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Sample records for prevents cherry tomato

  1. Hybridisation between cherry tomato (small fry) and Petomech for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determin the heritability of shortened fruit maturation (SFM) period in a hybrid from a cross between cherry (Small fry) tomato and Petomech. A field experiment was carried out at the Crops Research Institute (CRI), Kwadaso. A cross was made between Petomech and Small fry.

  2. Regulation of the growth and photosynthesis of cherry tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth and photosynthetic characteristics of cherry tomato seedlings were investigated under seven light irradiations such as dysprosium lamps (white light; control, C), red light emitting diodes (LEDs) (R), blue LEDs (B), orange LEDs (O), green LEDs (G), red and blue LEDs (RB) and red, blue and green LEDs (RBG) ...

  3. Cherry tomato yield in greenhouses with different plastic covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ester Holcman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of different plastic covers on microclimate and cherry tomato yield in greenhouses. The experiments were carried out in Piracicaba, state of São Paulo (Brazil, during three growing periods (2008/2009/2010. A greenhouse was divided in: Environment I (EI - covered with plastic film anti-UV and thermo-reflective shading screen, and Environment II (EII - covered with diffusive plastic film; monitored with automatic weather sensors; and cultivated with cherry tomato (‘Sweet Grape’ and ‘Sweet Million’. Use of diffusive plastic in greenhouses provides a better inside distribution of solar energy without causing major changes in air temperature and relative humidity, resulting in higher yield (kg plant-1, fruits quantity (number plant-1 and fruits average weight than those obtained under thermo-reflective shading screen.

  4. Control of postharvest decay on cherry tomatoes by marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum and calcium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Ren, X; Song, X; Yu, T; Lu, H; Wang, P; Wang, J; Zheng, X D

    2010-08-01

    In this study, the potential of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) application to improve the efficacy of the marine antagonist Rhodosporidium paludigenum in controlling postharvest diseases of cherry tomatoes was assessed. CaCl(2) alone was found not to have any direct influence on the population growth of R. paludigenum in NYDB cultures or in cherry tomato wounds. However, the combined treatments with 1 x 10(8) cells ml(-1)R. paludigenum and CaCl(2) at the concentration from 0.5 to 2% showed high activities to reduce black rot caused by Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato wounds, significantly higher than those of R. paludigenum or CaCl(2) alone. Meanwhile, 0.5% CaCl(2) in combination with 1 x 10(8) cells ml(-1)R. paludigenum greatly inhibited the natural decay of cherry tomatoes in 21 days' storage at 25 degrees C. The combination of R. paludigenum and CaCl(2) enhances the inhibition of black rot and natural decay of postharvest cherry tomatoes. The results from this study provide a new way to improve the efficiency of R. paludigenum in maintaining the quality of postharvest fruits and vegetables. The marine yeast R. paludigenum combined with CaCl(2) has greatly potential use as an alternative to chemical fungicides in inhibiting postharvest decay on cherry tomatoes.

  5. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)], E-mail: setsuko@affrc.go.jp; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Kanamori, Norihito [Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio [School of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara-city, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kawamoto, Shinichi [National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a {sup 60}Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of {beta}-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  6. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60 Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 deg. C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  7. Natural surface coating to inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and maintain quality of cherry tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of zein-based coatings in reducing populations of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and preserving quality of cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium LT2 plus three mutants on the smoo...

  8. Identifying promising accessions of cherry tomato: a sensory strategy using consumers and chefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Mariella C; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón; Freitas, Daniela De G C; Silva, Aline L S; Carmo, Margarida G F; Abboud, Antonio C S

    2013-06-01

    An increased production of cherry and gourmet tomato cultivars that are harvested at advanced colour stages and sold at a higher price has been observed in the last 10 years. In this context, producers need information on the sensory characteristics of new cultivars and their perception by potential consumers. The aim of the present work was to obtain a sensory characterisation of nine cherry tomato cultivars produced under Brazilian organic cultivation conditions from a chef and consumer perspective. Nine organic cherry tomato genotypes were evaluated by ten chefs using an open-ended question and by 110 consumers using a check-all-that-apply question. Both methodologies provided similar information on the sensory characteristics of the cherry tomato accessions. The superimposed representation of the samples in a multiple factor analysis was similar for consumers' and chefs' descriptions (RV coefficient 0.728), although they used different methodologies. According to both panels, cherry tomatoes were sorted into five groups of samples with similar sensory characteristics. Results from the present work may provide information to help organic producers in the selection of the most promising cultivars for cultivation, taking into account consumers' and chefs' perceptions, as well as in the design of communication and marketing strategies. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Optimal Fluorescence Waveband Determination for Detecting Defective Cherry Tomatoes Using a Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Suck Baek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defective cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-way ANOVA revealed the optimal excitation wavelength for detecting defect areas was 410 nm. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the fluorescence emission spectra of all regions at 410 nm excitation to determine the emission wavelengths for defect detection. The major emission wavelengths were 688 nm and 506 nm for the detection. Fluorescence images combined with the determined emission wavebands demonstrated the feasibility of detecting defective cherry tomatoes with >98% accuracy. Multi-spectral fluorescence imaging has potential utility in non-destructive quality sorting of cherry tomatoes.

  10. Determination of the optimum irradiation dose for shelf-life of peas and cherry tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaman, M. B.; Hayumbu, P.; Siwale, J.; Mutale, C.; Kabwe, L.

    1991-01-01

    Green peas (Pisum Sativum), cultivar (mangetout) and yellow cherry tomatoes (lycoperscum esculantum), cultivar (cerasiforme) were irradiated for different absorbed doses, and their physical characteristics observed under cold storage conditions, in order to extend their shelf lives. Results suggest that 580 Gy is the maximum optimum dose. At this dose the shelf life of cherry tomatoes is shown to be extended. No beneficial effect was recorded on the storage life of green peas. A good correlation was found between the degradation of chlorophill and the spread of spotting disease for this product. (author)., 19 refs., 2 tab

  11. Effect of citronella essential oil on the inhibition of postharvest Alternaria alternata in cherry tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianru; Xu, Shixiang; Wu, Tao; Guo, Jun; Sha, Sha; Zheng, Xiaodong; Yu, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Essential oils such as citronella oil exhibit antifungal activity and are potential alternative inhibitors to chemical synthetic fungicides for controlling postharvest diseases. In this study the antifungal activity of citronella oil against Alternaria alternata was investigated. In vitro, citronella oil showed strong inhibition activity against A. alternata. The minimum inhibitory concentration in potato dextrose agar and potato dextrose broth medium was determined as 1 and 0.8 µL mL(-1) respectively. In vivo the disease incidence of Lycopersicon esculentum (cherry tomato) treated with citronella oil was significantly (P black rot in cherry tomato. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Nutritional properties of cherry tomatoes harvested at different times and grown in an organic cropping.

    OpenAIRE

    PINHO, L. de; ALMEIDA, A. C.; COSTA, C. A.; PAES, M. C. D.; GLÓRIA, M. B. A.; SOUZA, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The physicochemical characteristics of the cherry tomato cultivated in organic and conventional production systems and harvested at either 30 or 45 days of cropping were evaluated using a randomized, 2x2 factorial design (2 cropping systems x 2 harvesting times) with five repetitions. The parameters analyzed were color, centesimal composition, total energetic value, carotenoids and bioactive amine content. Tomatoes harvested at 30 days had higher total soluble solid (TSS) content when grown c...

  13. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC, and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. The commercially used SH method reduced the background microbiota on strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry by 0.20–2.07 log cfu/g. The ASC method reduced background microbiota (except for mold on strawberry and cherry tomato by more than 3.0 log cfu/g. ASC was the only sanitizer that significantly reduced mold on red bayberry, and lactic acid was the only organic acid sanitizer that effectively reduced yeast on red bayberry. The ASC method had the best sterilizing effect on the three fresh fruits and also required the shortest sanitizing time and low chlorite content. The application of ASC method significantly reduced the microbiota on retail grocery samples, and the effect was similar to that achieved by sanitizing methods comparison.

  14. Optimal fluorescence waveband determination for detecting defect cherry tomatoes using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defect cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface, and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-...

  15. Effect of oligosaccharides derived from Laminaria japonica-incorporated pullulan coatings on preservation of cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Lu, Mingsheng; Wang, Shujun

    2016-05-15

    Laminaria japonica-derived oligosaccharides (LJOs) exhibit antibacterial and antioxidant activities, and pullulan is a food thickener that can form impermeable films. The ability of pullulan coatings with various LJO concentrations (1% pullulan+0.1%, 0.2% or 0.3% LJOs) to preserve cherry tomatoes during storage at room temperature was investigated. The LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings were found to effectively reduce respiratory intensity, vitamin C loss, weight loss and softening, as well as to increase the amount of titratable acid and the overall likeness of fruit compared with the control. These effects were observed to be dose-dependent. Therefore, using LJO-incorporated pullulan coatings can extend the shelf life of cherry tomatoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hot Air Treatment Induces Disease Resistance through Activating the Phenylpropanoid Metabolism in Cherry Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingying; Zhou, Dandan; Peng, Jing; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang

    2017-09-13

    To explore the effects of hot air (HA, 38 °C for 12 h) treatment on the phenylpropanoid metabolism in cherry tomatoes, phenylpropanoid metabolite levels and the activities and expression of key enzymes were analyzed in HA-treated fruit. HA treatment enhanced phenylpropanoid metabolism, as evidenced by elevated levels of phenolics and flavonoids, higher activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, and upregulated expression of LeCHS, LeCHI, LeF3H, and LeFLS. Levels of several phenylpropanoid metabolites were higher after HA treatment, including p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, isoquercitrin, quercetin, and rutin. These metabolic changes may be related to the reduced disease incidence and smaller lesion diameters observed in HA-treated fruit inoculated with Alternaria alternata (black mold) or Botrytis cinerea (gray mold). The results suggest that HA treatment induces disease resistance by activating the phenylpropanoid pathway in cherry tomato fruit.

  17. Inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium and quality preservation of cherry tomatoes by in-package aerosolization of antimicrobials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of in-package aerosolized aqueous sanitizers in reducing populations of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculated on tomato fruit and in maintaining fruit quality. Cherry tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of ...

  18. Effects of Industrial Processes on Antioxidant Power and Polyphenols Profile in Cherry Tomato Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommonaro, Giuseppina; De Prisco, Rocco; Pergamo, Rita; Iodice, Carmine; Abbamondi, Gennaro Roberto; Spagnuolo, Annalisa; Nicolaus, Barbara

    2015-10-01

    The antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic profile of fresh and processed cherry tomatoes were analyzed with the aim of investigating the effect of industrial processes on the nutritional qualities of fruits. The results exhibited a decrease of antioxidant activity mainly in the lipophilic fraction of processed tomatoes compared with fresh products. No great difference in the antioxidant capacity was detected in the hydrophilic and methanolic extracts of fresh tomatoes and processed tomato juices. Moreover, a decrease of polyphenolic content, estimated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu method, was observed in all tomato juices. The overall polyphenolic profile of both fresh and processed tomatoes did not change significantly and, among all juices, a higher polyphenolic content was detected in juice containing peels and seeds in comparison to those without. From our data on antioxidant power and the bioactive metabolite content, tomato juice could be used as a valid and easily available source of antioxidants in everyday diet to preserve human health.

  19. PRODUCTIVE POTENTIAL OF THE CHERRY TOMATO GENOTYPE GROUP BEFORE INFECTION BY Alternaria tomatophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUGO CESAR RODRIGUES MOREIRA CATÃO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Early blight (caused by Alternaria tomatophila is a major disease of tomato with no resistant cultivars. Thus, it is necessary to identify sources of resistance and productive genotypes for the development of new cultivars. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the productive potential of cherry tomato genotypes grown in the summer / fall, the severity of early blight on leaves and the incidence of disease in fruits. The treatments consisted of Carolina tomato genotypes, Cereja Vermelho, CH 152 and CLN1561A. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks with six replications, and the experimental plot had 16 plants. The following characteristics were evaluated: area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC, average number of microinjuries on the fruits (MF, average number of fruits per bunch (NFC, average number of bunches per plant (NCP, average number of fruits per plant (NFP, average yield, number of fruits with incidence of early blight per plant (NFI and the severity of early blight in leaves (%. The cherry tomato genotype CH152 showed tolerance to early blight with a smaller area under the disease progress curve, lower severity and fruits with incidence of A. tomatophila were not observed in this genotype. The CH152 had the highest number of fruits per bunch, greater number of bunches per plant, higher number of fruits per plant and higher productivity. This line has great potential of being integrated into breeding programs.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF KEY MOLECULAR COMPONENTS OF THE RESISTANCE OF CHERRY TOMATO AGAINST Phytophthora infestans

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    LILIANA LÓPEZ KLEINE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme cv Matt’s wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, US940480 and US970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. US970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato cDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato cDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more PR genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.

  1. Identification of key molecular components of the resistance of cherry tomato against Phytophthora infestans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Kleine, Liliana; Smart, Christine D; Fry, William E; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Cherry tomato Solanum lycopersicum var cerasiforme CV matt's wild cherry is a very resistant cultivar to most Phytophthora infestans isolates. Two isolates were identified, us 940480 and us 970001 that cause an incompatible and a compatible interaction respectively. Us 970001 is one of the few isolates producing a compatible interaction with this cultivar. To identify genes with a differential gene expression between compatible and incompatible interactions, gene expression patterns were analyzed with tomato CDNA microarrays including 12,899 independent tomato CDNA clones at different time points after inoculation. A diverse set of statistical tools were used to identify key components of the plant response to the pathogen. Forty-three genes were up-regulated during the incompatible reaction at time point 36 hours, 15 globally at all-time points and twelve were found both in globally and at 36 hours. Northern blots analysis was performed to confirm differential expression showed by microarray analysis and to study the differential expression of more plant resistance genes (PR) genes between compatible and incompatible interactions for this interaction.

  2. A multivariate statistical analysis coming from the NMR metabolic profile of cherry tomatoes (The Sicilian Pachino case)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Macaluso, Andrea; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian cherry tomato of Pachino. Thanks to its organoleptic and healthy properties, this particular foodstuff was the first tomato accredited by the European PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) certification of quality. Due to the relatively high price of the final product commercial frauds originated in the Italian and international markets. Hence, there is a growing interest to develop analytical techniques able to predict the origin of a tomato sample, indicating whether or not it originates from the area of Pachino, Sicily (Italy). In this paper we have determined the molar concentration of the metabolites constituent the PGI cherry tomato of Pachino. Furthermore, by means of a multivariate statistical analysis we have identified which metabolites are relevant for sample differentiation.

  3. Edible Coating Using a Chitosan-Based Colloid Incorporating Grapefruit Seed Extract for Cherry Tomato Safety and Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jin Sung; Lee, Seung Jo; Park, Hyeon Hwa; Song, Kyung Bin; Min, Sea C

    2018-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract (GSE)-containing chitosan-based coating was developed and applied to cherry tomatoes to protect them from Salmonella invasion and improve their storability. The coating colloids were produced by mixing a chitosan colloid (1% [w/w] chitosan) with GSE at various concentrations (0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%, and 1.2% [w/w]) using high-shear mixing (10000 rpm, 2 min). Coatings with chitosan colloids containing GSE at 0.0%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 1.0% (w/w) inactivated Salmonella on cherry tomatoes by 1.0 ± 0.3, 1.2 ± 0.3, 1.6 ± 0.1, and 2.0 ± 0.3 log CFU/cherry tomato, respectively. Coatings both with and without GSE (1.0%) effectively inhibited the growth of Salmonella and total mesophilic aerobes, reduced CO 2 generation, and retarded titratable acidity decrease during storage at 10 and 25 °C. The advantage of incorporating GSE in the formulation was demonstrated by delayed microorganism growth and reduced weight loss at 25 °C. The chitosan-GSE coating did not affect lycopene concentration, color, and sensory properties (P > 0.05). Chitosan-GSE coating shows potential for improving the microbiological safety and storability of cherry tomatoes, with stronger efficacy at 25 °C than that of chitosan coating without GSE. A novel chitosan coating containing grape fruit seed extract (GSE) improved the microbiological safety against Salmonella and storability of cherry tomatoes without altering their flavor, demonstrating its strong potential as an effective postharvest technology. Chitosan coating containing GSE might be preferable over chitosan coating without GSE for application to tomatoes that are stored at room temperature in that it more effectively inhibits microbial growth and weight loss than the coating without GSE at 25 °C. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  4. Yield of cherry tomatoes as a function of water salinity and irrigation frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre N. Santos

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of brackish water in agriculture can cause salinization of soils and reduce plant yield. This problem can be minimized by hydroponic cultivation, which improves plant development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of cherry tomatoes grown in hydroponic system with substrate under salinity levels of the nutrient solution (NS, exposure time to salinity and irrigation frequency. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in a randomized complete block design, in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial scheme with five replicates: six salinity levels of NS prepared with brackish water (3.01; 4.51; 5.94; 7.34; 8.71 and 10.40 dS m-1; two exposure times to NS (60 and 105 days and two irrigation frequencies (one irrigation per day and irrigation every two days. Yield and production components of cherry tomatoes cv. 'Rita' were evaluated. NS salinity affected plant yield, reducing fruit production, which was more significant when plants were subjected to a longer time of exposure to salinity. There was no difference between NS applications on fruit production, when these applications were performed once a day or once every two days.

  5. Heat treatment in combination with antagonistic yeast reduces diseases and elicits the active defense responses in harvested cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Tu, Kang; Su, Jing; Tu, Sicong; Hou, Yuepeng; Liu, Fengjuan; Zou, Xiurong

    2009-08-26

    This study investigated the effects of heat treatment (hot air at 38 degrees C) and antagonistic yeast (Pichia guilliermondii) alone or in combination against postharvest diseases (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus nigricans) on cherry tomato fruit, and evaluated the elicitation of active defense responses. Results showed that heat treatment at 38 degrees C for 24 h in combination with P. guilliermondii at 1 x 10(8) CFU mL(-1) was the most effective approach to reduce various infections on cherry tomato fruit's wounds. Moreover, the combined heat and P. guilliermondii treatment stimulated a rapid increase of H(2)O(2) and higher lignin deposition in cherry tomato fruit showing that the oxidative burst and biological synthesis of lignin might play important roles in the fruit's active defense responses. In addition, the reduction of the fruit's susceptibility to pathogens by the combined treatment was positively correlated with higher activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and beta-1,3-glucanase in cherry tomato fruits, both of which are associated with plant defense responses.

  6. Microbiological Quality and Incidence of Salmonella on Cherry Tomatoes at Retail in Querétaro, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Cervantes, Marla G; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Martínez-Peniche, Ramón; Martínez-Gonzáles, Nanci E; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2018-04-01

    Multiple outbreaks related to Salmonella in tomatoes require an evaluation of the risk associated with cherry tomatoes due to the increase in its production, consumption, and marketing in Mexico's central region. The purpose of this study was to determine the microbial quality of cherry tomatoes obtained from two retail sale points (supermarkets and local markets). Cherry tomato samples (333) were collected from four supermarkets and from four local markets, and the contents of aerobic plate count, molds and yeasts, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli were quantified; the presence of Salmonella was simultaneously determined. The median values of the microbial populations were obtained, and the data were analyzed per the sampling site by using the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The median of aerobic plate count content in tomatoes obtained from supermarkets ranged between 2.2 and 4.4 log CFU/g, and in markets from 2.9 to 4.8 log CFU/g. For molds and yeasts, the tomatoes from supermarkets (2.0 to 4.1 log CFU/g) and markets (1.5 to 4.5 log CFU/g) showed similar contents. Regardless of the sampling site, the values of total coliforms were very low, ranging from 1.0 to 1.8 log CFU/g. E. coli was detected in 5.4 and 20.1% of samples from supermarkets and markets, respectively; in both sites, the content was low (0.3 to 5.8 most probable number per g). The incidence of Salmonella was 14.1% in supermarkets and 7.8% in local markets. The results obtained from this investigation highlight the elevated risk for consumer health associated with the ingestion of cherry tomatoes.

  7. Thymol nanoemulsions incorporated in quinoa protein/chitosan edible films; antifungal effect in cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, Nancy; Vera, Paola; López, Luis; Yazdani-Pedram, Mehrdad; Tapia, Cristian; Abugoch, Lilian

    2018-04-25

    Thymol nanoemulsions were produced by spontaneous emulsification, ultrasound, and a combination of both methods. The best result in terms of size and polydispersion was spontaneous emulsification where thymol was efficiently encapsulated, the nanoemulsions inhibited Botrytis cinerea at 110 ppm of thymol. A 10% dilution of this nanoemulsion in water was used to prepare quinoa-chitosan films. The film microstructure was porous and heterogeneous. The tensile strength of the film was significantly lower but its mean elongation at break was similar to that of the control film. The water vapour permeability was similar to that of the control film. The effect of nanoemulsion-thymol-quinoa protein/chitosan coating on mould growth in inoculated cherry tomatoes was evaluated. Compared with control samples (tomatoes without coating and those coated with quinoa protein/chitosan), tomatoes with this coating and inoculated with B. cinerea showed a significant decrease in fungal growth after 7 days at 5 °C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Biocontrol of Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit by use of marine yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Bao, Yihong; Shen, Danhong; Feng, Wu; Yu, Ting; Zhang, Jia; Zheng, Xiao Dong

    2008-04-30

    The basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum Fell & Tallman isolated from the south of East China Sea was evaluated for its activity in reducing postharvest decay of cherry tomatoes caused by Alternaria alternata in vitro and in vivo tests. The results showed that washed cell suspension of R. paludigenum provided better control of A. alternata than any other treatment, while the autoclaved cell culture failed to provide protection against the pathogen. The concentration of antagonist had significant effect on biocontrol effectiveness in vivo: when the concentration of the washed yeast cell suspension was used at 1 x 10(9)cells/ml, the percentage rate of black rot of cherry tomato fruit was only 37%, which was remarkably lower than that treated with water (the control) after 5days of incubation at 25 degrees C. Furthermore, a great biocontrol efficacy of R. paludigenum was observed when it was applied prior to inoculation with A. alternata: the longer the incubation time of R. paludigenum, the lower disease incidence would be. However, there was little efficacy when R. paludigenum was applied after A. alternata inoculation. In addition, on the wounds of cherry tomato, it was observed that R. paludigenum grew rapidly increasing 50-fold during the first 12h at 25 degrees C. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report concerning that the marine yeast R. paludigenum could be used as a biocontrol agent of postharvest fungal disease.

  10. A Chitosan Coating Containing Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. to Control Postharvest Mold Infections and Keep the Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Tainá A; Andrade, Sonalle C A; Maciel, Janeeyre F; Arcanjo, Narciza M O; Madruga, Marta S; Meireles, Bruno; Cordeiro, Ângela M T; Souza, Evandro L; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger . CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by 6 days and by more than 9 days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness (>2 N/mm) and lower weight loss (>2%) compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1-9 mg/g) in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  11. Biocontrol of post-harvest Alternaria alternata decay of cherry tomatoes with rhamnolipids and possible mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fujie; Xu, Shixiang; Guo, Jun; Chen, Qianru; Meng, Qin; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2015-05-01

    Rhamnolipids were reported to have evident antifungal activity. The efficacy of rhamnolipids against Alternaria alternata and their possible mechanisms involved were investigated. The decay incidences of A. alternata of cherry tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) treated by rhamnolipids were significantly reduced. The in vitro assays showed that rhamnolipids inhibited fungal growth on solid medium and prevented spore germination and mycelium growth in liquid medium. In addition, the combination of rhamnolipids and essential oil had a synergistic effect leading to the decrease of fungicidal concentrations of laurel oil. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy observations of the pathogen revealed significant morphological and cell structural alterations in the hyphae. Compared to the control, the content of nucleic acid in supernatant of the suspension of A. alternata increased, while the content of DNA and protein of mycelium decreased, which was in agreement with electrolyte leakage experiments. Rhamnolipids could be an alternative to chemicals for controlling post-harvest phytopathogenic fungi on fruits and vegetables. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Chitosan Controls Postharvest Decay on Cherry Tomato Fruit Possibly via the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Hu, Yi; Liu, Yongsheng

    2015-08-26

    The inhibitive effects of chitosan on gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea on cherry tomato fruit were evaluated. Decay incidence was tested on tomato stored at 22 °C. Hydrogen peroxide accumulation, malondialdehyde (MDA) production, peroxidase (POD) activity, and several related gene expressions (including MPK3, MPK6, PR1a1, and PR5) were determined. Results showed that 0.2% of chitosan solution significantly inhibited the tomato gray mold 3 days after inoculation. Hydrogen peroxide accumulated in the fruit epidermal peel along with chitosan treatment, while MDA production was not increased. POD activity was remarkably enhanced by the application of chitosan. The relative expressions of MPK3, MPK6, and PR1a1 were significantly induced in 10 min after chitosan treatment, while PR5 was induced in 20 min. These findings suggested that the effects of chitosan on inhibiting gray mold in cherry tomato fruit were probably associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway.

  13. Phytochemical and nutrient/antinutrient interactions in cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Folake Lucy; Ibitoye, Muyiwa Femi

    2012-07-01

    The fruit of the cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (Solanaceae)) was analysed for mineral and antinutrient composition. Phosphorus (33.04 ± 0.21 mg/100g) was the most abundant mineral in the fruit, followed by calcium (32.04 ± 0.06 mg/100 g), and potassium (11.9 ± 0.1 mg/100 g) and manganese (9.55 ± 0.28 mg/100 g) were also present in appreciable quantities. Antinutrients, including phytate, glycoside, saponin and tannin, were screened and quantified. Phytate (112.82 ± 0.1 mg/100 g), glycoside (2.33 ± 0.00 mg/100 g), saponin (1.31 ± 0.00 mg/100g) and tannin (0.21 ± 0.00 mg/100 g) were present in the fruit but phlobatanin and glycosides with steroidal rings were not found. The calculated calcium:phytate ratio of the fruits was below the critical value and the calculated [calcium] [phytate]:[zinc] molar ratio was less than the critical value. The calcium:phosphorus ratio (0.97 mg/100 g) shows the fruit to be a good source of food nutrients, while the sodium:potassium value was less than 1. Ca/P ratio below 0.5 indicates deficiency of these minerals while Na/K ratio above 1 is detrimental because of excessive sodium levels. The results of the study generally revealed the fruit to be rich in minerals but containing insufficient quantities of antinutrients to result in poor mineral bioavailability.

  14. Hot air treatment reduces postharvest decay and delays softening of cherry tomato by regulating gene expression and activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yingying; Zhou, Dandan; Wang, Zhenjie; Tu, Sicong; Shao, Xingfeng; Peng, Jing; Pan, Leiqing; Tu, Kang

    2018-04-01

    Fruit softening facilitates pathogen infection and postharvest decay, leading to the reduction of shelf-life. Hot air (HA) treatment at 38 °C for 12 h is effective in reducing postharvest disease and chilling injury of tomato fruit. To explore the effect and mechanism of HA treatment on reducing postharvest decay and softening of cherry tomato, fruit at the mature green stage were treated with HA and then stored at 20 °C for 15 days. Changes in natural decay incidence, firmness, cell wall compositions, activities and gene expression of cell wall-degrading enzymes of cherry tomatoes were assessed. HA treatment reduced natural decay incidence, postponed the firmness decline, inhibited the respiration rate and ethylene production, and retarded pectin solubilisation and cellulose degradation of cherry tomatoes. Enzymatic activities and gene expression of pectin methylesterase, polygalacturonase, cellulase and β-galactosidase were inhibited by HA treatment. In addition, the gene expression of LeEXP1 was reduced, while LeEXT was up-regulated after HA treatment. Our findings suggested that HA treatment could inhibit cell wall degradation and postpone softening of cherry tomatoes by regulating gene expression and activities of cell wall-degrading enzymes, resulting in the reduction of postharvest decay. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Volatile organic compounds from endophytic fungi as innovative postharvest control of Fusarium oxysporum in cherry tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Romero, Yoli Mariana; Roque-Flores, Gonzalo; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia

    2017-11-01

    To assess their potential as biopesticides, the effect on the growth of phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum of six volatile organic compounds from endophytic fungi was studied in vivo and in vitro; compounds were used both as a mixture and individually. In vivo studies were performed inoculating the pathogen into cherry tomatoes, while the in vitro antifungal effect was studied using agar dilution and gas phase methods. Also, the morphology of the hyphae exposed to these compounds was analyzed. Moreover, the possible mechanism of action of these compounds was determined by studying the respiration and cell membrane permeability. Results show that the compounds have a significant concentration-dependent antifungal effect individually and act in a synergic manner. Additionally, changes in cell membrane permeability, damage to the hyphal morphology, and an inhibitory effect on the respiration were observed. The mixture of the six compounds may be used for postharvest control of F. oxysporum in tomatoes.

  16. A chitosan coating containing essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. to control postharvest mold infections and keep the quality of cherry tomato fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainá Barreto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 µL/mL for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25 °C; 12 days and cold (12 °C; 24 days temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures by more than. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by six days and by more than nine days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness ( > 2 N/mm and lower weight loss ( > 2 % compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1 - 9 mg/g in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  17. Biocontrol activity of a cold-adapted yeast from Tibet against gray mold in cherry tomato and its action mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao; Wisniewski, Michael E; Abdelfattah, Ahmed; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2017-07-01

    Cold-adapted biocontrol yeast was selected from four yeast isolates from Tibet against gray mold of cherry tomato in cold storage. The strain numbered LB2 showed the best biocontrol activity and identified as Cryptococcus laurentii. Competition for nutrient, space, and induced fruit resistance was also its antagonistic mechanism. Compared with C. laurentii from sea-level place, the reason why LB2 had a better biocontrol activity was studied. More trehalose and proline in cell of LB2 made it exhibit a better cellular activity at low temperature, such as higher population dynamics in the wounds of cherry tomato and more biocontrol-related enzyme secretion, chitinase and β-glucanase. The better oxidative stress tolerance was another characteristic of LB2. Maybe because of the ideal culture condition, there was no obvious difference between these two yeasts in the growth in vitro test at low temperature. Although the same phenomenon existed in the low pH stress test, LB2 still had higher cell concentration under this stress. Comparative transcriptomics method was also applied to analyze the cell activity of LB2 and C. laurentii at different temperatures. The results showed that more active response in the intracellular structure and intracellular metabolic process to cold temperature made LB2 had a better activity. The present study indicated a possibility to select cold-adapted biocontrol yeast from Tibet and also showed its primary action mechanism.

  18. Biological nutrient recovery from culturing of pearl gourami (Trichogaster leerii ) by cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in aquaponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhdom, Shima; Shekarabi, Seyed Pezhman Hosseini; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using different densities of cherry tomato as a bio-filter in a simple media-based aquaponic system to recycle nutrients from pearl gourami intensive culture wastewater was evaluated. Water quality parameters including total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), nitrite (NO 2 - ), nitrate (NO 3 - ), phosphate (PO 4 3- ), pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) were determined in outlet of the aquaponic system during a 60-day experimental period. Cherry tomato was planted at four densities of 0 (control), 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 9 (T3) plants per aquaponic unit with a constant fish stock density. Each treatment was equipped with aquaponic systems containing fish tank and plant growing bed. Productivity of the system was measured by recording the fish and plant growth indices. The potential in removing nitrogen of the water was the highest in T3 (with nine plants) compared to other treatments (p aquaponic growing bed system can be created a sustainable ecosystem which both the plant and fish can thrive and suitable for home-made production system.

  19. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Tavares, Silvio; Muraoka, Takashi; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Salgado, Gabriela; Otsuk, Ivani

    2016-04-01

    The use of alternative fertilizers may reduce costs and promote sustainability to the family-based agro ecological production system. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of the green manure to the quality of the soil and the transference of the nitrogen to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method (FAPESP 11/05648-3). The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, using a randomized-blocks design with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of green manure crops intercropped or not with cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one with and another without corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part from the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in a forced air oven and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a Wiley mill and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for δN-15 analysis. It measured the percentage of the transference of N from the green manure to the tomato; the tomato plants grown in monocropping were considered a control. It was found that 27 % of the N present in the fruit and 23% of the N present in the leaves came from the green manure. These results show that dur¬ing the development of the fruit of the tomato there is a greater translocation and consequently, a higher use of the N from the green manure in the fruits than in the leaves. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in non-intercropped treatments caused some soil

  20. Efficacy of a coating composed of chitosan from Mucor circinelloides and carvacrol to control Aspergillus flavus and the quality of cherry tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro L; Sales, Camila V; de Oliveira, Carlos E V; Lopes, Laênia A A; da Conceição, Maria L; Berger, Lúcia R R; Stamford, Thayza C M

    2015-01-01

    Cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) fruits are susceptible to contamination by Aspergillus flavus, which may cause the development of fruit rot and significant postharvest losses. Currently there are significant drawbacks for the use of synthetic fungicides to control pathogenic fungi in tomato fruits, and it has increased the interest in exploring new alternatives to control the occurrence of fungal infections in these fruits. This study evaluated the efficacy of chitosan (CHI) from Mucor circinelloides in combination with carvacrol (CAR) in inhibiting A. flavus in laboratory media and as a coating on cherry tomato fruits (25°C, 12 days and 12°C, 24 days). During a period of storage, the effect of coatings composed of CHI and CAR on autochthonous microflora, as well as on some quality characteristics of the fruits such as weight loss, color, firmness, soluble solids, and titratable acidity was evaluated. CHI and CAR displayed MIC valuesof 7.5 mg/mL and 10 μL/mL, respectively, against A. flavus. The combined application of CHI (7.5 or 3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (5 or 2.5 μL/mL) strongly inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of A. flavus. The coating composed of CHI (3.75 mg/mL) and CAR (2.5 or 1.25 μL/mL) inhibited the growth of A. flavus in artificially contaminated fruits, as well as the native fungal microflora of the fruits stored at room or low temperature. The application of the tested coatings preserved the quality of cherry tomato fruits as measured by some physicochemical attributes. From this, composite coatings containing CHI and CAR offer a promising alternative to control postharvest infection caused by A. flavus or native fungal microflora in fresh cherry tomato fruits without negatively affecting their quality over storage.

  1. Oregano essential oil-based natural antimicrobial packaging film to inactivate Salmonella enterica and yeasts/molds in the atmosphere surrounding cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sang-Jo; Chang, Yoonjee; Han, Jaejoon

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film containing the natural antimicrobial oregano essential oil (OEO) as an active packaging application for decreasing the microbial growth. The film exerted an antimicrobial effect via the atmosphere surrounding the food rather than direct contact, thereby preserving the quality of cherry tomatoes. A packaging film containing microencapsulated OEO was developed. The loading content increased gradually (104.29-234.29 μg OEO/mg film) with the amount of OEO incorporated (1%, 2%, and 3%), where the PVA films containing 2% OEO had the highest loading efficiency (91.64%), followed by 1% OEO (90.96%) and 3% OEO (88.38%). The antimicrobial activities of the films were evaluated by applying it to fresh cherry tomatoes at 4 °C and 22 °C for 7 days. The large 2% OEO film as well as both the small and large 3% OEO films had strong antimicrobial effects against Salmonella enterica, molds and yeasts, and mesophilic aerobic bacteria. The changes in the hardness, weight, and color of the cherry tomatoes during storage did not differ significantly. The films could be utilized as a packaging material for fresh produce with antimicrobial effects because of the controlled atmosphere surrounding the food rather than by direct contact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of edible films of Swartzia burchelli phosphated starches and development of coatings for post-harvest application to cherry tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millene Aparecida Gomes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The market demand for corn starch and cassava continues to increase because of their use in edible applications, their biodegradable nature, and other appealing properties. As a result, there is a need to identify alternative starch sources, for example, the seeds of S. burchelli, with the potential to be modified for use in post-harvest applications. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and characterize edible films based on the starch phosphates of the seeds of S. burchelli, with the specific aim to apply these starches to cherry tomatoes for post-harvest conservation. After extraction, the starch was phosphorylated with sodium tripolyphosphate (STP in different concentrations and times according to a 2 x 2 factorial design with additional treatment (native starch. After modification, the starch phosphates were selected for the preparation of edible films using glycerol as a plasticizer, in proportions of 5, 10, 15 and 20% for each selected starch. The films were measured for thickness, permeability to water vapor and solubility in water. According to their permeability values, 4 films were selected for application in the coverage of cherry tomatoes. The conservation of cherry tomatoes with and without coverage was studied over 8 evaluation times (up to 21 days at 10±2 °C and 80±5% relative humidity. The weight loss, soluble solids, titratable acidity, maturation index, and firmness were measured every 3 days during storage. The starch phosphates showed a phosphorus content within that established by standards, such that the resulting films are acceptable for use in food for human consumption. The edible films presented with an acceptable appearance and without the development of cracks. The concentration of glycerol and the type of starch influenced the characteristics of the films, increasing the permeability and reducing the water solubility of the various edible films. The best result obtained regarding the conservation of cherry

  3. Simultaneous ozone fumigation and fluoranthene sprayed as mists negatively affected cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Ozone (O(3)) fumigated at 120 microg L(-1) for 12 hd(-1) was combined with 10 microM fluoranthene, and other treatments, including Mannitol solution to investigate the interaction of the two pollutants on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Using ten treatments including Mannitol solution and a control, exposure experiment was conducted for 34 d inside six growth chambers used for monitoring the resulted ecophysiological changes. Visible foliar injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, CO(2) uptake and water vapor exchange were monitored in tomato. Ozone or fluoranthene independently affected some ecophysiological traits of the tomato. In addition, simultaneous treatments with the duo had increased (additive) negative effects on the photosynthesis rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll pigment contents (Chl a, Chl b and Chl((a+b))) and visible foliar symptoms. Contrarily, alleviation of the negative effects of O(3) on the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence variables by fluoranthene occurred. Mannitol solution, which functioned as a reactive oxygen species scavenger was able to mitigate some negative effects of the two pollutants on the tomato plants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Study on Mobility, Distribution and Rapid Ion Mobility Spectrometry Detection of Seven Pesticide Residues in Cucumber, Apple, and Cherry Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Nan; Yuan, Chunhao; Chen, Ronghua; Yang, Juan; Li, Yifan; Li, Xuesheng; Pan, Canping

    2017-01-11

    This research explores the mobility and distribution rules of simazine, acetamiprid, hexazinone, paclobutrazol, amitraz, clofentezine, and boscalid in the pulp and peel of apple, cucumber, and cherry tomato. A laboratory test was carried out by treating the matrices with standard solution for different periods of time. The percentage sorption of pesticides ranged from 0.02 to 89.3% for the three matrices. The pesticides' distribution was also determined, and all pesticides showed ratio values (Q) between pulp and peel concentrations in the three matrices of <0.8, which proved that the highest pesticides' content was found in the peel. In addition, a rapid and simple process combining a surface swab capture method and pulse glow discharge-ion mobility spectrometry (PGD-IMS) detection was established for the detection of pesticides on matrix surfaces. In the swab method, the whole matrix surface was swabbed manually by swab sticks, and swab sticks were agitated in acetonitrile to release the pesticides. The releasing factors of pesticides in the three matrices were calculated. The linearity, LOD, LOQ, and matrix effect were investigated to assess the applicability of the swab-IMS process in practical analysis. The swab-IMS method is rapid, sensitive, and quantitative and can be achieved in the field.

  5. Low temperature storage affects the ascorbic acid metabolism of cherry tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaniklidis, Georgios; Delis, Costas; Nikoloudakis, Nikolaos; Katinakis, Panagiotis; Aivalakis, Georgios

    2014-11-01

    Tomato fruits are an important source of l-Ascorbic acid, which is an essential compound of human diet. The effect of the widespread practice of cold storing (5-10 °C) tomato fruits was monitored to determine its impact on the concentration and redox status of l-Ascorbic acid. Total l-Ascorbic acid levels were well maintained in both attached fruits and cold treated fruits, while in other treatments its levels were considerably reduced. However, low temperature storage conditions enhanced the expression of most genes coding for enzymes involved in l-Ascorbic acid biosynthesis and redox reactions. The findings suggest that the transcriptional up-regulation under chilling stress conditions of most genes coding for l-Ascorbic acid biosynthetic genes galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase, GDP-d-mannose 3,5-epimerase but also for the isoenzymes of ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase enzyme, glutathione reductase that are strongly correlated to the l-Ascorbic redox status. Moreover, fruits stored at 10 °C exhibited higher levels of transcript accumulation of MDHAR2, DHAR1, DHAR2, GR1 and GR2 genes, pointing to a better ability to manage chilling stress in comparison to fruits stored at 5 °C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system on corn straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Muraoka, Takashi; Tavares, Silvio; Ambrosano, Glaucia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of green manure in on soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, conducted in a randomized block with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were as green manures intercropping or not on cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek ), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn straw and another with corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part during the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in an oven of forced air and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a knife mill type Willy and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for the analysis of δN-15. It measured the percentage of transfer of N green manure for tomato, the tomato plants grown as monocropped were considered a control and came to the result that 27 % N found in the fruit came from the green manure and the aerial part this figure was 23%. These results show that dur¬ing the fruit set of tomato can occur greater translocation and consequent higher utilization of N from green manure than in the aerial part. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in treatments not intercropped caused some soil alterations that could be detected in samples collected in the harvesting season. There was an increase in organic matter, Ca, Mg and Zn availability, and consequently in base saturation and pH. The presence

  7. Antioxidants (carotenoids and phenolics) profile of cherry tomatoes as influenced by deficit irrigation, ripening and cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyago-Cruz, Elena; Corell, Mireia; Moriana, Alfonso; Hernanz, Dolores; Benítez-González, Ana M; Stinco, Carla M; Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between the effect of regulated deficit irrigation, cluster, developmental stages and two seasons (autumn 2015 and spring 2016) on the commercial and functional quality (carotenoids and plenolics levels) in 'Lazarino' and 'Summerbrix' tomatoes. Autumn had a positive effect on the commercial quality, with larger fruits (22% in 'Summerbrix'; 26% in 'Lazarino') and higher soluble solids (16% in 'Summerbrix'; 12% in 'Lazarino'). Total carotenoids did not change significantly with irrigation and variety while total phenolics did with the cluster and season. In most cases, the main amounts of carotenoids and phenolic were found in the higher cluster and carotenoids in ripe fruit. Thus, irrigation of such varieties could be reduced drastically (ca. 80%) without affecting considerably the overall quality of their fruits (changes not greater than 30%). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging and gaseous ozone treatment on the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis on cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daş, Elif; Gürakan, G Candan; Bayindirli, Alev

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, outbreaks of infections associated with raw and minimally processed fruits and vegetables have been reported. The objective of this study was to analyse the growth/survival of Salmonella Enteritidis at spot-inoculated or stem-injected cherry tomatoes during passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), controlled atmosphere (CA) and to compare the results with those of air storage at 7 and 22 degrees C. During MAP, the gas composition equilibrated to 6% O2/4% CO2. CO2 level was maintained as 5% through the term of CA storage at 7 and 22 degrees C. The results demonstrate that S. Enteritidis can survive and/or grow during the storage of tomatoes depending on the location site of the pathogen on fruit, suspension cell density and storage temperature. During MAP, CA and air storage, S. Enteritidis with initial population of 7.0 log10 cfu/tomato survived on tomato surfaces with an approximate decrease of 4.0-5.0 log10 cfu/tomato in population within the storage period; however, in the case of initial population of 3.0 log10 cfu/tomato, cells died completely on day 4 during MAP storage and on day 6 during both CA and air storage. The death rate of S. Enteritidis on the surfaces of tomatoes that were stored in MAP was faster than that of stored in air and in CA. Storage temperature was effective on the survival of S. Enteritidis for the samples stored at ambient atmosphere; cells died completely on day 6 at 7 degrees C and on day 8 at 22 degrees C. Stem scars provided protective environments for Salmonella; an approximate increase of 1.0 log10 cfu/tomato in stem-scar population was observed during MAP, CA and air storage at 22 degrees C within the period of 20 days. Cells survived with no significant change in number at 7 degrees C. During the research, the effect of ozone treatment (5-30 mg/l ozone gas for 0-20 min) was also considered for surface sanitation before storage. Gaseous ozone treatment has bactericidal effect on S. Enteritidis, inoculated on

  9. Antifungal activity of food additives in vitro and as ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-lipid edible coatings against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata on cherry tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagundes, Cristiane; Pérez-Gago, María B; Monteiro, Alcilene R; Palou, Lluís

    2013-09-16

    The antifungal activity of food additives or 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) compounds was tested in vitro against Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria alternata. Radial mycelial growth of each pathogen was measured in PDA Petri dishes amended with food preservatives at 0.2, 1.0, or 2.0% (v/v) after 3, 5, and 7 days of incubation at 25 °C. Selected additives and concentrations were tested as antifungal ingredients of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC)-lipid edible coatings. The curative activity of stable coatings was tested in in vivo experiments. Cherry tomatoes were artificially inoculated with the pathogens, coated by immersion about 24 h later, and incubated at 20 °C and 90% RH. Disease incidence and severity (lesion diameter) were determined after 6, 10, and 15 days of incubation and the 'area under the disease progress stairs' (AUDPS) was calculated. In general, HPMC-lipid antifungal coatings controlled black spot caused by A. alternata more effectively than gray mold caused by B. cinerea. Overall, the best results for reduction of gray mold on cherry tomato fruit were obtained with coatings containing 2.0% of potassium carbonate, ammonium phosphate, potassium bicarbonate, or ammonium carbonate, while 2.0% sodium methylparaben, sodium ethylparaben, and sodium propylparaben were the best ingredients for coatings against black rot. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibacterial activity of acidified sodium benzoate against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth and on cherry tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huaiqiong; Zhong, Qixin

    2018-03-22

    Concerns about undesirable by-products from chlorine sanitation of fresh produce and the limited efficacy with the presence of organic matter, have led to studies on alternative washing solutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of acidified sodium benzoate (NaB) solutions against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in growth medium and on cherry tomatoes. Experimentally, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs, >3 Log reduction) of NaB against E. coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895, S. Enteritidis, and L. monocytogenes Scott A were determined at pH 7.0-4.0 using micro-broth dilution method and agar plating method, respectively. The reduction of the three bacteria in tryptic soy broth (TSB) by 500 and 1000 ppm NaB at pH 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 for 30 min at 21 °C was compared. Residual bacterial cocktails inoculated on cherry tomatoes were determined after soaking in 3000 ppm NaB solution adjusted to pH 2.0 for 3 min at 21 °C. Results showed that the MBC of NaB reduced from >10,000 ppm at pH 7.0 to 1000 ppm at pH 4.0 and was identical for the three bacteria. The log reduction of bacteria in TSB indicated that 1000 ppm NaB at pH 2.0 was the most effective in killing the three pathogens. The respective reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and S. enterica cocktails inoculated on cherry tomatoes immersed in 3000 ppm NaB (pH 2.0) at 21 °C for 3 min was 4.99 ± 0.57 and 4.08 ± 0.65 log CFU/g, which was significantly higher (p  0.05) to 200 ppm chlorine. Furthermore, the reduction of bacterial cocktails on tomatoes by 3000 ppm NaB at pH 2.0 was not affected after adding 1% tomato puree, and bacteria were not detected in NaB washing solutions with and without 1% tomato puree and on following un-inoculated tomatoes. This study showed that acidified NaB solution may be used as an alternative post-harvest wash of

  11. Dietary supplementation with tart cherries for prevention of inflammation-associated colorectal cancer in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Ashli

    2017-01-01

    The cherry fruit is a nutrient-dense food with comparatively low caloric content and significant amounts of key nutrients and bioactive food chemicals. Much of the health benefit of cherries is attributed to their high amounts of anthocyanins, which have anti-oxidant and anticancer properties that contribute to changes in cell signaling pathways involved in inflammation, carcinogenesis and angiogenesis. In this project, we aimed to determine whether dietary supplementation with tart cherries ...

