes are acceptable.

  2. Customer experience

    OpenAIRE

    Koperdáková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the theme of customer experience and terms related to this topic. The thesis consists of three parts. The first part explains the terms generally, as the experience or customer loyalty. The second part is dedicated to medotology used for Customer Experience Management. In the third part is described application of Customer Experience Management in practice, particularly in the context Touch Point Analyses in GE Money Bank.

  3. Seat belt associated central line fracture--a previously unreported complication in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayyda, Salim N S; Roland, Damian; Cade, Alan

    2008-09-01

    Totally implantable venous access devices (TIVAD) are used widely in the management of cystic fibrosis (CF) [Standards of Care: Standards for the clinical care of children and adults with cystic fibrosis in the UK. The Cystic Fibrosis Trust's Clinical Standards and Accreditation Group. Cystic Fibrosis Trust, London, UK, 2001]. They have been shown to be safe and advantageous in the long term administration of intravenous antibiotics [A-Rahman A, Spencer D. Totally implantable vascular access devices for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003(3)]. However, TIVADs are not without short and long term complications including infections, thrombosis and mechanical failure [Munck A, Malbezin S, Bloch J. Follow up of 452 totally implantable vascular devices in cystic fibrosis patients. Eur Respir J 2004;23:430-4; Aitkin ML, Tonelli ML. Complications of indwelling catheters in cystic fibrosis: a 10-year review. Chest 2000;118:1598-602; Deerojanawong J, Sawyer SM, Fink AM, Stokes KB, Robertson CF. Totally implantable venous access devices in children with cystic fibrosis. Thorax 1998;53:285-89; Rodgers HC, Liddle K, Nixon SJ, Innes JA, Greening AP. Totally implantable venous access devices in cystic fibrosis: complications and patients' opinions. Eur Respir J 1998;12:217-20; Yung B, Campbell IA, Elborn JS, Harvey JS, Shale DJ. Totally implantable venous access devices in adult patients with cystic fibrosis. Respir Med 1996;90:353-56; Kariyawasam HH, Pepper JR, Hodson ME, Geddes DM. Experience of totally implantable venous access devices (TIV Ads) in adults with cystic fibrosis over a 13-year period. Respir Med 2000;94:1161-5]. Patients should be counselled prior to TIVAD insertion regarding the risks and instructed on post-operative care of the device to minimise the risks. However it is not routine practice to advise on seating position within the car in relationship to the seatbelt placement over the anterior chest wall. Line failure due to direct pressure from a

  4. OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, M.

    2003-01-01

    OPERA is an accelerator experiment designed to explore Super-Kamiokande suggested ν μ ↔ν τ oscillation region in CNGS beam from CERN to LNGS. The key technique in OPERA is modern emulsion read out which applied to CHORUS and DONUT experiments. ECC technique which used in DONUT and OPERA has good modularity to enlarge apparatus for future Neutrino Factory experiments

  5. Identification of multidrug resistance in previously treated tuberculosis patients: a mixed methods study in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, S; Khann, S; Yadav, RP; Mao, ET; Cattamanchi, A; Sam, S; Handley, MA

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Setting Previously treated tuberculosis (TB) patients are a priority for drug susceptibility testing (DST) to identify cases with multidrug resistance (MDR). In Cambodia, a recent study found that only one-third of smear-positive previously treated patients had DST results. Objective To quantify the gaps in detecting MDR in previously treated TB patients in Cambodia, and describe health workers’ perspectives on barriers, facilitators and potential interventions. Design We analyzed case notifications in Cambodia (2004–2012) and conducted semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders Results The proportion of previously treated notifications varied significantly across provinces 2010–12, in the context of longer term trends of decreasing relapse and increasing “other” retreatment notifications. Correct classification of patients’ TB treatment history and ensuring specimens from previously-treated patients are collected and reach the laboratory could nearly double the number of detected MDR-TB cases. Identified barriers include patients’ reluctance to disclose and staff difficulty eliciting treatment history, partly due to availability of streptomycin only in hospitals. Facilitators include trained health workers, collection of sputum for DST even if previously treated patients are not taking streptomycin, streamlining sputum transportation and promptly reporting results. Conclusion Improved monitoring, supportive supervision, and correctly classifying previously treated patients are essential for improving detection of MDR-TB. PMID:25299861

  6. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (Pcesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  7. Quantification of print, radio and television exposure among previous blood donors in Kenya: an opportunity for encouraging repeat donation in a resource-limited setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavaraju, S V; Mwangi, J; Kellogg, T A; Odawo, L; Marum, L H

    2010-10-01

    Blood services in sub-Saharan Africa experience blood shortages and low retention of voluntary, non-remunerated donors. To boost collections by encouraging repeat donations, the Kenya National Blood Transfusion Service is exploring the likelihood of reaching previous donors through targeted print, radio and television advertising. We analysed data from a national AIDS Indicator Survey to determine whether previous donors have significant exposure to media. Respondents reporting history of blood donation had significantly higher exposure to print, radio and television media than those without history of blood donation. Targeted media campaigns encouraging repeat donation are likely to reach previous donors even in resource-limited settings.

