Sample records for prevents phd2-induced anchorage-independent

  1. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Shen, Steven [Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A. [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Costa, Max, E-mail: [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)


    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  2. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A.; Costa, Max


    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  3. A genetic screen for anchorage-independent proliferation in mammalian cells identifies a membrane-bound neuregulin.

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    Davide Danovi


    Full Text Available Anchorage-independent proliferation is a hallmark of oncogenic transformation and is thought to be conducive to proliferation of cancer cells away from their site of origin. We have previously reported that primary Schwann cells expressing the SV40 Large T antigen (LT are not fully transformed in that they maintain a strict requirement for attachment, requiring a further genetic change, such as oncogenic Ras, to gain anchorage-independence. Using the LT-expressing cells, we performed a genetic screen for anchorage-independent proliferation and identified Sensory and Motor Neuron Derived Factor (SMDF, a transmembrane class III isoform of Neuregulin 1. In contrast to oncogenic Ras, SMDF induced enhanced proliferation in normal primary Schwann cells but did not trigger cellular senescence. In cooperation with LT, SMDF drove anchorage-independent proliferation, loss of contact inhibition and tumourigenicity. This transforming ability was shared with membrane-bound class III but not secreted class I isoforms of Neuregulin, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Importantly, we show that despite being membrane-bound signalling molecules, class III neuregulins transform via a cell intrinsic mechanism, as a result of constitutive, elevated levels of ErbB signalling at high cell density and in anchorage-free conditions. This novel transforming mechanism may provide new targets for cancer therapy.

  4. PAX2 regulates ADAM10 expression and mediates anchorage-independent cell growth of melanoma cells.

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    Sophia Boyoung Lee

    Full Text Available PAX transcription factors play an important role during development and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated PAX2 protein levels in melanocytes and melanoma cells by Western Blot and immunofluorescence analysis and characterized the role of PAX2 in the pathogenesis of melanoma. In vitro we found weak PAX2 protein expression in keratinocytes and melanocytes. Compared to melanocytes increased PAX2 protein levels were detectable in melanoma cell lines. Interestingly, in tissue sections of melanoma patients nuclear PAX2 expression strongly correlated with nuclear atypia and the degree of prominent nucleoli, indicating an association of PAX2 with a more atypical cellular phenotype. In addition, with chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, PAX2 overexpression and PAX2 siRNA we present compelling evidence that PAX2 can regulate ADAM10 expression, a metalloproteinase known to play important roles in melanoma metastasis. In human tissue samples we found co-expression of PAX2 and ADAM10 in melanocytes of benign nevi and in melanoma cells of patients with malignant melanoma. Importantly, the downregulation of PAX2 by specific siRNA inhibited the anchorage independent cell growth and decreased the migratory and invasive capacity of melanoma cells. Furthermore, the downregulation of PAX2 abrogated the chemoresistance of melanoma cells against cisplatin, indicating that PAX2 expression mediates cell survival and plays important roles during melanoma progression.

  5. Role of postreplication repair in transformation of human fibroblasts to anchorage independence

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    Boyer, J.C.; Kaufmann, W.K.; Cordeiro-Stone, M.


    Cellular capacity for postreplication repair (PRR) and sensitivity to transformation to anchorage independence (AI) were quantified in normal foreskin and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) variant fibroblasts after treatment with UV or benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide I (BPDE-I). PRR is defined here as a collection of pathways that facilitate the replication of DNA damaged by genotoxic agents. It is recognized biochemically as the process by which nascent DNA grows longer than the average distance between two lesions in the DNA template. PRR refers more directly to the elimination of gaps in the daughter-strand DNA by mechanisms which remain to be determined for human cells, but which may include translesion replication and recombination. PRR was measured in diploid human fibroblasts by analysis of the dose kinetics for inhibition of DNA strand growth in carcinogen-treated cells. Logarithmically growing foreskin fibroblasts (NHF1) displayed D0 values of 4.3 J/m 2 and 0.14 microM for the inhibition of DNA synthesis in active replicons by UV and BPDE-I, respectively. XP variant cells (CRL1162) exhibited corresponding D0 values of 1.5 J/m 2 and 0.16 microM. The increased sensitivity to inhibition of DNA replication by UV in these XP variant fibroblasts (2.9-fold greater than normal) was mirrored by an enhanced frequency of transformation to AI. XP variant fibroblasts (CRL1162) were 3.2 times more sensitive to transformation to AI by UV than were the normal foreskin fibroblasts. As predicted by the PRR studies, both cell types exhibited similar frequencies of AI colonies induced by BPDE-I. Apparent thresholds were observed for induction of AI by UV (normal fibroblasts, 2.7 J/m 2 ; XP variant fibroblasts, 0.3 J/m 2 ) and BPDE-I (both, 0.05 microM)

  6. Enhanced caveolin-1 expression increases migration, anchorage-independent growth and invasion of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells

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    Diaz-Valdivia, Natalia; Bravo, Denisse; Huerta, Hernán; Henriquez, Soledad; Gabler, Fernando; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen; Calderon, Claudia; Owen, Gareth I.; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F. G.


    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) has been implicated both in tumor suppression and progression, whereby the specific role appears to be context dependent. Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the female genital tract; however, little is known about the role of CAV1 in this disease. Here, we first determined by immunohistochemistry CAV1 protein levels in normal proliferative human endometrium and endometrial tumor samples. Then using two endometrial cancer cell lines (ECC: Ishikawa and Hec-1A) we evaluated mRNA and protein levels of CAV1 by real time qPCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The role of CAV1 expression in ECC malignancy was further studied by either inducing its expression in endometrial cancer cells with the tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (4β-TPA) or decreasing expression using short-hairpin RNA constructs, and then evaluating the effects of these changes on ECC proliferation, transmigration, matrigel invasion, and colony formation in soft agar. Immunohistochemical analysis of endometrial epithelia revealed that substantially higher levels of CAV1 were present in endometrial tumors than the normal proliferative epithelium. Also, in Ishikawa and Hec-1A endometrial cancer cells CAV1 expression was readily detectable. Upon treatment with 4β-TPA CAV1 levels increased and coincided with augmented cell transmigration, matrigel invasion, as well as colony formation in soft agar. Reduction of CAV1 expression using short-hairpin RNA constructs ablated these effects in both cell types whether treated or not with 4β-TPA. Alternatively, CAV1 expression appeared not to modulate significantly proliferation of these cells. Our study shows that elevated CAV1, observed in patients with endometrial cancer, is linked to enhanced malignancy of endometrial cancer cells, as evidenced by increased migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1477-5) contains

  7. Protein disulfide isomerases in the endoplasmic reticulum promote anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells. (United States)

    Wise, Randi; Duhachek-Muggy, Sara; Qi, Yue; Zolkiewski, Michal; Zolkiewska, Anna


    Metastatic breast cancer cells are exposed to stress of detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cultured breast cancer cells that survive this stress and are capable of anchorage-independent proliferation form mammospheres. The purpose of this study was to explore a link between mammosphere growth, ECM gene expression, and the protein quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We compared the mRNA and protein levels of ER folding factors in SUM159PT and breast cancer cells grown as mammospheres versus adherent conditions. Publicly available gene expression data for mammospheres formed by primary breast cancer cells and for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were analyzed to assess the status of ECM/ER folding factor genes in clinically relevant samples. Knock-down of selected protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members was performed to examine their roles in SUM159PT mammosphere growth. We found that cells grown as mammospheres had elevated expression of ECM genes and ER folding quality control genes. CTC gene expression data for an index patient indicated that upregulation of ECM and ER folding factor genes occurred at the time of acquired therapy resistance and disease progression. Knock-down of PDI, ERp44, or ERp57, three members of the PDI family with elevated protein levels in mammospheres, in SUM159PT cells partially inhibited the mammosphere growth. Thus, breast cancer cell survival and growth under detachment conditions require enhanced assistance of the ER protein folding machinery. Targeting ER folding factors, in particular members of the PDI family, may improve the therapeutic outcomes in metastatic breast cancer.

  8. Spheroid Culture of Head and Neck Cancer Cells Reveals an Important Role of EGFR Signalling in Anchorage Independent Survival. (United States)

    Braunholz, Diana; Saki, Mohammad; Niehr, Franziska; Öztürk, Merve; Borràs Puértolas, Berta; Konschak, Robert; Budach, Volker; Tinhofer, Ingeborg


    In solid tumours millions of cells are shed into the blood circulation each day. Only a subset of these circulating tumour cells (CTCs) survive, many of them presumable because of their potential to form multi-cellular clusters also named spheroids. Tumour cells within these spheroids are protected from anoikis, which allows them to metastasize to distant organs or re-seed at the primary site. We used spheroid cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines as a model for such CTC clusters for determining the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cluster formation ability and cell survival after detachment from the extra-cellular matrix. The HNSCC cell lines FaDu, SCC-9 and UT-SCC-9 (UT-SCC-9P) as well as its cetuximab (CTX)-resistant sub-clone (UT-SCC-9R) were forced to grow in an anchorage-independent manner by coating culture dishes with the anti-adhesive polymer poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (poly-HEMA). The extent of apoptosis, clonogenic survival and EGFR signalling under such culture conditions was evaluated. The potential of spheroid formation in suspension culture was found to be positively correlated with the proliferation rate of HNSCC cell lines as well as their basal EGFR expression levels. CTX and gefitinib blocked, whereas the addition of EGFR ligands promoted anchorage-independent cell survival and spheroid formation. Increased spheroid formation and growth were associated with persistent activation of EGFR and its downstream signalling component (MAPK/ERK). Importantly, HNSCC cells derived from spheroid cultures retained their clonogenic potential in the absence of cell-matrix contact. Addition of CTX under these conditions strongly inhibited colony formation in CTX-sensitive cell lines but not their resistant subclones. Altogether, EGFR activation was identified as crucial factor for anchorage-independent survival of HNSCC cells. Targeting EGFR in CTC cluster formation might represent an attractive anti

  9. Barium promotes anchorage-independent growth and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes via activation of c-SRC kinase. (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi


    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl(2)) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5-50 µM) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5-5 µM) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro.

  10. XIAP BIR domain suppresses miR-200a expression and subsequently promotes EGFR protein translation and anchorage-independent growth of bladder cancer cell

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    Chao Huang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP is a well-known potent apoptosis suppressor and also participates in cancer cell biological behaviors, therefore attracting great attentions as a potential antineoplastic therapeutic target for past years. Anti-IAP therapy is reported to be closely related to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression level. However, whether and how XIAP modulates EGFR expression remains largely unknown. Methods Human XIAP was knockdown with short-hairpin RNA in two different bladder cancer cell lines, T24T and UMUC3. Two XIAP mutants, XIAP ∆BIR (deletion of N-terminal three BIR domains and XIAP ∆RING (deletion of C-terminal RING domain and keeping the function of BIR domains, were generated to determine which domain is involved in regulating EGFR. Results We found here that lacking of XIAP expression resulted in a remarkable suppression of EGFR expression, consequently leading to the deficiency of anchorage-independent cell growth. Further study demonstrated that BIR domain of XIAP was crucial for regulating the EGFR translation by suppressing the transcription and expression of miR-200a. Mechanistic studies indicated that BIR domain activated the protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of PP2A at Tyr307 in its catalytic subunit, PP2A-C. Such activated PP2A prevented the deviant phosphorylation and activation of MAPK kinases/MAPKs, their downstream effector c-Jun, and in turn inhibiting transcription of c-Jun-regulated the miR-200a. Conclusions Our study uncovered a novel function of BIR domain of XIAP in regulating the EGFR translation, providing significant insight into the understanding of the XIAP overexpression in the cancer development and progression, further offering a new theoretical support for using XIAP BIR domain and EGFR as targets for cancer therapy.

  11. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

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    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  12. Downregulation of Akt1 Inhibits Anchorage-Independent Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

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    Xuesong Liu


    Full Text Available The serine/threonine kinases, Akti/PKBα, Akt2/PKBβ, and Akt3/PKBγ, play a critical role in preventing cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. However, the function of individual Akt isoforms in the tumorigenicity of cancer cells is still not well defined. In the current study, we used an AM antisense oligonucleotide (AS to specifically downregulate Akti protein in both cancer and normal cells. Our data indicate that AM AS treatment inhibits the ability of MiaPaCa-2, H460, HCT-15, and HT1080 cells to grow in soft agar. The treatment also induces apoptosis in these cancer cells as demonstrated by FRCS analysis and a caspase activity assay. Conversely, Akti AS treatment has little effect on the cell growth and survival of normal human cells including normal human fibroblast (NHF, fibroblast from muscle (FBM, and mammary gland epithelial 184135 cells. In addition, AM AS specifically sensitizes cancer cells to typical chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, Akti is indispensable for maintaining the tumorigenicity of cancer cells. Inhibition of AM may provide a powerful sensitization agent for chemotherapy specifically in cancer cells.

  13. Elevated p21-Activated Kinase 2 Activity Results in Anchorage-Independent Growth and Resistance to Anticancer Drug–Induced Cell Death

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    Jerry W. Marlin


    Full Text Available p21-Activated kinase 2 (PAK-2 seems to be a regulatory switch between cell survival and cell death signaling. We have shown previously that activation of full-length PAK-2 by Rac or Cdc42 stimulates cell survival, whereas caspase activation of PAK-2 to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment is involved in the cell death response. In this study, we present a role of elevated activity of full-length PAK-2 in anchorage-independent growth and resistance to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Hs578T human breast cancer cells that have low levels of PAK-2 activity were more sensitive to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis and showed higher levels of caspase activation of PAK-2 than MDA-MB435 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that have high levels of PAK-2 activity. To examine the role of elevated PAK-2 activity in breast cancer, we have introduced a conditionally active PAK-2 into Hs578T human breast cells. Conditional activation of PAK-2 causes loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth of Hs578T cells. Furthermore, conditional activation of PAK-2 suppresses activation of caspase 3, caspase activation of PAK-2, and apoptosis of Hs578T cells in response to the anticancer drug cisplatin. Our data suggest a novel mechanism by which full-length PAK-2 activity controls the apoptotic response by regulating levels of activated caspase 3 and thereby its own cleavage to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment. As a result, elevated PAK-2 activity interrupts the apoptotic response and thereby causes anchorage-independent survival and growth and resistance to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis.

  14. Induction of anchorage-independent growth in primary human cells exposed to protons or HZE ions separately or in dual exposures. (United States)

    Sutherland, B M; Cuomo, N C; Bennett, P V


    Travelers on space missions will be exposed to a complex radiation environment that includes protons and heavy charged particles. Since protons are present at much higher levels than are heavy ions, the most likely scenario for cellular radiation exposure will be proton exposure followed by a hit by a heavy ion. Although the effects of individual ion species on human cells are being investigated extensively, little is known about the effects of exposure to both radiation types. One useful measure of mammalian cell damage is induction of the ability to grow in a semi-solid agar medium highly inhibitory to the growth of normal human cells, termed neoplastic transformation. Using primary human cells, we evaluated induction of soft-agar growth and survival of cells exposed to protons only or to heavy charged particles (600 MeV/nucleon silicon) only as well as of cells exposed to protons followed after a 4-day interval by silicon ions. Both ions alone efficiently transformed the human cells to anchorage-independent growth. Initial experiments indicate that the dose responses for neoplastic transformation of cells exposed to protons and then after 4 days to silicon ions appear similar to that of cells exposed to silicon ions alone.

  15. Cellular Dichotomy Between Anchorage-Independent Growth Responses to bFGF and TA Reflects Molecular Switch in Commitment to Carcinogenesis

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    Waters, Katrina M.; Tan, Ruimin; Opresko, Lee K.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Chrisler, William B.; Weber, Thomas J.


    We have investigated gene expression patterns underlying reversible and irreversible anchorage-independent growth (AIG) phenotypes to identify more sensitive markers of cell transformation for studies directed at interrogating carcinogenesis responses. In JB6 mouse epidermal cells, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces an unusually efficient and reversible AIG response, relative to 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced AIG which is irreversible. The reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes are characterized by largely non-overlapping global gene expression profiles. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes were identified as common to reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes, including genes regulated in a reciprocal fashion. Hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) and D-site albumin promoter-binding protein (DBP) were increased in both bFGF and TPA soft agar colonies and selected for functional validation. Ectopic expression of human HLF and DBP in JB6 cells resulted in a marked increase in TPA- and bFGF-regulated AIG responses. HLF and DBP expression were increased in soft agar colonies arising from JB6 cells exposed to gamma radiation and in a human basal cell carcinoma tumor tissue, relative to paired non-tumor tissue. Subsequent biological network analysis suggests that many of the differentially expressed genes that are common to bFGF- and TPA-dependent AIG are regulated by c-Myc, SP-1 and HNF-4 transcription factors. Collectively, we have identified a potential molecular switch that mediates the transition from reversible to irreversible AIG.

  16. Ectodomains of the LDL receptor-related proteins LRP1b and LRP4 have anchorage independent functions in vivo.

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    Martin F Dietrich


    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor gene family is a highly conserved group of membrane receptors with diverse functions in developmental processes, lipoprotein trafficking, and cell signaling. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor-related protein 1b (LRP1B was reported to be deleted in several types of human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer. Our group has previously reported that a distal extracellular truncation of murine Lrp1b that is predicted to secrete the entire intact extracellular domain (ECD is fully viable with no apparent phenotype.Here, we have used a gene targeting approach to create two mouse lines carrying internally rearranged exons of Lrp1b that are predicted to truncate the protein closer to the N-terminus and to prevent normal trafficking through the secretary pathway. Both mutations result in early embryonic lethality, but, as expected from the restricted expression pattern of LRP1b in vivo, loss of Lrp1b does not cause cellular lethality as homozygous Lrp1b-deficient blastocysts can be propagated normally in culture. This is similar to findings for another LDL receptor family member, Lrp4. We provide in vitro evidence that Lrp4 undergoes regulated intramembraneous processing through metalloproteases and gamma-secretase cleavage. We further demonstrate negative regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the soluble extracellular domain.Our results underline a crucial role for Lrp1b in development. The expression in mice of truncated alleles of Lrp1b and Lrp4 with deletions of the transmembrane and intracellular domains leads to release of the extracellular domain into the extracellular space, which is sufficient to confer viability. In contrast, null mutations are embryonically (Lrp1b or perinatally (Lrp4 lethal. These findings suggest that the extracellular domains of both proteins may function as a scavenger for signaling ligands or signal modulators in the extracellular space, thereby

  17. Characterization of mutagen-activated cellular oncogenes that confer anchorage independence to human fibroblasts and tumorigenicity to NIH 3T3 cells: Sequence analysis of an enzymatically amplified mutant HRAS allele

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    Stevens, C.W.; Manoharan, T.H.; Fahl, W.E.


    Treatment of diploid human fibroblasts with an alkylating mutagen has been shown to induce stable, anchorage-independent cell populations at frequencies consistent with an activating mutation. After treatment of human foreskin fibroblasts with the mutagen benzo[α]pyrene (±)anti-7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-epoxide and selection in soft agar, 17 anchorage-independent clones were isolated and expanded, and their cellular DNA was used to cotransfect NIH 3T3 cells along with pSV2neo. DNA from 11 of the 17 clones induced multiple NIH 3T3 cell tumors in recipient nude mice. Southern blot analyses showed the presence of human Alu repetitive sequences in all of the NIH 3T3 tumor cell DNAs. Intact, human HRAS sequences were observed in 2 of the 11 tumor groups, whereas no hybridization was detected when human KRAS or NRAS probes were used. Slow-migrating ras p21 proteins, consistent with codon 12 mutations, were observed in the same two NIH 3T3 tumor cell groups that contained the human HRAS bands. Genomic DNA from one of these two human anchorage-independent cell populations (clone 21A) was used to enzymatically amplify a portion of exon 1 of the HRAS gene. The results demonstrate that exposure of normal human cells to a common environmental mutagen yields HRAS GC → TA codon 12 transversions that have been commonly observed in human tumors

  18. Molecular and functional analysis of anchorage independent, treatment-evasive neuroblastoma tumorspheres with enhanced malignant properties: A possible explanation for radio-therapy resistance. (United States)

    Abou-Antoun, Tamara J; Nazarian, Javad; Ghanem, Anthony; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Sandler, Anthony D


    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and management, more than 60% of patients with neuroblastoma present with very poor prognosis in the form of metastatic and aggressive disease. Solid tumors including neuroblastoma are thought to be heterogeneous with a sub-population of stem-like cells that are treatment-evasive with highly malignant characteristics. We previously identified a phenomenon of reversible adaptive plasticity (RAP) between anchorage dependent (AD) cells and anchorage independent (AI) tumorspheres in neuroblastoma cell cultures. To expand our molecular characterization of the AI tumorspheres, we sought to define the comprehensive proteomic profile of murine AD and AI neuroblastoma cells. The proteomic profiles of the two phenotypic cell populations were compared to each other to determine the differential protein expression and molecular pathways of interest. We report exclusive or significant up-regulation of tumorigenic pathways expressed by the AI tumorspheres compared to the AD cancer cells. These pathways govern metastatic potential, enhanced malignancy and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, radio-therapy induced significant up-regulation of specific tumorigenic and proliferative proteins, namely survivin, CDC2 and the enzyme Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1. Bio-functional characteristics of the AI tumorspheres were resistant to sutent inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as to 2.5 Gy radio-therapy as assessed by cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Interestingly, PDGF-BB stimulation of the PDGFRβ led to transactivation of EGFR and VEGFR in AI tumorspheres more potently than in AD cells. Sutent inhibition of PDGFRβ abrogated this transactivation in both cell types. In addition, 48 h sutent treatment significantly down-regulated the protein expression of PDGFRβ, MYCN, SOX2 and Survivin in the AI tumorspheres and inhibited tumorsphere self-renewal. Radio-sensitivity in AI

  19. Diacylglycerol kinase α mediates 17-β-estradiol-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30. (United States)

    Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Sampietro, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo E; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Gregnanin, Ilaria; Rainero, Elena; Ferrara, Michele; Perego, Beatrice; Riboni, Francesca; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Graziani, Andrea; Surico, Nicola


    Increased levels of endogenous and/or exogenous estrogens are one of the well known risk factors of endometrial cancer. Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes which phosphorylate diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), thus turning off and on DAG-mediated and PA-mediated signaling pathways, respectively. DGK α activity is stimulated by growth factors and oncogenes and is required for chemotactic, proliferative, and angiogenic signaling in vitro. Herein, using either specific siRNAs or the pharmacological inhibitor R59949, we demonstrate that DGK α activity is required for 17-β-estradiol (E2)-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line. Impairment of DGK α activity also influences basal cell proliferation and growth in soft agar of Hec-1A, while it has no effects on basal cell motility. Moreover, we show that DGK α activity induced by E2, as well as its observed effects, are mediated by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30 (GPER). These findings suggest that DGK α may be a potential target in endometrial cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A


    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  1. Association of ultraviolet-induced retrovirus expression with anchorage-independent survival in rat embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, W.A.


    The authors have shown in the AI assay that the nontransforming retrovirus increases the differential in enhanced survival response in infected cultures. To more fully understand this aspect of the system, they examined the effect of UV irradiation on infected and uninfected FRE cells. In this communication the authors report that UV irradiation induces AI survival in infected and uninfected cells;in uninfected cells there is a concomitant induction of endogenous retrovirus expression. The AI survival of both cell lines was determined using a previously described procedure. Anchorage-dependent media control and solvent control cells, when suspended in medium above an agar base layer, showed a rapid decline in cell survival;however, cells that had been treated with carcinogen did not undergo the destructive process that took place in control cells, indicating specificity

  2. Inhibition of Curcumin on ZAKα Activity Resultant in Apoptosis and Anchorage-Independent Growth in Cancer Cells. (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Sun; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Lin, Ming Cheng; Lin, Wei-Wen; Yang, Jaw-Ji


    Curcumin, a popular yellow pigment of the dietary spice turmeric, has been reported to inhibit cell growth and to induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells. Although numerous studies have investigated anticancer effects of curcumin, the precise molecular mechanism of action remains unidentified. Whereas curcumin mediates cell survival and apoptosis through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascades, its impact on the upstream regulation of MAPK is unclear. The leucine-zipper and sterile-α motif kinase alpha (ZAKα), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB pathway. This paper investigated the prospective involvement of ZAKα in curcumin-induced effects on cancer cells. Our results suggest that the antitumor activity of curcumin is mediated via a mechanism involving inhibition of ZAKα activity.

  3. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl


    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer

  4. ROCK1 and ROCK2 are Required for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Anchorage-Independent Growth and Invasion


    Vigil, Dominico; Kim, Tai Young; Plachco, Ana; Garton, Andrew J.; Castaldo, Linda; Pachter, Jonathan A.; Dong, Hanqing; Chen, Xin; Tokar, Brianna; Campbell, Sharon L.; Der, Channing J.


    Evidence is emerging that the closely related ROCK1 and ROCK2 serine/threonine kinases support the invasive and metastatic growth of a spectrum of human cancer types. Therefore, inhibitors of ROCK are under preclinical development. However, a key step in their development involves the identification of genetic biomarkers that will predict ROCK inhibitor anti-tumor activity. One identified mechanism for ROCK activation in cancer involves the loss of function of the DLC1 tumor suppressor gene, ...

  5. Down-regulation of Survivin by Antisense Oligonucleotides Increases Apoptosis, Inhibits Cytokinesis and Anchorage-Independent Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen


    Full Text Available Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family, is detected in most common human cancers but not in adjacent normal cells. Previous studies suggest that survivin associates with the mitotic spindle and directly inhibits caspase activity. To further investigate the function of survivin, we used a survivin antisense (AS oligonucleotide to downregulate survivin expression in normal and cancer cells. We found that inhibition of survivin expression increased apoptosis and polyploidy while decreasing colony formation in soft agar. Immunohistochemistry showed that cells without survivin can initiate the cleavage furrow and contractile ring, but cannot complete cytokinesis, thus resulting in multinucleated cells. These findings indicate that survivin plays important roles in a late stage of cytokinesis, as well as in apoptosis.

  6. Induction of anchorage-independent growth of human embryonic fibroblasts with a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11 by human papillomavirus type 16 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, H.L.; Raadsheer, E.; Rood, I.; Mehendale, S.; Slater, R.M.; van der Noordaa, J.; Ter Schegget, J.


    Human embryonic fibroblasts with a large deletion (11p11.11p15.1) in the short arm of one chromosome 11 (del-11 cells) appeared to be susceptible to transformation by early human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA, whereas diploid human embryonic fibroblasts were not. This difference in susceptibility might be explained by the absence of a tumor suppressor gene located within the deleted part on the short arm of chromosome 11. The presence of abundant viral early-gene transcripts in transformed cells suggests that transformation was induced by an elevated level of an HPV-16 early-gene product(s). The low transcriptional activity of HPV-16 in diploid cells may indicate that cellular genes affect viral transcription. Interruption of the HPV-16 E2 early open reading frame is probably required for high-level HPV-16 early-gene expression driven from the homologous enhancer-promoter region

  7. An epithelial marker promoter induction screen identifies histone deacetylase inhibitors to restore epithelial differentiation and abolishes anchorage independence growth in cancers. (United States)

    Tang, H M; Kuay, K T; Koh, P F; Asad, M; Tan, T Z; Chung, V Y; Lee, S C; Thiery, J P; Huang, Ry-J


    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial mechanism in development, mediates aggressiveness during carcinoma progression and therapeutic refractoriness. The reversibility of EMT makes it an attractive strategy in designing novel therapeutic approaches. Therefore, drug discovery pipelines for EMT reversal are in need to discover emerging classes of compounds. Here, we outline a pre-clinical drug screening platform for EMT reversal that consists of three phases of drug discovery and validation. From the Phase 1 epithelial marker promoter induction (EpI) screen on a library consisting of compounds being approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Vorinostat (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), is identified to exert EMT reversal effects by restoring the expression of an epithelial marker, E-cadherin. An expanded screen on 41 HDACi further identifies 28 compounds, such as class I-specific HDACi Mocetinosat, Entinostat and CI994, to restore E-cadherin and ErbB3 expressions in ovarian, pancreatic and bladder carcinoma cells. Mocetinostat is the most potent HDACi to restore epithelial differentiation with the lowest concentration required for 50% induction of epithelial promoter activity (EpIC-50).The HDACi exerts paradoxical effects on EMT transcriptional factors such as SNAI and ZEB family and the effects are context-dependent in epithelial- and mesenchymal-like cells. In vitro functional studies further show that HDACi induced significant increase in anoikis and decrease in spheroid formation in ovarian and bladder carcinoma cells with mesenchymal features. This study demonstrates a robust drug screening pipeline for the discovery of compounds capable of restoring epithelial differentiation that lead to significant functional lethality.

  8. Salmonella Prevention (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  10. Preventative Maintenance. (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  11. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik


    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  13. Preventing Rejection (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  14. Prevent Cyberbullying (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  15. Preventing Suicide (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  18. Preventing accidents (United States)


    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  1. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  2. Cancer prevention. (United States)

    Tubiana, M


    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  3. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  5. Suicide Prevention (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  6. Bullying Prevention (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice


    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  7. Allergy prevention. (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten


    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  8. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.


