WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventive medicine measures

  1. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2015-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS?s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center esta...

  3. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  4. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  5. Essentials of periodontal medicine in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Anand, Bhargavi; Bahuguna, Rohit; Govila, Vivek; Rastogi, Pavitra

    2013-09-01

    Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer's disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.

  6. Essentials of periodontal medicine in preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkle Gulati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer′s disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.

  7. Medical Services: Preventive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-15

    those at risk. Isoniazid (INH)administered orally is normally used for preventive therapy (300 mg daily for adults and 10 to 14 mg/kg body weight not to...netting, and insecticide aerosols; by taking approved chemoprophylaxis; and by wearing the uniform properly. d. Enteric disease by using iodine tablets ...National stock number: 6850–00–985–7166 Description: Water purification tablet , iodine, 50’s Unit/Issue: BT Allowance: 400 Authority: CTA 8–100 Notes: 1

  8. Teaching Prevention in Internal Medicine Clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsinger, Linda

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for including prevention in the clinical medicine clerkship. Summarizes current guidelines, presents examples of curricula in several medical schools, and proposes a future direction that stresses integrating teaching preventive medicine into internal medicine clerkships and across the entire four-year medical curriculum. (DB)

  9. Preventive and Community Medicine in Primary Care. Teaching of Preventive Medicine Vol. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, William H., Ed.

    This monograph is the result of a conference on the role of preventive and community medicine in primary medical care and education. The following six papers were presented at the conference: (1) Roles of Departments of Preventive Medicine; (2) Competency-Based Objectives in Preventive Medicine for the Family Physician; (3) Preventive Medicine…

  10. Preventive evolutionary medicine of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochberg, Michael E; Thomas, Frédéric; Assenat, Eric; Hibner, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that once an individual reaches an age of sufficiently low Darwinian fitness, (s)he will have reduced chances of keeping cancerous lesions in check. While we clearly need to better understand the emergence of precursor states and early malignancies as well as their mitigation by the microenvironment and tissue architecture, we argue that lifestyle changes and preventive therapies based in an evolutionary framework, applied to identified high-risk populations before incipient neoplasms become clinically detectable and chemoresistant lineages emerge, are currently the most reliable way to control or eliminate early tumours. Specifically, the relatively low levels of (epi)genetic heterogeneity characteristic of many if not most incipient lesions will mean a relatively limited set of possible adaptive traits and associated costs compared to more advanced cancers, and thus a more complete and predictable understanding of treatment options and outcomes. We propose a conceptual model for preventive treatments and discuss the many associated challenges.

  11. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  13. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.

    1990-01-01

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  14. Protective and preventative measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, P. N

    2002-01-01

    Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

  15. Measuring Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring results is an essential component of any successful P2 program and is one way to determine the success of a technical assistance or training effort. This page introduces the concept of P2 measurement.

  16. Measuring value sensitivity in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineichen, Christian; Christen, Markus; Tanner, Carmen

    2017-01-28

    Value sensitivity - the ability to recognize value-related issues when they arise in practice - is an indispensable competence for medical practitioners to enter decision-making processes related to ethical questions. However, the psychological competence of value sensitivity is seldom an explicit subject in the training of medical professionals. In this contribution, we outline the traditional concept of moral sensitivity in medicine and its revised form conceptualized as value sensitivity and we propose an instrument that measures value sensitivity. We developed an instrument for assessing the sensitivity for three value groups (moral-related values, values related to the principles of biomedical ethics, strategy-related values) in a four step procedure: 1) value identification (n = 317); 2) value representation (n = 317); 3) vignette construction and quality evaluation (n = 37); and 4) instrument validation by comparing nursing professionals with hospital managers (n = 48). We find that nursing professionals recognize and ascribe importance to principle-related issues more than professionals from hospital management. The latter are more likely to recognize and ascribe importance to strategy-related issues. These hypothesis-driven results demonstrate the discriminatory power of our newly developed instrument, which makes it useful not only for health care professionals in practice but for students and people working in the clinical context as well.

  17. Lifestyle medicine curriculum for a preventive medicine residency program: implementation and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Petraro, Paul V; Via, Christina; Ullah, Saif; Lim, Lionel; Wild, Dorothea; Kennedy, Mary; Phillips, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of the healthcare problems burdening our society today are caused by disease-promoting lifestyles (e.g., physical inactivity and unhealthy eating). Physicians report poor training and lack of confidence in counseling patients on lifestyle changes. To evaluate a new curriculum and rotation in lifestyle medicine for preventive medicine residents. Training included didactics (six sessions/year), distance learning, educational conferences, and newly developed lifestyle medicine rotations at the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, and the Integrative Medicine Center. We used a number of tools to assess residents' progress including Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), self-assessments, and logs of personal health habits. A total of 20 residents participated in the lifestyle medicine training between 2010 and 2013. There was a 15% increase in residents' discussions of lifestyle issues with their patients based on their baseline and follow-up surveys. The performance of preventive medicine residents on OSCEs increased each year they were in the program (average OSCE score: PGY1 73%, PGY2 83%, PGY3 87%, and PGY4 91%, p=0.01). Our internal medicine and preliminary residents served as a control, since they did participate in didactics but not in lifestyle medicine rotations. Internal medicine and preliminary residents who completed the same OSCEs had a slightly lower average score (76%) compared with plural for resident, preventive medicine residents (80%). However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.11). Incorporating the lifestyle medicine curriculum is feasible for preventive medicine training allowing residents to improve their health behavior change discussions with patients as well as their own personal health habits.

  18. Lifestyle medicine curriculum for a preventive medicine residency program: implementation and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The vast majority of the healthcare problems burdening our society today are caused by disease-promoting lifestyles (e.g., physical inactivity and unhealthy eating. Physicians report poor training and lack of confidence in counseling patients on lifestyle changes. Objective: To evaluate a new curriculum and rotation in lifestyle medicine for preventive medicine residents. Methods: Training included didactics (six sessions/year, distance learning, educational conferences, and newly developed lifestyle medicine rotations at the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, and the Integrative Medicine Center. We used a number of tools to assess residents’ progress including Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs, self-assessments, and logs of personal health habits. Results: A total of 20 residents participated in the lifestyle medicine training between 2010 and 2013. There was a 15% increase in residents’ discussions of lifestyle issues with their patients based on their baseline and follow-up surveys. The performance of preventive medicine residents on OSCEs increased each year they were in the program (average OSCE score: PGY1 73%, PGY2 83%, PGY3 87%, and PGY4 91%, p=0.01. Our internal medicine and preliminary residents served as a control, since they did participate in didactics but not in lifestyle medicine rotations. Internal medicine and preliminary residents who completed the same OSCEs had a slightly lower average score (76% compared with plural for resident, preventive medicine residents (80%. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.11. Conclusion: Incorporating the lifestyle medicine curriculum is feasible for preventive medicine training allowing residents to improve their health behavior change discussions with patients as well as their own personal health habits.

  19. Lifestyle medicine curriculum for a preventive medicine residency program: implementation and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Petraro, Paul V.; Via, Christina; Ullah, Saif; Lim, Lionel; Wild, Dorothea; Kennedy, Mary; Phillips, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the healthcare problems burdening our society today are caused by disease-promoting lifestyles (e.g., physical inactivity and unhealthy eating). Physicians report poor training and lack of confidence in counseling patients on lifestyle changes. Objective To evaluate a new curriculum and rotation in lifestyle medicine for preventive medicine residents. Methods Training included didactics (six sessions/year), distance learning, educational conferences, and newly developed lifestyle medicine rotations at the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, and the Integrative Medicine Center. We used a number of tools to assess residents’ progress including Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), self-assessments, and logs of personal health habits. Results A total of 20 residents participated in the lifestyle medicine training between 2010 and 2013. There was a 15% increase in residents’ discussions of lifestyle issues with their patients based on their baseline and follow-up surveys. The performance of preventive medicine residents on OSCEs increased each year they were in the program (average OSCE score: PGY1 73%, PGY2 83%, PGY3 87%, and PGY4 91%, p=0.01). Our internal medicine and preliminary residents served as a control, since they did participate in didactics but not in lifestyle medicine rotations. Internal medicine and preliminary residents who completed the same OSCEs had a slightly lower average score (76%) compared with plural for resident, preventive medicine residents (80%). However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.11). Conclusion Incorporating the lifestyle medicine curriculum is feasible for preventive medicine training allowing residents to improve their health behavior change discussions with patients as well as their own personal health habits. PMID:27507540

  20. Effectiveness of preventive medicine education and its determinants among medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Shirin; Zawahir, Mohamed Shukry; Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Preventive medicine has been incorporated in the medical school curriculum, but its effectiveness and the factors that affect it are yet to be widely looked into in the context of Malaysia. We aimed to measure the familiarity with, perception about the importance to learn, and the ability to practice preventive medicine as well as its determinants among the medical students in Malaysia. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted through an anonymous online survey among 387 randomly selected final year medical students of four large public medical schools in Malaysia from March to September 2014. Of the total sample, 340 (response rate 87.8%) gave a written informed consent and took part in the survey. The familiarity of the sample with preventive medicine was measured in 19 preventive medicine areas, and their perception about the importance of preventive medicine and their ability to practice it were gauged on a Likert scale (low score indicates disagreement and high indicates agreement). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, followed by logistic regression. The mean age of the respondents was 23.7 (SD 0.77) years, and 61.2% (n = 208) of them were females. Results showed that 22.9% of the sample (n = 78) had a low familiarity with preventive medicine, whereas 76.8% (n = 261) had a high familiarity. The study sample specified that among all the preventive medicine subjects, screening and control as well as smoking cessation and immunization are "extremely important to learn." In univariable analysis, being a female, medical school, family size, and perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine were associated with the ability to practice it. In multivariable analysis, the perception towards the importance to learn preventive medicine was the only significant determinant: aOR (adjusted odds ratio) for those who "agreed" 17.28 (95% CI aOR 4.44-67.26, P < 0.001) and for "strongly agreed" 35.87 (95% CI aOR 8.04-159.87, P < 0.001). Considering

  1. Cancer Prevention in the Precision Medicine Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Rebbeck’s research focuses on the etiology and prevention of cancer, with an emphasis on cancers with a genetic etiology and those that are associated with disparities in incidence or mortality by race. He has directed multiple large molecular epidemiologic studies and international consortia that have been used to identify and characterize genes involved in cancer etiology, understand the relationship of allelic variation with biochemical or physiological traits, explore interactions of inherited and somatic genomic variation with epidemiological risk factors. His research also focuses on the roles of biological and social factors on prostate cancer disparities and prostate cancer in Africa through the Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate (MADCaP) consortium. He has also led a number of consortia that study carriers of BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations to understand breast, ovarian, and prostate cancer risk and precision prevention interventions that may reduce that risk. In addition to his research activities, Dr. Rebbeck leads a number of initiatives on the Harvard Campus. He serves as Associate Director for Equity and Engagement in the Dana-Farber / Harvard Cancer Center and Co-Director for the Collective Impact Program of Harvard Catalyst. In this role, he prioritizes the cancer research agenda to maximize disease prevention and risk reduction in Massachusetts. He also oversees a team charged with ensuring that this research engages with and positively impacts communities with the greatest disease burden.  As Director of Global Oncology at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Dr. Rebbeck oversees formal and informal training and research partnerships between Dana Farber investigators and trainees with international partners.

  2. Cancer Prevention in the Precision Medicine Era | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | Timothy R. Rebbeck, PhD will present "Cancer Prevention in the Precision Medicine Era" on March 20, 2018, from 11:00 am - 12:00 pm at the NCI Shady Grove Campus. Learn more about this lecture.

  3. Nuclear medicine environmental discharge measurement. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Prichard, H.M.; Davis, E.M.; Pirtle, O.L.; DiPietro, W.

    1975-06-01

    The discharge of most man-made radioactive materials to the environment is controlled by Federal, State or local regulatory agencies. Exceptions to this control include the radioactive wastes eliminated by individuals who have undergone diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of radioactivity released to the environment via the nuclear medicine pathway for a single sewage drainage basin and to measure the amounts discharged to the environment. The report is organized into a review of previous studies, scope of work, facility data, environmental measurements and estimates of population exposure

  4. Value measurement of nuclear medicine procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potchen, E.J.; Harris, G.I.; Schonbein, W.R.; Rashford, N.J.

    1977-01-01

    The difficulty in measuring the benefit component for cost/benefit analysis of diagnostic procedures in medicine is portrayed as a complex issue relating the objective of intent to a classification of types of decisions a physician must make in evaluating a patient's problem. Ultimately, it seems desirable to develop measuring instruments such as attitude measurement tools by which the relative value of alternative diagnostic procedures could be measured in terms of what they contribute to diminishing the patient's personal perception of disease. Even without this idealized objective, it is reasonable to assume that diagnostic tests which do not contain information, defined as a change in the randomness of a state of knowledge, could not be expected to ultimately benefit the patient. Thus diagnostic information should provide a rational direction for the physician to modify the course of the patient's illness. Since information can be measured as a change in randomness of a knowledge state, we can determine the information content of a specific nuclear medicine procedure when faced with an array of diagnostic problems. These measurements remain to be made for clinical nuclear medicine procedures and are currently under study

  5. Pragmatic prevention of preterm birth and evidence based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyme, Udo B

    2016-07-01

    Effective prevention of preterm birth is one of the unsolved problems in modern medicine. In the Thuringia campaign 2000 based on a simple screening with intravaginal pH self-measurements, adequate medical diagnosis and immediate antimicrobial therapy of genital infection, the rate of newborns ever seen in any of the German states. Therefore, the regime should be implicated as a necessary step of optimizing and rationalizing the health care system. However, in the discussion we had to learn that the best way to inhibit progress is to cope with problems by preferring the most complicated policies under persistent renunciation of simple solutions. As long as we do not have other alternative safe, simple and cheap methods, do we really have to wait even more decades to come for a prospectively randomized double-blinded almost impracticable study to convince the latest skeptical scientist that we have plenty of evidence-based means to reduce the incidence of premature birth, now, by decreasing infectious morbidity in pregnancy and by the same action childbed fever as well? Insisting scholastically on nothing but the 100 % pure evidence sometimes can hamper innovations and potential benefit. Would a similar caution ever had allowed us for instance to introduce handwashing according to Semmelweis? Good news, the Government of the State of Thuringia has decided this year to reestablish a pH selfcare screening programme.

  6. The IOC Centres of Excellence bring prevention to sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald; Cook, Jill L; Derman, Wayne; Emery, Carolyn A; Finch, Caroline F; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Schwellnus, Martin; Steffen, Kathrin

    2014-09-01

    The protection of an athlete's health and preventing injuries and illnesses in sport are top priorities for the IOC and its Medical Commission. The IOC therefore partners with selected research centres around the world and supports research in the field of sports medicine. This has enabled the IOC to develop an international network of expert scientists and clinicians in sports injury and disease prevention research. The IOC wants to promote injury and disease prevention and the improvement of physical health of the athlete by: (1) establishing long-term research programmes on injury and disease prevention (including studies on basic epidemiology, risk factors, injury mechanisms and intervention), (2) fostering collaborative relationships with individuals, institutions and organisations to improve athletes' health, (3) implementing and collaborating with applied, ongoing and novel research and development within the framework and long-term strategy of the IOC and (4) setting up knowledge translation mechanisms to share scientific research results with the field throughout the Olympic Movement and sports community and converting these results into concrete actions to protect the health of the athletes. In 2009, the IOC also identified four research centres that had an established track record in research, educational and clinical activities to achieve these ambitions: (1) the Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention (ACRISP), Australia; (2) the Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre (SIPRC), Canada; (3) the Clinical Sport and Exercise Medicine Research (CSEM), South Africa and (4) the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC), Norway. This paper highlights the work carried out by these four IOC Centres of Excellence over the past 6 years and their contribution to the world of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc.

  8. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W; Spira, Avrum; Garber, Judy E; Szabo, Eva; Lee, J Jack; Dong, Zigang; Dannenberg, Andrew J; Hait, William N; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Davidson, Nancy E; Foti, Margaret; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a transformative period in cancer prevention (including early detection). Remarkable progress in precision medicine and immune-oncology, driven by extraordinary recent advances in genome-wide sequencing, big-data analytics, blood-based technologies, and deep understanding of the tumor immune microenvironment (TME), has provided unprecedented possibilities to study the biology of premalignancy. The pace of research and discovery in precision medicine and immunoprevention has been astonishing and includes the following clinical firsts reported in 2015: driver mutations detected in circulating cell-free DNA in patients with premalignant lesions (lung); clonal hematopoiesis shown to be a premalignant state; molecular selection in chemoprevention randomized controlled trial (RCT; oral); striking efficacy in RCT of combination chemoprevention targeting signaling pathway alterations mechanistically linked to germline mutation (duodenum); molecular markers for early detection validated for lung cancer and showing promise for pancreatic, liver, and ovarian cancer. Identification of HPV as the essential cause of a major global cancer burden, including HPV16 as the single driver of an epidemic of oropharyngeal cancer in men, provides unique opportunities for the dissemination and implementation of public health interventions. Important to immunoprevention beyond viral vaccines, genetic drivers of premalignant progression were associated with increasing immunosuppressive TME; and Kras vaccine efficacy in pancreas genetically engineered mouse (GEM) model required an inhibitory adjuvant (Treg depletion). In addition to developing new (e.g., epigenetic) TME regulators, recent mechanistic studies of repurposed drugs (aspirin, metformin, and tamoxifen) have identified potent immune activity. Just as precision medicine and immune-oncology are revolutionizing cancer therapy, these approaches are transforming cancer prevention. Here, we set out a brief agenda for the

  9. Measuring Quality and Outcomes in Sports Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzbarsky, Joseph J; Marom, Niv; Marx, Robert G

    2018-07-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are objective metrics critical to evaluating outcomes throughout orthopedic surgery. New instruments continue to emerge, increasing the breadth of information required for those intending to use these measures for research or clinical care. Although earlier metrics were developed using the principles of classic test theory, newer instruments constructed using item response theory are amenable to computer-adaptive testing and may change the way these instruments are administered. This article aims to define the psychometric properties that are important to understand when using all PROMs and to review the most widely used instruments in sports medicine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Internal Medicine Hospitalists' Perceived Barriers and Recommendations for Optimizing Secondary Prevention of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Keong; Loh, Kah Poh; Goff, Sarah L

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern affecting an estimated 10 million people in the United States. To the best of our knowledge, no qualitative study has explored barriers perceived by medicine hospitalists to secondary prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures. We aimed to describe these perceived barriers and recommendations regarding how to optimize secondary prevention of osteoporotic hip fracture. In-depth, semistructured interviews were performed with 15 internal medicine hospitalists in a tertiary-care referral medical center. The interviews were analyzed with directed content analysis. Internal medicine hospitalists consider secondary osteoporotic hip fracture prevention as the responsibility of outpatient physicians. Identified barriers were stratified based on themes including physicians' perception, patients' characteristics, risks and benefits of osteoporosis treatment, healthcare delivery system, and patient care transition from the inpatient to the outpatient setting. Some of the recommendations include building an integrated system that involves a multidisciplinary team such as the fracture liaison service, initiating a change to the hospital policy to facilitate inpatient care and management of osteoporosis, and creating a smooth patient care transition to the outpatient setting. Our study highlighted how internal medicine hospitalists perceive their role in the secondary prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures and what they perceive as barriers to initiating preventive measures in the hospital. Inconsistency in patient care transition and the fragmented nature of the existing healthcare system were identified as major barriers. A fracture liaison service could remove some of these barriers.

  11. [Quaternary prevention: An attempt to avoid the excesses of Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, María

    2015-09-01

    Seduced by technology, biometrics, practical guidelines and the use of medication, medicine has been driven away from the subject of its care. Quaternary prevention is, among other voices around the world, trying to denounce the consequent excesses of medical practice given by this situation. There are visible excesses, such as the long list of studies being performed on patients without indication, and others, much more subtle, as excessive prevention and the continuous and progressive medicalization of life itself that are rooted in our culture and demanded by a society that requests certainty at almost any cost. Quaternary prevention proposes a series of actions leaning towards avoiding and diminishing the damage produced by health care activities, in order to protect the subject of overdiagnosis and overtreatment; offering also ethical and viable alternatives in which the balance of risks and benefits (based on the best evidences) respects the autonomy of the subject by properly informing and allowing him to decide among the best options he has; altogether in a process that contemplates a rational and equitable use of resources. In order to achieve this, reliable sources of information and a medical education not dependent on industries related to technology or pharmaceuticals, are vital; in conjuction with a medicine that restablishes the subject as its main and central interest.