  12. Nutritional properties of cherry tomatoes harvested at different times and grown in an organic cropping Propriedades nutricionais de tomates cereja colhidos em diferentes épocas e cultivado em sistema orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinéia de Pinho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical characteristics of the cherry tomato cultivated in organic and conventional production systems and harvested at either 30 or 45 days of cropping were evaluated using a randomized, 2x2 factorial design (2 cropping systems x 2 harvesting times with five repetitions. The parameters analyzed were color, centesimal composition, total energetic value, carotenoids and bioactive amine content. Tomatoes harvested at 30 days had higher total soluble solid (TSS content when grown conventionally, but when harvested at 45 days, both conventional and organic tomatoes had similar TSS values, probably due to increased N availability in the soil. Organic cherry tomatoes had higher contents of β-carotene, lycopene and bioactive amine. On the other hand, tomatoes from conventional cropping were more alkaline and brighter. In conclusion, organic tomatoes are more nutritious than conventional varieties, and if allowed to ripen for up to 45 days, contain higher levels of TSS, carotenoids and total bioactive amines.As características físico-químicas de tomates cereja cutivados em sistema orgânico e convencional e colhidos em 30 ou 45 dias de cultivo foram avaliadas em um delineamento casualizado, fatorial 2x2 (2 sistemas de cultivo x 2 épocas de colheita com cinco repetições. Foram analisados os parâmetros cor, composição centesimal, valor energético total e conteúdo de carotenóides e de aminas bioativas. Tomates colhidos em 30 dias tiveram maior conteúdo de sólidos solúveis totais (SST, possivelmente devido ao aumento de disponibilidade de N no solo. Os tomates orgânicos tiveram maior conteúdo de β-caroteno, licopeno e aminas bioativas. Por outro lado, os tomates convencionais foram menos ácidos e tiveram maior brilho. Conclui-se que tomates orgânicos são mais nutritivos que os convencionais, e se amadurecerem até 45 dias concentram maior teor de SST, carotenóides e aminas bioativas totais.

  13. Produtividade de tomate tipo cereja cultivado em ambiente protegido e em diferentes substratos Productivity of cherry tomato cultivated in a protected environment and in different substrates

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    Mônica T A de Gusmão

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado em Jaboticabal-SP, sob ambiente protegido, objetivando avaliar quatro substratos (Rendimax-Estufa®, areia, solo coberto com filme de polietileno preto e solo descoberto e quatro híbridos de tomateiro tipo cereja ('Mascot', 'Gisela', 'Cheri' e 'Sweet Million', sendo os substratos comercial e areia acondicionados em sacos plásticos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com quatro repetições. Utilizou-se irrigação por gotejamento, sendo a dotação hídrica realizada em função dos dados obtidos em um tanque Classe A. A solução nutritiva utilizada foi a recomendada por Castellane & Araújo (1995 para a cultura do tomateiro. Os frutos foram colhidos semanalmente, durante o período de 24/11/2000 a 24/01/2001, sendo avaliados o número e produtividade diária de frutos. Os cultivos em solo proporcionaram maior produção diária que no substrato comercial e em areia, para os híbridos Gisele e 'Mascot'. O híbrido 'Gisela' mostrou-se mais produtivo nos cultivos em solo, enquanto o híbrido 'Cheri', embora tenha proporcionado menores produções em peso, produziu maior número de frutos por planta. A produtividade dos tratamentos mais produtivos foi satisfatória, estando de acordo com os padrões de produção para a cultura no Brasil.The experiment was carry out in Jaboticabal-SP, under a protected environment, aiming to evaluate four substrates of root development (substrates Rendimax®, sand, soil with mulch of black polyethylene film and soil without mulch and four hybrids of cherry tomato ('Mascot', 'Gisela', 'Cheri' and 'Sweet Million'. The experimental design was a randomized complete blocks, in a factorial array (4 x 4, with four replications. The irrigation/fertigation was done with a trickle system, being the hydric dotation established based upon the measurements of the class A pan. The nutritious solution was recommended by Castellane & Araújo (1995 for

  14. Uso do algoritmo de Gower na determinação da divergência genética entre acessos de tomateiro do grupo cereja = Using Gower’s algorithm on the genetic divergence determination among cherry tomato accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Camargo Rocha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A análise conjunta de variáveis qualitativas e quantitativas tem sido apontada como ferramenta útil na estimativa da divergência genética entre os acessos de uma coleção de germoplasma. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos caracterizar uma coleção de germoplasma de tomateiro do grupo cereja, com base em descritores qualitativos e quantitativos e utilizar o algoritmo de Gower na quantificação da divergência genética. Estudaram-se 40 acessos de tomateiro cereja, cultivados em manejo orgânico nas condições de Seropédica, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram utilizados quatro descritores qualitativos relacionados aos frutos e nove descritores quantitativos. Os dados foram analisados de forma conjunta pelo algoritmo de Gower. Detectou-se variabilidade para coloração, formato e número de lóculos do fruto. A coloração vermelha foi observada em 25 acessos testados, registrando-se também a produção de frutos amarelos, laranjas e marrons. Para número de lóculos, foi registrada a ocorrência de frutosbi, tri, tetra e pluriloculares (com até sete lóculos. O método UPGMA foi o que obteve o maior coeficiente de correlação cofenética (0,80, observando-se a formação de sete grupos. Os grupos formados permitiram a distinção de frutos classificados como cereja e outros que não se adequaram a esta definição, por estarem acima do diâmetro equatorial proposto para esta classe. The joint analysis of qualitative and quantitative variables has been considered a useful tool to estimate the genetic divergence among accessions of a gene bank. The purpose of this research was: (i to characterize a collection of cherry tomatoes, using quantitative and qualitative descriptors, and (ii to use Gower’s algorithm to quantify genetic divergence among genotypes, employing a joint descriptors analysis. Forty accessions of organically grown cherry tomato were studied in Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fourqualitative fruit descriptors

  15. Cultivo hidropônico de tomate cereja utilizando-se efluente tratado de uma indústria de sorvete Hydroponic production of cherry tomatoes using treated effluent of ice cream industry

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    Samuel M. M. Malheiros

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o uso de doses de efluente oriundo de indústria de sorvete, na cultura do tomate cereja em relação ao consumo hídrico e no desenvolvimento vegetativo em sistema hidropônico. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos pelo uso de doses de efluente (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% com complementação de nutrientes e com o uso de 100% de efluente sem complementação nutriente. O aumento das doses de efluente na solução nutritiva proporcionou redução linear no consumo hídrico. O efluente com 25% proporcionou a melhor produtividade. A adição de até 50% de efluente de sorvete à solução nutritiva permitiu o cultivo de tomate cereja sem redução na produtividade, com melhor eficiência do uso da água na produção de matéria seca da parte aérea, produção de frutos e máxima substituição de minerais solúveis na solução nutritiva.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of ice cream raw effluent doses on consumption and vegetative development of cherry tomato under hydroponic system. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications. Treatments consisted of 5 different levels of effluent (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% complemented with the amount of nutrient recommended for growing tomatoes and 100% of effluent without nutrient complementation. Increasing doses of effluent provided linear reduction in water consumption.Addition of effluent in proportion of 25% provided best production results. Addition up to 50% ice cream effluent to nutrient solution allowed growth of cherry tomato without yield reduction providing better efficiency of water use in terms of dry weight of shoots and fruit production as well as maximum substitution of soluble mineral fertilizers in nutrient solution.

  16. Germacrene C synthase from Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT Cherry tomato: cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of the multiple product sesquiterpene cyclase

    OpenAIRE

    Colby, Sheila M.; Crock, John; Dowdle-Rizzo, Barbara; Lemaux, Peggy G.; Croteau, Rodney

    1998-01-01

    Germacrene C was found by GC-MS and NMR analysis to be the most abundant sesquiterpene in the leaf oil of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT Cherry, with lesser amounts of germacrene A, guaia-6,9-diene, germacrene B, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and germacrene D. Soluble enzyme preparations from leaves catalyzed the divalent metal ion-dependent cyclization of [1-3H]farnesyl diphosphate to these same sesquiterpene olefins, as determined by radio-GC. To obtain a germacrene synthase cDNA, a set of...

  17. Germacrene C synthase from Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT cherry tomato: cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of the multiple product sesquiterpene cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, S M; Crock, J; Dowdle-Rizzo, B; Lemaux, P G; Croteau, R

    1998-03-03

    Germacrene C was found by GC-MS and NMR analysis to be the most abundant sesquiterpene in the leaf oil of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT Cherry, with lesser amounts of germacrene A, guaia-6,9-diene, germacrene B, beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, and germacrene D. Soluble enzyme preparations from leaves catalyzed the divalent metal ion-dependent cyclization of [1-3H]farnesyl diphosphate to these same sesquiterpene olefins, as determined by radio-GC. To obtain a germacrene synthase cDNA, a set of degenerate primers was constructed based on conserved amino acid sequences of related terpenoid cyclases. With cDNA prepared from leaf epidermis-enriched mRNA, these primers amplified a 767-bp fragment that was used as a hybridization probe to screen the cDNA library. Thirty-one clones were evaluated for functional expression of terpenoid cyclase activity in Escherichia coli by using labeled geranyl, farnesyl, and geranylgeranyl diphosphates as substrates. Nine cDNA isolates expressed sesquiterpene synthase activity, and GC-MS analysis of the products identified germacrene C with smaller amounts of germacrene A, B, and D. None of the expressed proteins was active with geranylgeranyl diphosphate; however, one truncated protein converted geranyl diphosphate to the monoterpene limonene. The cDNA inserts specify a deduced polypeptide of 548 amino acids (Mr = 64,114), and sequence comparison with other plant sesquiterpene cyclases indicates that germacrene C synthase most closely resembles cotton delta-cadinene synthase (50% identity).

  18. Tomato as a Source of Carotenoids and Polyphenols Targeted to Cancer Prevention

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    Raúl Martí

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in vegetables has been associated with a reduced risk of many diseases related to aging and modern lifestyle. Over the past several decades, many researches have pointed out the direct relation between the intake of bioactive compounds present in tomato and a reduced risk of suffering different types of cancer. These bioactive constituents comprise phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. The direct intake of these chemoprotective molecules seems to show higher efficiencies when they are ingested in its natural biological matrix than when they are ingested isolated or in dietary supplements. Consequently, there is a growing trend for improvement of the contents of these bioactive compounds in foods. The control of growing environment and processing conditions can ensure the maximum potential accumulation or moderate the loss of bioactive compounds, but the best results are obtained developing new varieties via plant breeding. The modification of single steps of metabolic pathways or their regulation via conventional breeding or genetic engineering has offered excellent results in crops such as tomato. In this review, we analyse the potential of tomato as source of the bioactive constituents with cancer-preventive properties and the result of modern breeding programs as a strategy to increase the levels of these compounds in the diet.

  19. Crescimento e produção de tomate cereja em sistema hidropônico com rejeito de dessalinização Cherry tomato growth and yield in soilless system using wastewater from desalination process

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    Jonath Werissimo da Silva Gomes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade agrícola sustentável é o maior desafio nas regiões áridas e semiáridas por causa da escassez de água para irrigação, sendo comum o uso de água salobra para irrigação. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a resposta do tomate cereja (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia sob quatro níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva com adição de rejeito salino em sistema de produção hidropônico. As plantas de tomate foram cultivadas em vasos com substrato de fibra de coco e irrigadas com soluções nutritivas preparadas com água de abastecimento e com águas salinas preparadas diluindo-se água de rejeito coletado em um dessalinizador a 75%; 50% e 25% e 0%, correspondendo à condutividades elétricas de 2,1; 3,55; 4,88, 6,02 e 6,96 dS m-1, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos (níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva e quatro repetições. A altura e a massa seca das plantas reduziram com o aumento da salinidade da água de irrigação. O consumo hídrico da cultura foi influenciada pela adição de rejeito salino na solução nutritiva e a salinidade limiar, considerando-se a produtividade da cultura, ficou em torno de 3,51 dS m-1. A adição de até 25% de rejeito de dessalinizador (diluição de 75% à solução nutritiva permite o cultivo do tomate cereja, cv. 'Samambaia', sem haver redução na produtividade.Sustainable agricultural production is the most challenge facing many arid and semiarid regions due to the severe shortage of water for irrigation, thus the use of saline water for irrigation is common. The aim of this research was to examine the response of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L., cv. Samambaia under four levels of salinity of the nutritional solution with added water reject from desalting under soilless conditions. Plants were grown in pots filled with coconut fiber and irrigated with nutrient solutions prepared with tap

  20. Row spacing and pruning regimes on organically grown cherry tomato Espaçamento e sistema de condução de tomate cereja em cultivo orgânico

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    Vlamir F de Azevedo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of branch number and plant densities on organically grown cherry tomato yield and fruit quality were studied. Labor costs for pruning were also assessed. The essay was conducted at the experimental fields of the Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from September 2004 to January 2005. A factorial design was used combining three row spacings (0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m, two cherry tomato cultivars (hybrid 'Super-Sweet' and a local self pollinated 'Perinha' and three pruning regimes (free growth, one branch per plant and two branches per plant. The row spacing treatment of 0.6 x 1.5 m resulted in lower number of fruits when compared to the 0.4 x 1.5 m treatment, however, producing fruits with higher individual average mass, which resulted in similar final yield. These yields were higher than the 0.8 m treatment. Yield increases due to the higher number of plants per area were mostly due to the increase of fruit number, which compensated for the decrease of fruit size and mass. The 'free growth' treatment yielded similarly to the two branches per plant treatment. The labor costs were lower under 'free growth' due to the absence of pruning. Both cultivars responded similarly to plant population and pruning regimes.Com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito do manejo e da densidade de plantio na produtividade de frutos e no custo com mão de obra em sistema orgânico de produção de tomate cereja, foi realizado um experimento no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFRRJ, Seropédica-RJ, de setembro de 2004 a janeiro de 2005. Foram avaliados os efeitos da combinação de três sistemas de condução (sem tutoramento e sem limitação do número de hastes por planta; tutoramento com condução de uma haste por planta e, tutoramento com condução de duas hastes por planta, três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,4; 0,6 e 0,8 m e duas cultivares de tomate cereja (Perinha Água Branca e Super Sweet. O tratamento com espaçamento de 0,6 x 1,5 m

  1. Germacrene C synthase from Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT Cherry tomato: cDNA isolation, characterization, and bacterial expression of the multiple product sesquiterpene cyclase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sheila M.; Crock, John; Dowdle-Rizzo, Barbara; Lemaux, Peggy G.; Croteau, Rodney

    1998-01-01

    Germacrene C was found by GC-MS and NMR analysis to be the most abundant sesquiterpene in the leaf oil of Lycopersicon esculentum cv. VFNT Cherry, with lesser amounts of germacrene A, guaia-6,9-diene, germacrene B, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, and germacrene D. Soluble enzyme preparations from leaves catalyzed the divalent metal ion-dependent cyclization of [1-3H]farnesyl diphosphate to these same sesquiterpene olefins, as determined by radio-GC. To obtain a germacrene synthase cDNA, a set of degenerate primers was constructed based on conserved amino acid sequences of related terpenoid cyclases. With cDNA prepared from leaf epidermis-enriched mRNA, these primers amplified a 767-bp fragment that was used as a hybridization probe to screen the cDNA library. Thirty-one clones were evaluated for functional expression of terpenoid cyclase activity in Escherichia coli by using labeled geranyl, farnesyl, and geranylgeranyl diphosphates as substrates. Nine cDNA isolates expressed sesquiterpene synthase activity, and GC-MS analysis of the products identified germacrene C with smaller amounts of germacrene A, B, and D. None of the expressed proteins was active with geranylgeranyl diphosphate; however, one truncated protein converted geranyl diphosphate to the monoterpene limonene. The cDNA inserts specify a deduced polypeptide of 548 amino acids (Mr = 64,114), and sequence comparison with other plant sesquiterpene cyclases indicates that germacrene C synthase most closely resembles cotton δ-cadinene synthase (50% identity). PMID:9482865

  2. EVALUATING THE FRUIT PRODUCTION AND QUALITY OF CHERRY TOMATO (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme EVALUACIÓN DE LA PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL FRUTO DEL TOMATE CEREZA Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Ceballos Aguirre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The greatest genetic diversity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. in terms of fruit quality characteristics such as flavor, aroma, color, and lycopene and b-carotene contents is found in wild species. This study evaluated the agronomic characteristics and fruit quality of 30 cherry tomato introductions of the germplasm bank of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Palmira in trials conducted at the Montelindo experimental farm of the Universidad de Caldas (1010 m above sea level, average temperature 22.8 °C, average annual rainfall 2200 mm, 76% relative humidity. A 5 x 6 rectangular lattice experimental design was used with 30 treatments (introductions and a commercial control (Sweet Million, 4 replicates/treatment, and 5 plants/replicate as experimental unit. The descriptors used were those suggested by the former International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, now Bioversity International. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan's means test using the SAS program. In addition, principal component and cluster dendrogram analyses using the SAS Princom and Cluster procedure (SAS Institute, Cary, NC were performed. Six principal components accounted for 80.39% of the morphological variability of the introductions evaluated. The most promising materials in terms of average fruit weight, yield per plant and per hectare, and soluble solids, vitamin C and lycopene contents were IAC1624, IAC391, IAC3652, LA2131, IAC424, IAC1621, IAC426, LA1480 and IAC1688. The broad phenotypic variability observed in the evaluated introductions favors the potential selection and breeding of tomato for traits associated with fruit production and quality.Resumen. La mayor diversidad genética del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. en términos de características de calidad del fruto como sabor, aroma, coloración y contenidos de licopeno y b-caroteno se encuentra en especies silvestres. Este estudio evaluó las características agronómicas y

  3. GENERAL AND SPECIFIC COMBINING ABILITY OF INITIAL PARENTAL FORMS IN TOMATO FOR COMPLEX OF ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS TO DEVELOP HYBRIDS F1 OF CHERRY AND COCKTAIL TYPES

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    R. K. Rechets

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of estimation of general and specific combining ability of male and female parental tomato forms were given for complex of traits. The estimation was carried out according to incomplete diallel crosses 15x15. Such varities   as   ‘Trapeza’,  Rosovaya  kapelka’,  ‘Seniorita’, ‘Ocharovanie’,  ‘Tigris’   ‘Vishnya  Zheltaya’  (Gavrish, ‘Denezhnoye Derevo’ (national breeding, and  lines: ‘46/06’,  ‘49/09’,  ‘295/09’,  ‘336/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘357/11’, ‘388/09’ (nor, ‘498’ (selection of TARI were used as intial breeding accessions, differing in bush type (determinate and indeterminate, duration of vegetative phase (ultraearly,  early, medium early, middle-ripening, fruit  shape (rounded, oval, fruit color (red, pink, black, orange, tiger and with the gene nor, fruit weight (10 g. and more, brush structure (dense, friable. As a results, ‘Trapeza’, ‘Vishnya Zheltaya’, ‘Ocharovaniye’, ‘Seniorita’, and lines: ‘295/10’, ‘49/09’,  ‘498’,  ‘357/11’,  ‘354/11’,  ‘388/09’  (nor were selected and recommended to be used in breeding program for development of heterotic hybrids with high fruit setting and generative bush type. The promising hybrids F1 with high constants of specific combining ability for a complex of economically valuable traits have been observed. Because of different lines and accessions were used in crossings, these hybrids varied in internode length of cluster type, classical or shorten; rounded or oval fruit shape; fruit  color, red (F1   combinations ‘354/11’ х ‘Seniorita’, ‘Trapeza’ х  ‘L.49/09’,  L.  ‘49/09’  х  L.354/11, pink (F1 combination ‘Rosovaya Kapelka’ х ‘L.354/11’, yellow (F1 combination ‘Ocharovaniye’ х  ‘Vishiya Zheltaya’, deep brown (F1 combination  ‘L.357/11’ х ‘L.354/11’.

  4. Tomato Lycopene and Lung Cancer Prevention: From Experimental to Human Studies

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    Assunta Catalano

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that tomato lycopene may be preventive against the formation and the development of lung cancer. Experimental studies demonstrated that lycopene may inhibit the growth of several cultured lung cancer cells and prevent lung tumorigenesis in animal models through various mechanisms, including a modulation of redox status, cell cycle arrest and/or apoptosis induction, a regulation of growth factor signaling, changes in cell growth-related enzymes, an enhancement of gap junction communication and a prevention of smoke-induced inflammation. In addition, lycopene also inhibited cell invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Several lycopene metabolites have been identified, raising the question as to whether the preventive effects of lycopene on cancer risk is, at least in part, due to its metabolites. Despite these promising reports, it is difficult at the moment to directly relate available experimental data to human pathophysiology. More well controlled clinical intervention trials are needed to further clarify the exact role of lycopene in the prevention of lung cancer cell growth. Such studies should take into consideration subject selection, specific markers of analysis, the levels of carotenoids being tested, metabolism and isomerization of lycopene, interaction with other bioactive food components. This article reviews data on the cancer preventive activities of lycopene, possible mechanisms involved, and the relationship between lycopene consumption and human cancer risk.

  5. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  6. Comparative morphological analysis of cherry tomato fruits from three cropping systems Análise morfológica comparativa de frutos tomate cereja provenientes de três sistemas de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Cachoeira Stertz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Attempts to meet produces market demand are not always followed by research reports showing the impact of novel, intensive cropping systems on the environment, human and animal health, and eventual chemical and structural changes of plants. This work carries a comparative evaluation of the morphology and anatomy of cherry tomato fruits obtained from organic, conventional and hydroponic cropping systems. Fruits were collected at the free market in the greater Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. For each culture method, 50 fruits their weight, diameter and volume measured. For the anatomical analysis, samples of the pericarp of ten fruits were excised and embedded in glycol methacrylate; 6-mm cuts were then obtained, stained with toluidine blue, and mounted on permanent glass slides. The anatomical analysis and illustrations were performed in Olympus and Zeiss photonic microscope. Samples obtained from the organic cropping system presented the highest mass, diameter, volume and density. The pericarp of fruits, obtained from the conventional cropping system presented larger but less abundant cells in comparison to the pericarp of the hydroponic and organic-produced fruits.A ciência agrícola buscou novas formas de cultivo para atender às exigências de mercado e dividiu-se em três grandes vertentes: os sistemas de cultivo orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Todavia, esses avanços nem sempre foram acompanhados por pesquisas que objetivassem apontar o impacto de uma nova técnica agrícola sobre o ambiente, a saúde humana e animal e aos próprios vegetais em seus aspectos químicos e estruturais. Este trabalho tem por objetivo o estudo comparativo da morfo-anatomia do fruto do Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme (Duval A. Gray, cultivado nos sistemas orgânico, convencional e hidropônico. Os frutos foram coletados no comércio varejista da Região Metropolitana de Curitiba, Paraná, Brasil. Para cada cultivo foram analisados 50 frutos. Cada

  7. Crescimento inicial do tomateiro-cereja sob irrigação com águas salinas em solo com biofertilizantes bovino Initial growth of cherry tomatoes under irrigation with saline water in a soil with bovine biofertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo F. Medeiros

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi desenvolvido no período de outubro de 2009 a fevereiro de 2010, em ambiente telado do Departamento de Solos e Engenharia Rural do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Areia, PB, para avaliar a influência da salinidade da água de irrigação no crescimento inicial do tomate-cereja em solo não salino, sem e com dois tipos de biofertilizante bovino. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5x3, com seis repetições, referente aos valores de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação: 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 3,0 e 4,0 dS m-1, em solo sem biofertilizante, com biofertilizante comum e enriquecido com leite, melaço e gesso agrícola. Depois de diluídos em água não salina (0,5 dS m-1 na razão de 1:1. Os biofertilizantes foram aplicados uma única vez, dois dias antes da semeadura, a nível de 10% do volume do substrato. Os biofertilizantes proporcionaram maior crescimento das plantas em relação ao solo sem os respectivos insumos, independentemente do nível de salinidade das águas. A adição do biofertilizante comum e do enriquecido elevou o caráter salino do solo com superioridade sobre os tratamentos com apenas águas salinas, mas sem diferença significativa entre ambos.An experiment was conducted, from October 2009 to February 2010, in a greenhouse of the Soil and Rural Engineering Department from CCA – UFPB, Areia – PB, to evaluate the influence of the irrigation water salinity in the initial growth of the cherry tomatoes in a non-saline soil with and without two types of bovine biofertilizer. The experimental design was completely randomized in factorial scheme 5 x 3, with six repetitions, referring to values of electrical conductivity of the irrigation water: 0.5; 1.0; 2.0; 3.0 and 4.0 dS m-1 , in the soil without biofertilizer, with ordinary biofertilizer and enriched with milk, molasses, agricultural gypsum. The biofertilizers after

  8. Determination of Optimum Sanitizer Levels for Prevention of Salmonella Cross-Contamination of Mature Round Tomatoes in a Laboratory Model Flume System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Aswathy; Li, You; De, Jaysankar; Gutierrez, Alan; Silverberg, Rachael; Schneider, Keith R

    2017-09-01

    Salmonella has been reported to be involved in several foodborne illness outbreaks, many of which resulted from consumption of raw tomatoes. This research aimed to optimize and evaluate the concentration of free chlorine (hypochlorous acid [HOCl]) used as a sanitizer to prevent cross-contamination of tomatoes inoculated with a cocktail of five rifampin-resistant Salmonella enterica serovars in a laboratory-based model flume system. Organic load, prepared using sterilized Scotts Premium Topsoil, was added in different quantities to the flume wash water to simulate real-world packinghouse conditions. In a typical packinghouse operation utilizing a recirculating flume system, the organic matter washed from tomato surfaces accumulates over time. In this study, different concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm) of HOCl were used as sanitizers under three organic load conditions (0, 650, and 1,000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand). Results showed that 100 ppm of HOCl was necessary to prevent Salmonella cross-contamination of uninoculated tomatoes in the model flume system in the presence of organic loading. Also, when treated with 100 ppm of HOCl, Salmonella levels were reduced by >4.5 log CFU per tomato from inoculated tomatoes in the presence of organic load. At 75 ppm of HOCl, Salmonella cross-contamination was prevented, but only in the absence of organic loading. In studies in which plate counts were negative, whole tomato enrichment studies were performed. No cross-contamination of uninoculated tomatoes was recorded when 100 ppm of HOCl was used, even in the presence of high organic load (1,000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand). Although sanitizer application reduces contamination on tomato surfaces, the primary function of sanitizers in the wash water is to prevent cross-contamination.

  9. A Review of the Health Benefits of Cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshan S. Kelley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased oxidative stress contributes to development and progression of several human chronic inflammatory diseases. Cherries are a rich source of polyphenols and vitamin C which have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Our aim is to summarize results from human studies regarding health benefits of both sweet and tart cherries, including products made from them (juice, powder, concentrate, capsules; all referred to as cherries here. We found 29 (tart 20, sweet 7, unspecified 2 published human studies which examined health benefits of consuming cherries. Most of these studies were less than 2 weeks of duration (range 5 h to 3 months and served the equivalent of 45 to 270 cherries/day (anthocyanins 55–720 mg/day in single or split doses. Two-thirds of these studies were randomized and placebo controlled. Consumption of cherries decreased markers for oxidative stress in 8/10 studies; inflammation in 11/16; exercise-induced muscle soreness and loss of strength in 8/9; blood pressure in 5/7; arthritis in 5/5, and improved sleep in 4/4. Cherries also decreased hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C, Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein (TG/HDL in diabetic women, and VLDL and TG/HDL in obese participants. These results suggest that consumption of sweet or tart cherries can promote health by preventing or decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation.

  10. APPRECIATION OF QUALITY FOR SOME TOMATOES VARIETIES BY USING THE DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Giosanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies were done on three varieties of tomatoes from Spain (red cherry, yellow cherry and kumato cherry. The following parameters: pH, soluble solids, content of water (moisture, content of minerals (ash, titratable acidity and content of some bioactive compounds (vitamin C, polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins and carotenoids were determinate in order to appreciate the quality of these products. The results showed the influence of the varieties on the values of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

  11. Control of Cherry Leaf Spot and Cherry Fruit Fly at Sour Cherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria BOROVINOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were made in the experimental sour cherry orchard from the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil, Bulgaria, during the period 2010-2014, in order to compare conventional and integrated sour cherry protection against cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Two variants were investigated, with two different treatment approaches for the control of cherry leaf spot and cherry fruit fly. Variant 1 – cherry leaf spot was controlled by protective treatments with dodin and tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments with deltametrin and thiacloprid, independently of density. Variant 2 - cherry leaf spot was controlled by post-infection (curative treatments with tebuconazole + trifloxystrobin and cherry fruit fly was controlled by treatments based on biological threshold: 10-11 cherry fruit fly females caught in traps up to the moment for chemical treatment. It was established that Blumeriella japii can be successfully controlled by post-infection treatments and by this the number of insecticide treatments was reduced. The treatments against cherry fruit fly can be avoided or reduced when the attack control is based on the biological threshold established in the studied area.

  12. GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM1 is required for steroidal alkaloid glycosylation and prevention of phytotoxicity in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Maxim; Rogachev, Ilana; Alkan, Noam; Rosenberg, Tally; Malitsky, Sergey; Masini, Laura; Meir, Sagit; Iijima, Yoko; Aoki, Koh; de Vos, Ric; Prusky, Dov; Burdman, Saul; Beekwilder, Jules; Aharoni, Asaph

    2011-12-01

    Steroidal alkaloids (SAs) are triterpene-derived specialized metabolites found in members of the Solanaceae family that provide plants with a chemical barrier against a broad range of pathogens. Their biosynthesis involves the action of glycosyltransferases to form steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). To elucidate the metabolism of SGAs in the Solanaceae family, we examined the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM1 (GAME1) gene. Our findings imply that GAME1 is a galactosyltransferase, largely performing glycosylation of the aglycone tomatidine, resulting in SGA production in green tissues. Downregulation of GAME1 resulted in an almost 50% reduction in α-tomatine levels (the major SGA in tomato) and a large increase in its precursors (i.e., tomatidenol and tomatidine). Surprisingly, GAME1-silenced plants displayed growth retardation and severe morphological phenotypes that we suggest occur as a result of altered membrane sterol levels caused by the accumulation of the aglycone tomatidine. Together, these findings highlight the role of GAME1 in the glycosylation of SAs and in reducing the toxicity of SA metabolites to the plant cell.

  13. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dawei; Xu, Lihong; Tan, Chengxiang; Goodman, Erik D.; Fu, Daichang; Xin, Longjiao

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment) for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms. PMID:25675284

  14. Alterações nas propriedades físicas de substratos para cultivo de tomate cereja, em função de sua reutilização Effects of the reutilization of substrates on its physical properties on growing cherry tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Fernandes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações nas propriedades físicas de substratos em função de sua reutilização para o cultivo do tomateiro do grupo cereja, cultivar Sindy. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em parcelas subdivididas com os sete substratos (nas parcelas e três épocas de caracterização física dos substratos (nas subparcelas. As parcelas foram agrupadas em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os sete substratos resultaram da combinação de diferentes proporções volumétricas de três componentes: areia, bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e casca de amendoim. As propriedades físicas dos substratos avaliadas foram submetidas à análise de variância, sendo as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade. A reutilização do substrato composto por partes iguais dos três componentes promoveu aumento da densidade seca e do volume de água facilmente disponível, e redução da porosidade total, do espaço de aeração e do volume de água remanescente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the reutilization on the physical properties of different types of substrate used to grow cherry tomato, at Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil (21º14'05" S, 48º17'09" W. We used the split-plot experimental design with complete randomized blocks and four replications. In the plots were placed seven types of substrates, and in the subplots, three periods of physical characterization of the substrates. The seven substrates were prepared with different combinations of three materials: sand, crushed sugarcane and peanut bark. The physical properties evaluated were submitted to variance analysis and the averages were compared by the Tukey test, at 5% probability level. The reutilization of the substrate prepared with equal parts of the three components promoted the increase of bulk density and easily available water content, and the decrease of total porosity, aeration space, and

  15. Maraschino Cherry: A Laboratory-Lecture Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State Univ. has offered FST 102 "Maraschino Cherry" as a 1-credit orientation course since 1994. The maraschino cherry serves as a vehicle from which faculty give their disciplinary perspective, for example, the chemistry of the maraschino cherry, processing unit operations, microbiology and food safety, food law, sensory…

  16. Cherry Scallop Shell Moth Pest Alert

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Omer; Debra Allen-Reid

    1996-01-01

    The cherry scallop shell moth, Hydria prunivorata (Ferguson) is a defoliator of black cherry, and occasional other native cherries throughout its range in eastern North America. The moth?s name is derived from the pattern of alternating dark and light scalloped lines on the wings. The adults which emerge from late May to early August, have a wingspread of about 37mm....

  17. Tomato Preserves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Wendy Tessman

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project in which students selected seeds from two heirloom varieties of tomatoes, sowed the seeds, harvested the tomatoes, and fermented the seeds. Details are provided for each step of the project and the school address is included so that other students can begin similar projects. (DDR)

  18. Gamma irradiation as a quarantine treatment for sweet cherries against Queensland fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessup, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    The quality of 'Ron's Seedling', 'American Bing', and 'Lambert' sweet cherry drupes was not affected by irradiation doses up to 300 to 1000 gray. Peduncle discoloration increased in 'Ron's Seedling' cherries when irradiated at 600 and 1000 gray. A dose of 75 gray prevented adult eclosion of more than 1300 Queensland fruit fly (Dacus tryoni, Froggatt). Larvae treated at the third instar were the least susceptible to gamma irradiation. The results indicated that gamma irradiation is a feasible quarantine treatment against D. tryoni without impairment to the quality of cherries

  19. Digitization and Visualization of Greenhouse Tomato Plants in Indoor Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the digitization and visualization of potted greenhouse tomato plants in indoor environments. For the digitization, an inexpensive and efficient commercial stereo sensor—a Microsoft Kinect—is used to separate visual information about tomato plants from background. Based on the Kinect, a 4-step approach that can automatically detect and segment stems of tomato plants is proposed, including acquisition and preprocessing of image data, detection of stem segments, removing false detections and automatic segmentation of stem segments. Correctly segmented texture samples including stems and leaves are then stored in a texture database for further usage. Two types of tomato plants—the cherry tomato variety and the ordinary variety are studied in this paper. The stem detection accuracy (under a simulated greenhouse environment for the cherry tomato variety is 98.4% at a true positive rate of 78.0%, whereas the detection accuracy for the ordinary variety is 94.5% at a true positive of 72.5%. In visualization, we combine L-system theory and digitized tomato organ texture data to build realistic 3D virtual tomato plant models that are capable of exhibiting various structures and poses in real time. In particular, we also simulate the growth process on virtual tomato plants by exerting controls on two L-systems via parameters concerning the age and the form of lateral branches. This research may provide useful visual cues for improving intelligent greenhouse control systems and meanwhile may facilitate research on artificial organisms.

  20. hybridisation between cherry tomato (small fry) and petomech for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR)-Crops. Research Institute, Kwadaso, Kumasi in Ghana. The research field area of ... fresh by weighing pericarp tissues including external, internal and transverse parts, excluding seeds, using a weighing scale. Twenty-three fruits were collected from each of the genotypes, representing ...

  1. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was

  2. GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM1 Is Required for Steroidal Alkaloid Glycosylation and Prevention of Phytotoxicity in Tomato[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itkin, Maxim; Rogachev, Ilana; Alkan, Noam; Rosenberg, Tally; Malitsky, Sergey; Masini, Laura; Meir, Sagit; Iijima, Yoko; Aoki, Koh; de Vos, Ric; Prusky, Dov; Burdman, Saul; Beekwilder, Jules; Aharoni, Asaph

    2011-01-01

    Steroidal alkaloids (SAs) are triterpene-derived specialized metabolites found in members of the Solanaceae family that provide plants with a chemical barrier against a broad range of pathogens. Their biosynthesis involves the action of glycosyltransferases to form steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). To elucidate the metabolism of SGAs in the Solanaceae family, we examined the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) GLYCOALKALOID METABOLISM1 (GAME1) gene. Our findings imply that GAME1 is a galactosyltransferase, largely performing glycosylation of the aglycone tomatidine, resulting in SGA production in green tissues. Downregulation of GAME1 resulted in an almost 50% reduction in α-tomatine levels (the major SGA in tomato) and a large increase in its precursors (i.e., tomatidenol and tomatidine). Surprisingly, GAME1-silenced plants displayed growth retardation and severe morphological phenotypes that we suggest occur as a result of altered membrane sterol levels caused by the accumulation of the aglycone tomatidine. Together, these findings highlight the role of GAME1 in the glycosylation of SAs and in reducing the toxicity of SA metabolites to the plant cell. PMID:22180624

  3. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  4. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Nutraceutical value of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits: antioxidant and antihypertensive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Yahia, Elhadi M; Rivera-Pastrana, Dulce M; Rojas-Molina, Adriana; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-11-25

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  6. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.: Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Grunder

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L. (Diptera: Tephritidae, is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU. Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  7. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  8. Monitoring Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in Oregon, USA sweet cherry orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosophila suzukii rapidly became a significant cherry pest in the western United States after it was observed damaging cherries in 2009 in California. It has caused significant damage to ripening cherries in all major USA cherry production districts leading to increased management costs and reduced...

  9. Resistance of Commercial Tomato Cultivars to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide.Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato againsttwo common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to bothroot-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eightin globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’,‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.

  10. Cherry Irradiation Studies. 1984 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Hungate, F.P.; Tingey, G.L.; Olsen, K.L.; Fountain, J.B.; Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffit, H.R.; Johnson, D.A.; Lunden, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    Fresh cherries, cherry fruit fly larvae, and codling moth larvae were irradiated using the PNL cobalt-60 facility to determine the efficacy of irradiation treatment for insect disinfestation and potential shelf life extension. Irradiation is an effective disinfestation treatment with no significant degradation of fruit at doses well above those required for quarantine treatment. Sufficient codling moth control was achieved at projected doses of less than 25 krad; cherry fruit fly control, at projected doses of less than 15 krad. Dose levels up to 60 krad did not adversely affect cherry quality factors tested. Irradiation above 60 krad reduced the firmness of cherries but had no significant impact on other quality factors tested. Irradiation of cherries below 80 krad did not result in any significant differences in sensory evaluations (appearance, flavor, and firmness) in tests conducted at OSU. Irradiation up to 200 krad at a temperature of about 25 0 C (77 0 F) did not measurably extend shelf life. Irradiation at 500 krad at 25 0 C (77 0 F) increased mold and rotting of cherries tested. There is no apparent advantage of irradiation over low-temperature fumigation

  11. Philadelphia and the Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew F.; Kling, Tatiana

    This booklet describes for elementary students the many contributions of people, traveling many places, over many years to bring the tomato to Philadelphia. The booklet includes the following: (1) "Introduction to the Tomato"; (2) "Where Does the Tomato Come From?"; (3) "The Spanish Tomato"; (4) "The Philadelphia…

  12. John Cherry wins Horton Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Robert W.; Cherry, John

    The recipient of the 1985 Robert T. Horton Award is John Cherry. As John's colleague and friend for the past 12 years, it is a great privilege and honor for me to have been asked to prepare the citation for this award.John received his bachelor's degree in geological engineering from the University of Saskatchewan and his M.S., also in geological engineering, from the University of California at Berkeley. After earning his Ph.D. in geology at the University of Illinois, John spent 1 year in postdoctoral study at the University of Bordeaux, France, before returning to Canada in 1967 as an assistant professor of geology at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg. John joined the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Waterloo as an associate professor in 1971. At Waterloo he is currently a full professor and Director of the Institute for Groundwater Research.

  13. Pilgrim Souvenir: Hood of Cherries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Jeffs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This lead alloy badge from the British Museum represents a medieval hood repurposed as a sack for a harvest of cherries. It measures 38 by 30 millimetres and was cast integrally with its pin and clasp in a three-part mould. When first made, it would have shone like silver. Badges were purchased in their millions by pilgrims between the late twelfth and early sixteenth centuries, as attractive, wearable and cheap souvenirs of their visits to holy sites. By the later Middle Ages badges were also worn as general symbols of devotion, as livery insignia, and as humorous or amorous tokens; which of these categories the “hood of cherries” badge falls into is debatable. Five of them have been found: three in Salisbury, and another in London, while the provenance of the fifth is unknown. Their cataloguers reluctantly associate them with the cult of St Dorothy, whose emblem is a basket of fruit, although Spencer expressed concern that, “a fashionable hood seems far removed from her story.” There are also possible alternative explanations to its meaning, which will be explored here.

  14. Effect of green spinach (Amaranthus tricolor L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) addition in physical, chemical, and sensory properties of marshmallow as an alternative prevention of iron deficiency anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudhistira, B.; Affandi, D. R.; Nusantari, P. N.

    2018-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. Consuming vegetable which contain iron, including spinach, is an alternative to fulfill iron requirement. Fe will be more easily absorbed in the presence of vitamin C. Tomato is one of vitamin C source that can be used. Spinach can be applied into confectionary products in the form of marshmallow. This research aimed to find out the physical, chemical and sensory properties of green spinach Marshmallow in addition of Tomato, the best formula, and define the category of nutrition contents based on Acuan Label Gizi (ALG). This study used a completely randomized design (CRD) with one factor that was different proportion of spinach:tomato (75%: 25%; 50%: 50%; 25%: 75%). The data were analyzed using One Way Anova with 5% significance level. The result of this study showed that the difference of spinach and tomato proportion affect tensile strength, moisture, ash content, Fe content, crude fiber, vitamin C, color and marshmallow’s flavor. Best marshmallow formulation of 25% spinach in addition of 75% tomato had Fe content of 1.159 mg/100g and vitamin C of 44 mg/100g.

  15. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington cherry handling regulation. 923.322 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Grade, Size, Container and Pack Regulation § 923.322 Washington cherry handling regulation. (a) Grade. No handler shall handle...

  16. Tomato contact dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2012-01-01

    The tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum) is an important crop worldwide. Whereas immediate-type reactions to tomato fruits are well known, contact dermatitis caused by tomatoes or tomato plants is rarely reported. The aims of this study were to present new data on contact sensitization to tomato...... plants and review the literature on contact dermatitis caused by both plants and fruits. An ether extract of tomato plants made as the original oleoresin plant extracts, was used in aimed patch testing, and between 2005 and 2011. 8 of 93 patients (9%) tested positive to the oleoresin extracts....... This prevalence is in accordance with the older literature that reports tomato plants as occasional sensitizers. The same applies to tomato fruits, which, in addition, may cause protein contact dermatitis. The allergens of the plant are unknown, but both heat-stable and heat-labile constituents seem...

  17. Negative effects of fluoranthene on the ecophysiology of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) Fluoranthene mists negatively affected tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-02-01

    Cherry tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were sprayed with fluoranthene and mixture of fluoranthene and mannitol solutions for 30d. The exposure was carried out in growth chambers in field conditions, and the air was filtered through charcoal filters to remove atmospheric contaminants. Plants were sprayed with 10microM fluoranthene as mist until they reached the fruiting stage, and the eco-physiological parameters were measured to determine the effects of the treatments. We measured CO(2) uptake and water vapour exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, visual symptoms and biomass allocation. Fluoranthene which was deposited as mist onto leaves negatively affected both growth and the quality of tomato plants, while other treatments did not. The photosynthetic rate measured at saturated irradiance was approximately 37% lower in fluoranthene-treated plants compared with the control group. Other variables, such as stomata conductance, the photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark, Chl a, Chl b, and the total chlorophyll contents of the tomato leaves were significantly reduced in the fluoranthene-treated plants. Tomato plants treated with fluoranthene showed severe visible injury symptoms on the foliage during the exposure period. Mannitol (a reactive oxygen scavenger) mitigated effects of fluoranthene; thus, reactive oxygen species generated through fluoranthene may be responsible for the damaged tomato plants. It is possible for fluoranthene to decrease the aesthetic and hence the economic value of this valuable crop plant. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and iron and zinc dialyzability in selected Greek varieties of table olives, tomatoes and legumes from conventional and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakou, Marina; Birmpa, Angeliki; Koutelidakis, Antonios E; Komaitis, Michael; Panagou, Efstathios Z; Kapsokefalou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to compare 10 types of table olives, 11 types of tomatoes and tomato products and 18 types of legumes from conventional or organic farming for selected nutritional properties. All products were tested for their total antioxidant capacity (TAC) (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay) and total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteau method). Tomatoes and legumes were further tested for iron and zinc dialyzability after in vitro digestion. Ascorbic acid content of tomatoes was also measured. The study resulted that the nutritional properties of olives, tomatoes and legumes tested were different among the various cultivars but, in most cases, not between products from organic or conventional farming. Natural black olives, cherry and santorini tomatoes and lentils exhibited superior nutritional properties.