  8. Previous prelabor or intrapartum cesarean delivery and risk of placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Katheryne L; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Albert, Paul S; Grantz, Katherine L

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between previous cesarean delivery and subsequent placenta previa while distinguishing cesarean delivery before the onset of labor from intrapartum cesarean delivery. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of electronic medical records from 20 Utah hospitals (2002-2010) with restriction to the first 2 singleton deliveries of nulliparous women at study entry (n=26,987). First pregnancy delivery mode was classified as (1) vaginal (reference), (2) cesarean delivery before labor onset (prelabor), or (3) cesarean delivery after labor onset (intrapartum). Risk of second delivery previa was estimated by previous delivery mode with the use of logistic regression and was adjusted for maternal age, insurance, smoking, comorbidities, previous pregnancy loss, and history of previa. Most first deliveries were vaginal (82%; n=22,142), followed by intrapartum cesarean delivery (14.6%; n=3931), or prelabor cesarean delivery (3.4%; n=914). Incidence of second delivery previa was 0.29% (n=78) and differed by previous delivery mode: vaginal, 0.24%; prelabor cesarean delivery, 0.98%; intrapartum cesarean delivery, 0.38% (Pdelivery, previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with an increased risk of second delivery previa (adjusted odds ratio, 2.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.24-5.56). There was no significant association between previous intrapartum cesarean delivery and previa (adjusted odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-2.19). Previous prelabor cesarean delivery was associated with a >2-fold significantly increased risk of previa in the second delivery, although the approximately 20% increased risk of previa that was associated with previous intrapartum cesarean delivery was not significant. Although rare, the increased risk of placenta previa after previous prelabor cesarean delivery may be important when considering nonmedically indicated prelabor cesarean delivery. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. The prevalence of previous self-harm amongst self-poisoning patients in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Perera, Aravinda; Wijayaweera, Kusal

    2011-01-01

    was to investigate the prevalence of previous self-harm among a consecutive series of self-harm patients presenting to hospitals in rural Sri Lanka. METHOD: Six hundred and ninety-eight self-poisoning patients presenting to medical wards at two hospitals in Sri Lanka were interviewed about their previous episodes...... with previous Asian research and is considerably lower than that seen in the West. Explanations for these low levels of repeat self-harm require investigation. Our data indicate that a focus on the aftercare of those who attempt suicide in Sri Lanka may have a smaller impact on suicide incidence than may...

  10. Scientific opinion on the evaluation of substances as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Annette

    Shipping of edible fats and oils into Europe is permitted in bulk tanks, provided that the previous cargo is included in a positive list. The European Commission requested EFSA to evaluate the acceptability as previous cargoes for fats and oils the substances calcium lignosulphonate, methyl acetate......, ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and ammonium sulphate. The evaluation was based on the same criteria as those used for the evaluation of the substances currently on the list in the Annex to Commission Directive 96/3/EC as acceptable previous cargoes for edible fats and oils. Methyl acetate and ETBE meet...

  11. Reproductive outcomes after previous cesarean scar pregnancy: Follow up of 189 women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Wang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Even though our result did not necessarily represent the true recurrence rate, our study provided some evidence about the likelihood of fertility and recurrence risk for future pregnancies after previous CSP.

  12. Aortic pseudoaneurysm detected on external jugular venous distention following a Bentall procedure 10 years previously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Naoto; Shomura, Yu; Nasu, Michihiro; Okada, Yukikatsu

    2010-11-01

    An asymptomatic 49-year-old woman was admitted for the purpose of surgery for aortic pseudoaneurysm. She had Marfan syndrome and had undergone an emergent Bentall procedure 10 years previously. About six months previously, she could palpate distended bilateral external jugular veins, which became distended only in a supine position and without any other symptoms. Enhanced computed tomography revealed an aortic pseudoaneurysm originating from a previous distal anastomosis site. During induction of general anesthesia in a supine position, bilateral external jugular venous distention was remarkable. Immediately after a successful operation, distention completely resolved. The present case emphasizes the importance of physical examination leading to a diagnosis of asymptomatic life-threatening diseases in patients with a history of previous aortic surgery.

  13. Characteristics of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Meier

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: MAC pulmonary disease in previously treated lung cancer can occur without apparent risk factors for this NTM infection. Symptomatic improvement with MAC antimicrobial therapy appears to be lower than expected but comorbidities might influence outcomes in this patient population.

  14. 24-hour antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with previous definite stent thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtz, Morten; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Jensen, Lisette O

    2014-01-01

    : Platelet inhibition declined significantly during the 24-hour dosing interval in aspirin-treated patients with previous definite ST or stable coronary artery disease and in healthy individuals. Increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin were observed in patients with previous definite ST....... through 24 h in patients with previous definite ST. Furthermore, we explored whether increased levels of immature platelets and thrombopoietin are associated with a particularly rapid recovery of platelet function. METHODS: This case-control study included 50 patients with previous definite ST matched...... with 100 patients with stable coronary artery disease and 50 healthy volunteers. All participants were on aspirin 75 mg/day mono antiplatelet therapy. Platelet aggregation was measured 1 and 24 h after aspirin intake using platelet aggregometry (Multiplate® Analyzer). Cyclooxygenase-1 activity, platelet...

  15. 76 FR 59488 - Addition to the Identifying Information for an Individual Previously Designated Pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... information for the following individual who was previously designated pursuant to the Order: GRAJALES PUENTES...; Cedula No. 52455790 (Colombia) (individual) [SDNT] The listing now appears as follows: GRAJALES PUENTES...

  16. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is more difficult after a previous endoscopic retrograde cholangiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, Jan Siert Kayitsinga; Gouma, Dirk Joan; Heisterkamp, Joos; Tromp, Ellen; van Ramshorst, Bert; Boerma, Djamila

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) followed by a laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is generally accepted as the treatment of choice for patients with choledochocystolithiasis who are eligible for surgery. Previous studies have shown that LC after ES is

  17. Predictive factors for the development of diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P.; Kühl, C.; Bertelsen, Aksel

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of diabetes in women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and to identify predictive factors for development of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Two to 11 years post partum, glucose tolerance was investigated in 241...... women with previous dietary-treated gestational diabetes mellitus and 57 women without previous gestational diabetes mellitus (control group). RESULTS: Diabetes developed in 42 (17.4%) women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (3.7% insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and 13.7% non......-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes did not develop in any of the controls. Predictive factors for diabetes development were fasting glucose level at diagnosis (high glucose, high risk), preterm delivery, and an oral glucose tolerance test result that showed diabetes 2 months post partum. In a subgroup...