  12. Quality assurance in nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Razdolescu Anamaria Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents some recent results of the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in the assurance of quality in radioactivity measurements for nuclear medicine. Three aspects are treated: (i) Participation of the RML in the frame of the IAEA Coordinated Research Program (CRP), E 2.10.05; (ii) Improvement of the secondary standard, based on a CENTRONIC IG12/20A ionization chamber; (iii) Implementation of the quality management, according to the SR EN ISO/IEC 17025:2005. (authors)

  13. Ethical considerations in clinical research on herbal medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in the ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Karbwang, Juntra

    2016-10-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the ageing is a major public health problem worldwide. The nature of most CVD is subclinical with pathological processes that can span over years. Use of preventive measures could be an appropriate approach to prevailing over CVD in the ageing, and herbal medicine is one of the promising preventive approaches and is currently of interest among medical societies. In the evidence-based era, herbal medicine is, however, often underestimated and approached with skepticism, mainly due to the paucity of scientific evidence. Properly designed clinical trials on herbal medicine for prevention of CVD in a geriatric population are thus of importance and of clinical value. To review ethical issues and discuss considerations when such research is proposed. Four ethical issues, including the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent, are structured and extensively discussed in this article. Ethical core considerations of prevention research of CVD on herbal medicine involve particular attention on the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent. These issues and considerations are keys, although they must be adapted to an individual research setting in which a clinical study is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Assimilating Traditional Healing Into Preventive Medicine Residency Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Denece O; Hopkins, L Olivia; Torres, Eliseo; Prasad, Arti

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive cultural competency includes knowledge and awareness of culturally based healing and wellness practices. Healthcare providers should be aware of the individual patient's beliefs, culture, and use of culturally based health practices because patients may adopt such practices for general wellness or as adjunct therapies without the benefit of discussion with their healthcare provider. This article describes the culturally based traditional healing curriculum that has been implemented in the University of New Mexico Public Health and General Preventive Medicine Residency Program in order to fulfill this knowledge necessity. Curricular elements were added in a stepwise manner starting in 2011, with the full content as described implemented starting in 2013. Data were collected annually with evaluation of the full curriculum occurring in 2015. New Mexico has a diverse population base that includes predominantly Hispanic and Native American cultures, making the inclusion of curriculum regarding traditional healing practices very pertinent. Residents at the University of New Mexico were educated through several curricular components about topics such as Curanderismo, the art of Mexican Folk Healing. An innovative approach was used, with a compendium of training methods that included learning directly from traditional healers and participation in healing practices. The incorporation of this residency curriculum resulted in a means to produce physicians well trained in approaching patient care and population health with knowledge of culturally based health practices in order to facilitate healthy patients and communities. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The practice and earnings of preventive medicine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salive, M E

    1992-01-01

    A shortage of preventive medicine (PM) physicians exists in the United States. Researchers know little about these physicians' earnings and practice characteristics. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) mailed a survey to all self-identified PM physicians on the American Medical Association (AMA) Physician Masterfile. A total of 3,771 (54%) responded; respondents' sex and region of residence were typical for PM physicians in general, with a slight excess of older physicians and those reporting board certification. A total of 2,664 (71%) were working full time, with median earnings of $85,000 (mean $90,000). Among full-time physicians, relatively higher earnings were associated with the following characteristics: male sex; age 45 to 64 years; major source of income from clinical, business, or industrial sources, rather than governmental or academic; and PM board certification. Full-time PM physicians earned much less than office-based private practitioners in several primary care specialties in 1989. The gap in earnings between PM specialists in government positions and those in the private sector is also substantial. Both disparities may require creative solutions.

  16. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  17. [Preventive measures against minor's smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Adolescents are unique for tobacco control. They are easy to become tobacco-addicted and more than 70 % of adult smokers start to smoke tobacco during adolescence. Therefore, they are good targets for sales campaign by tobacco industry to secure their profit by making a large reservoir of smokers. Tobacco industry's tactics are very ingenious. It conducts many kinds of hidden advertisement. It supports many activities of youth and nonprofit organizations. Therefore, our effort should also put targets on adolescents. Adolescence is a unique stage of development and it is important to know its characteristics for effective approach to prevent starting and to facilitate quitting smoking. It is important to make tobacco-free environment surrounding adolescents, such as school campuses and other public places.

  18. Nutritional aspects to prevent heart diseases in traditional Persian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major health complications currently in various societies. Management of heart diseases as a prevention step or as treatment with low-cost procedures like lifestyle modifications including nutrition are important current trends. Although the term nutrition dates back to 2 past centuries, Persian physicians contributed to this term at least from 1000 years ago. Rhazes (865-925 AD) was one of the pioneers in this field. He preferred using foods in treating illnesses. "Foods and drinks" were 1 subject from 6 principles (Setteh Zarorieh) that Persian physicians believed can affect human health. In this review, we described some medieval Persian views on the role of nutrition in heart diseases and compare their prescriptions with current findings. Interestingly, current investigations mostly support Persian medicine principles. Historically, this work shows that the concept of nutrition in heart diseases has had a successful background at least from 1000 years ago in Persia. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Fundamentals of risk/benefit analysis in radiation uses in preventive medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    The term 'risk' stems from the insurance branch. It serves to estimate the probability of making statements about future events on the basis of events which have taken place. Risk estimations are increasingly being made in medicine, especially for determining the advantages and dangers brought to the population by preventive measures. The international radiation protection commission has, for some time, been expressing the dangers of ionising radiation in terms of risk and using these terms as basis for the dose limit values it determined for the professional and general population. This paper deals with possibilities of determining risks in preventive medicine. For doing this, acceptable risk values must be determined and risks resulting from diseases, esp. from those which were not recognized in time, must be compared with those resulting from the application of ionising radiation. (orig.) [de

  20. [SOCIAL IMPACT BONDS FOR HEALTH PROMOTION AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Roni S; Moran, Daniel S; Fire, Gil

    2018-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared obesity a global epidemic. WHO sheds much light on this matter in its publications on health promotion and preventative medicine. Lack of physical activity, an unbalanced diet and an unhealthy lifestyle are the leading causes of developing obesity and chronic diseases. In Israel, the growing rate of obesity is a reason for concern. About 500,000 diabetics, mainly as a result of obesity, live in Israel today and by 2030 the number is expected to rise to 2,000,000. Every third child born is expected to develop diabetes by the time they reach the age of 40 unless a profound change is made in health policy. The State of Israel recognizes its responsibility in promoting awareness against obesity as well as its role in prevention. In spite of the country's recognition of the problem, it still has not managed to implement long term solutions which address the issue. Therefore, creative and innovative solutions are called for. The social impact bond (SIB), a newly developed financial model is a possible solution. This model suggests the entry of private investors into the public sector, a field which is within the responsibility of the government. The private investor will be in charge of running a social program on a topic which will be finalized with the government. The private investor and the government will have a contract outlining the program and the criteria for the evaluation and the success of the program. To note, the private investor will only be paid according to the success of the program. Thus the purpose of SIB is in motion processes and is set to serve as a model for several years, and then the authorities will take over the responsibility and continue with the program that the SIB handled. In March 2016, a new SIB was launched in Israel to prevent Type 2 diabetes. This involves 2250 pre-diabetic adults who are at risk to develop Type 2 diabetes and will be identified by their Health Maintenance

  1. [New approaches in neurosurgery and hyperbaric medicine--the importance of preventive and industrial medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohshi, K; Munaka, M; Abe, H; Tosaki, T

    1999-12-01

    Neurosurgical patients have been mainly treated by surgical procedures over the past decades. In addition, hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy in neurosurgery has been used in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, head trauma, spinal damage, postoperative brain edema and others. However, the main therapeutic methods for neurosurgical diseases have changed dramatically due to developments in radiological techniques, such as radiosurgery and intravascular surgery. With changes in therapeutic methods, HBO therapy may become a very important treatment option for neurosurgical patients. For example, HBO therapy combined with radiotherapy (UOEH regimen) and anticoagulant therapy appear to be very effective in the treatments of malignant brain tumors and ischemic cerebrovascular diseases, respectively. On the other hand, medical examinations under hyper- and hypobaric environments have not yet been fully studied in the central nervous system compared to those in the cardiopulmonary systems. Moreover, the mechanisms of cerebral lesions in decompression sickness and acute mountain sickness remain unclear. Clinical neurologic approaches are very important in these fields. Hence, clinicians and researchers skilled in both neurosurgery and hyperbaric medicine will be required for advanced treatment and preventive and industrial medicine.

  2. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  3. Preventive medicines: vaccination, prophylaxis of infectious diseases, disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heininger, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Immunizations belong to the most successful interventions in medicine. Like other drugs, vaccines undergo long periods of pre-clinical development, followed by careful clinical testing through study Phases I, II, and III before they receive licensure. A successful candidate vaccine will move on to be an investigational vaccine to undergo three phases of pre-licensure clinical trials in a stepwise fashion before it can be considered for approval, followed by an optional fourth phase of post-marketing assessment. The overall risk-benefit assessment of a candidate vaccine is very critical in making the licensure decision for regulatory authorities, supported by their scientific committees. It includes analyses of immunogenicity, efficacy, reactogenicity or tolerability, and safety of the vaccine. Public trust in vaccines is a key to the success of immunization programs worldwide. Maintaining this trust requires knowledge of the benefits and scientific understanding of real or perceived risks of immunizations. Under certain circumstances, pre- or post-exposure passive immunization can be achieved by administration of immunoglobulines. In terms of prevention of infectious diseases, disinfection can be applied to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens from patient to patient, health-care workers to patients, patients to health-care workers, and objects or medical devices to patients.

  4. Pneumoconiosis in mines and preventive measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bouffant, L; Froger, C

    1978-01-01

    In the medical rules for the prevention of pneumoconiosis, workings are classified in six categories of risk, and personnel are classified into five groups for assignment to different categories of workings. Technical measures for preventing pneumoconiosis include suppression of dust by water infusion or spraying, and by appropriate adaptation of the conditions under which equipment is used. Dust can be removed from the air by collecting and dedusting systems and by the use of brattices.

  5. Past and present of measuring apparatus for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The history of advancement of measuring apparatus for nuclear medicine is looked back. It is presented that Japanese contribution to these advancement has been in no small quantities. The future view carrying the measuring apparatus for nuclear medicine is also described. (M.H.)

  6. Family Medicine in a Consumer Age — Part 4: Preventive Medicine, Professional Satisfaction, and the Rise of Consumerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Morton M.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to find out if the physician perceives the same strengths and weaknesses in today's practice of family medicine as does the consumer, the Lay Advisory Committee of the College's B.C. Chapter initiated a survey of physicians' and consumers' attitudes. This article, the fourth and last in a series, presents some of the results of the survey as they relate to preventive-medicine, professional satisfaction and the rise of consumerism.

  7. Danish preventive measures and deradicalization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    ) prevention and countering of threats to national security, by the Danish Security and Intelligence Service (PET). The last two elements are in line with measures adopted by the international community. The element (a) is well known in some countries; however, the Danish programme and in particular the so...

  8. TERMINATION OF RIGHT TO PREVENTIVE MEASURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RADU MARIUS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Preventive measures were binding, without, however, being procedural criminal sanctions or penalties and not run counter to the freedom of the individual and does not attack the principle of presumption of innocence. They ensure the good running of the criminal process, which has led to the inclusion of modern legislation in all imprisonment by way of judicial review, as a procesuala of the most severe.Termination of right to preventive measures shall designate by virtue of which the legal situation, whether in judicial activities involved some "incident" which recognizes ope legis effect subject to extinctive interpretation towards preventive measures, judicial bodies are required to cease such action.The judicial authority is obliged, therefore, to release the detained or arrested when there is one of the situations referred to in article 140 from the code of penal procedure.This study has proceeded from the need to standardise and judicial practice and the consistent application of the law in the matter of the termination of the preventive measures — as a guarantee of the respect for rights indispensable accused/defendant in criminal proceedings.Even if at first glance the law is clear and concise, however, judicial practice has passed different solutions, often giving the misinterpretation, and precisely why during the study I will present some of the most relevant solutions jurisprudenţiale, both published and unpublished, as well as the jurisprudence of the European Court of human rights, also commenting on his own option likely controversy.In view of these considerations in the present research wish to realize a complete documentation and jurisprudenţiala and doctrinara, trying to force through the comments made on the text of regulations and solutions given by courts to make a judgment necessary and useful to practitioners of law cases of cessation of the right to preventive measures.

  9. Functional Measurements in Nuclear Medicine. Chapter 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, M. J. [Institute of Clinical Sciences, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    The strength of nuclear medicine lies in using the tracer method to acquire information about how an organ is or is not functioning as it should. This modality, therefore, focuses on physiological organ function for diagnoses and not on anatomical information such as X ray computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging. The three aspects involved in the process are: (i) choice of radioactive tracer, (ii) method of detection of the emissions from the tracer, and (iii) analysis of the results of the detection. The radioactive tracers on which nuclear medicine (or molecular imaging as it is increasingly being called) is based are designed to participate in or ‘trace’ a chosen function of the body. Their distribution is then found by detecting and locating the emissions, usually γ photons, of the radioactive tracer. The tracer may be involved in a metabolic process, such as iodine in the thyroid, or it may take part in a physiological process because of its physical make-up, such as macroaggregate of albumin (MAA) in the lungs.

  10. Problems of provision of unity of measurements in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarbeev, Yu.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problems on providing the measurement unity in medicine on the country scale and within the world community frames are considered. Attention is paid to thermometry, pressure and viscosity measurements, studies in the area of colour vision and laser technique, electrometry, magnetic fields parameters measurements and physico-chemical measurements. The main accent is made on ionizing radiation metrology. The problems on metrological provision of intellectual measurement means for medical purposes and the reference base of Russia as the basis for providing the measurement unity in medicine are also discussed [ru

  11. Practical measurement of affordability: An application to medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A. Cameron (ALexandra); M. Ewen (Margaret); R. Laing (Richard); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. __Methods:__ The proposed methods - catastrophic and impoverishment methods - rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a

  12. Salt and its Role in Health and Disease Prevention from the Perspectives of Iranian Medicine and Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Masoud; Vahid, Hamide

    2016-05-01

    Salt in Iranian medical sources is mentioned as Malh and has a special place in people's nutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of correct use of salt on health and disease prevention in the context of Iranian medicine and its comparison with modern medicine. This article reviews Iranian medicine references on the usage of salt and its benefits. Additionally, modern medicine references were searched to identify the dos and don'ts of salt consumption. Then the results from both approaches were compared and analyzed. The main application salt in Iranian medical resources includes usage in latif supplier, solvent, dryer, laxative of phlegm and melancholy, slimy moisture body repellent, opening obstruction of liver and spleen, aid in digestion, beneficial for seeds and corruption of foods, appetizing, cold foods reformer and improving the flavor of foods. On the other hand, the major benefits of salt according to modern medicine resources are; aiding the balance of electrolytes and fluids, carry nutrients into cells, regulation of acid-base balance, support transfer of nerve impulses, regulate blood pressure, and secretion of gastric acid. According to the Iranian medicine, the amount and type of salt to maintain health and prevent diseases is determined based on factors such as temperament, age, health and disease, season, and location. While a unique approach is not prescribed for every individual, in modern medicine resources, a fixed set of guidelines is recommended for all healthy individuals. Consequently, the modern medicine pays less attention to physiological, structural, and genetic issues. Considering the importance of salt and its undeniable impact on human health, it is apparent that additional research is required to determine factors affecting the actual amount of salt per person.

  13. In-vitro-measuring in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthold, F.

    1976-01-01

    The latest developments in in-vitro measuring are in the fields of sample preparation and data processing. They help to arrive at integrated systems enabling an almost complete automation, especially of radioimmunoassays. (orig.) [de

  14. Managed care, consumerism, preventive medicine: does a causal connection exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, John A; Xie, Yang

    2006-07-01

    Managed care plans, and HMOs in particular, have long touted that their emphasis is on preventive care, to avoid expensive illness later in life. However, few articles in the contemporary literature adequately address this claim. The available evidence seems to support that HMOs do, in fact, provide greater access to preventive services, but the limitations of this research are substantial. This article discusses the scientific evidence on the relationships between managed care arrangements and the implications for preventive care in the current era, emphasizing consumer choices and less-restrictive plan structures.

  15. Patient Satisfaction Measurement in Occupational and Environmental Medicine Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, David L; Adamo, Philip; Cloeren, Marianne; Hegmann, Kurt T; Martin, Douglas W; Levine, Michael J; Olson, Shawn M; Pransky, Glenn S; Tacci, James A; Thiese, Matthew

    2018-05-01

    : High patient satisfaction is a desirable goal in medical care. Patient satisfaction measures are increasingly used to evaluate and improve quality in all types of medical practices. However, the unique aspects of occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) practice require development of OEM-specific measures and thoughtful interpretation of results. The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine has developed and recommends a set of specific questions to measure patient satisfaction in OEM, designed to meet anticipated regulatory requirements, facilitate quality improvement of participating OEM practices, facilitate case-management review, and offer fair and accurate assessment of OEM physicians.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine and new concepts of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of suboptimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Russell, Alyce; Yan, Yuxiang

    2014-02-13

    The premise of disease-related phenotypes is the definition of the counterpart normality in medical sciences. Contrary to clinical practices that can be carefully planned according to clinical needs, heterogeneity and uncontrollability is the essence of humans in carrying out health studies. Full characterization of consistent phenotypes that define the general population is the basis to individual difference normalization in personalized medicine. Self-claimed normal status may not represent health because asymptomatic subjects may carry chronic diseases at their early stage, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Currently, treatments for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) are implemented after disease onset, which is a very much delayed approach from the perspective of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM). A NCD pandemic will develop and be accompanied by increased global economic burden for healthcare systems throughout both developed and developing countries. This paper examples the characterization of the suboptimal health status (SHS) which represents a new PPPM challenge in a population with ambiguous health complaints such as general weakness, unexplained medical syndrome (UMS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). We applied clinical informatic approaches and developed a questionnaire-suboptimal health status questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) for measuring SHS. The validity and reliability of this approach were evaluated in a small pilot study and then in a cross-sectional study of 3,405 participants in China. We found a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol among men, and a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides

  17. A bibliometric analysis in the fields of preventive medicine, occupational and environmental medicine, epidemiology, and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b the population size of each region. Results A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, at a level similar to other scientific disciplines, while USA contribution to science in the field of Public Health is by all means outstanding. Less developed regions would need to support their researchers in the above fields in order to improve scientific production and advancement of knowledge in their countries.

  18. Wellness Programs: Preventive Medicine to Reduce Health Care Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Gilbert R., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A wellness program is a formalized approach to preventive health care that can positively affect employee lifestyle and reduce future health-care costs. Describes programs for health education, smoking cessation, early detection, employee assistance, and fitness, citing industry success figures. (eight references) (MLF)

  19. First Consensus on Primary Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Marina; Anand, Chytra V; Besins, Thierry; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Gout, Uliana; Kerscher, Martina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Braz, Andre

    2017-09-01

    Facial aging is a complex interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors leading to progressive changes in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. Clinical experience suggests that early aesthetic intervention may slow the signs of aging, but treatment in the absence of symptoms or with minimal signs of aging has not yet been properly addressed. To provide treatment recommendations for primary prevention and early intervention in individuals with no or minimal signs of aging. Fourteen specialists in aesthetic medicine convened over a full-day meeting under the guidance of a certified moderator. Tailored treatment recommendations have been provided for prevention and early intervention of fine wrinkles, static lines and folds, irregular pigmentation, laxity, and subcutaneous volume loss by protecting the epidermis, stimulating neocollagenesis, reducing hyperkinetic musculature, and reinforcing supporting structures. Preventive measures and early therapeutic interventions that may alter the course of facial aging were defined. Further studies are needed to support these recommendations with the best possible evidence. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):846-854..

  20. History of “health risk” and its place in the development of preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.Е. Shigan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of the introduction and development of preventive medicine and the term HEALTH RISK are described. The “risk” definition is related to the works by Max Fasmer and Frank Knight. The development of preventive medicine was also influenced by the works of scientists and physicians of the ancient world and the Middle Ages. Particular attention is paid to the appearance, formation and development of the medical school of Salerno, and the impact of its work and the activities of scientists and teachers on further development of prevention and treatment. The relationship of these two concepts and their history is shown. The author dwells on the prevention development in Russia, paying particular attention to domestic researchers, especially after the victory of the Great October Revolution. Works by N.A. Semashko, Z.P. Soloviev, G.V. Khlopin, A.N. Sysin and F.G. Krotkov played a huge role in the development of preventive medicine in Russia and in the world. The article also represents the prevention medicine development facts in the post-war years – the creation of large schools of medicine, aimed at the prevention of diseases and epidemiological studies of the risk incurred. The article also pays attention to the foundation of International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, some areas of its work, especially in relation to research on the health risks. The itegration at mathematical modeling and forecasting with medicine in general and health in particular, as well as the study of the health concepts of risks at individual nosological examples are written.