    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  9. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  10. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  11. Cholera Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  12. Molecular mechanisms of the 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced inverted U-shaped dose responsiveness in anchorage independent growth and cell proliferation of human breast epithelial cells with stem cell characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Nam-Shik; Hu, Hongbo; Park, Jin-Sung; Park, Joon-Suk; Kim, Jong-Sik; An, Sungwhan; Kong, Gu; Aruoma, Okezie I.; Lee, Yong-Soon; Kang, Kyung-Sun


    Although 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has a variety of carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic effects in experimental animals, its role in human carcinogenicity remain controversial. A simian virus 40-immortalized cell line from normal human breast epithelial cells with stem cells and luminal characteristics (M13SV1) was used to study whether TCDD can induce AIG positive colony formation and cause increased cell numbers in a inverted U-shaped dose-response manner. TCDD activated Akt, ERK2, and increased the expression of CYP1A1, PAI-2, IL-lb mRNA, and ERK2 protein levels. TCDD was able to increased phosphorylation and expression of ERK2 in same dose-response manner as AIG positive colony formation. Thus, TCDD induced tumorigenicity in M13SV1, possibly through the phosphorylation of ERK2 and/or Akt. Further, cDNA microarray with 7448 sequence-verified clones was used to profile various gene expression patterns after treatment of TCDD. Three clear patterns could be delineated: genes that were dose-dependently up-regulated, genes expressed in either U-shape and/or inverted U-shape. The fact that these genes are intrinsically related to breast epithelial cell proliferation and survival clearly suggests that they may be involved in the TCDD-induced breast tumorigenesis

  13. Polio and Prevention (United States)

    ... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...

  14. Prevent Child Abuse America (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  15. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... Call The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  16. Prevention Research Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Prevention Research Matters is a series of one-on-one interviews with researchers from 26 university prevention research centers across the country. Their work focuses on preventing and controlling chronic diseases like obesity, cancer, and heart disease.

  17. Scabies: Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  18. Reflections on preventive medicine. (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S


    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D


    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  20. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  2. Cancer treatment - preventing infection (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  3. Research Areas: Prevention (United States)

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  4. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  6. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.


    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  7. Marine Pollution Prevention Act (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  8. Risk Factors and Prevention (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  9. Preventing Weight Gain (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  10. Breast Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  11. Settings for Suicide Prevention (United States)

    ... Suicide Populations Racial/Ethnic Groups Older Adults Adolescents LGBT Military/Veterans Men Effective Prevention Comprehensive Approach Identify ... Based Prevention Settings American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Schools Colleges and Universities Primary Care Emergency Departments Behavioral ...

  12. Prevent Cervical Cancer (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  13. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls (United States)

    ... a gentle exercise that involves slow and graceful dance-like movements. Such activities reduce the risk of ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  14. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.


    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  15. Statewide Suicide Prevention Council (United States)

    State Employees Statewide Suicide Prevention Council DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and Agencies National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Alaska Community Mental Health Centers National Survivors of Suicide Meetings Presentations 2010 Alaska Statewide Suicide Prevention Summit: Mending the Net Connect with us on

  16. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  17. [Prevention of mental disorders]. (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta


    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D


    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  19. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta


    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  20. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.  Created: 10/24/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/24/2011.

  1. CSI cardiac prevent 2015


    S Ramakrishnan; Manisha Kaushik


    The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressur...

  2. Prevention of Prosthetic Dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremin O.V.


    Full Text Available Prevention in prosthetic dentistry is not just a regular oral hygiene and the prevention of caries in the early stages of its development. The initial goal of orthopedic and dental should be the ability to convey to the patient's sense of pros-thetics that proteziruya one saved more. An example is included prosthetic dental arch defects with bridges or single artificial crowns on implants that will prevent movement of teeth and the continuity of the dentition

  3. Prevention, not just treatment. (United States)

    Connors, G L; Hilling, L


    A tragic burden of disease, disability, and death has resulted from smoking. The role of pulmonary rehabilitation is not only in treatment and rehabilitation of lung disease but in the prevention of lung disease. The skills of the pulmonary rehabilitation specialist should be used in the earlier detection and prevention of lung disease through primary and secondary prevention. The spirometer must gain acceptance in the medical community as the early tool to evaluate lung health, not the chest radiograph or the stethoscope. The lung age formula and sputum pap smears are just a few of the evaluation tools used to detect and motivate susceptible individuals. Prevention is the key to enhancing lung health.

  4. Crime-prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone

    In Denmark, crime prevention is embedded in state professional practices in kindergartens, schools and youth clubs. These welfare institutions are conceived as safe places that safeguard children and young people through inclusive learning environments, warm and empathic relationships between......-sectional cooperation called “SSP”. SSP is a locally anchored cooperation of the school (S), the social services (S) and the police (P) and its aim is to create a coordinated system of prevention, e.g., to prevent crime or school drop outs. In continuation of this, crime preventive work is understood as a practice...

  5. Work hazard prevention plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertos Campos, F.


    The prevention of industrial risks is a constantly evolving discipline that has changed considerable in the last 25 years. The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants has always been operated with a clear policy favoring prevention by supporting the principle of its integration, i. e., that the hierarchical functional organization of the company make sure that industrial risk prevention is effective and that health and safety standards are met. The historical evolution of occupational safety in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant shows a a clear trend towards improvement and is the results of many years of hard work and effort by the plants own and contractor personnel in the field of industrial risk prevention. (Author)

  6. Speech disorder prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladis Fornaris-Méndez


    Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.

  7. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

  8. HIV Risk and Prevention (United States)

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Risk and Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ...

  9. Can I Prevent Acne? (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth / For Teens / Can I Prevent Acne? Print en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  10. [Prevention of psychosocial risks]. (United States)

    Dalle, Édouard; Trichard-Salembier, Alexandra; Sobaszek, Annie


    The theme of psychosocial risks remains in the workplace. It is therefore essential that all members of a company are made aware of the terminology and specific prevention actions in this field. Distinguishing between the manifestations of these risks and their causes and consequences helps to improve prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevention of Graves' ophthalmopathy. (United States)

    Bartalena, Luigi


    Smoking is the most important risk factor for the occurrence/progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), as well as for its lower/slower response to immunosuppression. Accordingly, refrain from smoking should be urged, both as primary prevention (removal of risk factors in Graves' patients without GO), secondary prevention (early detection and treatment of asymptomatic/very mild GO) and tertiary prevention (reduction of complications/disability of overt GO). A 6-month course of 200 μg/day sodium selenite can prevent progression of mild GO to more severe GO and is, therefore, a form of secondary prevention and, probably, primary prevention. Correction of thyroid dysfunction and stable maintenance of euthyroidism are important preventive measures. The optimal treatment for hyperthyroidism in patients with GO is uncertain, because evidence demonstrating the superiority of antithyroid drugs over thyroid ablation (radioiodine, thyroidectomy, or both) is lacking. If radioiodine is used, low-dose steroid prophylaxis is recommended, particularly in smokers, to prevent radioiodine-associated GO progression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevent Cervical Cancer!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Cervical cancer can be prevented. Listen as two friends—one a doctor—talk about screening tests and early detection. Learn what test you might need.  Created: 1/8/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/8/2015.

  13. Poison Prevention Program (United States)

    Office of Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention Finance & Management Services Health Care , Technology: For more info about the national Poison Help program and to request materials visit: http Seniors & Disabilities Services Substance Misuse and Addiction Prevention State of Alaska myAlaska My

  14. Prevention of preterm birth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flood, Karen


    Preterm birth (delivery before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is common and rates are increasing. In the past, medical efforts focused on ameliorating the consequences of prematurity rather than preventing its occurrence. This approach resulted in improved neonatal outcomes, but it remains costly in terms of both the suffering of infants and their families and the economic burden on society. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm labor has altered the approach to this problem, with increased focus on preventive strategies. Primary prevention is a limited strategy which involves public education, smoking cessation, improved nutritional status and avoidance of late preterm births. Secondary prevention focuses on recurrent preterm birth which is the most recognisable risk factor. Widely accepted strategies include cervical cerclage, progesterone and dedicated clinics. However, more research is needed to explore the role of antibiotics and anti-inflammatory treatments in the prevention of this complex problem.

  15. Measuring waste prevention. (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia


    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D


    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  17. Prevention of Eye Injuries


    Pashby, Tom


    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  18. Obesity Prevention and Screening. (United States)

    Mackey, Eleanor R; Olson, Alexandra; DiFazio, Marc; Cassidy, Omni


    Obesity is widespread, associated with several physical and psychosocial comorbidities, and is difficult to treat. Prevention of obesity across the lifespan is critical to improving the health of individuals and society. Screening and prevention efforts in primary care are an important step in addressing the obesity epidemic. Each period of human development is associated with unique risks, challenges, and opportunities for prevention and intervention. Screening tools for overweight/obesity, although imperfect, are quick and easy to administer. Screening should be conducted at every primary care visit and tracked longitudinally. Screening tools and cutoffs for overweight and obesity vary by age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. CSI cardiac prevent 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ramakrishnan


    Full Text Available The CSI Cardiac Prevent 2015 was held at Hotel Taj Palace, New Delhi, on September 25-27, 2015. The major challenge was to create interest among cardiologists and physicians on preventive cardiology, a neglected area. The theme of the conference was "Innovations in Heart Disease Prevention.′′ This conference included "CSI at WHF Roadmap Workshop, Inauguration Ceremony, scientific program, plenary sessions, Nursing/Dietician track, Industry Exhibition, Social Events," Great India blood pressure Survey, and CSI Smart Heart App. A total of 848 delegates/faculties attended this conference against a total of 1140 people registered for the meeting.

  20. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.


    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  1. Help prevent hospital errors (United States)

    ... this page: // Help prevent hospital errors To use the sharing features ... in the hospital. If You Are Having Surgery, Help Keep Yourself Safe Go to a hospital you ...

  2. Institutional Preventive Stress Management. (United States)

    Quick, James C.


    Stress is an inevitable characteristic of academic life, but colleges and universities can introduce stress management activities at the organizational level to avert excessive tension. Preventive actions are described, including flexible work schedules and social supports. (Author/MSE)

  3. Preventing Diabetes Problems (United States)

    ... Problems Diabetes, Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... to help control symptoms and restore intimacy. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  4. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores ... sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... hours? play_arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the ... for someone with a spinal cord injury to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow Why is ...

  6. Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Dental Sealants Prevent Cavities Effective protection for children Language: ... more use of sealants and reimbursement of services. Dental care providers can Apply sealants to children at ...

  7. Preventing Learned Helplessness. (United States)

    Hoy, Cheri


    To prevent learned helplessness in learning disabled students, teachers can share responsibilities with the students, train students to reinforce themselves for effort and self control, and introduce opportunities for changing counterproductive attitudes. (CL)

  8. Preventing Pressure Sores (United States)

    ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  9. Can Vaginitis Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... examples of safe sex. 1 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Self-study STD module—vaginitis . ... Halvorson New Chief of Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, ...

  10. Preventing food allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Debra; Panesar, Sukhmeet S; Thusu, Sundeep


    The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology is developing guidelines about how to prevent and manage food allergy. As part of the guidelines development process, a systematic review is planned to examine published research about the prevention of food allergy. This systematic review...... is one of seven inter-linked evidence syntheses that are being undertaken in order to provide a state-of-the-art synopsis of the current evidence base in relation to epidemiology, prevention, diagnosis and clinical management, and impact on quality of life, which will be used to inform clinical...... recommendations. The aim of this systematic review will be to assess the effectiveness of approaches for the primary prevention of food allergy....

  11. Naval Preventive Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cassel, Joseph


    Naval power, as part of a U.S. preventive diplomacy effort, can be flexibly mixed with political, economic, and informational power to intervene early in places of incipient crisis or before mass violence...

  12. Prevention of cisplatin nephrotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayati Fatemeh


    Full Text Available Cisplatin has a well-established role in the treatment of broad spectrum of malignancies; however its use is limited because of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN which can be progressive in more than 50% of cases. The most important risk factors for CIN include higher doses of cisplatin, previous cisplatin chemotherapy, underlying kidney damage and concurrent treatment with other potential nephrotoxin agents, such as aminoglycosides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, or iodinated contrast media. Different strategies have been offered to diminish or prevent nephrotoxicity of cisplatin. The standard approach for prevention of CIN is the administration of lower doses of cisplatin in combination with full intravenous hydration prior and after cisplatin administration. Cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in the kidney may be prevented by natural antioxidant compounds. The results of this review show that many strategies for prevention of CIN exist, however, attention to the administration of these agent for CIN is necessary.

  13. Disaster prevention surveillance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nara, Satoru; Kamiya, Eisei


    Fuji Electric Co., Ltd. has supplied many management systems to nuclear reactor institution. 'The nuclear countermeasures-against-calamities special-measures' was enforced. A nuclear entrepreneur has devised the measure about expansion prevention and restoration of a calamity while it endeavors after prevention of generating of a nuclear calamity. Our company have supplied the 'disaster prevention surveillance system' to the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute Tokai Research Establishment aiming at strengthening of the monitoring function at the time (after the accident) of the accident used as one of the above-mentioned measures. A 'disaster prevention surveillance system' can share the information on the accident spot in an on-site command place, an activity headquarters, and support organizations, when the serious accident happens. This system is composed of various sensors (temperature, pressure and radiation), cameras, computers and network. (author)

  14. Prevent Infections During Chemotherapy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast discusses the importance of preventing infections in cancer patients who are undergoing chemotherapy. Dr. Lisa Richardson, CDC oncologist, talks about a new Web site for cancer patients and their caregivers.

  15. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  16. United to prevent emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera


    The paper is about the national plan of contingencies, as tool of coordination inter-institutional that has allowed strengthening the actions of prevention and attention of spills of hydrocarbons and chemical substances in Colombia

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from ... Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa ...

  18. Youth Suicide Prevention Programs (United States)

    Kalafat, John


    Youth suicide prevention programs are described that promote the identification and referral of at-risk youth, address risk factors, and promote protective factors. Emphasis is on programs that are both effective and sustainable in applied settings.

  19. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips (United States)

    ... or removed safely. How are children exposed to lead? Lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust are ... What can be done to prevent exposure to lead? It is important to determine the construction year ...

  20. Prevent Back Pain (United States)

    ... If you have an injury, health condition, or disability, ask your doctor or nurse which types of exercise are best for you. Get tips on staying active with a disability . Next section Prevent Injuries Previous section Am I ...

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ...

  2. Home Improvements Prevent Falls (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  3. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  4. Preventing Knee Injuries (United States)

    ... Our Newsletter Donate Blog Skip breadcrumb navigation Preventing Knee Injuries Knee injuries in children and adolescent athletes ... this PDF Share this page: WHAT ARE COMMON KNEE INJURIES? Pain Syndromes One of the most common ...

  5. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David ...

  6. Sexual Violence Prevention (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Emails Sexual Violence Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir April ... stop sexual violence before it begins. Understanding Sexual Violence Sexual violence is any sexual activity where consent ...

  7. Preventing High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  8. Prevention of malignant neoplasms


    D. G. Zaridze; D. M. Maksimovich


    Research in causation of cancer is an important part of cancer research in general and is an essential prerequisite for cancer prevention. The effective primary prevention is not visible without evidence based knowledge in the causation of cancer in humans.There is sufficient evidence that certain life style and environment factors cause cancer in humans. These factors include: smoking and other types of tobacco consumption, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, diet rich in proc...

  9. Early prevention of obesity


    Claudio Maffeis


    Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating...

  10. Industrial pollution prevention handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.M.


    This book presents the techniques, technologies, regulations, and strategies that define pollution prevention. The subject is addressed from many perspectives by prominent experts. In many ways pollution prevention, rather than being a specialty field itself, is actually a convergence of fields drawing upon knowledge in a wide variety of more typical fields of expertise. Individual chapters have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases

  11. [Can falls be prevented?]. (United States)

    Dubousset, Jean


    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  12. Preventive Migraine Treatment (United States)

    Silberstein, Stephen D.


    Purpose of Review: This article reviews the evidence base for the preventive treatment of migraine. Recent Findings: Evidence-based guidelines for the preventive treatment of migraine have recently been published by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) and the Canadian Headache Society (CHS), providing valuable guidance for clinicians. Strong evidence exists to support the use of metoprolol, timolol, propranolol, divalproex sodium, sodium valproate, and topiramate for migraine prevention, according to the AAN. Based on best available evidence, adverse event profile, and expert consensus, topiramate, propranolol, nadolol, metoprolol, amitriptyline, gabapentin, candesartan, Petasites (butterbur), riboflavin, coenzyme Q10, and magnesium citrate received a strong recommendation for use from the CHS. Summary: Migraine preventive drug treatments are underutilized in clinical practice. Principles of preventive treatment are important to improve compliance, minimize side effects, and improve patient outcomes. Choice of preventive treatment of migraine should be based on the presence of comorbid and coexistent illness, patient preference, reproductive potential and planning, and best available evidence. PMID:26252585

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    ... Wellness Courts Cultural Competence Diverse Populations and Communities Domestic Violence Human Trafficking Laws & Policies Service Array Statistics ... Home Topics Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children ...

  14. Grant Programs for Pollution Prevention (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  15. [Preventive strategies for dementia]. (United States)

    Müller, Patrick; Schmicker, Marlen; Müller, Notger G


    In the context of the demographically induced increase in the prevalence of dementia and the simultaneous lack of causal pharmacological therapies, preventive approaches are gaining in importance. By reducing risk factors and with measures which induce neuroplasticity successful aging can be supported. This article summarizes the current developments in preventing dementia by modification of life style factors. The main focus lies on the impact of cognitive and physical activity on neuroprotection. A promising approach combines both activities within a dance training program. Further studies that meet the demanding criteria of a randomized clinical trial are urgently needed.

  16. Building in Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Jens


    this chapter devotes its focus primarily on the small bumps on the road by initially discussing how physical structural prevention can be an appropriate strategy not only to bring about behavioural change in the population as a whole but also to reduce the negative consequences of a stigmatising health...... preventive work might be changed to direct focus onto a greater extent on establishing frameworks for people to master their own lives instead of one-sided initiatives, which leave the individual with a sense of guilt at their own illness....

  17. Preventing Errors in Laterality


    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie


    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  18. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  19. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry (United States)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian


    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  20. Aspirin for Primary Prevention. (United States)

    Richman, Ilana B; Owens, Douglas K


    Aspirin reduces the risk of nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Aspirin increases the risk of gastrointestinal and intracranial bleeding. The best available evidence supports initiating aspirin in select populations. In 2016, the US Preventive Services Task Force recommended initiating aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease and colorectal cancer among adults ages 50 to 59 who are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Adults 60 to 69 who are at increased cardiovascular disease risk may also benefit. There remains considerable uncertainty about whether younger and older patients may benefit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevention in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Stephen; Bridgman, Colette; Brocklehurst, Paul


    could be identified early enough to facilitate prevention, what evidence based therapies and treatments were available and how, given the collective evidence, could these be introduced in general dental practice within different reimbursement models. CONCLUSIONS: While examples of best practice were...... provided from both social care and insurance models it was clear that further work was required on both provider and payer side to ensure that evidence based prevention was both implemented properly but also reimbursed sufficiently. It is clear that savings can be made but these must not be overstated...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela – Corina Chersan


    Full Text Available Fraud can range from minor employee theft and unproductive behavior tomisappropriation of assets and fraudulent financial reporting. The risk of fraud can be reduced through a combination of prevention and detection measures. Moreover, prevention and deterrence measures are much less costly than the time and expense required for fraud detection and investigation. The information presented in this document generally is applicable to entities of all sizes. However, the degree to which certain programs and controls are applied in smaller, less-complex entities and the formality of theirapplication are likely to differ from larger organizations.

  3. Prevention of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Vejlstrup, Søren Grove


    Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity...... of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema...

  4. Preventing falls and fractures. (United States)

    Ulfarsson, J; Robinson, B E


    One of four persons over age 65 in the community falls; those over age 75 in institutions fall more frequently. Falls, a complex phenomena suggesting present disease and predicting future disability, are caused by interactions between the environment and dynamic balance which is determined by the quality of sensory input, central processing, and motor responses. Clinical factors which predispose to falling often produce observable disturbances in gait and balance, making observation critical in assessment. Acute illness and drug therapy produce particularly preventable falls. Therapeutic exercise and environmental modification for safety are the clinical interventions most likely to successfully prevent fall-related injury.

  5. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012


    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  6. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... arrow What's the best way to do daily skin inspections? play_arrow What are the most important ... to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What is “skin tolerance” and how can it be increased? play_ ...

  7. Prevention of relapsing backache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raspe, Heiner


    Full Text Available Background: The condition of non-specific back pain is characterized by high prevalence, non satisfactory therapeutic options and severe socioeconomic consequences. Therefore prevention seems an attractive option to downsize the problem. However, the construction of effective preventive measures is complicated by the obscure aetiology of the condition, the multidimensionality of risk and prognostic factors (bio psychosocial model! and the variability of its natural as well as clinical course. This led to the development of a wide variety of preventive measures: e. g. exercise programs, educational measures (including back school, ergonomic modification of the work environment, mechanical supports (e. g. back belts as well as multidisciplinary interventions. For two reasons the workplace seems to be a suitable setting for prevention. First, because a number of strong risk factors are associated with working conditions and second, because it allows addressing a large proportion of the adult population. Against this background the assessment at hand sets out to answer the following questions: What is the amount and methodological quality of the available scientific literature on the effectiveness of back pain prevention in the workplace environment? What are effective measures for the prevention of back pain and its consequences in the workplace environment and how effective are they? Is back pain prevention in the workplace environment cost-effective? Is there a need for more research? As primary outcomes for effectiveness the assessment will focus on time lost from work and the frequency and duration of episodes with back pain. The preventive measures assessed belong to the following categories: exercise programs, educational and information measures, multidimensional interventions, back belts, lifting teams and ergonomic interventions. Methods: The assessment is based on a systematic review of the published literature according to the

  8. Cervical Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  9. Skin Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  10. Endometrial Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  11. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  12. Esophageal Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  13. Oral Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  14. Prostate Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... factors for some types of cancer, but only smoking can be avoided. Regular exercise and a healthy diet may be protective factors ... may help prevent certain cancers. Risk factors include smoking, being ... enough exercise. Increasing protective factors such as quitting smoking and ...

  15. Injury Prevention Research

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Research provides the knowledge that we need to understand what is possible, what is not, and the best way to proceed in our intervention efforts.  Created: 9/1/2009 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 9/1/2009.

  16. Bullying Prevention for Kids

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast discusses what victims of bullying may experience and provides recommendations for coping with it.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  17. Preventing Skin Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    A man and a woman talk about how they’ve learned to protect their skin from the sun over the years. .  Created: 5/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/18/2016.

  18. Police and Suicide Prevention. (United States)

    Marzano, Lisa; Smith, Mark; Long, Matthew; Kisby, Charlotte; Hawton, Keith


    Police officers are frequently the first responders to individuals in crisis, but generally receive little training for this role. We developed and evaluated training in suicide awareness and prevention for frontline rail police in the UK. To investigate the impact of training on officers' suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Fifty-three participants completed a brief questionnaire before and after undertaking training. In addition, two focus groups were conducted with 10 officers to explore in greater depth their views and experiences of the training program and the perceived impact on practice. Baseline levels of suicide prevention attitudes, confidence, and knowledge were mixed but mostly positive and improved significantly after training. Such improvements were seemingly maintained over time, but there was insufficient power to test this statistically. Feedback on the course was generally excellent, notwithstanding some criticisms and suggestions for improvement. Training in suicide prevention appears to have been well received and to have had a beneficial impact on officers' attitudes, confidence, and knowledge. Further research is needed to assess its longer-term effects on police attitudes, skills, and interactions with suicidal individuals, and to establish its relative effectiveness in the context of multilevel interventions.

  19. [Improving suicide prevention]. (United States)

    Debout, Michel


    Suicidal thoughts precede a suicide attempt. Knowing the people who are exposed to such thoughts enables prevention to be improved. The results of a study of the general population show that one in five French people claim to have already seriously considered committing suicide. This represents a particularly concerning public health issue. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Why Prevention? Why Now? (United States)

    Tabachnick, Joan


    In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual abuse a "silent, violent epidemic." Since that declaration, there has been a growing acceptance and awareness of the need for a broader public health approach to preventing sexual violence. However, it is only recently that individuals and organizations are beginning to look at…

  1. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and how can it be increased? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to know about pressure sores? play_arrow What do family members and caregivers need to do to prevent pressure sores? play_ ...

  2. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the most important thing to do to prevent pressure sores? What is a Spinal Cord Injury? SCI Medical Experts People Living With SCI Personal Experiences By Topic Resources Blog Peer Counseling About Media Donate Contact Us Terms of ...

  3. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates (United States)

    Colthurst, Tom


    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  4. To Prevent Misbehavior


    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-


    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on preventing misbehavior.

  5. Injury prevention in football

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    other sports,[1,2] and youth football players are no exception to this. ... at risk of sports injury because of high levels of exposure at a time of major physiological change.[4] The ..... As part of injury prevention, adequate injury management and.

  6. Preventing infections when visiting (United States)

    ... need.) When you visit a patient in the hospital, keep your hands away from your face. Cough or sneeze into a tissue or into the crease of your elbow, not into the air. References Calfee DP. Prevention and control of health care-associated infections. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil ...

  7. Preventing the White Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Worm; Jensen, Peter S.; Madsen, Peter


    Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of death worldwide and, while treatable by antibiotics since the 1940s, drug resistant strains have emerged. This paper estimates the effects of the establishment of a pre-antibiotic era public health institution, known as a TB dispensary, designed to prevent...

  8. Travel health prevention. (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.

  9. Statins and Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... opposed to the use of another type of lipid-lowering drug, fibrates). [Statins and the risk of colorectal cancer. Poynter, JN., et al. New England Journal of Medicine , May 26, 2005, (352:2184–92]. Is NCI supporting research with statins to prevent other types of cancer? ...

  10. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cushion? play_arrow What’s important to know about positioning in bed to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ...

  11. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.

  12. Preventing School Violence (United States)

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena


    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  13. Youth Suicide Prevention. (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.


    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…

  14. Prevention of COPD exacerbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter


    Exacerbations have significant impact on the morbidity and mortality of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Most guidelines emphasise prevention of exacerbations by treatment with long-acting bronchodilators and/or anti-inflammatory drugs. Whereas most of this treatment is eviden...

  15. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention. (United States)

    Scheans, Patricia


    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  16. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Removing the threat of a nuclear war-as the General Assembly formally stated in the Final Document of its first special session devoted to disarmament, in 1978-is considered to be the task of the present day. In that Document, the General Assembly sought to establish principles, guidelines and procedures for preventing nuclear war. It declared that to that end, it was imperative to remove the threat of nuclear weapons, to halt and reverse the nuclear-arms race until the total elimination of nuclear weapons and their delivery systems had been achieved (see chapter iv), and to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons (see chapter VII). At the same time, it called for other measures designed to prevent the outbreak of nuclear war and to lessen the danger of the treat or use of nuclear weapons. The Assembly's clear call for action was dictated by the awareness that there was no insuperable barrier dividing peace from war and that, unless nations brought the spiralling nuclear-arms race to an end, the day might come when nuclear weapons would actually be used, with catastrophic consequences. In adopting the Final Document, the international community achieved, for the first time, a consensus on an international disarmament strategy having as its immediate goal the elimination of the danger of a nuclear war and the implementation of measures to halt and reverse the arms race. The General Assembly, at its second special session on disarmament, in 1982, reaffirmed the validity of the 1978 Final Document. This paper reports that nuclear issues and in particular the prevention of nuclear war remain, however, major concerns of all States. Undoubtedly, all nations have a vital interest in the negotiation of effective measures for her prevention of nuclear war, since nuclear weapons pose a unique threat to human survival. If nuclear war were to occur, its consequences would be global, not simple regional

  17. Preventive Detention: A Necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Mishra


    Full Text Available State, ever since, its emergence, has been concerned with the maintenance of law and order and protecting people from external aggression and internal threats, thereby, ensuring safety and security to its inhabitants. The authority to maintain law and order empowers the state to use coercive power. It also emanates from various laws that are enacted from time to time. More often than not, coercive laws are self-contradictory because on the one hand they guarantee rights to people and on the other hand, they take away the right of a person or persons. Therefore, it is not wrong to say that modern states are repository of contradictions and India is no exception. There are several undemocratic provisions in the Indian Constitution; preventive detention is one of them. It seeks to detain a person to prevent him/her from indulging in any activity which is likely to pose a threat to the security of the State. In Britain and America this provision was used during World War II while, in India it can be used even in peacetime. This provision has been extensively used against the political dissidents during the post-colonial period. Justice Mahajan of the Supreme Court of India has held that ‘preventive detention laws are repugnant to democratic constitution and they cannot be found to exist in any of the democratic countries of the world’. The question that one can ask at this juncture is that why did the Government of ‘independent’ India retain preventive detention laws? And further, framed new ones. This research contribution examines the circumstances which compelled the Government to frame ‘preventive detention’ laws, and its use during national emergency and peace time.

  18. Osteoradionecrosis: Causes and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.B.


    Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) is one of the most serious complications arising from head and neck radiation therapy. Current research has shown that ORN represents nonhealing, dead bone and is not a state of infection. ORN is the result of functional and structural bony changes that may not be expressed for months or years. ORN may occur spontaneously or in response to wounding. Predisposing factors include absorbed radiation dose, fractionation, delivery modality, and dental status. Timing of dental extractions and other factors have also been shown to affect incidence. ORN may be reduced through early intraoral evaluation, treatment, and adequate healing time prior to beginning RT. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy has been beneficial in the prevention and treatment of ORN. It is of paramount importance for the medical community to recognize the factors that may reduce ORN incidence, endorse oral care protocols, and acknowledge the value of HBO therapy in the prevention and treatment of this disease. 60 references

  19. Crime prevention and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Lone Bæk

    , street worker, social workers) by focusing on how welfare workers form, reform and transform interventions, and thereby instigate the structure of welfare work with social effects. Finally, the paper aims to examine how an inter-professional meeting outside the school environment produces understandings...... of such a preventive work aiming at creating trustful relations between the school and the children and focusing on children’s democracy understandings, experienced discrimination and peer pressure. Furthermore, the school are to activate children’s reflections on existential questions and their empathy with others...... a statutory duty for schools to have due regard to the need to prevent people from being drawn into terrorism. The school and education in general are seen as safe spaces. Notions like “safe space” and school as a “protection factor” reflect an educational discourse that reflect discoursive changes...