  18. Monitoring the recovery of a previously exploited surf-zone fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring the recovery of a previously exploited surf-zone fish community in the St Lucia Marine Reserve, South Africa, using a no-take sanctuary area as a benchmark. BQ Mann, H Winker, JQ Maggs, SN Porter ...

  19. Steller sea lion sightings or recaptures of previously marked animals throughout their range, 1987-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains information regarding the sighting and capture of previously marked Steller sea lions from 1987 to the present. Marks are seen and documented...

  20. Targeting Alzheimer's disease by investigating previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Greunen, DG

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of twenty seven acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as potential agents for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, were designed and synthesised based upon previously unexplored chemical space surrounding the molecular skeleton of the drug...

  1. Outcomes With Edoxaban Versus Warfarin in Patients With Previous Cerebrovascular Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rost, Natalia S; Giugliano, Robert P; Ruff, Christian T

    2016-01-01

    without previous IS/TIA, patients with previous IS/TIA were at higher risk of both thromboembolism and bleeding (stroke/systemic embolic events 2.83% versus 1.42% per year; Phemorrhage, 0.70% versus 0.40% per year; P... patients with previous IS/TIA, annualized intracranial hemorrhage rates were lower with HDER than with warfarin (0.62% versus 1.09%; absolute risk difference, 47 [8-85] per 10 000 patient-years; hazard ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.92; P=0.02). No treatment subgroup interactions were found......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with atrial fibrillation and previous ischemic stroke (IS)/transient ischemic attack (TIA) are at high risk of recurrent cerebrovascular events despite anticoagulation. In this prespecified subgroup analysis, we compared warfarin with edoxaban in patients...

  2. Previous infliximab therapy and postoperative complications after proctocolectomy with ileum pouch anal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eshuis, Emma J.; Al Saady, Rana L.; Stokkers, Pieter C. F.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Tanis, Pieter J.; Bemelman, Willem A.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether infliximab treatment induces increased complication rates after surgery for ulcerative colitis. Aim was to compare complication rates after pouch surgery in refractory ulcerative colitis patients with versus without previous infliximab therapy. We performed a retrospective

  3. Persistent seropositivity for yellow fever in a previously vaccinated autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kayoko; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Tsunemine, Hiroko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Takeshita, Nozomi; Mawatari, Momoko; Fujiya, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Kei; Ohmagari, Norio; Kato, Yasuyuki

    2015-08-01

    The duration of a protective level of yellow fever antibodies after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a previously vaccinated person is unclear. The case of a patient who had previously been vaccinated for yellow fever and who remained seropositive for 22 months after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma is described herein. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Charged-Particle Thermonuclear Reaction Rates: IV. Comparison to Previous Work

    OpenAIRE

    Iliadis, Christian; Longland, Richard; Champagne, Art; Coc, Alain

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this series) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions conside...

  5. Thermal release of D2 from new Be-D co-deposits on previously baked co-deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.

    2015-01-01

    Past experiments and modeling with the TMAP code in [1, 2] indicated that Be-D co-deposited layers are less (time-wise) efficiently desorbed of retained D in a fixed low-temperature bake, as the layer grows in thickness. In ITER, beryllium rich co-deposited layers will grow in thickness over the life of the machine. Although, compared with the analyses in [1, 2], ITER presents a slightly different bake efficiency problem because of instances of prior tritium recover/control baking. More relevant to ITER, is the thermal release from a new and saturated co-deposit layer in contact with a thickness of previously-baked, less-saturated, co-deposit. Experiments that examine the desorption of saturated co-deposited over-layers in contact with previously baked under-layers are reported and comparison is made to layers of the same combined thickness. Deposition temperatures of ∼323 K and ∼373 K are explored. It is found that an instance of prior bake leads to a subtle effect on the under-layer. The effect causes the thermal desorption of the new saturated over-layer to deviate from the prediction of the validated TMAP model in [2]. Instead of the D thermal release reflecting the combined thickness and levels of D saturation in the over and under layer, experiment differs in that, i) the desorption is a fractional superposition of desorption from the saturated over-layer, with ii) that of the combined over and under -layer thickness. The result is not easily modeled by TMAP without the incorporation of a thin BeO inter-layer which is confirmed experimentally on baked Be-D co-deposits using X-ray micro-analysis.

  6. Quantifying the Qualitative: Measuring the Insight Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    No scales currently exist that measure variability in the insight experience. Two scales were created to measure two factors hypothesized to be key drivers of the insight experience: insight radicality (i.e., perceived deviation between previous and new problem representations) and restructuring experience (i.e., the subjective experience of the…

  7. Laboratory Experiments for Network Security Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustoloni, Jose Carlos

    2006-01-01

    We describe a sequence of five experiments on network security that cast students successively in the roles of computer user, programmer, and system administrator. Unlike experiments described in several previous papers, these experiments avoid placing students in the role of attacker. Each experiment starts with an in-class demonstration of an…

  8. The association between previous single first trimester abortion and pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiersch, Liran; Ashwal, Eran; Aviram, Amir; Rayman, Shlomi; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv

    2016-01-01

    To determine the association between single previous abortion and pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women. A retrospective cohort study of all nulliparous women who delivered in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital (2009-2014). Pregnancy outcome of women with single previous first trimester abortion (study group) was compared to those of primigravida (control group). Of the 44 371 deliveries during the study period, 14 498 (32.6%) were of nulliparous women, of them 1501 (10.3%) had single previous abortion (abortion was independently associated with induction of labor (OR = 1.31, 95%C.I 1.04-1.63, p = 0.01), cesarean section (OR = 1.38, 95%C.I 1.18-1.60, p abortion no difference in pregnancy outcome was observed between those with previous induced termination of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion, except for increased risk for retained placenta in those with previous spontaneous abortion. Single early previous abortion in nulliparous women was associated with higher rate of induction of labor, cesarean section and retained placenta compared to primigravida women.