  19. Complete nucleotide sequence of little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) infecting sweet cherry in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1), associated with little cherry disease (LCD), has a significant impact on fruit quality of infected sweet cherry trees. We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of LChV-1 from China, detected by small RNA deep sequencing and amplified by overlapping RT-PCR. The...

  20. Generalized Cherry oscillators and negative energy waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1990-02-01

    In 1925 Cherry discussed two oscillators of positive and negative energy that are nonlinearly coupled in a special way, and presented exact solutions of the nonlinear equations showing explosive instabilities independent of the strength of the nonlinearity and the initial amplitudes. In this paper Cherry's Hamiltonian is transformed into a form which allows a simple physical interpretation. The new Hamiltonian is generalized to three nonlinearly coupled oscillators; it corresponds to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory, like the Vlasov-Maxwell theory, if there exist linear negative energy waves. (orig.)

  1. Photovoltaics - 10 years after Cherry Hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, E. L.

    The status of R&D programs connected with photovoltaic (PV) systems 10 years after the Cherry Hill workshop on 'Photovoltaic Conversion of Solar Energy for Terrestrial Applications' is assessed. The five categories of research recommended by the Cherry Hill Workshop are listed in a table together with their recommended research budget allocations. The workshop categories include: single-crystal Si cells; poly-Si cells; systems and diagnostics. Categories for thin film CdS/Cu2S and CuInSe2 cells are also included. The roles of government and private utility companies in providing adequate financial support for PV research programs is emphasized.

  2. Proximate Analysis and Total Lycopene Content of Some Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-06-05

    Jun 5, 2017 ... parameters and lycopene contents have shown that the cultivars were of high nutritional quality and can be good sources of raw material for industrial ... of foods such as tomato prevents colon cancer, heart disease and also normalizes ..... properties of F5 Breeding lines Tomatoes. British Journal of Applied ...

  3. Biologically-based strategies to reduce postharvest losses of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The preharvest employment of Bacillus subtilis was highly effective in an augmentation of fruit set and improves general apperance of tomato at harvest. Cooling technology supported the poential of B. subtilis, in particularly prevention of postharvest losses of tomato fruits within marketing context. Furthermore, the resultant ...

  4. Flavour quality of early and late harvested tomatoes from different organic growing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Edelenbos, Merete; Thybo, Anette; Christensen, Lars P.

    2005-01-01

    Flavour and firmness are important quality criteria for tomatoes [1]. Tomato flavour is mainly attributed to the content of sugar and acid and volatile compounds. Many factors determine tomato flavour e.g. cultivar, growing system, maturity, harvest time and post-harvest treatments [1, 2]. In Denmark, organic tomatoes are grown directly in the soil. It is difficult, however, to provide enough organic manure, to prevent leaching out of nutrients and to control soil-born diseases in a soil syst...

  5. Anomalous dark growth rings in black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert P. Long; David W. Trimpey; Michael C. Wiemann; Susan L. Stout

    2012-01-01

    Anomalous dark growth rings have been observed in black cherry (Prunus serotina) sawlogs from northwestern Pennsylvania making the logs unsuitable for veneer products. Thirty-six cross sections with dark rings, each traceable to one of ten stands, were obtained from a local mill and sections were dated and annual ring widths were measured. One or...

  6. Implication of abscisic acid on ripening and quality in sweet cherries: differential effects during pre- and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica eTijero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4ºC and 23ºC during 10d of postharvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during postharvest at 23ºC. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during preharvest, but not during postharvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during preharvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  7. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  8. Phytochemical composition and in vitro anti-tumour activities of selected tomato varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Bueno, Rebeca P; Romero-González, Roberto; González-Fernández, María J; Guil-Guerrero, José L

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that tomato is a rich source of phytochemicals that act on different tumours. In this research, the phytochemical composition of selected tomato varieties was assessed by GLC and UHPLC/HPLC-MS, as well as their anti-tumour activities on HT-29 colorectal cancer cells. Significant differences were found among tomato varieties; lycopene was high in Racimo, phenolics in Pera, sterols in Cherry, and linoleic acid predominated in all varieties. The MTT and LDH assays showed significant time- and concentration-dependent inhibitory/cytotoxic effects of all tomato varieties on HT-29 cells. Furthermore, the joint addition of tomato carotenoids and olive oil to HT-29 cell cultures induced inhibitory effects significantly higher than those obtained from each of them acting separately, while no actions were exercised in CCD-18 normal cells. Tomato fruits constitute a healthy source of phytochemicals, although differences exist among varieties. In vitro, all of them inhibit colorectal cancer cell proliferation with Racimo variety at the top, and exercising a selective action on cancer cells by considering the lack of effects on CCD-18 cells. Furthermore, synergy was observed between olive oil and tomato carotenoids in inhibiting HT-29 cancer cell proliferation; conversely, phenolics showed no significant effects and hindered carotenoids actions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Genomic variation in tomato, from wild ancestors to contemporary breeding accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanca, José; Montero-Pau, Javier; Sauvage, Christopher; Bauchet, Guillaume; Illa, Eudald; Díez, María José; Francis, David; Causse, Mathilde; van der Knaap, Esther; Cañizares, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    Domestication modifies the genomic variation of species. Quantifying this variation provides insights into the domestication process, facilitates the management of resources used by breeders and germplasm centers, and enables the design of experiments to associate traits with genes. We described and analyzed the genetic diversity of 1,008 tomato accessions including Solanum lycopersicum var. lycopersicum (SLL), S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme (SLC), and S. pimpinellifolium (SP) that were genotyped using 7,720 SNPs. Additionally, we explored the allelic frequency of six loci affecting fruit weight and shape to infer patterns of selection. Our results revealed a pattern of variation that strongly supported a two-step domestication process, occasional hybridization in the wild, and differentiation through human selection. These interpretations were consistent with the observed allele frequencies for the six loci affecting fruit weight and shape. Fruit weight was strongly selected in SLC in the Andean region of Ecuador and Northern Peru prior to the domestication of tomato in Mesoamerica. Alleles affecting fruit shape were differentially selected among SLL genetic subgroups. Our results also clarified the biological status of SLC. True SLC was phylogenetically positioned between SP and SLL and its fruit morphology was diverse. SLC and "cherry tomato" are not synonymous terms. The morphologically-based term "cherry tomato" included some SLC, contemporary varieties, as well as many admixtures between SP and SLL. Contemporary SLL showed a moderate increase in nucleotide diversity, when compared with vintage groups. This study presents a broad and detailed representation of the genomic variation in tomato. Tomato domestication seems to have followed a two step-process; a first domestication in South America and a second step in Mesoamerica. The distribution of fruit weight and shape alleles supports that domestication of SLC occurred in the Andean region. Our results also

  10. Characterization of composition traits related to organoleptic and functional quality for the differentiation, selection and enhancement of local varieties of tomato from different cultivar groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figàs, Maria R; Prohens, Jaime; Raigón, María D; Fita, Ana; García-Martínez, María D; Casanova, Cristina; Borràs, Dionís; Plazas, Mariola; Andújar, Isabel; Soler, Salvador

    2015-11-15

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) local varieties are having an increasing demand. We characterized 69 local tomato accessions from eight cultivar groups for proximate composition traits, major sugars, acids and antioxidants. A large diversity was found, with differences among accessions of almost tenfold for lycopene. Significant differences were found among cultivar group means for most traits. The Cherry and Penjar groups generally presented higher dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, taste index, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity that the other groups. Wide ranges of variation were found within each cultivar group. Positive correlations were found between proximate traits related to taste and antioxidants. The multivariate principal components analysis confirms the distinct profile of the Cherry and Penjar groups and the large variation within groups. The results will be useful for the differentiation, enhancement and selection of local tomato varieties with improved organoleptic properties and functional quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of some varieties and breeding lines of tomato (Lycopersison sp) against tomato yellow leaf curl disease in the Greater Accra Region (Ghana)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusi-Adjei, R.

    2011-01-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate ten (10) tomato varieties and breeding lines against tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease in Ghana. The research was undertaken at the research farm of the Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. Ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were evaluated in the field under natural whitefly inoculation in insect-proof cages. The field trial was done in the dry season from October, 2010 to February, 2011 and wet season from March, 2011 to July, 2011. Plants in the fields and in the cage exhibited varied symptoms such as leaf curling, leaf yellowing and reduced leaf sizes. Assessment of disease incidence and symptom severity using a four point scale (0-4) showed that, in the field there was higher disease incidence in the dry season as compared to the wet season. This was attributed to the higher number of whiteflies in the dry season as demonstrated through a whitefly population survey conducted in the field. Differences among means for disease incidence and whitefly surveys on the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines were statistically significant (p≤ 0.05). Wild Tomato (Solanum pimpinellifollium) and two hybrids, Wosowoso x Wild Tomato and Cherry Red x Wild Tomato exhibited signs of resistance in the field and did not show any symptoms of TYLCV disease symptoms. All the commercial varieties were highly susceptible and showed severe symptoms. Evaluation of fruit yield in the field revealed that the commercial variety Tomato Advanta had the heaviest fruit weight (42 g/ fruit) whilst Wosowoso had the highest total fruit yield (5.74 t/ha) in the wet season. Wild Tomato and the hybrids produced higher number of fruits compared to the commercial varieties. There were highly significant differences in the means of number of fruits, fruit weight (g) and total fruit yield (t/ha) among the ten tomato varieties and breeding lines in both the wet and dry seasons

  12. Is cut-stump and girdling an efficient method of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. eradication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otręba Anna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to prevent the invasion of black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. have a long history in Western Europe. However, effective methods of eliminating it that do not bear negative side effects for ecosystems have not yet been developed. Mechanical methods are the first choice in environmentally sensitive areas. In this study, we aimed to find answers to the questions: does the application of cutting at a height of 1 m from the ground limit the sprouting capacities of black cherry? And, is stem girdling an effective method of eliminating black cherry? The study was carried out in the Kampinos National Park, on two mixed pine forest plots with undergrowth of black cherry. Three mechanical methods of elimination were applied: cut-stump at the base, cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground and girdling of the stem at a height of ca 1 m above the ground. In both locations, 225 trees were treated, at three different dates corresponding with three different phenological phases of black cherry development. The evaluation of effectiveness of treatments was based on the sprouting capacity of the tree afterwards, which included: the number of generated sprouts, the length of three longest sprouts, dry mass of sprouts, and the assessment of tree survival rate. It was discovered that girdling is a significantly more effective method of control than ground-level cut-stump or cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground in the conditions of central Poland. However, in the season of treatment, even though recurring sprouts were removed, only a part of the girdled trees died (24% to 54%. There is a slight difference between the sprouting response of cutting at a height of 1 m above the ground (4% to 24% of dead trees and the basal cut-stump method (0% of dead trees.

  13. Carotenoids and lycopene content in fresh and dried tomato fruits and tomato juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mendelová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Important component of the tomato are carotenoid dyes, especially lycopene. The importance of lycopene in the diet of people in recent years has grown mainly for its pharmacological effects due to its ability to reduce the risk of carcinoma diseases and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of total carotenoids and lycopene in 8 varieties of tomato and to monitor dynamic changes after their different treatments (heating, drying. The experiment included following tomato varieties: Bambino F1, Darina F1, Diana F1, Denár, Milica F1, Orange F1, Paulína F1, Šejk F1.We found that processing of tomato fruits into juices and dried slices positively affected the presence of carotenoids and lycopene. Processing leads to an increase in the content of carotenoids that can be attributed to better availability of these components in the human body.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  15. Phytochelatin synthesis in tomato cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsbrough, P.; Gupta, S.; Huang, B.; Scheller, H.

    1987-01-01

    Tomato cells that are exposed to cadmium and other heavy metals synthesize phytochelatins (PCs), a family of peptides that bind heavy metals and are structurally related to glutathione (GSH). PCs have the structure (γ-glutamyl-cysteinyl) glycine; for PCs, n=2-10; GSH, n=1. GSH levels decline rapidly in tomato cells exposed to Cd 2+ . Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of GSH synthesis, prevents sustained synthesis of PC. However the addition of GSH to the medium of BSO-treated cells restores PC production. In vivo labeling studies indicate that 35 [S]-cysteine is incorporated into PC via GSH, rather than being added directly to GSH or pre-formed PC. Initial synthesis of PCs is not inhibited by cycloheximide. Tomato cell cultures that are tolerant of high levels of Cd 2+ contain large amounts of PCs. However, when sensitive and tolerant cells that have been grown in the absence of Cd 2+ are exposed to relatively low concentrations of Cd 2+ , they synthesize PCs at similar rates. These and other results suggest that, although PCs are necessary, increased PC synthesis is not sufficient for expression of the Cd 2+ tolerant phenotype

  16. Development and Evaluation of a Genome-Wide 6K SNP Array for Diploid Sweet Cherry and Tetraploid Sour Cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Cameron; Bassil, Nahla; Main, Dorrie; Ficklin, Stephen; Rosyara, Umesh R.; Stegmeir, Travis; Sebolt, Audrey; Gilmore, Barbara; Lawley, Cindy; Mockler, Todd C.; Bryant, Douglas W.; Wilhelm, Larry; Iezzoni, Amy

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a community initiative to enable marker-assisted breeding for rosaceous crops. Next-generation sequencing in diverse breeding germplasm provided 25 billion basepairs (Gb) of cherry DNA sequence from which were identified genome-wide SNPs for sweet cherry and for the two sour cherry subgenomes derived from sweet cherry (avium subgenome) and P. fruticosa (fruticosa subgenome). Anchoring to the peach genome sequence, recently released by the International Peach Genome Initiative, predicted relative physical locations of the 1.9 million putative SNPs detected, preliminarily filtered to 368,943 SNPs. Further filtering was guided by results of a 144-SNP subset examined with the Illumina GoldenGate® assay on 160 accessions. A 6K Infinium® II array was designed with SNPs evenly spaced genetically across the sweet and sour cherry genomes. SNPs were developed for each sour cherry subgenome by using minor allele frequency in the sour cherry detection panel to enrich for subgenome-specific SNPs followed by targeting to either subgenome according to alleles observed in sweet cherry. The array was evaluated using panels of sweet (n = 269) and sour (n = 330) cherry breeding germplasm. Approximately one third of array SNPs were informative for each crop. A total of 1825 polymorphic SNPs were verified in sweet cherry, 13% of these originally developed for sour cherry. Allele dosage was resolved for 2058 polymorphic SNPs in sour cherry, one third of these being originally developed for sweet cherry. This publicly available genomics resource represents a significant advance in cherry genome-scanning capability that will accelerate marker-locus-trait association discovery, genome

  17. The effects of the fermentation with immobilized yeast and different cherry varieties on the quality of cherry brandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Miličević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate influence of different fermentation processes (by immobilized yeast cells and classical fermentation and different cherry varieties (Maraska, Montmorencys and Kelleris on the chemical and sensorial characteristics of cherry brandies. Cherry brandies were analyzed to determine chemical composition, aroma profile and sensory properties. Cherry brandies produced by immobilized yeast cells had a higher content of aldehydes, but lower content of total acids, total extract, higher alcohols and esters compared to the samples produced by classical fermentation process. Furfural was not detected in cherry distillates produced by immobilized yeast cells, while distillates produced by classical fermentation process had very low content. Cherry brandies produced by classical fermentation process had significantly higher content of benzaldehyde which has great influence on aroma of cherry brandies. Ethyl octanoate which is considered one of the most important contributors to the aroma of alcoholic distillates was found in the highest concentrations in Maraska distillates. The best evaluated sample was brandy produced from Maraska cherry variety fermented by immobilized yeast cells followed by brandy produced also from Maraska cherry variety, but by classical fermentation process.

  18. Differential accumulation of flavonoids by tomato (Solanum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-12-29

    Dec 29, 2014 ... 1Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Dschang, P. O. Box 67 Dschang, Cameroon. ... eriodictyol, dicaffeoylquinic acid, naringenin and naringenin-chalcone-hexose significantly (P<0.05) ... tomato fruits prevent the over ripening when they are still attached to the mother plant.

  19. Tomato pomace powder ameliorated cisplatin-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) pomace powder (TPP) may be a preventive agent by virtue of its known antioxidant property. The possible protective role of TPP against cisplatin-induced alteration of the microanatomy of rat brain was investigated. Thirty rats were divided equally into five groups: control, propylene glycol ...

  20. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared by incorporating in a filling contained in a pastry shell mature, pitted, stemmed cherries that are fresh, frozen, and/or canned. The top of the pie may be open or it may be wholly or partly covered with pastry or...

  1. Effects of root pruning in sour cherry (Prunus cersus) "Stevnsbaer"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben; Jensen, Nauja Lisa; Dencker, Ivar Blücher

    2007-01-01

    Major problems with excessive growth, reduced light conditions, poor flower bud development and low yields have developed in many orchards with the sour cherry 'Stevnsbaer'. To investigate the possibility of handling the problems by root pruning, a project was initiated in 2003. Three orchards...... and 2004 are reported and the prospects for improved growth control in sour cherry by root pruning are discussed....

  2. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  3. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  4. 75 FR 31663 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... FR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation... handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington and is administered locally by the... cherries and other lightly-colored sweet cherry varieties that are designated as ``premium'' when handled...

  5. 75 FR 10442 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 923 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-09-0033; FV09-923-1 PR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated... the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington and is administered locally... requirements for Rainier cherries and other lightly colored sweet cherry varieties that are designated as...

  6. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of black cherry for flowering control and insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry is one of the most valuable hardwood species for cabinetry, furniture, and veneer. The goal of this study was to develop transgenic black cherry plants with reproductive sterility and enhanced insect resistance. Black cherry TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (PsTFL1) was overexpressed under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter in black cherry via

  7. Efficient and genotype-independent Agrobacterium--mediated tomato transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Hun; Morris, Jay L; Park, Jung Eun; Hirschi, Kendal D; Smith, Roberta H

    2003-10-01

    An efficient method to transform five cultivars of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), Micro-Tom, Red Cherry, Rubion, Piedmont, and E6203 is reported. A comparison was made of leaf, cotyledon, and hypocotyl explants on 7 different regeneration media without Agrobacterium tumefaciens cocultivation and on 11 different media with cocultivation. Although all cultivars and explants formed callus and regenerated on the initial 7 media, cocultivation with A. tumefaciens significantly reduced the callus induction and regeneration. From these experiments, a transformation methodology using either hypocotyls or cotyledons cultured for one day on BA 1 mgL-1, NAA 0.1 mgL-1 and 3 days cocultivation with the Agrobacterium on this same medium followed by a transfer to a medium with zeatin 2 mgL-1 and IAA 0.1 mgL-1 for 4-6 weeks resulted in a greater than 20% transformation frequency for all five cultivars tested. In this transformation method, no feeder layers of tobacco, petunia or tomato suspension cultures were used, and the subculture media was minimal. Stable integration and transmission of the transgene in T1 generation plants were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. This procedure represents a simple, efficient and general means of transforming tomato.

  8. octadecenoic acid in tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    octadecenoic acid which is proba- bly involved in plant defense responses is synthesized in tomato fruits and subjected to metabo- lism. Its catabolism or conversion was thus further characterized. The endogenous level of.

  9. Physico-chemical properties and fatty acid composition of pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siano, Francesco; Straccia, Maria C; Paolucci, Marina; Fasulo, Gabriella; Boscaino, Floriana; Volpe, Maria G

    2016-03-30

    Nut and seed oils are often considered waste products but in recent years they have been receiving growing interest due to their high concentration of hydrophilic and lipophilic bioactive components, which have important pharmacological properties on human health. The aim of this work was to compare the physico-chemical and biochemical properties of pomegranate (Punicagranatum), sweet cherry (Prunusavium) and pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) seed oils obtained by solvent extraction. High amount of linoleic acid was found in the cherry and pumpkin seed oils, while pomegranate seed oil showed relevant content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) along to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and nervonic acid. Pumpkin seed oil had high concentration of carotenoids, while pomegranate oil was the best absorber in the UV-A and UV-B ranges. Pomegranate, cherry and pumpkin seed oils can be an excellent source of bioactive molecules and antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids. These seed oils can be included both as preservatives and functional ingredients in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields and can contribute to disease prevention and health promotion. Moreover, high absorbance of UV light indicates a potential use of these oils as filters from radiations in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic fields. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Visual recognition system of cherry picking robot based on Lab color model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qirong; Zuo, Jianjun; Yu, Tingzhong; Wang, Yan

    2017-12-01

    This paper designs a visual recognition system suitable for cherry picking. First, the system deals with the image using the vector median filter. And then it extracts a channel of Lab color model to divide the cherries and the background. The cherry contour was successfully fitted by the least square method, and the centroid and radius of the cherry were extracted. Finally, the cherry was successfully extracted.

  11. Pseudomonas syringae – Pathogen of Sweet Cherry in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljko Gavrilović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of pathogenic Pseudomonas bacterial strains isolated from cherry inSerbia are presented in the article. Two types of symptoms were observed on cherry treesat few localities with intensive production in Serbia (Belgrade, Čačak, Topola, Šabac, NoviSad. The first symptom is bud necrosis and the second bacterial canker of cherry branch.Gram negative, fluorescent, oxidative bacterial strains were isolated from the margin ofnecrotic tissue. All investigated strains were levan and HR positive, while negative resultswere recorded for oxidase, pectinase and arginin dihydrolase tests (LOPAT+- - - +.Based on pathogenicity tests and differential GATT tests, investigated strains weredivided in two distinct groups: the first group consisted of strains isolated from necroticcherry branch which caused necrosis on artificially inoculated cherry, pear and lemon fruits,syringae leaves and bean pods, were gelatin and aesculin positive, and tyrosinase and tartratenegative (typical characteristics of P.s. pv. syringae. Contrary, second group strainswere isolated from necrotic cherry buds, showed negative results in mentioned pathogenicitytests, gelatin and aesculin tests were negative, while tyrosinase and tartrate werepositive (typical characteristics of P.s. pv. morsprunorum.REP PCR analyses showed that strains isolated from necrotic cherry buds belong to P. spv. morsprunorum compared to referent strain. In contrast, isolates obtained from necroticcherry branches had unique fingerprint profiles but different from all reference strains.According to the obtained results it was concluded that both pathovars of P. syringae(syringae and morsprunorum cause necrosis of cherry trees in Serbia.

  12. Fast data preprocessing for chromatographic fingerprints of tomato cell wall polysaccharides using chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméner, Bernard; Bertrand, Dominique; Marty, Isabelle; Causse, Mathilde; Lahaye, Marc

    2007-02-02

    The variability in the chemistry of cell wall polysaccharides in pericarp tissue of red-ripe tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicon Mill.) was characterized by chemical methods and enzymatic degradations coupled to high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and mass spectrometry analysis. Large fruited line, Levovil (LEV) carrying introgressed chromosome fragments from a cherry tomato line Cervil (CER) on chromosomes 4 (LC4), 9 (LC9), or on chromosomes 1, 2, 4 and 9 (LCX) and containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for texture traits, was studied. In order to differentiate cell wall polysaccharide modifications in the tomato fruit collection by multivariate analysis, chromatograms were corrected for baseline drift and shift of the component elution time using an approach derived from image analysis and mathematical morphology. The baseline was first corrected by using a "moving window" approach while the peak-matching method developed was based upon location of peaks as local maxima within a window of a definite size. The fast chromatographic data preprocessing proposed was a prerequisite for the different chemometric treatments, such as variance and principal component analysis applied herein to the analysis. Applied to the tomato collection, the combined enzymatic degradations and HPAEC analyses revealed that the firm LCX and CER genotypes showed a higher proportion of glucuronoxylans and pectic arabinan side chains while the mealy LC9 genotype demonstrated the highest content of pectic galactan side chains. QTLs on tomato chromosomes 1, 2, 4 and 9 contain important genes controlling glucuronoxylan and pectic neutral side chains biosynthesis and/or metabolism.

  13. The Correlation between Cherry Picking Female Consumers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Consumers who are branded as cherry pickers are price sensitive shoppers with no brand loyalty but this market segment has been found to be potentially attractive for retailers, contrary to the myth that they are a retailers' nemesis.

  14. Seasonal Distributions of the Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Among Host and Nonhost Fruit Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Wee L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) ( Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R . indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult. PMID:25527581

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly of a sour cherry cultivar, Schattenmorelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonhwa Jo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus in the genus Prunus in the family Rosaceae is one of the most popular stone fruit trees worldwide. Of known sour cherry cultivars, the Schattenmorelle is a famous old sour cherry with a high amount of fruit production. The Schattenmorelle was selected before 1650 and described in the 1800s. This cultivar was named after gardens of the Chateau de Moreille in which the cultivar was initially found. In order to identify new genes and to develop genetic markers for sour cherry, we performed a transcriptome analysis of a sour cherry. We selected the cultivar Schattenmorelle, which is among commercially important cultivars in Europe and North America. We obtained 2.05 GB raw data from the Schattenmorelle (NCBI accession number: SRX1187170. De novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity identified 61,053 transcripts in which N50 was 611 bp. Next, we identified 25,585 protein coding sequences using TransDecoder. The identified proteins were blasted against NCBI's non-redundant database for annotation. Based on blast search, we taxonomically classified the obtained sequences. As a result, we provide the transcriptome of sour cherry cultivar Schattenmorelle using next generation sequencing.

  16. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto; Nugroho, Dwi

    2014-01-01

    Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sac...

  17. Distribution and accumulative pattern of tetracyclines and sulfonamides in edible vegetables of cucumber, tomato, and lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed Bedair M; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Lim, Jung Eun; Vu, Ngoc Thang; Kim, Il Seop; Kang, Ho Min; Lee, Sang Soo; Ok, Yong Sik

    2015-01-21

    Veterinary antibiotics can be released to environment by the animals' excretions, which thereby poses human health and ecological risks. Six antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine, sulfamethoxazole, and sulfadimethoxine) at three concentrations (5, 10, and 20 mg kg(-1) soil) were employed in pots filled with a loamy sand upland soil. Three types of vegetable seedlings, including cucumber (Cucumis sativus), cherry tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa), were also cultivated during 45 d in the greenhouse. All antibiotics taken up by tested plants showed negative effects on growth. Relatively high levels of tetracyclines and sulfonamides (SAs) were detected in the nonedible parts, roots, and leaves of cucumber and tomato, but fruit parts accumulated them lower than acceptable daily intake. Indeed, cucumber roots accumulated SAs by up to 94.6% of total addition (at 5 mg kg(-1) soil).

  18. SNP genotyping reveals genetic diversity between cultivated landraces and contemporary varieties of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Giandomenico; Piffanelli, Pietro; Caramante, Martina; Coppola, Mariangela; Rao, Rosa

    2013-11-27

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersium L.) is the most widely grown vegetable in the world. It was domesticated in Latin America and Italy and Spain are considered secondary centers of diversification. This food crop has experienced severe genetic bottlenecks and modern breeding activities have been characterized by trait introgression from wild species and divergence in different market classes. With the aim to examine patterns of polymorphism, characterize population structure and identify putative loci under positive selection, we genotyped 214 tomato accessions (which include cultivated landraces, commercial varieties and wild relatives) using a custom-made Illumina SNP-panel. Most of the 175 successfully scored SNP loci were found to be polymorphic. Population structure analysis and estimates of genetic differentiation indicated that landraces constitute distinct sub-populations. Furthermore, contemporary varieties could be separated in groups (processing, fresh and cherry) that are consistent with the recent breeding aimed at market-class specialization. In addition, at the 95% confidence level, we identified 30, 34 and 37 loci under positive selection between landraces and each of the groups of commercial variety (cherry, processing and fresh market, respectively). Their number and genomic locations imply the presence of some extended regions with high genetic variation between landraces and contemporary varieties. Our work provides knowledge concerning the level and distribution of genetic variation within cultivated tomato landraces and increases our understanding of the genetic subdivision of contemporary varieties. The data indicate that adaptation and selection have led to a genomic signature in cultivated landraces and that the subpopulation structure of contemporary varieties is shaped by directed breeding and largely of recent origin. The genomic characterization presented here is an essential step towards a future exploitation of the available tomato

  19. The influence of organic and conventional cultivation systems on the nutritional value and content of bioactive compounds in selected tomato types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Ewelina

    2012-11-01

    Tomato fruits contain a high level of antioxidants such as vitamin C, polyphenols (including flavonoids), and carotenoids (such as lycopene and β-carotene). Some studies have shown the higher level of bioactive compounds in organically produced tomato fruits compared to conventional ones, but not all studies were consistent in this respect. The levels of carotenoids and phenolics are very variable and may be affected by ripeness, genotype and cultivation. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of organic and conventional production systems on chemical properties and phenolic compounds of two tomato types (standard and cherry). The experiment was carried out in two growing seasons of 2008 and 2009, and in three organic and three conventional farms. The results obtained have shown that, in 2008, organic tomatoes presented a higher ratio of reducing sugars/organic acids, and contained significantly more total sugars, vitamin C and total flavonoids, 3-quercetin rutinoside, and myricetin in comparison with the conventional fruits. In 2009, organic tomatoes contained significantly more vitamin C, quercetin-3-O-glucoside and chlorogenic acid, myricetin and kaempferol in comparison with the conventional fruits. The organic growing system affects tomato quality parameters such as nutritional value and phenolic compound content. The second significant factor of nutritional value of tomato is the type of fruits. It would be necessary to continue this study as a long-term experiment in order to eliminate the influence of seasonality. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Functional genomics of tomato

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-10-20

    Oct 20, 2014 ... very first challenge before scientists working on tomato functional biology is to exploit this high-quality reference sequence for tapping of the ... and exploitation of the genomic diversity present in Solanum genus, in general, and ..... associated with this tool retain its labour-intensive nature, ineffectiveness for ...

  1. Metabolic Fingerprinting to Assess the Impact of Salinity on Carotenoid Content in Developing Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Van Meulebroek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the presence of health-promoting substances has become a significant aspect of tomato fruit appreciation, this study investigated nutrient solution salinity as a tool to enhance carotenoid accumulation in cherry tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Juanita. Hereby, a key objective was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism, moving away from typical black box research strategies. To this end, a greenhouse experiment with five salinity treatments (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 decisiemens (dS m−1 was carried out and a metabolomic fingerprinting approach was applied to obtain valuable insights on the complicated interactions between salinity treatments, environmental conditions, and the plant’s genetic background. Hereby, several hundreds of metabolites were attributed a role in the plant’s salinity response (at the fruit level, whereby the overall impact turned out to be highly depending on the developmental stage. In addition, 46 of these metabolites embraced a dual significance as they were ascribed a prominent role in carotenoid metabolism as well. Based on the specific mediating actions of the retained metabolites, it could be determined that altered salinity had only marginal potential to enhance carotenoid accumulation in the concerned tomato fruit cultivar. This study invigorates the usefulness of metabolomics in modern agriculture, for instance in modeling tomato fruit quality. Moreover, the metabolome changes that were caused by the different salinity levels may enclose valuable information towards other salinity-related plant processes as well.

  2. Metabolic Fingerprinting to Assess the Impact of Salinity on Carotenoid Content in Developing Tomato Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meulebroek, Lieven; Hanssens, Jochen; Steppe, Kathy; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2016-05-26

    As the presence of health-promoting substances has become a significant aspect of tomato fruit appreciation, this study investigated nutrient solution salinity as a tool to enhance carotenoid accumulation in cherry tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Juanita). Hereby, a key objective was to uncover the underlying mechanisms of carotenoid metabolism, moving away from typical black box research strategies. To this end, a greenhouse experiment with five salinity treatments (ranging from 2.0 to 5.0 decisiemens (dS) m(-1)) was carried out and a metabolomic fingerprinting approach was applied to obtain valuable insights on the complicated interactions between salinity treatments, environmental conditions, and the plant's genetic background. Hereby, several hundreds of metabolites were attributed a role in the plant's salinity response (at the fruit level), whereby the overall impact turned out to be highly depending on the developmental stage. In addition, 46 of these metabolites embraced a dual significance as they were ascribed a prominent role in carotenoid metabolism as well. Based on the specific mediating actions of the retained metabolites, it could be determined that altered salinity had only marginal potential to enhance carotenoid accumulation in the concerned tomato fruit cultivar. This study invigorates the usefulness of metabolomics in modern agriculture, for instance in modeling tomato fruit quality. Moreover, the metabolome changes that were caused by the different salinity levels may enclose valuable information towards other salinity-related plant processes as well.

  3. Active packaging from chitosan-titanium dioxide nanocomposite film for prolonging storage life of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewklin, Patinya; Siripatrawan, Ubonrat; Suwanagul, Anawat; Lee, Youn Suk

    2018-06-01

    The feasibility of active packaging from chitosan (CS) and chitosan containing nanosized titanium dioxide (CT) to maintain quality and extend storage life of climacteric fruit was investigated. The CT nanocomposite film and CS film were fabricated using a solution casting method and used as active packaging to delay ripening process of cherry tomatoes. Changes in firmness, weight loss, a*/b* color, lycopene content, total soluble solid, ascorbic acid, and concentration of ethylene and carbon dioxide of the tomatoes packaged in CT film, CS film, and control (without CT or CS films) were monitored during storage at 20°C. Classification of fruit quality as a function of different packaging treatments was visualized using linear discriminant analysis. Tomatoes packaged in the CT film evolved lower quality changes than those in the CS film and control. The results suggested that the CT film exhibited ethylene photodegradation activity when exposed to UV light and consequently delayed the ripening process and changes in the quality of the tomatoes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 75 FR 46901 - Changes to Treatments for Sweet Cherries from Australia and Irradiation Dose for Mediterranean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ...] Changes to Treatments for Sweet Cherries from Australia and Irradiation Dose for Mediterranean Fruit Fly... schedules to the Plant Protection and Quarantine Treatment Manual for sweet cherries imported from Australia... regulations by adding new treatment schedules for sweet cherries and for certain species of citrus fruit...

  5. 78 FR 48283 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... 2013-2014 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order, which regulates the handling of sweet cherries grown in...

  6. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 923 [Doc. No. AMS-FV-11-0059; FV11-923-1 CR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated... sweet cherry growers to determine whether they favor continuance of the marketing order regulating the handling of sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. DATES: The referendum will be...

  7. 78 FR 21520 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ...; FV12-923-1 FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in...

  8. 78 FR 76031 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... FIR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate AGENCY... subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown in designated counties in Washington. The Committee's...

  9. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on

  10. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation..., shall operate Hetch Hetchy Dam and Reservoir and Cherry Valley Dam and Reservoir in the interest of...

  11. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of the...

  12. Effectiveness of incorporating citric acid in cassava starch edible coatings to preserve quality of Martha tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, I.; Oktaningrum, G. N.; Endrasari, R.

    2018-01-01

    Tomato as an agricultural product is extremely perishable. Coatings of tomatoes with edible starch extend quality and storage life of the fruits. Incorporation of citric acid as antimicrobial agent in the edible starch coatings is expected to preserve the quality of tomatoes during storage. The aim of this study was to verify the effectiveness of citric acid incorporated in cassava starch coating to preserve quality of tomatoes. The edible coatings formula consisted of cassava starch solutions (1; 2; 3%), citric acid (0.5; 1.0%) and glycerol (10%). Tomatoes were dipped to the coating solution for 10 seconds, then air-dried and stored at room temperature during 18 days. All the treatments were carried out in triplicates. Experimental data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA. The results showed that coating treatments did not affect the weight loss, moisture content, color characteristic, carotene and vitamin C content on Martha tomatoes. The low concentration of starch coating on Martha tomatoes are indicated to be the reason why there was no significant difference between coated and coated tomatoes for some parameters. However, incorporating citric acid in cassava starch-based coatings could prevent tomato fruits from firmness reduction and spoilage during storage.

  13. Altering Conidial Dispersal of Alternaria solani by Modifying Microclimate in Tomato Crop Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Prakash Jambhulkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Early blight of tomato caused by Alternaria solani, is responsible for severe yield losses in tomato. The conidia survive on soil surface and old dry lower leaves of the plant and spread when suitable climatic conditions are available. Macroclimatic study reveals that highest inoculum concentration of Alternaria spores appeared in May 2012 to 2013 and lowest concentration during January 2012 to 2013. High night temperature positively correlated and significantly (P < 0.01 involved in conidial spore dispersal and low relative humidity (RH displayed significant (P < 0.05 but negative correlation with conidial dispersal. The objective of the study was to modify microclimatic conditions of tomato crop canopy which may hamper conidial dispersal and reduce disease severity. We evaluated effect of marigold intercropping and plastic mulching singly and in consortia on A. solani conidial density, tomato leaf damage and microclimatic parameters as compar to tomato alone (T. Tomato-marigold intercropping–plastic mulching treatment (T + M + P showed 35–39% reduction in disease intensity as compared to tomato alone. When intercropped with tomato, marigold served as barrier to conidial movement and plastic mulching prevented evapotranspiration and reduced the canopy RH that resulted in less germination of A. solani spores. Marigold intercropping and plastic mulching served successfully as physical barrier against conidial dissemination to diminish significantly the tomato foliar damage produced by A. solani.

  14. Progressive outer retinal necrosis presenting as cherry red spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Glenn; Young, Lucy H

    2012-10-01

    To report a case of progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) presenting as a cherry red spot. Case report. A 53-year-old woman with recently diagnosed HIV and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) aseptic meningitis developed rapid sequential vision loss in both eyes over 2 months. Her exam showed a "cherry red spot" in both maculae with peripheral atrophy and pigmentary changes, consistent with PORN. Due to her late presentation and the rapid progression of her condition, she quickly developed end-stage vision loss in both eyes. PORN should be considered within the differential diagnosis of a "cherry red spot." Immune-deficient patients with a history of herpetic infection who present with visual loss warrant prompt ophthalmological evaluation.

  15. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  16. Protection of Tomato Seedlings against Infection by Pseudomonas syringae pv. Tomato by Using the Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium Azospirillum brasilense†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashan, Yoav; de-Bashan, Luz E.

    2002-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the causal agent of bacterial speck of tomato, and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense were inoculated onto tomato plants, either alone, as a mixed culture, or consecutively. The population dynamics in the rhizosphere and foliage, the development of bacterial speck disease, and their effects on plant growth were monitored. When inoculated onto separate plants, the A. brasilense population in the rhizosphere of tomato plants was 2 orders of magnitude greater than the population of P. syringae pv. tomato (107 versus 105 CFU/g [dry weight] of root). Under mist chamber conditions, the leaf population of P. syringae pv. tomato was 1 order of magnitude greater than that of A. brasilense (107 versus 106 CFU/g [dry weight] of leaf). Inoculation of seeds with a mixed culture of the two bacterial strains resulted in a reduction of the pathogen population in the rhizosphere, an increase in the A. brasilense population, the prevention of bacterial speck disease development, and improved plant growth. Inoculation of leaves with the mixed bacterial culture under mist conditions significantly reduced the P. syringae pv. tomato population and significantly decreased disease severity. Challenge with P. syringae pv. tomato after A. brasilense was established in the leaves further reduced both the population of P. syringae pv. tomato and disease severity and significantly enhanced plant development. Both bacteria maintained a large population in the rhizosphere for 45 days when each was inoculated separately onto tomato seeds (105 to 106 CFU/g [dry weight] of root). However, P. syringae pv. tomato did not survive in the rhizosphere in the presence of A. brasilense. Foliar inoculation of A. brasilense after P. syringae pv. tomato was established on the leaves did not alleviate bacterial speck disease, and A. brasilense did not survive well in the phyllosphere under these conditions, even in a mist chamber. Several applications

  17. A clarified position for solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme in the evolutionary history of tomatoes (solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Causse Mathilde

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The natural phenotypic variability present in the germplasm of cultivated plants can be linked to molecular polymorphisms using association genetics. However it is necessary to consider the genetic structure of the germplasm used to avoid false association. The knowledge of genetic structure of plant populations can help in inferring plant evolutionary history. In this context, we genotyped 360 wild, feral and cultivated accessions with 20 simple sequence repeat markers and investigated the extent and structure of the genetic variation. The study focused on the red fruited tomato clade involved in the domestication of tomato and confirmed the admixture status of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme. We used a nested sample strategy to set-up core collection maximizing the genetic diversity with a minimum of individuals. Results Molecular diversity was considerably lower in S. lycopersicum i.e. the domesticated form. Model-based analysis showed that the 144 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions were structured into two groups: one close to the domesticated group and one resulting from the admixture of the S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium genomes. SSR genotyping also indicates that domesticated and wild tomatoes have evolved as a species complex with intensive level of hybridization. We compiled genotypic and phenotypic data to identify sub-samples of 8, 24, 32 and 64 cherry tomato accessions that captured most of the genetic and morphological diversity present in the entire S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme collection. Conclusion The extent and structure of allelic variation is discussed in relation to historical events like domestication and modern selection. The potential use of the admixed group of S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme for association genetics studies is also discussed. Nested core collections sampled to represent tomato diversity will be useful in diversity studies. Molecular and

  18. IMPROVED MANUFACTURING CANNED "COMPOTE CHERRY" USING COMBINED HEAT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Demirova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on the development of new modes of heat sterilization compote cherry using stepwise heating in a stream of hot air and hot water dushevaniem air cooled rotating container. Revealed that the modes provide commercial sterility of finished products, reducing the length of the heat treatment and the quality of the finished product. Are some of the modes of heat sterilization step of cherry compote in a stream of heated air and water dushevaniem air-cooled rotating container.

  19. Transgenic tomato hybrids resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de P.; Ultzen, T.; Prins, M.; Gielen, J.; Goldbach, R.; Grinsven, van M.

    1996-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) infections cause significant economic losses in the commercial culture of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Culture practices have only been marginally effective in controlling TSWV. The ultimate way to minimize losses caused by TSWV is resistant varieties. These can

  20. Gamma irradiation of the western cherry fruit fly for the sterile male control technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, was studied to determine the suitability of the sterile insect technique for its control. The western cherry fruit fly is strictly univoltine; only 1.1 percent adult emergence occurred without chilling under laboratory conditions at 26.7 0 C and photoperiod of 19L:5D. Percent emergence increased with longer periods of chilling. Synchroniztion of emergence was maximized after about 200 days at 3 0 C. Time to emergence decreased with increasing days of chilling; after a minimum of 200 days of chilling at 3 0 C, flies emerged after an average of 26 days at 26.7 0 C. Flies exhibited a pre-mating and pre-oviposition period in the laboratory, during which flies spent little time on cherries. The presence of a male pheromone was demonstrated. Sterile males were more competitive in ratios of 1:1 and 4:1 than 8:1 in laboratory cages: the total number of matings was about the same with 8:1 ratios as with 4:1. Females were less receptive to males after several matings, so that with a constant number of females, the number of matings by unirradiated males was reduced in the presence of sterile males. Irradiated males mated about 80 percent as frequently as normal males. Males irradiated as pupae were less than half as competitive as males irradiated as adults. Sperm from the last-mated male had precedence, but some mixing of the sperm occurred. Field cage studies showed about 94 percent reduction in infestation with 20:1 sterile to normal male ratios. The low economic threshold, the small dispersal capability, and favorable radiobiology of the flies make this insect an attractive candidate for the sterile insect technique. The technique may be used alone, or in an integrated control program in combination with chemicals. Post-harvest release of flies would efficiently prevent build-up of the population in the remnant of cherries left after mechanical harvesting

  1. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.585 Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a...

  2. Effect of tomato internal structure on its mechanical properties and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-03-22

    Mar 22, 2010 ... Raji OA, Oriola KO (2007). Packaging and handling methods as sources of mechanical damage in tomatoes in transit. J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 2(9): 1450-1454. Shanfeng C (2001). The occurrence of the mechanical damage of fruit and preventive measures. Reservation preservation and distribution. 1(1): 19-20.

  3. RESPONSE OF PACKAGED TOMATOES (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    and enhance the design of improved packaging materials for transported tomato fruit. Young's modulus is often useful in relating the mechanical properties of the fruit to its composition and structure. [9]. Medium sized tomatoes subjected to axial loading had both the highest compressive load and stress at yield while the big ...

  4. Molecular characterization of Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (Group ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is an important vegetable crop in Mexico. Recently, a phytoplasma associated with leaf yellowing and curling, severe stunting and little leaf in tomato plant was identified as Yucatan tomato phytoplasma (16SrIII group). DNAs extracted from tomato leaves with symptoms were examined for ...

  5. Characterization and antimicrobial properties of food packaging methylcellulose films containing stem extract of Ginja cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Débora; Piccirillo, Clara; Pullar, Robert C; Castro, Paula Ml; Pintado, Maria M E

    2014-08-01

    Food contamination and spoilage is a problem causing growing concern. To avoid it, the use of food packaging with appropriate characteristics is essential; ideally, the packaging should protect food from external contamination and exhibit antibacterial properties. With this aim, methylcellulose (MC) films containing natural extracts from the stems of Ginja cherry, an agricultural by-product, were developed and characterized. The antibacterial activity of films was screened by the disc diffusion method and quantified using the viable cell count assay. The films inhibited the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains (Listeria innocua, methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Salmonella Enteritidis, Escherichia coli). For the films with lower extract content, effectiveness against the microorganisms depended on the inoculum concentration. Scanning electron microscope images of the films showed that those containing the extracts had a smooth and continuous structure. UV-visible spectroscopy showed that these materials do not transmit light in the UV. This study shows that MC films containing agricultural by-products, in this case Ginja cherry stem extract, could be used to prevent food contamination by relevant bacterial strains and degradation by UV light. Using such materials in food packaging, the shelf life of food products could be extended while utilizing an otherwise wasted by-product. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Physical and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee as Affected by Cherry Storage Before Pulping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting and pulping process of coffee cherry in the same day is inaccesible. Storage of coffee cherry before pulping was carried out incorrectly. Some storage treatments before pulping of Arabica coffee cherry had been examined at Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute using Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Experimental Garden, Bondowoso, East Java. Treatments of the experiment were method and period of cherry storage. Methods of coffee cherry storage were put in plastic sacks; immerse in water, without water replacement; and immerse in water with daily water replacement. Period of coffee cherry storage were 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 days. After storage treatments, the coffee cherries were pulped, fermented, washed, sundried, and dehulled. The experiment were carried out using randomized block design with three replications. Observation of coffee cherry during storage periods was done on the physical and temperature. Observation of the green coffee were done on the color dan bulk density. The green coffee were roasted at medium roast level for sensory analysis. Observation of roasting profile were out-turn, bulk density and pH of roasted coffee. Sensory analysis used Specialty Coffee Association of America method. Methods and period of cherry storage before pulping significanly influence on the cherry color, parchment color, green coffee color, and the flavor profile of Arabica coffee. Color of dry parchment changed to be red-brown becouse of cherry immersed in water for two days or more. In plastic sacks, Arabica coffee cherry may be stored only for two days, but underwater with or without water replacement, should be not more than five days. Green and sensory quality of Arabica coffee will be deteriorated after five days storage underwater. Coffee cherry storage immerse in water with daily replacing water may improve sensory quality of Arabica coffee.Key word: Arabica coffe, storage, pulping, flavor, physical

  7. Proliferation and rooting of wild cherry: The influence of cytokinin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of the most optimal type and concentration of plant growth regulators as medium constituents is one of the most important aspects of successful micro propagation, among other in vitro factors. With the aim of optimization of in vitro multiplication of wild cherry, the effect of the following cytokinins was studied: ...