  20. Preventing Financial Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    This paper investigates the Swedish tax authority’s (Skatteverkets) compliance initiative called Preventing Financial Crime. In Sweden tax evasion related to organised moon-lighting is defined as a major risk to the revenue collection and to the legitimacy of Skatteverket. The traditional approach...... on this, the paper shows that the Swedish tax officials seek to motivate large construction contractors and municipalities to take preventive measures in relation to their sub-contractors to avoid and abate tax evasion. The paper shows the challenges in engaging and involving these external stakeholders...... has implications for how tax authorities (and other state authorities) reform their coercive regulation. If they decide to pursue a voluntary based approach where the actions of external partners play a central role, then the analysis helps to show some of the implied challenges and potentials....

  1. Let's prevent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gray, Laura J.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Williams, Sian


    Background: The prevention of type 2 diabetes is a globally recognised health care priority, but there is a lack of rigorous research investigating optimal methods of translating diabetes prevention programmes, based on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, into routine primary care. The aim...... of the study is to establish whether a pragmatic structured education programme targeting lifestyle and behaviour change in conjunction with motivational maintenance via the telephone can reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose regulation (a composite of impaired glucose...... of type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include changes in HbA1c, blood glucose levels, cardiovascular risk, the presence of the Metabolic Syndrome and the cost-effectiveness of the intervention.Methods: The study consists of screening and intervention phases within 44 general practices coordinated from...

  2. Preventive Radiation Protection Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewer, H.


    The commentary is intended to contribute to protection of the population by a practice-oriented discussion and explanation of questions arising in connection with the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. Leaving aside discussions about abandonment of nuclear power, or criticism from any legal point of view, the commentary adopts the practical approach that accepts, and tries to help implementing, the act as it is. It is a guide for readers who are not experts in the law and gives a line of orientation by means of explanations and sometimes by citations from other acts (in footnotes). The commentary also presents the EURATOM Directive No. 3954/87 dated 22 December 1987, the EC Directive No. 3955/87 dated 22 December 1987, and the EC Directive No. 1983/88 dated 5 July 1988. A tabular survey shows the system of duties and competences defined by the Preventive Radiation Protection Act. (RST) [de

  3. The Prevention of Thalassemia (United States)

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai


    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods taht are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus. PMID:23378598

  4. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg


    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  5. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention


    Phillips, Gregory John


    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  6. Prevention of criticality accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canavese, S.I.


    These notes used in the postgraduate course on Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety discuss macro-and microscopic nuclear constants for fissile materials systems. Critical systems: their definition; criteria to analyze the critical state; determination of the critical size; analysis of practical problems about prevention of criticality. Safety of isolated units and of sets of units. Application of standards. Conception of facilities from the criticality control view point. (author) [es

  7. Prevention in insurance markets


    Marie-Cécile FAGART; Bidénam KAMBIA-CHOPIN


    This paper considers a competitive insurance market under moral hazard and adverse selection, in which preventive efforts and self-protection costs are unobservable by insurance companies. Under reasonable assumptions, the conclusions of Rothschild and Stiglitz (1976) are preserved in our context even if it involves moral hazard. The riskier agents in equilibrium, who would also be the riskier agents under perfect information, receive their moral hazard contract. For other agents, adverse sel...

  8. Optimal preventive bank supervision


    Belhaj, Mohamed; Klimenko, Nataliya


    Early regulator interventions into problem banks is one of the key suggestions of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision. However, no guidance is given on their design. To fill this gap, we outline an incentive-based preventive supervision strategy that eliminates bad asset management in banks. Two supervision techniques are combined: temporary regulatory administration and random audits. Our design ensures good management without excessive supervision costs, through a gradual adjustment of...

  9. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, Michael J.


    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions

  10. Prevention of malignant neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Zaridze


    Full Text Available Research in causation of cancer is an important part of cancer research in general and is an essential prerequisite for cancer prevention. The effective primary prevention is not visible without evidence based knowledge in the causation of cancer in humans.There is sufficient evidence that certain life style and environment factors cause cancer in humans. These factors include: smoking and other types of tobacco consumption, overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, diet rich in processed meat and poor in vegetables and fruits, certain types of viral and bacterial infection, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, ambient air pollution, carcinogens at workplace, exogenous hormones.Cancer mortality is decreasing in majority of developed countries, including Russia. This mortality trend is mostly due to decrease in incidence and death rates of lung and other smoking related cancers and is caused by decline in smoking prevalence and change in tar content of cigarette smoke.In Russia trend in mortality from all cancers is as well determined by decrease in incidence and mortality from gastric cancer, which is due to decline in prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and improvement of diet, increase in consumption of fruits and vegetables. Thus the decline in cancer mortality is mostly the result of primary prevention which is the most effective avenue of cancer control. 

  11. [Prevention of pressure ulcers]. (United States)

    Negishi, Kenichi


    Even though they have not been diagnosed with a recognized disease, many people have or are at risk of contracting debilitating conditions. They can be referred to as being in the "ill-health zone." For example, many bedridden elderly develop pressure ulcers. The prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers should focus on two main factors: the role of pressure in the development of circulatory disorders; and increased dermal pH. In preventing the development of circulatory disorders resulting in pressure ulcers, using an air or polyurethane mattress is helpful. However, changing the mattress has little effect if the position of the bedridden person is not also changed regularly. To avoid an increase in dermal pH, caregivers should apply moisture-repellent cream and/or oil to the sacral region after careful cleansing. It is important that such preventive measures and treatment be performed daily, and caregivers should be educated on this need and subsequently monitored. Pharmacists have a role in caring for those in the ill-health zone.

  12. Guidelines for prevention in psychology. (United States)


    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. [AIDS prevention in Germany]. (United States)

    Pott, E


    In 1987 the national AIDS prevention campaign "Gib AIDS keine Chance" (Don't give AIDS a chance) was started in Germany. After a very difficult and controversial political debate about a probably successful response to AIDS, in the end a political decision was made in favour of the implementation of a long term "social learning strategy". Thus, since then the Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung (Federal Centre for Health Education, BZgA) has been running the campaign on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Health. The result of this prevention program is a low rate of infections. In Germany there were 2600 newly diagnosed infections in 2005: 59 % in homosexual men, 16 % by heterosexual contacts, 17 % in people from high prevalence countries and 7 % in i.v. drug users. In comparison to the international situation Germany has a relatively low HIV-prevalence even nowadays. However, Germany has also been confronted with an increasing number of newly diagnosed infections in the last few years. When the prevention program was started it was very important to build new structures for a successful implementation of the campaign. That meant for instance to build up an effective infrastructure for cooperation between the governmental and the nongovernmental sector, including organising the coordinated action among the partners at the federal, regional and local levels. Likewise, international networking was of great importance. A key element, relevant for the success of the campaign was the close cooperation at the federal level between the BZgA and the Deutsche AIDS Hilfe (German AIDS Help, DAH), to combine the highreach intervention in low-prevalence populations with intensive interventions for high prevalence groups. An effective national AIDS prevention campaign must reach the whole population; inform the public about the main risks of infection, about methods of protection and about what is not infectious. Moreover groups with a higher level of risk of

  14. Early prevention of obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Maffeis


    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is the metabolic disorder with the highest prevalence in both children and adults. Urgency to treat and prevent childhood obesity is based on the clear evidence that obesity tends to track from childhood to adulthood, is associated to morbidity also in childhood and to long-term mortality. Early life, i.e., intrauterine life and the first two years, is a sensitive window for prevention. Anatomical and functional maturation of the hypothalamic structures devoted to regulating energy intake and expenditure and body size mainly occurs in the first 1,000 days of life. Therefore, factors affecting the foetal exposition to maternal metabolic environment and early postnatal nutrition are crucial in modulating the definition of the metabolic programming processes in the brain. Maternal diseases, mainly malnutrition for defect or excess, obesity and diabetes, placental disorders and dysfunctions, maternal use of alcohol and drugs, smoking, affect long term metabolic programming of the foetus with lifelong consequences. Similarly, early nutrition contributes to complete the long-term metabolic regulating framework initiated in the uterus. Breastfeeding, adequate weaning, attention to portion size and diet composition are potential tools for reducing the obesity risk later in childhood. Longitudinal randomized controlled studies are needed for exploring the efficacy of obesity prevention strategies initiated after conception.Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  15. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.


    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  16. Medical Services: Preventive Medicine (United States)


    those at risk. Isoniazid (INH)administered orally is normally used for preventive therapy (300 mg daily for adults and 10 to 14 mg/kg body weight not to...netting, and insecticide aerosols; by taking approved chemoprophylaxis; and by wearing the uniform properly. d. Enteric disease by using iodine tablets ...National stock number: 6850–00–985–7166 Description: Water purification tablet , iodine, 50’s Unit/Issue: BT Allowance: 400 Authority: CTA 8–100 Notes: 1

  17. Prevention of acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Pee, Saskia; Grais, Rebecca; Fenn, Bridget


    of cash or food, enables households to better meet the food, health, and other needs of household members and may increase resilience; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) and health interventions help prevent and address illness and hence reduce wasting risk. The contributions of specific interventions...... "best possible" treatment, can provide evidence about what works, to what extent, at what cost, and under which circumstances. Programs should address the most important causes in given contexts, be feasible to implement at scale, and assess implementation, coverage, and outcomes....

  18. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  19. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev


    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  20. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  1. Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition (United States)

    ... Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition Stroke Prevention & Treatment: Diet & Nutrition A healthy diet can reduce your risk for ... Treatment How does a stroke affect eating and nutrition? Stroke can devastate a person's nutritional health because ...

  2. Head Lice: Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  3. Body Lice Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Body lice ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

  4. Immunoglobulins for preventing hepatitis A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jian Ping; Nikolova, Dimitrinka; Fei, Yutong


    Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention.......Hepatitis A (infectious hepatitis) is a common epidemic disease. Immunoglobulins for passive immunisation are used as prevention....

  5. The Science of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The science of cancer prevention is described by Dr. Barnett S. Kramer, M.D., M.P.H., director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute (NCI). The Division of Cancer Prevention administers a broad spectrum of research that spans basic pre-clinical, laboratory research, supportive and palliative care research, early detection, and randomized controlled clinical trials. The Division also supports the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program and is devoted to the balanced communication of scientific results.

  6. Eating Disorders: Prevention through Education. (United States)

    Nagel, K. L.; Jones, Karen H.


    School prevention programs for teenage eating disorders should emphasize nutrition education (knowledge, attitudes, behavior) and living skills (self-concept, coping). Secondary prevention involves identifying early warning signs and places for referral; tertiary prevention creates a supportive school environment for recoverers with teachers as…

  7. Evaluation Methods for Prevention Education. (United States)

    Blue, Amy V.; Barnette, J. Jackson; Ferguson, Kristi J.; Garr, David R.


    Discusses the importance of assessing medical students' competence in prevention knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Provides general guidance for programs interested in evaluating their prevention instructional efforts, and gives specific examples of possible methods for evaluating prevention education. Stresses the need to tailor assessment…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Pampura


    Full Text Available Allergy prevention is an urgent pediatric issue. Food allergy spread among infants amounts to 6–8%. This review highlights the modern viewpoints on diet prevention of this pathology among children, including by means of the hypoallergic nutritional formulas.Key words: food allergy, prevention, allergies, prebiotics, children.

  9. Can prevention eliminate caries? (United States)

    O'Mullane, D


    There are four main factors involved in the carious process: at-risk tooth structure, plaque flora, fermentable carbohydrates, and time. Based on our knowledge of the carious process, four main preventive strategies have been developed over the years, namely, fluorides, fissure sealing, dietary choice, and plaque control. Fluorides are having a major impact on smooth-surface caries; hence, strategies combining fluorides and fissure sealing are very effective. However, use of fissure sealing is still problematic. Changing dietary practices with a view to reducing dental caries seems to be having little impact on a global scale. Plaque control, as practiced routinely by the majority of people, is not sufficient to result in caries reductions. Deprivation and poverty are strongly associated with high caries levels. Although the preventive strategies currently available are likely to result in lower caries levels for many, for logistical reasons and because of factors associated with deprivation and poverty, caries is likely to remain a major public health problem in most communities for the foreseeable future.

  10. Cholera - management and prevention. (United States)

    Davies, Hannah G; Bowman, Conor; Luby, Stephen P


    Cholera is an acute secretory diarrhoeal infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is likely to have originated in the Indian sub-continent; however, it spread to cause six worldwide pandemics between 1817-1923. The ongoing seventh worldwide pandemic of cholera began in 1961. The intensity, duration and severity of cholera epidemics have been increasing, signaling the need for more effective control and prevention measures. The response to the cholera pandemics of the 19th century led to the development of safe and effective sanitation and water systems which have effectively removed the risk of cholera in many settings. However, such systems are not in place to protect billions of people worldwide. Although some progress has been made in expanding access to water in recent years, achieving optimal infrastructure will, in the most optimistic scenario, take decades. Climate change, extreme weather events and rapid urbanisation suggests that alternatives to the current paradigm of providing large centralised water and sanitation systems should be considered, including smaller decentralised systems. The aim of this review paper is to provide an overview of current knowledge regarding management of cholera with a focus on prevention measures including vaccination and water and sanitation interventions. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.


    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  12. Prevention of hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Estera Kowalska


    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (Hepatitis B is a hepatitis B virus (HBV -based liver disease. This virus has an affinity for liver cells, it can cause both acute and chronic viral infections of varying severity. The consequences of chronic HBV infection can be cirrhosis and liver cancer. In Poland in 1989 a preventive program was implemented to reduce HBV infection. Universal vaccinations have been introduced to reduce the prevalence of Type B hepatitis B from 40.3 / 100,000 in 1989 to 7/100 in 2000. In the last 20 years in Poland there has been huge progress in the prevention and suppression of HBV infections. Decrease in the incidence of hepatitis B is mainly the result of the introduction of compulsory vaccination and improving hygiene procedures and improve sanitation aimed at aborting the pathways of the virus. However, still a large part of society is not immune on HBV infection acting potential group of the risk of infection. In addition, in the era of a growing group of followers. movements of the anti vaccine it is necessary to continue to promote knowledge of HBV and the efficacy and safety of vaccination.

  13. Obesity prevention in children. (United States)

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Rodríguez, Gerardo


    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  15. Pressure Ulcer Prevention (United States)


    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  16. Xylitol and caries prevention. (United States)

    Duane, Brett


    Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Web of Science Conference Proceedings, Proquest Dissertations and Theses, US National Institutes of Health Trials Register ( and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No language or year restrictions were used. Randomised controlled trials assessing the effects of xylitol products on dental caries in children and adults. Two review authors independently screened the results of the electronic searches, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Authors were contacted where possible for missing data or clarification where feasible. For continuous outcomes, means and standard deviations were used to obtain the mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous data was used to calculate prevented fractions (PF) and 95% CIs to summarise the percentage reduction in caries. For dichotomous outcomes, reported risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs were used. As there were fewer than four studies included in the meta-analysis, a fixed effect model was used. Ten studies were included with a total of 5903 participants. One study was assessed as being at low risk of bias, two were assessed as unclear risk of bias with seven at high risk of bias. Over 2.5–3 years, low quality evidence demonstrated that with 4216 children analysed, a fluoride toothpaste with 10% xylitol (exact dosage unsure) reduced caries by 13% when compared to a fluoride only toothpaste. (PF −0.13, 95% CI −0.18 to −0.08. Remaining evidence of the use of xylitol in children has risk of bias and uncertainty of effect and was therefore insufficient to determine a benefit from xylitol. Four studies reported that there were no adverse effects from any of the interventions. Two studies reported similar rates of adverse effects between study arms. The remaining studies either mentioned adverse effects

  17. Primary Prevention With Statins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Martin B; Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G


    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend initiating primary prevention for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) with statins based on absolute ASCVD risk assessment. Recently, alternative trial-based and hybrid approaches were suggested for statin treatment eligibility. OBJECTIVES: This study...... the population studied, 42% were eligible for statin therapy according to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) risk assessment and cholesterol treatment guidelines approach, versus 56% with the trial-based approach and 21% with the hybrid approach. Among these statin......-eligible subjects, the ASCVD event rate per 1,000 person-years was 9.8, 6.8, and 11.2, respectively. The ACC/AHA-recommended absolute risk score was well calibrated around the 7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk treatment threshold and discriminated better than the trial-based or hybrid approaches. Compared with the ACC...

  18. Protective and preventative measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, P. N


    Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

  19. Preventing Juvenile Delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina dos Reis


    Full Text Available This article aims to problematize discourses about protection and care that have surrounded compulsory hospitalization by evidencing its use as a control and punishment mechanism that increases the social vulnerability of young drug users. For such, we analyze lawsuits involving juveniles who were consigned to psychiatric institutions for drug addiction treatment as a protection measure in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, in Brazil. The analysis of the materials has evidenced discourses that have circumscribed young drug users and constructed this population as potentially dangerous subjects as well as a population category at risk. In this sense, we point out how compulsory hospitalization has emerged out of the lawsuits as a tool for prevention of juvenile delinquency.

  20. Prevention of pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kuroczycki-Saniutycz


    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA accounts for 95% of all pancreatic cancers. About 230,000 PDA cases are diagnosed worldwide each year. PDA has the lowest five-year survival rate as compared to others cancers. PDA in Poland is the fifth leading cause of death after lung, stomach, colon and breast cancer. In our paper we have analysed the newest epidemiological research, some of it controversial, to establish the best practical solution for pancreatic cancer prevention in the healthy population as well as treatment for patients already diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. We found that PDA occurs quite frequently but is usually diagnosed too late, at its advanced stage. Screening for PDA is not very well defined except in subgroups of high-risk individuals with genetic disorders or with chronic pancreatitis. We present convincing, probable, and suggestive risk factors associated with pancreatic cancer, many of which are modifiable and should be introduced and implemented in our society.

  1. A preventive maintenance lubricant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapaykina, S A; Ol' kov, P L; Pertsev, A N; Rodzevillo, I T; Rogacheva, O I; Zinov' yev, A P


    A method is disclosed to lower the adherence of materials by reducing the viscosity of a preventive maintenance lubricant against adhesion of moist, freeflowing materials, containing extract of selective cleaning of oil fractions and asphalt. Gas oil of catalytic cracking is added having a boiling point of 190-300 degrees, with the following ratio of components (%): selective cleaning extract, 43-50; asphalt, 14-16; and gas oil of catalytic cracking, the remainder, Treating a surface with the proposed lubricant lowers the specific resistance to shift of rock compared with the prototype (g/cm/sup 2/): sand (moisture content, 18%) from 3.82 to 1.55; and clay (moisture content 16%), from 5.41 to 3.51.

  2. Preventing Informal Urban Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin


    . This is directly linked to citizen participation in the process of land use control. Decentralisation should aim to combine responsibility for decision making with accountability for financial, social, and environmental consequences. Decentralisation requires access to appropriate quality of land information......, addresses the main issue of how to prevent informal urban development, especially through the use of adequate and sustainable means of land use control and good governance. Three key means are addressed: Decentralisation: There is a need to separate central policy/regulation making and local decision making...... in the decision making process? Legislation in itself is not enough. A cultural change within society may need to be encouraged. Again, access to participation requires access to land information. Comprehensive planning at local level supported by citizen participation should also enable establishment proper...

  3. Politics of prevention: The emergence of prevention science. (United States)

    Roumeliotis, Filip


    This article critically examines the political dimension of prevention science by asking how it constructs the problems for which prevention is seen as the solution and how it enables the monitoring and control of these problems. It also seeks to examine how prevention science has established a sphere for legitimate political deliberation and which kinds of statements are accepted as legitimate within this sphere. The material consists of 14 publications describing and discussing the goals, concepts, promises and problems of prevention science. The analysis covers the period from 1993 to 2012. The analysis shows that prevention science has established a narrow definition of "prevention", including only interventions aimed at the reduction of risks for clinical disorders. In publications from the U.S. National Institute of Drug Abuse, the principles of prevention science have enabled a commitment to a zero-tolerance policy on drugs. The drug using subject has been constructed as a rational choice actor lacking in skills in exerting self-control in regard to drug use. Prevention science has also enabled the monitoring and control of expertise, risk groups and individuals through specific forms of data gathering. Through the juxtaposition of the concepts of "objectivity" and "morality", prevention science has constituted a principle of delineation, disqualifying statements not adhering to the principles of prevention science from the political field, rendering ethical and conflictual dimensions of problem representations invisible. The valorisation of scientific accounts of drugs has acted to naturalise specific political ideals. It simultaneously marginalises the public from the public policy process, giving precedence to experts who are able to provide information that policy-makers are demanding. Alternative accounts, such as those based on marginalisation, poverty or discrimination are silenced within prevention science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. Optimizing preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCola, F.E.


    The traditional approach to preventive maintenance (PM) is based on adherence to manufacturers's requirements and recommended frequencies. When equipment fails, either new procedures are established or the frequency is increased. This leads to an increase in the number of PM activities, overloading not only maintenance resources, but support as well. There is no correlation between more PM and an increase in equipment reliability. More PM may actually induce failures. Reliability-centered maintenance, a new concept in utility maintenance, is based on identifying system/subsystem functions, failures, and dominant failure modes to develop or revise PM tasks. The activities described in this paper are based on actual implementation of this concept on an ongoing project to upgrade the PM program at one of the largest electric utilities in the country. Optimum PM activities are those that, when implemented, will minimize factors that c cause equipment to fail. One technique described illustrates how equipment performance, failure modes, and causes can be related to minimize the occurrence of failures. Operating history and service life of a component are key factors in determining the most effective PM activities, provided that the factors are related to failure modes and causes


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic


    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  6. Selenium for preventing cancer (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia


    Background This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011). Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. Objectives Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? andthe efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans? Search methods We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to February 2013 week 1), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 6), CancerLit (February 2004) and CCMed (February 2011). As MEDLINE now includes the journals indexed in CancerLit, no further searches were conducted in this database after 2004. Selection criteria We included prospective observational studies (cohort studies including sub-cohort controlled studies and nested case-control studies) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy adult participants (18 years of age and older). Data collection and analysis For observational studies, we conducted random effects meta-analyses when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. For RCTs, we performed random effects meta-analyses when two or more studies were available. The risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using forms adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies; the criteria specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to evaluate the risk of bias in RCTs. Main results We included 55 prospective observational studies (including more than 1,100,000 participants) and eight RCTs (with a total of 44,743 participants). For the observational studies, we found lower cancer incidence (summary odds ratio (OR) 0

  7. 14. Breast cancer prevention. (United States)

    Salih, A K; Fentiman, I S


    Increased risk of breast cancer may result from potentially modifiable causes such as endogenous hormone levels, obesity, HRT, and non-lactation, or non-modifiable factors including genetic susceptibility and increasing age. The Gail model, based on known factors, may be useful for estimating lifetime risk in some individuals, but those risk factors that are easier to modify may have a limited impact on the totality of breast cancer. Tamoxifen prevention still remains contentious, with a significant reduction in risk of breast cancer in women given tamoxifen in the NSABP P1 study but no effect in the Italian and Royal Marsden trials. Raloxifene, tested in the MORE trial, reduced the incidence of breast cancer by 65% but this was restricted to oestrogen receptor positive tumours. Lifestyle factors such as diet, obesity, exercise and age at first full term pregnancy and number of pregnancies have a mild to moderate impact on risk, so may have little effect on the incidence of breast cancer. Reduction of alcohol intake could lead to a modest reduction in the risk of breast cancer but possibly adversely affect other diseases. Fat reduction and GnRH analogue reduce mammographic density but have not yet been shown to affect risk. For women with BRCA1/2 mutation, options include unproven surveillance and prophylactic mastectomy with an unquantified risk reduction. Interesting new candidates for chemoprevention include aromatase inhibitors, new generation SERMs, demethylating agents, non-selective COX inhibitors, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and polyamine synthetic inhibitors.

  8. Prevention of breast cancer. (United States)

    Olver, Ian N


    Modifiable lifestyle factors may reduce the risk of developing breast cancer. Obesity is associated particularly with post-menopausal breast cancer. Diet is important, and exercise equivalent to running for up to 8 hours each week reduces the risk of breast cancer, both in its own right and through reducing obesity. Alcohol consumption may be responsible for 5.8% of breast cancers in Australia and it is recommended to reduce this to two standard drinks per day. Drinking alcohol and smoking increases the risk for breast cancer and, therefore, it is important to quit tobacco smoking. Prolonged use of combined oestrogen and progesterone hormone replacement therapy and oral contraceptives may increase breast cancer risk and this must be factored into individual decisions about their use. Ionising radiation, either from diagnostic or therapeutic radiation or through occupational exposure, is associated with a high incidence of breast cancer and exposure may be reduced in some cases. Tamoxifen chemoprevention may reduce the incidence of oestrogen receptor positive cancer in 51% of women with high risk of breast cancer. Uncommon but serious side effects include thromboembolism and uterine cancer. Raloxifene, which can also reduce osteoporosis, can be used in post-menopausal women and is not associated with the development of uterine cancer. Surgical prophylaxis with bilateral mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy can reduce the risk of breast cancer in patients carrying BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. For preventive treatments, mammographic screening can identify other women at high risk.

  9. Prevention of nuclear war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lifton, R.J.


    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  10. Prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.


    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death

  11. Trying to prevent abortion. (United States)

    Bromham, D R; Oloto, E J


    It is known that, since antiquity, women confronted with an unwanted pregnancy have used abortion as a means of resolving their dilemma. Although undoubtedly widely used in all historical ages, abortion has come to be regarded as an event preferably avoided because of the impact on the women concerned as well as considerations for fetal life. Policies to reduce numbers and rates of abortion must acknowledge certain observations. Criminalization does not prevent abortion but increases maternal risks. A society's 'openness' in discussing sexual matters inversely correlates with abortion rates. Correlation between contraceptive use and abortion is also inverse but relates most closely to the efficacy of contraceptive methods used. 'Revolution' in the range of contraceptive methods used will have an equivalent impact on abortion rates. Secondary or emergency contraceptive methods have a considerable role to play in the reduction of abortion numbers. Good sex (and 'relationships') education programs may delay sexual debut, increase contraceptive usage and be associated with reduced abortion. Finally, interaction between socioeconomic factors and the choice between abortion and ongoing pregnancy are complex. Abortion is not necessarily chosen by those least able to support a child financially.

  12. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  13. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.


    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  14. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention (United States)

    ... Testing Treatment & Outcomes Health Professionals Statistics More Resources Candidiasis Candida infections of the mouth, throat, and esophagus Vaginal candidiasis Invasive candidiasis Definition Symptoms Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis ...

  15. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition

  16. Postpartum haemorrhage: prevention. (United States)

    Chelmow, David


    Loss of more than 500 mL of blood following childbirth is usually caused by failure of the uterus to contract fully after delivery of the placenta, and occurs in over 10% of deliveries, with a 1% mortality rate worldwide. Other causes of postpartum haemorrhage include retained placental tissue, lacerations to the genital tract, and coagulation disorders. Uterine atony is more likely in women who have had a general anaesthetic or oxytocin, an over-distended uterus, a prolonged or precipitous labour, or who are of high parity. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug interventions and of drug interventions to prevent primary postpartum haemorrhage? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 40 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: active management of the third stage of labour, carboprost injection, controlled cord traction, ergot compounds (ergometrine/methylergotamine), immediate breastfeeding, misoprostol (oral, rectal, sublingual, or vaginal), oxytocin, oxytocin plus ergometrine combinations, prostaglandin E2 compounds, and uterine massage.

  17. Selenium for preventing cancer. (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Filippini, Tommaso; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Dennert, Gabriele; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice Pa; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Crespi, Catherine M


    This review is the third update of the Cochrane review "Selenium for preventing cancer". Selenium is a naturally occurring element with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancer. To gather and present evidence needed to address two research questions:1. What is the aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans?2. Describe the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans. We updated electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2), MEDLINE (Ovid, 2013 to January 2017, week 4), and Embase (2013 to 2017, week 6), as well as searches of clinical trial registries. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and longitudinal observational studies that enrolled adult participants. We performed random-effects (RE) meta-analyses when two or more RCTs were available for a specific outcome. We conducted RE meta-analyses when five or more observational studies were available for a specific outcome. We assessed risk of bias in RCTs and in observational studies using Cochrane's risk assessment tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, respectively. We considered in the primary analysis data pooled from RCTs with low risk of bias. We assessed the certainty of evidence by using the GRADE approach. We included 83 studies in this updated review: two additional RCTs (10 in total) and a few additional trial reports for previously included studies. RCTs involved 27,232 participants allocated to either selenium supplements or placebo. For analyses of RCTs with low risk of bias, the summary risk ratio (RR) for any cancer incidence was 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.93 to 1.10; 3 studies, 19,475 participants; high-certainty evidence). The RR for estimated cancer mortality was 1.02 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.30; 1 study, 17,444 participants). For the most frequently

  18. [Psychotic parricide. Prevention]. (United States)

    Cornic, F; Olié, J-P


    Parricide is a rare event. In France, statistics indicate that it accounts for 2 to 3% of all homicides. It also represents an appreciable part (up to 30%) of homicides committed by psychotic subjects. Many studies suggest a strong positive correlation between criminality and characterized mental illness. The correlation is better when there is a diagnosis of schizophrenia, an alcohol or drugs consumption and a past personal history of violence. Parricide is a crime mainly committed by males. The most frequent form of parricide is patricide committed by sons. However, considering only psychotic parricides, the number of mothers killed seems is equal or higher to the number of fathers killed. The typical profile of an adult committing parricide could be described as follows: a young single unemployed male, living with his victim, suffering from schizophrenia with comorbidity of alcohol or drug abuse and consumption, who stops his medication, and having a past history of medicolegal behaviours. The parricide act can be divided into three stages; first, the contention of the emergence of parricide ideas; second, the violence and brutality of the act; third, following a transient appeasement suicidal thoughts or attempts are frequently observed. Preventing parricides and homicides committed by psychotic subjects is a great challenge. Only a few studies aim to a better understanding of the underlying motivations of such criminals. According to theses studies, we can point out several warning signals. Psychiatrist should particularly increase their vigilance to persecutive delusions, history of a long lasting illness with history of violence during acute stages, threats against family or friends, suicidal thoughts, failures of help requests and attempt to escape.