  9. Seabed gallery intakes: Investigation of the water pretreatment effectiveness of the active layer using a long-term column experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2017-05-11

    Seabed gallery intake systems used for seawater reverse osmosis facilities employ the same principle of water treatment as slow sand filtration in freshwater systems. An investigation concerning the effectiveness of the active layer (top layer) in improving raw water quality was conducted by using a long-term bench-scale columns experiment. Two different media types, silica and carbonate sand, were tested in 1 m columns to evaluate the effectiveness of media type in terms of algae, bacteria, Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) removal over a period of 620 days. Nearly all algae in the silica sand column, 87% (σ = 0.04) of the bacteria, 59% (σ = 0.11) of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, 59% (σ = 0.16) of particulate and 32% (σ = 0.25) of colloidal TEP were removed during the last 330 days of the experiment. Total removal was observed in the carbonate sand column for algal concentration, while the bacterial removal was lower at 74% (σ = 0.08). Removal of biopolymers, particulate and colloidal TEP were higher in the carbonate column during the last 330 days with 72% (σ = 0.15), 66% (σ = 0.08) and 36% (σ = 0.12) removed for these organics respectively. Removal of these key organics through the 1 m thick column, representing the active layer, will likely reduce the rate of biofouling, reduce chemical usage and minimize operating cost in SWRO systems. The data show that the media will require several months at the beginning of operation to reach equilibrium so that high organic removal rates can be achieved. No development of a “schmutzdecke” layer occurred. The experimental results suggest that unlike freshwater slow sand filtration wherein most water treatment occurs in the upper 10 cm, in seawater systems treatment occurs throughout the full active layer depth of 1 m. The results of this study will help in designing and operating seabed gallery intake systems in varied geological conditions.

  10. Seabed gallery intakes: Investigation of the water pretreatment effectiveness of the active layer using a long-term column experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2017-09-15

    Seabed gallery intake systems used for seawater reverse osmosis facilities employ the same principle of water treatment as slow sand filtration in freshwater systems. An investigation concerning the effectiveness of the active layer (top layer) in improving raw water quality was conducted by using a long-term bench-scale columns experiment. Two different media types, silica and carbonate sand, were tested in 1 m columns to evaluate the effectiveness of media type in terms of algae, bacteria, Natural Organic Matter (NOM) and Transparent Exopolymer Particles (TEP) removal over a period of 620 days. Nearly all algae in the silica sand column, 87% (σ = 0.04) of the bacteria, 59% (σ = 0.11) of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, 59% (σ = 0.16) of particulate and 32% (σ = 0.25) of colloidal TEP were removed during the last 330 days of the experiment. Total removal was observed in the carbonate sand column for algal concentration, while the bacterial removal was lower at 74% (σ = 0.08). Removal of biopolymers, particulate and colloidal TEP were higher in the carbonate column during the last 330 days with 72% (σ = 0.15), 66% (σ = 0.08) and 36% (σ = 0.12) removed for these organics respectively. Removal of these key organics through the 1 m thick column, representing the active layer, will likely reduce the rate of biofouling, reduce chemical usage and minimize operating cost in SWRO systems. The data show that the media will require several months at the beginning of operation to reach equilibrium so that high organic removal rates can be achieved. No development of a "schmutzdecke" layer occurred. The experimental results suggest that unlike freshwater slow sand filtration wherein most water treatment occurs in the upper 10 cm, in seawater systems treatment occurs throughout the full active layer depth of 1 m. The results of this study will help in designing and operating seabed gallery intake systems in varied geological conditions. Copyright

  11. Emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with previous pulmonary tuberculosis: computed tomography features and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin J

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jianmin Jin,1 Shuling Li,2 Wenling Yu,2 Xiaofang Liu,1 Yongchang Sun1,3 1Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 2Department of Radiology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB is a risk factor for COPD, but the clinical characteristics and the chest imaging features (emphysema and bronchiectasis of COPD with previous PTB have not been studied well.Methods: The presence, distribution, and severity of emphysema and bronchiectasis in COPD patients with and without previous PTB were evaluated by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT and compared. Demographic data, respiratory symptoms, lung function, and sputum culture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were also compared between patients with and without previous PTB.Results: A total of 231 COPD patients (82.2% ex- or current smokers, 67.5% male were consecutively enrolled. Patients with previous PTB (45.0% had more severe (p=0.045 and longer history (p=0.008 of dyspnea, more exacerbations in the previous year (p=0.011, and more positive culture of P. aeruginosa (p=0.001, compared with those without PTB. Patients with previous PTB showed a higher prevalence of bronchiectasis (p<0.001, which was more significant in lungs with tuberculosis (TB lesions, and a higher percentage of more severe bronchiectasis (Bhalla score ≥2, p=0.031, compared with those without previous PTB. The overall prevalence of emphysema was not different between patients with and without previous PTB, but in those with previous PTB, a higher number of subjects with middle (p=0.001 and lower (p=0.019 lobe emphysema, higher severity score (p=0.028, higher prevalence of panlobular emphysema (p=0.013, and more extensive centrilobular emphysema (p=0.039 were observed. Notably, in patients with

  12. OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Komatsu, M

    2003-01-01

    OPERA is an accelerator experiment designed to explore Super- Kamiokande suggested nu//mu arrow left right nu//tau oscillation region in CNGS beam from CERN to LNGS. The key technique in OPERA is modern emulsion read out which applied to CHORUS and DONUT experiments. ECC technique which used in DONUT and OPERA has good modularity to enlarge apparatus for future Neutrino Factory experiments.