  8. Phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity of Cherry laurel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, we investigated 17 different phenolic constituents and total antioxidant properties of cherry laurel, Laurocerasus officinalis Roem (family Rosaceae), locally named karayemis or taflan, a summer fruit highly characteristic of the Black Sea region. Phenolic constituents were measured by reverse phase-high ...

  9. Longevity of black cherry seed in the forest floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. W. Wendel

    1972-01-01

    Observations made on the Fernow Experimental Forest in West Virginia indicate that some black cherry seeds remain viable in the forest floor over three winters. On the average fewer than 10 percent of the seeds stored in the forest floor germinated the first spring, about 50 percent germinated the second spring, and 25 percent germinated the third spring.

  10. Sweet cherry quality in the horticultural production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romano, G.S.; Cittadini, E.D.

    2006-01-01

    Somerset’ is a dark-red, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar displaying
    remarkable firmness levels, with concomitantly longer shelf-life potential in
    comparison to other cultivars. It is generally accepted that fruit firmness depends
    mainly on the composition, structure and

  11. Bird cherry-oat aphid: do we have resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a highly efficient, non-propagative, persistent vector of the phloem limited leutovirus BYD-PAV. BYD is the most important viral disease of cereal grains in the world and PAV is the most prevalent strain of BYD in North America. Not all BCO...

  12. Acoustic tomography for decay detection in black cherry trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Shanqing Liang

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of using acoustic tomography for detecting internal decay in high-value hardwood trees in the forest. Twelve black cherry (Prunus serotina) trees that had a wide range of physical characteristics were tested in a stand of second-growth hardwoods in Kane, PA, using a PiCUS Sonic Tomograph tool. The trees were felled after the field...

  13. Cherry Creek Research Natural Area: guidebook supplement 41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid Schuller; Jennie Sperling; Tim. Rodenkirk

    2011-01-01

    This guidebook describes Cherry Creek Research Natural Area, a 239-ha (590-ac) area that supports old-growth Douglas-fir-western hemlock (Pseudotsuga menziesii- Tsuga heterophylla) forest occurring on sedimentary materials in the southern Oregon Coast Range. Major plant associations present within the area include the western hemlock/Oregon oxalis...

  14. BREEDING OF TOMATO (LYCOPERSICON ESCULENTUM RESISTANT TO TOMATO SPOTTED WILT VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. Monakhos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of tomato lines resistance test to tomato spotted wilt virus and its comparison to molecular marker SCAR Sw421 genotyping data is shown. A molecular marker SCAR Sw421 analysis allowed identifying homozygous and heterozygous tomato genotypes possessing Sw5 alleles in segregating populations. Selected tomato lines possessing dominant homozygous alleles of Sw5 gene represent a tomato germplasm resistant to tomato spotted wilt virus and would be useful for following crop improvement.

  15. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  16. Assignation of sweet cherry selections to 3 taste groupings based on perceived sweetness and sourness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Carolyn F; Chauvin, Maite A; Whiting, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Providing consumers with basic taste properties of sweet cherries at point of purchase would allow consumers to make purchase decisions based on fruit's intrinsic sensory attributes. The objective of this study was to develop a model to predict taste-grouping assignation of cherries into the following categories: (1) low sweetness/high sourness, (2) balance between sweetness and sourness, and (3) high sweetness/low sourness. A sensory panel (n = 10) was trained to recognize sweetness and sourness in 5 cultivars of sweet cherries and assign a taste grouping based on the perceived balance of sweetness and sourness. Four of these same cultivars were then evaluated for sweetness and sourness by a consumer panel (n = 117) and instrumentally for titratable acidity (TA) and soluble solids concentration (SSC). Results showed that for 3 of the 4 cherry cultivars, the sweetness/sourness balance of the cherries was not significantly different as evaluated instrumentally or by the trained panel. However, the balance determined by the consumer and the trained panel was different for 3 of the 4 cherry cultivars (P sweetness and sourness, a multinomial logit model was developed to predict the assignation of cherry taste grouping. The likelihood of group assignment depended on both the perceived sweetness and sourness of the cherry, with taste groupings agreed upon for 3 of 5 sweet cherry cultivars. As previous studies have indicated a positive relationship between cherry sweetness and sourness to consumer acceptance, these groupings show promise for assisting consumers in cherry selection at the point of purchase. The prediction models proposed in this study suggest that both sweetness and sourness are important in the cherry characterization and the ratio between the 2 attributes may be appropriate for making taste-grouping assignments. These groupings may then be used to provide additional sensory information to consumers to assist them in cherry selection at the point of

  17. Cultivation of Tomato Tissues Capable of Forming Flowers and Fruits in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1998-01-01

    The final phase of this research project was designed to develop a practical method for producing a steady supply of fresh cherry tomato fruits over a period of several months, for possible use as a fresh vegetable supplement to a standard diet of astronauts on extended missions. This effort was successful. We were able to excise immature flowers from Pixie tomato plants grown in a controlled condition room, implant them on artificial media under aseptic conditions, and get them to develop into edible fruits in a little over a month. The medium (Murashige-Skoog) was purchased from Sigma, supplemented with sugar plus a synthetic analog of the plant hormone cytokinin, and adjusted to pH 5.8. A temperature of at least 25 C and visible light helped to produce ripe red fruits within 7 weeks. To ensure a steady supply of such tomatoes, we found it possible to store the explanted flower buds in MS medium at 5 C for at least 6 weeks without significant loss of ability to develop into fruits. This means that many containers could be prepared before launch and put into a refrigerator; a convenient number could then be removed periodically to guarantee a succession of harvests during the life of an extended mission. Details are found in the attached reprints. Subsequent applications for funds for flight or continued research were denied, and the project was terminated.

  18. Techno-functional properties of tomato puree fortified with anthocyanin pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardi, C; Albano, C; Calabriso, N; Carluccio, M A; Durante, M; Mita, G; Renna, M; Serio, F; Blando, F

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of tomato puree fortification with several anthocyanin-rich food colorants on bioactive compound content (phenolics, isoprenoids), antioxidant capacity, in vitro biological activities and consumer acceptance. Tomato puree (tp) was added with different anthocyanin extracts from black carrot (Anthocarrot), grape fruit skins (Enocolor), elderberry fruits (Elderberry) or mahaleb cherry fruits (Mahaleb), thus obtaining a 'functional tomato puree' (ftp). The consumer acceptance (colour, flavor, taste, visual appearance) was at high level, except for Mahaleb-added ftp. Compared to the control (tp), the addition of colouring extracts increased significantly the total phenolic content, before pasteurization, in addition to the expected anthocyanin content. However, after pasteurization, mostly Anthocarrot-ftp preserved an increased phenolic (+53%) content, as well as a higher antioxidant capacity (50%), more than the other added-extracts. Consistently, against tp, Anthocarrot-ftp exhibited an increased anti-inflammatory capacity as showed by the reduced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in human cultured endothelial cells, under inflammatory conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gadzhieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environmental feasibility of tomatoes stage drying in the atmosphere of inert gas in solar dry kiln were evaluated; production scheme of dried tomatoes is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a production scheme of powders of pulp, skin and seeds of tomatoes is developed. Combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of the electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing product surface with hot nitrogen. Conducting the drying process in an inert gas atmosphere of nitrogen intensified the process of moisture removing from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as enriching additive was proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from Dagestan varieties of tomatoes, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physico-chemical studies of finished products, we have proved the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder during the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  20. Cherry recognition in natural environment based on the vision of picking robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qirong; Chen, Shanxiong; Yu, Tingzhong; Wang, Yan

    2017-04-01

    In order to realize the automatic recognition of cherry in the natural environment, this paper designed a robot vision system recognition method. The first step of this method is to pre-process the cherry image by median filtering. The second step is to identify the colour of the cherry through the 0.9R-G colour difference formula, and then use the Otsu algorithm for threshold segmentation. The third step is to remove noise by using the area threshold. The fourth step is to remove the holes in the cherry image by morphological closed and open operation. The fifth step is to obtain the centroid and contour of cherry by using the smallest external rectangular and the Hough transform. Through this recognition process, we can successfully identify 96% of the cherry without blocking and adhesion.

  1. PacMYBA, a sweet cherry R2R3-MYB transcription factor, is a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance and pathogen resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinjie; Guo, Xinwei; Guo, Xiao; Zhao, Di; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Jingsheng; Li, Tianhong

    2017-03-01

    Plant R2R3-MYB transcription factors play crucial roles in stress responses. We previously isolated a R2R3-MYB homolog from sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng, designated PacMYBA (GenBank accession No. KF974774). To explore the role of PacMYBA in the plant stress response, we heterologously expressed PacMYBA in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. In a previous study, we demonstrated that PacMYBA is mainly localized to the nucleus and could be induced by abscisic acid (ABA). Analysis of the promoter sequence of PacMYBA revealed that it contains several stress-related cis-elements. QPCR results showed that PacMYBA is induced by salt, salicylic (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) in sweet cherry leaves. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants heterologously expressing PacMYBA exhibited enhanced salt-tolerance and increased resistance to Pseudomonas syringe pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 infection. Overexpression of PacMYBA decreased the osmotic potential (OP), increased the free proline content, and increased the peroxidase content in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Furthermore, overexpression of PacMYBA also affected the expression levels of salt stress- and pathogen defense-related genes in the transgenic plants. These results indicate that PacMYBA is a positive regulator of salt stress tolerance and pathogen resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. TOMATOES BALANCE SHEET IN ROMANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE; Radu Lucian PÂNZARU

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes are one of the most representative vegetable species cultivated in our country. This allegation is based on the essential elements of tomatoes culture respectively area cultivated, total production and average yield per hectare - indicators for 2007-2009 reached average levels of 48.8 thousand hectares and 736.9 thousand tonnes respectively 15101kg / ha. Presentation of food helps establish balance of the demand and supply component parts total as follows: production, imports, export...

  3. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez; César Ibarra-Alvarado; Alejandra Rojas-Molina; Juana I. Rojas-Molina; Elhadi M. Yahia; Dulce M. Rivera-Pastrana; Adriana Rojas-Molina; Ángel Miguel Zavala-Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits po...

  4. Compact type mutants in apple and sour cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction of mutations in deciduous fruits is considered complementary to the conventional breeding methods. Several promissing mutants, particularly in apples, were described and some of them were introduced to commercial orchards. Studies described herein are aimed at developing compact type mutants in apple cultivars, apple rootstocks and in sour cherry cultivars. Data obtained so far confirm the results of the other authors, who developed compact type mutants in apples and sweet cherries. Physiological studies have shown that the leaves of spontaneous apple mutants of compact type are more efficient in photosynthesis than the leaves of respective standards. In spite of this, using branch ringing techniques, it was found that the leaves of compacts and those of standards do not differ in their productivity. There seem to be several advantages in employing tissue culture technique in mutation breeding. That is why a project was started to work out a method of growing apple shoots from adventitious buds developed on sections of roots. (author)

  5. Bioactivity of sour cherry cultivars grown in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Gaik Ming; Clausen, Morten Rahr; Pedersen, Bjarne Hjelmsted

    2012-01-01

    proliferation inhibitory activity of sour cherries were closely correlated but not PGE2 production. The cultivars ‘BirgitteBöttermö’, ‘Fanal’ and ‘Tiki’ were the three cultivars with the highest ORAC values (180, 147 and 133mmol TE/g, respectively) and inhibition against Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation (74......%, 79% and 73%, respectively). ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ (22%) and ‘Stevnsbaer Viki’ (22%) inhibited PGE2 production with a similar potency as the positive controls indomethacin and NS-398. Significant differences between cultivars in all bioactivity experiments indicated that selection of cultivars......Thirty four varieties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were investigated for their total antioxidant activity, Caco-2 cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activity and effect on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production. Total phenolic content, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and cancer cell...

  6. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In this study the abundance and location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was determined in the flesh and skin of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Durone Nero II during development. PEPCK was not present in young fruit but appeared in both tissues as the fruit increased in size. In these there was no net dissimilation of malic acid, which accounts for the bulk of their organic acid contents when PEPCK was present. To assist in understanding the function of PEPCK, the abundance of a number of other enzymes was determined. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). A potential role for PEPCK in the regulation of pH and the utilization of malate in gluconeogenesis in the flesh and skin of cherries is presented.

  7. Improvement of new types by mutation breeding in cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunter, B.; Kantoglu, Y.; Bas, M.; Burak, M.

    2009-01-01

    Turkey, which is a major cultivation area for cherry, is ranked either as first or second in worldwide cherry production with an annual production amount of 200.000 tonnes. Out of this amount, 7% is exported which holds a c. 20% share of the global export. Due to the plantations of different altitudes resulted by the rich geographical structure, our country has a diverse harvest calendar. Hence, it is possible to export cherries in similar quality for almost five-six weeks with different maturation periods. Contrary to good traits, 0900 Ziraat is self incompatible, trees tends to grow vigorously with low yield on standard rootstocks. Although has some disadvantages there is huge demand from exterior market for 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry cultivar.In this research, gamma irradiation based mutation breeding technique was applied for improving of 0900 Ziraat. For this aim scions were irradiated 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses with Co 6 0 as a source of mutagen in 2000. After irradiation scions were budded on P.avium rootstock. According to measurement and calculation on young trees in the field, efficient mutation dose and mutation frequency were found 33,75 Gy and %4.1 respectively.Trees were characterized according to pomological traits such as fruit weight (g), peduncle length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit height (cm), seed weight (g), soluble solid contents (%), yield (g), and cracking rate (%). According to the data 8 mutant variety candidate (dwarf, semi dwarf, high yield and crackles) were selected in 371 living mutant trees for advance observations.

  8. Cytogenetic and molecular studies on tomato chromosomes using diploid tomato and tomato monosomic additions in tetraploid potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang, S.B.

    2004-01-01

    Geneticists have studied the tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum, for several decades and now obtained a saturated linkage map on which numerous genes controlling morphological traits and disease resistances, and molecular markers have been positioned. They also investigated the chromosomes of tomato,

  9. Complete solution of the modified Cherry oscillator problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.

    1990-04-01

    In 1925, T.M. Cherry presented a simple example demonstrating that linear stability analysis will in general not be sufficient for finding out whether a system is stable or not with respect to small-amplitude perturbations. The example consisted of two nonlinearly coupled oscillators, one possessing positive energy, the other negative energy, with frequencies ω 1 =2ω 2 allowing third-order resonance. In a previous paper, the present author reformulated Cherry's example and then generalized it to three coupled oscillators corresponding to three-wave interaction in a continuum theory like that of Maxwell-Vlasov. Cherry was able to present a two-parameter solution set for his example which would, however, allow a four-parameter solution set, and a three-parameter solution set for the resonant three-oscillator case was obtained which, however, would allow a six-parameter solution set. Nonlinear instability could therefore be proven only for a very small part of the phase space of the oscillators. This paper now gives the complete solution for the three-oscillator case and shows that, except for a singular case, all initial conditions, especially those with arbitrarily small amplitudes, lead to explosive behaviour. This is true of the resonant case. The non-resonant oscillators can sometimes also become explosively unstable, but only if the initial amplitudes are not infinitesimally small. (orig.)

  10. EFFECTIVE COMPLEX PROCESSING OF RAW TOMATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIDA M. GADZHIEVA

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5 - 6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids, 0.5 % minerals, etc. are used as research material. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have long term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace, the CO2 extraction method is applied. The technological and environmental feasibility of graded tomato drying in the atmosphere of an inert gas and in a solar drier is evaluated; the scheme of dried tomatoes production is improved; a system for tomato pomace drying is developed; a scheme of tomato powder production from pulp, skin and seeds is developed. The combined method of tomato pomace drying involves the simultaneous use of electromagnetic field of low and ultra-high frequency and blowing hot nitrogen on the product surface. Conducting the drying process in the atmosphere of nitrogen intensifies the process of removing moisture from tomatoes. The expediency of using tomato powder as an enriching additive is proved. Based on the study of the chemical composition of the tomato powder made from the Dagestan varieties, and on the organoleptic evaluation and physicochemical analysis of finished products, we prove the best degree of recoverability of tomato powder in the production of reconstituted juice and tomato beverages.

  11. Metabolic characterization and antioxidant activity in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) Campania accessions: Metabolic characterization of sweet cherry accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirto, Antonio; Iannuzzi, Federica; Carillo, Petronia; Ciarmiello, Loredana F; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Fuggi, Amodio

    2018-02-01

    The failure of the antioxidant scavenging system in advanced ripening stages, causing oxidative stress, is one of the most important factor of fruit decay. Production of rich antioxidant fruit could represent a way to delay fruit senescence and preserve its characteristics. We investigated the antioxidant metabolites (ascorbate, glutathione, tocopherols, and polyphenols) and enzymes (ascorbic peroxidases, peroxidases and polyphenol oxidases) involved in the antioxidant response in forty-three accessions of sweet cherry fruits from Campania region. Our results highlight accessions with high antioxidant metabolites contents but low enzymatic activities. These represent important factors in both pre- and post-harvest on the qualitative and nutritional characteristics of sweet cherry. Observed differences are probably due to endogenous characteristics making these accessions particularly interesting for breeding programs aimed to improve fruit quality and shelf-life and for addressing the cultivation of a specific characterized cultivar based on the intended use, fresh consumption or processed products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gresa, M Pilar; Lisón, Purificación; Yenush, Lynne; Conejero, Vicente; Rodrigo, Ismael; Bellés, José María

    2016-01-01

    Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA), were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd) or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV). The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH), which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  13. Salicylic Acid Is Involved in the Basal Resistance of Tomato Plants to Citrus Exocortis Viroid and Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Pilar López-Gresa

    Full Text Available Tomato plants expressing the NahG transgene, which prevents accumulation of endogenous salicylic acid (SA, were used to study the importance of the SA signalling pathway in basal defence against Citrus Exocortis Viroid (CEVd or Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV. The lack of SA accumulation in the CEVd- or TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants led to an early and dramatic disease phenotype, as compared to that observed in the corresponding parental Money Maker. Addition of acibenzolar-S-methyl, a benzothiadiazole (BTH, which activates the systemic acquired resistance pathway downstream of SA signalling, improves resistance of NahG tomato plants to CEVd and TSWV. CEVd and TSWV inoculation induced the accumulation of the hydroxycinnamic amides p-coumaroyltyramine, feruloyltyramine, caffeoylputrescine, and feruloylputrescine, and the defence related proteins PR1 and P23 in NahG plants earlier and with more intensity than in Money Maker plants, indicating that SA is not essential for the induction of these plant defence metabolites and proteins. In addition, NahG plants produced very high levels of ethylene upon CEVd or TSWV infection when compared with infected Money Maker plants, indicating that the absence of SA produced additional effects on other metabolic pathways. This is the first report to show that SA is an important component of basal resistance of tomato plants to both CEVd and TSWV, indicating that SA-dependent defence mechanisms play a key role in limiting the severity of symptoms in CEVd- and TSWV-infected NahG tomato plants.

  14. MedlinePlus: Baked Tilapia with Tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/recipe/bakedtilapiawithtomatoes.html Baked Tilapia with Tomatoes To use the sharing features on ... and economical. Ingredients Nonstick vegetable oil spray 4 tilapia fillets 4 medium tomatoes, peeled and chopped 2 ...

  15. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  16. The SA-dependent defense pathway is active against different pathogens in tomato and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuo, A E; Audenaert, K; Meziane, H; Höfte, M

    2002-01-01

    The importance of salicylic acid (SA) in plant defense against pathogen attack has been elaborately documented. Benzothiadiazole (BTH, BION), a chemical analogue of SA, also induces resistance through the SA-dependent pathway. We investigated the role of SA in both basal defense and induced resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) against Oidium neolycopersici (a biotrophic pathogen) and Botrytis cinerea (a necrotrophic pathogen). A comparison of NahG transgenic tomato and tobacco (unable to accumulate SA) to their respective wild types revealed that in both crops, SA was not involved in basal defense against O. neolycopersici. SA also played no role in the basal defense of tobacco against B. cinerea but NahG tomato plants were significantly more sensitive to B. cinerea than wild type plants. Activation of the SA-dependent defense pathway via BTH resulted in induced resistance against B. cinerea in tomato but not in tobacco. In contrast, BTH induced resistance against O. neolycopersci in tobacco but not in tomato. Microscopic analysis revealed that BTH treatment could prevent penetration of the odium germ tube through the epidermal cell wall of tobacco leaves whereas penetration was successful on tomato leaves, irrespective of BTH treatment. We conclude that even in two related plant species such as tomato and tobacco, the SA-dependent defense pathway does not trigger the same defense responses. It also means that the outcome of a BTH treatment cannot be predicted and has to be tested for each plant-pathogen combination.

  17. 21 CFR 156.145 - Tomato juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato juice. 156.145 Section 156.145 Food and... CONSUMPTION VEGETABLE JUICES Requirements for Specific Standardized Vegetable Juices § 156.145 Tomato juice. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Tomato juice is the food intended for direct consumption, obtained from...

  18. Managing thrips and tospoviruses in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus and more recently emerged Tomato chlorotic spot virus and Groundnut ringspot virus are all transmitted by thrips, making managment complex. All three viruses and the thrips vector are major pests of tomato in Florida. Current management tools for these viruses and the th...

  19. Carotenes in processed tomato after thermal treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luterotti, S.; Bicanic, D.D.; Markovic, K.; Franko, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report adds to the ongoing vivid dispute on the fate of carotenes in tomato upon thermal processing. Although many papers dealing with changes in the raw tomatoes during industrial treatment have already appeared, data on the fate of finished, processed tomato products when they are

  20. Identification of growth processes involved in QTLs for tomato fruit size and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Nadia; Causse, Mathilde; Brunel, Béatrice; Tricon, David; Génard, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for quality traits have been located on the tomato genetic map, but introgression of favourable wild alleles into large fruited species is hampered by co-localizations of QTLs with antagonist effects. The aim of this study was to assess the growth processes controlled by the main QTLs for fruit size and composition. Four nearly isogenic lines (NILs) derived from an intraspecific cross between a tasty cherry tomato (Cervil) and a normal-tasting large fruit tomato (Levovil) were studied. The lines carried one (L2, L4, and L9) or five (Lx) introgressions from Cervil on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, and 9. QTLs for fruit size could be mainly associated with cell division processes in L2 and L9, whereas cell expansion was rather homogeneous among the genotypes, except Cervil for which the low expansion rate was attributed to low cell plasticity. The link between endoreduplication and fruit size remained unclear, as cell or fruit sizes were positively correlated with the cell DNA content, but not with the endoreduplication factor. QTLs for fruit composition reflected differences in water accumulation rather than in sugar accumulation, except in L9 for which the up-regulation of sucrose unloading and hexose transport and/or starch synthesis was suggested. This may explain the increased amount of carbon allocated to cell structures in L9, which could be related to a QTL for fruit texture. In Lx, these effects were attenuated, except on fruit size and cell division. Finally, the region on top of chromosome 9 may control size and composition attributes in tomato, by a combination of QTL effects on cell division, cell wall synthesis, and carbon import and metabolism.

  1. Tomato plant inheritance of antixenotic resistance to tomato leafminer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson de Castro Antônio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the inheritance of resistance by antixenosis in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum to tomato leafminer [Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae]. Evaluations were performed for tomato plants of the generations P1, P2, F1, F2, RC1 and RC2. The measured characteristic in the parents, BGH-1497 (P2 male and 'Santa Clara' (P1 female, and in the F1, F2, RC1 and RC2 generations was the number of eggs per plant. This number was converted to the oviposition nonpreference index. The inheritance of antixenosis resistance of genotype BGH-1497 is ruled by a gene of greater effect and polygenes in epistatic interactions, with a phenotypic proportion of 13:3 between susceptible and resistant genotypes, respectively.

  2. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  3. 76 FR 31577 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and... States of fresh apricot, sweet cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. Based on our analysis, we... importation of fresh apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.), sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L., and plumcot (Prunus...

  4. 76 FR 61340 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ...] Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry, and Plumcot Fruit From... continental United States of fresh apricot, sweet cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. Based [[Page... weeds via the importation of fresh apricot, sweet cherry, and plumcot fruit from South Africa. We are...

  5. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  6. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately...

  7. 78 FR 46494 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... intending to divert cherries or cherry products under a volume regulation must notify the Board and submit.... These certificates can be earned through export sales, new market or new product sales, or through... able to complete their reserve plan for restricted tart cherries at an earlier date. As a result, the...

  8. 78 FR 25407 - Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zones; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display; West Grand Traverse Bay... National Cherry Festival in Traverse City, MI will host an air show over the West Arm of Grand Traverse Bay. At the conclusion of the National Cherry Festival on July 6, 2013, fireworks will be launched in...

  9. 77 FR 72683 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ...; FV12-923-1 IR] Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate... (Committee) for the 2012-2013 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.40 to $0.18 per ton of sweet cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order which regulates the handling of sweet...

  10. Occurrence of gum spots in black cherry after partial harvest cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles O. Rexrode; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1990-01-01

    Bark beetles, primarily the bark beetle Phlosotribus liminori (Harris), are the major cause of gum spots in sawtimber-size black cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Approximately 90 percent of all gum spots in the bole sections are caused by bark beetles. Gum spots were studied in 95 black cherry trees near Parsons, West Virginia. Over 50 percent of the bark beetle-caused gum...

  11. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale

  12. Construction and validation of a mCherry protein vector for promoter analysis in Lactobacillus acidophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohedano, M.L.; Garcia-Cayuela, T.; Perez-Ramos, A.; Gaiser, R.A.; Requena, T.; Lopez, P.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli are widespread in natural environments and are increasingly being investigated as potential health modulators. In this study, we have adapted the broad-host-range vector pNZ8048 to express the mCherry protein (pRCR) to expand the usage of the mCherry protein for analysis of gene

  13. Analysis of Wave Velocity Patterns in Black Cherry Trees and its Effect on Internal Decay Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiping Wang; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined stress wave velocity patterns in the cross sections of black cherry trees, developed analytical models of stress wave velocity in sound healthy trees, and then tested the effectiveness of the models as a tool for tree decay diagnosis. Acoustic tomography data of the tree cross sections were collected from 12 black cherry trees at a production...

  14. Initial sensory evaluation of Bing cherries treated with low doses of gamma-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, M.; Wong, S.Y.; Odbert, N.

    1985-01-01

    Sensory evaluation of California Bing cherries following a low post-harvest gamma irradiation dose (60-80 Krad) 3-11 days after harvest produced greater shrivelling and chewing softness and a different flavor than non-irradiated cherries. No consistent differences, however, were noted for manual firmness, skin darkness, or brown blemishing as a result of irradiation treatment

  15. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  16. Quality response of 'Bing' and 'Rainier' sweet cherries to low rose electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.R.; Neven, L.G.

    1997-01-01

    'Bing' and 'Rainier' sweet cherries were irradiated at doses of 0.00, 0.15, 0.30, 0.60 and 0.90 kGy using a linear accelerator. Cherries were evaluated for quality immediately after treatment and again after 14 days storage at 1C. No variation in soluble solids, titratable acidity or flavor were noted at any of the irradiation doses. Defects were increased for 'Rainier' cherries at irradiation doses above 0.60 kGy, but no change in defects of 'Bing' cherries were present regardless of irradiation doses. Objective color of 'Bing' cherries was lighter with more red at irradiation doses greater than 0.30 kGy, but this change in color was not evident visually. Objective color of 'Rainier' cherries was reduced at irradiation doses of 0.60 kGy and greater. This reduction in 'Rainier' red color was evident visually at an irradiation dose of 0.90 kGy. No change in 'Bing' green stem color was evident, but 'Rainier' stem color improved at irradiation doses above 0.60 kGy. Firmness of both 'Bing' and 'Rainier' cherries was reduced at irradiation doses of 0.60 kGy and greater. By using the linear accelerator at doses of 0.60 kGy or less, 'Ring' and 'Rainier' cherries can be irradiated with no major quality loss to meet quarantine requirements

  17. Analysis of wave velocity patterns in black cherry trees and its effect on internal decay detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guanghui Li; Xiping Wang; Hailin Feng; Jan Wiedenbeck; Robert J. Ross

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined stress wave velocity patterns in the cross sections of black cherry trees, developed analytical models of stress wave velocity in sound healthy trees, and then tested the effectiveness of the models as a tool for tree decay diagnosis. Acoustic tomography data of the tree cross sections were collected from 12 black cherry trees at a production...

  18. Phenolic compounds profile and antioxidant properties of six sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Serena; Conte, Angela; Tagliazucchi, Davide

    2017-07-01

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruits are a nutritionally important food rich in dietary phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile and chemometric discrimination of fruits from six cherry cultivars using a quantitative metabolomics approach, which combine non-targeted mass spectrometry and chemometric analysis. The assessment of the phenolic fingerprint of cherries allowed the tentative identification of 86 compounds. A total of 40 chlorogenic acids were identified in cherry fruit, which pointed out hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives as the main class of phenolics by number of compounds. Among the compounds detected, 40 have been reported for the first time in sweet cherry fruit. Hydroxycinnamic acids are also the quantitatively most represented class of phenolic compounds in the cherry cultivars with the exception of Lapins and Durone della Marca where the most representative class of phenolic compounds were anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols, respectively. This non-targeted approach allowed the tentative identification of the cultivar-compound relationships of these six cherry cultivars. Both anthocyanins and colorless phenolic compounds profile appeared to be cultivar-dependent. In detail, anthocyanins and flavonols patterns have the potential to be used for the determination of a varietal assignment of cherries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancing the health-promoting effects of tomato fruit for biofortified food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiola, Assunta; Rigano, Maria Manuela; Calafiore, Roberta; Frusciante, Luigi; Barone, Amalia

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of a number of degenerative diseases and conditions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on tomatoes nutritional importance and mechanisms of action of different phytochemicals against inflammation processes and prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension). In addition, we will summarize the significant progress recently made to improve the nutritional quality of tomato fruits through metabolic engineering and/or breeding.

  20. Enhancing the Health-Promoting Effects of Tomato Fruit for Biofortified Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assunta Raiola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of tomato fruits, like those of many other plant species that are part of the human diet, is considered to be associated with several positive effects on health. Indeed, tomato fruits are an important source of bioactive compounds with known beneficial effects including vitamins, antioxidants, and anticancer substances. In particular, antioxidant metabolites are a group of vitamins, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and phenolic acid that can provide effective protection by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules linked to the development of a number of degenerative diseases and conditions. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on tomatoes nutritional importance and mechanisms of action of different phytochemicals against inflammation processes and prevention of chronic noncommunicable diseases (e.g., obesity, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension. In addition, we will summarize the significant progress recently made to improve the nutritional quality of tomato fruits through metabolic engineering and/or breeding.

  1. Application of half-embryo test to irradiated apples and cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Miura, Aya; Sugita, Takiko; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples and cherries. The optimum incubation temperature for apples and cherries was 30 o C and 25 o C, respectively. Benzyladenine stimulated the shooting of cherry half-embryos, therefore, they were incubated with 10 μM benzyladenine. The irradiation of apples and cherries caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryos. A dose of 0.15 kGy or more almost totally retarded shoot elongation. If shooting is less than 50%, the apples and cherries are identified as ''irradiated''. An assessment could be made after 1 to 4 days and the detection limit of the irradiation dose is 0.15 kGy. (author)

  2. DES-TOMATO: A Knowledge Exploration System Focused On Tomato Species

    KAUST Repository

    Salhi, Adil

    2017-07-14

    Tomato is the most economically important horticultural crop used as a model to study plant biology and particularly fruit development. Knowledge obtained from tomato research initiated improvements in tomato and, being transferrable to other such economically important crops, has led to a surge of tomato-related research and published literature. We developed DES-TOMATO knowledgebase (KB) for exploration of information related to tomato. Information exploration is enabled through terms from 26 dictionaries and combination of these terms. To illustrate the utility of DES-TOMATO, we provide several examples how one can efficiently use this KB to retrieve known or potentially novel information. DES-TOMATO is free for academic and nonprofit users and can be accessed at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/des_tomato/, using any of the mainstream web browsers, including Firefox, Safari and Chrome.

  3. Nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovambattista Sorrenti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Given that nursery is a peculiar environment, the amount of nutrients removed by nursery trees represents a fundamental acquisition to optimise fertilisation strategies, with economic and environmental implications. In this context, we determined nutrient removal by apple, pear and cherry nursery trees at the end of the nursery growing cycle. We randomly removed 5 leafless apple (Golden Delicious/EMLA M9; density of 30,000 trees ha–1, pear (Santa Maria/Adams; density of 30,000 trees ha–1 and cherry (AlexTM/Gisela 6®; density of 40,000 trees ha–1 trees from a commercial nursery. Trees were divided into roots (below the root collar, rootstock (above-ground wood between root collar and grafting point and variety (1-year-old wood above the grafting point. For each organ we determined biomass, macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and micro- (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and B nutrient concentration. Pear trees were the most developed (650 g (dw tree–1, equal to 1.75 and 2.78 folds than apple and cherry trees, respectively whereas, independently of the species, variety mostly contributed (>50% to the total tree biomass, followed by roots and then above-ground rootstock. However, the dry biomass and nutrient amount measured in rootstocks (including roots represent the cumulative amount of 2 and 3 seasons, for Gisela® 6 (tissue culture and pome fruit species (generated by mound layering, respectively. Macro and micronutrients were mostly concentrated in roots, followed by variety and rootstock, irrespective of the species. Independently of the tissue, macronutrients concentration hierarchy was N>Ca>K> P>Mg>S. Removed N by whole tree accounted for 6.58, 3.53 and 2.49 g tree–1 for pear, apple and cherry, respectively, corresponding to almost 200, 107 and 100 kg N ha–1, respectively. High amounts of K and Ca were used by pear (130-140 kg ha–1 and apple trees (~50 and 130 kg ha–1 of K and Ca, respectively, while ~25 kg K ha–1 and 55 kg Ca ha–1 were

  4. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariette, Stéphanie; Tavaud, Muriel; Arunyawat, Uraiwan; Capdeville, Gaëlle; Millan, Muriel; Salin, Franck

    2010-08-20

    Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry.

  5. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Stéphanie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Results Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. Conclusions Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry.

  6. Population structure and genetic bottleneck in sweet cherry estimated with SSRs and the gametophytic self-incompatibility locus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Domestication and breeding involve the selection of particular phenotypes, limiting the genomic diversity of the population and creating a bottleneck. These effects can be precisely estimated when the location of domestication is established. Few analyses have focused on understanding the genetic consequences of domestication and breeding in fruit trees. In this study, we aimed to analyse genetic structure and changes in the diversity in sweet cherry Prunus avium L. Results Three subgroups were detected in sweet cherry, with one group of landraces genetically very close to the analysed wild cherry population. A limited number of SSR markers displayed deviations from the frequencies expected under neutrality. After the removal of these markers from the analysis, a very limited bottleneck was detected between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces, with a much more pronounced bottleneck between sweet cherry landraces and modern sweet cherry varieties. The loss of diversity between wild cherries and sweet cherry landraces at the S-locus was more significant than that for microsatellites. Particularly high levels of differentiation were observed for some S-alleles. Conclusions Several domestication events may have happened in sweet cherry or/and intense gene flow from local wild cherry was probably maintained along the evolutionary history of the species. A marked bottleneck due to breeding was detected, with all markers, in the modern sweet cherry gene pool. The microsatellites did not detect the bottleneck due to domestication in the analysed sample. The vegetative propagation specific to some fruit trees may account for the differences in diversity observed at the S-locus. Our study provides insights into domestication events of cherry, however, requires confirmation on a larger sampling scheme for both sweet cherry landraces and wild cherry. PMID:20727153

  7. Disaccharides: Influence on Volatiles and Phenolics of Sour Cherry Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Zlatić

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is continuously developing ingredients, processing methods and packaging materials to improve the quality of fruit products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of sugars, a common ingredient in the food industry, on phenolics and volatiles of sour cherry juice. Sucrose, trehalose and maltose chemical isomers were chosen for this investigation. All sugars influenced the evaluated parameters. Samples with maltose addition had lower, while samples with sucrose and trehalose addition had higher anthocyanin content than the control sample. Generally, trehalose had a higher positive effect on volatiles with the desired flavor note.

  8. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  9. Bombus huntii, Bombus impatiens, and Bombus vosnesenskii (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pollinate Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes in Western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strange, James P

    2015-06-01

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are the primary pollinators of tomatoes grown in greenhouses and can significantly increase fruit weight compared with tomatoes that receive no supplemental pollination. More than a million colonies are sold worldwide annually to meet pollination needs. Due to mounting concerns over the transportation of bumble bees outside of their native ranges, several species native to western North American are currently being investigated as potential commercial pollinators. Here, two western, Bombus huntii Greene and Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski, and one eastern species, Bombus impatiens Cresson, are compared for their efficacy as pollinators of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. In two experiments, colonies were placed in greenhouses and compared with control plants that received no supplemental pollination. In the first experiment, seed set was significantly increased with B. huntii pollination in one variety of cherry tomatoes. In the second experiment comparing all three bumble bee species, fruit weight was an average of 25.2 g heavier per fruit pollinated by bees versus the control, and the number of days to harvest was 2.9 d shorter for bee-pollinated fruit. In some rounds of pollination, differences were found among bumble bee species, but these were inconsistent across replicates and not statistically significant overall. Additionally, fruit weight was shown to be highly correlated to fruit diameter and seed set in all tests and, thus, is shown to be a reliable metric for assessing pollination in future studies. These results suggest that commercialization of western bumble bees is a viable alternative to the current practices of moving of nonnative bees into western North America to pollinate tomatoes. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2015. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Tomatoes: Safe Methods to Store, Preserve, and Enjoy

    OpenAIRE

    Parnell, Tracy L; Suslow, Trevor V; Harris, Linda J

    2004-01-01

    This guide includes advice on selecting tomatoes for the home garden as well as from the market; safety tips for handling fresh tomatoes; and recommended methods for storing, freezing, drying, and canning. Also includes recipes for Tomato-Green Chili Salsa and Tomato-Tomato Paste Salsa.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS AND PHENOTYPICAL VARIABILITY OF TOMATO INITIAL BREEDING MATERIAL ACCORDING TO THE MAIN ECONOMICALLY VALUABLE TRAITS AND PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Rechets

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market of Moldova has a large assortment of seed of foreign selection, such as large-fruited tomatoes, cherry and cocktail tomato. Therefore, it is necessary to launch the breeding program for hybrid development of local origin tomato typed, such as ‘Cherry’ and ‘Cocktail’ with a different form, mass and fruit color. Initially, 15 parental forms of tomato were studied for the main economically valuable traits in the open field condition. Phenotypic variation in tomato varieties and breeding accession was identified depending on the terms of cultivation. Such varieties and lines of tomato as ‘Trapesa’, ‘Rosovaya Kapelka’, ‘Seniyorita’, ‘Ocharovaniye’, ‘L. 46/06’, ‘L. 49/09’, ‘L 295/09,’ ‘L. 336/11’, ‘L. 354/11’, ‘L. 357/11’, ‘L. 388/09 (nor’, ‘L.498 (released by TARI, ‘Tigris’, ‘Vishnya Zheltaya’ (released by OOO ‘Gavrish’, ‘Denezhnoye Derevo’ (national breeding program were used as the initial breeding material. Totally, 15 breeding accessions were used for the study, where all of them differed in the type of bush (determinate and indeterminate; a vegetation period (ultra-early, early, middle, late; a form (roundish, oval; a fruit color (red, pink, black, orange, tiger and with a NOR gene; a fruit weight (from 10 g and above; a structure of brush (dense, loose. Lines and varieties of tomato of different terms of ripening characterized by the shortened internode, high fruit setting on the bush, high content of biologically active substances, and complex resistance to diseases were used to breed tomato hybrids of ‘cherry’ and ‘cocktail’ types with different fruit form and color.

  12. POSTHARVEST FUNGAL DETERIORATION OF TOMATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    effects on the nutritional composition of these vegetables. Healthy looking and physically damaged tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. Fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger) isolated from samples of “esa” were inoculated into the healthy looking vegetables. Using standard.

  13. Development of compact mutants in apple and sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagaja, S.W.; Przybyla, A.; Machnik, B.

    1982-01-01

    During the period 1973 - 79 studies were conducted with the aim of developing compact mutants in apple and cherry cultivars and in apple vegetative rootstocks. During the investigations the effect of the dose of gamma rays on frequency of the mutants was studied. Attempts were also made to evolve a micropropagation technique adapted to propagate P 2 and P 22 apple rootstocks, as an aid in mutation breeding. Several mutants were produced in all the material studied, but none of them have yet reached a sufficient developmental stage to enable their complete assessment. On the basis of the results obtained so far the following conclusions can be drawn: higher doses of irradiation resulted in higher frequency of mutants in most apple cultivars and apple rootstocks; in sour cherries the effect of dose depended on the cultivars. Among V 1 shoots developed from sleeping buds on irradiated scion wood, compact mutants were found; their frequency, however, was about 60% lower than among V 1 shoots developed directly from irradiated dormant buds. In apple rootstocks A 2 and M 26 several dwarfed mutants were found; some of these produced thorny plants and some had lower rooting ability; both these characteristics are inferior from the practical point of view. Multiplication and rooting media for in vitro propagation of apple rootstocks, worked out for M 26, were found unsuitable for the rootstocks P 2 and P 22; modifications made in the growth substance composition of the above media enabled satisfactory propagation to be obtained. (author)

  14. Production and characterization of chars from cherry pulp via pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, E; Özbay, N; Yargıç, A S; Şahin, R Z

    2017-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an eco-friendly process to achieve valuable products like bio-oil, char and gases. In the last decades, biochar production from pyrolysis of a wide variety of industrial and agricultural wastes become popular, which can be utilized as adsorbent instead of the expensive activated carbons. In this study, cherry pulp was pyrolyzed in a fixed bed tubular reactor at five different temperatures (400, 500,550, 600 and 700 °C) and three different heating rates (10, 100 and 200 °C/min) to obtain biochar. Proximate, ultimate, nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were performed on cherry pulp and its chars to examine the chemical alterations after the pyrolysis process. Biochar yields were decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature and heating rate, based on experimental results. Porous biochars are carbon rich and includes high potassium content. The aromaticity of biochars increased and O/C mass ratio reduced with an increase in the pyrolysis temperature as a result of the development of compact aromatic structure in char. Pyrolysis provides a promising conversion procedure for the production of high energy density char which has promising applications in existing coal-fired boilers without any upgrading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase and isocitrate lyase in both tomato fruits and leaves, and in the flesh of peach and some other fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiani, Franco; Paoletti, Andrea; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Walker, Robert P

    2016-09-01

    In this study the occurrence of a number of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis was investigated in both tomato fruits and leaves during their development and senescence and in some other fruits. The enzymes studied were phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK) and glyoxysomal isocitrate lyase (ICL). PPDK was detected in the ripe flesh of tomato, and much smaller amounts were detected in the flesh of both peach and pepper, whereas it was not detected (not present or at very low abundance) in the other fruits which were investigated (apricot, aubergine, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, grape, plum, raspberry and red current). By contrast PEPCK was present in the flesh of all the fruits investigated. Very small amounts of ICL were detected in ripe tomato flesh. PEPCK was present in the skin, flesh, locular gel and columella of tomato fruit, and in these its abundance increased greatly during ripening. PPDK showed a similar distribution, however, its abundance did not increase during ripening. PEPCK was not detected in tomato leaves at any stage of their development or senescence. The content of PPDK g(-1) fresh weight (FW) increased in tomato leaves as they matured, however, it declined during their senescence. In tomato leaves the content of ICL g(-1) FW increased until the mid-stage of development, then decreased as the leaf matured, and then increased during the latter stages of senescence. In the flesh of tomato fruits the contents of PPDK and PEPCK g(-1) FW decreased during senescence. The results suggest that in fruits other than tomato the bulk of any gluconeogenic flux proceeds via PEPCK, whereas in tomato both PEPCK and PPDK could potentially be utilised. Further, the results indicate that the conversion of pyruvate/acetyl-CoA to malate by the glyoxylate cycle, for which ICL is necessary, is not a major pathway utilised by gluconeogenesis in fruits under normal conditions of growth. Finally, the results contribute to

  16. Consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice for 12 weeks improves memory and cognition in older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Katherine; Charlton, Karen; Roodenrys, Steven; Batterham, Marijka; Potter, Jan; Traynor, Victoria; Gilbert, Hayley; Morgan, Olivia; Richards, Rachelle

    2017-02-01

    Dietary flavonoids, including anthocyanins, may positively influence cognition and may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of dementia. We aimed to assess whether daily consumption of anthocyanin-rich cherry juice changed cognitive function in older adults with dementia. Blood pressure and anti-inflammatory effects were examined as secondary outcomes. A 12-week randomised controlled trial assessed cognitive outcomes in older adults (+70 year) with mild-to-moderate dementia (n = 49) after consumption of 200 ml/day of either a cherry juice or a control juice with negligible anthocyanin content. Blood pressure and inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6) were measured at 6 and 12 weeks. ANCOVA controlling for baseline and RMANOVA assessed change in cognition and blood pressure. Improvements in verbal fluency (p = 0.014), short-term memory (p = 0.014) and long-term memory (p ≤ 0.001) were found in the cherry juice group. A significant reduction in systolic (p = 0.038) blood pressure and a trend for diastolic (p = 0.160) blood pressure reduction was evident in the intervention group. Markers of inflammation (CRP and IL-6) were not altered. Inclusion of an anthocyanin-rich beverage may be a practical and feasible way to improve total anthocyanin consumption in older adults with mild-to-moderate dementia, with potential to improve specific cognitive outcomes.