  1. [Review of the approach to exercise behavior modification from the viewpoint of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.

  2. [Employment opportunities and education needs of physicians with specialty training in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fara, Gaetano M; Nardi, Giuseppe; Signorelli, Carlo; Fanti, Mila

    2005-01-01

    This survey was carried out under the sponsorship of the Italian Society of Hygiene (SItI), to evaluate the current professional position of physicians who completed their post-graduate professional training in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine in the years 2000 through 2003. An ad-hoc questionnaire was administered to 689 such specialists across Italy with a response rate of 40%. The results show that specialists in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine are generally satisfied with their professional choice though most specialists were found to have only temporary employment. Post-specialty training courses of major interest to specialists in Hygiene and Preventive medicine are those regarding occupational health, statistical analysis and epidemiology, and quality of health care.

  3. Motivators and barriers for dog and cat owners and veterinary surgeons in the United Kingdom to using preventative medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belshaw, Zoe; Robinson, Natalie J; Dean, Rachel S; Brennan, Marnie L

    2018-06-01

    Routine use of preventative medicines is advocated as part of responsible dog and cat ownership. However, it has been suggested that the number of owners in the United Kingdom (UK) using preventative medicines to protect their pets is in decline. The aim of this novel study was to use a qualitative methodology to explore the attitudes of pet owners and veterinary surgeons in the UK to using preventative medicine products in dogs and cats. Preventative medicine was defined as "a drug or any other preparation used to prevent disease, illness or injury." Semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone with owners and veterinary surgeons who had recently participated in a preventative healthcare consultation. Thematic analysis of transcribed recordings of these interviews identified four themes. This paper reports the theme related to motivators and barriers to using preventative medicines. Owners' understanding varied widely about the importance of preventative medicines for pets, as did their confidence in the safety of prescription products. A good relationship with their veterinary surgeon or practice, seeing adverts on the television about specific diseases, advice from a breeder and having personally seen infected animals appeared to be motivators for owners to use preventative medicines. Concern about adverse events and uncertainty about the necessity of using preventative medicines were barriers. Owners who trusted their veterinary surgeons to advise them on preventative medicine products described little use of alternative information sources when making preventative medicine choices. However, owners who preferred to do their own research described reading online opinions, particular in relation to the safety of preventative medicines, which they found confusing. In contrast, veterinary surgeons described broad confidence in the safety and efficacy of prescription preventative medicines and described protection of pet health as a strong motivator for

  4. Measurement and the Professions: Lessons from Accounting, Law, and Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Jeri; And Others

    1983-01-01

    This detailed analysis of the role of measurement across the three professions of law, medicine, and accounting offers insights into entry-level and performance barriers in occupations that rely on certification, licensing, and regulation to influence performance, ethics, and training. (Author/PN)

  5. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Context The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. Evidence Acquisition In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. Results From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Conclusions Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important. PMID:27275398

  6. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-04-01

    The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important.

  7. Proactive prevention in occupational safety and health: how to identify tomorrow's prevention priorities and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, Angelika; Flaspöler, Eva; Reinert, Dietmar

    2018-04-17

    Global trends such as digitalisation, globalisation and demographic change are changing workplaces, and accordingly occupational safety and health (OSH) needs. To better prepare for the future and to foster proactive prevention, the German Social Accident Insurance (DGUV) established an OSH risk observatory (RO OSH). The RO OSH relies on an online survey and calls upon the expertise of labour inspectors. 398 labour inspectors participated in the first RO OSH enquiry. They rated developments with regard to their sector-specific relevance for OSH in the near future. The RO OSH also provides ideas for preventive measures that can be implemented by the German Social Accident Insurance Institutions. Work intensity, demographic aspects, and digitalisation play a major role for most or all sectors. However, familiar OSH issues such as musculoskeletal strain and noise also continue to be of major importance and require further consideration and specific solutions in prevention. For the DGUV, training and consulting bear great potential for proactive prevention in the above priority areas, e.g. by fostering a prevention culture and supporting companies in (psychosocial) risk assessment (also for mobile work). For instance, concepts for increasing physical activity at sedentary workplaces, and data security require continued research.

  8. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  9. A Military Doctor Pioneer of the Preventive Medicine in Turkey: Colonel Dr. Huseyin Remzi Bey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Ceyhan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important turning points in Turkish History of Medicine is the transfer of Western / European medical knowledge to Ottoman medicine in 19th century. This knowledge is mostly transferred by government employed Ottoman citizens and aimed at improving the health status of the Ottoman State’s elites, troops and people. Most important contributions of transferring and popularizing the concepts of microbe and vaccination to Ottoman medicine, concerning both disease and preventive medicine, were made by a military doctor, “Colonel Dr. Huseyin Remzi Bey”. He served in a large spectrum of military and civilian health services from field medicine to professorship in higher educational institutes and made important contributions for education of modern medicine in Turkish language. He was a part of the Ottoman team visiting Pasteur to learn the rabies vaccine and given credit to be one of the first users of microbiological knowledge and applications in Ottoman Country. He also tried to disseminate the knowledge about health amongst people and wrote more than 50 manuscripts, most of them published as books or newspaper periodicals. He is a figure who made important contributions of the accumulation and distribution of modern medical knowledge, including preventive medicine, in Turkey. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 347-350

  10. Measurement of Quality to Improve Care in Sleep Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Aronsky, Amy J.; Carden, Kelly A.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Task Force to develop quality measures as part of its strategic plan to promote high quality patient-centered care. Among many potential dimensions of quality, the AASM requested Workgroups to develop outcome and process measures to aid in evaluating the quality of care of five common sleep disorders: restless legs syndrome, insomnia, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea in adults, and obstructive sleep apne...

  11. Traditional herbal medicine prevents postoperative recurrence of small hepatocellular carcinoma: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Shen, Feng; Fan, Jia; Ling, Chang-Quan

    2018-05-15

    To explore the clinical efficacy of traditional herbal medicine (THM) in the prevention of disease recurrence of small hepatocellular carcinoma after surgery, a prospective randomized controlled study was conducted between October 2006 and May 2010. The results indicated that THM prevented the recurrence of SHCC with an efficacy that was superior to that of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) during a median follow-up of 26.61 months. The patients were followed up every 6 months, and the clinical data before October 20, 2015 were analyzed. The primary outcome measure was recurrence-free survival (RFS), and the secondary outcome measure was overall survival (OS). The 364 patients included 180 in the THM group and 184 in the TACE group. At the time of the data cutoff of October 20, 2015, a total of 205 patients demonstrated disease recurrence, including 85 patients in the THM group and 120 patients in the TACE group. The median RFS of the THM and TACE groups demonstrated a statistically significant difference (P<.001). Until October 20, 2105, there were 91 deaths, including 34 in the THM group and 57 in the TACE group. The median OS demonstrated a significant difference between the 2 groups (P = .008). Multivariate analysis indicated that THM was an independent factor influencing RFS and OS. The efficacy of THM was found to be superior to that of TACE in preventing disease recurrence in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma and prolonging OS. Cancer 2018;124:2161-8. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  12. Working session 4: Preventative and corrective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.; Slama, G.

    1997-01-01

    The Preventive and Corrective Measures working session included 13 members from France, Germany, Japan, Spain, Slovenia, and the United States. Attendee experience included regulators, utilities, three steam generator vendors, consultants and researchers. Discussions centered on four principal topics: (1) alternate materials, (2) mechanical mitigation, (3) maintenance, and (4) water chemistry. New or replacement steam generators and original equipment steam generators were separately addressed. Four papers were presented to the session, to provide information and stimulate various discussion topics. Topics discussed and issues raised during the several meeting sessions are provided below, followed by summary conclusions and recommendations on which the group was able to reach a majority consensus. The working session was composed of individuals with diverse experience and varied areas of specialized expertise. The somewhat broad range of topics addressed by the group at times saw discussion participation by only a few individuals. As in any technical meeting where all are allowed the opportunity to speak their mind, straying from an Individual topic was not unusual. Where useful, these stray topics are also presented below within the context In which they occurred. The main categories of discussion were: minimize sludge; new steam generators; maintenance; mechanical mitigation; water chemistry

  13. THE ROLE OF THE PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. A STUDY CASE ON THE PRIVATE MEDICINE SECTOR IN ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita Lucian

    2011-12-01

    intercultural preventative medical approaches, and the good governance, policy relevance, and corporate social responsibility, and were analyzed mainly referring to the potential of the Romanian private medicine sector in preventive medicine. The conclusions of the paper reveal the fact that the region of Oradea is much above the average index of Romania when it comes to preventive medicine, but still behind the other EU Member States. So, the background for meeting the precondition for economic growth and sustainable development in Oradea was created, but there are still a lots to be done on short term, even because of the features of this area, which situates it at the top of the cancer diseases registered cases in the country.

  14. Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning of preventive medicine education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

    2014-05-30

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.

  15. [Recognizing prevention and treatment of burn sepsis with the concept of holistic integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, J N

    2017-04-20

    Sepsis remains a major cause of death in severe burns. The effect of sepsis management is influenced by its complicated pathophysiologic changes. In order to improve the outcome of burn sepsis, the predisposing factor of sepsis after burn analyzed by advanced technology, the early prevention, antibiotics therapy, and combined treatment in severe burns with sepsis are discussed using the concept of holistic integrative medicine.

  16. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  17. Women in Academic Medicine: Measuring Stereotype Threat Among Junior Faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassiotto, Magali; Hamel, Elizabeth Otto; Ku, Manwai; Correll, Shelley; Grewal, Daisy; Lavori, Philip; Periyakoil, V J; Reiss, Allan; Sandborg, Christy; Walton, Gregory; Winkleby, Marilyn; Valantine, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    Gender stereotypes in science impede supportive environments for women. Research suggests that women's perceptions of these environments are influenced by stereotype threat (ST): anxiety faced in situations where one may be evaluated using negative stereotypes. This study developed and tested ST metrics for first time use with junior faculty in academic medicine. Under a 2012 National Institutes of Health Pathfinder Award, Stanford School of Medicine's Office of Diversity and Leadership, working with experienced clinicians, social scientists, and epidemiologists, developed and administered ST measures to a representative group of junior faculty. 174 School of Medicine junior faculty were recruited (62% women, 38% men; 75% assistant professors, 25% instructors; 50% white, 40% Asian, 10% underrepresented minority). Women reported greater susceptibility to ST than did men across all items including ST vulnerability (p gender identification (p women reported lower beliefs in advancement (p = 0.021); however, they had similar career interest and identification, felt just as connected to colleagues, and were equally likely to pursue careers outside academia (all p > 0.42). Innovative ST metrics can provide a more complete picture of academic medical center environments. While junior women faculty are susceptible to ST, they may not yet experience all of its consequences in their early careers. As such, ST metrics offer a tool for evaluating institutional initiatives to increase supportive environments for women in academic medicine.

  18. Gene–Environment Interactions in Preventive Medicine: Current Status and Expectations for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Narimatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The progression of many common disorders involves a complex interplay of multiple factors, including numerous different genes and environmental factors. Gene–environmental cohort studies focus on the identification of risk factors that cannot be discovered by conventional epidemiological methodologies. Such epidemiological methodologies preclude precise predictions, because the exact risk factors can be revealed only after detailed analyses of the interactions among multiple factors, that is, between genes and environmental factors. To date, these cohort studies have reported some promising results. However, the findings do not yet have sufficient clinical significance for the development of precise, personalized preventive medicine. Especially, some promising preliminary studies have been conducted in terms of the prevention of obesity. Large-scale validation studies of those preliminary studies, using a prospective cohort design and long follow-ups, will produce useful and practical evidence for the development of preventive medicine in the future.

  19. “HealthOmeter”: An Aid in Advancing Preventive Medicine Media Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Trell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective wellbeing is an important issue on the preventive medicine and political agenda and for mutual communication, information, and interaction in society and its individuals “requires new tools for measuring phenomena previously believed unmeasurable, as well as conceptual frameworks for interpreting such measurements…considering both happiness and misery.” The task is difficult, however, due to the great span of parameters and variables of age and gender, settings, socioeconomic conditions, wellness and illness, activities and functions, roles and habits, thoughts and feelings, and experiences and expectations involved over the panorama. HealthOmeter is a clinically tested and validated instrument with design and capacity in distinct coherent chapters to meet the new measurement and interpretation demands both contentwise and operationwise. Over the range of subjective and objective health it enables, in a uniform normalized layout in quintile balance between positive and negative, an all-round self-assessment and counsel in multimedia, preferably computer/mobile app distribution including storage, collation, and follow-up in full integrity and secrecy on the individual and aggregated level.

  20. Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 individuals, we show that very brief measures of young adults’ personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness-to-Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health-risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for healthcare professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing healthcare electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient outcomes. PMID:24588093

  1. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control.A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals.In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level.Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  2. The use of quality of life measures in oral medicine: a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riordain, R Ni

    2010-07-01

    To explore the use of patient reported quality of life measures in oral medicine, to highlight the importance of use of these measures in oral medicine practice and to provide guidance for the selection of such measures in the future.

  3. Role of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Prevention of Respiratory Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroushzadeh, Sayed Mohammad Ali; Khiveh, Ali; Gerayelimalek, Valiollah

    2016-05-01

    In order to define appropriate plans for respiratory infectious diseases, in accordance with Iranian traditional medicine, one should cover the topic of "havae vabai". "Havae vabai" is related to the epidemics of respiratory infectious diseases. This study is a review of the role of Iranian traditional medicine in the prevention of respiratory infectious diseases .Resources of traditional medicine with the keyword "havae vabai" were reviewed in Noor digital library. The perspective of traditional medicine for the prevention of disease in "havae vabai" is based on self-recuperation and air modification. Items that are mentioned are; refine the surrounding air, move to a proper space, live in a house with no source of water like fountains and limited flow of air, air-drying, use air freshener, smell fruit sticks, use in-house plants, and place a cloth soaked with vinegar in front of the nose. For self-recuperation, reducing body moisture with proper foods and drugs or with vomiting, diarrhea, phlebotomy, wet-cupping, reduction in food and drink intake, avoiding sexual intercourse, bathing, heavy exercise, inactivity, overeating, hunger, thirst, milk, sweets, fish, fatty foods, fruits especially juicy fruits are recommended. The food that tends to have a sour taste, eating meat cooked with sour taste like vinegar is suggested. The use of the solutions offered in traditional medicine to control air is helpful as it can reduce epidemics, such as influenza; that yearly kills many patients with a heavy financial burden.

  4. Bibliometric investigation on preventive medicine in North Korea: a coauthor and keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the 2 preventive medicine journals in North Korea by using coauthor and keyword network analysis on the basis of medical informatics and bibliometrics. Used were the Journal of Chosun Medicine (JCM) and the Journal of Preventive Medicine (JPM) (from the first volume of 1997 to the fourth volume of 2006) as data. Extracted were 1734 coauthors from 1104 articles and 1567 coauthors from 1172 articles, respectively. Huge single components were extracted in the coauthor analysis, which indicated a tendency toward structuralization. However, the 2 journals differed in that JPM showed a relative tendency toward specialization, whereas JCM showed one toward generalization. Seventeen and 33 keywords were extracted from each journal in the keyword analysis; JCM mainly concerned pathological research, whereas JPM mainly concerned virus and basic medicine studies that were based on infection and immunity. In contrast to South Korea, North Korea has developed Juche medicine, which came from self-reliance ideology and gratuitous medical service. According to the present study, their ideology was embodied by the discovery of bacteria, study on immune system, and emphasis on pathology, on the basis of experimental epidemiology. However, insufficient research has been conducted thus far on population health and its related determinants.

  5. Venous thromboembolism: the prevailing approach to diagnosis, prevention and treatment among Internal Medicine practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Arie; Gavish, Israel; Kfir, Hila; Rimbrot, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is the third most common cause of death and the leading cause of sudden death in hospitalized medical patients. Despite the existence of guidelines for prevention and treatment of this disorder, their implementation in everyday life is not always accomplished. We performed a survey among directors of Internal Medicine departments in our country in order to evaluate their attitude and approach to this issue. A questionnaire with pertinent questions regarding prevention and treatment of VTE, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) was sent to each one of the directors of Internal Medicine Departments around the country. Sixty-nine out of 97 (71%) of the Internal Medicine departments directors responded the questionnaire. We found that several of the current guidelines were followed in a reasonable way. On the other hand, heterogeneity of responses was also present and the performance of current guidelines was imperfectly followed, and showed to be deficient in several aspects. An effort should be done in order to reemphasize and put in effect current guidelines for the prevention and treatment of VTE among hospitalists and Internal Medicine practitioners.

  6. Measuring faculty retention and success in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Andrew; Wingard, Deborah; Gamst, Anthony; Larsen, Catherine; Farrell, Elizabeth; Reznik, Vivian

    2012-08-01

    To develop and demonstrate the usefulness of quantitative methods for assessing retention and academic success of junior faculty in academic medicine. The authors created matched sets of participants and nonparticipants in a junior faculty development program based on hire date and academic series for newly hired assistant professors at the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), School of Medicine between 1988 and 2005. They used Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards survival analyses to characterize the influence of covariates, including gender, ethnicity, and program participation, on retention. They also developed a new method for quantifying academic success based on several measures including (1) leadership and professional activities, (2) honors and awards, (3) research grants, (4) teaching and mentoring/advising activities, and (5) publications. The authors then used these measures to compare matched pairs of participating and nonparticipating faculty who were subsequently promoted and remained at UCSD. Compared with matched nonparticipants, the retention of junior faculty who participated in the faculty development program was significantly higher. Among those who were promoted and remained at UCSD, the academic success of faculty development participants was consistently greater than that of matched nonparticipants. This difference reached statistical significance for leadership and professional activities. Using better quantitative methods for evaluating retention and academic success will improve understanding and research in these areas. In this study, use of such methods indicated that organized junior faculty development programs have positive effects on faculty retention and may facilitate success in academic medicine.

  7. Evolutionary medicine--the quest for a better understanding of health, disease and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüne, Martin; Hochberg, Ze'ev

    2013-04-29

    Clinical medicine has neglected the fact that the make-up of organs and body functions, as well as the human-specific repertoire of behaviors and defenses against pathogens or other potential dangers are the product of adaptation by natural and sexual selection. Even more, for many clinicians it does not seem straightforward to accept a role of evolution in the understanding of disease, let alone, treatment and prevention.Accordingly, this Editorial seeks to set the stage for an article collection that aims at dealing precisely with the question of why evolutionary aspects of health and disease are not only interesting, but necessary to improve clinical medicine.

  8. Perspectives of family medicine physicians on the importance of adolescent preventive care: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jaime L; Aalsma, Matthew C; Gilbert, Amy L; Hensel, Devon J; Rickert, Vaughn I

    2016-01-20

    The study objective was to identify commonalities amongst family medicine physicians who endorse annual adolescent visits. A nationally weighted representative on-line survey was used to explore pediatrician (N = 204) and family medicine physicians (N = 221) beliefs and behaviors surrounding adolescent wellness. Our primary outcome was endorsement that adolescents should receive annual preventive care visits. Pediatricians were significantly more likely (p family medicine physicians, bivariate comparisons were conducted between those who endorsed an annual visit (N = 164) compared to those who did not (N = 57) with significant predictors combined into two multivariate logistic regression models. Model 1 controlled for: patient race, proportion of 13-17 year olds in provider's practice, discussion beliefs scale and discussion behaviors with parents scale. Model 2 controlled for the same first three variables as well as discussion behaviors with adolescents scale. Model 1 showed for each discussion beliefs scale topic selected, family medicine physicians had 1.14 increased odds of endorsing annual visits (p family medicine physicians had 1.15 increased odds of also endorsing the importance of annual visits (p Family medicine physicians that endorse annual visits are significantly more likely to affirm they hold strong beliefs about topics that should be discussed during the annual exam. They also act on these beliefs by talking to parents of teens about these topics. This group appears to focus on quality of care in thought and deed.

  9. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohiuddin, M; Arbain, D; Islam, A K M Shafiqul; Ahmad, M S; Ahmad, M N

    2016-12-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau (Ehretis laevis), Cemumar (Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C.

  10. Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...

  11. Intercomparison of 131I activity measurements in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G. Y.; Yang, H. K.; Lim, C. I.; Lee, H. K.; Jeong, H. K.