  13. Initial Cooling Experiment (ICE)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service; CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    In 1977, in a record-time of 9 months, the magnets of the g-2 experiment were modified and used to build a proton/antiproton storage ring: the "Initial Cooling Experiment" (ICE). It served for the verification of the cooling methods to be used for the "Antiproton Project". Stochastic cooling was proven the same year, electron cooling followed later. Also, with ICE the experimental lower limit for the antiproton lifetime was raised by 9 orders of magnitude: from 2 microseconds to 32 hours. For its previous life as g-2 storage ring, see 7405430. More on ICE: 7711282, 7809081, 7908242.

  14. The OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, M.

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA (Oscillation Project with Emulsion-tRacking Apparatus) experiment aims to observe an ν μ ↔ ν τ oscillation in the parameter region allowed by previous experiments. The OPERA detector will be installed in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory, where the CNGS (CERN Neutrino beam to Gran Sasso) ν μ beam will be produced. The signature of the presence of ν τ 's in the ν μ beam will be detection of τ leptons produced by ν τ interactions. Nuclear emulsions will be used for precise event reconstruction, while electronic detectors will be used for triggering [ru

  15. The OPERA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dracos, M.

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA (oscillation project with emulsion-tracking apparatus) experiment aims to observe an unambiguous ν μ ↔ ν τ oscillation in the parameter region allowed by previous experiments. The OPERA detector will be installed in the underground Gran Sasso Laboratory, 732 km away from CERN, where the CNGS (CERN neutrino beam to Gran Sasso) ν μ beam will be produced. The signature of the presence of ν τ 's in the ν μ beam will be the detection of τ leptons produced by ν τ interactions. Nuclear emulsions will be used for precise event reconstruction, while electronic detectors will be used for triggering

  16. People’s financial choice depends on their previous task success or failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna eSekścińska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Existing knowledge about the impact of the experience prior to financial choices has been limited almost exclusively to single risky choices. Moreover, the results obtained in these studies have not been entirely consistent. For example, some studies suggested that the experience of success makes people more willing to take a risk, while other studies led to the opposite conclusions. The results of the two experimental studies presented in this paper provide evidence for the hypothesis that the experience of success or failure influences people’s financial choices, but the effect of the success or failure depends on the type of task (financial and non-financial preceding a financial decision. The experience of success in financial tasks increased participants’ tendency to invest and make risky investment choices, while it also made them less prone to save. On the other hand, the experience of failure heightened the amount of money that participants decided to save, and lowered their tendency to invest and make risky investment choices. However, the effects of the experience of success or failure in non-financial tasks were exactly the opposite. The presented studies indicated the role of the specific circumstances in which the individual gains the experience as a possible way to explain the discrepancies in the results of studies on the relationship between the experience prior to financial choice with a tendency to take risks.

  17. People's Financial Choice Depends on their Previous Task Success or Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Existing knowledge about the impact of the experience prior to financial choices has been limited almost exclusively to single risky choices. Moreover, the results obtained in these studies have not been entirely consistent. For example, some studies suggested that the experience of success makes people more willing to take a risk, while other studies led to the opposite conclusions. The results of the two experimental studies presented in this paper provide evidence for the hypothesis that the experience of success or failure influences people's financial choices, but the effect of the success or failure depends on the type of task (financial and non-financial) preceding a financial decision. The experience of success in financial tasks increased participants' tendency to invest and make risky investment choices, while it also made them less prone to save. On the other hand, the experience of failure heightened the amount of money that participants decided to save, and lowered their tendency to invest and make risky investment choices. However, the effects of the experience of success or failure in non-financial tasks were exactly the opposite. The presented studies indicated the role of the specific circumstances in which the individual gains the experience as a possible way to explain the discrepancies in the results of studies on the relationship between the experience prior to financial choice with a tendency to take risks.

  18. People’s Financial Choice Depends on their Previous Task Success or Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekścińska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Existing knowledge about the impact of the experience prior to financial choices has been limited almost exclusively to single risky choices. Moreover, the results obtained in these studies have not been entirely consistent. For example, some studies suggested that the experience of success makes people more willing to take a risk, while other studies led to the opposite conclusions. The results of the two experimental studies presented in this paper provide evidence for the hypothesis that the experience of success or failure influences people’s financial choices, but the effect of the success or failure depends on the type of task (financial and non-financial) preceding a financial decision. The experience of success in financial tasks increased participants’ tendency to invest and make risky investment choices, while it also made them less prone to save. On the other hand, the experience of failure heightened the amount of money that participants decided to save, and lowered their tendency to invest and make risky investment choices. However, the effects of the experience of success or failure in non-financial tasks were exactly the opposite. The presented studies indicated the role of the specific circumstances in which the individual gains the experience as a possible way to explain the discrepancies in the results of studies on the relationship between the experience prior to financial choice with a tendency to take risks. PMID:26635654

  19. Dissociation in decision bias mechanism between probabilistic information and previous decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki eKaneko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Target detection performance is known to be influenced by events in the previous trials. It has not been clear, however, whether this bias effect is due to the previous sensory stimulus, motor response, or decision. Also it remains open whether or not the previous trial effect emerges via the same mechanism as the effect of knowledge about the target probability. In the present study, we asked normal human subjects to make a decision about the presence or absence of a visual target. We presented a pre-cue indicating the target probability before the stimulus, and also a decision-response mapping cue after the stimulus so as to tease apart the effect of decision from that of motor response. We found that the target detection performance was significantly affected by the probability cue in the current trial and also by the decision in the previous trial. While the information about the target probability modulated the decision criteria, the previous decision modulated the sensitivity to target-relevant sensory signals (d-prime. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we also found that activation in the left intraparietal sulcus was decreased when the probability cue indicated a high probability of the target. By contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus was increased when the subjects made a target-present decision in the previous trial, but this change was observed specifically when the target was present in the current trial. Activation in these regions was associated with individual-difference in the decision computation parameters. We argue that the previous decision biases the target detection performance by modulating the processing of target-selective information, and this mechanism is distinct from modulation of decision criteria due to expectation of a target.