  17. Genetic characterization of pathogenic fluorescent pseudomonads isolated from necrotic cherry and plum buds in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Veljko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During past few years a symptoms of plum and cherry bud necrosis were observed in some regions with significant cherry production in Serbia. Gram negative, fluorescent, oxidative bacterial strains were isolated from the margin of necrotic tissue. All investigated strains are levan and HR positive, while negative results are recorded in oxidase, pectinase and arginin dihydrolase tests (LOPAT+---+. Symptoms similar to those observed in natural infection were obtained after artificial inoculation of cherry leaf scares and dormant one year old cherry shoots. Investigated strains as well as reference strain of P. syringae pv. morsprunorum cause the superficial necrosis on artificially inoculated immature cherry fruits, but negative results were recorded in immature pear and lemon fruit tests as well as syringae leaves and bean pods. Gelatin and aesculin tests were negative and tyrosinase and tartrate were positive. Investigated strains isolated from necrotic cherry buds had identical REP-PCR pattern with reference strain of P. syringae pv. morsprunorum. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that this bacterium is causal agent of cherry trees bud necrosis in Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31018 i br. 173026

  18. Morphological and physico-biochemical characterization of various tomato cultivars in a simplified soilless media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboob Ahmad Khan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate nine commercial cultivars of tomato, in order to identify the most suitable cultivar in terms of morphological (plant height, fruit size, fruit weight and total yield and physico-biochemical (color, firmness, total soluble solid, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, total sugar, reducing and non-reducing sugar, β-carotene and lycopene attributes. Plants were cultured hydroponically in the greenhouse. Results revealed that the morphological attributes of Beefsteak Group (BG of tomatoes was significantly better than that of Cherry Group (CG. In addition, CG has higher concentration of biochemical attributes, mainly β-carotene, sugars, total soluble solids (TSS and ascorbic acid contents. Within CG, cv. Aria was found to be the best for higher sugar contents, β-carotene and ascorbic acid contents; while, TSS was higher in the cv. Claree. Similarly in BG, cv. Sahel had the highest value of lycopene, β-carotene, TSS; whereas, lowest sugar contents were found in cv. Dirk. As far as firmness is concerned, cv. Naram (BG was found to be more firm, than cv. Aria (CG. The highest total yield was recorded for cv. Vernal; in BG and in cv. Claree for CG, depicting that BG had significantly higher total yield, compared with CG.

  19. The tomato sauce making process affects the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of tomato phenolics: a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Tulipani, Sara; Estruch, Ramón; Escribano, Elvira; Illán, Montserrat; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M

    2015-04-15

    Tomato sauce is the most commonly consumed processed tomato product worldwide, but very little is known about how the manufacturing process may affect the phenolic composition and bioavailability after consumption. In a prospective randomised, cross-over intervention study, we analysed the plasma and urinary levels of tomato phenolic compounds and their metabolites after acute consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauce, enriched or not with refined olive oil during production. Respectively, eleven and four phenolic metabolites were found in urine and plasma samples. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion of naringenin glucuronide were both significantly higher after the consumption of tomato sauce than raw tomatoes. The results suggest that the mechanical and thermal treatments during tomato sauce manufacture may help to deliver these potentially bioactive phenolics from the food matrix more effectively than the addition of an oil component, thus increasing their bioavailability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of wood biochar addition on growth of cherry radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. radculus pers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Huadan; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Guocheng

    2018-03-01

    Extensive cultivation and unreasonable management of the farmland result in severe soil degradation such as compaction, acidification, and salinization. Our results showed that the biochar amendment increased the cherry radish germination rate, while barely influenced the fresh biomass of shoot and root. Moreover, both 1.5% and 3% biochar addition showed no significant difference in the fruit shape index of cherry radish compared to the control treatment. These results suggested that the biochar application alone could not improve the cherry radish growth in this tested soil. Thus, application of biochar combined with fertilizer or composted with organic wastes should be taken into account for this soil.

  1. Predicting the presence of whiteflies and tomato yellow leaf curl virus in Florida tomato fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida is one of the leading states for production of fresh market tomatoes. Production is severely affected by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The objective of this study was to identify landscape and climatic factors that drive whitefly populations and TYLCV incidence in commercial tomato ...

  2. Tomato juices and tomato juice concentrates : a study of factors contributing to their gross viscosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heutink, R.

    1986-01-01

    The gross viscosity of tomato juice and tomato juice concentrates was found to be determined primarily by the water insoluble solids (WIS) content. The serum viscosity did not contribute to gross viscosity. The WIS consisted of whole tomato cells, vascular bundles and skin fragments. In general the

  3. Detecting local establishment strategies of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorius Hans-Rolf

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround P. avium, a pioneer tree species that colonizes early forest successional stages, is assumed to require an effective strategy allowing stably repeatable rounds of local establishment, dispersal and local extinction. Consequently, the early replacement of cherry by climax tree species makes the establishment of several local generations very unlikely, especially in central European continuous cover forests. This has to be seen in connection with the mixed reproduction system involving asexual reproduction as a complementary adaptational strategy. Tests of the local establishment of wild cherry must therefore consider the possibility of first generation establishment via seedling recruitment potentially followed by an asexual generation (root suckering. Successful establishment can therefore be determined only among adult individuals with the option of detecting vegetative reproduction at these stages. To test the implied suggestion about local establishment strategies of wild cherry, nuclear microsatellites were used to analyse patterns of asexual propagation among adult stages that have been subjected to one of two major types of forest management. These management types, the historical "coppice with standards system" (CWS and the "high forest system" (HFS, can be reasonably assumed to have affected the reproduction system of P. avium. Results Clear differences were found in the reproduction pattern between two stands representing the two forest management types: 1 Clonal propagation is observed in both management systems, but with a distinctly higher frequency in the CWS. Hence, sexual recruitment as a first local generation is followed by a second asexual generation in both, whereas in the CWS there is evidence for an additional clonal generation. 2 The estimation of amounts of clonal reproduction critically depends on the assumptions about multilocus gene associations. This is revealed by the application of newly developed

  4. Survey of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus incidence in Korea by Duplex RT-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yeol Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV have recently been occurred in Korea, posing a problem for sweet cherry cultivation. Since infected trees have symptomless leaves or ring-like spots on the pericarp, it is difficult to identify a viral infection. In this study, the incidence of CNRMV and CGRMV in sweet cherry in Gyeongbuk province was surveyed using a newly developed duplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method that can detect both viruses in a single reaction. CNRMV and CGRMV co-infection rates were 29.6%, 53.6%, and 17.6%, respectively, in samples collected from three different sites (Daegu, Gyeongju and Gyeongsan in Gyeongbuk province during 2012 and 2013. This duplex RT-PCR method offers a simple, rapid, and effective way of identifying CNRMV and CGRMV simultaneously in sweet cherry trees, which can aid in the management of viral infections that could undermine yield.

  5. TOMATOES BALANCE SHEET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Mihai MEDELETE

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are one of the most representative vegetable species cultivated in our country. This allegation is based on the essential elements of tomatoes culture respectively area cultivated, total production and average yield per hectare - indicators for 2007-2009 reached average levels of 48.8 thousand hectares and 736.9 thousand tonnes respectively 15101kg / ha. Presentation of food helps establish balance of the demand and supply component parts total as follows: production, imports, exports (on request food consumption and losses (on request. It is worth noting that in Romania, unlike global and continental do not appear reports for stocks, industrial raw materials, feed consumption, and other uses. Based on the total volume of supply and demand it could be determining the national balance sheet for the product.

  6. Clonal stability and epigenetic variation in sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sabine Karin

    . This observed variability within the clones raises the question as to whether more suitable plant material for the future might be found through similar selection. In this study, a number of the selected individuals were evaluated based on their morphological (harvested yield, number of buds...... freezing in the buds. Measurements of hardiness in dormant winter buds suggested that potentially lethal freezing events occur in buds of cl. 'Birgitte' before cl. 'Viki' or any of the derived selections. No genetic differences were detected in the fingerprinting allele profiles or in genome sizes between......Harvested yields of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cultivar 'Stevnsbaer' grown in Denmark have been highly variable over the years, yet some propagated derived trees selected from within the two widely grown clones of 'Stevnsbaer' cl. 'Birgitte' and cl. 'Viki' have consistently produced higher yields...

  7. Gamma-rays irradiation of greenwood cuttings cherry varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported of irradiation of greenwood cuttings of the sweet cherry grafted varieties Napoleon, Drogans Gelbe and Ryzhdavishka Belvitsa, performed at 2500 R. The treated buds have been treated on rootstocks in a nursery and trees have been raised from the grafts in a planting. Different teratological alterations were observed in shoots of most trees developed from treated buds such as fasciations, bi-, tre-, and tetra-furcation as well as branchlets with a pseudodichotomical ramification. Several forms, having a very good fruit bearing and lower strength of growth than the initial varieties, were selected. A large number of slightly growing mutagenous forms were established of the Drogans Gelbe variety. Their fruits do not differ substantially from those of the initial varieties. (author)

  8. 76 FR 69673 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... process to brine, can, concentrate, freeze, dehydrate, pit, press or puree cherries, or in any other way... section 930.58(a) would make reference to the treatment of grower diversion certificates consistent with...

  9. Interaction between Japanese flowering cherry trees and some wild animals observed during physiological experiment in fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Teruko

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the weeping habit of Japanese flowering cherry tree in the field of Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute at the foot of Mt. Takao. Since cherry trees at various age were the materials for our plant physiology experiments, our studies were conducted in the fields where we experienced certain difficulties. Even under such difficult environment that was rather unexpected and uncontrollable, we could obtain fruitful results on the growth of cherry tree, and found them scientifically significant, especially in terms of biological effects of gravity on earth. Moreover, a lot of interesting interactions of cherry trees with various kinds of animals were observed in parallel to the plant physiology.

  10. Sweet cherry softening accompanied with moisture migration and loss during low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Danshi; Liang, Jieyu; Liu, He; Cao, Xuehui; Ge, Yonghong; Li, Jianrong

    2017-12-18

    Hardness is one of the important qualities influencing consumer appeal and marketing of fresh sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). Moisture loss is one of the main causative factors of cherry softening. In this work, moisture loss and softening process of sweet cherry during postharvest storage at 0 and 4 °C were studied. In addition, low-field 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was used to analyze water distribution and migration in sweet cherry during storage at 4 °C. Moisture content correlated significantly (p moisture loss during low-temperature storage. LF-NMR is a useful technique to investigate moisture migration of fruits and vegetables. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry fruits (Prunus serrulata L. var. spontanea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Park, Jung-Eun; Shin, Hyun-Jin

    2010-01-01

    The phenolic compounds of many fruits have been known to be efficient cellular protective antioxidants. In this study, antioxidative and antiviral properties of flowering cherry cultivars (Prunus yedoensis, Prunus sargentii, Prunus lannesiana, and Prunus cerasus) in Korea were investigated. The antioxidant property was assayed for specific activities including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) hydroxy radical scavenging activity, reducing power capacity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) like activity. In addition, antiviral activity was determined by inhibition studies on the infection cycle of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), measured as minimum concentration of cherry extracts that inhibited 50% of cytopathic effect (CPE) on PEDV. Our results show that the four varieties of cherries contain substantially high antioxidants and antiviral activities. In particular, P. cerasus contains higher antioxidants and antiviral activities as well as polyphenolic content than other varieties. Our data indicate that Korean native cherry cultivars could be beneficial supplements of dietary antioxidants and natural antiviral agents.

  12. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  13. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of Fertilization on Tomato Growth and Soil Enzyme Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhen; Hu, Xue-Feng; Cheng, Chang; Luo, Zhi-qing

    2015-04-01

    To study the effects of different fertilizer applications on soil enzyme activity, tomato plant growth and tomato yield and quality, a field experiment on tomato cultivation was carried out in the suburb of Shanghai. Three fertilizer treatments, chemical fertilizer (CF) (N, 260 g/kg; P, 25.71g/kg; K, 83.00g/kg), rapeseed cake manure (CM) (N, 37.4 g/kg; P, 9.0 g/kg; K, 8.46 g/kg), crop-leaf fermenting manure (FM) (N, 23.67 g/kg; P, 6.39 g/kg; K 44.32 g/kg), and a control without using any fertilizers (CK), were designed. The total amounts of fertilizer application to each plot for the CF, CM, FM and CK were 0.6 kg, 1.35 kg, 3.75 kg and 0 kg, respectively, 50% of which were applied as base fertilizer, and another 50% were applied after the first fruit picking as top dressing. Each experimental plot was 9 m2 (1 m × 9 m) in area. Each treatment was replicated for three times. No any pesticides and herbicides were applied during the entire period of tomato growth to prevent their disturbance to soil microbial activities. Soil enzyme activities at each plot were constantly tested during the growing period; the tomato fruit quality was also constantly analyzed and the tomato yield was calculated after the final harvesting. The results were as follows: (1) Urease activity in the soils treated with the CF, CM and FM increased quickly after applying base fertilizer. That with the CF reached the highest level. Sucrase activity was inhibited by the CF and CM to some extent, which was 32.4% and 11.2% lower than that with the CK, respectively; while that with the FM was 15.7% higher than that with the CK. Likewise, catalase activity with the CF increased by 12.3% - 28.6%; that with the CM increased by 87.8% - 95.1%; that with the FM increased by 86.4% - 93.0%. Phosphatase activity with the CF increased rapidly and reached a maximum 44 days after base fertilizer application, and then declined quickly. In comparison, that with the CM and FM increased slowly and reached a maximum

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  16. Occurrence of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) in the State Forests in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Bijak, Szymon; Czajkowski, Maciej; Ludwisiak, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    Among the invasive tree species identified in Polish forests, black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) appears to pose the greatest threat. The objective of this study was i), to determine the abundance of this species in the forests managed by the State Forests National Forest Holding (PGLLP) and ii), to characterise the ecological conditions that it is found in. The source data was obtained from the State Forests Information System (SILP) database. In Polish forests, black cherry mostly occurs ...

  17. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  18. Algorithms for detecting cherry pits on the basis of transmittance mode hyperspectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedliska, Anna; Zubik, Monika; Baranowski, Piotr; Mazurek, Wojciech

    2017-10-01

    The suitability of the hyperspectral transmittance imaging technique was assessed in terms of detecting the internal intrusions (pits and their fragments) in cherries. Herein, hyperspectral transmission images were acquired in the visible and near-infrared range (450-1000 nm) from pitted and intact cherries of three popular cultivars: `Łutówka', `Pandy 103', and `Groniasta', differing by soluble solid content. The hyperspectral transmittance data of fresh cherries were used to determine the influence of differing soluble solid content in fruit tissues on pit detection effectiveness. Models for predicting the soluble solid content of cherries were also developed. The principal component analysis and the second derivative pre-treatment of the hyperspectral data were used to construct the supervised classification models. In this study, five classifiers were tested for pit detection. From all the classifiers studied, the best prediction accuracies for the whole pit or pit fragment detection were obtained via the backpropagation neural networks model (87.6% of correctly classified instances for the training/test set and 81.4% for the validation set). The accuracy of distinguishing between drilled and intact cherries was close to 96%. These results showed that the hyperspectral transmittance imaging technique is feasible and useful for the non-destructive detection of pits in cherries.

  19. FUNGICIDE APPLICATION FOR MAINTAINING POSTHARVEST QUALITY IN TOMATO FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Vani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato fruits are usually consumed soon after harvest, however, as they are mainly comprised of water, and its walls are fragile, facilitates the emergence of diseases, making necessary the use of preventive measures in the field in order to reduce incidence of disease. The objective is then to evaluate the effect of foliar application of fungicides on the final quality of tomato fruits in postharvest. There were 13 applications of foliar fungicides Azoxystrobin+Cyproconazol and Boscalida, 7 applications Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and 17 applications of Propamocarb+Fluopicolide (Control. We analyzed the incidence of Fusarium sp. in fruits, decay percentage of fruit weight (g and Brix. For incidence of Fusarium sp. in fruits, treatments Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol reduced by 14.3%, the pathogen in fruits. There was a decrease of 82% in the deterioration of fruits treated with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and 91% in those treated with Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol. As for the weight gain, treatments Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin, Boscalida and Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol reduced the weight gain in 8.12%, 20.8% and 38.8%, respectively, compared to the control. ° Brix values of fruits treated with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin and Boscalida were higher than those treated with Azoxistrobin+Ciproconazol and Control (Propamocarb+Fluopicolide. It is concluded that the treatment carried out with Tebuconazol+Trifoxistrobin afforded the greatest benefits in maintaining the tomato fruits in harvest.

  20. Valorization of Tomato Processing Waste for Lycopene Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Driouich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene is one of the most powerful antioxidants and singlet oxygen quenching agents. It has been found to be of great medical importance with various anti cancer effects, cardiovascular diseases effective agent and with its ability to be an important carotenoid in preventive medicine. In Tunisia, we note a real consumption of tomato paste. With 28 production units for double and triple concentrated tomato, noting a significant production of waste (approximately 30000 Tonne/year consisting of skins pulp and seeds, which could be an important source of lycopene. Our study is concerned with three solid-phase extraction process: assisted by ultrasonic, by microwave and by homogenizer heating at moderate temperature. Their efficiency for the extraction of lycopene contained in the tomato waste was elaborated. The effect of the main process variables (including solvent polarity, solid-to-liquid ratio, temperature and time on lycopene recovery have been investigated. The yield of the isolated lycopene was determined using UV-Visible spectrophotometry and UPLC-DAD quantification methods. Lycopene-rich extract was obtained from the dried and milled tomatoes waste using ethanol as a food grade extraction solvent and employing microwave assisted extraction process. The optimum conditions were 30 min total extraction time at 50°C temperature and 1bar pressure. The degradation of extracted lycopene through air oxidation and day light effect were also tested. Lycopene is stable when mixed with olive oil as a natural antioxidant. Up to 80% of lycopene degradated when exposed for one month to day light at 25°C.

  1. Benefits and costs of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.; Ansink, E.; van de Wiel, C.; Wesseler, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  2. Benefits and costs of biologically contained genetically modified tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  3. Postharvest fungal deterioration of tomato ( Lycopersicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research set out to identify fungi associated with physically damaged tomato and pepper and verify their effects on the nutritional composition of these vegetables. Healthy looking and physically damaged tomatoes and pepper were sourced from Mile 12 Market in Lagos state. Fungi (Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ...

  4. Isolation and composition of chromoplasts from tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Linn U; Chiu, Mei-Chen M

    2005-08-24

    The fruit of the tomato plant is composed of elongated tomato cells filled with organelles called chromoplasts (plastids). These plastids scattered throughout the cell are rich in nutrients, particularly protein (33%) and lipids (20%). They can be released from the cells by rupture of their cell membranes and then isolated. Plastids and their cell contents can be utilized by the food-processing industry for the preparation of special food products. This study was designed to examine the macronutrient content of isolated tomato plastids and, therefore, determine its potential nutritional value. Use of tomato plastids in pasta sauces and rice dishes, salsa, and extrusion products would increase the nutritional value of the product. Because glucose has been removed in the process of plastid isolation, tomato plastids are useful in the diets of diabetics and cardiovascular patients, as well as for patients in need of weight reduction. Composition comparison of tomato plastid is made with tomato paste, from which glucose has not been removed. Many people require low-sugar products for medical reasons (diabetics and those with cardiovascular disease) and others for weight loss. Therefore, tomato chromoplasts having high protein and lipid contents and low sugar content may be useful in meeting these particular human needs.

  5. Mycorrhizal Dependency and Response of Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot experiment was conducted on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) to evaluate the responses of tomato to inoculation of mycorrhiza (AMF) under different levels of soil phosphorus (P) concentrations in a greenhouse study. The results showed different responses on dry matter yield, shoot phosphorus concentration, ...

  6. Tomato: Potentials for Alternative Source of Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a study of the potentials of tomato production as a viable source of economic empowerment. An empirical survey was undertaken through oral interviews in Kano to identify farmers' revenues, and agricultural development thereby assessing the connection between tomato production and economic reliance.

  7. Carbohydrate metabolism in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-06-27

    Jun 27, 2011 ... In order to clarify carbohydrate content and enzymes activities involved in sugar metabolism in tomato seedling leaves and yield and fruit quality under low night temperature and subsequent recovery, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Liaoyuanduoli) were grown in different climatic controlled-.

  8. Growing Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    randomized complete block with three replications. More studies were carried out in farmers' fields to assess the influence of poor management of post-harvested tomato fields as host to crop pest. In the field experiment tomato plants' vegetative and reproductive parameter data were collected. They were then subjected to ...

  9. An improved Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial wilt is a devastating disease of tomato crop throughout the world. This disease is very dangerous in hot and humid regions, where it spreads with the irrigation water to whole field within days, which resulted in severe decline in yield. Two varieties of tomato were used for developing bacterial wilt resistance.

  10. MedlinePlus: Zesty Tomato Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 tsp garlic powder 1/4 tsp ground black pepper 2 Tbsp fresh basil, rinsed and chopped (or 2 tsp dried) Directions Combine tomatoes and red peppers in a blender or food processor. Puree until smooth. Put tomato mixture in a medium saucepan, and bring to ...

  11. Physicochemical characteristics of osmotically dehydrated tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical characteristics of osmotically dehydrated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) under different common drying methods. JAV Famurewa, AO Raji. Abstract. This study investigated the effect of different common drying methods on the chemical composition of osmotically dehydrated tomato. The quality of ...

  12. Aluminum induced proteome changes in tomato cotyledons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotyledons of tomato seedlings that germinated in a 20 µM AlK(SO4)2 solution remained chlorotic while those germinated in an aluminum free medium were normal (green) in color. Previously, we have reported the effect of aluminum toxicity on root proteome in tomato seedlings (Zhou et al. J Exp Bot, 20...

  13. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance

    OpenAIRE

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell i Sarle, Jordi; Lara Ayala, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood.Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ºC were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness wa...

  14. Anti-proliferative effect of horehound leaf and wild cherry bark extracts on human colorectal cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI, KIYOSHI; LIGGETT, JASON L.; KIM, NAM-CHEOL; BAEK, SEUNG JOON

    2006-01-01

    Marubium vulgare (horehound) and Prunus serotina (wild cherry) have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory-related symptoms such as cold, fever, and sore throat. In this report, we show that extracts of anti-inflammatory horehound leaves and wild cherry bark exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Both horehound and wild cherry extracts cause suppression of cell growth as well as induction of apoptosis. We found that horehound extract up-regula...

  15. Mineral Content in Leaves of Tomato Plants Grafted on Solanum Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    松添, 直隆; 間, 浩美; 花田, 勝美; モハメド, アリ; 大久保, 敬; 藤枝, 國光

    1995-01-01

    Nutrient uptake of tomato plants cv. Momotaro grafted on Solanum sisymbriifoliulm, S. torvum and S. toxicarium which are resistant to soil-born disease were compared with tomato grafted on its own root, a tomato/tomato, scion/rootstock combination. Mineral content in leaves of tomato/S. sisymbriifoliulm was nearly equal to that of tomato/tomato. In leaves of tomato/S. torvum, nitrogen content was higher, and magnesium content was lower than those of tomato/tomato. Furthermore, phosphorus and ...

  16. Lycopene Content of Selected Tomato Based Products, Fruits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lycopene content of selected tomato based products, fruits and vegetables, commonly consumed in South Western Nigeria were determined using theoretical and experimental method. The lycopene content in tomato pastes ranged from 50.97±1.08 mg/kg in vitali tomato paste to 68.12±1.44 mg/kg in Gino tomato paste ...

  17. 7 CFR 457.160 - Processing tomato crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing tomato crop insurance provisions. 457.160... tomato crop insurance provisions. The Processing Tomato Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and... polices: Processing Tomato Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...

  18. Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vision-based judgment of tomato maturity under growth conditions. X Wang, H Mao, X Han, J Yin. Abstract. To determine the picking time of tomato and design the control strategy for the harvesting robot, the judgment of tomato maturity under natural conditions is required. Tomato samples were collected based on the fruit ...

  19. Molecular characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato isolates from Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shenge, K.C.; Stephan, D.; Mabagala, R. B.

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial speck caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato is an emerging disease of tomato in Tanzania. Following reports of outbreaks of the disease in many locations in Tanzania, 56 isolates of P. syringae pv. tomato were collected from four tomato- producing areas and characterized using patho...

  20. Antioxidant Activity from Various Tomato Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Sri Iswari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is one of the high antioxidant potential vegetables. Nowadays, there are many techniques of tomato processings instead of fresh consumption, i.e. boiled, steamed, juiced and sauteed. Every treatment of cooking will influence the chemical compound inside the fruits and the body's nutrition intake. It is important to conduct the research on antioxidant compound especially lycopene, β-carotene, vitamin C, α-tocopherol, and its activity after processing. This research has been done using the experimental method. Tomatoes were cooked into six difference ways, and then it was extracted using the same procedure continued with antioxidant measurement. The research results showed that steaming had promoted the higher antioxidant numbers (lycopene. α-tocopherol, β-carotene and vitamin C and higher TCA and antioxidant activities in the tomatoes than other processings. It was indicated that steaming was the best way to enhance amount, capacity and activities of antioxidants of the tomatoes.

  1. Polyphenols and Volatiles in Fruits of Two Sour Cherry Cultivars, Some Berry Fruits and Their Jams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Levaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports about the content of polyphenols and volatiles in fresh fruits of two sour cherry cultivars (Marasca and Oblačinska, some berry fruits (strawberry Maya, raspberry Willamette and wild blueberry and the corresponding low sugar jams. Phenolic compounds (hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, flavan 3-ols and flavonols were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Those found in the fruits were also found in the jams. Jams contained lower amounts of polyphenols than fresh fuits, but their overall retention in jams was relatively high. Among fruits, sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of polyphenols, while sour cherry Marasca jam and raspberry Willamette jam had the highest level of polyphenols among jams. The major flavonoid in all investigated fruits, except in sour cherry Oblačinska, was (–-epicatechin. Sour cherry Marasca had the highest level of (–-epicatechin (95.75 mg/kg, and it also contained very high amounts of flavonols, derivatives of quercetin and kaempferol. Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBAs were not found in sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska, but were found in berry fruits and jams. Phenolic compound (+-gallocatechin was found only in Marasca fruit and jam. Ellagic acid was found in the highest concentration in raspberry Willamette fruit and jam. Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs were found in all the investigated fruits, with the exception of a derivative of ferulic acid, which was not found in strawberry. Derivatives of caffeic, p-coumaric and chlorogenic acids were found in all the investigated fruits, with chlorogenic acid being the most abundant, especially in sour cherry Marasca. Volatiles were determined by gas chromatography (GC and expressed as the peak area of the identified compounds. All investigated volatiles of fresh fruit were also determined in the related jams with relatively high retention. Sour cherries Marasca and Oblačinska contained the same volatile compounds, but

  2. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Genetic Diversity and Domestication Footprints of Chinese Cherry [Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) G.Don] as Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Chen, Tao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qing; Sun, Bo; Luo, Ya; Zhang, Yong; Tang, Haoru; Wang, Xiaorong

    2018-01-01

    Chinese cherry [ Cerasus pseudocerasus (Lindl.) G.Don] is a commercially important fruit crop in China, but its structure patterns and domestication history remain imprecise. To address these questions, we estimated the genetic structure and domestication history of Chinese cherry using 19 nuclear microsatellite markers and 650 representative accessions (including 118 Cerasus relatives) selected throughout their natural eco-geographical distributions. Our structure analyses detected no genetic contribution from Cerasus relatives to the evolution history of Chinese cherry. A separate genetic structure was detected in wild Chinese cherries and rough geographical structures were observed in cultivated Chinese cherries. One wild (wild Chinese cherry, WC) and two cultivated (cultivated Chinese cherry, CC 1 and CC 2 ) genetic clusters were defined. Our approximate Bayesian computation analyses supported an independent domestication history with two domestication events for CC 1 and CC 2 , happening about 3900 and 2200 years ago, respectively. Moderate loss of genetic diversity, over 1000-year domestication bottlenecks and divergent domestication in fruit traits were also detected in cultivated Chinese cherries, which is highly correlated to long-term clonal propagation and different domestication trends and preferences. Our study is the first to comprehensively and systematically investigate the structure patterns and domestication history for Chinese cherry, providing important references for revealing the evolution and domestication history of perennial woody fruit trees.

  4. ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY IN TOMATOES PRODUCTION IN GREENHOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A POPESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to appreciate the evolution of economic efficiency in tomatoes production in greenhouses within a private firm situated next to the capital. The firm owns 4 ha greenhouses and the weight of tomatoes crop in the cultivated area is just 38.75 %. In fact, during the last three years, the tomatoes cultivated surface has been diminished in favour of flowers production which, like tomatoes production is an important income source for any producer. The reduction of the tomatoes cultivated area was compensated by the increase of intensification grade using new high performance hybrids and modern technologies. Thus, the scientific production management has been looking for maintaining the total production at the same level from a year to another by an increased average tomatoes yield by 53.33 % . The continuous increase of farm input price has doubled the cost per surface unit and increased the cost per tomatoes kilogram by 33 %. The increase of tomatoes demand and of market price by 31 % have had a positive influence on the farm incomes which has doubled during the last three years. In the year 2000, the company has obtained USD 41,818 income/ha of which subtracting the related production cost we can easily get USD 4,815 profit/ha. The average profit rate recorded by the firm is 13 % in the period 2000-2002, when the study was made. As a conclusion, tomatoes production in greenhouses is a good deal. To keep a high economic efficiency, under the diminishing of the cultivated area, the producers have to increase average tomatoes production by using high performance technology based on high economic value hybrids.

  5. Biotechnological strategies for enhancing the nutritive and nutraceutical values of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ojo OLAIYA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are a unique functional food and a natural reservoir of many health promoting nutrients, antioxidants, dietary fibres and chemopreventive nutraceuticals. They are particularly rich in lycopene which has been associated with the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancers of the prostate and the gastrointestinal tract. As an important vegetable worldwide, tomatoes have drawn the attention of many researchers. Thus, numerous investigations have been conducted and various improvement strategies applied for enhancing the functionality of this medicinal food geared towards disease prevention, global health and well-being. Molecular breeding has produced a number of tomato lines with enhanced levels of lycopene, β-carotene and xanthophylls. Over expression of certain genes have generated tomato fruits with enhanced ascorbic acid levels and folate accumulation up to 25-fold. Plant hormone technology has been used to enhance tomato minerals, antioxidant vitamins, lycopene, β-carotene, flavonoids and phenolic compounds in tomato fruit tissues. Manipulation in soilless culture solutions is valuable for enhancing the antioxidative capacity of tomatoes, vitamin C, flavonoids, lycopene, and β-carotene in fresh fruits. In addition, the spraying of nutrients, such as potassium, in field conditions has a strong stimulatory effect on lycopene contents of tomatoes. Transgenic strategies are also being adopted. These strategies offer a rapid way to introduce desirable traits into the phenotype and differ from other approaches in that novel genetic information is introduced directly into the plant’s genome. An important and current trend in the improvement of functional foods is to shift from enhancing single nutritional compounds towards enhancing multiple nutrients and phytochemicals in order to harness their synergistic interactions. This could be achieved by the use of strategies having pleitropic effects such as bioregulators, multigene

  6. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into raw tomatoes and processed tomato products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchat, L R; Brackett, R E

    1991-05-01

    Rates of death and growth of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto raw whole and into chopped tomatoes stored at 10 and 21 degrees C were not influenced by prior treatment of tomatoes with chlorine or packaging under an atmosphere of 3% O2 and 97% N2. Growth of the pathogen occurred in whole tomatoes held at 21 degrees C but not at 10 degrees C, while death occurred in chopped tomatoes stored at these temperatures. Likewise, growth patterns of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, psychrotrophic microorganisms, and yeasts and molds on whole and chopped tomatoes were essentially unaffected by chlorine and modified atmosphere packaging treatments. Populations of L. monocytogenes inoculated into commercially processed tomato juice and sauce and held at 5 degrees C remained constant for 14 days. A gradual decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes cells was observed in juice and sauce held at 21 degrees C. In contrast, the organism died rapidly when suspended in commercial tomato ketchup at 5 and 21 degrees C. Unlike low-acid raw salad vegetables such as lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and cauliflower on which we have observed L. monocytogenes grow at refrigeration temperatures, tomatoes are not a good growth substrate for the organism. Nevertheless, L. monocytogens can remain viable on raw whole and chopped tomatoes and in commercial tomato juice and sauce for periods extending beyond their normal shelf-life expectancy.

  7. Effects of tomato variety, temperature differential and post-stem removal time on internalization of Salmonella Thompson into tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomatoes have been implicated in several Salmonellosis outbreaks due to possible contamination through bacterial infiltration into tomatoes during post-harvest handling. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of tomato variety, dump tank water to tomato pulp temperature differential, and...

  8. Genome Sequences of Two Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato Race 1 Strains, Isolated from Tomato Fields in California

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Shree P.; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato race 1 strains have evolved to overcome genetic resistance in tomato. Here, we present the draft genome sequences of two race 1 P.?syringae pv. tomato strains, A9 and 407, isolated from diseased tomato plants in California.

  9. Anthocyanin content, lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of sweet and sour cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulabagal, Vanisree; Lang, Gregory A; DeWitt, David L; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2009-02-25

    Cherries contain bioactive anthocyanins that are reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic and antiobese properties. The present study revealed that red sweet cherries contained cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside as major anthocyanin (>95%). The sweet cherry cultivar "Kordia" (aka "Attika") showed the highest cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside content, 185 mg/100 g fresh weight. The red sweet cherries "Regina" and "Skeena" were similar to "Kordia", yielding cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside at 159 and 134 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. The yields of cyanidin-3-O-glucosylrutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were 57 and 19 mg/100 g fresh weight in "Balaton" and 21 and 6.2 mg/100 g fresh weight in "Montmorency", respectively, in addition to minor quantities of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The water extracts of "Kordia", "Regina", "Glacier" and "Skeena" sweet cherries gave 89, 80, 80 and 70% of lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibition, whereas extracts of "Balaton" and "Montmorency" were in the range of 38 to 58% at 250 microg/mL. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the yellow sweet cherry "Rainier" containing beta-carotene, ursolic, coumaric, ferulic and cafeic acids inhibited LPO by 78 and 79%, respectively, at 250 microg/mL. In the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory assay, the red sweet cherry water extracts inhibited the enzymes by 80 to 95% at 250 microg/mL. However, the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of "Rainier" and "Gold" were the most active against COX-1 and -2 enzymes. Water extracts of "Balaton" and "Montmorency" inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 84, and 91 and 77, and 87%, respectively, at 250 microg/mL.

  10. Effects of postharvest handling conditions on internalization and growth of Salmonella enterica in tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bin; Luo, Yaguang; Nou, Xiangwu; Yang, Yang; Wu, Yunpeng; Wang, Qin

    2014-03-01

    Salmonella internalization in tomatoes during postharvest handling is a major food safety concern. This study was conducted to determine the effect of immersion time, immersion depth, and temperature differential between bacterial suspension and tomato pulp on the internalization of Salmonella enterica in tomato fruits. The effect of storage temperature and duration on the survival and growth of internalized Salmonella cells was also evaluated. Overall, immersion time significantly affected the incidence and extent of S. enterica internalization (P internalization. The depth of Salmonella internalization in tomato tissues also increased with increasing immersion time. Immersion time also significantly influenced the degree to which the temperature differential affected Salmonella internalization. With an immersion time of 2 min, the temperature differential had no significant effect on Salmonella internalization (P = 0.2536). However, with an immersion time of 15 min, a significantly larger Salmonella population became internalized in tomatoes immersed in solutions with a -30°F (-16.7°C) temperature differential. Internalized S. enterica cells persisted in the core tissues during 14 days of storage. Strain type and storage duration significantly affected (P internalized Salmonella recovered, but storage temperatures of 55 to 70°F (12.8 to 21.1°C) did not (P > 0.05). These findings indicate the importance of preventing pathogen internalization during postharvest handling.

  11. Histochemical comparison of the nonhost tomato with resistant wheat against Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chongzhao; Chen, Yanli; Zhang, Bing; Li, Yuefei; Zuo, Hai; Qi, Tuo; Ma, Qing

    2013-05-01

    The nonhost interaction of tomato-Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) and resistant host interaction of wheat-Bgt were compared histochemically. The percentage of appressorium formation had no significant difference on tomato and wheat leaves. Papilla formation occurred earlier and more on host wheat than on nonhost tomato leaves, while the incidence of hypersensitive cell death was much higher in the nonhost interaction. Whole-cell H2O2 accumulation and hypersensitive cell death usually appeared in haustorium-invaded wheat epidermal cells. In contrast, the vast majority of non-haustorium epidermal cells were associated with H2O2 accumulation and hypersensitive cell death on tomato. Localized H2O2 accumulation and hypersensitive response were detected in effective papillae in both interactions. The peak percentage of haustorium formation was less than 7% in the nonhost interaction while reached 43% in the incompatible host interaction. These results indicate that hypersensitive cell death and papillae are likely to play an important role in preventing Bgt penetration and development on tomato and wheat leaves, both defense responses involving H2O2 accumulation. This study further implies that the nonhost and incompatible interactions share similar cytological mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Fruit-specific RNAi-mediated Lcy gene enhances content of lycopene in tomatoes silencing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qun; Zhang, Xing-Guo; Song, Ming

    2007-05-01

    Tomatoes ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) are the principal dietary source of Lycopene which is one of carotenoid and is highly beneficial in preventing some diseases such as the cancer and the heart disease. Suppressing the expression of Lcy gene, the main gene regulating the transformation of the lycopene, is a convenient and effective way to enhance the content of lycopene. The primers were designed according to the gene sequence(U46919)and (X86452) in GenBank. The fruit-specific promoter--phytoene desaturase gene(Pds) promoter and the DNA segment of the Lcy gene were isolated from the genome DNA of tomatoes. The 3'end of Lcy DNA segment was connected together by an intron to inform the RNA interferential segment then which was inserted in the expression vector with the Pds promoter to inform the fruit-specific expression vector. The vector was transformed into the tomatoes through the Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Five transformants were obtained. And the PCR proved that the extra-gene was integrated into the tomato genome. The lycopene in the transgenic tomatoes fruit was increased significantly through analysing the contents of lycopene. These results show that regutating biosynthetic enzyme in carotenoid pathway by RNAi can improve the lycopene content of plant-derived products.

  13. Sensory and Flavor Characteristics of Tomato Juice from Garden Gem and Roma Tomatoes with Comparison to Commercial Tomato Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yaozhou; Sims, Charles A; Klee, Harry J; Sarnoski, Paul J

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the flavor of a premium Florida tomato variety that has significant potential for producing a high quality processed juice product. A high-quality Florida plum tomato variety (Garden Gem), and a typical grocery-store plum tomato variety (Roma) were thermally processed into tomato juices without any additives. The 2 pilot products and a popular commercially available tomato juice (low sodium with sugar and flavor added) were compared using sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Flavor compounds in these products were identified using dynamic headspace purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (PT-GC-MS) by MS library match and retention index and were semi-quantitated using internal standards. Color, uniformity, overall liking, tomato flavor, sweetness and texture were rated using a hedonic scale. Analysis of variance, correlation and principal component analysis were used to analyze both sensory and flavor data. Among the 3 products, Garden Gem juice was rated significantly (P sweetness by the 119 consumer panelists in both seasons. Garden Gem juice was found to contain higher levels of 3 sweet/fruity related aroma compounds: 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, linalool, and β-ionone. The commercial tomato juice contained a high level of the Maillard reaction-related notes furfural, dimethyl sulfide, and the least amount of green-related notes (hexanal, E-2-hexenal and Z-2-heptenal). The flavor profile of the Roma tomato juice was similar to Garden Gem juice except it contained substantially lower amounts of hexanal and 2-isobutylthiazole. The compound β-ionone (fruity note) was not detected in either the commercial or Roma juice. This proof of concept study demonstrates that high flavor quality tomatoes can be used to create better tasting processed tomato products. The study also demonstrates how sensory preference can confer a potential market advantage over existing commercial products. The Garden Gem

  14. The effect of the time and the budding method on the growth of young cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the effect of the time and the methods of budding on the growth of young cherry trees were conducted in the years at Felin Experimental Farm of Lublin Agricultural University. The objects of investigations were the young cherry trees obtained as a result of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. seedlings in the way by the chip budding-15th July and T-graft-15th July and 1st September. The used methods and the times of budding insignificantly affected the growth of young cherry trees cv. «Łutówka» in a nursery. There was showed that quality features of the trees were dependet on stock used type. Cherry trees obtained on mahaleb cherry were thicker, higher and better branched than on sweet cherry.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity within sour cherry clones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, S. K.; Andersen, S. B.; Henriksen, K.

    2013-01-01

    higher yields. A number of these selections were evaluated for yield and genomic differences to investigate variation between and within the ‘Birgitte’ and ‘Viki’ clones. Variation in yield was mainly found at the clonal level. The clone ‘Viki’ was found to be the highest yielding with an average of 20......Harvested yields of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) cultivar ‘Stevnsbaer’ clones grown in Denmark have been highly variable over the years, yet some propagated derived trees selected from within the two widely grown clones of ‘Stevnsbaer’ clone ‘Birgitte’ and clone ‘Viki’ have consistently produced...... kg/tree compared to only 7.0 kg/tree from clone ‘Birgitte’. The selected trees derived from within clone ‘Birgitte’ had a significantly higher, average yield over 7 years compared to the original ‘Birgitte’, indicating that such within-clone selection may be a possible approach for selection...

  16. Phenological model of bird cherry Padus racemosa with data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, Andis; Sīle, Tija; Kalvāne, Gunta

    2017-12-01

    The accuracy of the operational models can be improved by using observational data to shift the model state in a process called data assimilation. Here, a data assimilation approach using the temperature similarity to control the extent of extrapolation of point-like phenological observations is explored. A degree-day model is used to describe the spring phenology of the bird cherry Padus racemosa in the Baltic region in 2014. The model results are compared to phenological observations that are expressed on a continuous scale based on the BBCH code. The air temperature data are derived from a numerical weather prediction (NWP) model. It is assumed that the phenology at two points with a similar temperature pattern should be similar. The root mean squared difference (RMSD) between the time series of hourly temperature data over a selected time interval are used to measure the temperature similarity of any two points. A sigmoidal function is used to scale the RMSD into a weight factor that determines how the modelled and observed phenophases are combined in the data assimilation. The parameter space for determining the weight of observations is explored. It is found that data assimilation improved the accuracy of the phenological model and that the value of the point-like observations can be increased through using a weighting function based on environmental parameters, such as temperature.

  17. A quantum Cherry theorem for perturbations of the plane rotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Fiorella; Graffi, Sandro

    2013-12-01

    We consider on L^2({T}^2) the Schrödinger operator family L_\\varepsilon : \\varepsilon in {R} with domain and action defined as D(L_\\varepsilon )=H^2({T}^2), L_\\varepsilon u=-1/2hbar ^2(α _1partial _{φ _1}^2+α _2partial _{φ _2}^2)u-ihbar (γ _1partial _{φ _1}+γ _2partial _{φ _2})u+\\varepsilon Vu. Here \\varepsilon in {R}, α = (α1, α2), γ = (γ1, γ2) are vectors of complex non-real frequencies, and V a pseudodifferential operator of order zero. Lɛ represents the Weyl quantization of the Hamiltonian family {L}_\\varepsilon (ξ,x)=1/2(α _1ξ _1^2+α _2ξ _2^2)+γ _1ξ _1+γ _2ξ _2+\\varepsilon {V}(ξ,x) defined on the phase space {R}^2× {T}^2, where {V}(ξ,x)in C^2({R}^2× {T}^2;{R}). We prove the uniform convergence with respect to ℏ ∈ [0, 1] of the quantum normal form, which reduces to the classical one for ℏ = 0. This result simultaneously entails an exact quantization formula for the quantum spectrum as well as a convergence criterion for the classical Birkhoff normal form generalizing a well known theorem of Cherry.

  18. The Missing Set: How Landscape Acts in The Cherry Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Leone

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Why is the cherry orchard almost entirely absent from the stage? How does this absent landscape function dramatically? Chekhov's own garden expertise supports a study of the way that landscape in this play—its presence at once pervasive and virtual—both transcends and subverts the functions of setting. Such a reading of the function of landscape leads us to new ways of answering old questions about the play, as well: is the orchard more or other than a symbol? is the play a comedy? I examine the features and conventions of an orchard and garden landscape as they collide with characters' apprehension of the orchard as a repository of the past, and with Lopahin's plans—radical, practical and Romantic—for its future. The orchard's fate parallels the dispersal and re-definition of the family; that shared human and landscape drama can be read to show how landscape is constructed and how that construct depends upon, reflects, and may subvert human intentions.

  19. COMPLEX PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY OF TOMATO RAW MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Gadzhieva; G. I. Kasianov

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes grown in the central and southern parts of the country, which contain 5-6 % of solids, including 0.13 % of pectin, 0.86 % of fat, 0.5 % of organic acids; 0.5 % minerals, etc. were used as a subject of research. These tomatoes, grown in the mountains, on soils with high salinity, contain high amounts of valuable components and have a long-term preservation. For the extraction of valuable components from dried tomato pomace CO2 extraction method was applied. Technological and environm...