    2004-01-01

    Activity measurements in nuclear medicine using a dose calibrator have been performed for several decades and their reliability has varied. To minimise the radiation dose to patients with radionuclides, it is necessary to ensure that the sample administered is accurately assayed. Recognizing the importance of intercomparison in nuclear medicine and the need to make access to activity standards traceable to the international measurement system, the KFDA, as a national secondary standard dosimetry laboratory (SSDL), started an intercomparison program in 2002. This program was initiated by survey to all nuclear medicine centres regarding general information about their dose calibrators, radioisotopes etc. 71 nuclear medicine centres (79 dose calibrators) participated in the intercomparison program with 131 I isotope. To assess the accuracy of clinical measurements of the activity of 131 I solutions and to determine the reason for the disagreement, an intercomparison was conducted using 4 ml aliquots in 10 ml P6 vial with a total activity in the region of 10 -20 MBq. The reference time of decay for all solutions was 0:00 on 25 September 2002. The half-life used was 8.04 days. For the evaluation of solution in KFDA, a sealed, high pressure and re-entrant ionisation chamber, NPL-CRC radionuclide calibrators were used. The verification of our calibration quality was by means of a comparison with the Korea Primary Standard Laboratory (KRISS). The activity ratio of KFDA to KRISS for the 131 I solutions is 1.011. The difference between the value quoted by the clinic, A hospital and the value obtained by the KFDA, A KFDA , is expressed as a percent deviation, i.e. DEV(%) 100x(A hospital -A KFDA )/A KFDA . From the data obtained it was found that 61% of the calibrators showed a deviation within +/-5%; 23% had a deviation in the range 5% 131 I solution activity measurements, using dose calibrators in Koreas, and also to provide the participants with a traceable standard to

  12. Herbal Medicine Goshajinkigan Prevents Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Allodynia without Impairing Antitumor Activity of Paclitaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar, Muh. Akbar; Andoh, Tsugunobu; Ogura, Keisuke; Hayakawa, Yoshihiro; Saiki, Ikuo; Kuraishi, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. However, there are no effective strategies to treat the neuropathy. We examined whether Goshajinkigan, a herbal medicine, would prevent paclitaxel-induced allodynia without affecting the anticancer action in mice. Murine breast cancer 4T1 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad. Paclitaxel (10 and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, alternate day from day 7 postinoculation) ...

  13. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  14. Lifestyle precision medicine: the next generation in type 2 diabetes prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutie, Pascal M; Giordano, Giuseppe N; Franks, Paul W

    2017-09-22

    The driving force behind the current global type 2 diabetes epidemic is insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary factors, physical inactivity, and sedentary behaviors are the major modifiable risk factors for obesity. Nevertheless, many overweight/obese people do not develop diabetes and lifestyle interventions focused on weight loss and diabetes prevention are often ineffective. Traditionally, chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations have been the hallmark of diabetes; however, many individuals will either remain 'prediabetic' or regress to normoglycemia. Thus, there is a growing need for innovative strategies to tackle diabetes at scale. The emergence of biomarker technologies has allowed more targeted therapeutic strategies for diabetes prevention (precision medicine), though largely confined to pharmacotherapy. Unlike most drugs, lifestyle interventions often have systemic health-enhancing effects. Thus, the pursuance of lifestyle precision medicine in diabetes seems rational. Herein, we review the literature on lifestyle interventions and diabetes prevention, describing the biological systems that can be characterized at scale in human populations, linking them to lifestyle in diabetes, and consider some of the challenges impeding the clinical translation of lifestyle precision medicine.

  15. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Meet Integrative Health: Applications of Competency Mapping to Curriculum Education at the University of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Eden V; Benn, Rita K; Warber, Sara L

    2015-11-01

    The University of Michigan School of Public Health Preventive Medicine Residency (UMSPH PMR) Integrative Medicine Program (IMP) was developed to incorporate integrative medicine (IM), public health, and preventive medicine principles into a comprehensive curriculum for preventive medicine residents and faculty. The objectives of this project were to (1) increase the preventive medicine workforce skill sets based in complementary and alternative medicine and IM that would address individual and population health issues; (2) address the increasing demand for evidence-based IM by training physicians to implement cost-effective primary and secondary prevention services and programs; and (3) share lessons learned, curriculum evaluations, and best practices with the larger cohort of funded IM PMR programs. The UMSPH PMR collaborated with University of Michigan IM faculty to incorporate existing IM competencies with those already established for preventive medicine and public health residency training as the first critical step for IMP curriculum integration. Essential teaching strategies incorporated didactic and practicum methods, and made use of seasoned IM faculty, along with newly minted preventive medicine integrative teaching faculty, and PMR resident learners as IM teachers. The major components of the IMP curriculum included resident participation in IMP Orientation Sessions, resident leadership in epidemiology graduate IM seminars, resident rotations in IM month-long clinical practicums, resident participation in interprofessional health system-wide IM clinical case conferences, and PMR faculty enrollment in the renowned Faculty Scholars Program in Integrative Healthcare. This paper describes the novel interdisciplinary collaborations and key curriculum components that resulted in the IMP, as well as evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and lessons learned. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preventive Measures Adopted by Nigerian Farmers for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adoption of environmental hazards preventive measures among cocoa farmers in Nigeria. It specifically identified and evaluated the preventive measures adopted by the farmers against environmental hazards associated with cocoa farming. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting ...

  17. National audit of radioactivity measurements in Nuclear Medicine Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D.B.; Joseph, Leena; Babu, D.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Routine activity measurements of radiopharmaceutical solutions in Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) are carried out with the help of radionuclide calibrators (RC). These solutions are either ingested or injected to the patient for diagnosis or therapy. However, for the realization of an optimized examination, the activity of these radiopharmaceuticals must be determined accurately before administering it to patients. The primary standards are maintained by Radiation Standards Section, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division. National audit programmes of Iodine -131 activity measurements with RCs are conducted biannually to establish traceability to national standards and to check the status of nuclear medicine practice followed at the NMC. The results of fifteenth audit of 131 I activity measurements with RC are presented in this paper. Questionnaires were sent to two hundred and thirty three NMCs in-the country. One hundred and nine NMC's agreed for participation and accordingly, glass vials containing radioactive 131 I solution of nominal activity of 100 MBq were procured from Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai. The radioactivity in each vial was determined with high pressure re-entrant gamma ionisation chamber (GIC), a secondary standard maintained by this laboratory. The sensitivity coefficient of GIC is traceable to the primary standard. The standardized radioactive solution of 131 I in glass vial was sent to each participant. Measurements results were reported in the reporting form sent. This audit was conducted in four schedules in Jan 2013. One hundred and sixty six results were received from one hundred and nine participants as many participants took measurements on more than one isotope calibrator

  18. PRECISION MEDICINE - The Golden Gate for Detection, Treatment and Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, H; O'Bryant, S E; Castrillo, J I; Ritchie, C; Rojkova, K; Broich, K; Benda, N; Nisticò, R; Frank, R A; Dubois, B; Escott-Price, V; Lista, S

    2016-12-01

    During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy. This approach will likely be based on the success found from more advanced research fields, such as oncology. Precision medicine will require integration and transfertilization across fragmented specialities of medicine and direct reintegration of Neuroscience, Neurology and Psychiatry into a continuum of medical sciences away from the silo approach. Precision medicine is biomarker-guided medicine on systems-levels that takes into account methodological advancements and discoveries of the comprehensive pathophysiological profiles of complex multi-factorial neurodegenerative diseases, such as late-onset sporadic AD. This will allow identifying and characterizing the disease processes at the asymptomatic preclinical stage, where pathophysiological and topographical abnormalities precede overt clinical symptoms by many years to decades. In this respect, the uncharted territory of the AD preclinical stage has become a major research challenge as the field postulates that early biomarker guided customized interventions may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. Clarification and practical operationalization is needed for comprehensive dissection and classification of interacting and converging disease mechanisms, description of genomic and epigenetic drivers, natural history trajectories through space and time, surrogate biomarkers and indicators of risk and progression, as well as considerations about the regulatory, ethical, political and

  19. PRECISION MEDICINE - The Golden Gate for Detection, Treatment and Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampel, H.; O’Bryant, S.E.; Castrillo, J.I.; Ritchie, C.; Rojkova, K.; Broich, K.; Benda, N.; Nisticò, R.; Frank, R.A.; Dubois, B.; Escott-Price, V.; Lista, S.

    2016-01-01

    During this decade, breakthrough conceptual shifts have commenced to emerge in the field of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) recognizing risk factors and the non-linear dynamic continuum of complex pathophysiologies amongst a wide dimensional spectrum of multi-factorial brain proteinopathies/neurodegenerative diseases. As is the case in most fields of medicine, substantial advancements in detecting, treating and preventing AD will likely evolve from the generation and implementation of a systematic precision medicine strategy. This approach will likely be based on the success found from more advanced research fields, such as oncology. Precision medicine will require integration and transfertilization across fragmented specialities of medicine and direct reintegration of Neuroscience, Neurology and Psychiatry into a continuum of medical sciences away from the silo approach. Precision medicine is biomarker-guided medicine on systems-levels that takes into account methodological advancements and discoveries of the comprehensive pathophysiological profiles of complex multi-factorial neurodegenerative diseases, such as late-onset sporadic AD. This will allow identifying and characterizing the disease processes at the asymptomatic preclinical stage, where pathophysiological and topographical abnormalities precede overt clinical symptoms by many years to decades. In this respect, the uncharted territory of the AD preclinical stage has become a major research challenge as the field postulates that early biomarker guided customized interventions may offer the best chance of therapeutic success. Clarification and practical operationalization is needed for comprehensive dissection and classification of interacting and converging disease mechanisms, description of genomic and epigenetic drivers, natural history trajectories through space and time, surrogate biomarkers and indicators of risk and progression, as well as considerations about the regulatory, ethical, political and

  20. Value-Based Health Care Delivery, Preventive Medicine and the Medicalization of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a ‘value-based health care delivery’. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges. In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of a better healthcare for all, with real benefits for the individual patient provided a tailored and optimized treatment plan suitable for his or her genetic makeup. And maybe, therefore, the assumptions underpinning personalized medicine have largely escaped questioning. The use of personalized medicine and the use of digital technologies is reshaping our health care system and how we think of health interventions and our individual responsibility. However, encouraging individuals to engage in preventive health activities possibly avoids one form of medicalization (clinical), but on the other hand, it takes up another form (preventive medicine and ‘self-care’) that moves medical and health concerns into every corner of everyday life. This ought to be of little value to the individual patient and public health. We ought to instead demand proof of these value ideas and the lacking research. Before this is in place critical appraisal and cynicism are requisite skills for the future. Otherwise, we are just listening to visionaries when we put our future health into their hands and let personalized solutions reach into people's everyday life regardless of patient safety and integrity. PMID:28409064

  1. Value-Based Health Care Delivery, Preventive Medicine and the Medicalization of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a 'value-based health care delivery'. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges. In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of a better healthcare for all, with real benefits for the individual patient provided a tailored and optimized treatment plan suitable for his or her genetic makeup. And maybe, therefore, the assumptions underpinning personalized medicine have largely escaped questioning. The use of personalized medicine and the use of digital technologies is reshaping our health care system and how we think of health interventions and our individual responsibility. However, encouraging individuals to engage in preventive health activities possibly avoids one form of medicalization (clinical), but on the other hand, it takes up another form (preventive medicine and 'self-care') that moves medical and health concerns into every corner of everyday life. This ought to be of little value to the individual patient and public health. We ought to instead demand proof of these value ideas and the lacking research. Before this is in place critical appraisal and cynicism are requisite skills for the future. Otherwise, we are just listening to visionaries when we put our future health into their hands and let personalized solutions reach into people's everyday life regardless of patient safety and integrity.

  2. Breaking Boundaries: Complementary and Alternative Medicine Provider Framing of Preventive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinita

    2017-11-01

    This textual examination extends understandings of how complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers constitute preventive care in their discourse by identifying the frame of breaking boundaries referencing relational, structural, and philosophical orientations in their practice with their clients. Analysis of semistructured, in-depth interviews with CAM providers ( n = 17) reveals that the frame of breaking boundaries was comprised of three themes: finding one's own strength; I don't prescribe, so I'm exploring; and ground yourself, and have an escape route. The themes describe preventive care by identifying how CAM providers negotiate their relational positionality in connecting with clients, structural positionality within the field of health care, and philosophical positionality within the ontological understandings that guide how health is defined and conceptualized. The study contributes toward enhancing diverse understandings of constituting preventive care in practice and suggests pragmatic implications for addressing biomedical provider communication with their patients seeking CAM care alongside conventional treatments.

  3. Sports Biostatistician: a critical member of all sports science and medicine teams for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-12-01

    Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. [Reducing inequality by improving preventing measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, M

    2014-01-01

    Terms of inequalities issue in health service are defined and the consolidated scientific acquisitions are recalled. Three prioritary areas of action are defined and described, that Prevention Departments are suggested to activate through focused programs in order to reduce specific inequalities. First area of action: includes three types of vital interventions: vaccinations, contrasting of tuberculosis infection and oncological screening that have to be granted to specific disadvantaged groups of population as Rom communities, immigrant women, prisoners e psychiatric patients. Second area of action: actions on focused urban planning aiming to improve conditions of social housing (with a special focus on thermal insulation, minimal distances to be kept towards streets of havy traffic), increase of increase of urban green spaces enjoyed by the population and contrasting degradation of housing (with particular attention to poisoning by carbon monoxide). Third area of action: actions contrasting cardiovascular diseases, that is the leading cause of death and inequalities in health for the working class population. A coordinated intervention directly in the workplace is proposed, where a particularly high percentage of individuals exposed to specific risk factors is present.

  5. Quality assurance for radioactive measurement in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The field of nuclear medicine continues to grow around the world, owing in part to a number of successful programmes carried out by the IAEA to enhance the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Member States. The implementation of quality assurance (QA) programmes to ensure the safe application of radiopharmaceuticals has, however, been variable in many Member States. One possible reason is the lack of a unified set of principles regarding the establishment of such programmes. This publication addresses the issue of QA programmes for radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine. A group of experts consulted by the IAEA recommended in 2002 that unified principles concerning QA and quality control (QC) procedures for the measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine be developed because of its importance in controlling the safety and effectiveness of the use of radiopharmaceuticals. This publication is the result of advice provided to the IAEA by experts in the fields of radionuclide metrology, medical physics and radiopharmacy. This report can be considered to be a more detailed and updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-602, Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments, published in 1991. Advances in the field of nuclear instrumentation since that report was published, particularly in imaging, and the increased emphasis on QA and QC prompted the need for an update. Moreover, it was realized that the activity measurement and imaging aspects had each become so specialized as to be better treated in separate publications. The present report focuses on the factors affecting radioactivity measurement and the implementation of QA and QC programmes to ensure accurate and consistent results. The IAEA has developed a safety standard on The Management System for Facilities and Activities (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3), which replaces the IAEA publications on QA issued as Safety Series No. 50-C/SG-Q (1996). In GS-R-3, the management system is described as a set of

  6. Transformation and trends in preventive and social medicine education at the undergraduate level in a Brazilian medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster, A C; Passos, A D; Dal-Fabbro, A L; Laprega, M R

    2001-01-01

    In the present study we discuss some transformations in undergraduate training in Preventive and Social Medicine in the Department of Social Medicine of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeiro Preto, University of So Paulo, from 1993 to 1999. Aspects of the relationship between medical training and the reorganization of local services of the Brazilian national health system, and between graduate teaching in Preventive and Social Medicine and medical education as a whole are discussed. The crisis in Preventive and Social Medicine and its influence of medical training are evaluated. Trends for the application of a body of knowledge of the specialty and for the relationship between the department and the medical school are discussed.

  7. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...

  8. Investigating preventive-medicine consultations in first-opinion small-animal practice in the United Kingdom using direct observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, N J; Brennan, M L; Cobb, M; Dean, R S

    2016-02-01

    Preventive-medicine consultations account for a large proportion of the veterinary caseload and previous research has suggested these consultations are fundamentally different from those in which the animal is presented for a specific health problem. There has been recent controversy around some aspects of preventive medicine for cats and dogs, and the full health benefits of the preventive-medicine consultation remain unclear. The aim of this study was to compare characteristics of the consultation and the problems discussed during the consultation between preventive-medicine consultations and other types of consultations. Data were gathered during direct observation of small-animal consultations in seven first-opinion practices in the United Kingdom. Data collected included type of clinical examination performed, patient signalment, and details of all problems discussed (including whether the problem was presenting or non-presenting, new or pre-existing, who had raised the problem, body system affected and whether an action was taken). A two-level multivariable logistic-regression model was developed, with canine and feline patients at Level 1 nested within consulting veterinary surgeons at Level 2, and a binary outcome variable of preventive-medicine consultation versus specific health-problem consultation. A total of 1807 patients were presented, of which 690 (38.2%) presented for a preventive-medicine consultation. Dogs were the most frequently presented species (n=1168; 64.6%) followed by cats (n=510; 28.2%), rabbits (n=86; 4.8%) and patients of other species (n=43; 2.4%). The five variables remaining in the multi-level model were whether multiple patients were presented, patient age, clinical examination type, weighing and number of problems discussed. Species, breed, sex, neutering status and practice did not remain in the final model. Many non-presenting problems, including both preventive-medicine problems and specific-health problems, were discussed and

  9. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvain, Iara; Bok, Bernard; X. Bichat University, Paris

    2002-01-01

    French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personnel monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital) personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 mu Sv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10% of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr). Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection. (author)

  10. Flexible technologies and smart clothing for citizen medicine, home healthcare, and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Fabrice; Schmitt, Pierre Michael; Gehin, Claudine; Delhomme, Georges; McAdams, Eric; Dittmar, André

    2005-09-01

    Improvement of the quality and efficiency of healthcare in medicine, both at home and in hospital, is becoming more and more important for patients and society at large. As many technologies (micro technologies, telecommunication, low-power design, new textiles, and flexible sensors) are now available, new user-friendly devices can be developed to enhance the comfort and security of the patient. As clothes and textiles are in direct contact with about 90% of the skin surface, smart sensors and smart clothes with noninvasive sensors are an attractive solution for home-based and ambulatory health monitoring. Moreover, wearable devices or smart homes with exosensors are also potential solutions. All these systems can provide a safe and comfortable environment for home healthcare, illness prevention, and citizen medicine.

  11. Organised Crime Prevention in the Netherlands: Exposing the Effectiveness of Preventive Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.A. van der Schoot

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the

  12. Action of mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOU Yixin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and the action of mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in NAFLD has become a new research topic. TCM has achieved good clinical efficacy in the treatment of NAFLD, with the advantages of specific, flexible, multilevel, and multi-target treatment. This article introduces the role of TCM in improving insulin, regulating lipid metabolism, preventing lipid peroxidation, regulating cytokines, regulating and maintaining the dynamic balance of factors involved in lipid metabolism, and maintaining the balance of intestinal microflora, and analyzes the major problems in TCM research.

  13. [Exploration and practice in the construction of curriculum on epidemiology in preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y M; Le, Y L; Yu, Y X; Wang, J B; Jin, M J; Tang, M L; Chen, K

    2017-12-10

    Epidemiology is one of main courses for undergraduate students majoring in preventive medicine. There are some limitations in the traditional epidemiology teaching, which is usually characterized in indoctrinated education: "lectured by the teachers and listened by the students." In Zhejiang University, staff of the epidemiology division tried to explore a new teaching mode as 'student-centered, teacher-leading, question-based, and combining with literature discussion and course practice.' After practicing for two years, students were inspired in learning initiatives, with teaching effectiveness obviously improved.

  14. The Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine Underlying the Prevention and Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, characterized with bradykinesia, static tremor, rigidity and disturbances in balance, is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Along with the largely aging population in the world, the incidence is increasing year by year, which imposes the negative impacts on patients, their families and the whole society. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has a positive prospect for the prevention and cure of PD due to its advantages of less side effects and multi-target effects. At present, the pathogenesis of PD is not yet fully discovered. This paper elaborates the mechanisms of TCM underlying the prevention and treatment of PD with regards to the inhibition of oxidative stress, the regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction, the reduction of toxic excitatory amino acids (EAA, the inhibition of neuroinflammation, the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and the inhibition of abnormal protein aggregation.

  15. Eurycoma longifolia: Medicinal Plant in the Prevention and Treatment of Male Osteoporosis due to Androgen Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mohd Effendy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis in elderly men is now becoming an alarming health issue due to its relation with a higher mortality rate compared to osteoporosis in women. Androgen deficiency (hypogonadism is one of the major factors of male osteoporosis and it can be treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT. However, one medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (EL, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat male osteoporosis without causing the side effects associated with TRT. EL exerts proandrogenic effects that enhance testosterone level, as well as stimulate osteoblast proliferation and osteoclast apoptosis. This will maintain bone remodelling activity and reduce bone loss. Phytochemical components of EL may also prevent osteoporosis via its antioxidative property. Hence, EL has the potential as a complementary treatment for male osteoporosis.