  19. Malaria: prevention in travellers. (United States)

    Croft, Ashley M


    Malaria transmission occurs most frequently in environments with humidity greater than 60% and ambient temperature of 25 °C to 30 °C. Risks increase with longer visits and depend on activity. Infection can follow a single mosquito bite. Incubation is usually 10 to 14 days but can be up to 18 months depending on the strain of parasite. We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug preventive interventions in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of drug prophylaxis in non-pregnant adult travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria vaccines in adult and child travellers? What are the effects of antimalaria interventions in child travellers, pregnant travellers, and in airline pilots? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 79 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aerosol insecticides, amodiaquine, air conditioning and electric fans, atovaquone-proguanil, biological control measures, chloroquine (alone or with proguanil), diethyltoluamide (DEET), dietary supplementation, doxycycline, electronic mosquito repellents, full-length and light-coloured clothing, insecticide-treated clothing/nets, mefloquine, mosquito coils and vapourising mats, primaquine, pyrimethamine-dapsone, pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine, smoke, topical (skin-applied) insect repellents, and vaccines.

  20. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention]. (United States)

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger


    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).


    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.


  2. Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, Kimberly M.; Hyman, Marvin H.


    This chapter offers pollution prevention techniques for design, industrial process, maintenance, and environmental remediation activities. It provides examples of waste reduction, tools for identifying pollution prevention opportunities, and ways of calculating the payback or return on investment associated with the opportunities

  3. Primary Prevention of Eating Disorders. (United States)

    Shisslak, Catherine M.; And Others


    Summarizes current understanding of anorexia nervosa and bulimia (clinical symptoms and outcome, prevalence and risk factors), offering suggestions for the primary prevention of these disorders at the individual, family, and community levels, and emphasizing prevention in the schools. (Author/KS)

  4. Educating Students in Preventive Counseling. (United States)

    Conyne, Robert K.


    Provides a comprehensive set of competencies for counselors doing primary prevention. Describes 10 expanded clusters of skills (primary prevention perspective, personal attributes and behaviors, ethics, marketing, multiculturalism, group facilitation, organization and setting dynamics, trends and political dynamics, and research and evaluation)…

  5. Fall Prevention Hits Stumbling Blocks. (United States)

    Huff, Charlotte


    Implementation of efforts to screen older people for fall risk-and to intervene before falls occur-have been scattershot at best. Ongoing studies of fall prevention called STRIDE (Strategies to Reduce Injuries and Develop Confidence in Elders) might change that. The studies look at whether clinicians can implement a fall-prevention program across rural, urban, and suburban treatment settings.

  6. Expert incentives: cure versus prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jaegher, K.

    This paper distinguishes between two scenarios for the expert-client encounter. In the cure scenario, the client does not know whether a loss can be recovered. In the prevention scenario, the client faces a threat but does not know whether this threat is real enough to justify preventive action. The

  7. Major Depression Can Be Prevented (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan


    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  8. Get Real about Diabetes Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast delivers a diabetes prevention message promoting small steps that can lead to big rewards.  Created: 11/1/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/15/2007.

  9. Disaster: Prevention, Preparedness and Action. (United States)

    Buchanan, Sally


    Discission of threat of disaster to library archival materials focuses on prevention (building maintenance, materials storage, fire prevention), preparedness (preplanning, procedures for handling emergencies, finances of recovery operation), and action (instructions for handling damaged materials). Current library activities in disaster planning…

  10. Family Wellness, Not HIV Prevention (United States)

    Swendeman, Dallas; Flannery, Diane


    HIV exceptionalism (and disease-specific programs generally) garner both unbalanced funding and the most talented personnel, distorting local health priorities. In support of HIV exceptionalism, the successful mobilization of significant global health sector resources was not possible prior to HIV. Both sides of the debate have merits; rather than perpetuating polarization, we suggest that sustained improvements in global health require creating a prevention infrastructure to meet multiple health challenges experienced by local communities. We propose four fundamental shifts in HIV and disease prevention: (1) horizontally integrating prevention at one site locally, with priorities tailored to local health challenges and managed by local community leaders; (2) using a family wellness metaphor for services, not disease prevention; (3) implementing evidence-based prevention programs (EBPP) based on common principles, factors, and processes, rather than replication of specific programs; and (4) utilizing the expertise of private enterprise to re-design EBPP into highly attractive, engaging, and accessible experiences. PMID:19148744

  11. Can atopic dermatitis be prevented? (United States)

    Gómez-de la Fuente, E


    Atopic dermatitis has become a health problem in our setting due to its rising prevalence, impact on quality of life, associated costs, and role in the progression to other atopic diseases. Furthermore, atopic dermatitis has no definitive cure and therefore preventive measures are important. In this article, we review the latest advances in both primary prevention (reduction of the incidence of atopic dermatitis) and secondary prevention (reduction of associated morbidity and reduction of the atopic march). We analyze the different preventive strategies available, including modification of the immune system through microbial exposure, induction of immune tolerance through antigen exposure, and restoration of skin barrier function to halt the atopic march. Dermatologists need to be familiar with these strategies in order to apply them where necessary and to accurately inform patients and their relatives to prevent misguided or inappropriate actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  12. Allergy and asthma prevention 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nieto, Antonio; Wahn, Ulrich; Bufe, Albrecht


    Asthma and allergic diseases have become one of the epidemics of the 21st century in developed countries. Much of the success of other areas of medicine, such as infectious diseases, lies on preventive measures. Thus, much effort is also being placed lately in the prevention of asthma and allergy....... This manuscript reviews the current evidence, divided into four areas of activity. Interventions modifying environmental exposure to allergens have provided inconsistent results, with multifaceted interventions being more effective in the prevention of asthma. Regarding nutrition, the use of hydrolyzed formulas...... that antiviral vaccines could be useful in the future. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for the treatment of allergic patients with symptoms; the study of its value for primary and secondary prevention of asthma and allergy is in its very preliminary phases. The lack of success in the prevention...

  13. Preventive psychiatry in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamta Sood


    Full Text Available In the last two and a half decades, there have been series of global burden of disease studies which have highlighted significant disability attributable to mental and behavioral disorders with a huge treatment gap. Integration of the preventive strategies in the clinical practice has the potential to reduce the disability due to mental illnesses. The patients come to the clinic with an intention to get treated and investigated for the symptoms they have. At this point, they may also be amenable to the advice related to prevention. Therefore, the clinical encounter can be seen as an opportunity to implement preventive strategies. Preventive efforts in clinical practice must be guided by knowledge about the epidemiological data related to specific mental illnesses and about the evidence-based preventive strategies available for specific mental illnesses. These should be directed toward all those persons (patients, caregivers accompanying and at home, teachers, employers, etc. who are present and also toward those who are not present during the clinical encounter and must be age, gender, and culture sensitive. Sociodemographic characteristics of a person seeking relief from a problem in the clinical encounter help in directing the preventive efforts. The preventive efforts are also driven by the fact that the patient has the first episode or established or treatment refractory mental illness and the short or long duration of illness. For prevention-minded clinical practice, it helps to have a template so that the assessments and interventions relevant for prevention can be carried out as per that scheme; it also helps in orienting the practicing mental health professionals. While making various assessments, making a list of the likely issues to be addressed by preventive efforts during clinical encounter ( first and subsequent is also helpful.

  14. Cross-talk between Integrin α6β4 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor (IGF1R) through Direct α6β4 Binding to IGF1 and Subsequent α6β4-IGF1-IGF1R Ternary Complex Formation in Anchorage-independent Conditions*


    Fujita, Masaaki; Ieguchi, Katsuaki; Davari, Parastoo; Yamaji, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Yukimasa; Sekiguchi, Kiyotoshi; Takada, Yoko K.; Takada, Yoshikazu


    Background: Integrin αvβ3-extracellular matrix interaction and/or αvβ3 binding to insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1; and integrin-IGF1-IGF1 receptor ternary complex formation) is critical for IGF signaling.


    Ljusic, Dragana; Ravanic, Dragan; Filipovic Danic, Snezana; Soldatovic, Ivan; Cvetkovic, Jovana; Stojanovic Tasic, Mirjana


    Suicide remains a significant public health problem worldwide. This study is aimed at analyzing and presenting contemporary methods in suicide prevention in the world as well as at identifying specific risk groups and risk factors in order to explain their importance. in suicide prevention. The literature search covered electronic databases PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. In order to select the relevant articles, the authors searched for the combination of key-words which included the following medical subject heading terms (suicide or suicide ideation or attempted) and (prevention or risk factors) and (man or elders or mental disorders). Data analysis covered meta-analyses, systematic reviews and original scientific papers with different characteristics of suicide preventions, risk factors and risk groups. Worldwide evidence-based interventions for suicide prevention are divided in universal, selective and indicated interventions. Restricted approach to various methods of committing suicide as well as pharmacotherapy contributes to a lower suicide rate. Suicide risk factors can be categorized as proximal and distal. The following groups are at highest risk of committing suicide: males. older persons and persons with registered psychiatric disorders. There is a lot of evidence that suicide is preventable. It is known that only 28 coun tries in the world have national suicide prevention strategies and Serbia is not one of them.

  16. New horizons in fall prevention. (United States)

    Lord, Stephen R; Close, Jacqueline C T


    Falls pose a major threat to the well-being and quality of life of older people. Falls can result in fractures and other injuries, disability and fear and can trigger a decline in physical function and loss of autonomy. This article synthesises recent published findings on fall risk and mobility assessments and fall prevention interventions and considers how this field of research may evolve in the future. Fall risk topics include the utility of remote monitoring using wearable sensors and recent work investigating brain activation and gait adaptability. New approaches for exercise for fall prevention including dual-task training, cognitive-motor training with exergames and reactive step training are discussed. Additional fall prevention strategies considered include the prevention of falls in older people with dementia and Parkinson's disease, drugs for fall prevention and safe flooring for preventing fall-related injuries. The review discusses how these new initiatives and technologies have potential for effective fall prevention and improved quality of life. It concludes by emphasising the need for a continued focus on translation of evidence into practice including robust effectiveness evaluations of so that resources can be appropriately targeted into the future.

  17. Injury Prevention in Youth Sports. (United States)

    Stracciolini, Andrea; Sugimoto, Dai; Howell, David R


    Children and adolescents are now participating in competitive sports at younger ages and with increasing intensity. As a result, increasing numbers of young athletes are presenting to pediatricians for care of sports-related injuries and advice about prevention. Understanding and identifying modifiable risk factors for injury in the young athletic population is a critical first step in injury prevention. Risk factors vary by sport, age, and sex. This article reviews the most common risk factors for injury and the evidence to support proposed strategies for prevention. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(3):e99-e105.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. [Strategies for cardiovascular disease prevention]. (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Wuerzner, Grégoire; Saubade, Mathieu; Favre, Lucie; Jacot Sadowski, Isabelle; Nanchen, David


    Atherosclerosis is a disease which develops very gradually over decades. Under the influence of modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure, LDL-cholesterol level, smoking or lifestyle, clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis manifest more or less early in life. When cardiovascular risk factors accumulate, the risk of having a cardiovascular event increases and the benefits of prevention measures are greater. This article summarizes existing strategies for controlling modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in primary prevention. The physician can rely on an interprofessional network of cardiovascular prevention. Managing risk factors while respecting the autonomy and priorities of the patient will bring the greatest benefit.

  19. Pollution prevention and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Hector; Tsihrintzis Vassilios


    Pollution prevention (P2) results from the combined effect of the public opinion, a new environmental value system, government regulation, but above all, the search for an economic development within the context of environmental protection. The reasons for prevention are fundamental: profit from a new economic frontier; reduced potential for civil and criminal liability; and the effective and economic protection of the environment. This paper addresses, among other relevant issues, the following topics: justification and objective of pollution prevention; strategy and methodology for its implementation; examples of successes and tools; benefits and barriers and some recommendation

  20. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  1. [Prevention of schizophrenia: a review]. (United States)

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh


    Research over the years has introduced multiple interventions for schizophrenia. Notwithstanding the nature of intervention pharmacological or psychological a complete cure for the condition remains a much-desired, yet unachieved goal. What is required is an exploration of alternative intervention strategies for treating schizophrenia a preventive approach is such an option. The chronic nature of schizophrenia and its associated disabilities have a tremendously negative affect the quality of life of patients, their families, and communities. Among the preferred approaches to reducing the negative consequences associated with the disorder is the prevention of its emergence. This review aimed to present the available data on the prevention of schizophrenia data that suggest some pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions have a potential role in the prevention of schizophrenia. Nonetheless, the findings are restricted to a few sites and are at best preliminary; as such, the findings must be replicated in new studies that include large samples and different settings.

  2. Clinical Cancer Genetics and Prevention (United States)

    Olufunmilayo F. Olopade MD, FACP, Professor of Medicine and Human Genetics and Director of the Cancer Risk Clinic Department of Medicine, BSD Section of Hematology/Oncology University of Chicago, presented "Clinical Cancer Genetics and Prevention".

  3. Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias (United States)

    ... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Treating and Preventing Sports Hernias If you play ice hockey, tennis or ... for the most commonly misdiagnosed groin pain—a sports hernia. A sports hernia often results from overuse ...

  4. Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Preventing Breast Cancer: Making Progress Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of ... 000 women will have been diagnosed with invasive breast cancer, and nearly 41,000 women will die from ...

  5. Preventing Infections in Cancer Patients (United States)

    ... Protect: Know the Signs and Symptoms of Infection Neutropenia and Risk for Infection Health Care Providers Educational Materials Cancer and Flu How to Prevent Flu from Spreading Flu Symptoms Information for Families and Caregivers Flu Treatment for Cancer Patients and ...

  6. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites (United States)

    ... discourage mosquitoes, ticks and other biting insects from landing on you. Here are tips for other preventive ... CDC Mosquito Control Methods - NPIC Exit Top of Page Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, ...

  7. Preventing Burns in Your Home (United States)

    ... clothing when you handle chemicals. Store chemicals, including gasoline, out of the reach of children. To prevent ... mild burn? What is the treatment for smoke inhalation? Resources American Red Cross, Home Fire Safety Centers ...

  8. Preventing Interpersonal Violence in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sethi


    CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.

  9. Prevention: What You Can Do (United States)

    ... Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Prevention: What You Can Do Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Live ... healthy diet. Choosing healthful meal and snack options can help you avoid heart disease and its complications. ...

  10. Preventing hepatitis B or C (United States)

    ... page: // Preventing hepatitis B or C To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hepatitis B and hepatitis C infections cause irritation and ...

  11. The science of violence prevention



    Twenty years after Rodrigo Guerrero-Velasco treated violence like a disease, using epidemiology to find the causes, his approach to violence prevention has been taken up across the Americas. He talks to Alyssa Greenhouse.

  12. The Justice of Preventive War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephenson, Henry


    In response to the 9/11 attacks and continuing threats of mass-casualty terrorism, the United States has adopted a new security strategy that emphasizes anticipatory actions, including preventive war...

  13. Reducing Stress through Preventive Management. (United States)

    Quick, James C.; Quick, Jonathan D.


    Two levels of prevention can be used to counter the key stressors of personnel at work; the first deals with organizational techniques and the second with individual techniques such as systematic desensitization, biofeedback, or aerobic exercise. (Author)

  14. Lessons from obesity prevention for the prevention of mental disorders: the primordial prevention approach. (United States)

    Hayward, Joshua; Jacka, Felice N; Waters, Elizabeth; Allender, Steven


    Emerging evidence supports a relationship between risk factors for obesity and the genesis of the common mental disorders, depression and anxiety. This suggests common mental disorders should be considered as a form of non-communicable disease, preventable through the modification of lifestyle behaviours, particularly diet and physical activity. Obesity prevention research since the 1970's represents a considerable body of knowledge regarding strategies to modify diet and physical activity and so there may be clear lessons from obesity prevention that apply to the prevention of mental disorders. For obesity, as for common mental disorders, adolescence represents a key period of vulnerability. In this paper we briefly discuss relationships between modifiable lifestyle risk factors and mental health, lifestyle risk factor interventions in obesity prevention research, the current state of mental health prevention, and the implications of current applications of systems thinking in obesity prevention research for lifestyle interventions. We propose a potential focus for future mental health promotion interventions and emphasise the importance of lessons available from other lifestyle modification intervention programmes.

  15. Phlebitis: treatment, care and prevention. (United States)

    Higginson, Ray; Parry, Andrew

    Peripheral venous catheter-associated phlebitis is caused by inflammation to the vein at a cannula access site. It can have a mechanical, chemical or infectious cause. Good practice when inserting a cannula, including appropriate choice of device and site, can help to prevent phlebitis. Good infection control techniques are also vital in preventing the condition. There are two phlebitis scoring systems, which should be used in routine practice to identify and treat early signs of the Peripheral venous cannulation

  16. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, K.


    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  17. Exemestane in the prevention setting


    Litton, Jennifer Keating; Bevers, Therese B.; Arun, Banu K.


    Aromatase inhibitors are well-established therapies in the neoadjuvant, adjuvant and metastatic settings for breast cancer. In adjuvant trials, this class of drugs has shown preventative properties by decreasing the rate of contralateral breast cancer. Recently, the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group MAP.3 study evaluated exemestane as a breast cancer prevention agent for women with specified higher risks of developing breast cancer. We review the history of exemestane ...

  18. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  19. Prevention of Infection in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Ledger


    Full Text Available We believe the prevention of infection-related adverse pregnancy outcome is the most important focus for obstetricians today. An emphasis upon immunization of susceptible women, prevention of transmissible disease by modification of patient behavior, and identification and treatment of silent infections should become standards of practice. This will require educational initiatives for physicians and their patients as well as continued clinical trials to determine costs and effectiveness.

  20. Preventing Falls in Older Persons. (United States)

    Moncada, Lainie Van Voast; Mire, L Glen


    The American Geriatrics Society and British Geriatrics Society recommend that all adults older than 65 years be screened annually for a history of falls or balance impairment. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians recommend exercise or physical therapy and vitamin D supplementation to prevent falls in community-dwelling older adults who are at increased risk of falls. Although the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force and American Academy of Family Physicians do not recommend routine multifactorial intervention to prevent falls in all community-dwelling older adults, they state that it may be appropriate in individual cases. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed an algorithm to aid in the implementation of the American Geriatrics Society/British Geriatrics Society guideline. The algorithm suggests assessment and multifactorial intervention for those who have had two or more falls or one fall-related injury. Multifactorial interventions should include exercise, particularly balance, strength, and gait training; vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium; management of medications, especially psychoactive medications; home environment modification; and management of postural hypotension, vision problems, foot problems, and footwear. These interventions effectively decrease falls in the community, hospital, and nursing home settings. Fall prevention is reimbursed as part of the Medicare Annual Wellness Visit.

  1. Challenges in pressure ulcer prevention. (United States)

    Dealey, Carol; Brindle, C Tod; Black, Joyce; Alves, Paulo; Santamaria, Nick; Call, Evan; Clark, Michael


    Although this article is a stand-alone article, it sets the scene for later articles in this issue. Pressure ulcers are considered to be a largely preventable problem, and yet despite extensive training and the expenditure of a large amount of resources, they persist. This article reviews the current understanding of pressure ulcer aetiology: pressure, shear and microclimate. Individual risk factors for pressure ulceration also need to be understood in order to determine the level of risk of an individual. Such an assessment is essential to determine appropriate prevention strategies. The main prevention strategies in terms of reducing pressure and shear and managing microclimate are studied in this article. The problem of pressure ulceration related to medical devices is also considered as most of the standard prevention strategies are not effective in preventing this type of damage. Finally, the possibility of using dressings as an additional preventive strategy is raised along with the question: is there enough evidence to support their use? © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Update on child abuse prevention. (United States)

    Krugman, Scott D; Lane, Wendy G; Walsh, Christina M


    Child abuse remains a significant problem in the United States with 2.9 million reports and 825 000 indicated cases in 2005. This report will highlight recent efforts toward child abuse prevention, focusing on home visiting programs, abusive head trauma primary prevention, parent training programs, sexual abuse prevention, and the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment. Most home visitation programs have demonstrated a lack of effectiveness in recent randomized trials. One exception is the Nurse Family Partnership, which remains the most effective and longest enduring intervention for high-risk families. Child sexual abuse prevention programs and parent training programs need further evaluation with more rigorous methodology and outcome measures. Providing universal parent education about coping with crying infants appears to be effective in lowering the incidence of abusive head trauma. Although advocated for, further study will determine the effectiveness of laws banning corporal punishment or mandating abusive head trauma education to parents of newborns. Pediatricians play an important role in the prevention of child maltreatment. Their knowledge of the effectiveness of different programs can help guide parents toward appropriate services.

  3. Nutritional approach to preeclampsia prevention. (United States)

    Achamrah, Najate; Ditisheim, Agnès


    Although not fully understood, the physiopathology of preeclampsia is thought to involve an abnormal placentation, diffuse endothelial cell dysfunction and increased systemic inflammation. As micronutrients play a key role in placental endothelial function, oxidative stress and expression of angiogenic factors, periconceptional micronutrient supplementation has been proposed to reduce the risk of preeclampsia. However, recent studies reported conflicting results. Calcium intake (>1 g/day) may reduce the risk of preeclampsia in women with low-calcium diet. Data from recently updated Cochrane reviews did not support routine supplementation of vitamins C, E or D for either the prevention or treatment of preeclampsia. Evidences are also poor to support zinc or folic acid supplementation for preeclampsia prevention. Dark chocolate, flavonoid-rich food, and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids might also be candidates for prevention of preeclampsia. Through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory or vasoactive proprieties, micronutrients are good candidates for preeclampsia prevention. Calcium supplementation is recommended to prevent preeclampsia in women with low-calcium intake. Despite positive clinical and in-vitro data, strong evidence to support periconceptional supplementation of other micronutrients for preeclampsia risk-reduction is still lacking. Further studies are also needed to evaluate the benefit of nutritional supplementation such as chocolate and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  4. The Money Laundering Prevention System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Cindori


    Full Text Available The paper presents the money laundering and terrorist financing prevention system in Croatia. The basic concepts are defined, the principles and fundamentals of international regulations analysed, and the regulatory system in Croatia covered by statute and money laundering prevention Regulations is presented, in conjunction with a description of the organisation, remit and international actions of the Money Laundering Prevention Office.The infiltration of dirty money is a crucial problem from national economies. The purchase of shares, of real estate, the establishment of dirty investment funds and the use of the banking system for the embedding of such resources is a danger to the credibility of a whole country, and in particular to the security of the financial and banking system. Croatia has adopted statutory measures aimed at the effective detection and prevention of suspicious financial transactions, in other words the prevention of money laundering.Launderers constantly find new ways, make use of new non-financial channels and expand their activities to real estate, artworks and insurance. Hence it is necessary to keep up with European approaches and recommendations, to strive for further improvement of the laws and the modernisation of the system, and to adopt new regulations harmonised with international standards, particularly with Directive 2005/60/EC.

  5. Prevention strategies in child maltreatment. (United States)

    Scribano, Philip V


    Child maltreatment remains a prevalent problem for which notable best practices such as home visitation can be effective; however, most eligible families do not receive these beneficial services. Additionally, there are other promising prevention interventions to effectively address child maltreatment. This review focuses on the recent advances and strategies for child maltreatment prevention. Although home visiting does not have a single clearly defined methodology of providing service to children and families, the general supportive framework to improve maternal, child, and family factors makes this intervention the most widely studied and accepted prevention strategy. However, there has been limited effectiveness for most models. The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) has provided consistently positive results by targeting families with many risk factors by using highly trained professionals when implementing a research-based intervention. A promising public health approach to parent training (Triple P) may reduce maltreatment and out-of-home placement. Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT), while a treatment model, is becoming an increasingly important approach to child maltreatment prevention. There may be an opportunity to reduce child maltreatment by enhancing care in the pediatric medical home setting. Effective child maltreatment prevention efforts exist; however, not all programs provide the same effectiveness, or target the same maltreatment issues. Pediatricians are in a key position to offer support to families in their own practice, as well as to direct families to the appropriate resources available.

  6. Prevention vs. treatment: what's the right balance?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Faust, Halley S; Menzel, Paul T


    .... This book explores this observation by examining the actual spending on prevention, the history of health policies and structural features that affect prevention's apparent relative lack of emphasis...

  7. Fiscal Year 2015 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  8. Fiscal Year 2014 Pollution Prevention Grant Summaries (United States)

    The Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics is responsible for overseeing several grant programs for tribes and states which promote pollution prevention through source reduction and resource conservation.

  9. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.


    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through (a) process modifications, (b) use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, (c) acid recycling, and (d) judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor, not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future

  10. Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J. Eapen, MD


    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death worldwide. This article focuses on current guidelines for the primary prevention of CVD and addresses management of key risk factors. Dietary modification, weight loss, exercise, and tobacco use cessation are specific areas where focused efforts can successfully reduce CVD risk on both an individual and a societal level. Specific areas requiring management include dyslipidemia, hypertension, physical activity, diabetes, aspirin use, and alcohol intake. These preventive efforts have major public health implications. As the global population continues to grow, health care expenditures will also rise, with the potential to eventually overwhelm the health care system. Therefore it is imperative to apply our collective efforts on CVD prevention to improve the cardiovascular health of individuals, communities, and nations.

  11. Preventing pollution from plutonium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.


    The plutonium processing facility at Los Alamos has adopted the strategic goal of becoming a facility that processes plutonium in a way that produces only environmentally benign waste streams. Pollution prevention through source reduction and environmentally sound recycling are being pursued. General approaches to waste reductions are administrative controls, modification of process technologies, and additional waste polishing. Recycling of waste materials, such as spent acids and salts, are technical possibilities and are being pursued to accomplish additional waste reduction. Liquid waste stream polishing to remove final traces of plutonium and hazardous chemical constituents is accomplished through process modifications, use of alternative chemicals and sorbents for residue removal, acid recycling, and judicious use of a variety of waste polishing technologies. Technologies that show promise in waste minimization and pollution prevention are identified. Working toward this goal of pollution prevention is a worthwhile endeavor , not only for Los Alamos, but for the Nuclear Complex of the future. (author) 12 refs.; 2 figs

  12. Prediabetes and Lifestyle Modification: Time to Prevent a Preventable Disease (United States)

    Tuso, Phillip


    More than 100 million Americans have prediabetes or diabetes. Prediabetes is a condition in which individuals have blood glucose levels higher than normal but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. People with prediabetes have an increased risk of Type 2 diabetes. An estimated 34% of adults have prediabetes. Prediabetes is now recognized as a reversible condition that increases an individual’s risk for development of diabetes. Lifestyle risk factors for prediabetes include overweight and physical inactivity. Increasing awareness and risk stratification of individuals with prediabetes may help physicians understand potential interventions that may help decrease the percentage of patients in their panels in whom diabetes develops. If untreated, 37% of the individuals with prediabetes may have diabetes in 4 years. Lifestyle intervention may decrease the percentage of prediabetic patients in whom diabetes develops to 20%. Long-term data also suggest that lifestyle intervention may decrease the risk of prediabetes progressing to diabetes for as long as 10 years. To prevent 1 case of diabetes during a 3-year period, 6.9 persons would have to participate in the lifestyle intervention program. In addition, recent data suggest that the difference in direct and indirect costs to care for a patient with prediabetes vs a patient with diabetes may be as much as $7000 per year. Investment in a diabetes prevention program now may have a substantial return on investment in the future and help prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25102521

  13. Prevention of Nosocomial Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karpun


    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of an extended package of preventive measures on the incidence of nosocomial respiratory infections in surgical patients at an intensive care unit (ICU. Subjects and methods. The study included 809 patients aged 35 to 80 years. A study group comprised 494 patients in whom an extended package of preventive measures was implemented during 7 months (March-September. A control group consisted of 315 patients treated in 2004 in the same period of time (March-September. The groups were stratified by age, gender, underlying diseases, and APACHE-2 and SOFA scores. The extended package of anti-infectious measures involved a high air purification in ICUs («Flow-M» technology, routine use of ventilatory filters, closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter under artificial ventilation for over 2 days. Results. The proposed technologies could reduce the frequency of tracheobronchitis and ventilator-associated pneumonias in the groups of patients at high risk for nosocomial infections substantially (by more than twice. Conclusion. The findings have led to the conclusion that the extended package of preventive measures is effective in preventing respiratory infections in ICU patients. Of special note is the proper prevention of upper airway contamination with pathogenic microorganisms, by employing the closed aspiration systems with a built-in antibacterial filter. The routine use of high-tech consumables in the intensive care of surgical patients causes a considerable decrease in the incidence of nosocomial pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and purulent tracheobronchitis and a reduction in the number of microbiological studies. Key words: ventilator-associated pneumonia, prevention of nosocomial infections, closed aspiration system.