  20. VBAC Scoring: Successful vaginal delivery in previous one caesarean section in induced labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, J.F.; Bangash, K.T.; Mahmud, G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop a scoring system for the prediction of successful vaginal birth after caesarean section, following induction of labour with intra-vaginal E2 gel (Glandin). Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011, at the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences in Islamabad. Trial of labour in previous one caesarean section, undergoing induction with intra-vaginal E2 gel, was attempted in 100 women. They were scored according to six variables; maternal age; gestation; indications of previous caesarean; history of vaginal birth either before or after the previous caesarean; Bishop score and body mass index. Multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop the scoring system. Results: Of the total, 67 (67%) women delivered vaginally, while 33 (33%) ended in repeat caesarean delivery. Among the subjects, 55 (55%) women had no history of vaginal delivery either before or after previous caesarean section; 15 (15%) had history of vaginal births both before and after the previous caesarean; while 30 (30%) had vaginal delivery only after the previous caesarean section. Rates of successful vaginal birth after caesarean increased from 38% in women having a score of 0-3 to 58% in patients scoring 4-6. Among those having a score of 7-9 and 10-12, the success rates were 71% and 86% respectively. Conclusion: Increasing scores correlated with the increasing probability of vaginal birth after caesarean undergoing induction of labour. The admission VBAC scoring system is useful in counselling women with previous caesarean for the option of induction of labour or repeat caesarean delivery. (author)

  1. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  2. Association between previous splenectomy and gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs: 453 cases (2004-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Angela J; Bentley, Adrienne M; Brown, Dorothy C

    2013-05-15

    To evaluate the association between previous splenectomy and gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) in dogs. Multi-institutional retrospective case-control study. Animals-151 dogs treated surgically for GDV and 302 control dogs with no history of GDV. Computerized records of dogs evaluated via exploratory laparotomy or abdominal ultrasonography were searched, and dogs with GDV and dogs without GDV (control dogs) were identified. Two control dogs were matched with respect to age, body weight, sex, neuter status, and breed to each dog with GDV. Data were collected on the presence or absence of the spleen for both dogs with GDV and control dogs. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of previous splenectomy with GDV. 6 (4%) dogs in the GDV group and 3 (1%) dogs in the control group had a history of previous splenectomy. The odds of GDV in dogs with a history of previous splenectomy in this population of dogs were 5.3 times those of dogs without a history of previous splenectomy (95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 26.8). For the patients in the present study, there was an increased odds of GDV in dogs with a history of splenectomy. Prophylactic gastropexy may be considered in dogs undergoing a splenectomy, particularly if other risk factors for GDV are present.

  3. Understanding customer experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Christopher; Schwager, Andre

    2007-02-01

    Anyone who has signed up for cell phone service, attempted to claim a rebate, or navigated a call center has probably suffered from a company's apparent indifference to what should be its first concern: the customer experiences that culminate in either satisfaction or disappointment and defection. Customer experience is the subjective response customers have to direct or indirect contact with a company. It encompasses every aspect of an offering: customer care, advertising, packaging, features, ease of use, reliability. Customer experience is shaped by customers' expectations, which largely reflect previous experiences. Few CEOs would argue against the significance of customer experience or against measuring and analyzing it. But many don't appreciate how those activities differ from CRM or just how illuminating the data can be. For instance, the majority of the companies in a recent survey believed they have been providing "superior" experiences to customers, but most customers disagreed. The authors describe a customer experience management (CEM) process that involves three kinds of monitoring: past patterns (evaluating completed transactions), present patterns (tracking current relationships), and potential patterns (conducting inquiries in the hope of unveiling future opportunities). Data are collected at or about touch points through such methods as surveys, interviews, focus groups, and online forums. Companies need to involve every function in the effort, not just a single customer-facing group. The authors go on to illustrate how a cross-functional CEM system is created. With such a system, companies can discover which customers are prospects for growth and which require immediate intervention.

  4. TRIO experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Finn, P.A.; Malecha, R.F.; Misra, B.; Billone, M.C.; Bowers, D.L.; Fischer, A.K.; Greenwood, L.R.; Mattas, R.F.; Tam, S.W.

    1984-09-01

    The TRIO experiment is a test of in-situ tritium recovery and heat transfer performance of a miniaturized solid breeder blanket assembly. The assembly (capsule) was monitored for temperature and neutron flux profiles during irradiation and a sweep gas flowed through the capsule to an anaytical train wherein the amounts of tritium in its various chemical forms were determined. The capsule was designed to operate at different temperatures and sweep gas conditions. At the end of the experiment the amount of tritium retained in the solid was at a concentration of less than 0.1 wppM. More than 99.9% of tritium generated during the experiment was successfully recovered. The results of the experiment showed that the tritium inventories at the beginning and at the end of the experiment follow a relationship which appears to be characteristic of intragranular diffusion.

  5. Pixel Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Augustesen, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Pixel Experiments The term pixel is traditionally defined as any of the minute elements that together constitute a larger context or image. A pixel has its own form and is the smallest unit seen within a larger structure. In working with the potentials of LED technology in architectural lighting...... for using LED lighting in lighting design practice. The speculative experiments that have been set-up have aimed to clarify the variables that can be used as parameters in the design of lighting applications; including, for example, the structuring and software control of light. The experiments also...... elucidate and exemplify already well-known problems in relation to the experience of vertical and horizontal lighting. Pixel Experiments exist as a synergy between speculative test setups and lighting design in practice. This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research...