  16. Transport medicine, osteochondrosis, diagnostic, preventions of complications, physiotherapy, impulse magnetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Loboiko

    2017-01-01

      Summary Offered us medical and rehabilitation complex using pulsed magnetic stimulation for the prevention and treatment of complications of destructive-degenerative disorders of the spine in patients with low back pain lumbar zone greatly increases the effectiveness sanogenetic mechanisms to improve trophic processes in the spinal segments, both in the area of formation of pathological disorders and in areas distal lower extremities. The positive dynamics of functioning structures spinal nerve under the influence of pulsed magnetic stimulation provides improved hemodynamic performance throughout the vascular bed in the lower extremities. It was established that the basis sanogenetic improve the mechanisms of blood vessels, are processes that define their tone, elasticity and adequacy of response to treatment and rehabilitation influence factors. High efficiency pulsed magnetic stimulation achieved by potentiating its effect on biological effects, which are formed in the body using standard treatments for osteoarthritis. Key words. Transport medicine, osteochondrosis, diagnostic, preventions of complications, physiotherapy, impulse magnetic stimulation.

  17. Homeopathic medicinal products for preventing and treating acute respiratory tract infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Kate; van Driel, Mieke L; Buffington, Benjamin J; McGuire, Treasure M; King, David

    2018-04-09

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are common and may lead to complications. Most children experience between three and six ARTIs each year. Although these infections are self limiting, the symptoms can be distressing. Many treatments are used to control symptoms and shorten the duration of illness. They often have minimal benefit and may lead to adverse effects. Oral homeopathic medicinal products could play a role in the treatment of ARTIs for children if evidence for effectiveness is established. To assess the effectiveness and safety of oral homeopathic medicinal products compared with placebo or conventional therapy to prevent and treat acute respiratory tract infections in children. We searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 11), which contains the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Specialised Register, MEDLINE (1946 to 27 November 2017), Embase (2010 to 27 November 2017), CINAHL (1981 to 27 November 2017), AMED (1985 to December 2014), CAMbase (searched 29 March 2018), British Homeopathic Library (searched 26 June 2013 - no longer operating). We also searched the WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers (29 March 2018), checked references, and contacted study authors to identify additional studies. Double-blind, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or double-blind cluster-RCTs comparing oral homeopathy medicinal products with identical placebo or self selected conventional treatments to prevent or treat ARTIs in children aged 0 to 16 years. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We included eight RCTs of 1562 children receiving oral homeopathic medicinal products or a control treatment (placebo or conventional treatment) for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Four treatment studies examined the effect on recovery from URTIs, and four studies investigated the effect on preventing URTIs after one to three months of treatment and followed up for the remainder of the year. Two treatment and two prevention studies

  18. Communication Concepts for Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine: Consensus and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Uliana; Anand, Chytra V; Braz, Andre; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Kerscher, Martina; Landau, Marina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Besins, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice. Examination of existing literature revealed a need for a more structured communication framework for P&E encompassing up-to-date evidence-based learning and educational marketing that is tailored to individual needs and target populations. Message framing-the way in which a message is presented-is an important consideration in the dissemination of information to promote changes in health behaviour. A structured consultation is key to optimising patient engagement and ensures a tailored approach to understanding and catering to the specific needs of each patient. This is the first paper to discuss the communication concepts behind P&E within aesthetic medicine and paves the way for further research and focus in this significant field. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):859-864..

  19. Preventable Admissions on a General Medicine Service: Prevalence, Causes and Comparison with AHRQ Prevention Quality Indicators-A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Krishna K; Vakharia, Nirav; Pile, James; Howell, Erik H; Rothberg, Michael B

    2016-06-01

    Rates of preventable admissions will soon be publicly reported and used in calculating performance-based payments. The current method of assessing preventable admissions, the Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Preventable Quality Indicators (PQI) rate, is drawn from claims data and was originally designed to assess population-level access to care. To identify the prevalence and causes of preventable admissions by attending physician review and to compare its performance with the PQI tool in identifying preventable admissions. Cross-sectional survey. General medicine service at an academic medical center. Consecutive inpatient admissions from December 1-15, 2013. Survey of inpatient attending physicians regarding the preventability of the admissions, primary contributing factors and feasibility of prevention. For the same patients, the PQI tool was applied to determine the claims-derived preventable admission rate. Physicians rated all 322 admissions and classified 122 (38 %) as preventable, of which 31 (25 %) were readmissions. Readmissions were more likely to be rated preventable than other admissions (49 % vs. 35 %, p = 0.04). Application of the AHRQ PQI methodology identified 75 (23 %) preventable admissions. Thirty-one admissions (10 %) were classified as preventable by both methods, and the majority of admissions considered preventable by the AHRQ PQI method (44/78) were not considered preventable by physician assessment (K = 0.04). Of the preventable admissions, physicians assigned patient factors in 54 (44 %), clinician factors in 36 (30 %) and system factors in 32 (26 %). A large proportion of admissions to a general medicine service appeared preventable, but AHRQ's PQI tool was unable to identify these admissions. Before initiation of the PQI rate for use in pay-for-performance programs, further study is warranted.

  20. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    by fourteen measurement units, tapping into the dimensions of staff resources and community assets. Staff resources are, in turn, operationalized in terms of staff size, staff certification status, staff turnover rate, and the accreditation status of a provider agency. Community assets are operationalized by the number of community centers accessible to the funded agency, number of formalized teams or antidrug coalitions active in the catchment area, and other social/human services providers with whom the prevention agency has formalized networks. The totality of process output from all sources of program activities is reduced to eighteen classes of measures. These are operationalized by thirty-three summary measures. Some of these include: total count of events facilitated; total number of clients served; average number of clients served per event; clients served by single and multiple program sessions; classification of target population in terms of the severity of risk as defined by the Institute of Medicine; age groups and race/ethnicity of clients served; number of program participants retained by recurring programs; number of clients who have completed the program; penetration rates to the target population; client attrition rates; average referral rates per provider per time interval; referral success rates; and so on. All process output measures specified in the Platform are derived from two broad classes of events classified as either products or services. The collectivity of these measures is expected to present a cost-effective, parsimonious, yet comprehensive picture of the entire spectrum of the process output, i.e., "what came out of the program as program activities". For the measurement of performance outcomes, two types of data are incorporated into the Platform: outcome data from individuals and the behavior (or performance) of social indicators from aggregated data bases. Individual data are used to evaluate the outcome of substance abuse programs

  1. Radioactive Sources in Medicine: Impact of Additional Security Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classic, K. L.; Vetter, R. J.; Nelson, K. L.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, medical centers and hospitals have utilized appropriate security measures to prevent theft or unauthorized use of radioactive materials. Recent anxiety about orphan sources and terrorism has heightened concern about diversion of radioactive sources for purposes of constructing a radiological dispersion device. Some medical centers and hospitals may have responded by conducting threat assessments and incorporating additional measures into their security plans, but uniform recommendations or regulations have not been promulgated by regulatory agencies. The International Atomic Energy Agency drafted interim guidance for the purpose of assisting member states in deciding what security measures should be taken for various radioactive sources. The recommendations are aimed at regulators, but suppliers and users also may find the recommendations to be helpful. The purpose of this paper is to describe threat assessments and additional security actions that were taken by one large and one medium-sized medical center and the impact these measures had on operations. Both medical centers possess blood bank irradiators, low-dose-rate therapy sources, and Mo-99/Tc-99m generators that are common to many health care organizations. Other medical devices that were evaluated include high-dose-rate after loaders, intravascular brachytherapy sources, a Co-60 stereotactic surgery unit, and self-shielded irradiators used in biomedical research. This paper will discuss the impact additional security has had on practices that utilize these sources, cost of various security alternatives, and the importance of a security culture in assuring the integrity of security measures without negatively impacting beneficial use of these sources. (Author) 10 refs

  2. National Academy of Medicine Social and Behavioral Measures: Associations With Self-Reported Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Gottlieb, Laura M; Giuse, Nunzia B; Koonce, Taneya Y; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Stead, William W; Adler, Nancy E

    2017-10-01

    Social and behavioral factors play important roles in physical and mental health; however, they are not routinely assessed in the healthcare system. A brief panel of measures of social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDs) were recommended in a National Academy of Medicine report for use in electronic health records. Initial testing of the panel established feasibility of use and robustness of the measures. This study evaluates their convergent and divergent validity in relation to self-reported physical and mental health and social desirability bias. Adults, aged ≥18 years, were recruited through Qualtrics online panel survey platform in 2015 (data analyzed in 2015-2016). Participants completed the (1) panel of SBD measures; (2) 12-Item Short Form Health Survey to assess associations with global physical and mental health; and (3) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form to assess whether social desirability influenced associations between SBD measures and self-reported health. The sample included 513 participants (mean age, 47.9 [SD=14.2] years; 65.5% female). Several SBD domain measures were associated with physical and mental health. Adjusting for age, poorer physical and mental health were observed among participants reporting higher levels of financial resource strain, stress, depression, physical inactivity, current tobacco use, and a positive score for intimate partner violence. These associations remained significant after adjustment for social desirability bias. SBD domains were associated with global measures of physical and mental health and were not impacted by social desirability bias. The panel of SBD measures should now be tested in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. PGD for all cystic fibrosis carrier couples: novel strategy for preventive medicine and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur-Kaspa, I; Aljadeff, G; Rechitsky, S; Grotjan, H E; Verlinsky, Y

    2010-08-01

    Over 1000 children affected with cystic fibrosis (CF) are born annually in the USA. Since IVF with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is an alternative to raising a sick child or to aborting an affected fetus, a cost-benefit analysis was performed for a national IVF-PGD program for preventing CF. The amount spent to deliver healthy children for all CF carrier-couples by IVF-PGD was compared with the average annual and lifetime direct medical costs per CF patient avoided. Treating annually about 4000 CF carrier-couples with IVF-PGD would result in 3715 deliveries of non-affected children at a cost of $57,467 per baby. Because the average annual direct medical cost per CF patient was $63,127 and life expectancy is 37 years, savings would be $2.3 million per patient and $2.2 billion for all new CF patients annually in lifetime treatment costs. Cumulated net saving of an IVF-PGD program for all carrier-couples for 37 years would be $33.3 billion. A total of 618,714 cumulative years of patients suffering because of CF and thousands of abortions could be prevented. A national IVF-PGD program is a highly cost-effective novel modality of preventive medicine and would avoid most births of individuals affected with debilitating genetic disease. 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Herbal Medicine Goshajinkigan Prevents Paclitaxel-Induced Mechanical Allodynia without Impairing Antitumor Activity of Paclitaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muh. Akbar Bahar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy is a major dose-limiting side effect of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. However, there are no effective strategies to treat the neuropathy. We examined whether Goshajinkigan, a herbal medicine, would prevent paclitaxel-induced allodynia without affecting the anticancer action in mice. Murine breast cancer 4T1 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad. Paclitaxel (10 and 20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal, alternate day from day 7 postinoculation inhibited the tumor growth, and Goshajinkigan (1 g/kg, oral, daily from day 2 postinoculation did not affect the antitumor action of paclitaxel. Mechanical allodynia developed in the inoculated region due to tumor growth and in the hind paw due to paclitaxel-induced neuropathy. Paclitaxel-induced allodynia was markedly prevented by Goshajinkigan, although tumor-associated allodynia was not inhibited by Goshajinkigan. These results suggest that Goshajinkigan prevents paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy without interfering with the anti-cancer action of paclitaxel.

  5. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá, made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research.

  6. Traditional Chinese medicine for prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma: From bench to bedside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in the management of hepatocarcinoma. Hepatocarcinoma patients may present Qi-stagnation, damp-heat, blood stasis, Qi-deficiency, Yin-deficiency and other TCM syndromes (Zheng). Modern treatments such as surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and high intensity focus ultrasound treatment would influence the manifestation of TCM syndromes. Herbs with traditional efficacy of tonifying Qi, blood and Yin, soothing liver-Qi stagnation, clearing heat and detoxifying and dissolving stasis, have been demonstrated to be potent to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis. TCM has been widely used in all aspects of integrative therapy in hepatocarcinoma, including surgical resection, liver transplantation, TACE, local ablative therapies and even as monotherapy for middle-advanced stage hepatocarcinoma. Clinical practices have confirmed that TCM is effective to alleviate clinical symptoms, improve quality of life and immune function, prevent recurrence and metastasis, delay tumor progression, and prolong survival time in hepatocarcinoma patients. The effective mechanism of TCM against hepatocarcinoma is related to inducing apoptosis, autophagy, anoikis and cell senescence, arresting cell cycle, regulating immune function, inhibiting metastasis and angiogenesis, reversing drug resistance and enhancing effects of chemotherapy. Along with the progress of research in this field, TCM will contribute more to the prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:26019736

  7. ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF THE PREVENTIVE MEASURES IN DENTISTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljo, Emsudina; Sijercic, Zinaida; Mulaosmanovic, Amina; Musanovic, Alma; Prses, Nedim

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the state of oral health in the area of Podrinje Canton is really poor. Taking into account that in the last five years are implemented two projects in the municipality it is necessary to examine the impact of preventive measures in dentistry on the oral health. a) To evaluate the impact of continuing education and local fluoridation on the state of oral health; b) To analyze the economic importance of preventive measures. For the purpose of the research on activities of continuing education on the importance of oral health and local fluoridation of teeth and to determine the economic aspects of the application of preventive measures is tested and reviewed 900 students from fourth to ninth grade. The children were divided into three groups of 300 students in each group: a) In the first group of children is carried out continuous education about proper tooth brushing and the importance of oral hygiene and local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years, b) In the second group children carried out local fluoridation twice a year during the last three years while in the third group, there were no continuous prevention measures; c) Used is a single questionnaire for all respondents. Data obtained in this study were analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistical methods. The importance of continuing education and local fluoridation is clearly reflected in the different values DMF-index, which was the subject of research. In the first group, in which is carried out continuous education and local fluoridation value of DMF index was 2.7, in the second group with local fluorination this value was 3.56, while in the third group, in which is not implemented preventive measures, the value DMF- index was 5.93. From an economic point the preventive measures are the cheapest, most effective and the best solution in order to maintain oral health.

  8. Measuring Value in Internal Medicine Residency Training Hospitals Using Publicly Reported Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schickedanz, Adam; Gupta, Reshma; Arora, Vineet M; Braddock, Clarence H

    2018-03-01

    Graduate medical education (GME) lacks measures of resident preparation for high-quality, cost-conscious practice. The authors used publicly reported teaching hospital value measures to compare internal medicine residency programs on high-value care training and to validate these measures against program director perceptions of value. Program-level value training scores were constructed using Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program hospital quality and cost-efficiency data. Correlations with Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine Annual Survey high-value care training measures were examined using logistic regression. For every point increase in program-level VBP score, residency directors were more likely to agree that GME programs have a responsibility to contain health care costs (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.18, P = .04), their faculty model high-value care (aOR 1.07, P = .03), and residents are prepared to make high-value medical decisions (aOR 1.07, P = .09). Publicly reported clinical data offer valid measures of GME value training.

  9. [Development of an instrument for the surveillance of quality indicators in specialized training in Preventive Medicine and Public Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Borrelli, Christian Carlo; Latasa, Pello; Reques, Laura; Alemán, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the process of developing an instrument intended for use in assessing satisfaction with the quality of training in preventive medicine and public health for resident physicians. To develop this instrument, the National Survey of Satisfaction with Medical Residency was adapted by an expert panel consisting of 23 resident physicians in preventive medicine and public health belonging to 9 autonomous communities in Spain. The adaptation of the survey to the specialty rotations included new dimensions and items and was evaluated with a 5-point Likert scale. The most important dimensions were planning and the achievement of specific objectives, supervision, delegation of responsibilities, resources and work environment, personal assessment, encouragement, support, and whether the rotation resulted in a publication or research project, etc. The development and utilization of this tool will enable future trainees in preventive medicine and public health to make an informed choice about their training itineraries. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Policies to restrict secondhand smoke exposure: American College of Preventive Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Michelle; Alonso, Alina M; Sherin, Kevin M; Koh, Yumi; Dhamija, Asha; Lowe, Andrea L

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure poses serious health risks for all nonsmokers, especially children and pregnant women. SHS is estimated to contribute to heart attacks in nonsmokers and nearly 53,800 deaths in the U.S. annually. A literature review of English-language articles was performed using PubMed, organizational websites, and pertinent review articles. Over the past 25 years, smokefree policies have protected nearly half the U.S. population from the adverse health effects of SHS. Smokefree policies have been shown to improve health outcomes with no consequences to local businesses. As of April 2013, a total of 24 states and 561 municipalities and territories, including the District of Columbia, New York City, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, have established laws that require nonhospitality workplaces, restaurants, and bars to be 100% smokefree. Four other states-Florida, Indiana, Louisiana, and Nevada-have smokefree laws that cover restaurants but provide an exemption for stand-alone bars. At least 14 states have no smokefree laws. This paper describes the benefits of policies that reduce SHS and concludes with recommendations for future directions. The American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) recommends expanded clean indoor air policies for workplaces, stand-alone bars, restaurants, and multi-use family housing such as apartment buildings. ACPM recommends clean air policies for all university campuses, secondary school campuses, primary schools, child care centers, and city landmarks to further shift social norms and protect the health of children, adolescents, and adults. ACPM recommends closing existing gaps in clean indoor air policies. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Establishing the idea of holistic integrative medicine, optimizing the quality of health care service in prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-guo

    2015-07-01

    Under background of reductionism in the modern science, physiology and medicine are stepwise refined into system, organ, disease, cell and gene etc. Although clinical medicine, only service in whole human object, obviously brought tremendous progress, it also appeared obvious defects and limits at the same time. Professionalized and specialized medicine not only needs to be integrated from basics to clinical fields, but also from prevention, health management, clinical treatment and functional rehabilitation medicine. People are indivisible organic whole. Professionalization, translation and integration must be combined. In order to provide the best quality and optimized medical service for the Chinese people and to lead in the world, we have to strengthen professional and technical knowledge, and have to establish the holistic integrative medical philosophy for physiology and medicine too.

  12. International guidance on the establishment of quality assurance programmes for radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, B.E. [Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section, Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 200, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: b.zimmerman@iaea.org; Herbst, C. [Department of Medical Physics, University of the Free State, Geneeskundige Fisika G 68, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa); Norenberg, J.P. [College of Pharmacy, 2502 Marble, NE MSC09 5360, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque 87131 (United States); Woods, M.J. [Ionizing Radiation Consultants, Ltd., 152 Broom Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 9PQ (United Kingdom)

    2006-10-15

    A new guidance document for the implementation of quality assurance (QA) programmes for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurement, produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is described. The proposed programme is based on the principles of ISO 17025 and will enable laboratories, particularly in developing countries, to provide consistent, safe and effective radioactivity measurement services to the nuclear medicine community.

  13. International guidance on the establishment of quality assurance programmes for radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, B.E.; Herbst, C.; Norenberg, J.P.; Woods, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    A new guidance document for the implementation of quality assurance (QA) programmes for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurement, produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is described. The proposed programme is based on the principles of ISO 17025 and will enable laboratories, particularly in developing countries, to provide consistent, safe and effective radioactivity measurement services to the nuclear medicine community

  14. Knowledge of Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the knowledge of risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension among Child Bearing Mothers (CBMs) in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Specifically, three objectives with three corresponding research ...

  15. Information and preventive measures can reduce absenteeism during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    Working during pregnancy may expose women to several risk factors. According to recent findings of the National Survey on Working Conditions, information at an early stage on the consequences of the pregnancy for the working capacity of pregnant women, as well as implementing preventive measures,

  16. Dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands, an evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, K.; Cabus, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to half the level of early school leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their effect at both the individual

  17. Dropout Prevention Measures in the Netherlands, an Explorative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Kristof; Cabus, Sofie J.