  14. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury. (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K


    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  15. Primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy. (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Blythe, B J; Gilchrist, L D; Burt, G A


    Teenage pregnancy is associated with many health, emotional and socioeconomic problems including higher rates of anemia, labor complications, mortality, legal and social struggles and hhigher divorce rates. Professional social workers need strategies to help teenagers avoid early, unwanted pregnancy. This paper offers promising experential and research backing for a primary prevention group work strategy for all adolescents. Social and health programs overlook educational, cognitive anc interpersonal factors biasing youths' ability to comprehend and regulate contraception. Primary prevention to assist adolescents in thinking analytically about their sexual behavior must stress problem solving and decision-making as well as facts about human reproduction and birth control. To implement decisions, youths also need interpersonal communication skills. Small groups are ideal for delivering cognitive-behavioral primary prevention. This approach is based on the premise that youths become pregnant not because of a lack of relevant information, but because they lack cognitive and behavioral skills necessary to use information. Group work involving role-playing helps develop communication skills. Results from 2 field studies describe short-term and longitudinal benefits of the prevention strategy. Professionals can reach significant numbers of youth in this way. By treating sexual issues and the risk of pregnancy as normal in adolescence, social workers can introduce information and pertinent skills to all teenagers. No one is singled out as deviant and the group format enables young people to discuss taboo topics, discovering what the norms are and gradually learning how to deal with peers, family members, techers and others. Adolescents in primary prevention groups gained knowledge, cognitive skills and communication acumen. Improved attitudes toward family planning, increased regular contraception and less unsafe sex resulted from this cognitive-behavioral approach


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Makarova


    Full Text Available The article deals with new data about food tolerance induction among the children, belonging to the high risk groups disposed to atopy. Authors show the role of gut microflora in formation of child immune system, effect of breast feeding on activation of local immune response, growth stimulation of bifid bacteria and lactic acid bacilli. The present work gives the randomized research findings, which confirm the effectiveness of prolonged breast feeding, use of highly or partially hydrolyzed mixtures and timely introduction of supplemental feeding in food allergy prevention.Key words: prevention, food allergy, children, breast feeding, hypo allergic mixtures, milk protein hydrolysates, supplemental feeding, gut microflora, probiotics.

  17. [Prevention of the refeeding syndrome]. (United States)

    Martínez Núñez, Maria E; Hernández Muniesa, B


    The refeeding syndrome can be defined as the metabolic alterations developed by the rapid nutrition repletion (oral, enteral as well as parenteral feeding) of severaly malnourished patients. Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal clinical condition and it is often underdiagnosed on non-specialized nutrition units. The most important key for its prevention is to identify patients at high risk for developing refeeding syndrome, before nutrition repletion. The present case describes the steps to prevent the refeeding syndrome as well as the clinical recommendations to restart nutrition support.

  18. Preventing urinary incontinence in women. (United States)

    Newman, Diane K; Cardozo, Linda; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich


    This review examines the evidence to date, analyzes specific risk factors and assesses the ability to prevent urinary incontinence in women, while providing clinical recommendations. More extraordinary risk factors such as ethnicity and race, mixed and fecal incontinence, iatrogenic and neurogenic factors should be discussed in a follow-up report. Studies have revealed that certain factors place women at risk for developing urinary incontinence, including age, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and delivery, high-impact physical exercise factors and estrogen deficiency. Healthcare providers should screen women who are at risk for developing urinary incontinence and institute specific interventions, specifically behavioral and even rehabilitative techniques, to prevent this prevalent and distressing condition.

  19. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.  Created: 1/22/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Meningitis and Vaccine Preventable Diseases Branch (MVPDB).   Date Released: 1/22/2015.

  20. Proactive prevention in occupational safety and health: how to identify tomorrow's prevention priorities and preventive measures. (United States)

    Hauke, Angelika; Flaspöler, Eva; Reinert, Dietmar


    Global trends such as digitalisation, globalisation and demographic change are changing workplaces, and accordingly occupational safety and health (OSH) needs. To better prepare for the future and to foster proactive prevention, the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) established an OSH risk observatory (RO OSH). The RO OSH relies on an online survey and calls upon the expertise of labour inspectors. 398 labour inspectors participated in the first RO OSH enquiry. They rated developments with regard to their sector-specific relevance for OSH in the near future. The RO OSH also provides ideas for preventive measures that can be implemented by the German Social Accident Insurance Institutions. Work intensity, demographic aspects, and digitalisation play a major role for most or all sectors. However, familiar OSH issues such as musculoskeletal strain and noise also continue to be of major importance and require further consideration and specific solutions in prevention. For the DGUV, training and consulting bear great potential for proactive prevention in the above priority areas, e.g. by fostering a prevention culture and supporting companies in (psychosocial) risk assessment (also for mobile work). For instance, concepts for increasing physical activity at sedentary workplaces, and data security require continued research.

  1. Prevention (United States)

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Practice good hand hygiene after contact with infected animals or humans. There ... could be at risk for infection. Practice good hand hygiene after contact with infected animals or humans. For ...

  2. Prevention (United States)

    ... health conditions, and is a leading cause of blindness, kidney failure, and limb amputations. If you have ... will periodically do a short test of your memory and thinking to see if any further testing ...

  3. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.


    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  4. Postpartum haemorrhage: prevention and treatment. (United States)

    Sentilhes, Loïc; Merlot, Benjamin; Madar, Hugo; Sztark, François; Brun, Stéphanie; Deneux-Tharaux, Catherine


    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the leading causes of maternal death and severe maternal morbidity worldwide and strategies to prevent and treat PPH vary among international authorities. Areas covered: This review seeks to provide a global overview of PPH (incidence, causes, risk factors), prevention (active management of the third stage of labor and prohemostatic agents), treatment (first, second and third-line measures to control PPH), by also underlining recommendations elaborated by international authorities and using algorithms. Expert commentary: When available, oxytocin is considered the drug of first choice for both prevention and treatment of PPH, while peripartum hysterectomy remains the ultimate life-saving procedure if pharmacological and resuscitation measures fail. Nevertheless, the level of evidence for preventing and treating PPH is globally low. The emergency nature of PPH makes randomized controlled trials (RCT) logistically difficult. Population-based observational studies should be encouraged as they can usefully strengthen the evidence base, particularly for components of PPH treatment that are difficult or impossible to assess through RCT.

  5. Intimate Partner Violence. Prevention Update (United States)

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011


    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…

  6. Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Prevention (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets 中文 (Chinese) Kreyòl (Haitian Creole) Русский (Russian) Tiẽng Viêt (Vietnamese) Prevention Success Stories Provider Pocket ... you protect yourself? What are the treatment options? Learn the answers to these questions by reading the ...

  7. Skills Methods to Prevent Smoking. (United States)

    Schinke, Steven Paul; And Others


    Describes an evaluation of the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking with sixth-grade students from two schools. Skills conditions subjects learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention…

  8. Diet and Pancreatic Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Casari


    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is without any doubt the malignancy with the poorest prognosis and the lowest survival rate. This highly aggressive disease is rarely diagnosed at an early stage and difficult to treat due to its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Therefore, there is an urgent need to clarify the causes responsible for pancreatic cancer and to identify preventive strategies to reduce its incidence in the population. Some circumstances, such as smoking habits, being overweight and diabetes, have been identified as potentially predisposing factors to pancreatic cancer, suggesting that diet might play a role. A diet low in fat and sugars, together with a healthy lifestyle, regular exercise, weight reduction and not smoking, may contribute to prevent pancreatic cancer and many other cancer types. In addition, increasing evidence suggests that some food may have chemo preventive properties. Indeed, a high dietary intake of fresh fruit and vegetables has been shown to reduce the risk of developing pancreatic cancer, and recent epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a protective effect against it. Therefore, diet could have an impact on the development of pancreatic cancer and further investigations are needed to assess the potential chemo preventive role of specific foods against this disease. This review summarizes the key evidence for the role of dietary habits and their effect on pancreatic cancer and focuses on possible mechanisms for the association between diet and risk of pancreatic cancer.

  9. Engaging Men in Violence Prevention (United States)

    Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.


    Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…

  10. Preventing Stroke Deaths PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the July 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Higher opioid prescribing puts patients at risk for addiction and overdose. Learn what can be done about this serious problem.  Created: 9/6/2017 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/6/2017.

  11. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.

  12. Recognizing and Preventing Whooping Cough

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides information about the symptoms of whooping cough and how vaccines can help prevent this serious disease for people of all ages. It is especially important for those who will have close contact with a baby to be up to date with their whooping cough vaccine.

  13. Preventing Crime through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.


    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit

  14. Preventing Crime Through Selective Incapacitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollaard, B.A.


    Making the length of a prison sentence conditional on an individual’s offense history is shown to be a powerful way of preventing crime. Under a law adopted in the Netherlands in 2001, prolific offenders could be sentenced to a prison term that was some ten times longer than usual. We exploit

  15. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (United States)

    Draper, Rick; Cadzow, Emma


    Applying CPTED (Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design) strategies to schools can significantly contribute to a safer learning environment by influencing the behaviour of students and visitors. CPTED has three overlapping primary concepts that are intended to reduce opportunities for crime as well as fear of crime: access control,…

  16. Falls prevention for the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Lühmann


    Full Text Available Background: An ageing population, a growing prevalence of chronic diseases and limited financial resources for health care underpin the importance of prevention of disabling health disorders and care dependency in the elderly. A wide variety of measures is generally available for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The spectrum ranges from diagnostic procedures for identifying individuals at risk of falling to complex interventions for the removal or reduction of identified risk factors. However, the clinical and economic effectiveness of the majority of recommended strategies for fall prevention is unclear. Against this background, the literature analyses in this HTA report aim to support decision-making for effective and efficient fall prevention.Research questions: The pivotal research question addresses the effectiveness of single interventions and complex programmes for the prevention of falls and fall-related injuries. The target population are the elderly (> 60 years, living in their own housing or in long term care facilities. Further research questions refer to the cost-effectiveness of fall prevention measures, and their ethical, social and legal implications. Methods: Systematic literature searches were performed in 31 databases covering the publication period from January 2003 to January 2010. While the effectiveness of interventions is solely assessed on the basis of randomised controlled trials (RCT, the assessment of the effectiveness of diagnostic procedures also considers prospective accuracy studies. In order to clarify social, ethical and legal aspects all studies deemed relevant with regard to content were taken into consideration, irrespective of their study design. Study selection and critical appraisal were conducted by two independent assessors. Due to clinical heterogeneity of the studies no meta-analyses were performed.Results: Out of 12,000 references retrieved by literature searches, 184 meet the

  17. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  18. Preventing Playground Injuries and Litigation. (United States)

    Frost, Joe L.


    The typical American playground is antiquated, hazardous, and inappropriate for the developmental needs of children. The paper explains how design, installation, maintenance, and supervision are critical in preventing playground injuries and resulting litigation, noting the importance of regular training for everyone who supervises children on the…

  19. Exercises to help prevent falls (United States)

    ... help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and more flexible Improve your balance Increase how ... To make your calves and ankle muscles stronger: Hold on to a solid ... of a chair. Stand with your back straight and slightly bend ...

  20. Chuanxiong preparations for preventing stroke. (United States)

    Yang, Xunzhe; Zeng, Xiaoxi; Wu, Taixiang


    Stroke is a major healthcare problem and is one of the leading causes of death and serious long-term disability. Prevention of stroke is considered an important strategy. Chuanxiong is traditionally used in China in the treatment and prevention of stroke. In recent years, Chinese researchers have developed new patented Chuanxiong preparations. To assess the effects and safety of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke in high-risk adults. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2008, Issue 1), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2008), EMBASE (1980 to March 2008), AMED (1985 to March 2008), Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1975 to March 2008), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) (1994 to March 2008), and the VIP Database (1989 to March 2008). Trials registers were searched for ongoing studies. No language restrictions were applied. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) studying the effects of Chuanxiong preparations in preventing stroke were included. Three reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion and two reviewers independently extracted data. Authors of identified RCTs were telephoned to confirm the randomisation procedure. Outcomes assessed included: stroke, composite cardiovascular outcomes, changes in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular haemodynamic indices and adverse events. Peto odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for dichotomous variables and mean differences for continuous outcomes. Three RCTs (5042 participants) were included. One higher quality study (4415 participants) compared Nao-an capsule with aspirin for primary prevention in high-risk stroke populations. Nao-an capsule appeared to reduce the incidence of stroke compared with aspirin (OR 0.56 95% CI 0.33 to 0.96). One study of low methodological quality indicated that a self-prepared Xifenwan tablet reduced the incidence of stroke in people with transient ischaemia attack (TIA) (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.78). The

  1. 32 CFR 989.31 - Pollution prevention. (United States)


    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 989.31 Section 989.31... ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ANALYSIS PROCESS (EIAP) § 989.31 Pollution prevention. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990..., whenever feasible. Pollution prevention approaches should be applied to all pollution-generating activities...

  2. Leslie Ford, MD | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Dr. Leslie Ford built clinical cancer prevention research as a scientific field when few people were considering the possibility of prevention, and is recognized as a national and international leader in cancer prevention research. She has a passion for prevention and strong belief that all clinical science must, to the fullest extent possible, derive as a translation of basic

  3. Preventing and managing challenging behaviour. (United States)

    Hallett, Nutmeg


    Patients exhibiting challenging behaviour, which includes any non-verbal, verbal or physical behaviour, is a significant issue in healthcare settings. Preventing such behaviour and the harm it can cause is important for healthcare organisations and individuals, and involves following a public health model comprised of three tiers: primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. Primary prevention aims to reduce the risk of challenging behaviour occurring in the first instance; secondary prevention involves reducing the risk associated with imminent challenging behaviour and its potential escalation; and tertiary prevention focuses on minimising the physical and emotional harm caused by challenging behaviours, during and after an event. De-escalation should be the first-line response to challenging behaviour, and healthcare staff should use a range of techniques - maintaining safety, self-regulation, effective communication, and assessment and actions - to reduce the incidence of challenging behaviour. In some situations, physical interventions may be required to protect the safety of the individual, healthcare staff and other individuals involved, and healthcare staff should be aware of local policies and procedures for this. Following a serious incident, where there was potential or actual harm to patients and healthcare staff, healthcare organisations should use post-incident reviews to learn from the situation, while healthcare staff should be offered the opportunity for debriefing. Positive responses to challenging behaviour at an organisational and individual level can lead to improved work environments for healthcare staff and optimal patient care and outcomes. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  4. [Clinical psychiatry and suicide prevention]. (United States)

    Cho, Yoshinori


    People do not commit suicide all of a sudden. There is a suicidal process where negative life events are there in the beginning, and social support and help-seeking behavior play an important role in impeding the progress of the process. Mental disturbance would be deeply associated with the suicidal process around the final stage, thinking of the fact that approximately 90% of the suicides suffered from mental disorders at the time of suicide. In considering the strategies for suicide prevention, there are two perspectives: a community model and a medical model. A community model is thought to be related mainly to the first half of the suicidal process and a medical model to the latter half. It is an ideal that both community and medical approaches are put into practice simultaneously. However, if resources available for suicide prevention are limited, a medical-model approach would be more efficient and should be given priority. Starting from a medical model and considering treatment and social resources necessary for suicidal people, the range of suicide prevention activities would be expand more efficiently than starting from a community-model approach. Clinical psychiatry plays a greatly important role in preventing suicide. It is found that approximately 20% of seriously injured suicide attempters were diagnosed as adjustment disorder in Japan, which means that even the mildly depressed can commit suicide. Therefore, no one can take a hands-off approach to suicidality as long as he/she works in the field of clinical psychiatry. It is earnestly desired to detect and treat properly the suicidal patients, but there is no perfect method. It would be helpful to pay attention to patients' personality development, stress-coping style and present suicidal ideation. Besides, as suicide prevention is not completed only in a consulting room, it is important for psychiatrists to look for teamwork.

  5. Cancer prevention strategies: use of cancer prevention research registries.


    Anton-Culver, H


    We present a model to plan a rational strategy for cancer prevention that has two main functions--assessment and intervention. The assessment function includes three main components: to identify populations at high cancer risk, which may be due to their ethnic group, occupational and environmental exposures, family history, cigarette smoking, or other risk factors; to assess exposure to known carcinogens through the general and occupational environments, lifestyle factors, and the home as wel...

  6. Prevention of choking among children. (United States)


    Choking is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children, especially those aged 3 years or younger. Food, coins, and toys are the primary causes of choking-related injury and death. Certain characteristics, including shape, size, and consistency, of certain toys and foods increase their potential to cause choking among children. Childhood choking hazards should be addressed through comprehensive and coordinated prevention activities. The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) should increase efforts to ensure that toys that are sold in retail store bins, vending machines, or on the Internet have appropriate choking-hazard warnings; work with manufacturers to improve the effectiveness of recalls of products that pose a choking risk to children; and increase efforts to prevent the resale of these recalled products via online auction sites. Current gaps in choking-prevention standards for children's toys should be reevaluated and addressed, as appropriate, via revisions to the standards established under the Child Safety Protection Act, the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act, or regulation by the CPSC. Prevention of food-related choking among children in the United States has been inadequately addressed at the federal level. The US Food and Drug Administration should establish a systematic, institutionalized process for examining and addressing the hazards of food-related choking. This process should include the establishment of the necessary surveillance, hazard evaluation, enforcement, and public education activities to prevent food-related choking among children. While maintaining its highly cooperative arrangements with the CPSC and the US Department of Agriculture, the Food and Drug Administration should have the authority to address choking-related risks of all food products, including meat products that fall under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Agriculture. The existing National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury

  7. Nutritional rickets: pathogenesis and prevention. (United States)

    Pettifor, John M


    Nutritional rickets remains a public health concern in many areas of the world despite cheap and effective means of preventing the disease. The roles of vitamin D deficiency, low dietary calcium intakes and the interrelationships between the two in the pathogenesis of the disease are discussed. It is now recognized that vitamin D deficiency in the pregnant and lactating mother predisposes to the development of rickets in the breastfed infant, and that cultural and social factors are important in the pathogenesis of the disease during the adolescent growth spurt. Prevention of rickets is dependent on the awareness of the medical profession and the general public of the need to ensure adequate intakes of vitamin D in at-risk populations, and of the importance of increasing dietary intakes of calcium using locally available and inexpensive foods in communities in which dietary calcium deficiency rickets is prevalent.

  8. Prevention of Esophageal Variceal Rebleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Ho Lo


    Full Text Available The rate of rebleeding of esophageal varices remains high after cessation of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage. Many measures have been developed to prevent the occurrence of rebleeding. When considering their effectiveness in reduction of rebleeding, the associated complications cannot be neglected. Due to unavoidable high incidence of complications, shunt surgery and endoscopic injection sclerotherapy are now rarely used. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt was developed to replace shunt operation but is now reserved for rescue therapy. Nonselective beta-blockers alone or in combination with isosorbide mononitrate and endoscopic variceal ligation are currently the first choices in the prevention of variceal rebleeding. The combination of nonselective beta-blockers and endoscopic variceal ligation appear to enhance the efficacy. With the advent of newly developed measures, esophageal variceal rebleeding could be greatly reduced and the survival of cirrhotics with bleeding esophageal varices could thereby be prolonged.

  9. Preventive evolutionary medicine of cancers. (United States)

    Hochberg, Michael E; Thomas, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula


    Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours. Specifically, the relatively low levels of (epi)genetic heterogeneity characteristic of many if not most incipient lesions will mean a relatively limited set of possible adaptive traits and associated costs compared to more advanced cancers, and thus a more complete and predictable understanding of treatment options and outcomes. We propose a conceptual model for preventive treatments and discuss the many associated challenges.

  10. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  11. Cheating prevention in visual cryptography. (United States)

    Hu, Chih-Ming; Tzeng, Wen-Guey


    Visual cryptography (VC) is a method of encrypting a secret image into shares such that stacking a sufficient number of shares reveals the secret image. Shares are usually presented in transparencies. Each participant holds a transparency. Most of the previous research work on VC focuses on improving two parameters: pixel expansion and contrast. In this paper, we studied the cheating problem in VC and extended VC. We considered the attacks of malicious adversaries who may deviate from the scheme in any way. We presented three cheating methods and applied them on attacking existent VC or extended VC schemes. We improved one cheat-preventing scheme. We proposed a generic method that converts a VCS to another VCS that has the property of cheating prevention. The overhead of the conversion is near optimal in both contrast degression and pixel expansion.

  12. Obesity Prevention in Older Adults. (United States)

    Volpe, Stella Lucia; Sukumar, Deeptha; Milliron, Brandy-Joe


    The number of older adults living in the USA, 65 years of age and older, has been steadily increasing. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010, indicate that more than one-third of older adults, 65 years of age and older, were obese. With the increased rate of obesity in older adults, the purpose of this paper is to present research on different methods to prevent or manage obesity in older adults, namely dietary interventions, physical activity interventions, and a combination of dietary and physical activity interventions. In addition, research on community assistance programs in the prevention of obesity with aging will be discussed. Finally, data on federal programs for older adults will also be presented.

  13. Obesity Prevention in the Military. (United States)

    Shams-White, Marissa; Deuster, Patricia


    The objective was to review prevention efforts and approaches attempting to limit the problem of obesity in the military. Various individual-level initiatives have emerged, including programs promoting healthy cooking, meal planning, and other behavior changes among service members. Importantly, the military is attempting to tackle environmental factors contributing to the rise of obesity, by focusing on many recent environmental-level interventions and initiatives to improve military dining facilities and examine and modify other aspects of installations' built environments. Although published research within the military setting directed towards obesity prevention is limited, many innovative programs have been launched and need to be followed forward. The review of past and ongoing efforts can be an important step in identifying specific areas needing improvement, gaps that should be considered, lessons learned, and characteristics of successful programs that should be disseminated as best practices and further expanded.

  14. Vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Karin Linda; Samuel, Miny; Wai, Kim Lay


    BACKGROUND: Vaccination is recognized as the only practical measure for preventing Japanese encephalitis. Production shortage, costs, and issues of licensure impair vaccination programmes in many affected countries. Concerns over vaccine effectiveness and safety also have a negative impact...... on acceptance and uptake. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate vaccines for preventing Japanese encephalitis in terms of effectiveness, adverse events, and immunogenicity. SEARCH STRATEGY: In March 2007, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2007, Issue 1......), MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, BIOSIS, and reference lists. We also attempted to contact corresponding authors and vaccine companies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including cluster-RCTs, comparing Japanese encephalitis vaccines with placebo (inert agent or unrelated vaccine...

  15. Counterfeit Parts Prevention Strategies Guide (United States)


    requirements of 252.211-7003, Item Unique Identification and Valuation .” This section establishes a recommended approach for requirements, polices, and...7003 Item Unique Identification and Valuation DoDI 4140.67 DoD Counterfeit Prevention Policy DoDI 5200.39 Critical Program Information (CPI...Deborah Valley MIT Fred Van Milligen JDSU Marvin VanderWeg marvin.vanderwag@spacex.c om SpaceX Gerrit


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Napalkov


    Full Text Available Stroke secondary prevention in internist practice is discussed in accordance with up to date guidelines. Modern pharmacotherapy includes antiaggregants or anticoagulants, statins, and antihypertensive drugs. The choice of drugs is mostly founded on the rules of evidence based medicine, which allow adjusting individual treatment depending on clinical conditions. The composition of perindopril and indapamide is a preferred nowadays combination of antihypertensive drugs.

  17. Towards prevention of ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq


    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all gynaecological cancers. To date, there is no reliable, specific screening procedure for detecting ovarian cancer. The risk factors of ovarian cancer include modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The main goal of the ovarian cancer prevention program is to significantly reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer and other cancers such as breast and/or peritoneal cancer. The application of non-surgical preventive approaches such as oral contraceptives, parity and breastfeeding has been shown to be highly protective against ovarian cancer development. Targeting inflammation has been also reported to be associated with a protective trend against ovarian cancer and can be achieved through either non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or lifestyle modifications or both. Lifestyle modification that includes regular exercise, healthy diet supplemented with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory elements reduces the risk of the disease even further. Surgical protective approaches include; tubal ligation, hysterectomy and prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the former is the most effective approach to protect against ovarian cancer. A better understanding of the risk factors of ovarian cancer and the current approaches to prevent it may increase the awareness and help to decrease the incidence of ovarian cancer, increase the five-year survival rate and decrease the mortality rate significantly in the general population especially among those at high risk for ovarian cancer. This review is an attempt to outline a potential program of ovarian cancer prevention and the potential challenges. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at

  18. Preventing Teen Pregnancy PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Teen births in the U.S. have declined, but still, more than 273,000 infants were born to teens ages 15 to 19 in 2013. Learn about the most effective types of birth control.  Created: 4/7/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/7/2015.

  19. Claim prevention at reactor facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, B.P.


    Why does a radiation worker bring a claim alleging bodily injury from radiation exposure? Natural cancer, fear of radiation induced cancer, financial gain, emotional distress and mental anguish are some reasons for workers' claims. In this paper the author describes what power reactor health physicists are doing to reduce the likelihood of claims by establishing programs which provide sound protection of workers, prevent radiological events, improve workers' knowledge of radiological conditions and provide guidance for radiological incident response

  20. Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Strategies


    Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna; Herman, William H.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Liew, Danny; Ademi, Zanfina; Magliano, Dianna J.


    OBJECTIVE Effective interventions to prevent, delay, or remit diabetes are currently available. However, their impact on the prevalence of diabetes at the population level is unknown. This study aimed to estimate the impact of a range of diabetes interventions on the population prevalence of diabetes for Australian adults between 2010 and 2025. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the Australian Diabetes Projection Model to estimate the impact of a population-wide strategy, high-risk preventio...

  1. The possible prevention of cancer


    Cairns, John


    Abstract The prevention of the infectious diseases was accomplished long before there was any understanding of the molecular biology of bacteria and viruses. As for cancer, the sharp drop in frequency of the once-commonest lethal cancer, stomach cancer, was achieved without any contribution from biological research, and the current drop in lung cancer is the end-result of the observation by epidemiologists that most lung cancer is caused by smoking. So the basis for both these triumphs was es...

  2. From Preventive to Permissive Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negativcorrelation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth cen...... shows that this result is not in fact inconsistent with a stylized Malthusian mechanism, and can be understood within the context of an increasing dominance of shocks to aggregate demand rather than to aggregate supply...

  3. From preventive to permissive checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisdorf, Jacob Louis; Sharp, Paul Richard


    The Malthusian "preventive check" mechanism has been well documented for pre-industrial England through evidence for a negative correlation between the marriage rate and the price of wheat. Other literature, however, speculates that the correlation was in fact positive from the early nineteenth c...... model shows that this result is not in fact inconsistent with a stylised Malthusian mechanism, and can be understood within the context of an increasing dominance of shocks to aggregate demand rather than to aggregate supply....

  4. Prevention Starts in Early Childhood (United States)

    Maciel, B. A. P. C.; Neto, R. P.; Hartmann, R. P.; Melo, M. O.; Gonçalves, M.; Marques, G.; Rocha, F. L.; Silveira, G. M.


    Unlike other natural hazards, earthquakes strike suddenly and without warning. Consequently, prevention is the best we can do to ensure safety. In spite of the large and medium earthquakes, some of them tsunamigenic, that affected Portugal in the past, the Portuguese society is little aware of the seismic risk and has not developed an adequate culture of prevention. This is most probably due to the long time interval between destructive earthquakes. Earthquakes can be a real danger to societies, damaging human-made structures and endangering human lives. Earthquakes can trigger additional emergencies, and individuals should also be prepared to contend with it. By planning and practicing what to do if an earthquake strikes, children and their family can learn to react correctly and automatically when the shaking begins. Risks can then be dramatically lessened if the population is educated on how to react before, during and after an earthquake. Children's knowledge is ever growing. They have a fundamental role in changing societies. By educating the children of today we are forming better adults of tomorrow. We are simultaneously passing this knowledge to their caregivers and families. Through demonstrating how fundamental it is to be conscious of those issues, not only will the children will be informed, but also their relatives will be aware of such risks. We use this approach to explain children how to assess risk in a broader sense. We teach them other preventive measures, namely those related with electricity, gas and the danger on non-potable water, essential topics on "what to do before an earthquake" but also on the daily routines. This presentation will highlight the importance of encouraging a culture of prevention. This project funded by the Portuguese "Ciência Viva" program, and is conducted by science high-school students, teachers and the parents association. Scientific support is given by the seismology research group at Instituto Dom Luíz.

  5. Skills methods to prevent smoking. (United States)

    Schinke, S P; Gilchrist, L D; Schilling, R F; Snow, W H; Bobo, J K


    School health educators have devoted much attention to cigarette smoking. Recent years have seen the testing of interventions to prevent smoking. To date, controlled studies have not evaluated the added value of skills methods for preventing smoking. This article describes such an evaluation with sixth-grade students from two schools. Subjects were pretested and randomly assigned to receive conventional health education methods or to receive skills intervention. Both conditions included films, peer testimonials, discussions, and homework. Health education condition subjects additionally participated in oral quizzes, games, and debates. Skills condition subjects additionally learned problem-solving, self-instruction, and interpersonal communication methods. At postintervention, skills condition subjects, more than health education condition subjects, had better scores on measures of smoking-related knowledge, attitudes, and intentions. In addition, reported cigarette use, validated by biochemical data collection, was lower in the skills condition than in the health education condition at all postintervention measurements, including a 24-month follow-up. The article discusses the strengths, limits, and implications of the study for other smoking prevention efforts in schools.

  6. Relapse prevention and smoking cessation. (United States)

    Davis, J R; Glaros, A G


    A multicomponent smoking relapse prevention treatment based on Marlatt and Gordon's (1980) model of the relapse process was developed and evaluated. Behavior-analytic methods were used to develop assessment instruments, training situations, and coping responses. The prevention components were presented in the context of a basic broad-spectrum stop-smoking program, and were compared with the basic program plus discussion control, and the basic program alone. Smoking-related dependent variables generally did not differ between groups at any time from pre-treatment to 12 month follow-up. Only the subjects in the relapse prevention condition improved problem-solving and social skills needed to cope with high-risk situations. These subjects also tended to take longer to relapse and smoke fewer cigarettes at the time of relapse. Subjects above the median level of competence on measures of social skill at post-treatment remained abstinent significantly longer. Maintenance of non-smoking was found to be related to the degree of competence with which individuals deal with high-risk situations. Results are discussed in relation to models of compliance with therapeutic regimens.