  20. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  1. Targeted forcing improves quality, nutritional and health value of sweet cherry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz, Michaela; Blanke, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Trade and consumers alike require premium-quality cherries with high nutritional and health values preferably of local origin. While early fruit imports cannot supply such fruit, a new technology of forcing cherry emerged for an early local supply by covering the crop in spring. In the apparent scarcity of data on the resulting fruit quality, fruit characteristics of forced cherries were compared with those without cover. Size and weight of forced cherry fruit were successfully increased by 6-14%. The less negative osmotic potential of the forced fruit (-3 to -2 MPa Ψ π ) indicates less water stress under spring cover compared with field-grown fruit (-4 MPa Ψ π ), as confirmed by the larger fruit size and weight. Greater antioxidative potentials in the lipophilic and hydrophilic extracts (control min. 185 mE vs max. 365 mE under cover) of forced fruit of two cultivars showed their healthier attribute in terms of bioactive compounds, supported also by an average 14% increase in phenolics, as a response to the modified environmental conditions, which has not been investigated before. The new technology of covering cherry trees in spring to force flowering and enhance ripening can improve the synthesis of bioactive compounds and provide the consumer with early high-quality fruit. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The genome sequence of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) for use in genomics-assisted breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Kenta; Isuzugawa, Kanji; Ikenaga, Mitsunobu; Saito, Yutaro; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Hirakawa, Hideki; Isobe, Sachiko

    2017-10-01

    We determined the genome sequence of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) using next-generation sequencing technology. The total length of the assembled sequences was 272.4 Mb, consisting of 10,148 scaffold sequences with an N50 length of 219.6 kb. The sequences covered 77.8% of the 352.9 Mb sweet cherry genome, as estimated by k-mer analysis, and included >96.0% of the core eukaryotic genes. We predicted 43,349 complete and partial protein-encoding genes. A high-density consensus map with 2,382 loci was constructed using double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. Comparing the genetic maps of sweet cherry and peach revealed high synteny between the two genomes; thus the scaffolds were integrated into pseudomolecules using map- and synteny-based strategies. Whole-genome resequencing of six modern cultivars found 1,016,866 SNPs and 162,402 insertions/deletions, out of which 0.7% were deleterious. The sequence variants, as well as simple sequence repeats, can be used as DNA markers. The genomic information helps us to identify agronomically important genes and will accelerate genetic studies and breeding programs for sweet cherries. Further information on the genomic sequences and DNA markers is available in DBcherry (http://cherry.kazusa.or.jp (8 May 2017, date last accessed)). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  3. Polyphenol patterns to trace sweet (Prunus avium) and tart (Prunus cerasus) varieties in cherry jam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Gianluca; Ferranti, Pasquale; De Cunzo, Fausta; Sacco, Ermelinda; Volpe, Maria Grazia

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this work was to assess whether the characteristic polyphenol traits of cherry biotypes persisted in thermally processed cherry products, such as jam. Thus, the RP-HPLC-diode array detector profiles of both colorless polyphenols and anthocyanins from three cherry varieties (two sweet and one tart cherry) were compared with those of low-sugar jam sourced from the same cultivars . Individual components were characterized by mass spectrometry. The total phenolic and total anthocyanin content as well as the radical scavenging potential (residual 75-91, 88-91 and 73-75%, respectively) were only slightly reduced by deep thermal treatments. Apart from the interconversion among the isomers of chlorogenic acid, the profile of both colorless polyphenols and anthocyanins substantially survived the jam manufacturing under conventional temperature-time regimen (80 °C, 1 h). The species- and cultivar -specific polyphenol molecular asset, especially the anthocyanin pattern, has potential to be monitored for traceability purpose, aimed to the varietal assessment of cherry biotypes used for producing jam.

  4. COMPARISON OF CAROTENOID CONTENT IN TOMATO, TOMATO PULP AND KETCHUP BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. T. GAMA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Although tomatoes are commonly consumed fresh, over 80 % the consumption of tomatoes is in the form of processed products such as tomato pulp, ketchup, juice and sauce. Research has indicated the potential health benefits of a diet rich in tomatoes and tomato products. The present study was carried out to determine the carotenoid content of fresh tomato, tomato pulp and ketchup by high performance liquid chromatography. The major differences among these products were in the concentration of some of the pigments. Tomato had all-trans-lycopene (1046-1099 μg/g DW, cislycopene (125-132 μg/g DW and all-trans- -carotene (45-59 μg/g DW as principal carotenoids. Tomato pulp and ketchup had all-trans-lycopene (951-999 μg/g DW and 455-476 μg/g DW, all-trans- -carotene (76-88 DW μg/g and 20-27 DW μg/g and cis-lycopene (71-83 μg/g DW and 14-25 μg/g DW as the main pigments, respectively. They also contained other carotenoids in much smaller amounts (lycoxanthin, zeaxanthin, anteraxanthin, lutein, -carotene, -carotene and phytofluene.

  5. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  6. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  7. Factors affecting quality and health promoting compounds during growth and postharvest life of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Correia, Sofia; Schouten, Rob; Silva, Ana P.; Gonçalves, Berta

    2017-01-01

    Sweet cherries are attractive fruits due to their taste, color, nutritional value, and beneficial health effects. Sweet cherry is a highly perishable fruit and all quality attributes and the level of health promoting compounds are affected by growth conditions, picking, packing, transport, and

  8. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  9. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  10. 77 FR 24640 - Tart Cherries Grown in the State of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... diversion activities prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the... intended to facilitate sales and lessen the impact of market expansion activities on volume restriction..., as amended (7 CFR part 930), regulating the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan...

  11. 77 FR 40250 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ...). The order regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New York... intended to facilitate sales and lessen the impact of market expansion activities on volume restriction... amended (7 CFR part 930), regulating the handling of tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New...

  12. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  13. 78 FR 37966 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay... the hazards associated with fireworks displays and aircraft involved in the National Cherry Festival... Festival fireworks display and air show. At the close of the comment period, no comments were received in...

  14. Effect of Application Propolis as Biocoating on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Tomatoes Stored at Room Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Putra, R.; Khairannisa, S.; Kinasih, I.

    2017-03-01

    Tomatoes is considered as one of important horticulture commodities which highly consume by Indonesia consumer. However, this horticulture product is perishable with high rate which reduce quantity and quality of marketable products. One of the method could be used to prevent this problem by application of edible biocoating. In this study, various concentration of ethanolic propolis extract was applied to tomatoes in order to find the effect of propolis coating in tomato preservation and best concentration for application. Tomatoes were grouped into 5 group, namely control group (no coating application), ethanol group (tomato wash with ethanol), and application group (coated with 5%, 10%, and 15% propolis). Variables observed during study were weight change, fruit firmness, total soluble solute, vitamin C, and lycopene. All tomatoes were kept in room temperature for 14 days and observation conducted every 2 days. Result showed that application of 10% propolis as biocoating reduced rate of weight loss and maintained fruit firmness while other variables relatively unaffected by propolis coating.

  15. Fertilizers applied to certified organic tomato culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2010-01-01

    The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal, as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture. (author)

  16. Red cherries (Prunus avium var. Stella) processed by pulsed electric field - Physical, chemical and microbiological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelo, Kristine A G; Hamid, Nazimah; Oey, Indrawati; Pook, Chris; Gutierrez-Maddox, Noemi; Ma, Qianli; Ying Leong, Sze; Lu, Jun

    2018-02-01

    This study examined, for the first time, the effect of mild or moderate intensity pulsed electric field (PEF) processing on cherries, in particular changes in physicochemical properties, release of anthocyanins and polyphenols, and the potential growth of lactic acid bacteria. Cherry samples were treated at a constant pulse frequency of 100Hz and a constant pulse width of 20μs with different electric field strengths between 0.3 and 2.5kV/cm. Titratable acidity and total soluble solids values of most PEF samples stored for 24h significantly decreased compared to other samples. Stored samples also had increased cyanidin glucoside content. However, concentration of rutin, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and isorhamnetin rutinoside significantly decreased in samples stored for 24h. In conclusion, sweet cherries were only influenced by storage after PEF processing. PEF processing did not affect the growth of probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Low dose irradiation of 'Rainer' sweet cherries as a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, S.R.; Moffitt, H.R.; Eakin, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    'Rainier' cherries, with and without gibberellic acid treatment were subjected to radiation at dose levels of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 1.0 KGy and held for 14 and 21 days at 1C before removal from storage and quality determined. No variation in fruit or stem color, soluble solids, titratable acidity or sensory difference was noted at any of the radiation dose levels. There was 13% loss in-firmness due to radiatlon treatment between 0.4 and 1.0 KGy. Cherries that were treated with gibberellic acid were superior canidates for radiation treatment. 'Rainier' cherries can be irradiated as soon as quality parameters have reached acceptable levels for commercial harvest

  18. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-12-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978-2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars' behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe.

  19. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-01-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978–2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars’ behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe. PMID:27922629

  20. Tomato fruit quality - an interdisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gormley, T. R. (Thomas Ronan); Maher, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    In the last two decades, tomato fruit yields in Ireland have increased by 100% to about 375 tonnes per hectare for long-season crops. This represents a very considereable increase in the intensity of growing and may have implications for fruit quality. For this reason, the inter-relationship between crop production, yield, quality and composition of tomato fruit from high-yielding, intensive growing systems was evaluated by the authors (a food technologist and a crop production specialist, re...

  1. Growing Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L.) in Nematode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parasitic root-knot nematodes are a threat to tomato production. In this study, the effect of Procarvian carpensis manure at a rate of 5tons/ha and the balanced NPK inorganic fertilizer at a rate of 100kg/ha on the growth performance of the tomato genotype “Duluti” on a highly root-knot nematode soil was evaluated. The field ...

  2. Energy and economic analysis of sweet cherry production in Turkey: A case study from Isparta province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demircan, Vecdi; Ekinci, Kamil; Keener, Harold M.; Akbolat, Davut; Ekinci, Caglar

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted using a face to face questionnaire with 92 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) producers from 10 villages in five districts of the Isparta province where there is intensive sweet cherry production. The data collected was analyzed for the energy and economics of sweet cherry production. The results showed that the most energy consuming input for the different operations investigated was chemical fertilisers (45.35%), especially nitrogen (38.05%). The energy consumption for Diesel fuel was 21.53% of the total energy input. Although chemicals for plant protection had a small portion (1.45%) of the total energy input, the use of pesticide in sweet cherry production per hectare in the Isparta province was 5.36 times higher than that of Turkey's average, increasing the environmental risk problem. The energy use efficiency, defined as energy produced per unit of energy used, was 1.23. The specific energy of sweet cherry production was determined to be 3163.43 MJ tonnes -1 . It was found that the direct and indirect energy inputs were 34.48% and 54.91% of the total energy input, respectively. Among the inputs, renewable energy sources constituted 16.34% of the total energy input, which was lower than that of the non-renewable resources (chemical fertilisers and Diesel fuel). The results showed that the net return from sweet cherry production in the surveyed farms was satisfactory, as demonstrated by the benefit-cost ratio of 2.53 calculated by dividing the gross value of production by the total cost of production per hectare

  3. Climate change and spring frost damages for sweet cherries in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Götz, Klaus-P.; Weber, Katharina C.; Moryson, Susanne

    2018-02-01

    Spring frost can be a limiting factor in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.) production. Rising temperatures in spring force the development of buds, whereby their vulnerability to freezing temperatures continuously increases. With the beginning of blossom, flowers can resist only light frosts without any significant damage. In this study, we investigated the risk of spring frost damages during cherry blossom for historical and future climate conditions at two different sites in NE (Berlin) and SW Germany (Geisenheim). Two phenological models, developed on the basis of phenological observations at the experimental sweet cherry orchard in Berlin-Dahlem and validated for endodormancy release and for warmer climate conditions (already published), were used to calculate the beginning of cherry blossom in Geisenheim, 1951-2015 (external model validation). Afterwards, on the basis of a statistical regionalisation model WETTREG (RCP 8.5), the frequency of frost during cherry blossom was calculated at both sites for historical (1971-2000) and future climate conditions (2011-2100). From these data, we derived the final flower damage, defined as the percentage of frozen flowers due to single or multiple frost events during blossom. The results showed that rising temperatures in this century can premature the beginning of cherry blossom up to 17 days at both sites, independent of the used phenological model. The frequency and strength of frost was characterised by a high temporal and local variability. For both sites, no significant increase in frost frequency and frost damage during blossom was found. In Geisenheim, frost damages significantly decreased from the middle of the twenty-first century. This study additionally emphasises the importance of reliable phenological models which not only work for current but also for changed climate conditions and at different sites. The date of endodormancy release should always be a known parameter in chilling/forcing models.

  4. Molecular mechanisms regulating flowering time in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionescu, Irina Alexandra

    as a result of hydrogen cyanamide treatment: the jasmonate pathway, the hydrogen cyanide pathway and the cytokinin pathway. We further analyzed the levels of cyanogenic glucosides and their derivatives during endodormancy and its release in sweet cherry and almond (Prunus dulcis (Mill.) D. A. Webb). Prunasin...... example is the agrochemical hydrogen cyanamide, which besides its successful application in agriculture constitutes an excellent experimental system to research controlled endodormancy release. In this project, we treated dormant sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) flower buds with hydrogen cyanamide...

  5. Rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp at pasteurization temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Santos Lopes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of Brazilian Cherry (Eugenia uniflora L. pulp in the range of temperatures used for pasteurization (83 to 97 °C was studied. The results indicated that Brazilian Cherry pulp presented pseudoplastic behavior, and the Herschel-Bulkley model was considered more adequate to represent the rheological behavior of this pulp in the range of temperatures studied. The fluid behavior index (n varied in the range from 0.448 to 0.627. The effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity was described by an equation analogous to Arrhenius equation, and a decrease in apparent viscosity with an increase in temperature was observed.

  6. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey. [Hotels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-05-16

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system went into operation November 8, 1978 and is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are General Electric Company liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  7. Langer-Cherry derivation of the multi-instanton expansion for the symmetric double well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    The multi-instanton expansion for the eigenvalues of the symmetric double well is derived using a Langer-Cherry uniform asymptotic expansion of the solution of the corresponding Schroedinger equation. The Langer-Cherry expansion is anchored to either one of the minima of the potential, and by construction has the correct asymptotic behavior at large distance, while the quantization condition amounts to imposing the even or odd parity of the wave function. This method leads to an efficient algorithm for the calculation to virtually any desired order of all the exponentially small series of the multi-instanton expansion, and with trivial modifications can also be used for nonsymmetric double wells

  8. Cherry Featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists Video Series | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    James Cherry, Ph.D., learned at an early age that education is crucial to success. He credits his mentors, some of whom include his grandmother, Shepherd University professor Burton Lidgerding, Ph.D., David Munroe, Ph.D., Frederick National Lab, and Robert J. Hohman, Ph.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, for guiding him to the career he has today. Cherry, scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations (OSO), NCI at Frederick, is one of the scientists featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists video series.

  9. Localization and quantitative determination of catechins and proanthocyanidins in the phloem of elm and cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feucht, W; Treutter, D; Christ, E

    1992-03-01

    The localization of catechins and proanthocyanidins in the phloem of elm (Ulmus minor Mill.) and cherry (Prunus avium L.) was determined histochemically by use of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMACA) reagent. The two tree species showed a characteristic distribution of these phenols, which were most abundant in the phloem rays of cherry, but were largely confined to upright parenchyma cells of elm. Quantitative determination and qualitative separation of catechins and proanthocyanidins were performed using HPLC-CRD (chemical reaction detection), with 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde as the staining reagent. Up to 14 different catechins and proanthocyanidins were found in both species.

  10. The Use of Synthetic Sweeteners in Cherry and Orange Fruit Drinks (Turkish with English Abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available in the present study aspartame, acesulfame K and aspartame + acesulfame K (1+1 are used instead of sucrose in cherry and orange beverages prepared at different brix values and the preferences of the panel at different sweetener and fruit ratio levels were investigated by using ranking test. The statistical evaluation of the results have shown that the 6 brix cherry drink and 5 brix orange drink plus 350 mg/l aspartame + acesulfame K combinations were preferred (P<0.05 by the panelists.

  11. A novel synthetic quantification standard including virus and internal report targets: application for the detection and quantification of emerging begomoviruses on tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Péréfarres, Frédéric; Hoareau, Murielle; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Reynaud, Bernard; Dintinger, Jacques; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Begomovirus is a genus of phytopathogenic single-stranded DNA viruses, transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. This genus includes emerging and economically significant viruses such as those associated with Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Disease, for which diagnostic tools are needed to prevent dispersion and new introductions. Five real-time PCRs with an internal tomato reporter gene were developed for accurate detection and quantification of monopartite begomoviruses, inclu...

  12. First report of southern Tomato virus in tomato in the Canary Islands, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Espino, A.; Botella, M.; Alfaro-Fernández, A.; Font, M.I.

    2015-01-01

    In October 2006, tomato plants with torrado disease were sampled in Spain. In a sample of cv. Mariana, originating from Gran Canaria, Tomato torrado virus (ToTV, genus Torradovirus) was detected (isolate GCN06; Alfaro-Fernández et al., 2010). In 2013, the sample was further analysed using

  13. Dietary Chemoprevention of PhIP Induced Carcinogenesis in Male Fischer 344 Rats with Tomato and Broccoli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canene-Adams, Kirstie; Sfanos, Karen S.; Liang, Chung-Tiang; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; Nelson, William G.; Brayton, Cory; De Marzo, Angelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The heterocyclic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-B]pyridine (PhIP), found in meats cooked at high temperatures, has been implicated in epidemiological and rodent studies for causing breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers. A previous animal study using a xenograft model has shown that whole tomato and broccoli, when eaten in combination, exhibit a marked effect on tumor reduction compared to when eaten alone. Our aim was to determine if PhIP-induced carcinogenesis can be prevented by dietary consumption of whole tomato + broccoli powders. Male Fischer 344 rats (n = 45) were randomized into the following treatment groups: control (AIN93G diet), PhIP (200 ppm in AIN93G diet for the first 20 weeks of the study), or tomato + broccoli + PhIP (mixed in AIN93G diet at 10% each and fed with PhIP for 20 weeks, and then without PhIP for 32 weeks). Study animals were monitored for 52 weeks and were euthanized as necessary based on a set of criteria for health status and tumor burden. Although there appeared to be some hepatic and intestinal toxicity due to the combination of PhIP and tomato + broccoli, these rodents had improved survival and reduced incidence and/or severity of PhIP-induced neoplastic lesions compared to the PhIP-alone treated group. Rats eating tomato + broccoli exhibited a marked decrease in the number and size of cribiform prostatic intraepitheilial neoplasia/carcinoma in situ (cribiform PIN/CIS) lesions and in the incidence of invasive intestinal adenocarcinomas and skin carcinomas. Although the apparent toxic effects of combined PhIP and tomato + broccoli need additional study, the results of this study support the hypothesis that a diet rich in tomato and broccoli can reduce or prevent dietary carcinogen-induced cancers. PMID:24312188

  14. tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-10-08

    Oct 8, 2012 ... university teaching hospital based in southern. Nigeria. Journal of Asian Scientific Research,. 1(1), 7-17. Karami, M., Rezainezhad, Y., Afijumi, M. and Shriatmadari, H. (2007), The cumulative and remain effects of municipal sewage sludge on the concentrations of lrad and cadmium in soil and yield of wheat ...

  15. Oligonucleotide array discovery of polymorphisms in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. reveals patterns of SNP variation associated with breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Tong

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. has narrow genetic diversity that makes it difficult to identify polymorphisms between elite germplasm. We explored array-based single feature polymorphism (SFP discovery as a high-throughput approach for marker development in cultivated tomato. Results Three varieties, FL7600 (fresh-market, OH9242 (processing, and PI114490 (cherry were used as a source of genomic DNA for hybridization to oligonucleotide arrays. Identification of SFPs was based on outlier detection using regression analysis of normalized hybridization data within a probe set for each gene. A subset of 189 putative SFPs was sequenced for validation. The rate of validation depended on the desired level of significance (α used to define the confidence interval (CI, and ranged from 76% for polymorphisms identified at α ≤ 10-6 to 60% for those identified at α ≤ 10-2. Validation percentage reached a plateau between α ≤ 10-4 and α ≤ 10-7, but failure to identify known SFPs (Type II error increased dramatically at α ≤ 10-6. Trough sequence validation, we identified 279 SNPs and 27 InDels in 111 loci. Sixty loci contained ≥ 2 SNPs per locus. We used a subset of validated SNPs for genetic diversity analysis of 92 tomato varieties and accessions. Pairwise estimation of θ (Fst suggested significant differentiation between collections of fresh-market, processing, vintage, Latin American (landrace, and S. pimpinellifolium accessions. The fresh-market and processing groups displayed high genetic diversity relative to vintage and landrace groups. Furthermore, the patterns of SNP variation indicated that domestication and early breeding practices have led to progressive genetic bottlenecks while modern breeding practices have reintroduced genetic variation into the crop from wild species. Finally, we examined the ratio of non-synonymous (Ka to synonymous substitutions (Ks for 20 loci with multiple SNPs (≥ 4 per

  16. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumpt...

  17. Design of ultrasonic probe and evaluation of ultrasonic waves on E.coli in Sour Cherry Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Hosseinzadeh Samani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The common method used for juice pasteurization is the thermal method since thermal methods contribute highly to inactivating microbes. However, applying high temperatures would lead to inefficient effects on nutrition and food value. Such effects may include vitamin loss, nutritional flavor loss, non-enzyme browning, and protein reshaping (Kuldiloke, 2002. In order to decrease the adverse effects of the thermal pasteurization method, other methods capable of inactivation of microorganisms can be applied. In doing so, non-thermal methods including pasteurization using high hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP, electrical fields, and ultrasound waves are of interest (Chen and Tseng, 1996. The reason for diminishing microbial count in the presence of ultrasonic waves could be due to the burst of very tiny bubbles developed by ultrasounds which expand quickly and burst in a short time. Due to this burst, special temperature and pressure conditions are developed which could initiate or intensify several physical and/or chemical reactions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. Materials and methods: In order to supply uniform ultrasonic waves, a 1000 W electric generator (Model MPI, Switzerland working at 20±1 kHz frequency was used. The aim of this study is to evaluate the non-thermal ultrasonic method and its effective factors on the E.coli bacteria of sour cherry. For this purpose, a certain amount of sour cherry fruit was purchased from local markets. First, the fruits were washed, cleaned and cored. The prepared fruits were then dewatered using an electric juicer. In order to separate pulp suspensions and tissue components, the extracted juice was poured into a centrifuge with the speed of 6000 rpm for 20 min. For complete separation of the remaining suspended particles, the transparent portion of the extract was passed through a

  18. Clarification of Tomato Juice with Polygalacturonase Obtained from Tomato Fruits Infected by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A A; Peter-Albert, C F; Akeredolu, M; Shokunbi, A A

    2015-02-01

    Two varieties of tomato fruits commonly available in Nigerian markets are the Roma VF and Ibadan local varieties of tomato fruits. The Roma VF fruits are oval in shape. It is a common type of cultivar in the Northern region of Nigeria and it is not susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety of tomato fruits is a local variety commonly found on farmers fields in South-western region of Nigeria. They are highly susceptible to cracking. The Ibadan local variety was employed for this research. There are lots of benefits derived from the consumption of tomato fruits. The fruits can be made into tomato juice clarified with pectinases. Polygalacturonase is one of the pectinases used commercially in the clarification of fruit juice from different fruits. This study examined the production of polygalacturonase during the deterioration of tomato fruits by Aspergillus niger and the role of the purified polygalacturonase in the clarification of tomato juice. Tomato fruits of the Ibadan local variety were inoculated with mycelia discs containing spores of a 96-h-old culture of Aspergillus niger served as the inoculum. The organism from the stock culture was subcultured onto potato dextrose agar plates. The extraction of polygalacturonase after 10 days of incubation at 27 degrees C was carried out by homogenizing the fruits with liquid extractant using the MSE homogenizer after the deteriorated fruits had been chilled for 30 min inside a freezer. Control fruits were similarly treated except that sterile potato dextrose agar served as the inoculum. The effect of different temperature of incubation and different volume of enzyme on the tomato juice from the tomato fruits was investigated. Extracts from the inoculated fruits exhibited appreciable polygalacturonase activity. The juice with polygalacturonase was visually clearer and more voluminous than the juice treated with water for all parameters studied. The highest volume of juice was obtained after an incubation period

  19. Hemangioma rubi no couro cabeludo Cherry hemangioma in the scalp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Pereira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O hemangioma rubi (HR é dermatose de origem vascular extremamente freqüente, acometendo mais de 75% da população acima de 70 anos de idade. Em geral compõe-se de lesões múltiplas,localizadas predominantemente no alto do tronco e braços. Clinicamente é caracterizado por lesões que variam desde máculas puntiformes até lesões papulosas com cinco milímetros de diâmetro. As mais novas são vermelhas, em tons vivos, e as mais antigas podem ser azuladas. O HR é de etiologia desconhecida. Histologicamente chama atenção uma neoformação de vasos capilares, que se tornam dilatados e com fenestrações em suas paredes. A membrana basal está muito espessada e existe abundante estroma de colágeno entre os vasos. O presente trabalho demonstra a alta incidência do HR no couro cabeludo Em amostra de 171 pacientes, sendo 85 homens e 86 mulheres, o autor observou que 123 deles (72% tinham HR no couro cabeludo, localização em que o HR nunca foi descrito na literatura.Cherry hemangioma (CH is an extremely frequent dermatosis with vascular origin involving more than 75% of the population over 70 years of age. Normally they are multiplex spots and focus predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. Clinically they are characterized by pinpoint maculae and papules with up to 5 millimeters in diameter. The most recent lesions can be a strong red color while the older ones are bluish. The etiology of CH is still unknown. From the histologic standpoint, the neoformation of the capillary tube draws attention: they are very dilated and with fenestration along the wall. The basement membranes are thickened and there is abundant collagen stroma between the veins. This work demonstrates the high frequency of CH in the scalp. In a sample of 171 patients (85 men and 86 women the author noted that 123 (72% had CH in the scalp. However, according to the literature, CH in the scalp has never been described.

  20. A method for assessing frost damage risk in sweet cherry orchards of South Patagonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cittadini, E.D.; Ridder, de N.; Peri, P.L.; Keulen, van H.

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of frost damage risk is important in planning the development of new orchard areas and for decision-making on design and installation of frost control systems. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive method to quantify frost damage risk in different sweet cherry

  1. A Tale of Two Bees: Looking at Pollination Fees for Both Almonds and Sweet Cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic theory of supply and demand can explain the recent drastic changes in the pollination prices for almonds and cherries, following large acreage increases for these crops and a concurrent drop in honey bee availability due to colony collapse disorder (CCD). We constructed a model which s...

  2. Growth and fruit bearing of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Radunic

    2011-06-06

    Jun 6, 2011 ... Modern intensive production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) tends to planting of high quality cultivars on the dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The most productive training system is used, providing an ideal condition for undisturbed growth and yield. The main objective of this study.

  3. The occurrence of PPV in cherry trees in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, M.; Šafářová, D.; Fanigliulo, A.; Comes, S.; Petrzik, Karel; Karešová, R.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 657, - (2004), 237-244 ISSN 0567-7572 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) NAZV QD1407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : Plum pox virus * Prunus avium * sweet cherry cultivars * ELISA * RT-PCR Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  4. Authentication of "Cereza del Jerte" sweet cherry varieties by free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradilla, Manuel J; Martín, Alberto; Aranda, Emilio; Hernández, Alejandro; Benito, María J; Lopez-Corrales, Margarita; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this work was to develop a procedure based on protein analysis by free zone capillary electrophoresis (FZCE) that can be used as an alternative to other methods in the determination of sweet cherry varieties for the authentication of "Cereza del Jerte". Two autochthonous varieties of sweet cherry type "Picota", 'Ambrunés' and 'Pico Negro', and the foreign variety 'Sweetheart' were used in the study. Two protocols for extracting the methanol-soluble proteins were tested. On the basis of the results, direct evaporation with nitrogen of a methanol extract was included in the extraction protocol for routine analysis. This method was found to give excellent repeatability of the corrected migration time (CMT), and showed greater effectiveness in discriminating sweet cherry varieties than the SDS-PAGE technique. Three peaks found in the FZCE electropherograms were investigated as a basis for discriminating between varieties. In addition, the FZCE analysis of methanol-soluble proteins provides information about the physico-chemical parameters relevant to the sensorial quality of the sweet cherries. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of Post-Harvest Ripening on the Levels of Selected Compounds in Various Cherry Cultivars

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goliáš, J.; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kožíšková, J.; Kotas, Petr; Tříska, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 36 (2018) ISSN 1212-1800 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : neochlorogenic acid * organic acids * p-coumaroylquinic acid * rutin * storage * sugars * sweet cherries Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2016

  6. Identification and characterization of a new member of the genus Luteovirus from cherry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenz, Ondřej; Přibylová, Jaroslava; Fránová, Jana; Koloniuk, Igor; Špak, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 162, č. 2 (2017), s. 587-590 ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14004 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : cherry trees * Luteovirus * new virus * ChALV Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 2.058, year: 2016

  7. The rate of value increase for black cherry, red maple,and white ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted J. Grisez; Joseph J. Mendel; Joseph J. Mendel

    1972-01-01

    In this paper we present the dollar values and value increases, as well as the rates of value increase, for three of the most important tree species of the Allegheny Plateau of New York and Pennsylvania: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.).

  8. Source-Sink Relations in Fruits VII. Effects of Pruning in Sour Cherry and Plum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo; Hansen, P.

    1993-01-01

    trees (sour cherries) or at the lower crop load (plum). Additionally, pruning decreased the con­centrations of total and soluble dry matter and of anthocya­nins ('Stevnsbær'), while titratable acids showed an increas­ing tendency. The effects of pruning are discussed based on influences on root...

  9. Cultivar effect on the sweet cherry antioxidant and some chemical attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzyński Jan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic composition, antioxidant capacities, sugars and organic acids content of sweet cherry cultivars (Bianca, Burlat, Johanna 1, Johanna 2, Kordia, Kunzes Kirsche, Merton Premier, Napoleon, Orleans, Regina, Rivan, Schneiders Spate Knorpelkirsche, Summit, Trebnitzer Lotkirsche grown in Poland. Significant differences were observed between tested cultivars for all studied parameters.

  10. Agrobacterium-medicated transformation of mature Prunus serotina (black cherry) and regeneration of trangenic shoots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    A protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was developed for in vitro leaf explants of an elite, mature Prunus serotina tree. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring an RNAi plasmid with the black cherry AGAMOUS (AG) gene was used. Bacteria were induced...

  11. Improvement of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting of black cherry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    An improved protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of an elite, mature black cherry genotype was developed. To increase transformation efficiency, vacuum infiltration, sonication, and a combination of the two treatments were applied during the cocultivation of leaf explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105...

  12. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  13. Phytoplasmas in apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards in East Bohemia, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ludvíková, H.; Fránová, Jana; Suchá, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 64, Suppl. (2011), s. 67-68 ISSN 1721-8861 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09021 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Candidatus Phytoplasma prunorum * PCR/RFLP * apricot, peach and sour cherry orchards Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2011

  14. Detection of pit fragments in fresh cherries using near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIR spectroscopy in the wavelength region from 900nm to 2600nm was evaluated as the basis for a rapid, non-destructive method for the detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries. Partial Least Squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) following various spectral pretreatments was applied to sp...

  15. 75 FR 77564 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... throughout the season. The regulations apply to all handlers of tart cherries that are in the regulated... percentages are only applied to States or districts with a 3-year average of production greater than six... their product, an econometric model has been developed. The econometric model provides a way to see what...

  16. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  17. Identification of bloom date QTLs and haplotype analysis in tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cai, Lichun; Stegmeir, Travis; Sebolt, Audrey; Zheng, Chaozhi; Bink, Marco C.A.M.; Iezzoni, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Bloom date is an important production trait in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) as the risk of crop loss to floral freeze injury increases with early bloom time. Knowledge of the major loci controlling bloom date would enable breeders to design crosses and select seedlings with late bloom date. As

  18. Preliminary results on seasonal changes in flower bud cold hardiness of sour cherry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guangping; Pagter, Majken; Andersen, Lillie

    2012-01-01

    Irregular yields of Prunus cerasus ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’, which is the preferred sour cherry cultivar in Denmark, have been proposed to be a result of freeze injury to floral tissues. This study determined floral mortality of P. cerasus ‘Stevnsbaer Birgitte’ and the supposedly more cold hardy P...

  19. Gene and protein profiling of the effects of tart cherry anthocyanins in on preadipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several dietary bioactive compounds possess anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties and could potentially reduce obesity-associated cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and other metabolic inflammatory diseases. We are specifically interested in tart cherry (TC) anthocyanins (ACY) and in understa...

  20. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  1. There Is Space to Play! Mexican American Children of Immigrants Learning With(in) Cherry Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    While some children spend their summers in camps or other recreational activities, many children of immigrants in Washington state spend them picking cherries and learning with(in) orchards. Children's experiences consist of multiple narratives demonstrating that children's lives are complicated, yet full of possibilities for teaching and…

  2. Tart cherry extracts reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling in microglial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglia...

  3. Sensitivity of promising cherry hybrids and new cultivars to economically important fungal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vasileva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. As a result of years of developing the breeding programme for creating novel sweet cherry cultivars in the Fruit Growing Institute (FGI, Plovdiv, a reach hybrid fund from first and second hybrid generation is created. Of the selected and propagated hybrids at a more advanced stage of testing are 11 hybrids along with three new cultivars of the FGI Plovdiv ('Kossara', 'Rosalina' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' grafted on three rootstocks were tested for sensitivity to causers of economically important fungal diseases in sweet cherry - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm Arx, shothole blight (Stigmina carpophila (Lev. Ellis and brown rot (Monilinia fructigena (G. Wint Honey. The degree of infestation under field conditions is reported by determining the index of attack on leaves and fruit, using the formula of McKinney. As the most sensitive elites are outlined elite El.17-31 (to cherry leaf spot and elite El.17-136 (to shothole blight. The cultivars 'Kossara' and 'Trakiiska hrushtyalka' exhibit an average resistance to the three diseases, as the values for the index of infestation are lower or similar to those of standard cultivars 'Van' and 'Bing', while 'Rosalina' demonstrated sensitivity to shothole blight and brown rot. Interesting is the elite El.17- 37 demonstrating the least infestation of Blumeriella jaapii - 7.33% and Monilinia fructigena - 6.67%. The same has a set of valuable qualities as late maturing date and very large fruits with excellent sensory profile, making it a potential candidate cultivar.

  4. Prunus avium: nuclear DNA study in wild populations and sweet cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Carmine; Santoro, Simona; De Simone, Luciana; Cipriani, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The PCR-SSR technique was used to detect nuclear DNA diversity in five wild populations of Prunus avium from deciduous forests in Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia and 87 sweet cherry accessions from different geographical areas that have been maintained in the sweet cherry collection in Italy. This sweet cherry collection includes local accessions from the Campania Region as well as accessions from different countries. Twenty-eight microsatellites, previously developed in this species, generated polymorphic amplification products. Between 2 and 14 alleles were revealed for the polymorphic loci studied, with the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.045 to 0.831. The total probability of identity was 56.94 x 10-18. A model-based Bayesian clustering analysis identified nine distinct gene pools in cultivated P. avium. The probability that wild populations were assigned to cultivated gene pools indicated that three gene pools accounted for the genomic origin of 53% of P. avium sampled. A dendrogram was generated using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) based on Nei genetic distance analysis. This dendrogram classified most of the genotypes into one major group with an additional group of five accessions. The results indicate that this set of SSRs is highly informative, and they are discussed in terms of the implications for sweet cherry characterization.

  5. Effect of tart cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) on melatonin levels and enhanced sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howatson, Glyn; Bell, Phillip G; Tallent, Jamie; Middleton, Benita; McHugh, Malachy P; Ellis, Jason

    2012-12-01

    Tart Montmorency cherries have been reported to contain high levels of phytochemicals including melatonin, a molecule critical in regulating the sleep-wake cycle in humans. The aim of our investigation was to ascertain whether ingestion of a tart cherry juice concentrate would increase the urinary melatonin levels in healthy adults and improve sleep quality. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 20 volunteers consumed either a placebo or tart cherry juice concentrate for 7 days. Measures of sleep quality recorded by actigraphy and subjective sleep questionnaires were completed. Sequential urine samples over 48 h were collected and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (major metabolite of melatonin) determined; cosinor analysis was used to determine melatonin circadian rhythm (mesor, acrophase and amplitude). In addition, total urinary melatonin content was determined over the sampled period. Trial differences were determined using a repeated measures ANOVA. Total melatonin content was significantly elevated (P sleep time and sleep efficiency total (P melatonin circardian rhythm, there was a trend to a higher mesor and amplitude. These data suggest that consumption of a tart cherry juice concentrate provides an increase in exogenous melatonin that is beneficial in improving sleep duration and quality in healthy men and women and might be of benefit in managing disturbed sleep.

  6. Genetic Diversity of Some Sweet Cherry Cultivars Based on Molecular Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Virginia Berindean

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., originated around the Caspian and Black Sea, is an important fruit tree species of economic interest, and hence, breeding and conservation are requested (. Genetic analysis at the molecular level can be used effectively to study molecular polymorphism existing between intraspecific and interspecific tree species and phylogenetic relationships between them and their hybrids. The purpose of this study was to characterize and determine genetic relationships among the sweet cherry native genotypes belonging to Fruit Research & Development Station Bistrita, Romania, using RAPD markers. To eliminate the existence of possible synonyms from national romanian collection, we collect four Van cultivars, from four different national collection. For molecular analysis of the 16 varieties of sweet cherry were considered 13 RAPD primers selected from the literature. They were later used to determine the genetic variability at the molecular level using PAST program, and the dendrogram was generated based on Jaccard’s genetic distance. The dendrogram constructed by PAST software. The quantity and quality of the DNA obtained was suitable to achieve PCR amplification step. Only seven out of the 13 RAPD primers have generate polymorphic bands. The rest of seven were monomorphics. The most polymorphic primer was OPB10 which generated 11 bands from which 100% were polymorphic.Seven RAPD primers generated a high level of polymorphism which allowed to divide these cherry varieties into two groups according to their genetic geographical origin and the pedigree.

  7. The main quality attributes of non-sprayed cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Hilal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cherry laurel (Laurocerasus officinalis is naturally growing in black sea region in Turkey and the trees has not been spraying with pesticides. In natural growing conditions, all cherry laurel genotypes particularly fruits are seems resistant against pests. Astringent nature of fruits forms a barrier for pests. A total twelve cherry laurel accessions were harvested at full maturation time from various sites in Of district located in eastern black sea region in Turkey. Fruits were analyzed for their total phenolic (TP, total monomeric anthocyanin (TMA, total carotenoid (TC, Vitamin C and for their antioxidant capacity by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH in fruit flesh extract. Variability among accessions was greatest for total phenol (TP and total anthocyanins content ranged from 154 to 213 mg GAE per 100 g and 397 to 519 mg per 100 g. The results indicated that cherry laurel fruits are superior and unique in terms of bioactive content in particular compared to bioactive rich fruit species.

  8. 77 FR 13015 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ...: Section 930.10, the definition of ``Handle''; Section 930.50, ``Marketing Policy'' and Section 930.58... from definition of handle. 2. Amendment 2 would revise the ``marketing policy'' provisions in section... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon...

  9. Postharvest problems of tomato production in Ghana - Field studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The farmers carry out neither on-farm nor off-farm storage of the fresh tomato fruits. The major postharvest problems of the farmers are the need for permanent purchasing outlets and the stabilization of the unit price per box of tomato. This calls for a significant look at the distribution system for tomatoes. JOURNAL OF THE ...

  10. Metabolite profiling of Italian tomato landraces with different fruit types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldina, Svetlana; Picarella, Maurizio E.; Troise, Antonio D.; Pucci, Anna; Ruggieri, Valentino; Ferracane, Rosalia; Barone, Amalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Mazzucato, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Increased interest toward traditional tomato varieties is fueled by the need to rescue desirable organoleptic traits and to improve the quality of fresh and processed tomatoes in the market. In addition, the phenotypic and genetic variation preserved in tomato landraces represents a means to

  11. Tomato lycopene is a natural antioxidant and can alleviate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lycopene of tomato wastes was extracted and determination. The level of tomato lycopene was 145.50 ppm. An aliquots of the concentrated tomato lycopene, represent 100, 200, 400 and 800 ppm; grade lycopene (200 ppm) and butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT, 200 ppm) were investigated by the 1,1- ...

  12. farmers'perception on the strategies for increasing tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    from tomato production (r= 0.334) and strategies adopted for increased in tomato production. (P≤ 0.01). The study therefore recommended the need for the provision of adequate training, necessary incentives, provision of infrastructural facilitates and improved variety of tomato to farmers as a panacea for sustainable and ...

  13. Biochemical evaluation of tomato germplasm part I: workflow and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the seed crop species conserved at PGRU, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is the largest in terms of numbers of accessions. Furthermore, tomato ranks very high among vegetable crops in economic importance to the US. We are characterizing a tomato core collection for traits that are of interest to...

  14. Industrial processing versus home processing of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Sagdic, Osman; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The effect of industrial and home processing, in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, individual phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of tomato into tomato sauce were investigated. Industrial processing of tomato fruit into sauce had an overall positive effect on the total antioxidant capacity

  15. Morphological and molecular identification of Colletotrichum acutatum from tomato fruit

    OpenAIRE

    Živković Svetlana; Stojanović Saša; Ivanović Žarko; Trkulja Nenad; Dolovac Nenad; Aleksić Goran; Balaž Jelica

    2010-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Colletotrichum acutatum, Colletotrichum coccodes, and Colletotrichum dematium are the four main species of Colletotrichum that cause tomato anthracnose. In Serbia, the occurrence of anthracnose on tomato fruit has been recorded during the last several years. Typical fruit symptoms include dark, sunken, and circular lesion with orange conidial masses. Pathogen isolates were obtained from a diseased tomato fruits, on PDA medium...

  16. Natural incidence of tomato viruses in the North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mohammadi HAJIABADI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in Qazvin province in the North of Iran, to determine the incidence of tomato viruses including: Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV, Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV, Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Tomato ring spot virus (ToRSV, Tomato aspermy virus (TAV, Potato virus Y (PVY, Beet curly top virus (BCTV, and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV. A total of 742 tomato symptomatic samples were collected during the summer of 2007 in five regions of Qazvin province (Qazvin, Takestan, Boeen-Zahra, Alborz and Abiyek and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. TSWV was detected in Alborz (4.4 % and Abiyek (3.57% regions but TMV and CMV were detected in all five regions. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses were recorded in Alborz (40.7 % and Takestan (11.1 %, respectively. The presence of these viruses was also evaluated in the weed hosts as natural sources of plant viruses. The greatest and least incidence of tomato viruses in weed hosts were recorded in Boeen-Zahra (25.6 % and Qazvin (12.8 %, respectively. TSWV was not detected in weeds. Transmission tests demonstrated that Thrips tabaci acts as TSWV carrier and Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii were CMV carriers. Seed transmission tests were positive for TMV (13 tomato seedlings from 100 seedlings, but no TSWV transmission was observed through the seeds of infected tomato fruits.

  17. TARGET MICROFLORA OF A TOMATO C ROPPED SOIL.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    population of tomato soil treated with different concentration of benomyl and pseudomonads to benomyl in culture medium and in tomato soils. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Collection of samples and treatment with benomyl. Soil samples were collected from a vegetable farm in which tomato had been cropped for two ...

  18. Molecular marker screening of tomato, (solanum lycopersicum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... In this study, molecular screening was done on some tomato germplasm to detect markers for the gene that confers resistance ... Genetic resistance in tomato to the pest is efficient in reducing their populations .... fresh leaves of tomato plants following the protocol of Egnin et al. (1998). PCR was carried out ...

  19. Economics Of Wholesale Marketing Of Tomato Fruits In Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the socio-economic characteristics of wholesale tomato marketers with a view to identifying the marketing channels of tomato fruits, determining marketing efficiency, margin and marketing costs associated with tomato marketing. Information was randomly collected with the aid of a well structured ...

  20. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...... cherry juice with Novozym 89L protease and co- addition of pectinase and gallic acid improved cherry juice clarity and diminished haze levels. None of the alternative treatments produced the unwieldy colloids notorious to gelatin- silica sol treatment. The data suggest that several alternative...

  1. The determination of antioxidant activity of Brazil-cherry (Eugenia uniflora L.) leaves extract using FRAP method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawati, Puji; Maulida, Ika Rahma; Muhaimin

    2017-12-01

    Brazil-cherry leaves (Eugenia uniflora L.) have antioxidant activity because they contain phenolic and flavonoids compounds. The aim of the study was to obtain antioxidant activity using FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) method. Brazil-cherry leaves were extracted using soxhlet method by ethanol 70%. The free radical activity absorbance was measured with a UV-Vis spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 711 nm and the total value of antioxidant activity was calculated based on the data absorbance. The results showed that Brazil-cherry leaves have the antioxidant activity with the value 2.493mgAAE/g extract.

  2. Broad taxonomic characterization of Verticillium wilt resistance genes reveals an ancient origin of the tomato Ve1 immune receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Yin; Zhang, Zhao; Seidl, Michael F.; Majer, Aljaz; Jakse, Jernej; Javornik, Branka; Thomma, Bart P.H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic microbes secrete effector molecules to establish themselves on their hosts, whereas plants use immune receptors to try and intercept such effectors in order to prevent pathogen colonization. The tomato cell surface-localized receptor Ve1 confers race-specific resistance against

  3. EFFICACY OF TOMATO AND / OR GARLIC IN AMELIORATING CARDIAC DISORDERS INDUCED BY FEEDING RATS FRYING OIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OSMAN, N.N.