    2013-01-01

    In line with the Lisbon Agenda, set by the European Council in the year 2000, European governments formulated ambitious plans to halve the level of early school-leavers by 2012. This paper outlines the dropout prevention measures in the Netherlands and analyzes their influence at both the individual and school level. While most policy measures…

  18. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  19. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sylvain

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personal monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 µSv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10 % of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr. Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection.A legislação francesa introduziu o uso de dosímetros eletrônicos para monitoração da exposição do trabalhador. Afim de avaliar a exposição do trabalhador proveniente de exames diagnósticos em medicina nuclear, doses individuais do corpo inteiro foram medidas diariamente com dosímetros eletrônicos (digitais durante 20 semanas consecutivas e correlatas com as atividades de trabalho de cada dia. As doses foram sempre inferiores à 20 µSv por dia em condições normais de trabalho. Os níveis de exposição de radiação mais elevados foram para os enfermeiros, manipuladores e maqueiros. A extrapolação da dose anual para todos os trabalhadores foi menos que 10 % do limite máximo legal para os trabalhadores expostos (2 mSv/ano. Dosímetros eletrônicos não são tecnicamente justificados para a o controle de rotina da exposição dos trabalhadores, mas a alta sensibilidade e a leitura imediata desses dosímetros podem vir a serem muito úteis para o controle da exposição em condi

  20. Measures taken by the supervisory authority to reduce extremity doses in nuclear medicine facilities in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stritt, Nicolas; Linder, Reto

    2011-01-01

    In its capacity as the supervisory authority, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health (SFOPH) has responded to the increase in extremity doses observed in nuclear medicine facilities in Switzerland over the past decade by introducing facility-specific radiation protection audits. These audits have raised the awareness of the staff members concerned with the problem of high extremity doses which arise from handling beta emitters and PET nuclides and prevented any further rise in the extremity doses. However, the evaluation of these audits has also shown that there is still considerable scope for improvement in terms of reducing extremity doses and that further measures are therefore required. Facility-specific and person-specific investigations are currently being conducted with the support of the SFOPH. Their aim is to show facilities which operations during the preparation and application of diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals lead to high extremity doses. This will enable the reduction of extremity doses for nuclear medicine staff as well as ensure that the dose limits are adhered to, in spite of the increasing numbers of examinations.

  1. Measures to prevent nosocomial infections during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Paula; Bassi, Gianluigi L; Torres, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are lifesaving measures in critically ill patients. However, these interventions increase the risk of respiratory infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP constitutes a serious burden for the healthcare system and worsens the patient's outcomes; thus, several preventive strategies have been implemented. This communication reviews the current knowledge on VAP pathogenesis and the latest preventive measures. Pathogen-laden oropharyngeal secretions leak across the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff; thus, a continuous control of the internal cuff pressure and cuffs made of polyurethane improve sealing effectiveness and associated risks of infections. Subglottic secretions aspiration prevents VAP, and the latest evidence demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of late-onset VAP. The role of ETT biofilm in the pathogenesis of VAP is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, antimicrobial-coated ETTs have showed beneficial effects in VAP incidence. Recent experimental evidence has challenged the benefits associated with the use of the semirecumbent position; yet, these findings need to be corroborated in clinical trials. The latest results from trials testing the effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) showed beneficial effects on patients' outcomes, but concerns remain regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance, specifically upon digestive tract re-colonization. The use of oropharyngeal decontamination with antiseptics and the use of probiotics are potential alternatives to SDD. There is consistent evidence that strategies affecting the primary mechanisms of VAP pathogenesis efficiently reduce the occurrence of the disease. Preventive measures should be implemented grouped into bundles to improve overall efficacy.

  2. Measuring medicine-related experiences from the patient perspective: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusiime, Barbra; Corlett, Sarah; Reeve, Joanne; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing drive to measure and so improve patients' experiences and outcomes of health care. This also applies to medicines, given their ubiquity as health care interventions. Patients' experiences of using medicines vary, and instruments which measure these are seen as an essential component to improve care. We aimed to identify generic measures of patients' experiences of using prescription medicines and to examine their properties and suitability for use in research or practice. Multiple electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINHAL Plus, PROQOLID ® , and Google Scholar. We identified, critically appraised, and summarized generic questionnaires assessing one or more aspects of the medicine use experience among adult patients using prescription medicines for chronic conditions, and the process of questionnaire development, degree of patient involvement, and/or validation processes. Fifteen questionnaires were included. Of these, nine measures were multidimensional, covering various aspects of medicine use. Six instruments covered only a single domain, assessing a specific facet of using medicines. Domains covered were the following: effectiveness; convenience, practicalities, and/or managing medicines; information, knowledge, and/or understanding; side effects; relationships and/or communication with health professionals; impact on daily living and/or social life; general satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs, concerns, and/or perceptions; medical follow-up and/or adherence-related issues; treatment- and/or medicine-related burden, perceived control, or autonomy; self-confidence about medicine use; availability and accessibility; and medicine-related quality of life. None of the identified questionnaires covered all domains. Instruments varied in the extent of patient involvement in both their development and validation. There is a scarcity of psychometrically sound, comprehensive, and generic measures of experiences

  3. Complementary Role of Herbal Medicine and Exercise in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management: A Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Babu, Abraham Samuel; Sundar, Lakshmi Manickavasagam

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Herbal medicine and exercise interventions have individually been shown to be effective in the prevention and management of CVD. However, the complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise interventions for CVD prevention and management have not been adequately reported. 1. Identify studies analysing complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise intervention in CVD prevention and management, 2. Identify herbs and exercise strategies that have been reported to exhibit complementary roles in CVD prevention and management, and 3. Summarize evidence of complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise interventions for CVD prevention and management. PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched with a customised search strategy in May 2015. Two reviewers screened the search results for inclusion using pre-specified criteria. Data were extracted from full text of selected abstracts in a predetermined template by two reviewers and verified by the third reviewer when needed. A total of 35 titles were identified for full texts review after screening 827 abstracts. Data were extracted from 23 titles, representing 12 human studies and six animal studies. This review identified effects of 14 different herbs and 10 exercise strategies on over 18 CVD risk factors and markers. Complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise were reported from five studies. Evidence of complementary role of herbal medicine and exercise is emerging from animal studies. More robust clinical studies on proven risk factors are needed before they can be recommended for clinical practice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Economic evaluation of occupational safety preventive measures in a hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Delfina G; Arezes, Pedro M; Afonso, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    When an organization performs an integrated analysis of risks through its Occupational Health and Safety Management System, several steps are suggested to address the implications of the identified risks. Namely, the organization should make a detailed analysis of the monetary impact for the organization of each of the preventive measures considered. However, it is also important to perform an analysis of the impact of each measure on society (externalities). The aim of this paper is to present a case study related to the application of the proposed economic evaluation methodology. An analysis of the work accidents in a hospital has been made. Three of the major types of accidents have been selected: needle stings, falls and excessive strain. Following the risk assessment, some preventive measures have been designed. Subsequently, the Benefit/Cost ratio (B/C) of these measures has been calculated, both in financial terms (from the organization's perspective) and in economic terms (including the benefits for the worker and for the Society). While the financial ratio is only advantageous in some cases, when the externalities are taken into account, the B/C ratio increases significantly. It is important to consider external benefits to make decisions concerning the implementation of preventive measures in Occupational Health and Safety projects.

  5. Responsibility of sport and exercise medicine in preventing and managing chronic disease: applying our knowledge and skill is overdue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Klügl, Martin; Dvorak, Jiri; Engebretsen, Lars; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Schwellnus, Martin; Blair, Steven N; van Mechelen, Willem; Derman, Wayne; Börjesson, Mats; Bendiksen, Fredrik; Weiler, Richard

    2011-12-01

    The rapidly increasing burden of chronic disease is difficult to reconcile with the large, compelling body of literature that demonstrates the substantial preventive and therapeutic benefits of comprehensive lifestyle intervention, including physical activity, smoking cessation and healthy diet. Physical inactivity is now the fourth leading independent risk factor for death caused by non-communicable chronic disease. Although there have been efforts directed towards research, education and legislation, preventive efforts have been meager relative to the magnitude of the problem. The disparity between our scientific knowledge about chronic disease and practical implementation of preventive approaches now is one of the most urgent concerns in healthcare worldwide and threatens the collapse of our health systems unless extraordinary change takes place. The authors believe that there are several key factors contributing to the disparity. Reductionism has become the default approach for healthcare delivery, resulting in fragmentation rather than integration of services. This, in turn, has fostered a disease-based rather than a health-based model of care and has produced medical school curricula that no longer accurately reflect the actual burden of disease. Trying to 'fit' prevention into a disease-based approach has been largely unsuccessful because the fundamental tenets of preventive medicine are diametrically opposed to those of disease-based healthcare. A clinical discipline within medicine is needed to adopt disease prevention as its own reason for existence. Sport and exercise medicine is well positioned to champion the cause of prevention by promoting physical activity. This article puts forward a strong case for the immediate, increased involvement of clinical sport and exercise medicine in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease and offers specific recommendations for how this may begin.

  6. The Radon Book. Preventive measures in new buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    This book describes in text and picture how one can prevent that the radon concentrations in new buildings become to high. The book's centre of gravity lies on how to build in order to prevent that radon gas from the ground enters the building. The book contains extensive information about ground radon and how to examine the ground before constructing a new building. Release of radon from ground water and construction material is treated, as well as technology for measurement of radon and gamma radiation. The book presents current threshold values/recommended values for radon and the authorities' regulations and recommendations. The book is directed to persons who professionally need knowledge about radon and how to prevent that radon is accumulated in new buildings

  7. Measuring quality of delivery in a substance use prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Steven; Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Ringwalt, Christopher L; Dusenbury, Linda

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate an observation measure designed to capture teachers' use of interactive teaching skills within the delivery of the All Stars substance use prevention program. Coders counted the number of times teachers praised and encouraged students, accepted and used students' ideas, asked questions, self-disclosed personal anecdotes, and corrected student misbehavior. These teacher behaviors loaded on three factors: classroom management, acknowledgment, and student-centered methods. Classroom management was negatively related to student engagement. Acknowledgment was negatively related to students' normative beliefs. Student-centered methods were positively related to student idealism and normative beliefs, and marginally predicted decreases in student marijuana use. Editors' Strategic Implications: The authors provide a promising approach to studying pedagogical prevention approaches, and they also link teaching processes to student outcomes. This study of program delivery should be of general interest (i.e., not limited to substance use prevention) to practitioners and researchers.

  8. Operational measurements during medical examinations: nuclear medicine department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardin, I.

    2009-01-01

    After having briefly recalled the nuclear medicine principles and objectives, and the main radiations used for different purposes (positrons for diagnosis, photons for diagnosis, electrons for therapy or diagnosis), the author presents the principle of determination of the absorbed dose: how this dose is expressed, how it is calculated per cumulative activity unit, how cumulative activity is determined. Then, she discusses some practical aspects of dosimetric assessments during diagnosis or therapeutic examinations

  9. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from conventional pig farms using antimicrobial agents in preventative medicine programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Fraile, Lorenzo; Napp, Sebastian; Garrido, Victoria; Grilló, María Jesús; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of multidrug antimicrobial resistance (multi-AR) in Salmonella enterica in pigs reared under conventional preventative medicine programmes in Spain and the possible association of multi-AR with ceftiofur or tulathromycin treatment during the pre-weaning period. Groups of 7-day-old piglets were treated by intramuscular injection with ceftiofur on four farms (n=40 piglets per farm) and with tulathromycin on another four farms (n=40 piglets per farm). A control group of untreated piglets (n=30 per farm) was present on each farm. Faecal swabs were collected for S. enterica culture prior to treatment, at 2, 7 and 180days post-treatment, and at slaughter. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 14 antimicrobial agents, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of resistance genes representing five families of antimicrobial agents were performed. Plasmids carrying cephalosporin resistant (CR) genes were characterised. Sixty-six S. enterica isolates were recovered from five of eight farms. Forty-seven isolates were multi-AR and four contained bla CTX-M genes harboured in conjugative plasmids of the IncI1 family; three of these isolates were recovered before treatment with ceftiofur. The most frequent AR genes detected were tet(A) (51/66, 77%), sul1 (17/66, 26%); tet(B) (15/66, 23%) and qnrB (10/66, 15%). A direct relation between the use of ceftiofur in these conditions and the occurrence of CR S. enterica was not established. However, multi-AR was common, especially for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline. These antibiotics are used frequently in veterinary medicine in Spain and, therefore, should be used sparingly to minimise the spread of multi-AR. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. [Patient safety and errors in medicine: development, prevention and analyses of incidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, M; Manser, T; Guggenberger, H; Gaba, D M; Unertl, K

    2001-06-01

    "Patient safety" and "errors in medicine" are issues gaining more and more prominence in the eyes of the public. According to newer studies, errors in medicine are among the ten major causes of death in association with the whole area of health care. A new era has begun incorporating attention to a "systems" approach to deal with errors and their causes in the health system. In other high-risk domains with a high demand for safety (such as the nuclear power industry and aviation) many strategies to enhance safety have been established. It is time to study these strategies, to adapt them if necessary and apply them to the field of medicine. These strategies include: to teach people how errors evolve in complex working domains and how types of errors are classified; the introduction of critical incident reporting systems that are free of negative consequences for the reporters; the promotion of continuous medical education; and the development of generic problem-solving skills incorporating the extensive use of realistic simulators wherever possible. Interestingly, the field of anesthesiology--within which realistic simulators were developed--is referred to as a model for the new patient safety movement. Despite this proud track record in recent times though, there is still much to be done even in the field of anesthesiology. Overall though, the most important strategy towards a long-term improvement in patient safety will be a change of "culture" throughout the entire health care system. The "culture of blame" focused on individuals should be replaced by a "safety culture", that sees errors and critical incidents as a problem of the whole organization. The acceptance of human fallability and an open-minded non-punitive analysis of errors in the sense of a "preventive and proactive safety culture" should lead to solutions at the systemic level. This change in culture can only be achieved with a strong commitment from the highest levels of an organization. Patient

  12. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ming; Wang, Yue-Fei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Shuang-Yong; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella , while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, trimethylamine (TMA)-N-oxide (TMAO) is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella ) through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and

  13. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lyu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs, and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, bile acids (BAs and lipopolysaccharides (LPS, which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. In addition, trimethylamine (TMA-N-oxide (TMAO is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS and cardiovascular disease (CVD risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and

  14. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ming; Wang, Yue-fei; Fan, Guan-wei; Wang, Xiao-ying; Xu, Shuang-yong; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, trimethylamine (TMA)-N-oxide (TMAO) is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella) through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and treatment

  15. Diet Therapy for Cancer Prevention and Treatment Based on Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Behjat

    2018-04-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H. vulgare) and its products, extra-virgin olive oil, black pepper (P. nigrum) and its piperine, grapes (V. vinifera) and its compound resveratrol, ginger and its compound 6-gingerol, whey protein, fish, and honey. However, additional pharmacological studies and clinical trials are needed to elucidate their molecular and cellular mechanisms of actions, frequency, and amount of consumption, possible adverse effects, and optimum preparation methods. Moreover, studying mechanisms of actions of the bioactive compounds present in the discussed food items can be helpful in identifying and development of new anticancer agents.

  16. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-07-26

    Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.

  17. Predictive Role of Preventive Measures in Preventing the Progression of Diabetic Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukic, Ejub; Gojak, Refet; Novakovic, Ana; Gazibera, Belma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most common endocrine disease of modern life. Diabetic foot (DF) is the term for a foot of a patient suffering from DM with the potential risk of a number of pathological sequels, including infection, ulceration and/or destruction of deep tissue. Goal: To determine the importance of preventive measures to prevent the development of diabetic foot. Results: The gender structure of respondents categorized by the complication of DF (yes/no) was uniform. The average age was 60.15±12.2 years. Respondents without DF, 63% had 2 visits to the doctor a month, while in the group of those with DF, 39% of them had 3 visits to a doctor and 33% four or more times. Wearing comfortable shoes and foot hygiene in relation to the development of the DF are interdependent: c2=4,409; c2 = 12.47 (p <0.0005). Also, recurrent foot injury, and slow healing of sores in comparison to the development of the DF are mutually dependent; c2=13,195; c2=14 (p <0.0005). Conclusion: We found that there is a significant statistical relationship between preventive measures and development of the DF. PMID:26543412

  18. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  19. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  20. Challenges and opportunities of applying P4 medicine and traditional Chinese medicine for cancer treatment and prevention in the 21st century:Amedical oncologist’s perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H. Lin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the deadliest diseases, cancer needs a stronger dose of P4 medicine (Predictive, Preventive, Personalized and Participatory first proposed by Dr. Hood and TCM intervention, as cancer treatment still largely relies on the decade-old cytotoxic chemotherapy, radiation and surgery. This overview uses colorectal cancer model to discuss pitfalls in current cancer prevention and treatment strategies, which saw many randomized phase III studies failing to meet the study primary endpoints or marginally meeting the study objectives. Complete sequencing of whole human genome provided much of the hopes as well as hypes for precision medicine, as genomic diversity, ever changing tumor mutation landscape, SNP and complex microRNA regulation from the intron region and epigenetics make genotype to phenotype correlation study increasingly challenging. As a participant of One hundred Persons Pioneers Project, I witnessed first hand how a comprehensive scientific wellness study that integrates whole genomics, microbiome, and metabolome nutrition along with comprehensive laboratory examinations can be used to diagnose pre-illness in all “healthy” participants. Pre-illness can be best intervened by none pharmaceutical means and traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM adept in restoring internal healing mechanisms, opening up the blocked network and balancing the five-elements homeostasis. Following TCM principles, we were able to design a therapy that effectively targets colon cancer stem cells and its microenvironment leading to more doubling of overall survival with reduction in overall toxicities. Pre-illness diagnosis, cancer immunotherapy, TCM medicine is about restoring internal healing power by letting go brakes on “good” immune systems to go after the “bad” cancer cells. Time is ripe to integrate our knowledge in genomics immune systems, stem cell biology, nutrition, inflammation, metabolism, systems medicine, and modern TCM to deliver a

  1. Measuring medicine-related experiences from the patient perspective: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katusiime B

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Barbra Katusiime,1 Sarah Corlett,1 Joanne Reeve,2 Janet Krska1 1Medway School of Pharmacy, The Universities of Kent and Greenwich, Chatham, Maritime, Kent, UK; 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Background: There is an increasing drive to measure and so improve patients’ experiences and outcomes of health care. This also applies to medicines, given their ubiquity as health care interventions. Patients’ experiences of using medicines vary, and instruments which measure these are seen as an essential component to improve care. We aimed to identify generic measures of patients’ experiences of using prescription medicines and to examine their properties and suitability for use in research or practice. Methods: Multiple electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINHAL Plus, PROQOLID®, and Google Scholar. We identified, critically appraised, and summarized generic questionnaires assessing one or more aspects of the medicine use experience among adult patients using prescription medicines for chronic conditions, and the process of questionnaire development, degree of patient involvement, and/or validation processes. Results: Fifteen questionnaires were included. Of these, nine measures were multidimensional, covering various aspects of medicine use. Six instruments covered only a single domain, assessing a specific facet of using medicines. Domains covered were the following: effectiveness; convenience, practicalities, and/or managing medicines; information, knowledge, and/or understanding; side effects; relationships and/or communication with health professionals; impact on daily living and/or social life; general satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs, concerns, and/or perceptions; medical follow-up and/or adherence-related issues; treatment- and/or medicine-related burden, perceived control, or autonomy; self-confidence about medicine use; availability and accessibility; and medicine

  2. [Type 2 diabetes and frecuency of prevention and control measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of application of prevention and control measures for type 2 diabetes in Mexican population. ENSANUT 2012 is a nationally and by-state representative survey. Sample design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified and clustered. The information of 46 277 adults≥20 was used for this analysis. A weighted analysis was performed using Stata 12. Prevalence of diabetes by previous diagnosis was 9.2% (6.4 millions) in ENSANUT 2012, 7.3% (3.7 millions) in 2006 and 4.6% (2.1 millions) in 2000. In 2012, the mean of medical examinations in the previous year related to diabetes control was 7.3. However, the percentage of cases in which preventive actions for chronic complications were performed (such as foot care [14.6%], ophthalmology [8.6%] and determination of HbA1c [9.6%]) was low. Patients with diabetes have frequent access to medical services. However, preventive actions are applied insufficiently both in quality and quantity.