  7. Primary Prevention of Food Allergy. (United States)

    Greenhawt, Matthew J; Fleischer, David M


    Food allergy is estimated to affect approximately 8% of children in the USA. This is a disease without any known treatment or cure and, for some, a disease that can be quite severe, even life-threatening. While recent advances in potential treatment have made remarkable strides, with two food-targeted immunotherapy products now in phase III trials, perhaps the biggest gains in the field have come in the advent of potential preventative strategies to avoid the development of food allergy in high-risk individuals. There have been multiple, randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) performed in the past 5 years that have demonstrated significant risk reduction from early allergen introduction. These include two trials for early peanut introduction and five trials for early egg introduction in the first year of life. The results indicate that primary prevention of food allergy through early allergen introduction may represent a strategy that could potentially avert tens of thousands of children from becoming food allergic. In support of the data for peanut, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases recently sponsored an addendum to the 2010 food allergy guidelines, specifically recommending peanut be introduced in both high- and standard-risk infants to reduce the risk of developing peanut allergy. To date, no formal recommendations have been made for egg, however. This review will focus on the latest evidence supporting early introduction as a strategy to prevent food allergy, as well as on practical aspects for its successful implementation.

  8. [Medical errors: inevitable but preventable]. (United States)

    Giard, R W


    Medical errors are increasingly reported in the lay press. Studies have shown dramatic error rates of 10 percent or even higher. From a methodological point of view, studying the frequency and causes of medical errors is far from simple. Clinical decisions on diagnostic or therapeutic interventions are always taken within a clinical context. Reviewing outcomes of interventions without taking into account both the intentions and the arguments for a particular action will limit the conclusions from a study on the rate and preventability of errors. The interpretation of the preventability of medical errors is fraught with difficulties and probably highly subjective. Blaming the doctor personally does not do justice to the actual situation and especially the organisational framework. Attention for and improvement of the organisational aspects of error are far more important then litigating the person. To err is and will remain human and if we want to reduce the incidence of faults we must be able to learn from our mistakes. That requires an open attitude towards medical mistakes, a continuous effort in their detection, a sound analysis and, where feasible, the institution of preventive measures.

  9. Teen pregnancy prevention: current perspectives. (United States)

    Lavin, Claudia; Cox, Joanne E


    Teen pregnancy has been subject of public concern for many years. In the United States, despite nearly 2 decades of declining teen pregnancy and birth rates, the problem persists, with significant disparities present across racial groups and in state-specific rates. This review examines recent trends, pregnancy prevention initiatives and family planning policies that address the special needs of vulnerable youth. Unintended teen pregnancies impose potentially serious social and health burdens on teen parents and their children, as well as costs to society. Trends in teen pregnancy and birth rates show continued decline, but state and racial disparities have widened. Demographic factors and policy changes have contributed to these disparities. Research supports comprehensive pregnancy prevention initiatives that are multifaceted and promote consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for youth at risk of becoming pregnant. There is strong consensus that effective teen pregnancy prevention strategies should be multifaceted, focusing on delay of sexual activity especially in younger teens while promoting consistent and correct use of effective methods of contraception for those youth who are or plan to be sexually active. There is a need for further research to identify effective interventions for vulnerable populations.

  10. Hydrogen permeation preventive structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Nakahigashi, Shigeo; Imura, Masashi; Terasawa, Michitaka; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.


    Purpose: To provide highly practical wall materials for use in thermonuclear reactors capable of effectively preventing the permeation of hydrogen isotopes such as tritium thereby preventing the contamination of coolants. Constitution: Helium gas is injected into or at the surface of base materials comprising stainless steel plates to form a helium gas region. Alternatively, boron, nitrogen or the compound thereof having a greater helium forming nuclear reaction cross section than that of the base materials is mixed or injected into the base material to form the helium gas region through (n,α) reaction under neutron irradiation. Since the helium gas region constitutes a diffusion barrier for the tritium as the hydrogen isotope, the permeation amount of tritium is significantly suppressed. Helium gas bubbles or lattice defects are formed in the helium gas region under the neutron irradiation, by which the hydrogen isotope capturing effect can also be effected. In this way, permeation of the hydrogen isotope, contamination of the coolants, etc. can be prevented to provide great practical effectives. (Kawakami, Y.)

  11. Preventing Paraffin-Related Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehran Swart


    Full Text Available Paraffin (called kerosene in North America and other parts of the world is the most commonly used fuel in ‎non-electrified dwellings worldwide. It is especially popular in Africa and South Asia. Although paraffin ‎offers many advantages – especially its comparatively low cost to produce – it poses two major risks of ‎injury. First, paraffin poisoning is common, either through ingestion or through inhalation of smoke and ‎fumes. Second, paraffin is highly flammable, and poses fire risk through multiple causes. This commentary ‎discusses strategies to prevent paraffin-related injury. Prevention of paraffin-related injury must be through ‎multiple strategies, and should include policy-oriented change, changes to the safety of home environments, ‎and behavioral changes targeting how individuals store and use paraffin and paraffin appliances. We review ‎successful prevention strategies in each of these domains and discuss appropriate research and community ‎initiatives that should be implemented to improve paraffin safety among at-risk populations.‎

  12. HIV Prevention: Opportunities and Challenges. (United States)

    Marrazzo, Jeanne M

    Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-based regimens has been shown to be effective in preventing acquisition of HIV infection, with protective efficacy being dependent on adherence to treatment. Data from the PROUD (Preexposure Option for Reducing HIV in the UK) and IPERGAY (Action to Prevent Risk Exposure By and For Gay Men) studies, the later of which employed event-driven PrEP, showed a high rate of protective efficacy of PrEP with TDF and emtricitabine among men who have sex with men. Data from the ASPIRE (A Study to Prevent Infection With a Ring for Extended Use) study of a dapivirine vaginal ring showed a moderate rate of protective efficacy among women older than 21 years. Ongoing investigations are examining long-acting PrEP modalities and combination PrEP and contraception products. This article summarizes a presentation by Jeanne M. Marrazzo, MD, MPH, at the IAS-USA continuing education program, Improving the Management of HIV Disease, held in Washington, DC, in April 2016.

  13. Prevention of Periprosthetic Joint Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisina Shahi


    Full Text Available Prosthetic joint infection (PJI is a calamitous complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The reported incidence is low but it is probably underestimated due to the difficulty in diagnosis. PJI has challenged the orthopaedic community for several years and despite all the advances in this field, it is still a real concern with immense impact on patients, and the healthcare system. Eradication of infection can be very difficult. Therefore, prevention remains the ultimate goal. The medical community has executed many practices with the intention to prevent infection and treat it effectively when it encounters. Numerous factors can predispose patients to PJI. Identifying the host risk factors, patients’ health modification, proper wound care, and optimizing operative room environment remain some of the core fundamental steps that can help minimizing the overall incidence of infection. In this review we have summarized the effective prevention strategies along with the recommendations of a recent International Consensus Meeting on Surgical Site and Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

  14. New technology for accident prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byne, P. [Shiftwork Solutions, Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    This power point presentation examined the effects of fatigue in the workplace and presented 3 technologies designed to prevent or monitor fatigue. The relationship between mental fatigue, circadian rhythms and cognitive performance was explored. Details of vigilance related degradations in the workplace were presented, as well as data on fatigue-related accidents and a time-line of meter-reading errors. It was noted that the direct cause of the Exxon Valdez disaster was sleep deprivation. Fatigue related accidents during the Gulf War were reviewed. The effects of fatigue on workplace performance include impaired logical reasoning and decision-making; impaired vigilance and attention; slowed mental operations; loss of situational awareness; slowed reaction time; and short cuts and lapses in optional or self-paced behaviours. New technologies to prevent fatigue-related accidents include (1) the driver fatigue monitor, an infra-red camera and computer that tracks a driver's slow eye-lid closures to prevent fatigue related accidents; (2) a fatigue avoidance scheduling tool (FAST) which collects actigraphs of sleep activity; and (3) SAFTE, a sleep, activity, fatigue and effectiveness model. refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Preventing Online Victimization: College Students' Views on Intervention and Prevention. (United States)

    White, Wendi E; Carmody, Dianne


    Facebook, Twitter, and other social networking sites have changed the way we interact online. Technological advances have also facilitated the emergence of cyberstalking and online harassment, a growing issue on college campuses. This study utilizes focus group data to examine college students' experiences with online harassment and cyberstalking. Students voiced concerns with online tracking, falsifying identities, and harassment. They also noted that incoming first-year students and those negotiating some of their first romantic relationships are especially vulnerable. In addition, students were asked to propose appropriate prevention, education, and intervention strategies at the college level. Surprisingly, many students recommended offline programs to battle this online problem. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. [Infection prevention check-in and infection prevention check-out to prevent nosocomial infections]. (United States)

    Kramer, A; Schilling, M; Heidecke, C D


    A precondition for the success of the prevention of SSI is the complete realisation of the proven anti-infective measures in form of the multi-barrier strategy or the so-called bundles. In daily practice it is important to follow the fixed instructions, i. e., to ensure a high compliance. In much the same way as an airline pilot or co-pilot must examine whether all instruments are functioning before each take-off, a comparable procedure should be developed as a pre-operative control for the observance of all -defined measures by the responsible surgeon and for the post-operative supervision by the patient. For the control of the observance of the defined pre-operative prevention measures, a check list with 12 items was developed, named the "infection prevention check-in". The check list is authorised by the responsible surgeon be-fore each operation. For the surveillance of the general hygiene in the post-operative period the "infection prevention check-out" with 14 items was developed. Thereby the patient is able to evaluate the staff's compliance with the hygienic measures at the time of dismissal. With the introduction of the check-lists a simple means is given to involve both the team of the surgeons and the ward staff, together with the patient, into the infection prophylaxis even more effectively. In order to assess the success of those measures, the influence on the rate of SSI is to be determined prospectively. Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart, New York.

  17. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  18. Prevention of thromboembolism during radiosynoviorthesis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, M.; Ritter, B.


    The question of pharmacological prevention of thromboembolic disease during radiosynoviorthesis with concomitant immobilization of the treated joint is discussed by means of a recent case report. The possible advantages must be balanced against the potential risks of hemorrhage and heparine-induced thrombocytopenia in every patient. The intraarticular radionuclide therapy might be ranked as ''low risk'', comparable to small or medium interventions with minor trauma according to surgical and perioperative classifications, provided that there are no individual risk factors. With respect to the possible side effects, a general thromboembolic prophylaxis is not recommended in these patients. After radiosynoviorthesis of the knee and an additional joint of the same limb which requires an immobilization spanning both joints, a ''medium risk'' of thromboembolic disease must be assumed. In these cases, as well as with two or more predisposing risk factors, a pharmacological prevention of thromboembolism is mandatory. Ready-to-use syringes containing low-molecular-weight heparine are available for this purpose. Although serious side effects from LMW heparine are rare, monitoring of the thrombocyte counts prior to and 1-2 times during heparine application are advisable. Pharmacological prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease is strictly contraindicated in patients with acute bleeding, cerebral aneurysms and known aortic dissections. In case of concomitant treatment with NSAIDs, antagonists of platelet aggregation or valproic acid, the indication for heparine treatment should be discussed very seriously. Both the verbal and written information of each patient must be complete and precise with respect to possible advantages and potential risks of pharmacological prevention of thromboembolic disease. (orig.)

  19. Dental radiology in preventive dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallard, J S; Stallard, R E [Group Health Plan, Minnesota (USA)


    Preventive measures in dental radiography for radiation protection of both the patients and occupational personnel (and at the same time giving maximum diagnostic yield) are described. The amount of X-radiation to the patients can be reduced by filtration and collimation of X-ray beam, eliminating tube-head leakage and using lead impregnated aprons while radiographing children and female patients in their reproductive age. Exposure of the operator can be minimized by the proper choice of his position and distance from the radiation source and placing a barrier between him and the source.

  20. Management and Prevention of Dystocia. (United States)

    Funnell, Bethany J; Hilton, W Mark


    Dystocia is an inevitable challenge in the livestock industries, particularly with primiparous female animals. Prevention and appropriate management will decrease cow and calf morbidity and mortality, which will improve the economic status of the beef or dairy operation. Early identification and proper intervention improves outcomes, and the use of selection tools to decrease the potential for dystocia will have positive returns. Assisted reproductive technologies present a unique set of challenges to the calving process that both the producer and practitioner should be prepared to address. Published by Elsevier Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Baranov


    Full Text Available The article takes up priority directions of preventive paediatrics concerning health formation of rising generation, organization of health care for children, decrease of morbidity, disability and mortality rate. The authors mention the importance of vaccination in control of the most common infections, base the necessity of complex rehabilitation health care system organization for disable children and need of wide spreading of developed and used in practical Russian health care types and methods of prophylaxis of rare (orphan diseases. The ways of prophylaxis, maintenance, strengthening and recovery of children’s health are suggested in this article.

  2. The plutonium mountain: preventing diversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohling-Brown, Pamela.


    With continued arms-reduction between the USA and the former Soviet Union, surplus nuclear materials, from dismantled weapons, requires handling. A number of risks are identified including occupational safety for workers involved with handling nuclear materials, and environmental protection. Perhaps the most sinister is the extra security needed to ensure that these materials are not diverted to rogue states or terrorist groups, as materials are handled in a larger number of countries. In particular, the author addresses the problem of plutonium reserves, and discusses the role of reprocessing in preventing diversion. (UK)

  3. EPA Definition of Pollution Prevention (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Dec 1, 2009 ... PREVENTION AND SCREENING FOR DIABETES MELLITUS. *G.U. Eze ... Public Health is the science and art of preventing ... nutrition that targeted only healthy people with ... to such activities as Health education against.

  5. Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention (United States)

    ... submit" name="commit" type="submit" value="Submit" /> Brain Injury Safety Tips and Prevention Recommend on Facebook ... not grass or dirt. More HEADS UP Video: Brain Injury Safety and Prevention frame support disabled and/ ...

  6. Can Diabetes Be Prevented (For Kids) (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Can Diabetes Be Prevented? KidsHealth / For Kids / Can Diabetes Be ... be prevented. How? Let's find out. What Is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that affects how the ...

  7. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (United States)

    ... Health Literacy Health Care Quality Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This ... 16/2017 This site is coordinated by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office of ...

  8. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A


    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  9. Optimized NSAIDs for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A


    .... Also, how these agents prevent breastcancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can betaken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  10. Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Drug Abuse Prevention Starts with Parents Page Content Article Body ... for a time when drugs may be offered. Drug abuse prevention starts with parents learning how to talk ...

  11. Pubic "Crab" Lice Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Pubic ("crab") ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of pubic ("crab") lice: All sexual ...

  12. Heart Disease Prevention: Does Oral Health Matter? (United States)

    ... Will taking care of my teeth help prevent heart disease? Answers from Thomas J. Salinas, D.D.S. Taking ... teeth isn't a proven way to prevent heart disease. While there appears to be some connection between ...

  13. Global strategies to prevent chronic diseases1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    leading global causes of death and disability, are ... global strategies for the prevention and control of chronic ... Preventing Chronic Diseases: A Vital Investment, will ..... Millennium Development Goals for Health In Europe and Central Asia.

  14. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?


    Otunba, Ganiyu


    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  15. Youth, Terrorism and Education: Britain's Prevent Programme (United States)

    Thomas, Paul


    Since the 7/7 bombings of July 2005, Britain has experienced a domestic terror threat posed by a small minority of young Muslims. In response, Britain has initiated "Prevent," a preventative counter-terrorism programme. Building on previous, general critiques of Prevent, this article outlines and critically discusses the ways in which…

  16. Suicide Prevention with Diverse College Students (United States)

    Shadick, Richard; Akhter, Sarah


    Because of a dearth of experience in preventing suicide in diverse student populations, Pace University developed a multicultural suicide prevention kit. This article details the process used to develop the kit. The rationale for approaching suicide prevention in a culturally competent manner is presented, and methods used to gain culture-specific…

  17. Suicide and Its Prevention on College Campuses (United States)

    Keyes, Lee


    Suicide is a significant issue facing higher education institutions. Many campuses are involved in a variety of procedures, programs, and initiatives that seek to reduce or prevent suicide and the impact of suicide-related behavior. This article offers examples of campus prevention efforts, important resources on suicide prevention for college…

  18. Air Force Medical Service > Resources > Suicide Prevention (United States)

    Health Suicide Prevention ACE Questions Risk Factors Warning Signs Protective Factors Helping Resources Force Social Media Guide (PDF) USAF Social Media Sites Suicide Prevention Banner prevnext General . What do you need to know to effectively raise awareness about suicide prevention? Daily connections can

  19. 48 CFR 36.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.513 Accident prevention. (a) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-13, Accident Prevention, in... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 36...

  20. 48 CFR 636.513 - Accident prevention. (United States)


    ... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 636.513 Accident prevention. (a) In... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 636... contracting activities shall insert DOSAR 652.236-70, Accident Prevention, in lieu of FAR clause 52.236-13...

  1. Practical Strategies for Preventing Adolescent Suicide (United States)

    King, Keith


    A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention is needed to effectively address the problem of teen suicide. This article describes three levels of prevention (primary prevention, intervention, and postvention) and provides practical strategies that community, mental, and social health professionals can use within each level to help prevent…

  2. How Can You Prevent Rabies in Animals? (United States)

    ... Regulation of diagnostic test kits Prevention Prevention in animals Prevention in people Rabies in the U.S. and around the World ... United States? Veterinarians What to do with an animal that has bitten a person Caring for animals with potential exposure Clinical signs ...

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Teen Pregnancy (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Teen Pregnancy A Key Role for Health Care Providers Language: ... Battles: Teen Pregnancy Prevention Status Reports (PSRs): Teen Pregnancy FastStats: Teen Births Vital Signs – Preventing Teen Pregnancy [PODCAST – 1: ...

  4. A Framework for Engaging Parents in Prevention (United States)

    Randolph, Karen A.; Fincham, Frank; Radey, Melissa


    The literature on engaging families in prevention programs is informed by the Health Beliefs Model (HBM), Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), and Family Systems theory. Although useful, these frameworks have not facilitated the development of prevention-based practice strategies that recognize different levels of prevention (i.e., universal,…

  5. Perceived competency towards preventive dentistry among dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A previous study has shown that dental practitioners in Benghazi believed that the less prevention-oriented education system is one of the barriers to applying preventive dentistry. Objective: To assess attitudes and perceived competence of the dental graduates in Benghazi towards prevention and early ...

  6. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report. (United States)

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  7. Natural Products and Dietary Prevention of Cancer (United States)

    The concept of cancer prevention was first introduced in studies using the natural form of vitamin A in the prevention of epithelial cancers. Ever since, research on cancer prevention has grown and become a rather specialized field study. Cancer is a multistage process, and takes several years for...

  8. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  9. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.

  10. Orwellian risks in European conflict prevention discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, J.H.


    Conflict prevention has been the nomenclature of a non-military type of security policy, but that is changing. During the Cold War, the OSCE was a forum for conflict prevention at an interstate level. After the Cold War, OSCE conflict prevention turned to domestic affairs, comparable to NGO

  11. Tuberculosis Facts - You Can Prevent TB (United States)

    Tuberculosis (TB) Facts You Can Prevent TB What is TB? “TB” is short for a disease called tuberculosis. TB is spread through the air from one ... Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention Division of Tuberculosis Elimination TB Facts: You Can Prevent TB What ...

  12. 30 CFR 250.300 - Pollution prevention. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pollution prevention. 250.300 Section 250.300... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Pollution Prevention and Control § 250.300 Pollution prevention. (a... pollution occurs as a result of operations conducted by or on behalf of the lessee and the pollution damages...

  13. Crisis management and crisis prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallensteen, P.


    This paper reports that many proposals have come forth to ease the tension between East and West. Some focus on arms developments, others take up diplomatic issues. In addition, some have raised the question of crisis management and crisis prevention. Can crises be prevented even before they have taken place? The Palme Commission on Disarmament and Security suggested, in its 1982 report, ways of restraining superpower involvement in Third World conflicts. Such conflicts, it was argued, could escalate and ultimately result in nuclear confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Certainly, the commission also paid attention to conflicts over issues in Europe and to problems in Eastern or in Western Europe. However, the commission raised a question that lately has received increasing attention: the dangers of superpower confrontation over Third World issues. In his statement to the United Nations on 24 October 1985, President Regan pointed to the need for settling regional conflicts as they play a large role in building suspicions and tensions. Regan's initiative explicitly concerned Afghanistan, Cambodia, Ethiopia, Angola and Nicaragua. It included negotiations with the Soviet Union over Afghanistan, and, at a later stage, also over other issues. The goal, he the, was not to force a settlement on the parties. The initiative concerned issues that have for the American public, justified armaments and reduced Soviet credibility

  14. Preventing dance injuries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell JA


    Full Text Available Jeffrey A Russell Division of Athletic Training, School of Applied Health Sciences and Wellness, Ohio University, Athens, OH, USA Abstract: Dancers are clearly athletes in the degree to which sophisticated physical capacities are required to perform at a high level. The standard complement of athletic attributes – muscular strength and endurance, anaerobic and aerobic energy utilization, speed, agility, coordination, motor control, and psychological readiness – all are essential to dance performance. In dance, as in any athletic activity, injuries are prevalent. This paper presents the research background of dance injuries, characteristics that distinguish dance and dancers from traditional sports and athletes, and research-based perspectives into how dance injuries can be reduced or prevented, including the factors of physical training, nutrition and rest, flooring, dancing en pointe, and specialized health care access for dancers. The review concludes by offering five essential components for those involved with caring for dancers that, when properly applied, will assist them in decreasing the likelihood of dance-related injury and ensuring that dancers receive optimum attention from the health care profession: (1 screening; (2 physical training; (3 nutrition and rest; (4 specialized dance health care; and (5 becoming acquainted with the nature of dance and dancers. Keywords: dance, injuries, injury prevention, fitness, wellness, health

  15. Modeling accidents for prioritizing prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, A.R.; Ale, B.J.M.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Heijer, T.; Bellamy, L.J; Mud, M.L.; Roelen, A.; Baksteen, H.; Post, J.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bloemhoff, A.; Oh, J.I.H.


    The Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM) project in the Netherlands is developing a comprehensive set of scenarios to cover the full range of occupational accidents. The objective is to support companies in their risk analysis and prioritization of prevention. This paper describes how the modeling has developed through projects in the chemical industry, to this one in general industry and how this is planned to develop further in the future to model risk prevention in air transport. The core modeling technique is based on the bowtie, with addition of more explicit modeling of the barriers needed for risk control, the tasks needed to ensure provision, use, monitoring and maintenance of the barriers, and the management resources and tasks required to ensure that these barrier life cycle tasks are carried out effectively. The modeling is moving from a static notion of barriers which can fail, to seeing risk control dynamically as (fallible) means for staying within a safe envelope. The paper shows how concepts develop slowly over a series of projects as a core team works continuously together. It concludes with some results of the WORM project and some indications of how the modeling is raising fundamental questions about the conceptualization of system safety, which need future resolution

  16. Occupational ergonomics and injury prevention. (United States)

    Stobbe, T J


    Ergonomics is the study of people at work. The current focus is on the prevention of work-induced musculoskeletal injuries through the application of sound ergonomic principles. This chapter has briefly outlined ergonomics and its history, has described low back pain and upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders from an ergonomic perspective, and has discussed control and prevention approaches for a few scenarios. Ergonomic principles are based on a combination of science and engineering and a thorough understanding of human capabilities and limitations. When these principles are applied to the design of a job, task, process, or procedure, the incidence and severity of musculoskeletal injuries decrease. In many cases productivity and morale also improve. Workers are spared suffering, and employers are spared costs. It is hoped that this discussion will encourage more health, safety, and business professionals to learn about and apply ergonomics in their workplaces for the improvement of the worker, product, and business. Finally, many additional epidemiologic studies on the individual and joint effects of the CTD risk factors are needed. The knowledge gained from these studies will promote the more effective application of ergonomic principles to reduce worker suffering, improve products, and reduce costs.

  17. Disaster and hazard prevention research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    It is third project year on `Application of mobile diesel equipment in underground mines` for providing appropriate measures to improve underground working environment contaminated by the diesel exhaust pollutants. The result of disaster and hazard prevention research is as follows ; 1) There are three categories of possible disaster of hazard in workings where diesel equipment are operating : a) exhausting pollutants, b) mine fire, c) other causes. 2) Workings employing diesel equipment should be properly ventilated all the time to maintain the gas concentration bellow the permissible level. 3) Major cause of fire is known as the high engine temperature by heavy duty and rupture of hydraulic hoses or fuel pipes and fuel spillage. So, sound engine maintenance and workers` train is essential matter to prevent fire outbreak. 4) By simulating the expected mine fire, The proper measures can be provided in actual fire. 5) Fuel and other are recommended to be stored at surface and, when the storage installed in underground, all the safety regulation should be kept strictly. (author). 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Ionizing radiation and cancer prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.


    Ionizing radiation long has been recognized as a cause of cancer. Among environmental cancer risks, radiation in unique in the variety of organs and tissues that it can affect. Numerous epidemiological studies with good dosimetry provide the basis for cancer risk estimation, including quantitative information derived from observed dose-response relationships. The amount of cancer attributable to ionizing radiation is difficult to estimate, but numbers such as 1 to 3% have been suggested. Some radiation-induced cancers attributable to ionizing radiation is difficult to estimate, but numbers such as 1 to 3% have been suggested. Some radiation-induced cancers attributable to naturally occurring exposures, such as cosmic and terrestrial radiation, are not preventable. The major natural radiation exposure, radon, can often be reduced, especially in the home, but not entirely eliminated. Medical use of radiation constitutes the other main category of exposure, radon, can often be reduced, especially in the home, but not entirely eliminated. Medical use of radiation constitutes the other main category of exposure; because of the importance of its benefits to one's health, the appropriate prevention strategy is to simply work to minimize exposures. 9 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  19. Progesterone for preterm birth prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miha Lucovnik


    Full Text Available Background: Progesterone is important in maintaining pregnancy. Progesterone supplementation may reduce risk of preterm birth in certain populations of pregnant women. The objective of this review was to develop evidence-based clinical recommendation for progesterone treatment in the prevention of preterm birth.Methods: A search in the Medline database was performed using keywords: progesterone, pregnancy, preterm birth, preterm labour, preterm delivery, randomized trial, and randomized controlled trial. We only included studies of vaginal progesterone treatments for the prevention of preterm birth and excluded studies on 17-α-hydroksiprogesterone caproate.Results: We report findings from twelve randomized trials conducted since 2003. These trials differ regarding inclusion criteria, progesterone dose, vehicle used, and duration of treatment. Inclusion criteria were: short uterine cervix (two trials, history of previous preterm birth (two trials, signs and symptoms of preterm labour (three trials, twin pregnancies (three trials, and multiple risk factors (among these history of previous preterm birth was the most common (two trials. Six of these twelve trials showed a significant reduction in preterm birth in the progesterone groups.Conclusions: Based on current evidence we recommend treatment with 200 mg of micronized progesterone daily, administered vaginally, in pregnant women found to have a short cervix (≤ 25 mm at 19-24 weeks. The treatment should be continued until 37 weeks.

  20. Public attitudes towards prevention of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obesity prevention support in the German general public and to assess determinants of general prevention support as well as support of specific prevention measures. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone based representative German study (3,003 subjects (52.8% women, mean age 51.9, s.d.  = 18.0, range 18-97 years. Likert scale-based questions on general prevention support and support of specific measures were used. Furthermore willingness to take part in preventive programs and willingness to pay were assessed. Stigmatizing attitudes were assessed with the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Causation of obesity was differentiated in three dimensions (internal, e.g. lack of exercise; external, e.g. social surroundings; and genetic factors. RESULTS: Obesity prevention was perceived as possible (98.2%, however, almost exclusively lifestyle changes were named. Participants with higher stigmatizing attitudes were less likely to believe obesity prevention is possible. The majority of participants would take part in preventive programs (59.6% and pay at least partially themselves (86.9%. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions of preventive measures: promoting healthy eating, restrictive and financial, governmental prevention efforts. In regard to these, promoting healthy eating was the most supported measure. Higher age, female gender and external causation were associated with higher support for all three dimensions of preventive measures. Only for governmental regulation, higher age was associated with lower support. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention support in Germany is high. Structural prevention efforts are supported by the majority of the general public in Germany. The vast majority proclaims willingness to pay themselves for programs of weight gain prevention. This could be an indication of higher perceived self-responsibility in the German system but also for risen "fear of fat" in the population due

  1. Health professionals' attitudes towards suicide prevention initiatives. (United States)

    Brunero, S; Smith, J; Bates, E; Fairbrother, G


    Preventing suicide can depend upon the ability of a range of different health professionals to make accurate suicide risk assessments and treatment plans. The attitudes that clinicians hold towards suicide prevention initiatives may influence their suicide risk assessment and management skills. This study measures a group of non-mental health professionals' attitude towards suicide prevention initiatives. Health professionals that had attended suicide prevention education showed significantly more positive attitudes towards suicide prevention initiatives. The findings in this study further support the effectiveness of educating non-mental health professionals in suicide risk awareness and management.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper presents three operative models whose purpose is to improve the practice of preventive maintenance to a wide range of technical installations. Although the calculation criteria are different, the goal is the same: to determine the optimum time between two consecutive preventive interventions. The optimum criteria of these models are: - the maximum share of technical entity operating probabilities, in the case of the Ackoff - Sasieni [1] method; -the optimum time interval for preventive verification depending on the preventive-corrective maintenance costs imposed by the deciding factor, for the AsturioBaldin [2] model; - the minimum number of renewals – preventive and/or corrective maintenance operations [3

  3. Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Whitehead, J.K.; Encke, D.B. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dorsey, J.A. [Kaiser Engineers Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)


    This material was developed to assist engineers in incorporating pollution prevention into the design of new or modified facilities within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The material demonstrates how the design of a facility can affect the generation of waste throughout a facility`s entire life and it offers guidance on how to prevent the generation of waste during design. Contents include: Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design training course booklet; Pollution prevention design guideline; Orientation to pollution prevention for facility design lesson plan; Training participant survey and pretest; and Training facilitator`s guide and schedule.