  6. Collaborative experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker

    Literature review: Collaborative experience has been shown to have a positive effect on the collaborative outcome in general (Anand & Khanna, 2000; Kale, Dyer & Singh, 2002). Furthermore, it has been linked to the ability to exploit the network of the firm for learning (Powell, Koput and Smith...... experience was largest the higher the hypothesized ambiguity. Theoretically contribution: This research project aims at contributing to existing literature by arguing, that collaborative experience is a moderating variable which moderates the effects on collaborative outcome from the level of complexity......, that the largest effects from collaborative experience is from recent collaborative experience, since knowledge depreciates when it is not used. Methodologically contribution: The research project studies the dyad and aims at introducing, to this field of research, an established way of collecting data, a new...

  7. Preoperative electrocardiography: its cost-effectiveness in detecting abnormalities when a previous tracing exists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabkin, S W; Horne, J M

    1979-01-01

    In 812 patients who underwent routine preoperative electrocardiography a mean of 24.6 months after undergoing electrocardiography at the same institution, the frequency of new abnormalities was estimated to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of this procedure prior to an operation. New abnormalities were judged to be either relevant or irrelevant to the assessment of operative risk, depending upon their previously demonstrated correlation with operative and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Since new abnormalities, especially new relevant abnormalities, were found to be relatively infrequent, the cost-effectiveness of routine preoperative electrocardiography was considered to be low. The evidence suggested that when a previous tracing exists preoperative electrocardiography is most clearly indicated for patients who are 60 years of age or older or whose previous tracing exhibited abnormalities. However, further research is required to develop more sensitive and specific protocols, and to evaluate the role of repeat electrocardiography in clinical decision-making. PMID:111793

  8. Further analysis of previously implicated linkage regions for Alzheimer's disease in affected relative pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lannfelt Lars

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome-wide linkage studies for Alzheimer's disease have implicated several chromosomal regions as potential loci for susceptibility genes. Methods In the present study, we have combined a selection of affected relative pairs (ARPs from the UK and the USA included in a previous linkage study by Myers et al. (Am J Med Genet, 2002, with ARPs from Sweden and Washington University. In this total sample collection of 397 ARPs, we have analyzed linkage to chromosomes 1, 9, 10, 12, 19 and 21, implicated in the previous scan. Results The analysis revealed that linkage to chromosome 19q13 close to the APOE locus increased considerably as compared to the earlier scan. However, linkage to chromosome 10q21, which provided the strongest linkage in the previous scan could not be detected. Conclusion The present investigation provides yet further evidence that 19q13 is the only chromosomal region consistently linked to Alzheimer's disease.

  9. High prevalence of genetic variants previously associated with LQT syndrome in new exome data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Lena; Holst, Anders G; Sadjadieh, Golnaz

    2012-01-01

    Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) has provided important knowledge on this topic. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of previously LQTS-associated variants in ESP (5400 individuals), in order to identify possible false-positive LQTS variants. With this aim, we performed a search for previously...... published LQTS-associated variants in ESP. In addition, a PolyPhen-2 prediction was conducted, and the four most prevalent LQTS-associated variants with significant functional effects present in ESP were genotyped in a second control population. We identified 33 missense variants previously associated...... with LQTS in ESP. These 33 variants affected 173 alleles and this corresponded to a LQTS prevalence of 1:31 in the ESP population. PolyPhen-2 predicted 30% of the 33 variants present in ESP to be benign compared with 13% among LQTS-associated variants not present in ESP (P=0.019). Genotyping of the four...

  10. Relationship between the public's belief in recovery, level of mental illness stigma, and previous contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barczyk, Amanda N

    2015-01-01

    Disbelief exits that individuals who have a mental health condition are able to recover and fully function in life. This study analyzed 1,437 adults from the 2006 General Social Survey. Structural equation modeling (1) examined the relationship between respondents' level of prejudicial attitudes and social distance (i.e., stigma) toward individuals who have a mental health condition and their belief in the potential of recovery (2) tested whether previous contact with an individual who received treatment was a mediator. Findings indicated that the belief in recovery led to lower levels of social distance. Prejudicial attitudes were found to be a predictor of one's level of social distance. Previous contact was not a mediator however; males, minorities and those with less education were less likely to have had previous contact. Results indicated a need to emphasize the probability of recovering from a mental health condition when developing target-specific stigma reducing strategies.

  11. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  12. Effectiveness of disinfection with alcohol 70% (w/v of contaminated surfaces not previously cleaned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Uchikawa Graziano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the disinfectant effectiveness of alcohol 70% (w/v using friction, without previous cleaning, on work surfaces, as a concurrent disinfecting procedure in Health Services. METHOD: An experimental, randomized and single-blinded laboratory study was undertaken. The samples were enamelled surfaces, intentionally contaminated with Serratia marcescens microorganisms ATCC 14756 106 CFU/mL with 10% of human saliva added, and were submitted to the procedure of disinfection WITHOUT previous cleaning. The results were compared to disinfection preceded by cleaning. RESULTS: There was a reduction of six logarithms of the initial microbial population, equal in the groups WITH and WITHOUT previous cleaning (p=0.440 and a residual microbial load ≤ 102 CFU. CONCLUSION: The research demonstrated the acceptability of the practice evaluated, bringing an important response to the area of health, in particular to Nursing, which most undertakes procedures of concurrent cleaning /disinfecting of these work surfaces.