  3. The prevalence and preventive measures of the respiratory illness among Malaysian pilgrims in 2013 Hajj season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Suhana; Ayub, Zeti N; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Hasan, Habsah; Harun, Azian; Ismail, Nabilah; Rahman, Zaidah A; Suraiya, Siti; Naing, Nyi Nyi; Aziz, Aniza A

    2016-02-01

    Respiratory illness continues to exert a burden on hajj pilgrims in Makkah. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of respiratory illness and its associated factors among Malaysian hajj pilgrims in 2013 and to describe its preventive measures. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Makkah and Malaysia during the 2013 hajj season. A self-administered proforma on social demographics, previous experience of hajj or umrah, smoking habits, co-morbid illness and practices of preventive measures against respiratory illness were obtained. A total of 468 proforma were analysed. The prevalence of the respiratory illness was 93.4% with a subset of 78.2% fulfilled the criteria for influenza-like illness (ILI). Most of them (77.8%) had a respiratory illness of food supplement. Malaysian hajj pilgrims with previous experience of hajj (OR 0.24; 95% CI 0.10-0.56) or umrah (OR 0.19; 95% CI 0.07-0.52) and those who have practiced good hand hygiene (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.16-0.79) were found to be significantly associated with lower risk of having respiratory illness. Otherwise, pilgrims who had contact with those with respiratory illness (OR 2.61; 95% CI 1.12-6.09) was associated with higher risk. The prevalence of respiratory illness remains high among Malaysian hajj pilgrims despite having some practices of preventive measures. All preventive measures which include hand hygiene, wearing face masks and influenza vaccination must be practiced together as bundle of care to reduce respiratory illness effectively. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International society of travel medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Co-author and keyword networks and their clustering appearance in preventive medicine fields in Korea: analysis of papers in the Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 1991~2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Chung, Dongjun

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated knowledge structure and its effect factor by analysis of co-author and keyword networks in Korea's preventive medicine sector. The data was extracted from 873 papers listed in the Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, and was transformed into a co-author and keyword matrix where the existence of a 'link' was judged by impact factors calculated by the weight value of the role and rate of author participation. Research achievement was dependent upon the author's status and networking index, as analyzed by neighborhood degree, multidimensional scaling, correspondence analysis, and multiple regression. Co-author networks developed as randomness network in the center of a few high-productivity researchers. In particular, closeness centrality was more developed than degree centrality. Also, power law distribution was discovered in impact factor and research productivity by college affiliation. In multiple regression, the effect of the author's role was significant in both the impact factor calculated by the participatory rate and the number of listed articles. However, the number of listed articles varied by sex. This study shows that the small world phenomenon exists in co-author and keyword networks in a journal, as in citation networks. However, the differentiation of knowledge structure in the field of preventive medicine was relatively restricted by specialization.

  5. Recent Progress Toward Hydrogen Medicine: Potential of Molecular Hydrogen for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    Persistent oxidative stress is one of the major causes of most lifestyle-related diseases, cancer and the aging process. Acute oxidative stress directly causes serious damage to tissues. Despite the clinical importance of oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. We have proposed that molecular hydrogen (H2) has potential as a “novel” antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications [Ohsawa et al., Nat Med. 2007: 13; 688-94]. H2 has a number of advantages as a potential antioxidant: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) that function in cell signaling, thereby, there should be little adverse effects of consuming H2. There are several methods to ingest or consume H2, including inhaling hydrogen gas, drinking H2-dissolved water (hydrogen water), taking a hydrogen bath, injecting H2-dissolved saline (hydrogen saline), dropping hydrogen saline onto the eye, and increasing the production of intestinal H2 by bacteria. Since the publication of the first H2 paper in Nature Medicine in 2007, the biological effects of H2 have been confirmed by the publication of more than 38 diseases, physiological states and clinical tests in leading biological/medical journals, and several groups have started clinical examinations. Moreover, H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 regulates various gene expressions and protein-phosphorylations, though the molecular mechanisms underlying the marked effects of very small amounts of H2 remain elusive. PMID:21736547

  6. Preventive maintenance measures and repeat tests on actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueren, H.

    1990-01-01

    At Biblis Nuclear Power Station, about 1500 electrical actuators and variable speed drives of various model ranges and with various driving end speeds and actuating times are installed and about 600 of these are located in important safety engineering systems. In order to optimize the preventive maintenance measures on the drives, a data bank has been established into which are stored, in addition to the fixed type data of each drive, inter alia, statements about location of application, valve type, inspection cycle, calendar year of next maintenance, findings during inspection measures and causes of faults. Before each unit inspection, in addition to the inspection lists, the maintenance and installation records and also the associated job instructions are produced from this data processing equipment. (orig.) [de

  7. Cost-effectiveness criteria for marine oil spill preventive measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanem, Erik; Endresen, Oyvind; Skjong, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Oil tanker accidents resulting in large quantities of oil spills and severe pollution have occurred in the past, leading to major public attention and an international focus on finding solutions for minimising the risks related to such events. This paper proposes a novel approach for evaluating measures for prevention and control of marine oil spills, based on considerations of oil spill risk and cost effectiveness. A cost model that incorporates all costs of a shipping accident has been established and oil tanker spill accidents have been further elaborated as a special case of such accidents. Utilising this model, novel implementation criteria, in terms of the Cost of Averting a Tonne of oil Spilt (CATS), for risk control options aiming at mitigating the environmental risk of accidental oil spills, are proposed. The paper presents a review of previous studies on the costs associated with oil spills from shipping, which is a function of many factors such as location of spill, spill amount, type of oil, etc. However, ships are designed for global trade, transporting different oil qualities. Therefore, globally applicable criteria must average over most of these factors, and the spill amount is the remaining factor that will be used to measure cost effectiveness against. A weighted, global average cleanup cost of USD 16,000/tonne of oil spilt has been calculated, considering the distribution of oil tanker traffic densities. Finally, the criteria are compared with some existing regulations for oil spill prevention, response and compensation (OPA 90)

  8. Brigadier General James Stevens Simmons (1890-1954), Medical Corps, United States Army: a career in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Sanders

    2012-02-01

    James Simmons began his career in the US Army as a laboratory officer and his assignments progressed into tropical medicine research. His interests and work evolved into preventive medicine (PM, as the Army termed public health), and he took both a PhD and a Doctorate in Public Health. As the Army's leading PM officer he was appointed head of PM in 1940 and guided the Army's PM effort through World War II. His responsibility ran from gas masks through healthy nutrition and occupational health to an enormous variety of diseases; by the war's end, the breadth and importance of PM was reflected in the Preventive Medicine Division, having fully one-sixth of all military personnel at the Surgeon General's Office. Simmons used his strong professional credentials to tap into civilian medicine for expertise the Army lacked and he established organizations that survive to this day. After retirement, he sought to expand the field of public health and raise another generation of public health physicians.

  9. Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine as the hardcore of ‘Horizon 2020’: EPMA position paper

    OpenAIRE

    Golubnitschaja, Olga; Kinkorova, Judita; Costigliola, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) considers acute problems in medical sciences as well as the quality and management of medical services challenging health care systems in Europe and worldwide. This actuality has motivated the representatives of EPMA to comment on the efforts in promoting an integrative approach based on multidisciplinary expertise to advance health care-related research and management. The current paper provides a global ove...

  10. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Staff radiation doses associated with nuclear medicine procedures - a review of some recent measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Mostafa, A.B.; Thomson, W.H.

    1990-01-01

    Despite publication of the Approved Code of Practice and the Notes for Guidance, implementation of the UK Ionising Radiation Regulations has required local interpretation by nuclear medicine departments. One problem has been the lack of data upon which decisions can be based. In the last five years we and others have made a number of measurements of radiation doses to staff relating to nuclear medicine practice. This paper collates, summarizes and comments on this information. Where possible, results have been expressed in relation to the workload of an average nuclear medicine department. (author)

  12. A sedentary job? Measuring the physical activity of emergency medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Elaine B; Caputo, Nicholas D; Pedraza, Solimar; Reynolds, Toussaint; Sharifi, Rahim; Waseem, Muhammad; Kornberg, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the quality of health care provided in the United States has continued to be waged as concerns have grown over the years. Stress, sleep deprivation, poor diet, and lack of exercise may lead to inadequate work performance by physicians. This study was undertaken to determine whether Emergency Medicine (EM) residents satisfy daily recommendations for total number of steps taken per day set forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Surgeon General in a 12-h shift. An observational prospective cohort study was conducted between August 2009 and November 2009 at an urban Level I trauma center with an annual census of over 165,000 Emergency Department (ED) visits per year. The mean number of steps taken by EM residents during 12-h shifts was measured. Mean steps taken during a shift were 7333 (95% confidence interval 6901-7764). Only nine (9.9%) pedometer readings reached the target level of 10,000 (10 K) steps or above. A t-test was used to compare steps with the hypothesized 10 K steps target. Recordings of 10K steps or greater were not correlated with ED sections (p=0.60) shift (medical vs. surgical, p=0.65) or ED census (r(2)physical activity regimens may help improve the overall well-being of EM residents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  14. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Cao

    Full Text Available About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy.To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility.The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637.Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available.Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30.After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14 and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups.This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.

  15. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.

  16. Uncertain estimation of activity measurement in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Diaz, A.; Palau, S.P.A.; Cardenas, T.A.I.; Garcia, A.I.; Tulio, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Accuracy and precision of dose is mandatory in radiopharmaceutical therapy procedures to guarantee the treatment success. The evaluation of uncertain in dose measurement in NM lab becomes a very important step, moreover if the operational parameters change between different equipment. In order to assure the traceability of activity measurements, and the quality assurance of dose administration, the behavior of two dose calibrator Capintec CRC-15R and PTW Curimentor 3, were studied. Accuracy, precision, linearity of activity response and reproducibility, and the activity uncertain determination with a second lab source were determined. Accuracy was evaluate using Tc 99m and I 131 Pstandard source (Secondary Standard Laboratory), for 10R vial (V) and 5 ml syringe (S) geometry, obtaining 1.3% (V-I 131 ), 1.4% (V -Tc 99m ), 0.8% (S -Tc 99m ) for CRC-15R and 2.3% (V-I 131 ), 1.1%(V-Tc 99m ), 1.0% (S-Tc 99m ) for Curimentor 3. Precision and Reproducibility was calculate using Cs 137 source. The reproducibility of CRC-15R and Curimentor 3 was less than 1.1% and 1.2 % respectively, during all evaluation time. The linearity of activity response was evaluate only for Tc 99m , and the results obtained were CRC 15R (672.97mCi 0.07 mCi, 1.3 % like mayor deviation) and Curimentor 3 (670.91mCi 0.08 mCi; 0.6 % like mayor deviation). To calculate the uncertain was use I 131 sources, the influences of calibration factor, linearity to activity, precision, reproducibility, background, half live time took into account. The typical combine uncertain for I 131 activity of was 2.24% for CRC-15R and 2.41% for Curimentor 3. The results were traceable between two equipment, no statistical significant differences were found for all tests. The equipment have a proper performance in the checked parameters, showing compliance with AIEA and National Authorities recommendation. Conclusion: The two equipmentcan be used in NM services with high level of traceability and confidence, with

  17. Value-Based Health Care Delivery, Preventive Medicine and the Medicalization of Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    The?real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a??value-based health care delivery?. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges.?In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of?a better healthcare for all, with real bene...

  18. Optimization of corrective and preventive maintenance on computers in Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrascosa Fernandez, C. B.; Gil Agudo, A.; Rodriguez Exodo, J. M.; Torres Donaire, J.; Zapata jimenez, J. C.; Arjona Gutierrez, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the functions of a Service of Radio physics and Radiation Protection is the quality control of equipment emitting ionizing radiation and detectors for clinical use and verification to incidents and actions of the commercial house that could affect the dose or the quality image. The following is the procedure used in our hospital to track incidents that cause teams in Radiology (DR), Nuclear Medicine (MN) and Radiation Oncology (ONRT) in collaboration with the Electro medicine Service (EM .).

  19. Healthcare for the Healthy People: Miniaturization, Sensing and Actuation Trends and Needs in Preventive and Predictive Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto SANNA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern medicine the role of prevention and prediction is acquiring an increasing market share, due to augmented awareness and interest of the population toward these issues, and to the recognition by public bodies that investing on prevention will be the only mean to afford economical sustainability in the future. Prediction must rely on the dynamic collection of several personal information, not only about the physical condition of the individual, but also about his/her behaviors and the environmental conditions. Prevention will increasingly imply the ability to modify the detected behaviors. However, monitoring these parameters and acting in response to undesired conditions requires a constant presence in people's everyday life. The target population for these services is healthy people that possibly won't spend too much in terms of time or money in invasive or costly solutions. For these reasons, we foresee an emerging role for sensing and actuation technologies able to provide miniaturization, pervasiveness and low costs.

  20. Mind-Body Medicine in the Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Lauche, Romy; Paul, Anna; Langhorst, Jost; Michalsen, Andreas; Dobos, Gustav

    2015-11-06

    In mind-body medicine (MBM), conventional lifestyle modification measures such as dietary counseling and exercise are supplemented with relaxation techniques and psychological motivational elements. This review studied the effect of MBM on cardiac events and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This review is based on publications up to and including January 2015 that were retrieved by a systematic search in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials of the effect of MBM programs (versus standard treatment) on cardiac events, overall mortality, and/or cardiac mortality were analyzed. Atherosclerosis, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and the body mass index (BMI) were chosen as secondary outcomes. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane tool. Twelve trials, performed on a total of 1085 patients, were included in the analysis. Significant differences between groups were found with respect to cardiac events (odds ratio [OR]: 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23-0.61; p<0.01; heterogeneity [I2]: 0%), but not overall mortality (OR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.46-1.45; p = 0.49; I2: 0%) or cardiac mortality (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.43-2.25; p = 0.97; I2: 0%). Significant differences between groups were also found with respect to atherosclerosis (mean difference [MD] = -7.86% diameter stenosis; 95% CI: -15.06-[-0.65]; p = 0.03; I2: 0%) and systolic blood pressure (MD = -3.33 mm Hg; 95% CI: -5.76-[-0.91]; p<0.01; I2: 0%), but not with respect to diastolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, or BMI. In patients with CHD, MBM programs can lessen the occurrence of cardiac events, reduce atherosclerosis, and lower systolic blood pressure, but they do not reduce mortality. They can be used as a complement to conventional rehabilitation programs.

  1. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of Malaria Preventive Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Medicine and Health Development ... Method: A cross sectional survey of 300 consecutive pregnant women attending the antenatal ... Treatment choices of malaria amongst the women were oral drugs 123 (49.4%), ...

  2. Awareness And Preventive Measures Against Hepatitis B Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Clinical Medicine ... Results: A high level of awareness and knowledge of HBV infection was demonstrated in this ... in between patients; 36 percent wore and changed face masks during treatment and in between patients.

  3. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs.

  4. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs

  5. [Impact of the Core Training Law on preventive medicine and public health training and other common medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latasa, Pello; Gil-Borrelli, Christian; Aguilera, José Antonio; Reques, Laura; Barreales, Saúl; Ojeda, Elena; Alemán, Guadalupe; Iniesta, Carlos; Gullón, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Core Training Law (CTL) is to amend specialised medical training to include 24 months of common training. The aim of this study is to assess its potential impact on the Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PM&PH) training programme and other medical specialties. The programmes of the 21 common medical specialties were analysed and the recommended training periods for each specialty collected, before the information was agreed upon by three observers. The training impact was calculated as the percentage of months that should be amended per specialty to adapt to the common training schedule. The Preventive Medicine and Public Health training programme is the specialty most affected by the Core Training Law (100%, 24 months). Intensive medicine (0%, 0 months) and medical oncology (17%, 4 months) is the least affected. The CTL affects the common medical specialties in different ways and requires a complete reorganisation of the activities and competencies of PM&PH professionals. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Childhood socioeconomic position, young adult intelligence and fillings of prescribed medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    To explore the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and filling of medicine prescriptions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with young adult intelligence (IQ) as a potential mediator....

  7. [Gymnastic school sport injuries--aspects of preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, K; Jagodzinski, M; Haasper, C; Zeichen, J; Krettek, C

    2006-06-01

    Gymnastic school sport injuries account for a significant morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents. Preventive issues may be derived from a thorough in-depth analysis of the pattern and circumstances of gymnastic injuries. During a school year among 3993 schools in 43 889 classes with 993 056 pupils 2234 school sport injuries have been reported to the Gemeinde Unfall Versicherung (GUV) Niedersachsen, Germany. Gymnastic sport injuries account for 18 % (403 accidents), which is second after ball sports injuries. Regarding the distribution of the gymnastic disciplines, vault was the major discipline with 34 %, followed by floor exercise (21.3 %), mini- and competition trampoline (16.8 %), and parallel bars (8.2 %). The analysis of the type of injury during vault accidents revealed contusion (31 %) as the predominant injury, followed by sprains (15.4 %), and fractures (15.4 %). Floor exercise injuries distributed among distorsions (26.7 %), contusions (18.6 %), muscle tears (14 %). Back injuries especially of the cervical and thoracic spine, accounted for 40 % of all their injuries. Minor head injuries account for 4.7 % of all floor exercise injuries. Mini-trampoline injuries distribute among contusions (30 %), fractures (22.5 %), distorsions (7.5 %). 21.8 % collisions were noted against a box in comparison to 6.8 % in case of the horse. Gymnast injuries account for a significant number of all school sport related injuries. Vault and floor exercise account for the vast majority of all injuries, with alarming high numbers of spine injuries during floor exercise and mini-trampoline. A preservation of a high level of attention during a sport lesson, safety measures including appropriate mats and landing zones are mandatory to reduce injuries. Muscle injuries and ankle sprains can be prevented by a prospective proprioceptive training intervention to be implemented in school sports.

  8. [Holistic integrative medicine: application in prevention and treatment of oral mucosal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Xie, L; Zhao, X; Li, J; Zeng, X; Chen, Q M

    2017-08-09

    Holistic integrative medicine (HIM), as one of the important ideas in the field of medicine, arouses great concern recently. HIM regards the human body as a whole, turns data and evidence in medical research back to facts, integrates technologies and experience developed in clinical research into medical skills. The repeated practices at the levels of fact, experience, and medical skills will generate true knowledge to solve the wide spread problems brought by linearized thinking and fragmented knowledge. With the development of highly divided medical disciplines, how to utilize and practice HIM has become a common concern of the medical community. Specialization of stomatology, which is a first level discipline like medicine, has also become a trend for years. However, holistic concept cannot be overlooked, especially in the development of oral medicine. This article aims at the communication and exchange of knowledge about HIM among dental professionals. In order to serve the patients better, the authors look forward to practicing the HIM concept in the field of oral medicine through the efforts of us all.

  9. Monitoring stress among internal medicine residents: an experience-driven, practical and short measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowski, Nils; Villoing, Barbara; Zenasni, Franck; Jaury, Philippe; Boujut, Emilie

    2017-07-01

    Residents experience severely high levels of stress, depression and burnout, leading to perceived medical errors, as well as to symptoms of impairment, such as chronic anger, cognitive impairment, suicidal behavior and substance abuse. Because research has not yet provided a psychometrically robust population-specific tool to measure the level of stress of medicine residents, we aimed at building and validating such a measure. Using an inductive scale development approach, a short, pragmatic measure was built, based on the interviews of 17 medicine residents. The Internal Medicine Residency Stress Scale (IMRSS) was then administered in a sample of 259 internal medicine residents (199 females, 60 males, M Age  = 25.6) along with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Maslach Burnout Inventory, Satisfaction With Life Scale and Ways of Coping Checklist. The IMRSS showed satisfactory internal reliability (Cronbach's α = .86), adequate structural validity - studied through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (χ 2 /df = 2.51, CFI = .94; SRMR = .037, RMSEA = .076) - and good criterion validity - the IMRSS was notably strongly correlated with emotional exhaustion (r = .64; p is recommended to quickly and frequently assess and monitor stress among internal medicine residents.

  10. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: restore CDC funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Pamela; Redding, Colleen A; Raja, Sheela; Newton, Tamara; Beharie, Nisha; Printz, Destiny

    2018-02-21

    The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership.

  11. ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN PREVENTING THE COUNTERFEIT MEDICINES ENTRY INTO THE WORLD MARKETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukina, Valeryia; Dohnal, Jiri; Saloun, Jan

    2016-09-01

    30 years have passed since Conference of Experts on the Rational Use of Drugs was held in Nairobi, Kenya, from 25 to 29 November 1985, where the problem of counterfeit medicines was mentioned as the international for the first time. The problem of counterfeit medicines is not only a major threat to public health and national and private economy, but also it is of great interest for key decision-making actors at the international level. The authors analyzed what has been done since that time by international organizations. Combating the counterfeiting of medicines cannot be successfully achieved by the health sector alone - World Health Organization (WHO), - so the efforts of the other United Nations (UN) organizations relevant to counterfeiting were in need and were studied in the article: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Trade Organization (WTO), World Customs Organization (WCO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), etc. Today WHO is unable to coordinate all their activities, so the few existing proposals for establishing a new mechanism of international cooperation have been examined. Will the MEDICRIME Convention that will enter into force on January 1, 2016 be the start of the new era in the combating with the counterfeit medicines? - the authors offered their vision on the international developments.

  12. [The environment, knowledge and preventive medicine. 2. Reductionism and holism--a dichotomy in thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersch-Sundermann, V

    1989-03-01

    The usual theories and methods of biological sciences and medicine are of important rank to valuate the potential risks of environmental pollutions. Because in notice of the represented system model the consideration of ecotoxicological processes shows, that a complete assessement of these risks and the effects of environmental pollutions against human health can only be attainable when holostic mode of thinking is integrated.