  4. Environmental evaluation of municipal waste prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentil, Emmanuel C.; Gallo, Daniele; Christensen, Thomas H.


    Highlights: → Influence of prevention on waste management systems, excluding avoided production, is relatively minor. → Influence of prevention on overall supply chain, including avoided production is very significant. → Higher relative benefits of prevention are observed in waste management systems relying mainly on landfills. - Abstract: Waste prevention has been addressed in the literature in terms of the social and behavioural aspects, but very little quantitative assessment exists of the environmental benefits. Our study evaluates the environmental consequences of waste prevention on waste management systems and on the wider society, using life-cycle thinking. The partial prevention of unsolicited mail, beverage packaging and food waste is tested for a 'High-tech' waste management system relying on high energy and material recovery and for a 'Low-tech' waste management system with less recycling and relying on landfilling. Prevention of 13% of the waste mass entering the waste management system generates a reduction of loads and savings in the waste management system for the different impacts categories; 45% net reduction for nutrient enrichment and 12% reduction for global warming potential. When expanding our system and including avoided production incurred by the prevention measures, large savings are observed (15-fold improvement for nutrient enrichment and 2-fold for global warming potential). Prevention of food waste has the highest environmental impact saving. Prevention generates relatively higher overall relative benefit for 'Low-tech' systems depending on landfilling. The paper provides clear evidence of the environmental benefits of waste prevention and has specific relevance in climate change mitigation.

  5. Teratology: from science to birth defects prevention. (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A; Erickson, J David; Reef, Susan E; Ross, Danielle S


    One of the goals of birth defects research is to better understand risk or preventive factors for birth defects so that strategies for prevention can be developed. In this article, we have selected four areas of birth defects research that have led to the development of prevention strategies. These areas include rubella virus as a cause of congenital rubella syndrome, folic acid as a preventive factor for neural tube defects, cytomegalovirus infection as a cause of birth defects and developmental disabilities, and alcohol as a cause of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. For each of these areas, we review key clinical and research findings that led to the identification of the risk or preventive factor, milestones in the development of prevention strategies, and the progress made thus far toward prevention.

  6. Crucial elements in suicide prevention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete


    Ways of conceptualizing suicide prevention are reviewed briefly, and the preventive model: Universal, Selected, and Indicated prevention (USI) is chosen as the structure for the literature review, and the discussion. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward entire population......; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. On the universal prevention level, an overview of the literature is presented with focus...... on restrictions in firearms and carbon monoxide gas. At the selective prevention level, a review of risk of suicide in homelessness and schizophrenia and risk factors for suicide in schizophrenia is conducted and possible interventions are mentioned together with the evidence for their effect. Suicide rate...

  7. The challenge of defining standards of prevention in HIV prevention trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philpott, Sean; Heise, Lori; McGrory, Elizabeth; Paxton, Lynn; Hankins, Catherine; Alexander, Lorraine; Apuuli, David Kihumuro; Baeten, Jared; Birx, Deborah; de Bruyn, Guy; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Burns, David; Calazans, Gabriela; Campbell, James; Caswell, Georgina; Coutinho, Alex; Dawson, Liza; Dhai, Amaboo; Dube, Samukeliso; Ecuru, Julius; Essack, Zaynab; Farley, Timothy; Gafos, Mitzy; Irungu, Pauline; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kamali, Anatoli; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Kublin, James; Lohse, Nicolai; Lutalo, Tom; Macklin, Ruth; Mâsse, Benôıt; Mauney, Chris; McCormack, Sheena; Miller, Lori; Mfutso-Bengo, Joseph; Misra, Rajender; Muganwa, Margaret; Ndase, Patrick; Nel, Annalene; Nielsen, Leslie; Nkala, Busisiwe; O'Reilly, Kevin; Okware, Sam; Paicheler, Geneviève; Rees, Helen; Rerks-Ngarm, Supachai; Ridzon, Renee; Rosenberg, Zeda; Singh, Jerome


    As new HIV prevention tools are developed, researchers face a number of ethical and logistic questions about how and when to include novel HIV prevention strategies and tools in the standard prevention package of ongoing and future HIV prevention trials. Current Joint United Nations Programme on

  8. Preventive and Community Medicine in Primary Care. Teaching of Preventive Medicine Vol. 5. (United States)

    Barker, William H., Ed.

    This monograph is the result of a conference on the role of preventive and community medicine in primary medical care and education. The following six papers were presented at the conference: (1) Roles of Departments of Preventive Medicine; (2) Competency-Based Objectives in Preventive Medicine for the Family Physician; (3) Preventive Medicine…

  9. Can prevention classification be improved by considering the function of prevention? (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R


    Universal, selective and indicated forms of prevention have been adopted as improvements on previous notions of primary and secondary prevention. However, some conceptual confusion remains concerning the placing of environmental, community-based or mass media preventive interventions within this typology. It is suggested that a new dimension of functional types of prevention, namely environmental, developmental and informational prevention should be specified alongside the forms of prevention in a taxonomy matrix. The main advantage of this new taxonomy is that a matrix combining the form and function dimensions of prevention can be used to identify and map out prevention strategies, to consider where research evidence is present and where more is needed, and to evaluate the relative effectiveness of different categories and components of prevention for specific health and social issues. Such evaluations would provide empirical evidence as to whether the different categories of prevention are related to outcomes or processes of prevention in ways that suggest the value of the taxonomy for understanding and increasing the impact of prevention science. This new prevention taxonomy has been useful for conceptualising and planning prevention activities in a case study involving the Swedish National Institute for Public Health. Future work should assess (1) the robustness of this new taxonomy and (2) the theoretical and empirical basis for profiling prevention investments across the various forms and functions of prevention.

  10. 75 FR 45572 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Proposed... (United States)


    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Proposed... Federal Regulations is proposed to be amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 1. The... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans...

  11. 76 FR 72120 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance... (United States)


    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... rule will be effective November 22, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention... Regulations is amended as follows: PART 112--OIL POLLUTION PREVENTION 0 1. The authority citation for part 112...

  12. 75 FR 63093 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance... (United States)


    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... certain facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans... facilities must prepare or amend their Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Plans (or ``Plan...

  13. 76 FR 64296 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance... (United States)


    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... Federal Register. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention, Farms, Compliance date... proposing to amend the date by which farms must prepare or amend, and implement their Spill Prevention...

  14. 76 FR 64245 - Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule-Compliance... (United States)


    ... Oil Pollution Prevention; Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasure (SPCC) Rule--Compliance Date... burden to comply with the regulations contained in 40 CFR part 112--Oil Pollution Prevention. However, in... rule will be effective November 7, 2011. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 112 Oil pollution prevention...

  15. Fall prevention in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Mette; Hauge, Johnny


    that the number of hospitalization after a fall injury will become an even greater task for the Danish hospitals, The aim of the study was to show if there is a relationship between physically frail elderly nursing home resident’s subjective evaluation of fall-risk and an objective evaluation of their balance....... Further, to suggest tools for fall prevention in nursing home settings on the basis of the results of this study and the literature. A quantitative method inspired by the survey method was used to give an overview of fall patterns, subjective and objective evaluations of fallrisk. Participants were 16...... physically frail elderly nursing home residents from three different nursing homes. Measures: a small staff-questionnaire about incidences and places where the participants had falling-episodes during a 12 month period, The Falls Effi cacy Scale Swedish version (FES(S)) and Berg Balance Scale (BBS) Results...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The speech is a tool for accurate communication of ideas. When we talk about speech prevention as a practical realization of the language, we are referring to the fact that it should be comprised of the elements of the criteria as viewed from the perspective of the standards. This criteria, in the broad sense of the word, presupposes an exact realization of the thought expressed between the speaker and the recipient.The absence of this criterion catches the eye through the practical realization of the language and brings forth consequences, often hidden very deeply in the human psyche. Their outer manifestation already represents a delayed reaction of the social environment. The foundation for overcoming and standardization of this phenomenon must be the anatomy-physiological patterns of the body, accomplished through methods in concordance with the nature of the body.

  17. Preventative maintenance of straddle carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Li


    Objectives: The purpose of this industry-driven study is to model preventative maintenance (PM influences on the operational effectiveness of straddle carriers. Method: The study employs historical data consisting of 21 273 work orders covering a 27-month period. Two models are developed, both of which forecast influences of PM regimes for different types of carrier. Results: The findings of the study suggest that the reliability of the straddle fleet decreases with increased intervals of PM services. The study also finds that three factors – namely resources, number of new straddles, and the number of new lifting work centres – influence the performances of straddles. Conclusion: The authors argue that this collaborative research exercise makes a significant contribution to existing supply chain management literature, particularly in the area of operations efficiency. The study also serves as an avenue to enhance relevant management practice.

  18. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus


    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:26404370

  19. Preventive Ethics Through Expanding Education. (United States)

    Ho, Anita; MacDonald, Lisa Mei-Hwa; Unger, David


    Healthcare institutions have been making increasing efforts to standardize consultation methodology and to accredit both bioethics training programs and the consultants accordingly. The focus has traditionally been on the ethics consultation as the relevant unit of ethics intervention. Outcome measures are studied in relation to consultations, and the hidden assumption is that consultations are the preferred or best way to address day-to-day ethical dilemmas. Reflecting on the data from an internal quality improvement survey and the literature, we argue that having general ethics education as a key function of ethics services may be more important in meeting the contemporaneous needs of acute care settings. An expanded and varied ethics education, with attention to the time constraints of healthcare workers' schedules, was a key recommendation brought forward by survey respondents. Promoting ethical reflection and creating a culture of ethics may serve to prevent ethical dilemmas or mitigate their effects.

  20. Drug Development for Metastasis Prevention. (United States)

    Fontebasso, Yari; Dubinett, Steven M


    Metastatic disease is responsible for 90% of death from solid tumors. However, only a minority of metastasis-specific targets has been exploited therapeutically, and effective prevention and suppression of metastatic disease is still an elusive goal. In this review, we will first summarize the current state of knowledge about the molecular features of the disease, with particular focus on steps and targets potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention. We will then discuss the reasons underlying the paucity of metastatic drugs in the current oncological arsenal and potential ways to overcome this therapeutic gap. We reason that the discovery of novel promising targets, an increased understanding of the molecular features of the disease, the effect of disruptive technologies, and a shift in the current preclinical and clinical settings have the potential to create more successful drug development endeavors.

  1. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking]. (United States)

    Bessho, Fumio


    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  2. Organizational approaches to prevent bedsores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kapshytar


    Full Text Available Material and methods. The work is based on the prevention of bedsores in the surgical department of Zaporozhye PU «City Clinical Hospital № 2» and literature information. Results and discussion. Fundamental factor for the successful prevention of bedsores is to prevent compression of the skin and subcutaneous fat, which is achieved by changing the position of the patients in bed every 2 hours. Alternative ways are special plastic splint, bedsore mattresses with continuously changing pressure in individual sections, beds, cushions, pads and mattresses filled with water, air, foam, gel. When you are sick and always in bed doctors should not lift the head of the bed more than 45 degrees in order to reduce pressure on the sacrum. Also rubber rings are used which are placed under the sacrum, heel bumps and other bony prominences to avoid contact with the ground. In some cases, the position on the patient's abdomen is indicated. The changing over time pressure and vibration are provided by specific regulatory systems. The thesis of early activation of patients should be considered as one of the fundamental. Patient should be allowed to sit in the bed, stand up on his feet and walk around, firstly around the ward, as early as possible, consistent with the main and co-morbidities, the volume of surgery, age. The use of small laparotomic surgical approaches follows the principle of the earlier mobilization of the patient as well as possible, since it allows, for example, after cholecystectomy, to climb out of bed and walk around the ward after only 8-10 hours after surgery. Performing a small trocar access at endovideolaparascopic operation surgeons activate patients in the same terms. Doctors prescript daily massage of the possible locations of bedsores, as well as along the spine to improve the overall and local circulation of blood and regulation of the nervous tissue. Treatment of skin in places of possible formation of bedsores has its own

  3. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation (United States)

    Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong


    This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

  4. Prevention is better than cure

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    Throughout the year, members of the Safety Inspections Services section of HSE Unit devote themselves to ensuring the safety of all infrastructure and equipment that represent a specific hazard within the Organization. They regularly comb through all CERN's infrastructure to forestall any accidents and their potential impact, true to the adage that prevention is better than cure.   This site has a few (!) slight safety problems... Spot the mistakes! (Details of the game below.) Ensuring that an HV electrical installation is properly earthed, that a system under pressure has no weak points, that an item of lifting equipment can be used without risk, that safety valves operate at the right pressure threshold as well as checking that a heavy object that could inflict injury if it fell is not stored on top of a cupboard: such are the types of inspections performed by the Safety Inspection Service (DGS-SEE-SIS). "These checks reassure those in charge of equipment and infrastruct...

  5. Preventive vaccines for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The potential use of vaccines for the human papillomavirus (HPV in the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer is a possibility in the near future. Close to 20 genotypes of HPV, of the 75 that have been identified, infect the femine genital tract, but four subtypes (16, 18, 31 and 45 have been associated in close to 80% of cervical cancers. this article proposes that in order to design an effective prophylactic vaccine against HPV infection, an adequate immune response should be guaranteed through four goals; a activation of antigens present in the cell; b overcoming the host response and viral genetic variability in the T cell response; c generation of high levels of T and B memory cells; and d persistence of antigens.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.К. Matelo


    Full Text Available Biennial program of controlled tooth brushing performed econdary school among junior schoolchildren from Minsk secondary school № 166 proved to be highly effective. Decrease in caries increment has been shown on the average up to 50%. No credible differences between remineralising defluorinated toothpastes or pastes enriched with aminofluoride (F = 500 ppm and sodium fluoride  (F = 1000 ppm efficacy were found in this study. Credibility of the results was determined by comparison with similar study conducted on a bigger population of children. Though anti-caries effect of the same tooth-pastes in a bigger-scale study was lower — within 30%. Such difference can be explained by a different level of motivation and discipline of participants.Key words: schoolchildren, dental caries prevention, toothpastes. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 48–51

  7. Cardiovascular Prevention of Cognitive Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Monsuez


    Full Text Available Midlife cardiovascular risk factors, including diabetes, hypertension, dyslipemia, and an unhealthy lifestyle, have been linked to subsequent incidence, delay of onset, and progression rate of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Conversely, optimal treatment of cardiovascular risk factors prevents and slows down age-related cognitive disorders. The impact of antihypertensive therapy on cognitive outcome in patients with hypertension was assessed in large trials which demonstrated a reduction in progression of MRI white matter hyperintensities, in cognitive decline and in incidence of dementia. Large-scale database correlated statin use and reduction in the incidence of dementia, mainly in patients with documented atherosclerosis, but clinical trials failed to reach similar conclusions. Whether a multitargeted intervention would substantially improve protection, quality of life, and reduce medical cost expenditures in patients with lower risk profile has not been ascertained. This would require appropriately designed trials targeting large populations and focusing on cognitive decline as a primary outcome endpoint.

  8. Air pollution: impact and prevention. (United States)

    Sierra-Vargas, Martha Patricia; Teran, Luis M


    Air pollution is becoming a major health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. In support of this observation, the World Health Organization estimates that every year, 2.4 million people die because of the effects of air pollution on health. Mitigation strategies such as changes in diesel engine technology could result in fewer premature mortalities, as suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This review: (i) discusses the impact of air pollution on respiratory disease; (ii) provides evidence that reducing air pollution may have a positive impact on the prevention of disease; and (iii) demonstrates the impact concerted polices may have on population health when governments take actions to reduce air pollution. © 2012 The Authors. Respirology © 2012 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Antibiotic prevention of postcataract endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Flesner, Per; Andresen, Jens


    Endophthalmitis is one of the most feared complications after cataract surgery. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effect of intracameral and topical antibiotics on the prevention of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. A systematic literature review in the MEDLINE, CINAHL......, Cochrane Library and EMBASE databases revealed one randomized trial and 17 observational studies concerning the prophylactic effect of intracameral antibiotic administration on the rate of endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. The effect of topical antibiotics on endophthalmitis rate was reported by one...... with the use of intracameral antibiotic administration of cefazolin, cefuroxime and moxifloxacin, whereas no effect was found with the use of topical antibiotics or intracameral vancomycin. Endophthalmitis occurred on average in one of 2855 surgeries when intracameral antibiotics were used compared to one...

  10. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars; Faelth, Billy; Jacobsson, Lars; Harrstroem, Johan; Berglund, Johan


    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  11. Childhood Leukemia and Primary Prevention (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.


    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co

  12. Counterforce applied to prevent spalling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glamheden, Rune; Bergkvist, Lars (Golder Associates AB (Sweden)); Faelth, Billy (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)); Jacobsson, Lars (SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Boraas (Sweden)); Harrstroem, Johan (Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)); Berglund, Johan (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden))


    The field experiment within CAPS (Counterforce Applied to Prevent Spalling) was initiated to determine if the application of dry bentonite pellets is sufficient to suppress thermally-induced spalling in KBS-3 deposition holes. The experience gained from Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment, conducted between 2002 and 2006, indicated that spalling could be controlled by the application of a small confining pressure in the deposition holes. The CAPS field experiment that included four pairs of boreholes with a diameter of approximately 0.5 m, was carried out as a series of demonstration experiments in the TASQ-tunnel. The first and second heating tests were performed in open holes, without any confining pressure on the borehole wall and the third and fourth heating tests with a confining pressure created by expanded clay pellets (LECA). The first heating test was initiated at the end of August 2008 and the final test was finished at the end of May 2009. The trials suggest that the small confining pressure offered by the LECA pellets was adequate to control spalling and prevent the formation of a highly conductive zone of fractured rock in the 500-mm-diameter holes. It is recommended that a full-scale test be carried out to assess if the findings are applicable to 1,750-mm-diameter deposition holes. Should the full scale tests support the findings from these initial trials, filling the gap between the bentonite blocks and rock wall with dry bentonite pellets will provide a viable engineered solution for controlling the effects of thermally induced spalling in the KBS-3 deposition holes

  13. Fall prevention in the elderly. (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò


    Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment, supported by a

  14. Narrative Means to Preventative Ends: A Narrative Engagement Framework for Designing Prevention Interventions (United States)

    Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.


    This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613

  15. Development and feasibility of falls prevention advice. (United States)

    van Harten-Krouwel, Diny; Schuurmans, Marieke; Emmelot-Vonk, Mariëlle; Pel-Littel, Ruth


    This study examined the feasibility of nursing falls prevention advice and factors influencing feasibility. The frequency and seriousness of falls in hospitalised patients are underestimated, and such falls should be preventable because of the presence of professionals. A best practice-based falls prevention advice was developed to decrease the incidence of secondary falls and the incidence of primary falls in the long term and to increase the knowledge of nurses about falls prevention and the seriousness of falls. A descriptive, explorative study. Feasibility of the advice for 30 patients was assessed 82 times (theoretically, three times per patient) by observation and by interviewing nurses, patients and their families. The falls prevention advice was used in 48% of the assessments. There was a difference in use between interventions. Interventions that required more knowledge, communication and extra activities were implemented the least. The absence of materials and knowledge about falls prevention were important determinants of the non-implementation of certain interventions. Before falls prevention advice is implemented, it is important to educate nurses about falls, communication skills and implementation of the advice. The falls prevention advice might help nurses to prevent falls and increase their knowledge about falls prevention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. (United States)

    Milligan, Rachael; Paul, Mical; Richardson, Marty; Neuberger, Ami


    Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever continue to be important causes of illness and death, particularly among children and adolescents in south-central and southeast Asia. Two typhoid vaccines are widely available, Ty21a (oral) and Vi polysaccharide (parenteral). Newer typhoid conjugate vaccines are at varying stages of development and use. The World Health Organization has recently recommended a Vi tetanus toxoid (Vi-TT) conjugate vaccine, Typbar-TCV, as the preferred vaccine for all ages. To assess the effects of vaccines for preventing typhoid fever. In February 2018, we searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, and mRCT. We also searched the reference lists of all included trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing typhoid fever vaccines with other typhoid fever vaccines or with an inactive agent (placebo or vaccine for a different disease) in adults and children. Human challenge studies were not eligible. Two review authors independently applied inclusion criteria and extracted data, and assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We computed vaccine efficacy per year of follow-up and cumulative three-year efficacy, stratifying for vaccine type and dose. The outcome addressed was typhoid fever, defined as isolation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in blood. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and efficacy (1 - RR as a percentage) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 18 RCTs contributed to the quantitative analysis in this review: 13 evaluated efficacy (Ty21a: 5 trials; Vi polysaccharide: 6 trials; Vi-rEPA: 1 trial; Vi-TT: 1 trial), and 9 reported on adverse events. All trials but one took place in typhoid-endemic countries. There was no information on vaccination in adults aged over 55 years of age, pregnant women, or travellers. Only one trial included data on children under two years of age.Ty21a vaccine (oral vaccine, three doses

  17. Preventing the Spread of Illness in Child Care or School (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  18. How to Prevent Tooth Decay in Your Baby (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  19. Drinks to Prevent Dehydration in a Vomiting Child (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  20. Probiotics for preventing gestational diabetes. (United States)

    Barrett, Helen L; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Conwell, Louise S; Callaway, Leonie K


    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a range of adverse pregnancy outcomes for mother and infant. The prevention of GDM using lifestyle interventions has proven difficult. The gut microbiome (the composite of bacteria present in the intestines) influences host inflammatory pathways, glucose and lipid metabolism and, in other settings, alteration of the gut microbiome has been shown to impact on these host responses. Probiotics are one way of altering the gut microbiome but little is known about their use in influencing the metabolic environment of pregnancy. To assess the effects of probiotic supplementation when compared with other methods for the prevention of GDM. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2013) and reference lists of the articles of retrieved studies. Randomised and cluster-randomised trials comparing the use of probiotic supplementation with other methods for the prevention of the development of GDM. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion but none were identified. Quasi-randomised and cross-over design studies are not eligible for inclusion in this review. Studies presented only as abstracts with no subsequent full report of study results would also have been excluded. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included study. Data were checked for accuracy. Eleven reports (relating to five possible trials) were found. We included one study (six trial reports) involving 256 women. Four other studies are ongoing.The included trial consisted of three treatment arms: probiotic with dietary intervention, placebo and dietary intervention, and dietary intervention alone; it was at a low risk of bias. The study reported primary outcomes of a reduction in the rate of gestational diabetes mellitus (risk ratio (RR) 0.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.70), with no statistical difference in the rates of

  1. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan


    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  2. Workplace prevention and promotion strategies. (United States)

    Vézina, Michel; Bourbonnais, Renée; Brisson, Chantal; Trudel, Louis


    Psychosocial factors refer to all organizational factors and interpersonal relationships in the workplace that may affect the health of the workers. Currently, two psychosocial risk models are universally recognized for producing solid scientific knowledge regarding the vital link between social or psychological phenomena at work and the development of several diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases or depression. The first is the "job demand-contro-support" model, which was defined by Karasek and to which the concept of social support has been added; the second is the "effort/reward imbalance" model defined by Siegrist. The public health perspective calls for theoretical models based on certain psychosocial attributes of the work environment for which there is empirical evidence of their pathogenic potential for exposed workers. Not only do these models reduce the complexity of the psychosocial reality of the work to components that are significant in terms of health risks, but they also facilitate the development and implementation of workplace interventions. Psychosocial risk intervention strategies currently implemented by companies are predominantly individual-oriented and aim chiefly at reducing the effects of stressful work situations by improving individual ability to adapt to the situation and manage stress. Like personal protection equipment for exposure to physical or chemical risks, these secondary prevention measures are commendable but insufficient, because they aim to reduce only the symptoms and not the cause of problems. Any intervention program for these risks should necessarily include a primary prevention component with a view to eliminating, or at least reducing, the psychosocial pathogenic agents in the workplace. Several authors have suggested that well-structured organizational approaches are most effective and should generate more important, longer-lasting effects than individual approaches. However, the evidence should be strengthened by

  3. Innovative agents in cancer prevention. (United States)

    Manson, Margaret M; Farmer, Peter B; Gescher, Andreas; Steward, William P


    There are many facets to cancer prevention: a good diet, weight control and physical activity, a healthy environment, avoidance of carcinogens such as those in tobacco smoke, and screening of populations at risk to allow early detection. But there is also the possibility of using drugs or naturally occurring compounds to prevent initiation of, or to suppress, tumour growth. Only a few such agents have been used to date in the clinic with any success, and these include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for colon, finasteride for prostate and tamoxifen or raloxifene for breast tumours. An ideal chemopreventive agent would restore normal growth control to a preneoplastic or cancerous cell population by modifying aberrant signalling pathways or inducing apoptosis (or both) in cells beyond repair. Characteristics for such an agent include selectivity for damaged or transformed cells, good bioavailability and more than one mechanism of action to foil redundancy or crosstalk in signalling pathways. As more research effort is being targeted towards this area, the distinction between chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive agents is blurring. Chemotherapeutic drugs are now being designed to target over- or under-active signalling molecules within cancer cells, a philosophy which is just as relevant in chemoprevention. Development of dietary agents is particularly attractive because of our long-standing exposure to them, their relative lack of toxicity, and encouraging indications from epidemiology. The carcinogenic process relies on the cell's ability to proliferate abnormally, evade apoptosis, induce angiogenesis and metastasise to distant sites. In vitro studies with a number of different diet-derived compounds suggest that there are molecules capable of modulating each of these aspects of tumour growth. However, on the negative side many of them have rather poor bioavailability. The challenge is to uncover their multiple mechanisms of action in order to predict their

  4. Fall prevention in the elderly (United States)

    Ungar, Andrea; Rafanelli, Martina; Iacomelli, Iacopo; Brunetti, Maria Angela; Ceccofiglio, Alice; Tesi, Francesca; Marchionni, Niccolò


    Summary Falls are frequent in the elderly and affect mortality, morbidity, loss of functional capacity and institutionalization. In the older patient the incidence of falls can sometimes be underestimated, even in the absence of a clear cognitive impairment, because it is often difficult to reconstruct the dynamics. It is quite common that forms due to syncope are associated with retrograde amnesia and in 40 to 60% of the cases falls happen in the absence of witnesses. The pathogenesis of falls is often multifactorial, due to physiological age-related changes or more properly pathological factors, or due to the environment. The identification of risk factors is essential in the planning of preventive measures. Syncope is one of major causes of falls. About 20% of cardiovascular syncope in patients older than 70 appears as a fall and more than 20% of older people with Carotid Sinus Syndrome complain of falls as well as syncope. These data clearly state that older patients with history of falls should undergo a cardiovascular and neuroautonomic assessment besides the survey of other risk factors. Multifactorial assessment requires a synergy of various specialists. The geriatrician coordinates the multidisciplinary intervention in order to make the most effective evaluation of the risk of falling, searching for all predisposing factors, aiming towards a program of prevention. In clear pathological conditions it is possible to enact a specific treatment. Particular attention must indeed be paid to the re-evaluation of drug therapy, with dose adjustments or withdrawal especially for antihypertensive, diuretics and benzodiazepines. The Guidelines of the American Geriatrics Society recommend modification of environmental hazards, training paths, hip protectors and appropriate use of support tools (sticks, walkers), which can be effective elements of a multifactorial intervention program. Balance exercises are also recommended. In conclusion, an initial assessment

  5. Prepartum anaemia: prevention and treatment. (United States)

    Milman, Nils


    This review focuses on the occurrence, prevention and treatment of anaemia during pregnancy in Western societies. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most prevalent deficiency disorder and the most frequent form of anaemia in pregnant women. Minor causes of anaemia are folate and vitamin B12 deficiency, haemoglobinopathy and haemolytic anaemia. Anaemia is defined as haemoglobin of pregnancy. The prevalence of prepartum anaemia in the third trimester ranges 14-52% in women taking placebo and 0-25% in women taking iron supplements, dependent on the doses of iron. In studies incorporating serum ferritin, the frequency of IDA in placebo-treated women ranges 12-17% and in iron-supplemented women 0-3%. Requirements for absorbed iron increase during pregnancy from 0.8 mg/day in the first trimester to 7.5 mg/day in the third trimester, on the average approximately 4.4 mg/day, and dietary measures are inadequate to reduce the frequency of prepartum IDA. However, IDA is efficiently prevented by oral iron supplements in doses of 30-40 mg ferrous iron taken between meals from early pregnancy to delivery. Treatment of IDA should aim at replenishing body iron deficits by oral and/or intravenous administration of iron. In women with slight to moderate IDA, i.e. haemoglobin of 90-105 g/L, treatment with oral ferrous iron of approximately 100 mg/day between meals is the therapeutic option in the first and second trimester; haemoglobin should be checked after 2 weeks and provided an increase of >or=10 g/L, oral iron therapy has proved effective and should continue. Treatment with intravenous iron is superior to oral iron with respect to the haematological response. Intravenous iron is considered safe in the second and third trimester, while there is little experience in the first trimester. Intravenous iron of 600-1,200 mg should be considered: (1) as second option if oral iron fails to increase haemoglobin within 2 weeks; (2) as first option at profound IDA, i.e. haemoglobin of

  6. Mitochondrial clearance by the STK38 kinase supports oncogenic Ras-induced cell transformation (United States)

    Bettoun, Audrey; Surdez, Didier; Vallerand, David; Gundogdu, Ramazan; Sharif, Ahmad A.D.; Gomez, Marta; Cascone, Ilaria; Meunier, Brigitte; White, Michael A.; Codogno, Patrice; Parrini, Maria Carla; Camonis, Jacques H.; Hergovich, Alexander


    Oncogenic Ras signalling occurs frequently in many human cancers. However, no effective targeted therapies are currently available to treat patients suffering from Ras-driven tumours. Therefore, it is imperative to identify downstream effectors of Ras signalling that potentially represent promising new therapeutic options. Particularly, considering that autophagy inhibition can impair the survival of Ras-transformed cells in tissue culture and mouse models, an understanding of factors regulating the balance between autophagy and apoptosis in Ras-transformed human cells is needed. Here, we report critical roles of the STK38 protein kinase in oncogenic Ras transformation. STK38 knockdown impaired anoikis resistance, anchorage-independent soft agar growth, and in vivo xenograft growth of Ras-transformed human cells. Mechanistically, STK38 supports Ras-driven transformation through promoting detachment-induced autophagy. Even more importantly, upon cell detachment STK38 is required to sustain the removal of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy, a selective autophagic process, to prevent excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production that can negatively affect cancer cell survival. Significantly, knockdown of PINK1 or Parkin, two positive regulators of mitophagy, also impaired anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth of Ras-transformed human cells, while knockdown of USP30, a negative regulator of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, restored anchorage-independent growth of STK38-depleted Ras-transformed human cells. Therefore, our findings collectively reveal novel molecular players that determine whether Ras-transformed human cells die or survive upon cell detachment, which potentially could be exploited for the development of novel strategies to target Ras-transformed cells. PMID:27283898

  7. Primary prevention of colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L


    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and postmenopausal hormones for women are associated with substantial reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

  8. Prevention and Treatment of Drowning. (United States)

    Mott, Timothy F; Latimer, Kelly M


    Nearly 4,000 drowning deaths occur annually in the United States, with drowning representing the most common injury-related cause of death in children one to four years of age. Drowning is a process that runs the spectrum from brief entry of liquid into the airways with subsequent clearance and only minor temporary injury, to the prolonged presence of fluid in the lungs leading to lung dysfunction, hypoxia, neurologic and cardiac abnormalities, and death. The World Health Organization has defined drowning as "the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid." Terms such as near, wet, dry, passive, active, secondary, and silent drowning should no longer be used because they are confusing and hinder proper categorization and management. The American Heart Association's Revised Utstein Drowning Form and treatment guidelines are important in guiding care, disposition, and prognosis. Prompt resuscitation at the scene after a shorter duration of submersion is associated with better outcomes. Because cardiac arrhythmias due to drowning are almost exclusively caused by hypoxia, the resuscitation order prioritizes airway and breathing before compressions. Prevention remains the best treatment. Education, swimming and water safety lessons, and proper pool fencing are the interventions with the highest level of current evidence, especially in children two to four years of age. Alcohol use during water activities dramatically increases the risk of drowning; therefore, abstinence is recommended for all participants and supervisors.