  13. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ying; Yu, Jin-Feng; Lu, Qin; Xu, Jin; Ye, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient) and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  14. Female and male moths display different reproductive behavior when facing new versus previous mates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ying Li

    Full Text Available Multiple mating allows females to obtain material (more sperm and nutrient and/or genetic benefits. The genetic benefit models require sperm from different males to fertilize eggs competitively or the offspring be fathered by multiple males. To maximize genetic benefits from multiple mating, females have evolved strategies to prefer novel versus previous mates in their subsequent matings. However, the reproductive behavior during mate encounter, mate choice and egg laying in relation to discrimination and preference between sexes has been largely neglected. In the present study, we used novel and previous mate treatments and studied male and female behavior and reproductive output in Spodoptera litura. The results of this study do not support the sperm and nutrient replenishment hypotheses because neither the number of mates nor the number of copulations achieved by females significantly increased female fecundity, fertility and longevity. However, females showed different oviposition patterns when facing new versus previous mates by slowing down oviposition, which allows the last male has opportunities to fertilize her eggs and the female to promote offspring diversity. Moreover, females that have novel males present called earlier and more than females that have their previous mates present, whereas no significant differences were found on male courtship between treatments. These results suggest that S. litura females can distinguish novel from previous mates and prefer the former, whereas males generally remate regardless of whether the female is a previous mate or not. In S. litura, eggs are laid in large clusters and offspring competition, inbreeding and disease transfer risks are thus increased. Therefore, offspring diversity should be valuable for S. litura, and genetic benefits should be the main force behind the evolution of female behavioral strategies found in the present study.

  15. Prevalent musculoskeletal pain as a correlate of previous exposure to torture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorte Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bojholm, S

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To research possible associations between previous exposure to specific torture techniques and prevalent pain in the head and face, back, and feet. METHODS: 221 refugees, 193 males and 28 females, previously exposed to torture in their home country, were subject to a clinical interview...... was general abuse of the whole body (OR 5.64, 95% CI 1.93-16.45). CONCLUSION: In spite of many factors being potentially co-responsible for prevalent pain, years after the torture took place it presents itself as strongly associated with specific loci of pain, with generalized effects, and with somatizing....

  16. The pathogenicity of genetic variants previously associated with left ventricular non-compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasi, Yeganeh; Jabbari, Javad; Jabbari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    an updated list of previously reported LVNC-associated variants with biologic description and investigate the prevalence of LVNC variants in healthy general population to find false-positive LVNC-associated variants. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Human Gene Mutation Database and PubMed were systematically...... searched to identify all previously reported LVNC-associated variants. Thereafter, the Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), that both represent the background population, was searched for all variants. Four in silico prediction tools were assessed to determine...

  17. Charged-particle thermonuclear reaction rates: IV. Comparison to previous work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliadis, C.; Longland, R.; Champagne, A.E.; Coc, A.

    2010-01-01

    We compare our Monte Carlo reaction rates (see Paper II of this issue) to previous results that were obtained by using the classical method of computing thermonuclear reaction rates. For each reaction, the comparison is presented using two types of graphs: the first shows the change in reaction rate uncertainties, while the second displays our new results normalized to the previously recommended reaction rate. We find that the rates have changed significantly for almost all reactions considered here. The changes are caused by (i) our new Monte Carlo method of computing reaction rates (see Paper I of this issue), and (ii) newly available nuclear physics information (see Paper III of this issue).

  18. A New Lagrangian Relaxation Method Considering Previous Hour Scheduling for Unit Commitment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorasani, H.; Rashidinejad, M.; Purakbari-Kasmaie, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2009-08-01

    Generation scheduling is a crucial challenge in power systems especially under new environment of liberalization of electricity industry. A new Lagrangian relaxation method for unit commitment (UC) has been presented for solving generation scheduling problem. This paper focuses on the economical aspect of UC problem, while the previous hour scheduling as a very important issue is studied. In this paper generation scheduling of present hour has been conducted by considering the previous hour scheduling. The impacts of hot/cold start-up cost have been taken in to account in this paper. Case studies and numerical analysis presents significant outcomes while it demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Predicting fruit consumption: the role of habits, previous behavior and mediation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Eggers, Sander M; Lechner, Lilian; van Osch, Liesbeth; van Stralen, Maartje M

    2014-07-18

    This study assessed the role of habits and previous behavior in predicting fruit consumption as well as their additional predictive contribution besides socio-demographic and motivational factors. In the literature, habits are proposed as a stable construct that needs to be controlled for in longitudinal analyses that predict behavior. The aim of this study is to provide empirical evidence for the inclusion of either previous behavior or habits. A random sample of 806 Dutch adults (>18 years) was invited by an online survey panel of a private research company to participate in an online study on fruit consumption. A longitudinal design (N = 574) was used with assessments at baseline and after one (T2) and two months (T3). Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the differential value of habit and previous behavior in the prediction of fruit consumption. Eighty percent of habit strength could be explained by habit strength one month earlier, and 64% of fruit consumption could be explained by fruit consumption one month earlier. Regression analyses revealed that the model with motivational constructs explained 41% of the behavioral variance at T2 and 38% at T3. The addition of previous behavior and habit increased the explained variance up to 66% at T2 and to 59% at T3. Inclusion of these factors resulted in non-significant contributions of the motivational constructs. Furthermore, our findings showed that the effect of habit strength on future behavior was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior. Both habit and previous behavior are important as predictors of future behavior, and as educational objectives for behavior change programs. Our results revealed less stability for the constructs over time than expected. Habit strength was to a large extent mediated by previous behavior and our results do not strongly suggest a need for the inclusion of both constructs. Future research needs to assess the conditions that determine direct

  20. STOCHASTIC PARAMETRIC VIBRATIONS OF ELASTIC SYSTEMS WITH REGARD TO THEIR PREVIOUS STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorona Y.V.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reduced models of stochastic parametric vibrations of elastic systems with regard to their previous states were constructed on the base of the finite element method, generalized coordinates method, asymptotic method and functional approach. Stochastic stability problem was formulated in the average for the moment functions of the first order phase coordinates. The stability of stochastic parametric vibrations of the single degree of freedom system with regard to its previous states was investigated by the 7-stages 5-order continuous Runge-Kutta method and nested formulas Dormand-Prince.