    2007-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and garlic (Allium cepa) are important constituents of the human diet. Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Tomato has anti-mutagenic activities and contains lycopene (a powerful antioxidant) that appears to prevent oxidation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) and reduces the risk of developing atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of tomato or garlic alone or their combination against cardiac disorders in rats fed commercial diet fortified with frying oil (15% w/w) for 30 days. Thirty male Wistar albino rats were used and were divided into five groups; group 1, control (rats fed diet containing 15% w/w fresh oil); group 2, animals fed diets fortified with frying oil; groups 3-5, rats fed as in group 2 and received tomato (500 mg/kg body weight), garlic (125 mg/kg body weight) and a combination of tomato and garlic by gavage, respectively.Total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids (PL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c),and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c) were estimated in the serum of different animal groups. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined in the serum as well as lipid peroxidation level (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were assessed in cardiac tissues.The results obtained revealed that, feeding rats on frying oil induced a notable increase in lipid profile, LDL-c, VLDL-c and TBARS associated with a marked depletion in GSH. Elevation in specific heart enzymes, LDL, CPK, ALT

  4. Freezing Damage to Isolated Tomato Fruit Mitochondria as Modified by Cryoprotective Agents and Storage Temperature 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David B.; Misch, M. Joan; Drury, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    Isolated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Kc 146) fruit mitochondria could be stored successfully in the frozen state without a cryoprotective agent if the mitochondria were frozen quickly by immersion in liquid nitrogen and later thawed quickly at 30 C. Criteria of freezing damage were rate of respiration, adenosine diphosphate to oxygen ratio, and respiratory control ratio. Marked reduction in respiration and loss of respiratory control occurred when mitochondria were transferred from liquid nitrogen to −5, −10, or −18 C for 15 minutes prior to thawing at 30 C. Dimethylsulfoxide (5%) prevented freezing damage when mitochondria were incubated at −5 C but did not prevent freezing damage at −10 or −18 C. Isolated tomato mitochondria show promise as a model system for studying the nature of freezing damage and the mode of action of cryo-protective agents. PMID:16657434

  5. Freezing damage to isolated tomato fruit mitochondria as modified by cryoprotective agents and storage temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, D B; Misch, M J; Drury, R E

    1970-08-01

    Isolated tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Kc 146) fruit mitochondria could be stored successfully in the frozen state without a cryoprotective agent if the mitochondria were frozen quickly by immersion in liquid nitrogen and later thawed quickly at 30 C. Criteria of freezing damage were rate of respiration, adenosine diphosphate to oxygen ratio, and respiratory control ratio. Marked reduction in respiration and loss of respiratory control occurred when mitochondria were transferred from liquid nitrogen to -5, -10, or -18 C for 15 minutes prior to thawing at 30 C. Dimethylsulfoxide (5%) prevented freezing damage when mitochondria were incubated at -5 C but did not prevent freezing damage at -10 or -18 C. Isolated tomato mitochondria show promise as a model system for studying the nature of freezing damage and the mode of action of cryo-protective agents.

  6. The Role of Pathogenesis-Related Proteins in the Tomato-Rhizoctonia solani Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parissa Taheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoctonia solani is one of the most destructive pathogens causing foot rot disease on tomato. In this study, the molecular and cellular changes of a partially resistant (Sunny 6066 and a susceptible (Rio Grande tomato cultivar after infection with necrotrophic soil-borne fungus R. solani were compared. The expression of defense-related genes such as chitinase (LOC544149 and peroxidase (CEVI-1 in infected tomato cultivars was investigated using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. This method revealed elevated levels of expression for both genes in the partially resistant cultivar compared to the susceptible cultivar. One of the most prominent facets of basal plant defense responses is the formation of physical barriers at sites of attempted fungal penetration. These structures are produced around the sites of potential pathogen ingress to prevent pathogen progress in plant tissues. We investigated formation of lignin, as one of the most important structural barriers affecting plant resistance, using thioglycolic acid assay. A correlation was found between lignification and higher level of resistance in Sunny 6066 compared to Rio Grande cultivar. These findings suggest the involvement of chitinase, peroxidase, and lignin formation in defense responses of tomato plants against R. solani as a destructive pathogen.

  7. EFFECT OF CONSUMING TOMATO (LYCOPERSIUM COMMUNE JUICE IN LOWERING BLOOD PRESSURE IN PREGNANT MOTHERS WITH HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Anita

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure during pregnancy can pose significant problems such as preeclampsia, eclampsia, and premature birth. Thus, early prevention is needed. Consuming tomato (lycopersium commune juice is considered effective to reduce blood pressure in pregnant women. Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of tomato juice on the decrease in blood pressure of pregnant women with hypertension in pregnancy Methods: This study was a quasy experiment with pretest-posttest control group. This research was conducted at the working area of the Community Health Center of Magelang in July 2016 - January 2017. The target population of this study was pregnant women in trimester I, II, and III with high blood pressure. There were 30 samples selected using consecutive sampling, with 15 assigned in the experiment and control group. Wilcoxon Test was performed for data analysis. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in systolic and diastolic blood pressure before and after given tomato juice with p = 0.001 (<0.05. Conclusion: Consuming tomato juice can be one of the efforts to reduce blood pressure in pregnant women with hypertension.

  8. Determining the effectiveness of Candida guilliermondii in the biological control of Rhizopus stolonifer in postharvest tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispin Celis Zambrano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-harvest losses in tomato crops can be accredited to a number of causes, which include biological causes that produce physiological deterioration; infection caused by diseases and pests that cause rotting. In this study, we assayed, in vitro and in vivo, the yeast Candida guilliermondii to determine its effectiveness as a biocontrol to reduce the rotting produced by Rhizopus stolonifer on tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum. The antagonistic effect was tested using a yeast biomass suspension; gas chromatography and a mass selective detector were used to identify its metabolites. According to the in vitro test, the only phase with an antagonistic response against Rhizopus stolonifer was the unfiltered water phase. In the in vivo tests, the biomass of Candida guilliermondii presented the highest percentage of protection of the tomato (87 % compared with the unfiltered aqueous phase and the unconcentrated organic phase, which reached only 77 and 80 % respectively. These results are essential to avoid economic losses caused by fungi and to increase the shelf life of tomatoes improving the distribution of the product and preventing postharvest losses in this time of food crises, especially in developing countries.

  9. Performance of a Horizontal Double Cylinder Type of Fresh Coffee Cherries Pulping Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Pulping is one important step in wet coffee processing method. Usually, pulping process uses a machine which constructed using wood or metal materials. A horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is the most popular machine in coffee processor and market. One of the weakness of a horizontal single cylinder type coffee pulping machine is high of broken beans. Broken beans is one of major aspect in defect system that result in low quality. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal double cylinder type coffee pulping machine. Material tested is Robusta cherry, mature, 60—65% (wet basis moisture content, which size compostition of coffee cherries was 50.8% more than 15 mm diameter, 32% more than 10 mm diameter, and 16.6% to get through 10 mm hole diameter; 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density, and clean from methal and foreign materials. The result showed that this machine has 420 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1400 rpm rotor rotation speed for unsorted coffee cherries with composition 53.08% whole parchment coffee, 16.92% broken beans, and 30% beans in the wet skin. For small size coffee cherries, 603 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1600 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 51.30% whole parchment coffee, 12.59% broken beans, and 36.1% beans in the wet skin. Finally, for medium size coffee cherries, 564 kg/h optimal capacity in operational conditions, 1800 rpm rotor rotation speed with composition 48.64% whole parchment coffee, 18.5% broken beans, and 32.86% beans in the wet skin.Key words : coffee, pulp, pulper, cylinder, quality.

  10. Physicochemical and microbiological evaluation of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the quality of sun dried tomatoes in comparison with fresh tomatoes. Fresh fully ripen tomatoes were washed and cut in thin slices with sterilized stainless steel knife and divided into two lots, one was taken as control and other was dipped in 3% potassium meta bisulfite solution for 5 minutes. The samples were spread over stainless steel trays covered with muslin cloth and kept in solar dehydrator for 5 days at 55 +- 2 deg. C. The physicochemical analyses were carried out in both dried and fresh (control) tomatoes. They were also analyzed microbiologically for bacterial and fugal count. Results showed that sun dried tomatoes are microbiologically safe. The values of moisture content and vitamin C of fresh and sun dried tomatoes statistically differ from each others at probability level of 5 %. The nutrient which is highly affected by sun drying is vitamin C. In fresh tomatoes it was 32.5 mg/100 g which is reduced to 24.6 mg/100 g after sun drying and further reduced to 15.86 mg/100 g during three months storage. The moisture content of the fresh tomatoes was 94.4% which decreased to 8.15% after drying, and then slowly increased to 9.95% in the three months storage. Statistically no major difference was found in the other nutrients during storage, which indicates that sun drying is nutritionally and microbiologically safe and can be used to preserve tomatoes and other fruits and vegetables for off season use. (author)

  11. A combination of tomato and soy products for men with recurring prostate cancer and rising prostate specific antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Wang, Shihua; Unlu, Nuray Z; Boileau, Thomas W-M; Ferketich, Amy K; Monk, J Paul; Gong, Michael C; Bahnson, Robert R; DeGroff, Valerie L; Clinton, Steven K

    2008-01-01

    Tomato and soy products are hypothesized to reduce the risk of prostate cancer or enhance efficacy of therapy. A study was completed to determine if men with active prostate cancer will adhere to a dietary intervention rich in tomato products and a soy protein supplement men (n = 41) with recurrent, asymptomatic prostate cancer were randomized among 2 groups: Group A (n = 20) consumed tomato products (no soy) for Weeks 0 through 4, targeting a minimum of 25 mg of lycopene/day. Group B (n = 21) consumed soy (no tomatoes) for Weeks 0 through 4, providing 40 g of soy protein/day. For Weeks 4 through 8, all men consumed a combined tomato-rich diet and soy supplements. No grade II through IV toxicities were observed. During Weeks 0 through 4, mean daily lycopene intake for Group A was 43 mg (+/- 15 mg) and mean soy intake for Group B was 39 g (+/- 1 g), remaining similar during Weeks 4 through 8. Serum lycopene increased from 0.72 +/- 0.09 micromol/l to 1.21 +/- 0.10 micromol/l (P diet intervention. Serum prostate-specific antigen decreased between Weeks 0 and 8 for 14 / 41 men (34%). Mean serum vascular endothelial growth factor for the entire group was reduced from 87 to 51 ng/ml (P diets rich in tomato products and soy with excellent compliance and bioavailability of phytochemicals. Further studies combining tomato and soy foods to determine efficacy for prostate cancer prevention or management are encouraged.

  12. Survey of tomato diseases in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontem, DA.

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. is the most widely cultivated field vegetable crop in Cameroon. On-farm surveys were undertaken from November 1988 to October 1991 to identify nursery and field diseases in major tomato producing areas of Cameroon, Damping-off and seedling blights were the main seedling diseases. Of the eleven diseases observed in the field, the most widely distributed and severe on the foliage and fruits were early (Alternaria solani and late (Phytophthora infestans blights. Late blight was the most severe disease in the wet season while early blight was most severe in the dry season. Nine pathogens were associated with various fruit rots. This study indicates the need for an identification of appropriate control methods for early and late blights of tomato in Cameroon.

  13. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  14. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter; Arthur, Paula B.

    2013-01-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  15. Effects of gamma radiation in tomato seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiendl, Toni A.; Wiendl, Fritz W.; Franco, Suely S.H.; Franco, Jose G.; Althur, Valter, E-mail: tawiendl@hotmail.com, E-mail: gilmita@uol.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Arthur, Paula B., E-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Tomato dry seeds of the hybrid 'Gladiador' F1 were exposed to low doses of gamma radiation from Co-60 source at 0,509 kGy tax rate in order to study stimulation effects of radiation on germination and plant growth. Eight treatments radiation doses were applied as follows: 0 (control); 2,5; 5,0; 7,5; 10,0; 12,5; 15,0; 20,0 Gy. Seed germination as well as green fruits number, harvested fruit number, fruit weight and total production were assessed to identify occurrence of stimulation. Tomato seeds and plants were handled as for usual tomato production in Brazil. Low doses of gamma radiation treatment in the seeds stimulate germination and substantially increase fruit number and total production up to 86% at 10 Gy dose. There are evidences that the use of low doses of gamma radiation can stimulate germination and plant production thus, showing hormetic effects. (author)

  16. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  17. Consumer sensory analysis of high flavonoid transgenic tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wansang; Miller, Rebecca; Park, Jungeun; Park, Sunghun

    2014-06-01

    Tomatoes have ameliorative effects on cardiovascular disease and cancer. In this study, metabolic engineering of flavonoids was utilized to improve the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing flavonol and anthocyanin content. Total flavonol content was significantly increased in both the peel and flesh using the onion chalcone isomerase (CHI) gene. The Delila (Del) and Rosea1 (Ros1) genes from the snapdragon Antirrhinum majus were concomitantly expressed to produce an anthocyanin-rich tomato which was purple in color. Sensory evaluation by a panel of 81 untrained consumers revealed no significant difference in liking of color or texture between CHI, Del/Ros1, and wild-type tomatoes. Consumers reported marginal but significantly higher preference for the flavor and overall liking of CHI tomatoes over Del/Ros1 and wild-type tomatoes. This study is the first to report the results of sensory tests of transgenic tomatoes by a consumer panel representing the general consuming public. Transgenic procedures were used to increase the flavonol and anthocyanin contents of tomatoes. An untrained consumer panel scored flavor and overall liking of the 2 transgenic tomatoes higher than wild-type tomatoes and reported no difference in liking of texture or color between the 3 tomatoes. After participating in the sensory study, 14% of the panelists changed their attitudes positively toward transgenic vegetables and 96% of the consumers on the panel reported that they would buy transgenic food if they believed that it would promote health. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. BP Cherry Point Cogeneration Project, Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2003-09-19

    BP West Coast Products, LLC (BP or the Applicant) proposes to construct and operate a nominal 720-megawatt (MW), natural-gas-fired, combined-cycle cogeneration facility next to the existing BP Cherry Point Refinery in Whatcom County, Washington. The Applicant also owns and operates the refinery, but the cogeneration facility and the refinery would be operated as separate business units. The cogeneration facility and its ancillary infrastructure would provide steam and 85 MW of electricity to meet the operating needs of the refinery and 635 MW of electrical power for local and regional consumption. The proposed cogeneration facility would be located between Ferndale and Blaine in northwestern Whatcom County, Washington. The Canadian border is approximately 8 miles north of the proposed project site. The Washington State Energy Facility Site Evaluation Council (EFSEC) has jurisdiction over the evaluation of major energy facilities including the proposed project. As such, EFSEC will recommend approval or denial of the proposed cogeneration facility to the governor of Washington after an environmental review. On June 3, 2002, the Applicant filed an Application for Site Certification (ASC No. 2002-01) with EFSEC in accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 463-42. On April 22, 2003, the Applicant submitted an amended ASC that included, among other things, a change from air to water cooling. With the submission of the ASC and in accordance with the State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) (WAC 463-47), EFSEC is evaluating the siting of the proposed project and conducting an environmental review with this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Because the proposed project requires federal agency approvals and permits, this EIS is intended to meet the requirements under both SEPA and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) also will use this EIS as part of their

  19. Use of multispectral images and chemometrics in tomato seed studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René

    During the production of tomato seeds, green tomatoes are normally discarded before seed extraction irrespective of their maturity stage. Studies indicate that seeds from green tomatoes may reach be able to reach full germination capacity. Thus the potential of multispectral imaging for non......-destructive discrimination of seeds based on their germination capacity was investigated. A total of 840 seeds extracted from green and red tomatoes were divided into two sets; a training set and a test set consisting of 648 and 192 seeds respectively. Each set consisted of 96 seeds from green tomatoes. The multispectral......, respectively. Similarly, dead seeds were predicted with 98% of accuracy. Results also showed that 23 and 14 seeds from green tomatoes in the training and test sets respectively were viable, while only one viable seed in the test set was misclassified. The results indicate that green tomatoes might be mature...

  20. Direct determination of lycopene content in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) by attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Yuwana; Schwartz, Steven J; Francis, David; Baldauf, Nathan A; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E

    2006-01-01

    Lycopene is a potent antioxidant that has been shown to play critical roles in disease prevention. Efficient assays for detection and quantification of lycopene are desirable as alternatives to time- and labor-intensive methods. Attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy was used for quantification of lycopene in tomato varieties. Calibration models were developed by partial least-squares regression (PLSR) using quantitative measures of lycopene concentration from liquid chromatography as reference method. IR spectra showed a distinct marker band at 957 cm(-1) for trans Carbon-Hydrogen (CH) deformation vibration of lycopene. PLSR models predicted the lycopene content accurately and reproducibly with a correlation coefficient (sigma) of 0.96 and standard error of cross-validation ATR-IR spectroscopy allowed for rapid, simple, and accurate determination of lycopene in tomatoes with minimal sample preparation. Results suggest that the ATR-IR method is applicable for high-throughput quantitative analysis and screening for lycopene in tomatoes.

  1. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  2. Viability of probiotic bacteria and some chemical and sensory characteristics in cornelian cherry juice during cold storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amene Nematollahi

    2016-05-01

    Conclusion: The results showed that low pH and presence of inhibitor phenolic compounds of cornelian cherry juice have negative effect on viability of probiotics, especially industrial strains during refrigerated storage.

  3. Nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) farmer' varieties in Northeastern Portugal homegardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinela, José; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-03-01

    The nutritional and antioxidant composition of four tomato Portuguese farmer' varieties widely cultivated in homegardens was determined. The analysed components included macronutrients, individual profiles of sugars and fatty acids by chromatographic techniques, hydrophilic antioxidants such as vitamin C, phenolics, flavonols and anthocyanins, and lipophilic antioxidants such as tocopherols, β-carotene and lycopene. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity was evaluated through DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power, β-carotene bleaching inhibition and TBARS formation inhibition. One of the four varieties, which is locally known as round tomato or potato tomato, proved to be the most powerful in antioxidant activity (EC50 values≤1.63 mg/ml), phenolic compounds (phenolics 31.23 mg ClAE/g extract, flavonols 6.36 mg QE/g extract and anthocyanins 3.45 mg ME/g extract) and carotenoids (β-carotene 0.51 mg/100 g and lycopene 9.49 mg/100 g), while the so-called yellow tomato variety revealed interesting nutritional composition, including higher fructose (3.42 g/100 g), glucose (3.18 g/100 g), α-linolenic acid (15.53%) and total tocopherols (1.44 mg/100 g) levels. Overall, these farmer' varieties of garden tomato cultivated in the Northeastern Portuguese region could contribute as sources of important antioxidants related to the prevention of chronic diseases associated to oxidative stress, such as cancer and coronary artery disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of the time of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. seedlings on the quality of maiden trees of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted at the Felin Experi- mental Farm, belonging to the University of Life Sciences in Lublin, during the period 2005–2008. The experimental material consisted of maiden trees of sour cherry 'Łutówka' budded on seedlings of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. of unknown origin. The experiment evaluated the effect of four budding times: 15 July, 1 August, 15 August, and 1 September, on the quality of cherry trees in a nursery. The mean for the three years showed that budding time did not have a significant effect on the quality of cherry trees in the nursery. It was observed that the budding of mahaleb cherry performed on the two August dates (1st and 15th had a more beneficial effect on the growth and branching of trees than the budding done on 15 July and 1 September. The quality of maiden cherry trees 'Łutówka' in the nursery was primarily dependent on weather conditions in a given growing season, which is evidenced by the significant differences between production cycles, high variation in the quantitative results in individual years, and the absence of significant differences in the mean for 2006–2008.

  5. Tomato marchitez virus, a new plant picorna-like virus from tomato related to tomato torrado virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, M.; Dullemans, A.M.; Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.; Maris, P.C.; Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    A new virus was isolated from a tomato plant from the state of Sinaloa in Mexico. This plant showed symptoms locally known as `marchitez disease¿: severe leaf necrosis, beginning at the base of the leaflets, and necrotic rings on the fruits. A virus was isolated from the infected plant consisting of

  6. Efficiency of enzymatic and other alternative clarification and fining treatments on turbidity and haze in cherry juice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Köser, C.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Several alternative strategies were examined for improving conventional juice fining procedures for cherry juice clarification and fining in laboratory-scale experiments: Centrifugation of freshly pressed juice from 1000g to 35000g induced decreased turbidity according to a steep, negative power...... function. Individual and interactive effects on turbidity and haze formation in precentrifuged and uncentrifuged cherry juice of treatments with pectinase, acid protease, bromelain, gallic acid, and gelatin-silica sol were investigated in a factorial experimental design with 32 different parameter...

  7. AP2/ERF Transcription Factors Involved in Response to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curly Virus in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curly virus (TYLCV, transmitted by the whitefly (, causes leaf curling and yellowing, plant dwarfism, and growth inhibition in tomato ( L.. The APETALA2 (AP2 and ethylene response factor (ERF transcription factor (TF family, the largest plant-specific TF family, was identified to function in plant development and pathogen defense. Our study aimed to analyze the mechanism underlying the function of ERF (SlERF TFs in response to TYLCV infection and improve useful information to increase the resistance to TYLCV in tomato. A total of 22 tomato AP2/ERF TFs in response to TYLCV were identified according to transcriptome database. Five ERF-B3 TFs were identified in cultivars Hongbeibei (highly resistant, Zheza-301, Zhefen-702 (both resistant, Jinpeng-1, and Xianke-6 (both susceptible. Interaction network indicated that SlERF TFs could interact with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK. Expression profiles of five ERF-B3 genes (, , , , and were detected by quantitative real-time–polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR after TYLCV infection in five tomato cultivars. expression was upregulated in five tomato cultivars. The expressions of three genes (, , and were upregulated in Zheza-301 and Zhefen-702. and expressions were downregulated in Hongbeibei and Xianke-6, respectively. Yeast one-hybrid showed that the GCC-box binding ability of ERF-B3 TFs differed in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. Expression profiles were related to the GCC-box binding ability of SlERF TFs in resistant and susceptible tomato cultivars. The defense mechanism underlying the tomato’s response to TYLCV involved a complicated network, which provided important information for us in breeding and genetic analysis.

  8. Hypolipidemic Effect of Tomato Juice in Hamsters in High Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chen Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato is a globally famous food and contains several phytonutrients including lycopene, β-carotene, anthocyanin, and flavonoids. The increased temperature used to produce tomato juice, ketchup, tomato paste and canned tomato enhances the bioactive composition. We aimed to verify the beneficial effects of processed tomato juice from Kagome Ltd. (KOT on hypolipidemic action in hamsters with hyperlipidemia induced by a 0.2% cholesterol and 10% lard diet (i.e., high-cholesterol diet (HCD. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into two groups for treatment: normal (n = 8, standard diet (control; and experimental (n = 32, HCD. The 32 hamsters were further divided into four groups (n = 8 per group to receive vehicle or KOT by oral gavage at 2787, 5573, or 13,934 mg/kg/day for six weeks, designated the HCD-1X, -2X and -5X groups, respectively. The efficacy and safety of KOT supplementation was evaluated by lipid profiles of serum, liver and feces and by clinical biochemistry and histopathology. HCD significantly increased serum levels of total cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerol (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic and fetal TC and TG levels, and degree of fatty liver as compared with controls. KOT supplementation dose-dependently decreased serum TC, TG, LDL-C levels, LDL-C/HDL-C ratio, hepatic TC and TG levels, and fecal TG level. Our study provides experiment-based evidence to support that KOT may be useful in treating or preventing the onset of hyperlipidemia.

  9. High-resolution seismic reflection/refraction imaging from Interstate 10 to Cherry Valley Boulevard, Cherry Valley, Riverside County, California: implications for water resources and earthquake hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhok, G.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Horta, E.; Rymer, M.J.; Martin, P.; Christensen, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the second of two reports on seismic imaging investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during the summers of 1997 and 1998 in the Cherry Valley area in California (Figure 1a). In the first report (Catchings et al., 1999), data and interpretations were presented for four seismic imaging profiles (CV-1, CV-2, CV-3, and CV-4) acquired during the summer of 1997 . In this report, we present data and interpretations for three additional profiles (CV-5, CV-6, and CV-7) acquired during the summer of 1998 and the combined seismic images for all seven profiles. This report addresses both groundwater resources and earthquake hazards in the San Gorgonio Pass area because the shallow (upper few hundred meters) subsurface stratigraphy and structure affect both issues. The cities of Cherry Valley and Beaumont are located approximately 130 km (~80 miles) east of Los Angeles, California along the southern alluvial fan of the San Bernardino Mountains (see Figure 1b). These cities are two of several small cities that are located within San Gorgonio Pass, a lower-lying area between the San Bernardino and the San Jacinto Mountains. Cherry Valley and Beaumont are desert cities with summer daytime temperatures often well above 100 o F. High water usage in the arid climate taxes the available groundwater supply in the region, increasing the need for efficient management of the groundwater resources. The USGS and the San Gorgonio Water District (SGWD) work cooperatively to evaluate the quantity and quality of groundwater supply in the San Gorgonio Pass region. To better manage the water supplies within the District during wet and dry periods, the SGWD sought to develop a groundwater recharge program, whereby, excess water would be stored in underground aquifers during wet periods (principally winter months) and retrieved during dry periods (principally summer months). The SGWD preferred a surface recharge approach because it could be less expensive than a

  10. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (prunus avium L.) cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3' untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3' UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, "Stella" was separated from "Compact Stella." This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3' UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  11. Anti-proliferative effect of horehound leaf and wild cherry bark extracts on human colorectal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kiyoshi; Liggett, Jason L; Kim, Nam-Cheol; Baek, Seung Joon

    2006-01-01

    Marubium vulgare (horehound) and Prunus serotina (wild cherry) have been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory-related symptoms such as cold, fever, and sore throat. In this report, we show that extracts of anti-inflammatory horehound leaves and wild cherry bark exhibit anti-proliferative activity in human colorectal cancer cells. Both horehound and wild cherry extracts cause suppression of cell growth as well as induction of apoptosis. We found that horehound extract up-regulates pro-apoptotic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene (NAG-1) through transactivation of the NAG-1 promoter. In contrast, wild cherry extract decreased cyclin D1 expression and increased NAG-1 expression in HCT-116 and SW480 cell lines. Treatment with wild cherry extract resulted in the suppression of beta-catenin/T cell factor transcription, as assessed by TOP/FOP reporter constructs, suggesting that suppressed beta-catenin signaling by wild cherry extract leads to the reduction of cyclin D1 expression. Our data suggest the mechanisms by which these extracts suppress cell growth and induce apoptosis involve enhanced NAG-1 expression and/or down-regulation of beta-catenin signaling, followed by reduced cyclin D1 expression in human colorectal cancer cells. These findings may provide mechanisms for traditional anti-inflammatory products as cancer chemopreventive agents.

  12. Characterization of Four Popular Sweet Cherry Cultivars Grown in Greece by Volatile Compound and Physicochemical Data Analysis and Sensory Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria V. Vavoura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds, physicochemical and sensory attributes of four sweet cherry cultivars (Canada giant, Ferrovia, Lapins and Skeena grown in Northern Greece were determined. Eighteen volatile compounds were identified and semi-quantified in cherries using solid phase micro extraction in combination with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS. Carbonyl compounds were the most abundant in sweet cherry aroma, followed by alcohols, esters and hydrocarbons/terpenes. Cherry cultivars in order of increasing amounts of volatiles were: Lapins < Canada giant < Ferrovia < Skeena. Physicochemical parameters determined included: titratable acidity (TA, pH, total soluble solids (TSS, maturity index (MI and total phenolic content (TPC. TA ranged between 0.21 and 0.28 g malic acid/100 g fresh weight (FW. The pH ranged between 3.81 and 3.96. TSS ranged between 13.00 and 16.00 °Brix. MI ranged between 51.8 and 75.0. TPC ranged between 95.14 and 170.35 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 g FW. Sensory evaluation showed that cherry colour, in order of increasing intensity, was: Canada giant < Ferrovia < Lapins < Skeena. Respective order for cherry firmness was: Canada giant < Lapins ≤ Ferrovia < Skeena and for flavour: Lapins < Canada giant < Skeena ≤ Ferrovia. Correlation of volatiles to physicochemical and sensory attributes showed varying trends.

  13. Temperature field for radiative tomato peeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuccurullo, G; Giordano, L

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays peeling of tomatoes is performed by using steam or lye, which are expensive and polluting techniques, thus sustainable alternatives are searched for dry peeling and, among that, radiative heating seems to be a fairly promising method. This paper aims to speed up the prediction of surface temperatures useful for realizing dry-peeling, thus a 1D-analytical model for the unsteady temperature field in a rotating tomato exposed to a radiative heating source is presented. Since only short times are of interest for the problem at hand, the model involves a semi-infinite slab cooled by convective heat transfer while heated by a pulsating heat source. The model being linear, the solution is derived following the Laplace Transform method. A 3D finite element model of the rotating tomato is introduced as well in order to validate the analytical solution. A satisfactory agreement is attained. Therefore, two different ways to predict the onset of the peeling conditions are available which can be of help for proper design of peeling plants. Particular attention is paid to study surface temperature uniformity, that being a critical parameter for realizing an easy tomato peeling. (paper)

  14. How to grasp a ripe tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, L.

    2012-01-01

    Fortunately, we don’t have to think about this when we are standing in the supermarket after a busy day. We adjust our grip without effort, making sure we don’t squish an overripe tomato, while we firmly grasp a hard green one. This is actually a complex task in which humans are surprisingly

  15. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses anti- inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGORY

    2011-12-16

    Dec 16, 2011 ... demonstrated, the anti-inflammatory effect of tomato leaves and its associated molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully investigated. ... This mechanism is an immunological response following bacterial infection and is ... inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) that are mainly used in the treatment of pain and ...

  16. (edta) on the germination of tomato

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    ABSTRACT. In this study, the effects of the combined treatment of salinity and ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) on the germination of tomato seeds in Petri-dishes were compared to sole salinity. The treatments consisted of seven concentrations of sodium chloride. (NaCL): 0 (control), 10, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 ...

  17. Nitrogen determination on tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nitrogen determination on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings by color image analysis (RGB). Adán Mercado-Luna, Enrique Rico-García, Alfredo Lara-Herrera, Genaro Soto-Zarazúa, Rosalía Ocampo-Velázquez, Ramón Guevara-González, Gilberto Herrera-Ruiz, Irineo Torres-Pacheco ...

  18. and MAP kinases in tomato flower abscission

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Academic Journals

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Analysis of calcium content, hormones and degrading enzymes in tomato pedicel explants during calcium- inhibited abscission. Agric. Sci. China, 5:556-563. Tagawa T, Bonner J (1957). Mechanical properties of the Avena coleoptile as related to auxin and toionic interactions. Plant Physiol. 32: 207-212.

  19. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of selected tomato ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2011-08-19

    Aug 19, 2011 ... (2001) found new AFLP markers in interspe- cific crosses of wheat, and Marfil et al. (2006) also detected new RAPD and AFLP markers in interspecific hybrids of potatoes, a crop that has a high degree of homosequential- ity and is very close to tomatoes. A different degree of DNA methylation in the hybrid ...

  20. An improved Agrobacterium mediated transformation in tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-03-29

    Mar 29, 2010 ... Costa MGC, Nogueira FTS, Otoni WC, Brommonschenkel SH (2000). Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of tomato processing cultivars. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal. 12(2):. 107-118. Doyle JJ, Doyle JI (1990) Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissues. Focus 12: 13-15. Fillatti JJ ...

  1. Genetic (in)stability in tomato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, E.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study tomato lines carrying unstable alleles of the loci yv or sulfurea were characterized. In addition, we aimed at the isolation of an endogenous transposable element supposedly active in the unstable lines. Since the unstable loci were not cloned, we

  2. Response of Pratylenchus spp Infected Tomato ( Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to reduce the negative impact of synthetic nematicides on the environment necessitated the search for bio-pesticides. This study was conducted to evaluate the nematicidal potential of chromatographic fractions from Mangifera indica on tomato in the screenhouse and field. M. indica bark was extracted with ...

  3. Tomato leaves methanol extract possesses antiinflammatory activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the leaves of tomato plant that contained several active compounds including alkaloid, steroid and flavanoid has been used for the treatment of variety of diseases and as anti-cancer, antioxidant and anti-gout. Although, a number of pharmacological properties have already been demonstrated, the ...

  4. Phytophthora nicotianae var. nicotianae on tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weststeijn, G.

    1973-01-01

    Around 1960 some disorders which initially were considered to be of a physiological nature were found in tomato plants grown in glasshouses in the Netherlands. One complex of symptoms was a brown rot of the lateral roots and the tap root, often followed by decomposition of the stem base

  5. Physico - chemical stability of tomato products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den F.W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of some physical processes and enzymatic hydrolysis on the physicochemical properties of tomato suspensions was studied.

    Concentration degree has a large effect on the apparent viscosity and the storage modulus of suspensions after being diluted to a standardized water

  6. Callus formation and organogenesis of tomato (Lycopersicon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... In vitro culture response was assessed in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. c. v. Omdurman) for optimum callus induction and plantlet regeneration. Callus induction was achieved within seven to ten days directly on the cut surfaces of both hypocotyls and cotyledon explants cultured on Murashige and.

  7. Genotypic variation in tomatoes affecting processing and antioxidant attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Mohammed Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, J F; Dhua, R S

    2015-01-01

    Tomatoes are widely consumed either raw or after processing and can provide a significant proportion of the total antioxidants in the diet associated with beneficial health properties. Over the last two or three decades an increasing interest for processing and antioxidant attributes in tomatoes has arisen. The screening of processing attributes of tomatoes is subject of a large number of articles; however, special interest has been addressed to the biochemical composition. The postharvest and industrial processing of tomato in tomato-based products includes several steps. Processing and antioxidant characteristics of the raw fruit are important considering the processing steps and final product. To respond to consumer and industrial complaints, breeders should know the range of genetic variability available in tomato resources, including local genotypes, for improving the mentioned attributes. Characterization and conservation of traditional and modern varieties is a major goal for their preservation and utilization. The bioactive contents have an impact on the processed destines so their stability must be contemplated while selecting the tomato fruits for processing. The endeavor of this review was to examine comprehensively the variation in processing and antioxidant attributes among tomatoes. Role of tomato peel in terms of bioactive contents and information on high pigment (hp) tomato mutants are also touched to some extent. Probably, patterns of variation identified/discussed in this paper would give impetus for planning breeding strategies to develop and improve the new processing cultivars with good antioxidant status.

  8. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Effect of different sowing dates on yield of tomato genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Hossain

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Thakurgaon, Bangladesh during October 2009 to March 2010 to observe the effect of sowing dates on yield of tomato genotypes. Three sowing dates viz. October 1, October 15 and October 30 were considered as factor A and tomato variety viz., BARI Tomato-2, BARI Tomato-3, BARI Tomato-4, BARI Tomato-9 and BARI Hybrid Tomato-4 considered as factor B. The experiment was laid out in RCBD (Factorial with three replications. Early flowering (52.40 days as well as early fruit harvesting (119.13 days was occurred in October 1 sowing, where as sowing on October 30 resulted in delayed flowering (71.73 days and fruit harvesting (140.67 days, respectively. Number of fruits per plant was also the highest (27.40 in October 1 sowing and the lowest (13.73 was in October 30 sowing. Seed sowing of October 1 was found better in respect of yield (74.75 tha-1 compared to October 15 (58.55 tha-1 and October 30 (24.60 tha-1 sowing. Among the variety, BARI Tomat-2 produced the highest (68.12 tha-1 marketable yield followed by BARI Tomato-9 (56.16 tha-1 and BARI Tomato-3 while BARI Tomato-4 gave the lowest (36.91 tha-1 marketable yield.

  10. Heterologous overexpression of sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nam Kyu; Choi, Gang-Guk; Kim, Eun Kyung; Shin, Sung-Eun; Jeon, Seungjib; Park, Min S; Jeong, Ki Jun; Jeong, Byeong-Ryool; Chang, Yong Keun; Yang, Ji-Won; Lee, Bongsoo

    2015-12-01

    Oleaginous microalgae of the Nannochloropsis genus are considered excellent candidates for biofuels and value-added products owing to their high biomass productivity and lipid content. Here, we report the first overexpression and detection of a heterologous sfCherry fluorescent protein in Nannochloropsis salina in order to develop a transformation toolbox for future genetic improvements. Particle bombardment was employed for transformation, and expression of Sh ble under the control of TUB and UEP promoters, cloned from N. salina , was used to confer resistance to Zeocin antibiotics, resulting in 5.9 and 4.7 transformants per 10 8 cells, respectively. Stable integration of the markers into the genome was confirmed using a restriction enzyme site-directed amplification (RESDA) PCR. The expression of sfCherry fluorescent protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and confocal microscopy. These results suggest new possibilities of efficient genetic engineering of Nannochloropsis for the production of biofuels and other biochemicals.

  11. Results of isotopic investigations of nitrogen nutrition of apples and cherries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makariev, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Results are reported of 15 N study of absorption and dislocation of nitrogen fertilization in apple and cherry plantations and field trials localized nitrogen fertilization of apple plantations. It is found that there is a good functional relation between the individual roots and all skeletal branches of the crown. The apple- and cherry trees can satisfy their nitrogen needs by a part of their root system and hence the introduction of nitrogen into the whole nutrition area is not absolutely necessary. The localized nitrogen fertilization in every other row or only in the row band of apple plantations increases its biological, economic and ecological efficiency. The method is patented. 2 tabs, 7 figs, 5 refs

  12. Obtaining cherry and apple tree radiomutants by irradiation of grafts in gamma cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chvojka, L.; Fridrich, A.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain dwarf mutants of cherry and apple trees. Two methods of irradiation were used: a) winter grafts were irradiated with 60 Co (4-5 kR) and grafted in the crowns of adult trees or of two-year-old rootstocks; b) summer buds on mature annual shots were irradiated with 2-3 kR and grafted on two-year-old rootstocks. Thus the clones of dwarf cherry trees (cv. Napoleon's and Techlovicka) were obtained which were further tested for fruit-bearing in experimental plantations. Colour mutants of apple tree (cv. Champion) with yellow and red fruits were also obtained as well as dwarf types of trees. (author)

  13. Optimized extraction of anthocyanins from Reid Fruits' Prunus avium 'Lapins' cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackhall, Melanie L; Berry, Rachael; Davies, Noel W; Walls, Justin T

    2018-08-01

    The influence of process parameters on the extraction of anthocyanins from the edible portion of fresh, sweet cherry were investigated. The optimal extraction time and temperature were determined as 90 min and 37 °C, respectively. A solvent/solid ratio of 10 mL/g using 100% acidified solvent resulted in the greatest anthocyanin yield. No significant difference was observed between the use of methanol or ethanol as the extraction solvent. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-MS analysis of the extract identified four anthocyanins, with cyanidin-3-rutinoside and peonidin-3-rutinoside accounting for over 95% of the anthocyanin content, while cyanidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-rutinoside accounted for the remaining 5%. 244 mg/100 g fresh weight total anthocyanins were determined in the fresh cherries using the optimal extraction conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenolic compounds, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the wild cherry (Prunus avium L. stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademović Zahida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic content, evaluate antioxidant propertie and antimicrobial potential, and identify phenolic compounds in alcoholic and aqueous extracts of the wild cherry (Prunus avium L. stems collected in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Alcoholic extracts had higher contents of phenolic and flavonoid components, as well as the antioxidant and ferric reducing antioxidant capacity in comparison to aqueous extracts. All extracts were characterized by HPLC analysis. Furthermore, for the first time, the antimicrobial properties of wild cherry stem extracts were evaluated. Quercetin and (+-catechin were the main compounds identified in the alcoholic extract, followed by chlorogenic acid and rutin. Quercetin was also the major component detected in aqueous extracts. Besides, alcoholic extract showed better antibacterial properties against Staphylococcus aureus as a representative gram-positive bacteria than infusion, whereas none of the samples showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and fungus Candida albicans.

  15. The induced mutagenesis and the genetic progress in the work with sour cherry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukov, O.S.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: We used radiation breeding for improving sour cherry varieties since 1958. X- and gamma-rays and also other physical factors have been applied to cuttings, seeds, flower parts and whole plants as well as in-vitro cultures. Doses of 30-60 Gy appeared to be most effective for inducing mutation when cuttings were irradiated. The main number of mutations occurred in M 1 and M 2 . Mutations were divided into 5 main classes concerning morphological characters, tree growth, dates of fruit bearing, biochemical composition, system of propagation. As a result of x-irradiation of a sour cherry/bird cherry hybrid 'Padocerus', immune to Coccomyces hiemalis, a highly fertile mutant 'Padocerus M' has been obtained. A dominant gene has been identified, controlling resistance to Coccomyces hiemalis. By obtaining 'Padocerus M' the possibilities of increasing the genetic resources have been expanded. 'Almaz' is the monogenic donor of resistance to C. hiemalis. In literature there are indications of the possibility of obtaining apomictic forms by mutagenesis. As a result of irradiating 'Padocerus' plants in the gamma field during three years a mutant has been found in which the basic mass of seeds is formed as a result of apomixis-autonomous diplosporic parthenogenesis. Apomixis seems to be controlled by a small number of major and minor genes. The mutant is called 'Padocerus A' and is used in hybridisation with other sour cherry varieties; segregation for the apomictic type of propagation has been found. A population of Prunus fructicosa has been studied in the region of the so-called Tatar bank in the Tambov district. Large-fruited forms have been selected which may be the result of accumulating spontaneous mutations. Mutations of a different type have been obtained when using chemical mutagens or a laser beam. (author)

  16. Self fertile and exportable sweet cherry cultivar improvement by mutation and cross-breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In Turkey, sweet cherry production reached at 195,000 tons in the last two years. This value is 13% of the world production. Globally USA was the largest exporter of cherries in 2004, accounting for 21,2 % of world trade, just ahead of Turkey, which accounted for 20,07 % [3]. The major high quality and exporting sweet cherry variety is 0900 Ziraat. It is a mid to late season variety with heart fruit shape, pink and very firm flesh and excellent flavor. Contrary to good traits, 0900 Ziraat is self incompatible, trees tends to grow vigorously with low yield on standard rootstocks. Although has some disadvantages there is huge demand from exterior market for 0900 Ziraat sweet cherry cultivar. In this research, gamma irradiation based mutation breeding technique was applied for improving of 0900 Ziraat. For this aim scions were irradiated 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 Gy doses with Co 6 0 as a source of mutagen. After irradiation scions were budded on P.avium rootstock in greenhouse, located on Ministry of Agriculture, Yalova Atatuerk Horticultural Central Research Institute. At the end of the first year young trees were transferred from greenhouse to orchard. According to 60 days data 'efficient mutation dose' was calculated . After first year which was including physiological effects, trees were characterized according to pomological traits such as fruit weight (g), peduncle length (cm), fruit width (cm), fruit height (cm), seed weight (g), soluble solid contents (%), yield (g), and cracking rate (%). Among the 371 living mutant trees, nominee of dwarf, large fruits (>30 mm) and high yield types were observed. According to the data's 58 mutant variety candidate were selected for advance observations. (Includes 63 tables, 29 figures)

  17. contents of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L. ) type grown in Konya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this research, several physico-chemical properties and mineral contents of one earliest (May 19) sweet cherry type grown in Konya region were determined. The results in terms of chemical properties were total soluble solids, 18.33 mg/100 g; pH, 3.86; color, S41P50E41; texture, 0.25 kg/cm2; and juice yield, 66.28%.

  18. Thinning cherry-maple stands in West Virginia: 5-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil I. Lamson; H. Clay. Smith; H. Clay. Smith

    1988-01-01

    In northern West Virginia, 60-year-old cherry-maple stands were thinned to 75,60, and 45 percent relative stand density. Analysis of 5-year growth data showed that basal-area growth was not reduced by thinning. Cubic-foot and board-foot volume growth decreased slightly. Individual-tree growth of all trees, dominant/codominant trees, and the 50 largest diameter trees...

  19. Postharvest properties of sweet cherry fruit depending on rootstock and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Ewa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘Regina’ sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L. harvested from trees grown on vigorous and semi-dwarfing rootstocks was stored in normal atmosphere (NA at 8°C and 2°C, and in a controlled atmosphere (CA 3% O2 + 5% CO2 at 2°C for two weeks. At harvest time, the fruits differed in the measured quality parameters (firmness, soluble solids content - SSC, titratable acidity - TA depending on the rootstock. The storage conditions and the rootstocks significantly influenced the fruit quality parameters after storage. Generally, reduced fruit firmness and TA, and higher SSC and SSC/TA ratio were observed at the end of the storage period. Among the rootstocks, the lowest soluble solids content was found in the fruit from trees on the vigorous F12/1 rootstock. The lower storage temperature decreased the SSC independently of the storage atmosphere composition. Firmer fruit was found in CA 2°C compared with the other two treatments. The greatest loss of weight was found after fruit storage in NA 8°C. The extent of fruit decay depended on the season, storage conditions and the rootstock. Storage in NA 8°C of the fruit grown on F12/1 rootstock resulted in the highest percentage of fungal decay. The best retention of the green colour of the peduncle was noted in CA 2°C. The findings on how the rootstocks affect sweet cherry fruit properties can be useful for sweet cherry breeding programmes, as well as for sweet cherry crop production and storage technologies.

  20. European bird cherry (Prunus padus L.) - a biodiverse wild plant for horticulture

    OpenAIRE

    Uusitalo, Marja

    2004-01-01

    European bird cherry, as a varietive, tolerant and ornamental wild species, is able to contribute to the biodiversity of rural and urban ecosystems in Nordic countries. Therefore field studies to select the best origins for landscape horticulture are recommended. The analyses of the leaf chemical profiles of different varieties would further enlighten the taxonomy and the insect resistance (parasite-assisted or stress-mediated) of this valuable woody species.

  1. Costs of reducing sapling basal area in thinned cherry-maple stands in West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Unmanaged 60-year-old cherry-maple stands in West Virginia were thinned to three levels of stocking according to the Allegheny hardwoods stocking guide. After the merchantable timber was removed, the basal area in saplings was reduced to less than 10 ft² per acre (2.3 m²/ha), as the guide recommends for stands with dense understories. A detailed time...