  9. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention. (United States)

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C


    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. VA Suicide Prevention Applications Network (United States)

    Stephens, Brady; Morley, Sybil; Thompson, Caitlin; Kemp, Janet; Bossarte, Robert M.


    Objectives: The US Department of Veterans Affairs’ Suicide Prevention Applications Network (SPAN) is a national system for suicide event tracking and case management. The objective of this study was to assess data on suicide attempts among people using Veterans Health Administration (VHA) services. Methods: We assessed the degree of data overlap on suicide attempters reported in SPAN and the VHA’s medical records from October 1, 2010, to September 30, 2014—overall, by year, and by region. Data on suicide attempters in the VHA’s medical records consisted of diagnoses documented with E95 codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision. Results: Of 50 518 VHA patients who attempted suicide during the 4-year study period, data on fewer than half (41%) were reported in both SPAN and the medical records; nearly 65% of patients whose suicide attempt was recorded in SPAN had no data on attempted suicide in the VHA’s medical records. Conclusion: Evaluation of administrative data suggests that use of SPAN substantially increases the collection of data on suicide attempters as compared with the use of medical records alone, but neither SPAN nor the VHA’s medical records identify all suicide attempters. Further research is needed to better understand the strengths and limitations of both systems and how to best combine information across systems. PMID:28123228

  11. [Therapy and prevention of hyperthyroidism]. (United States)

    Woenckhaus, U; Girlich, C


    A decreased serum TSH level can be observed in more than 10% of the German population. Although treatment is not mandatory in each of these cases patients with an unrecognized autonomous thyroid dysfunction have a substantial risk of developing thyrotoxicosis when exposed to large amounts of iodine. Thionamid drugs in combination with potassium perchlorate are given for preventive and therapeutic reasons until definitive thyroidectomy or radioiodine therapy is performed. In younger patients Graves' disease is the main cause of hyperthyroidism. Medical treatment with antithyroid drugs is established to render patients euthyroid. Having decreased the dose as far as possible, drug therapy is continued for 12-18 months to achieve a maximum rate of permanent remission. Ongoing clinical research aims to characterize clinical or laboratory predictors associated with a high risk of relapse after medication is stopped. Selenium supplementation is proposed to be a new therapeutic approach for autoimmune thyroid disease. It is already used quite liberally although data of powerful randomized trials are not available.

  12. Preventing thefts and wilful damage

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit


    The best means of preventing crime is to make it difficult to commit. As the summer holidays begin, in everybody’s interest we advise the following precautions: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS Never leave money or objects of value unattended in offices or changing rooms, even locked. Keys and spares must always be taken away or kept in a safe place. Supposedly “safe” hiding places such as drawers, even locked, metal boxes and flower pots, are well known to burglars and should be avoided. Change lock codes regularly. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS Offices, workshops and meeting-rooms, etc. should be locked when vacated. Care should also be taken that windows are properly shut, especially if they are easily accessible from the outside. 3. VANDALISM If you witness an act of vandalism of public or private property, please report all the facts and your observations immediately to the CERN Fire Brigade (74444). 4. REPORTING INCIDENTS Every misdemeanour solved increases the chances of others be...

  13. Prevention of ionizing radiation injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masashi


    In the first age (1895 - 1940), radiation injuries of skin (75% of death caused by RI injury) and chronic radiation injury of heamatopoietic organs (almost remains) appeared in radiologist and people engaged in RI treatment for medical use, and Ra poisoning appeared in workers who treated aluminous paint. As prevention of radiation injuries in this age, measurement of radiation dose, shelter effect and finding of injuries were studied, and internal radiation allowed level was determined. From 1942 to 1960, acute RI injuries due to exposure of large amount of RI by an accident and secondary leukemia appeared to workers of atomic-bomb industries and researcher of atomic energy. U and Pu poisoning accompanied with development of nuclear fuel industry appeared. This expanded industrial hygiene of this age together with epidemiological data of atomic-bomb exposed people. From 1960 onward, it is an age of industry for peaceful use of atomic energy, and manifestation of various kinds of delayed injuries, especially malignant tumor due to RI exposure, is recognized. Labourer has many opportunity to encounter dangerously with pollution and injuries by RI, and regional examination of RI enterprise and countermeasure to decrease exposure dose were mentioned as future theme from a viewpoint of exposure dose of nation. (Kanao, N.)

  14. Matriarchal model for cardiovascular prevention. (United States)

    Wild, R A; Taylor, E L; Knehans, A; Cleaver, V


    Family patterns of cardiovascular risk behavior are well documented. Significant correlation exists between spouse-spouse, parent-child, and sibling-sibling for cholesterol, high- and low-density lipoprotein, diet, physical activity, and smoking. Family/environmental influences are important in how/if risk and/or preventive behavior is learned. The family matriarch commonly functions as gatekeeper, controlling eating behavior, access to health care, and other patterns. She often acts as menu planner, shopper, and preparer of meals for all family members. She provides information and verbal reinforcement about food and is a powerful model concerning dietary practices. In fact, the mother, as head of household in most single-parent families, may be the only adult model for many children. Because relevance and credibility are the most important characteristics of a behavioral model, parents (especially mothers) are strong models for observational learning by children. Risk factor information and risk reduction activities adopted by the matriarch can be generalized to the entire family if she learns the skills to act as a change agent. Initiation of this process of education and training the matriarch lies with primary care providers for women (Ob-Gyns see most women). By teaching risk reduction to the matriarch as a component of primary care, physician interaction can have a rippling effect.

  15. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet


    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  16. Menopause: Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo


    Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.

  17. Problems and perspectives of domestic violence prevention


    Kasperskis, Darius


    This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...

  18. Preventing violence against women and girls


    Flood, Michael


    Efforts to prevent and reduce men's violence against women increasingly include an emphasis on engaging men and boys in primary prevention. Boys and men have been addressed as participants in education programs in schools and universities, as community leaders, as activists, and as policy makers. There is a substantial body of evidence that violence prevention interventions focused on men and boys, if done well, can change the attitudes and behaviours associated with perpetration. Efforts to ...

  19. Development of preventive maintenance procedures and schedules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, H.V.; Hammel, J.


    An outline of the procedures and schedules developed for preventive maintenance in power stations within the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk (RWE) is presented. After an introduction of maintenance in general the different kinds of preventive maintenance activities are described. This includes also the prerequisite identification systems. The aims of preventive maintenance and the measures are explained that have to be taken, if these aims are to be achieved. A number of examples from actual practice are cited. (orig.) [de

  20. Prevention for Pediatric and Adolescent Migraine. (United States)

    Hickman, Carolyn; Lewis, Kara Stuart; Little, Robert; Rastogi, Reena Gogia; Yonker, Marcy


    Children and adolescents can experience significant disability from frequent migraine. A number of tools have been developed to help quantify the impact of migraine in this population. Many preventative medications used in adults are routinely used to prevent migraines in children, although there has been less rigorous study. This article reviews the indications and evidence for the use of migraine preventatives, such as antidepressants, antihypertensives, anticonvulsants, antihistamines, and botulinum toxin, in this population. © 2015 American Headache Society.

  1. Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction Kinetics (United States)


    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09/23/15 - 04/22/16 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Preventing Corrosion by Controlling Cathodic Reaction...Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Progress Report for Period: 1 SEP 2015-31 MAR 2016 John Keith Department of...25 March 2016 Preventing corrosion by controlling cathodic reaction kinetics Annual Summary Report: FY16 PI: John Keith, 412-624-7016,jakeith

  2. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education


    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather


    During 2012, the USDHHS?s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center esta...

  3. Evolution and the Prevention of Violent Crime


    Roach, Jason; Pease, Ken


    This paper suggests how violence prevention can be better informed by embracing an evolutionary approach to understanding and preventing violent crime. Here, ethical crime control through an evolutionary lens is consid-ered and speculation is offered as to what an evolution-evidenced crime reduction programme might look like. The paper begins with an outline of the current landscape of crime prevention scholarship within criminology and presents some possible points of contact with actual or ...

  4. Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement (United States)


    AD-A271 117 fDATE August 30. 1977 ASD (ORA&L) Department of Defense Instruction SUBJECT: Environmental Pollution Prevention, Control and Abatement...Ensure that any funds appropriated and apportioned for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution are not used for any other...77 References (a) Executive Order 11752, "Prevention, Control, and Abatement of Environmental Pollution at Federal Facilities," December 19, 1973 (b

  5. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires. (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa


    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Preventing Illegitimate Teenage Pregnancy Through Systems Interaction (United States)

    Jarvis, D. L.


    Social workers, Cooperating with doctors, nurses, hospital social workers and educators in other helping systems, conducted a demonstration project described here, aimed at preventing illegitimate teenage pregnancy. (Author)

  7. For establishment on nuclear disaster prevention system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    For increasing requirement of peoples for review of nuclear disaster countermeasure at a chance of the JCO critical accident, the Japanese Government newly established the 'Special Measure Act on Nuclear Disaster Countermeasure', which was enacted on July 16, 2000. The nuclear business relatives such as electric power company and so forth established the Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives' after their consultation with local communities at their construction, under their co-operation. Simultaneously, the electric power industry field decided to intend to provide some sufficient countermeasures to incidental formation of nuclear accident such as start of the Co-operative agreement on nuclear disaster prevention among the nuclear business relatives' and so forth. Here were described on nuclear safety and disaster prevention, nuclear disaster prevention systems at the electric power industry field, abstract on 'Business program on nuclear disaster prevention in nuclear business relatives', preparation of technical assistance system for nuclear disaster prevention, executive methods and subjects on nuclear disaster prevention at construction areas, recent business on nuclear disaster prevention at the Nuclear Technical Center, and subjects on establishment of nuclear disaster prevention system. (G.K.)

  8. Molecular Cancer Prevention: Current Status & Future Directions (United States)

    Maresso, Karen Colbert; Tsai, Kenneth Y.; Brown, Powel H.; Szabo, Eva; Lippman, Scott; Hawk, Ernest


    The heterogeneity and complexity of advanced cancers strongly supports the rationale for an enhanced focus on molecular prevention as a priority strategy to reduce the burden of cancer. Molecular prevention encompasses traditional chemopreventive agents as well as vaccinations and therapeutic approaches to cancer-predisposing conditions. Despite challenges to the field, we now have refined insights into cancer etiology and early pathogenesis; successful risk assessment and new risk models; agents with broad preventive efficacy (e.g., aspirin) in common chronic diseases, including cancer; and a successful track record of more than 10 agents approved by the FDA for the treatment of precancerous lesions or cancer risk reduction. The development of molecular preventive agents does not differ significantly from the development of therapies for advanced cancers, yet has unique challenges and special considerations given that it most often involves healthy or asymptomatic individuals. Agents, biomarkers, cohorts, overall design, and endpoints are key determinants of molecular preventive trials, as with therapeutic trials, although distinctions exist for each within the preventive setting. Progress in the development and evolution of molecular preventive agents has been steadier in some organ systems, such as breast and skin, than in others. In order for molecular prevention to be fully realized as an effective strategy, a number of challenges to the field must be addressed. Here we provide a brief overview of the context for and special considerations of molecular prevention along with a discussion of the results of major randomized controlled trials. PMID:26284997

  9. Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...

  10. Executive summary, Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    A pollution prevention plan is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce waste generation. The Hanford Site Pollution Prevention Plan is designed to eliminate or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all aspects of Site operations. These efforts offer increased protection of public health and the environment. This plan reflects the goals and policies for pollution prevention at the Hanford Site and represents an ongoing effort to make pollution prevention part of the Site operating philosophy. The plan encompasses hazardous waste only and excludes radioactive waste and radioactive mixed waste

  11. Treatment and prevention of acute radiation dermatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benomar, S.; Hassam, B.; Boutayeb, S.; Errihani, H.; Lalya, I.; El Gueddari, B.K.


    Acute radiation dermatitis is a common side-effect of radiotherapy which often necessitates interruption of the therapy. Currently, there is no general consensus about its prevention or about the treatment of choice. The goal of this work was to focus on optimal methods to prevent and manage acute skin reactions related to radiation therapy and to determine if there are specific topical or oral agents for the prevention of this acute skin reaction. The prevention and the early treatment are the two focus points of the management of the acute radiation dermatitis. (authors)

  12. Recent advances in preventing mass violence. (United States)

    Hamburg, David A


    Since his presidency of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and co-chairmanship of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, David Hamburg has been actively engaged in projects related to the prevention of genocide and other mass violence. In these remarks to the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, he describes the significance of preventing mass violence in the 21st century. In particular, he discusses the danger of nuclear and other highly lethal weapons, emphasizing examples of prevention drawn from the Cold War and subsequent period. He delineates practical steps that can be taken to prevent war and genocide, including restraints on weaponry, preventive diplomacy, fostering indigenous democracy, fostering equitable socioeconomic development, education for human survival, and international justice in relation to human rights. Training and support in preventive diplomacy are highlighted as crucially important, particularly in the context of the United Nations, using the novel Mediation Support Unit based out of the Department of Political Affairs as a key example. He concludes that the creation of international centers for the prevention of mass atrocities could provide a crucial resource in preventing mass violence. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  13. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  14. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  15. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A


    ...) develop breast cancer less frequently. However, these drugs have side effects toward the stomach, liver and kidneys, particularly at the high doses potentially required to prevent breast cancer...

  16. Information Security - Data Loss Prevention Procedure (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to extend and provide specificity to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Security Policy regarding data loss prevention and digital rights management.

  17. The Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program (United States)

    Sánchez, Jesús; Silva-Suarez, Georgina; Serna, Claudia A.; De La Rosa, Mario


    There is limited information on the impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on Latino migrant workers (LMWs), although available data indicate that this community is being disproportionally affected. The need for prevention programs that address the specific needs of LMWs is becoming well recognized. HIV prevention interventions that train and employ community health workers are a culturally appropriate way to address the issues of community trust and capacity building in this community. This article describes the Latino Migrant Worker HIV Prevention Program and its efforts to train and engage community health workers in the prevention of HIV among LMWs in South Florida. PMID:22367261

  18. Prevention and management of gastroesophageal varices. (United States)

    Seo, Yeon Seok


    Bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is a serious complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Although there has been significance improvement in the prognosis of variceal bleeding with advancement in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities for its management, mortality rate still remains high. Therefore, appropriate prevention and rapid, effective management of bleeding from gastroesophageal varices is very important. Recently, various studies about management of gastoesophageal varices, including prevention of development and aggravation of varices, prevention of first variceal bleeding, management of acute variceal bleeding, and prevention of variceal rebleeding, have been published. The present article reviews published articles and practice guidelines to present the most optimal management of patients with gastroesophageal varices.

  19. Workplace bullying prevention: a critical discourse analysis. (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L


    The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Enterobiasis (Pinworm Infection): Prevention and Control (United States)

    ... General Information Pinworm Infection FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Get Email Updates ...

  1. Achieving monospermy or preventing polyspermy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale B


    Full Text Available Brian Dale Centre for Assisted Fertilization, Naples, Italy Abstract: Images of sea urchin oocytes with hundreds of spermatozoa attached to their surface have fascinated scientists for over a century and led to the idea that oocytes have evolved mechanisms to allow the penetration of one spermatozoon while repelling supernumerary spermatozoa. Popular texts have extrapolated this concept, to the mammals and amphibians, and in many cases to include all the Phyla. Here, it is argued that laboratory experiments, using sea urchin oocytes deprived of their extracellular coats and inseminated at high densities, are artifactual and that the experiments leading to the idea of a fast block to polyspermy are flawed. Under natural conditions, the number of spermatozoa at the site of fertilization is extremely low, compared with the numbers generated. The sperm:oocyte ratio is regulated first by dilution in externally fertilizing species and the female reproductive tract in those with internal fertilization, followed by a bottleneck created by the oocytes extracellular coats. In order to progress to the oocyte plasma membrane, the fertilizing spermatozoon must encounter and respond to a correct sequence of signals from the oocytes extracellular coats. Those that do not, are halted in their progression by defective signaling and fall to the wayside. Final success and entry is finely tuned by the spermatozoon anchoring to an actin-rich predetermined site on the plasma membrane. In this review, the variation in the form, function, and number of gametes produced across the animal kingdom and the many ways in which sperm–oocyte interactions are regulated to reduce numbers are discussed. Since in nature, final sperm:oocyte ratios approach unity it would appear that selective pressures have favored the achievement of monospermy, rather than the evolution of polyspermy preventing mechanisms. Keywords: monospermy, natural conditions, polyspermy, laboratory

  2. Does chlorhexidine prevent dry socket? (United States)

    Richards, Derek


    The BBO (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia), Biomed Central, Cochrane Library, Directory of Open Access Journals, LILACS, Open-J-Gate, OpenSIGLE, PubMed, Sabinet and Science-Direct databases were searched. Articles were selected for review from the search results on the basis of their compliance with the broad inclusion criteria: relevant to the review question; and prospective two-arm (or more) clinical study. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of AO reported at the patient level. Two reviewers (VY and SM) independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the accepted articles. Individual dichotomous datasets for the control and test group were extracted from each article. Where possible, missing data were calculated from information given in the text or tables. In addition, authors were contacted in order to obtain missing information. Datasets were assessed for their clinical and methodological heterogeneity following Cochrane guidelines. Meta-analysis was conducted with homogeneous datasets. Publication bias was assessed by use of a funnel plot and Egger's regression. Ten randomised trials were included; almost all involved the removal of third molars. Only two of six identified application protocols (single application of chlorhexidine 0.2% gel or multiple application of 0.12% rinse versus placebo) were found to significantly decrease the incidence of AO. Within the limitations of this review, only two of six identified application protocols were found to significantly decrease the incidence of AO. The evidence for both protocols is weak and may be challenged on the grounds of high risk of selection, detection/performance and attrition bias. This systematic review could not identify sufficient evidence supporting the use of chlorhexidine for the prevention of AO. Chlorhexidine seems not to cause any significantly higher adverse reactions than placebo. Future high-quality randomised control trials are needed to provide conclusive evidence

  3. Public education in cancer prevention. (United States)

    Van Parijs, L G


    Life-style is now recognized as a main determinant of cancer risk. Public education is an important component of cancer control programmes and has been shown to be effective in leading to life-style changes. Four basic types of education programmes are reviewed: for increasing the public's awareness of cancer, for changing specific risk behaviour (such as stopping smoking), for learning self-examination skills (such as breast self-examination), and for promoting early cancer detection in the community.To change human behaviour it is best to approach the risk habit through the same forces that develop and sustain the habit. Simply giving information of an association between specific habits and cancer, even if repeated several times, will lead to increased public awareness and encourage some to make a minimal effort to change their behaviour, but in general the new habit does not persist and continuing and intensifying this approach are ineffective. An alternative strategy utilizes socially active forces to support the prevention practice and remove possible barriers to action. For example, an antismoking programme should create a favourable social image of the non-smoker. Although a culturally and socially relevant mass media campaign can influence knowledge and beliefs and induce people to participate in a screening activity, this needs to be supplemented over a period of time by personal contact methods, such as group discussions, telephone conversations and home visits, in order to promote a regular screening habit. Contrary to popular opinion, mass communication methods can be expensive on a per person cost-effectiveness basis because of low participation rates and weakness in sustaining healthy behaviour.

  4. Fall prevention in central coast community pharmacies. (United States)

    Stuart, Gina M; Kale, Helen L


    Fall injuries among people aged 65 years and over (older people) cause substantial health decline and cost to the health system. In 2009 in New South Wales, 25.6% of older people fell in the previous year, and 10.7% (32 000) were hospitalised. Pharmacists are trusted professionals, who interact extensively with older people and have potential to augment fall prevention in pharmacies. This brief report describes how professional development improved pharmacist's knowledge and confidence in fall prevention, encouraged implementation of fall prevention plans and facilitated the provision of brief fall prevention interventions for older clients, after identification of fall risk. In 2014, pharmacists from all Central Coast pharmacies (n = 76) were invited to free, continuing professional development (CPD) in fall prevention. It provided education and resources to identify clients' fall risk, conduct brief fall prevention interventions and implement fall prevention health promotion plans (FPHPP). Pharmacists completed written: Baseline and post-workshop questionnaires to assess changes in pharmacist's knowledge and confidence, and existing fall prevention in pharmacies. Logs of client fall risk and brief fall prevention interventions offered to clients. Four-month follow-up questionnaires to assess implementation of FPHPPs and pharmacy practice changes. Pharmacists representing 36% of pharmacies participated. At four-month follow-up, 67% had implemented FPHPPs, and 62% delivered brief interventions determined by client fall risk. Fall prevention in pharmacies can be augmented through locally provided CPD tailored for pharmacists. SO WHAT?: This model could increase fall prevention reach. It is transferable to settings where health professionals provide services to older adults and require reregistration through professional development. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  5. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer. (United States)

    Howell, Anthony; Anderson, Annie S; Clarke, Robert B; Duffy, Stephen W; Evans, D Gareth; Garcia-Closas, Montserat; Gescher, Andy J; Key, Timothy J; Saxton, John M; Harvie, Michelle N


    Breast cancer is an increasing public health problem. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer, but the introduction of methods to predict women at elevated risk and prevent the disease has been less successful. Here, we summarize recent data on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what we already know to prevent breast cancer in populations. During 2012, the Breast Cancer Campaign facilitated a series of workshops, each covering a specialty area of breast cancer to identify gaps in our knowledge. The risk-and-prevention panel involved in this exercise was asked to expand and update its report and review recent relevant peer-reviewed literature. The enlarged position paper presented here highlights the key gaps in risk-and-prevention research that were identified, together with recommendations for action. The panel estimated from the relevant literature that potentially 50% of breast cancer could be prevented in the subgroup of women at high and moderate risk of breast cancer by using current chemoprevention (tamoxifen, raloxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole) and that, in all women, lifestyle measures, including weight control, exercise, and moderating alcohol intake, could reduce breast cancer risk by about 30%. Risk may be estimated by standard models potentially with the addition of, for example, mammographic density and appropriate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This review expands on four areas: (a) the prediction of breast cancer risk, (b) the evidence for the effectiveness of preventive therapy and lifestyle approaches to prevention, (c) how understanding the biology of the breast may lead to new targets for prevention, and (d) a summary of published guidelines for preventive approaches and measures required for their implementation. We hope that efforts to fill these and other gaps will lead to considerable advances in our

  6. Prevention of Cold Injuries (Prevention des accidents dus au froid) (CD-ROM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    ...; ii) To develop strategies for optimal prevention; and iii) To initiate an international database on cold induced vasodilatation and cold injury occurrence to monitor the effects of preventative measures. Objective i) and ii...

  7. Counterproliferation Strategy: The Role of Preventive War, Preventive Strikes, and Interdiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rak, Claire


    This thesis analyzes the potential effectiveness of preventive war, preventive strikes, and interdiction as tools for the United States to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD...

  8. Preventive psychiatry: Current status in contemporary psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Chadda


    Full Text Available Preventive psychiatry is one of the most ignored subdiscipline of psychiatry, which has got important role to play in the contemporary psychiatry. Mental disorders are very common with lifetime prevalence of about 25%, and tend to be chronic. Due to the stigma associated with mental disorders, lack of awareness, and also lack of adequate mental health resources, nearly 60%–80% of the persons suffering from mental disorders do not access mental health care services. Mental and substance use disorders have been identified as one of the major contributors to the disease-related burden and disability-adjusted life years. In this background, preventive psychiatry has an important role to play in public health sector. Since etiology of most of the mental disorders is not known, it is not possible to follow here the standard model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of public health. A concept of universal, selective, and indicated prevention has been proposed in primary prevention. Preventive approaches in psychiatry focus on evidence-based risk and protective factors, promoting quality of life, reducing stressors, and improving resilience. Such interventions, when planned targeting at specific mental disorders, have a potential to prevent mental disorders. Thus, preventive psychiatry has a crucial role to play in mental health, considering the high prevalence of mental disorders, the associated disability and burden, and a great drain on human resources.

  9. Conference on disarmament: prevention of nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, R.


    Australia's Ambassador for Disarmament urges the Conference to establish an appropriate means for ensuring that practical work under Item 3 - the prevention of nuclear war - is carried out. The text of the Australian reply to the Secretary-General of the United Nations on the prevention of nuclear war follows the Ambassador's speech

  10. Current Evidence Supporting Obstetric Fistula Prevention Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evidences from the articles were linked to prevention strategies retrieved from grey literature. The strategies were classified using an innovative target-focused method. Gaps in the literature show the need for fistula prevention research to aim at systematically measuring incidence and prevalence of the disease, identify the ...

  11. Stroke Prevention: Managing Modifiable Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Di Legge


    Full Text Available Prevention plays a crucial role in counteracting morbidity and mortality related to ischemic stroke. It has been estimated that 50% of stroke are preventable through control of modifiable risk factors and lifestyle changes. Antihypertensive treatment is recommended for both prevention of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. The use of antiplatelets and statins has been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent stroke and other vascular events. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs are indicated in stroke prevention because they also promote vascular health. Effective secondary-prevention strategies for selected patients include carotid revascularization for high-grade carotid stenosis and vitamin K antagonist treatment for atrial fibrillation. The results of recent clinical trials investigating new anticoagulants (factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors clearly indicate alternative strategies in stroke prevention for patients with atrial fibrillation. This paper describes the current landscape and developments in stroke prevention with special reference to medical treatment in secondary prevention of ischemic stroke.

  12. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development

  13. The economic benefits of wildfire prevention education (United States)

    L.A. Hermansen-Baez; J.P. Prestemon; D.T. Butry; K.L. Abt; R. Sutphen


    While there are many activities that can limit damages from wildfires, such as firefighting efforts and prescribed burning, wildfire prevention education programs can be particularly beneficial. This was confirmed through a study conducted by the Southern Research Station and the National Institute of Standards and Technology that demonstrated that wildfire prevention...

  14. Preventing Repeat Teen Births PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the April 2013 CDC Vital Signs report, which discusses repeat teen births and ways teens, parents and guardians, health care providers, and communities can help prevent them.  Created: 4/2/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/2/2013.

  15. Prevention of farm injuries in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole; Lauritsen, Jens


    This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries.......This study examined the effects of a 4-year randomized intervention program that combined a safety audit with safety behavior training in the prevention of farm injuries....

  16. Bullying Prevention and the Parent Involvement Model (United States)

    Kolbert, Jered B.; Schultz, Danielle; Crothers, Laura M.


    A recent meta-analysis of bullying prevention programs provides support for social-ecological theory, in which parent involvement addressing child bullying behaviors is seen as important in preventing school-based bullying. The purpose of this manuscript is to suggest how Epstein and colleagues' parent involvement model can be used as a…

  17. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda Sutphen


    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  18. Prevention of Learned Helplessness in Humans. (United States)

    Klee, Steven; Meyer, Robert G.


    Explored prevention of learned helplessness through the use of thermal biofeedback training and varied explanations of performance. It was found that only in the biofeedback group receiving accurate feedback was there any prevention of the subsequent development of learned helplessness behavior. (Author)

  19. Efficacy of secondary isoniazid preventive therapy among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the efficacy of secondary preventive therapy against tuberculosis (TB) among goldminers working in South Africa. Design. An observational study. Methods. The incidence of recurrent TB was compared between two cohorts of HIV-infected miners: one cohort had received secondary preventive ...

  20. Teaching Prevention in Internal Medicine Clerkships. (United States)

    Kinsinger, Linda


    Reviews the rationale for including prevention in the clinical medicine clerkship. Summarizes current guidelines, presents examples of curricula in several medical schools, and proposes a future direction that stresses integrating teaching preventive medicine into internal medicine clerkships and across the entire four-year medical curriculum. (DB)