  2. TEXTURAL, FLOW AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF FIVE “FRUZELINA” WITH SOUR CHERRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Bojdo Tomasiak

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel with sour cherries called “Fruzelina” is a new product in the Polish market widely used in food industry as a decorative element or filling for pastries, as an ingredient in fruit desserts, as an additive to ice creams, whipped cream and waffles. The cherry gels are the product prepared using different types of chemically modified starches. Starch is an additive used to ensure rich and short texture and high viscosity of “Fruzelina”. Food texture and viscosity may be measured by senses and instrumentally. Because of fact that sensory analysis is time consuming and very costly, it is easier and cheaper to determine food properties, especially their texture and flow behaviour by appropriate mechanical tests. The aim of this work was to study the rheological behavior of five cherry gels and evaluate the correlation between textural, flow and sensory properties of these gels measured instrumentally and by human senses. The back extrusion test has been found to be applicable to study the textural properties of cherry gels. There was high positive correlation between gel texture measured by senses and texture parameters measured in back extrusion test. Similar high correlation was identified for consistency coefficient K obtained in Ostwald de Waele model and gel texture assessed by sensory panel. It was found that values of sensory parameters such as taste and odour decreased as the rheological parameters increased. High negative correlations were observed in these cases. Therefore, instrumental measurements can be alternative for more expensive sensory methods. doi:10.5219/53

  3. Interference with Clp protease impairs carotenoid accumulation during tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Lucio; Simon-Moya, Miguel; Llorente, Briardo; Llamas, Ernesto; Marro, Mónica; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Li, Li; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel; Vicente, Ariel

    2018-01-29

    Profound metabolic and structural changes are required for fleshy green fruits to ripen and become colorful and tasty. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), fruit ripening involves the differentiation of chromoplasts, specialized plastids that accumulate carotenoid pigments such as β-carotene (pro-vitamin A) and lycopene. Here, we explored the role of the plastidial Clp protease in chromoplast development and carotenoid accumulation. Ripening-specific silencing of one of the subunits of the Clp proteolytic complex resulted in β-carotene-enriched fruits that appeared orange instead of red when ripe. Clp-defective fruit displayed aberrant chromoplasts and up-regulated expression of nuclear genes encoding the tomato homologs of Orange (OR) and ClpB3 chaperones, most probably to deal with misfolded and aggregated proteins that could not be degraded by the Clp protease. ClpB3 and OR chaperones protect the carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate synthase and phytoene synthase, respectively, from degradation, whereas OR chaperones additionally promote chromoplast differentiation by preventing the degradation of carotenoids such as β-carotene. We conclude that the Clp protease contributes to the differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts during tomato fruit ripening, acting in co-ordination with specific chaperones that alleviate protein folding stress, promote enzyme stability and accumulation, and prevent carotenoid degradation. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  4. EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the risk posed by pathogens in food of non-animal origin. Part 2 (Salmonella and Norovirus in tomatoes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine; Baggesen, Dorte Lau

    consumption between 2007 and 2012. Risk factors for tomato contamination by Salmonella and Norovirus were considered in the context of the whole food chain. Available estimates of the Salmonella and Norovirus occurrence in tomatoes were evaluated together with mitigation options relating to prevention...... of contamination and the relevance of microbiological criteria. It was concluded that each farm environment represents a unique combination of risk factors that can influence occurrence and persistence of pathogens in tomato production. Appropriate implementation of food safety management systems including Good...... to provide a risk base for establishing a Norovirus Food Safety Criterion for these foods....

  5. An InDel in the Promoter ofAl-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER9Selected during Tomato Domestication Determines Fruit Malate Contents and Aluminum Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jie; Wang, Xin; Hu, Tixu; Zhang, Fengxia; Wang, Bing; Li, Changxin; Yang, Tianxia; Li, Hanxia; Lu, Yongen; Giovannoni, James J; Zhang, Yuyang; Ye, Zhibiao

    2017-09-01

    Deciphering the mechanism of malate accumulation in plants would contribute to a greater understanding of plant chemistry, which has implications for improving flavor quality in crop species and enhancing human health benefits. However, the regulation of malate metabolism is poorly understood in crops such as tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ). Here, we integrated a metabolite-based genome-wide association study with linkage mapping and gene functional studies to characterize the genetics of malate accumulation in a global collection of tomato accessions with broad genetic diversity. We report that TFM6 (tomato fruit malate 6), which corresponds to Al-ACTIVATED MALATE TRANSPORTER9 (Sl -ALMT9 in tomato), is the major quantitative trait locus responsible for variation in fruit malate accumulation among tomato genotypes. A 3-bp indel in the promoter region of Sl -ALMT9 was linked to high fruit malate content. Further analysis indicated that this indel disrupts a W-box binding site in the Sl -ALMT9 promoter, which prevents binding of the WRKY transcription repressor Sl-WRKY42, thereby alleviating the repression of Sl -ALMT9 expression and promoting high fruit malate accumulation. Evolutionary analysis revealed that this highly expressed Sl -ALMT9 allele was selected for during tomato domestication. Furthermore, vacuole membrane-localized Sl-ALMT9 increases in abundance following Al treatment, thereby elevating malate transport and enhancing Al resistance. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  6. Breeding in peach, cherry and plum: from a tissue culture, genetic, transcriptomic and genomic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basilio Carrasco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is an overview of traditional and modern breeding methodologies being used to develop new Prunus cultivars (stone fruits with major emphasis on peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. To this end, common breeding tools used to produce seedlings, including in vitro culture tools, are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms of inheritance of many important agronomical traits are described. Recent advances in stone fruit transcriptomics and genomic resources are providing an understanding of the molecular basis of phenotypic variability as well as the identification of allelic variants and molecular markers. These have potential applications for understanding the genetic diversity of the Prunus species, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenesis. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs molecular markers are described as useful tools to describe genetic diversity in peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. Additionally, the recently sequenced peach genome and the public release of the sweet cherry genome are discussed in terms of their applicability to breeding programs

  7. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández De Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-04-28

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Prunus avium , commonly known as cherry tree, before and after toasting in cooperage were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Nonflavonoid (16 compounds) and flavonoid (27 compounds) polyphenols were identified, 12 of them in only a tentative way. The nonflavonoids found were lignin constituents, and their pattern is different compared to oak, since they include compounds such as protocatechuic acid and aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, methyl vanillate, methyl syringate, and benzoic acid, but not ellagic acid, and only a small quantity of gallic acid. In seasoned wood we found a great variety of flavonoid compounds which have not been found in oak wood for cooperage, mainly, in addition to the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin dimer, and a B-type procyanidin trimer, the flavanones naringenin, isosakuranetin, and eriodictyol and the flavanonols aromadendrin and taxifolin. Seasoned and toasted cherry wood showed different ratios of flavonoid to nonflavonoid compounds, since toasting results in the degradation of flavonoids, and the formation of nonflavonoids from lignin degradation. On the other hand, the absence of hydrolyzable tannins in cherry wood, which are very important in oak wood, is another particular characteristic of this wood that should be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage.

  9. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  10. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Groeneveld

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.

  11. Tomato juice intake increases resting energy expenditure and improves hypertriglyceridemia in middle-aged women: an open-label, single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Asuka; Terauchi, Masakazu; Tamura, Moe; Akiyoshi, Mihoko; Owa, Yoko; Kato, Kiyoko; Kubota, Toshiro

    2015-04-08

    Tomato-based food products have health-promoting and disease-preventing effects. Some tomato juice ingredients may have health benefits for middle-aged women, including women with menopausal symptoms and cardiovascular diseases. We investigated the net effect of tomato juice intake on several health parameters in women in this age group. An open-label, single-arm study was conducted, involving 95 women (40-60-years-old) who had at least one menopausal symptom. The participants refrained from foods and drinks rich in tomato and tomato-based products for 2 weeks prior to the study and during the 8 weeks of tomato juice consumption. After the run-in period, the women were asked to consume 200 mL of unsalted tomato juice, twice daily for 8 weeks. Their menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Menopausal Symptom Scale (MSS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) before the study, and at 4 and 8 weeks after study commencement. At the same times, body composition; blood pressure; heart rate; resting energy expenditures (REEs); and serum levels of triglyceride (TG), cholesterol, glucose, and hemoglobin A1c were measured. Ninety-three women (98%) completed the study. The following parameters showed significant changes, compared with baseline, at study weeks 4 and 8 (mean ± standard deviation at baseline, week 4, and week 8): (1) the MSS score improved (9.9 ± 5.2, 8.5 ± 5.0, 8.3 ± 5.0; P Tomato juice intake alleviated menopausal symptoms, including anxiety, increased REEs and heart rate, and lowered high baseline serum TG levels in middle-aged women. UMIN-CTR UMIN000011877 .

  12. The tomato kinome and the tomato kinase library ORFeome: novel resources for the study of kinases and signal transduction in tomato and solanaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra K; Calviño, Mauricio; Brauer, Elizabeth K; Fernandez-Pozo, Noe; Strickler, Susan; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke; Stratmann, Johannes W; Popescu, George V; Mueller, Lukas A; Popescu, Sorina C

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase-driven phosphorylation constitutes the core of cellular signaling. Kinase components of signal transduction pathways are often targeted for inactivation by pathogens. The study of kinases and immune signal transduction in the model crop tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) would benefit from the availability of community-wide resources for large scale and systems-level experimentation. Here, we defined the tomato kinome and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of the tomato kinome and 15 other plant species. We constructed a tomato kinase library (TOKN 1.0) of over 300 full-length open reading frames (ORF) cloned into a recombination-based vector. We developed a high-throughput pipeline to isolate and transform tomato protoplasts. A subset of the TOKN 1.0 library kinases were expressed in planta, were purified, and were used to generate a functional tomato protein microarray. All resources created were utilized to test known and novel associations between tomato kinases and Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effectors in a large-scale format. Bsk7 was identified as a component of the plant immune response and a candidate effector target. These resources will enable comprehensive investigations of signaling pathways and host-pathogen interactions in tomato and other Solanaceae spp.

  13. Biological control of Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants using Streptomyces ahygroscopicus strain CK-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, B B; Cheng, Y; Liu, Y; Liu, B H; Zhang, K C

    2015-12-01

    We developed a real-time PCR assay to specifically detect and quantify the efficacy of a biological fungicide from Streptomyces ahygroscopicus var. wuyiensis on tomato leaves. This fungicide, the natural secondary metabolite wuyiencin, is an antifungal agent against Botrytis cinerea. Specific primers were designed based on the β-actin gene sequences, which were used to detect a 303 bp fragment from B. cinerea isolates. Our assay is highly sensitive and can be used to reliably detect and quantify as little as 1·75 pg of B. cinerea DNA. We used this detection method to monitor the progression of B. cinerea infection in inoculated plant material under preventive (wuyiencin) and nonpreventive treatment. After 5 days, plants under preventive treatment exhibited a sharp decrease in fungal biomass and no symptoms, whereas plants under nonpreventive treatment displayed severe disease symptoms. The results demonstrate that wuyiencin has significant effects on B. cinerea in tomato plants and that real-time PCR is a reliable method for evaluating the effects of Streptomyces wuyiensis CK-15 on B. cinerea. Botrytis cinerea commonly produces latent or nonsymptomatic infection on and within plant tissues, which can develop into symptomatic infection when triggered by changes in environmental conditions or host plant physiology. In this study, we develop a specific, sensitive real-time PCR assay for detecting and quantifying B. cinerea on tomato leaves to determine the control efficacy of Streptomyces ahygroscopicus var. wuyiensis as a biological fungicide. Our findings demonstrate that wuyiencin has significant effects on B. cinerea in tomato plants and that real-time PCR is a reliable method for evaluating the effects of biological fungicides on plant pathogens. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Identification of putative candidate genes involved in cuticle formation in Prunus avium (sweet cherry) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkio, Merianne; Jonas, Uwe; Sprink, Thorben; van Nocker, Steven; Knoche, Moritz

    2012-07-01

    The cuticular membrane (CM) of Prunus avium (sweet cherry) and other fleshy fruit is under stress. Previous research indicates that the resultant strain promotes microscopic cuticular cracking. Microcracks impair the function of the CM as a barrier against pathogens and uncontrolled water loss/uptake. Stress and strain result from a cessation of CM deposition during early development, while the fruit surface continues to expand. The cessation of CM deposition, in turn, may be related to an early downregulation of CM-related genes. The aims of this study were to identify genes potentially involved in CM formation in sweet cherry fruit and to quantify their expression levels. Fruit growth and CM deposition were quantified weekly from anthesis to maturity and rates of CM deposition were calculated. Sequences of genes expressed in the sweet cherry fruit skin (exocarp) were generated using high-throughput sequencing of cDNA and de novo assembly and analysed using bioinformatics tools. Relative mRNA levels of selected genes were quantified in the exocarp and fruit flesh (mesocarp) weekly using reverse transcriptase-quantitative real-time PCR and compared with the calculated CM deposition rate over time. The rate of CM deposition peaked at 93 (±5) μg per fruit d(-1) about 19 d after anthesis. Based on sequence analyses, 18 genes were selected as potentially involved in CM formation. Selected sweet cherry genes shared up to 100 and 98 % similarity with the respective Prunus persica (peach) and Arabidopsis thaliana genes. Expression of 13 putative CM-related genes was restricted to the exocarp and correlated positively with the CM deposition rate. The results support the view that the cessation of CM deposition during early sweet cherry fruit development is accounted for by a downregulation of genes involved in CM deposition. Genes that merit further investigation include PaWINA, PaWINB, PaLipase, PaLTPG1, PaATT1, PaLCR, PaGPAT4/8, PaLACS2, PaLACS1 and PaCER1.

  15. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Dalcantara Ongouya Mouekouba

    Full Text Available Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST, second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(- and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4. Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  16. Tactics for management of thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and tomato spotted wilt virus in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, D G; Pappu, H R

    2004-10-01

    Four studies were conducted in Georgia during spring 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002 to evaluate various management tactics for reducing thrips and thrips-vectored tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in tomato and their interactions relative to fruit yield. Populations of thrips vectors of TSWV, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) and Frankliniella fusca (Hinds), were determined using flower and sticky trap samples. The management practices evaluated were host plant resistance, insecticide treatments, and silver or metallic reflective mulch. Averaged over all tests, the TSWV-resistant tomato 'BHN444' on silver mulch treatment had the largest effect in terms of reducing thrips and spotted wilt and increasing marketable yield. Of the insecticide treatments tested, the imidacloprid soil treatment followed by early applications of a thrips-effective foliar insecticide treatment provided significant increase in yield over other treatments. Tomato yield was negatively correlated with the number of F. fusca and percentage of TSWV incidence. F. occidentalis per blossom was positively correlated with percentage of TSWV incidence, but not with yield. No significant interactions were observed between cultivar reflective mulch main plot treatments and insecticide subplot treatments; thus, treatment seemed to be additive in reducing the economic impact of thrips-vectored TSWV. Control tactics that manage thrips early in the growing season significantly increased tomato yield in years when the incidence of TSWV was high (>17%).

  17. Analysis of Clonostachys rosea-induced resistance to tomato gray mold disease in tomato leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouekouba, Liana Dalcantara Ongouya; Zhang, Lili; Guan, Xin; Chen, Xiuling; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Junfeng; Li, Jingfu; Yang, Yijun; Wang, Aoxue

    2014-01-01

    Tomato gray mold disease, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease in tomato. Clonostachys rosea is an antagonistic microorganism to B. cinerea. To investigate the induced resistance mechanism of C. rosea, we examined the effects of these microorganisms on tomato leaves, along with changes in the activities of three defense enzymes (PAL, PPO, GST), second messengers (NO, H2O2, O2(-)) and phytohormones (IAA, ABA, GA3, ZT, MeJA, SA and C2H4). Compared to the control, all treatments induced higher levels of PAL, PPO and GST activity in tomato leaves and increased NO, SA and GA3 levels. The expression of WRKY and MAPK, two important transcription factors in plant disease resistance, was upregulated in C. rosea- and C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed that two abundant proteins were present in the C. rosea plus B. cinerea-treated samples but not in the other samples. These proteins were determined (by mass spectrum analysis) to be LEXYL2 (β-xylosidase) and ATP synthase CF1 alpha subunit. Therefore, C. rosea plus B. cinerea treatment induces gray mold resistance in tomato. This study provides a basis for elucidating the mechanism of C. rosea as a biocontrol agent.

  18. Natural occurrence of begomovirus recombinants associated with tomato yellow leaf curl disease co-existing with parental viruses in tomato crops and weeds in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Mnari-Hattab, M.; Zammouri, S.; Pellegrin, Frédéric; Gauthier, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus disease (TYLCVD) is the main limiting factor for tomato production in the Mediterranean Basin, and particularly in Tunisia where climatic and crop production conditions, as well as the occurrence of many weeds, provide suitable conditions for the presence and spread of TYLCVD all year round. In Tunisia, epidemics in tomato-growing regions have been associated with two begomoviruses: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and Tomato yellow leaf curl Sardinia virus ...

  19. A novel form of pectinesterase in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrilow, A G; Turner, R J; Jones, M G

    1994-03-01

    The pectinesterases in tomato pericarp were fractionated by cation exchange into four forms (A-D). Form A was the most abundant and C the second most abundant. Forms A-C were further purified by gel filtration, and antibodies were raised against A and C. Comparison of the different forms by dot blots and Western blots showed that although all three forms shared common immunological characteristics, there were also differences in their behaviour, indicative of structural differences. Form A had an N-terminal sequence identical to that published previously for the major pectinesterase in tomato fruit. In contrast, form C had a completely novel N-terminal sequence. Form A was absent from hypocotyls and roots. Forms B and C were present in comparable amounts in hypocotyls, while from C predominated in roots.

  20. Agronomic efficiency of intercropping tomato and lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B. Cecílio Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments were carried out at the São Paulo State University, Brazil, with the aim of determining the agronomic viability of intercropping tomato and lettuce, under greenhouse conditions. The studied intercropping systems were established by transplanting lettuce at 0, 10, 20 and 30 days after transplanting (DAT tomato and by transplanting tomato at 0, 10, 20 and 30 DAT lettuce. Intercropped tomato and lettuce were evaluated during two seasons and compared to their sole cropping. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with nine treatments. The productivity and the classification of the tomato fruits were not influenced by having lettuce intercropped with it, but lettuce production was lowered when tomato was intercropped with it. The longer the delay in lettuce transplanting, the greater the reduction in its productivity. There was an effect of cropping season on the extent of the agronomic advantage of intercropping over sole cropping. In the first cropping season, intercropping established by transplanting lettuce during the interval between 30 days before up to 20 DAT tomato yielded land use efficiency (LUE indices of 1.63 to 2.22. In the second period, intercropping established with the transplanting of lettuce up to 30 days before tomato yielded LUE indices of 1.57 to 2.05.Quatro experimentos foram conduzidos na Unesp, Brasil, com o objetivo de determinar a viabilidade agronômica de cultivos consorciados de alface e tomate em ambiente protegido. Consórcios estabelecidos por transplantes da alface aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 dias após o transplante (DAT do tomate e de tomate aos 0, 10, 20 e 30 DAT da alface, foram avaliados em duas épocas e comparados às suas monoculturas. Cada experimento foi conduzido em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com nove tratamentos. Verificou-se que a produtividade do tomate e a classificação dos frutos não foram influenciadas pela alface, mas a produção da alface foi menor em cons

  1. Effect of gamma irradiation on fatty acids of tomato seed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, S.A.; Raouf, M.S.; Morad, M.M.; Rady, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Since gamma irradiation of tomatoes is investigated as a tool for increasing tomato shelf-lefe, in this study the tomato seed oil produced from irradiated tomatoes was compared with that produced from industrial tomato seeds and with cotton seeds. Fatty acid contents of tomato seed oil, produced from industrial tomato seed waste and from tomato seeds (Variety Ace), were found nearly the same as in the edible cotton seed oil. Hence, both tomato seed oils may be considered as an additional source of essential fatty acids especially linoleic. Gamma irradiation doses ranged from 50-200 Krad had no significant effect on total saturated and total unsaturated fatty acids. 200 Krad led to significant increases in lenolic acid on the account of insignificant decrease in palmatic acid. Essentail and non essential amino acids of tomato seed meal seem to be equivalent to these of cotton seed meal. This suggests the possible use of tomato seed meal in animal feeding

  2. Tomato leaf curl Burkina Faso virus: a novel tomato-infecting monopartite begomovirus from Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouattara, Alassane; Tiendrébéogo, Fidèle; Lefeuvre, Pierre; Claverie, Sohini; Hoareau, Murielle; Traoré, Edgard Valentin; Barro, Nicolas; Traoré, Oumar; Lett, Jean-Michel

    2017-05-01

    In this report, we present the first description of the complete genome sequence of a new monopartite begomovirus isolated from tomatoes collected in Burkina Faso and presenting with symptoms of tomato leaf curl disease. We propose the tentative name "tomato leaf curl Burkina Faso virus'' (ToLCBFV). DNA-A-like nucleotide sequence of ToLCBFV shares the highest nucleotide sequence identity (85%) with the pepper yellow vein Mali virus (PepYVMLV). Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the affiliation of ToLCBFV to Old World monopartite begomoviruses. This discovery of a new species confirms the existence of high genetic diversity in monopartite begomoviruses in sub-Saharan Africa and particularly in West Africa.

  3. Effect of phytosanitary irradiation and methyl bromide fumigation on the physical, sensory, and microbiological quality of blueberries and sweet cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Karen; Au, Kimberlee; Rakovski, Cyril; Prakash, Anuradha

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether irradiation could serve as a suitable phytosanitary treatment alternative to methyl bromide (MB) fumigation for blueberries and sweet cherry and also to determine the effect of phytosanitary irradiation treatment on survival of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes on these fruit. 'Bluecrop' blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Sweetheart' cherries (Prunus avium) were irradiated at 0.4 kGy or fumigated with methyl bromide and evaluated for quality attributes during storage. Irradiation caused an immediate decrease in firmness of both fruit without further significant change during storage. Fumigated fruit, in contrast, softened by 11-14% during storage. Irradiation did not adversely affect blueberry and cherry shelf-life. MB fumigation did not impact blueberry and cherry quality attributes initially; however, fumigated fruit exhibited greater damage and mold growth than the control and irradiated samples during storage. Irradiation at 400 Gy resulted in a ∼1 log CFU g(-1) reduction in Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes counts, indicating that this treatment cannot significantly enhance safety. This study indicates that irradiation at a target dose of 0.4 kGy for phytosanitary treatment does not negatively impact blueberry and cherry quality and can serve as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Evaluation of multiple approaches to identify genome-wide polymorphisms in closely related genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seanna Hewitt

    Full Text Available Identification of genetic polymorphisms and subsequent development of molecular markers is important for marker assisted breeding of superior cultivars of economically important species. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. is an economically important non-climacteric tree fruit crop in the Rosaceae family and has undergone a genetic bottleneck due to breeding, resulting in limited genetic diversity in the germplasm that is utilized for breeding new cultivars. Therefore, it is critical to recognize the best platforms for identifying genome-wide polymorphisms that can help identify, and consequently preserve, the diversity in a genetically constrained species. For the identification of polymorphisms in five closely related genotypes of sweet cherry, a gel-based approach (TRAP, reduced representation sequencing (TRAPseq, a 6k cherry SNParray, and whole genome sequencing (WGS approaches were evaluated in the identification of genome-wide polymorphisms in sweet cherry cultivars. All platforms facilitated detection of polymorphisms among the genotypes with variable efficiency. In assessing multiple SNP detection platforms, this study has demonstrated that a combination of appropriate approaches is necessary for efficient polymorphism identification, especially between closely related cultivars of a species. The information generated in this study provides a valuable resource for future genetic and genomic studies in sweet cherry, and the insights gained from the evaluation of multiple approaches can be utilized for other closely related species with limited genetic diversity in the breeding germplasm. Keywords: Polymorphisms, Prunus avium, Next-generation sequencing, Target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP, Genetic diversity, SNParray, Reduced representation sequencing, Whole genome sequencing (WGS

  5. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  6. Rapid and sensitive detection of Little cherry virus 2 using isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekuria, Tefera A; Zhang, Shulu; Eastwell, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    Little cherry virus 2 (LChV2) (genus Ampelovirus) is the primary causal agent of little cherry disease (LCD) in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) in North America and other parts of the world. This mealybug-transmitted virus does not induce significant foliar symptoms in most sweet cherry cultivars, but does cause virus-infected trees to yield unevenly ripened small fruits with poor flavor. Most fruits from infected trees are unmarketable. In the present study, an isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) technique was developed using LChV2 coat protein specific primers and probe. Detection of terminally labeled amplicons was achieved with a high affinity lateral flow strip. The RT-RPA is confirmed to be simple, fast, and specific. In comparison, although it retains the sensitivity of RT-PCR, it is a more cost-effective procedure. RT-RPA will be a very useful tool for detecting LChV2 from crude extracts in any growth stage of sweet cherry from field samples. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Chemical heterogeneity of tomato inbred lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Compositional characteristics of seven lines of tomatoes have been determined. The following parameters were evaluated: dry matter, acidity (citric acid equivalent, Ca-pectate, ash, cellulose, sugars (total, reducing sugars, sucrose, mineral substances (N, P, K, Ca, Na, surface color and carotenoid content. From a compositional viewpoint, there were no significant differences between lines, but in cellulose, sucrose, mineral substances, carotenoid content, and surface colour parameters, a*, b*, L and h°. .

  9. Morphological and agronomic characterization of some tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a study of morphological and agronomic characteristics of eight tomato accessions, a high variability was detected in plant height at flowering, fruit set, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, number of locules per fruit, and yield. The variation in percent total soluble solids (3.9-5.0) and pH (3.9-4.4) was very small. The pH ...

  10. Preferential Promotion of Lycopersicon esculentum (Tomato) Growth by Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria Associated with Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaikuntapu, Papa Rao; Dutta, Swarnalee; Samudrala, Ram Babu; Rao, Vukanti R V N; Kalam, Sadaf; Podile, Appa Rao

    2014-12-01

    A total of 74 morphologically distinct bacterial colonies were selected during isolation of bacteria from different parts of tomato plant (rhizoplane, phylloplane and rhizosphere) as well as nearby bulk soil. The isolates were screened for plant growth promoting (PGP) traits such as production of indole acetic acid, siderophore, chitinase and hydrogen cyanide as well as phosphate solubilization. Seven isolates viz., NR4, NR6, RP3, PP1, RS4, RP6 and NR1 that exhibited multiple PGP traits were identified, based on morphological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, as species that belonged to four genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Enterobacter. All the seven isolates were positive for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. Isolate NR6 was antagonistic to Fusarium solani and Fusarium moniliforme, and both PP1 and RP6 isolates were antagonistic to F. moniliforme. Except RP6, all isolates adhered significantly to glass surface suggestive of biofilm formation. Seed bacterization of tomato, groundnut, sorghum and chickpea with the seven bacterial isolates resulted in varied growth response in laboratory assay on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium. Most of the tomato isolates positively influenced tomato growth. The growth response was either neutral or negative with groundnut, sorghum and chickpea. Overall, the results suggested that bacteria with PGP traits do not positively influence the growth of all plants, and certain PGP bacteria may exhibit host-specificity. Among the isolates that positively influenced growth of tomato (NR1, RP3, PP1, RS4 and RP6) only RS4 was isolated from tomato rhizosphere. Therefore, the best PGP bacteria can also be isolated from zones other than rhizosphere or rhizoplane of a plant.

  11. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  12. Consumer attitudes and preferences for fresh market tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltman, A E; Jervis, S M; Drake, M A

    2014-10-01

    This study established attractive attributes and consumer desires for fresh tomatoes. Three focus groups (n = 28 participants) were conducted to explore how consumers perceived tomatoes, including how they purchased and consumed them. Subsequently, an Adaptive Choice Based Conjoint (ACBC) survey was conducted to understand consumer preferences toward traditional tomatoes. The ACBC survey with Kano questions (n = 1037 consumers in Raleigh, NC) explored the importance of color, firmness, size, skin, texture, interior, seed presence, flavor, and health benefits. The most important tomato attribute was color, then juice when sliced, followed by size, followed by seed presence, which was at parity with firmness. An attractive tomato was red, firm, medium/small sized, crisp, meaty, juicy, flavorful, and with few seeds. Deviations from these features resulted in a tomato that was rejected by consumers. Segmentations of consumers were determined by patterns in utility scores. External attributes were the main drivers of tomato liking, but different groups of tomato consumers exist with distinct preferences for juiciness, firmness, flavor, and health benefits. Conjoint analysis is a research technique that collects a large amount of data from consumers in a format designed to be reflective of a real life market setting and can be combined with qualitative insight from focus groups to gain information on consumer consumption and purchase behaviors. This study established that the most important fresh tomato attributes were color, amount of juice when sliced, and size. Distinct consumer clusters were differentiated by preference for color/appearance, juiciness and firm texture. Tomato growers can utilize the results to target attributes that drive consumer choice for fresh tomatoes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. The effect of the times and the budding methods on the quality of young trees and the nursery efficiency of cherry trees cv. 'Łutówka'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies concerning the effect of the times and the methods of budding on the growth of young cherry trees were conducted in the years 1997-2000 at Felin Experimental Farm of Lublin Agricultural University. The objects of investigations were the young cherry trees obtained as a result of budding of mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. seedlings in the way by the chip budding-15th July and T-budding-on the 15th July and the 1st September. The used terms and budding methods did not affect the bud taking and the quality of cherry trees during three years studies. Chip budding of the sweet cherry on the 15th July was the most effective way of this seedling budding. Late budding-on the 1st September-did not change the efficiency of the nursery only in case of mahaleb cherry. The highest number-33 000 of the young trees, average per 1 ha was got as a result of the chip and "T" mahaleb cherry budding on the 1st September.

  14. Irrigation of Solanum lycopersicum L. with magnetically treated water increases antioxidant properties of its tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, A E Ferrer; Leite, G O; Rocha, J B T

    2013-09-01

    Antioxidant effects of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) have been studied and an association between dietary intake of tomatoes and lowered risk of cancer, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases has been suggested. Here we used magnetically treated water (MTW; 0.03-0.15 T), which promotes better germination and productivity in tomatoes, and we investigated the effects of aqueous and ethanolic (10-400 μg/ml) extracts of S. lycopersicum as potential antioxidant against 10 μM Fe(II)-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) in liver and brain homogenates from rats. The ethanolic extracts from magnetically treated plants were more effective than aqueous extracts in preventing TBARS formation in brain and liver. The protective effects of ethanolic extract can be associated with antioxidants (polyphenols and flavonoids), lycopene and other lipophilic components found in the extract. In effect, magnetically treated plants had higher content of polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds than nontreated plants and they can be a better source of antioxidants than nontreated plants. Consequently, MTW can be used to produce functional foods with high contents of antioxidant components and may have better beneficial health effects than traditionally produced foods.

  15. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmira Valderas-Martinez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  16. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Torrado, Xavier; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon

    2016-03-16

    Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.

  17. Tomato Sauce Enriched with Olive Oil Exerts Greater Effects on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors than Raw Tomato and Tomato Sauce: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Torrado, Xavier; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M.; Estruch, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil. PMID:26999197

  18. Morphological and Biochemical Characteristics of Fruits of Different Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas L. Genotypes from Spontaneous Flora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia-Constantina CORNESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was carried out on six local cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L. genotypes, grown in Turceni town (Gorj county and Baita village (Hunedoara county, in Romania. Several morphological and biochemical characteristics of cultivars were determined. Fruit weight and fruit flesh ratio of the analyzed genotypes ranged from 1.33 to 2.31 g and 61.53 to 78.58% respectively. Soluble solid contents were determined, the lowest noted as 10% and the highest as 25.5%. Results have shown that there was a high diversity in cornelian cherry populations within different ecological areas. Differences were exhibited in terms of fruit size and biochemical characteristics. The results of the study are useful for attempting to select superior genotypes of cornelian cherry for culture.

  19. Flavor characteristics of the juices from fresh market tomatoes differentiated from those from processing tomatoes by combined analysis of volatile profiles with sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko; Iwasaki, Yumi; Otagiri, Yuji; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hiroe; Sekine, Yukio; Obata, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Various commercial tomato juices with different flavors are available at markets worldwide. To clarify the marker compounds related to the flavor characteristics of tomato juice, we analyzed 15 pure commercial tomato juices by a combination of volatile profiling and sensory evaluation. The correlations among volatiles and the relationship between volatiles and sensory descriptors were elucidated by multivariate analyses. Consequently, the tomato juices made from fresh market tomatoes (including the popular Japanese tomato variety "Momotaro") were clearly separated from other juices made from processing tomatoes, by both the volatile composition and sensory profiles. cis-3-Hexenol, hexanal, and apocarotenoids negatively contributed to the juices from fresh market tomatoes, whereas Strecker aldehydes and furfural showed positive contributions to the juices. Accordingly, the sensory characteristics of juices from fresh market tomatoes were related to cooked and fruity flavors but not to green or fresh notes.

  20. Modified expression of alternative oxidase in transgenic tomato and petunia affects the level of tomato spotted wilt virus resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Hao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV has a very wide host range, and is transmitted in a persistent manner by several species of thrips. These characteristics make this virus difficult to control. We show here that the over-expression of the mitochondrial alternative oxidase (AOX in tomato and petunia is related to TSWV resistance. Results The open reading frame and full-length sequence of the tomato AOX gene LeAox1au were cloned and introduced into tomato 'Healani' and petunia 'Sheer Madness' using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Highly expressed AOX transgenic tomato and petunia plants were selfed and transgenic R1 seedlings from 10 tomato lines and 12 petunia lines were used for bioassay. For each assayed line, 22 to 32 tomato R1 progeny in three replications and 39 to 128 petunia progeny in 13 replications were challenged with TSWV. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays showed that the TSWV levels in transgenic tomato line FKT4-1 was significantly lower than that of wild-type controls after challenge with TSWV. In addition, transgenic petunia line FKP10 showed significantly less lesion number and smaller lesion size than non-transgenic controls after inoculation by TSWV. Conclusion In all assayed transgenic tomato lines, a higher percentage of transgenic progeny had lower TSWV levels than non-transgenic plants after challenge with TSWV, and the significantly increased resistant levels of tomato and petunia lines identified in this study indicate that altered expression levels of AOX in tomato and petunia can affect the levels of TSWV resistance.

  1. Polyamine Metabolism Is Altered in Unpollinated Parthenocarpic pat-2 Tomato Ovaries1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L.

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of α-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or α-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. α-Difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA3, whereas that of α-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA3 but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries. PMID:12529543

  2. Assessing Salinity in Cotton and Tomato Plants by Using Reflectance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly

    2016-04-01

    Irrigated lands in semi-arid and arid areas are subjected to salinization processes. An example of this phenomenon is the Jezreel Valley in northern Israel where soil salinity has increased over the years. The increase in soil salinity results in the deterioration of the soil structure and crops damage. In this experiment we quantified the relation between the chemical and spectral features of cotton and tomato plants and their mutual relationship to soil salinity. The experiment was carried out as part of ongoing research aiming to detect and monitor saline soils and vegetation by combining different remote sensing methods. The aim of this study was to use vegetation reflectance measurements to predict foliar Cl and Na concentration and assess salinity in the soil and in vegetation by their reflectance measurements. The model developed for determining concentrations of chlorine and sodium in tomato and cotton produced good results ( R2 = 0.92 for sodium and 0.85 for chlorine in tomato and R2 = 0.84 for sodium and 0.82 for chlorine in cotton). Lately, we extend the method to calculate vegetation salinity, by doing correlation between the reflectance slopes of the tested crops CL and Na from two research areas. The developed model produced a good results for all the data (R2=0.74) Our method can be implemented to assess vegetation salinity ahead of planting, and developed as a generic tool for broader use for agriculture in semi-arid regions. In our opinion these results show the possibility of monitoring for a threshold level of salinity in tomato and cotton leaves so remedial action can be taken in time to prevent crop damage. Our results strongly suggest that future imaging spectroscopy remote sensing measurements collected by airborne and satellite platforms could measure the salinity of soil and vegetation over larger areas. These results can be the first steps for generic a model which includes more vegetation for salinity measurements.

  3. Manejo de plantas daninhas na cultura do tomateiro Weed management in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Ronchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum é a segunda hortaliça em importância no Brasil. O controle de plantas daninhas na cultura representa um dos principais componentes do custo de produção, sendo imprescindível para a obtenção de produtividades elevadas e de frutos de qualidade. Neste texto são apresentados de forma detalhada os efeitos adversos da interferência das plantas daninhas sobre a cultura, tanto daquele cultivado a partir de mudas transplantadas como de semeadura direta. Também são discutidos, para diferentes situações de cultivo, aspectos sobre o período crítico de competição das plantas daninhas durante o ciclo da cultura. Por fim, são apresentadas as principais estratégias utilizadas para o controle de plantas daninhas na cultura do tomateiro, por meio de medidas preventivas, culturais, mecânicas e químicas, com base nas informações atualmente disponíveis sobre esse tema.Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum is the second most important vegetable grown in Brazil. Weed control in tomato culture is one of the main components in crop production costs. However, weed management is indispensable to achieve both high yields and fruit quality. A detailed discussion is presented in this work concerning the adverse effects of weed interference in the crop, both grown from transplanted seedlings and field-sown tomato. Aspects related to the critical period of weed competition during the crop cycle for both growing conditions are also discussed. Finally, the major strategies used for weed management in tomato crops are also presented, such as preventive, cultural, mechanic, and chemical control measures, based on the literature currently available.

  4. Polyamine metabolism is altered in unpollinated parthenocarpic pat-2 tomato ovaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fos, Mariano; Proaño, Karina; Alabadí, David; Nuez, Fernando; Carbonell, Juan; García-Martínez, José L

    2003-01-01

    Facultative parthenocarpy induced by the recessive mutation pat-2 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) depends on gibberellins (GAs) and is associated with changes in GA content in unpollinated ovaries. Polyamines (PAs) have also been proposed to play a role in early tomato fruit development. We therefore investigated whether PAs are able to induce parthenocarpy and whether the pat-2 mutation alters the content and metabolism of PAs in unpollinated ovaries. Application of putrescine, spermidine, and spermine to wild-type unpollinated tomato ovaries (cv Madrigal [MA/wt]) induced partial parthenocarpy. Parthenocarpic growth of MA/pat-2 (a parthenocarpic near-isogenic line to MA/wt) ovaries was negated by paclobutrazol (GA biosynthesis inhibitor), and this inhibition was counteracted by spermidine. Application of alpha-difluoromethyl-ornithine (-Orn) and/or alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (-Arg), irreversible inhibitors of the putrescine biosynthesis enzymes Orn decarboxylase (ODC) and Arg decarboxylase, respectively, prevented growth of unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries. Alpha-difluoromethyl-Arg inhibition was counteracted by putrescine and GA(3), whereas that of alpha-difluoromethyl-Orn was counteracted by GA(3) but not by putrescine or spermidine. In unpollinated MA/pat-2 ovaries, the content of free spermine was significantly higher than in MA/wt ovaries. ODC activity was higher in pat-2 ovaries than in MA/wt. Transcript levels of genes encoding ODC and spermidine synthase were also higher in MA/pat-2. All together, these results strongly suggest that the parthenocarpic ability of pat-2 mutants depends on elevated PAs levels in unpollinated mutant ovaries, which correlate with an activation of the ODC pathway, probably as a consequence of elevated GA content in unpollinated pat-2 tomato ovaries.

  5. Evidence of local evolution of tomato-infecting begomovirus species in West Africa: characterization of tomato leaf curl Mali virus and tomato yellow leaf crumple virus from Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y-C; Noussourou, M; Kon, T; Rojas, M R; Jiang, H; Chen, L-F; Gamby, K; Foster, R; Gilbertson, R L

    2008-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl (TYLC) and tomato leaf curl (ToLC) diseases are serious constraints to tomato production in Mali and other countries in West Africa. In 2003 and 2004, samples of tomato showing virus-like symptoms were collected during a survey of tomato virus diseases in Mali. Three predominant symptom phenotypes were observed: (1) TYLC/ToLC (stunted upright growth and upcurled leaves with interveinal yellowing and vein purpling), (2) yellow leaf crumple and (3) broccoli or bonsai (severe stunting and distorted growth). Squash blot (SB) hybridization with a general begomovirus probe and/or SB/PCR analyses revealed begomovirus infection in plants with each of these symptom phenotypes and no evidence of phytoplasma infection. Sequence analysis of PCR-amplified begomovirus fragments revealed two putative new begomovirus species associated with the TYLC/ToLC and yellow leaf crumple symptom phenotypes, respectively. Full-length clones of these begomoviruses were obtained using PCR and overlapping primers. When introduced into N. benthamiana and tomato plants, these clones induced upward leaf curling and crumpling (the TYLC/ToLC-associated begomovirus) or downward leaf curl/yellow mottle (yellow leaf crumple-associated begomovirus) symptoms. Thus, these begomoviruses were named tomato leaf curl Mali virus (ToLCMLV) and tomato yellow leaf crumple virus (ToYLCrV). The genome organization of both viruses was similar to those of other monopartite begomoviruses. ToLCMLV and ToYLCrV were most closely related to each other and to tobacco leaf curl Zimbabwe virus (TbLCZV-[ZW]) and tomato curly stunt virus from South Africa (ToCSV-ZA). Thus, these likely represent tomato-infecting begomoviruses that evolved from indigenous begomoviruses on the African continent. Mixed infections of ToLCMLV and ToYLCrV in N. benthamiana and tomato plants resulted in more severe symptoms than in plants infected with either virus alone, suggesting a synergistic interaction. Agroinoculation

  6. Diversity between and within farmers' varieties of tomato from Eritrea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... Tomato yields in Eritrea are low (15 Mg/ha) compared with 19 Mg/ha in Africa and 27 Mg/ha worldwide. This is partly caused by poor quality of varieties used. This study analysed the diversity among and heterogeneity within farmers' varieties of tomato from Eritrea and compared these varieties with other.

  7. Testing the Performance of Fresh Tomato Markets Following Import ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amikuzuno, Abarike & Akudugu: Testing the Performance of Fresh Tomato Markets infrastructure and market information flow via mobile phones in eliminating the supply gluts, volatile and uncompetitive prices and other signals of market failure in Ghana's tomato marketing system. In the following section, we describe the ...

  8. Methyl salicylate production in tomato affects biotic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ament, K.; Krasikov, V.; Allmann, S.; Rep, M.; Takken, F.L.W.; Schuurink, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    The role of methyl salicylate (MeSA) production was studied in indirect and direct defence responses of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) to the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and the root-invading fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, respectively. To this end, we silenced the tomato gene

  9. Effect on some management practices on the performance of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, University of Ibadan, Ibadan during thel997 and 1998 cropping seasons, to investigate the combined effects of tillage, staking and mulching on the grow.th and yield fJel"fonnance of tomatoes. Growth, yield and yield parameters of tomato were ...

  10. Antioxidant activity in selected tomato genotypes cultivated in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study is a compilation of results obtained at the Vegetable Research and Development Station Bacau regarding the influence of the culture system on the quantitative and qualitative yield of tomatoes. The present study provides comparative information regarding yield achievements of tomato genotypes ...

  11. Field evaluation of deficit irrigation effects on tomato growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two field experiments were conducted using a common tomato cultivar (GS12) to assess the effect of deficit irrigation (DI) regimes on tomato growth performance, and on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica galling and abundance. Irrigation treatments consisted of five irrigation regimes: 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and ...

  12. Suppressors of RNA silencing encoded by tomato leaf curl

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Whitefly-transmitted begomoviruses infecting tomato crop code for five different proteins, ORF AC4, ORF AC2 and ORF AV2 in DNA-A component, ORF BV1 in DNA-B ... In the present study suppressor function of ORF C1 of three betasatellites Tomato leaf curl Bangalore betasatellite ToLCBB-[IN:Hess:08], Cotton leaf curl ...

  13. Culture of the Tomato Micro-Tom Cultivar in Greenhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothan, Christophe; Just, Daniel; Fernandez, Lucie; Atienza, Isabelle; Ballias, Patricia; Lemaire-Chamley, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Tom tomato cultivar is particularly adapted to the development of genomic approaches in tomato. Here, we describe the culture of this plant in greenhouse, including climate regulation, seed sowing and watering, vegetative development, plant maintenance, including treatment of phytosanitary problems, and reproductive development.

  14. Tomato pomace protects against mercuric chloride-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercuric chloride is an environmental toxicant that causes health hazards. One of the mechanisms of its toxicity is oxidative stress which antioxidants are expected to ameliorate. Tomato is reported to possess antioxidant activity and this study investigated tomato pomace powder's (TPP) effect on mercuric chloride (HgCl2) ...

  15. Serological detection of viruses infecting tomato and pepper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato and pepper are important vegetable crops grown in Nigeria, accounting for 50% of the African production. Pathogen diversity is a prerequisite for breeding resistant cultivars, as a means of improving the production. A survey for virus disease incidence on field grown pepper and tomato was carried out in three state ...

  16. Biological characteristics of tomato mild mottle potyvirus isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two isolates of the virus 246/94 and 277/94, acquired from thorn apple (Datura stramonium) and tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) Karst. Ex. Farw., syn. esculentum), respectively, were characterised biologically and serologically and compared with a local isolate of Potato virus Y (PVY) isolated from tomato and other ...

  17. Yield and Adaptability Evaluation of Newly Introduced Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important food and income generating crop among small holder farmers in Tabora Region. High yield is a major ambition to tomato plant breeders and farmers. The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of environmental conditions in Tabora Region on the growth and ...

  18. The potential of endomycorrhizal fungi in controlling tomato bacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of colonization by three mycorrhizal fungi on tomato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanaceraum was investigated. Three species of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) were tested (Glomus mosseae, Scutellospora sp. and Gigaspora margarita). Siginificant differences in tomato growth based on plant ...

  19. Farmers Agronomic Practice in Management of the Tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed farmers' awareness of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) disease and their agronomic and disease management practices in the Efutu municipality, Komenda-Edina-Eguafo-Abirem (KEEA), and Mfantseman districts which are leading tomato producing centres in the Central Region of Ghana.

  20. Genotypic variation of Kenyan tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Systematic genotypic analysis of Kenyan tomato germplasm was carried out in order to delineate potential variability based on various morphological, agronomic and biochemical traits. Both landraces and market cultivars were examined with a view to facilitating tomato improvement. In an experiment conducted in 1993 in ...