  13. RESISTANCE TO INNOVATION: ESSENCE, PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND WAYS OUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Zagvyazinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper raises the issue of school teachers’ resistance to innovations related to modernization procedures, updates of educational content, methods and forms. The rejection of innovations is regarded by the authors as a psychological and pedagogical phenomenon; its roots and causes being analyzed including the consequences of some ineffective, poorly developed and even harmful innovations introduced or proposed by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science. The research findings demonstrate different innovation barriers along with the resulting inner skepticism and its external manifestation. However, in spite of partially justified skepticism, the authors maintain that the firm resistance to any innovation adversely affects both the education quality and teachers’ personal and professional characteristics. In conclusion, the paper suggests some preventive measures for overcoming teachers’ resistance to positive innovations in educational practices, and describes a successful experience of one of the rural schools applying a psychological mechanism of internalization of innovations. Additionally, the role of the school principal in developing teachers’ motivation for innovations is emphasized.

  14. Combining Clinical Information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures in Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, D.A. van

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the use of clinical information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for patient evaluation in orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. In the first part, we showed that the Dutch version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) is a valid and reliable

  15. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel RR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rupa R Patel,1 Stephen Y Liang,1 Pooja Koolwal,2 Frederick Matthew Kuhlmann1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, 2Division of Medical Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. Keywords: immunocompromised, vaccines, travel, malaria, diarrhea

  16. Evaluation of performance of activimeter used in nuclear medicine for radiopharmaceuticals activity measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Tais Lins da; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Ruzzarin, Anelise; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of radionuclide calibrators of Nuclear Medicine Centers located in Rio de Janeiro state and Porto Alegre city at the criterion of accuracy required by the standard NN-3.05 of the National Commission on Nuclear Energy for measuring of activity of radiopharmaceuticals. Of total of 203 results evaluated for 99 mTc, 131 I, 67 Ga and 201 Tl, 88% showed acceptable performance according to this criterion. Ideally, and fully attainable, the performance should be 100%, for the benefit of patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures. (author)

  17. Measuring financial well-being in cancer prevention research: Results from the Money-Health Connection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Reginald Tucker-Seeley joined the faculty at the University of Southern California (USC) Leonard Davis School of Gerontology in June 2017. Prior to joining USC, Dr. Tucker-Seeley was an Assistant Professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). He completed master and doctoral degrees at HSPH and a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer prevention and control at HSPH and DFCI. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research focuses primarily on social determinants of health, such as the association between the neighborhood environment and health behavior; and on individual-level socioeconomic determinants of multi-morbidity, mortality, self-rated health, and health self-efficacy. His current work focuses on financial well-being across the cancer continuum, from prevention to end-of-life care. He has received R21 and K01 grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to develop measures of financial well-being at two points along the cancer continuum: prevention and following diagnosis. He was also funded by the Academy Health/Aetna Foundation Scholars in Residence Fellowship Program to develop measures of neighborhood economic well-being. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research has been published in journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Journal of National Cancer Institute, Cancer Causes and Control, and the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Tucker-Seeley is also committed to community service that targets the elimination of health disparities. He served for three years on the Rhode Island Commission for Health Advocacy and Equity. Based on his experience on this Commission, Dr. Tucker-Seeley developed a new course at HSPH called “Measuring and Reporting Health Disparities;” and in 2016, he received the HSPH teaching award for this course.

  18. How does a quality audits work in national harmonization of activity measurement over nuclear medicine measurement in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, C.

    2006-01-01

    The National Control Center for Medical Devices (CCEEM) is a regulatory agency, belongs to the Cuban Ministry of Public Heath. It works to guarantee the safety and effectiveness of medical devices used into the National Health System (NHS) and the patient, and user protection. Quality Control assures that particular aspect will be satisfied, so since several years ago a national programme for the quality control of nuclear medicine instruments has been organized and established. A service was created in order to control periodically the state of the instrumentation in all the nuclear medicine departments, it is making annual quality control audits and participating in comparisons exercises organises by CCEEM. 3 comparisons exercises with CENTIS and services of NHS were made and eleven nuclear medicine departments were audited in order to perform a practical evaluation of this service, giving the two new regulations and general instructions to dose administration. The objects of the present work is shows, by those results, how does a quality audits work in National Harmonization of Activity Measurement over Nuclear Medicine Measurement in Cuba

  19. [Advances in animal model and traditional Chinese medicine prevention in coronary microvascular dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Jian-Xun; Ren, Jian-Xun; Guo, Hao; Lin, Cheng-Ren

    2017-01-01

    Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is a common mechanism for some heart disease like cardiac X syndrome and no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI). With the development of medical imageology, CMD has received increased attention. Animal model of CMD is indispensable tool for the research of pathogenesis and treatment evaluation, therefor choose an appropriate animal model is the first issue to carry out CMD research. Experimental and clinical studies have shown unique effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in CMD therapy. Clarifying of the TCM therapeutic effect mechanisms and seeking an optimal solution of combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine will be the focus of future research. This paper reviewed the establishment and evaluation of CMD animal model, as well as the intervention study of TCM on CMD. The article aims to provide reference for the basic research of CMD and the TCM experimental study on CMD. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  20. The anticoagulation choices of internal medicine residents for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulson, Nathaniel; McIntyre, William F; Oqab, Zardasht; Yazdan-Ashoori, Payam; Quinn, Kieran L; van Oosten, Erik; Hopman, Wilma M; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2017-06-01

    To explore the oral anticoagulation (OAC) prescribing choices of Canadian internal medicine residents, at different training levels, in comparison with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) guidelines for non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). Cross-sectional, web-based survey, involving clinical scenarios designed to favour the use of non-vitamin K antagonists (NOACs) as per the 2014 CCS NVAF guidelines. Additional questions were also designed to determine resident attitudes towards OAC prescribing. A total of 518 internal medicine responses were analysed, with 196 postgraduate year (PGY)-1s, 169 PGY-2s and 153 PGY-3s. The majority of residents (81%) reported feeling comfortable choosing OAC, with 95% having started OAC in the past 3 months. In the initial clinical scenario involving an uncomplicated patient with a CHADS2 score of 3, warfarin was favoured over any of the NOACs by PGY-1s (81.6% vs 73.9%), but NOACs were favoured by PGY-3s (88.3% vs 83.7%). This was the only scenario where OAC choices varied by PGY year, as each of the subsequent clinical scenarios residents generally favoured warfarin over NOACs irrespective of level of training. The majority of residents stated that they would no longer prescribe warfarin once NOAC reversal agents are available, and residents felt risk of adverse events was the most important factor when choosing OAC. Canadian internal medicine residents favoured warfarin over NOACs for patients with NVAF, which is in discordance with the evidence-based CCS guidelines. This finding persisted throughout the 3 years of core internal medicine training. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Acupuncture and Traditional Herbal Medicine Therapy Prevent Deliriumin Patients with Cardiovascular Disease in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Miyazaki, Jun; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Miyata, Shusaku; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Nawa, Takahide; Okada, Hideshi; Ojio, Shinsuke; Ogura, Shinji; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine) for reducing the incidence rate of delirium in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in ICUs. Twenty-nine patients who had been urgently admitted to the ICU in the control period were treated with conventional intensive care. Thirty patients in the treatment period received conventional therapy plus a combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Acupuncture treatment was performed once a day, and the herbal formula was administered orally three times a day during the first week of the ICU stay. The standard acupuncture points were GV20, Ex-HN3, HT7, LI4, Liv3, and KI3, and the main herbal preparation was Kamikihito. The incident rates of delirium, assessed using the confusion assessment method for ICU, in the treatment and control period were compared. The incidence rate of delirium was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (6.6% vs. 37.9%, [Formula: see text]). Moreover, sedative drugs and non-pharmacological approaches against aggressive behavior of patients who were delirious were used less in the treatment group than in the control group. No serious adverse events were observed in the treatment group. Combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine was found to be effective in lowering the incidence of delirium in patients with CV disease in ICUs. Further studies with a large sample size and parallel randomized controlled design would be required to establish the effects of this therapy.

  2. [Recent advances on pericytes in microvascular dysfunction and traditional Chinese medicine prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Jian-Xun; Guo, Hao; Ren, Jian-Xun

    2017-08-01

    Pericytesis a kind of widespread vascular mural cells embedded within the vascular basement membrane of blood microvessels, constituting the barrier of capillaries and tissue spaces together with endothelial cells. Pericytes communicate with microvascular endothelial cells through cell connections or paracrine signals, playing an important role in important physiological processes such as blood flow, vascular permeability and vascular formation. Pericytes dysfunction may participate in some microvascular dysfunction, and also mediate pathological repair process, therefore pericytes attracted more and more attention. Traditional Chinese medicine suggests that microvascular dysfunction belongs to the collaterals disease; Qi stagnation and blood stasis in collaterals result in function imbalance of internal organs. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown effects on pericytes in microvascular dysfunction, for example qi reinforcing blood-circulation activating medicines can reduce the damage of retinal pericytes in diabetic retinopathy. However, there are some limitations of research fields, inaccuracy of research techniques and methods, and lack of mechanism elaboration depth in the study of microvascular lesion pericytes. This paper reviewed the biological characteristics of pericytes and pericytes in microvascular dysfunction, as well as the intervention study of TCM on pericytes. The article aims to provide reference for the research of pericytes in microvascular dysfunction and the TCM study on pericytes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. [Mind-body approach in the area of preventive medicine: focusing on relaxation and meditation for stress management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunesik

    2010-09-01

    Emotional support and a stress management program should be simultaneously provided to clients as effective preventive services for healthy behavioral change. This study was conducted to review various relaxation and meditation intervention methods and their applicability for a preventive service program. The author of this paper tried to find various relaxation and meditation programs through a literature review and program searching and to introduce them. The 'Relaxation Response' and 'Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)' are the most the widely used meditative programs in mainstream medical systems. Abdominal breathing, Progressive Musclular Relaxation (PMR), Relaxative Imagery, Autogenic Training (AT) and Biofeedback are other well-known techniques for relaxation and stress management. I have developed and implemented some programs using these methods. Relaxation and meditation classes for cancer patients and a meditation based stress coping workshop are examples of this program. Relaxation and meditation seem to be good and effective methods for primary, secondary and tertiary preventive service programs. Program development and standardization and further study are needed for more and wider use of the mind-body approach in the preventive service area of medicine.

  4. Shenlingbaishusan, a chines herbal medicine, in the prevention and treatment of colo-rectal radiation reactions during pelvic tumor radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yueran; Liu Yajie; Wu Chaoquan; Chen Chuping; Wang Yaobang; Li Xianming; Zhong Heli; Wu Dong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicine-Shenlingbaishusan in preventing and treating colon and rectum radiation reactions. Methods: Ninty-six patients with female pelvic tumor (cervical and endometrial cancer) were randomly divided into two groups: radiotherapy (RT) alone group (47 patients) and RT+ Shenlingbaishusan group(49 patients). RT in both groups, being similar, 1.8-2.0 Gy/per fraction, five fractions/per week, to a total dose of 48-50 Gy/5-6 weeks to the whole pelvis by external irradiation plus brachytherapy: to a total dose of 42-49 Gy/6-7 weeks for cervix carcinoma, and 10-15 Gy/1-2 weeks for endometrial cancer. Results: All patients have been were followed for more than one year after radiotherapy. The incidence of acute and late colon and rectum radiation reactions. was:15 patients in the RT + Shenlingbaishusan group: grade I10 patients, Grade II3 patients, grade III2 patients incontrast to the 47 patients in the RT group: grade I 24 patients, grade II 14 patients and grade III 9 patients (P<0.01). Conclusions: The traditional Chinese medicine-Shenlingbaishusan is effective in preventing and treating colon and rectum radiation reactions during pelvic tumor radiotherapy.(authors)

  5. Development of a Chinese medicine assessment measure: an interdisciplinary approach using the delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyer, Rosa N; Conboy, Lisa A; Jacobson, Eric; McKnight, Patrick; Goddard, Thomas; Moscatelli, Francesca; Legedza, Anna T R; Kerr, Catherine; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Wayne, Peter M

    2005-12-01

    The diagnostic framework and clinical reasoning process in Chinese medicine emphasizes the contextual and qualitative nature of a patient's illness. Chinese medicine assessment data may help interpret clinical outcomes. As part of a study aimed at assessing the validity and improving the inter-rater reliability of the Chinese diagnostic process, a structured assessment instrument was developed for use in clinical trials of acupuncture and other Chinese medical therapies. To foster collaboration and maximize resources and information, an interdisciplinary advisory team was assembled. Under the guidance of two group process facilitators, and in order to establish whether the assessment instrument was consistent with accepted Chinese medicine diagnostic categories (face validity) and included the full range of each concept's meaning (content validity), a panel of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) expert clinicians was convened and their responses were organized using the Delphi process, an iterative, anonymous, idea-generating and consensus-building process. An aggregate rating measure was obtained by taking the mean of mean ratings for each question across all 10 experts. Over three rounds, the overall rating increased from 7.4 (SD = 1.3) in Round 1 to 9.1 (SD = 0.5) in Round 3. The level of agreement among clinicians was measured by a decrease in SD. The final instrument TEAMSI-TCM (Traditional East Asian Medicine Structured Interview, TCM version) uses the pattern differentiation model characteristic of TCM. This modular, dynamic version was specifically designed to assess women, with a focus on gynecologic conditions; with modifications it can be adapted for use with other populations and conditions. TEAMSI-TCM is a prescriptive instrument that guides clinicians to use the proper indicators, combine them in a systematic manner, and generate conclusions. In conjunction with treatment manualization and training it may serve to increase inter-rater reliability and

  6. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  7. Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine as the hardcore of ‘Horizon 2020’: EPMA position paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The European Association for Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine (EPMA) considers acute problems in medical sciences as well as the quality and management of medical services challenging health care systems in Europe and worldwide. This actuality has motivated the representatives of EPMA to comment on the efforts in promoting an integrative approach based on multidisciplinary expertise to advance health care-related research and management. The current paper provides a global overview of the problems related to medical services: pandemic scenario in the progression of common non-communicable diseases, delayed interventional approaches of reactive medicine, poor economy of health care systems, lack of specialised educational programmes, problematic ethical aspects of several treatments as well as inadequate communication among professional groups and policymakers. In the form of individual paragraphs, the article presents a consolidated position of PPPM professionals towards the new European programme ‘Horizon 2020’ providing the long-lasting instruments for scientific and technological progress in medical services and health care-related programmes. In the author's opinion, Horizon 2020 provides unlimited room for research and implementation in Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine. However, the overall success of the programme strongly depends on the effective communication and consolidation of professionals relevant for PPPM as well as the communication quality with policymakers. Smart political decision is the prerequisite of the effective PPPM implementation in the health care sector. This position is focused on the patients' needs, innovative medical sciences, optimal health and disease management, expert recommendations for the relevant medical fields and optimal solutions which have a potential to advance health care services if the long-term strategies were to be effectively implemented as proposed here. PMID:24708704

  8. Comparison of activity measurements of the 67Ga and 123I at Brazilian nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A. dos; Silva, M.A.L. da; Lopes, R.T.; Iwahara, A.; Oliveira, A.E. de; Tauhata, L.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1998, the National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiations (LNMRI), of Institute for Radioprotection and Dosimetry, belonging to the Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy (IRD/CNEN), is conducting a comparison program for the measurements of radiopharmaceutical activities applied to to patients at the nuclear medicine sector, viewing to assessment the quality of that measurements. This work presents the results of three comparison rounds using the 67 Ga and 123 I, establishing the metrological tracking of the calibrators used by the participants. The results were analysed under the the viewpoint of the conformal with the regulatory authority and show that those comparisons are necessary to improve the quality of radiopharmaceutical measurement activities, identify failures on the equipment and technical procedures used by the nuclear medicine services all over the country

  9. 4Ps medicine of the fatty liver: the research model of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine-recommendations for facing obesity, fatty liver and fibrosis epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca Maria; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between adipose tissue and fatty liver, and its possible evolution in fibrosis, is supported by clinical and research experience. Given the multifactorial pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), treatments for various contributory risk factors have been proposed; however, there is no single validated therapy or drug association recommended for all cases which can stand alone. Mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance are displayed along with recommendations and position points. Evidences and practice can get sustainable and cost-benefit valuable outcomes by participatory interventions. These recommendations can be enhanced by comprehensive research projects, addressed to societal issues and innovation, market appeal and industry development, cultural acceptance and sustainability. The basis of participatory medicine is a greater widespread awareness of a condition which is both a disease and an easy documented and inclusive clue for associated diseases and unhealthy lifestyle. This model is suitable for addressing prevention and useful for monitoring improvement, worsening and adherence with non-invasive imaging tools which allow targeted approaches. The latter include health psychology and nutritional and physical exercise prescription expertise disseminated by continuous medical education but, more important, by concrete curricula for training undergraduate and postgraduate students. It is possible and recommended to do it by early formal teaching of ultrasound imaging procedures and of practical lifestyle intervention strategies, including approaches aimed to healthier fashion suggestions. Guidelines and requirements of research project funding calls should be addressed also to NAFLD and allied conditions and should encompass the goal of training by research and the inclusion of participatory medicine topics. A deeper awareness of ethics of competences in health professionals

  10. Investigation of the possible use of Arglabin, new antitumor medicine to prevent oncological diseases after radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikenov, T.; Karabalin, B.; Rakhimov, K.; Adekenov, S.

    1996-01-01

    Background: One of the heaviest effects of radiation exposure and its pollutants to the environment is a growth of oncologic diseases as a sequence of breakage of genetic body substance and transmission of Genetic load to the next generation. People of Kazakstan are anxious of the present situation with harmful effect of remaining radiation doses.Purpose of research: the examination of molecular mechanisms of action for a new drug 'Arglabin' was done with the purpose of preventing the malignant tumor occurrence for those people living on the territory of higher risk (in high radiation locations). Research work of the mechanisms of action for 'Arglabin' drug: - examination of the drug effectiveness to enzymes of prenylated proteins; - examination of the drug effectiveness on functioning the oncogene products; - examination of drug metabolism. Research work of the possibility for using 'Arglabin' to prevent oncology diseases includes: - establishment of experimental model of increased risk of oncologic disease on different groups of laboratory animals using the low-dosage radiation sphere; - examination of the drug effectiveness in oncology diseases prevention; - determination of mechanisms and the prevention's results on cancer

  11. What California sea lions exposed to domoic acid might teach us about autism: lessons for predictive and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahvis, Garet Paul

    2017-09-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shares many biological and behavioral similarities with the deleterious effects of domoic acid (DA) exposure. DA is produced by marine algae and most commonly by species of Pseudo-nitzschia . Humans and marine mammals can be exposed to DA when they consume whole fish or shellfish. The mammalian fetus is highly sensitive to the deleterious effects of DA exposure. Both ASD and exposures to toxic levels of DA feature repetitive behaviors, challenges with social interaction, and seizures. They can also share a commonality in brain anatomy and function, particularly the balance between excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. The current article is relevant to predictive, preventive, and personalized medicine for three reasons. First, shellfish consumption may be a risk factor for ASD and the regulatory limit for DA should be adjusted to prevent this possibility. Human contributions to increased algal production of DA in coastal waters should be identified and reduced. Second, evaluations of sentinel species wild and free-roaming in the environment, though typically outside the purview of biomedical research, should be much more fully employed to gain insights to risk factors for human disease. To better identify and prevent disease, biomedical researchers should study wild populations. Third, studies of DA exposure highlight the possibility that glutamate additives to processed foods may also have deleterious impacts on human brain development and behavior.

  12. Medicinal claims

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Under EU medicinal law, substances presented as having properties for treating or preventing disease are medicinal products by virtue of their presentation. EU food law prohibits attributing to any food the property of preventing, treating or curing a disease. However, if certain conditions are

  13. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  14. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G [Swedish Board of Customs, Control Division/Control Section, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  15. Pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation: preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin P C; Shepherd, Robert K; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Clark, Graeme M; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Both clinical data and laboratory studies demonstrated the risk of pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation. This review examines strategies to prevent post-implant meningitis. Medline/PubMed database; English articles after 1980. Search terms: cochlear implants, pneumococcus meningitis, streptococcus pneumonia, immunization, prevention. Narrative review. All articles relating to post-implant meningitis without any restriction in study designs were assessed and information extracted. The presence of inner ear trauma as a result of surgical technique or cochlear implant electrode array design was associated with a higher risk of post-implant meningitis. Laboratory data demonstrated the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing meningitis induced via the hematogenous route of infection. Fibrous sealing around the electrode array at the cochleostomy site, and the use of antibiotic-coated electrode array reduced the risk of meningitis induced via an otogenic route. The recent scientific data support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendation of pneumococcal vaccination for the prevention of meningitis in implant recipients. Nontraumatic cochlear implant design, surgical technique, and an adequate fibrous seal around the cochleostomy site further reduce the risk of meningitis. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  17. THE ROLE OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND MARKETING IN PROMOTING OF ANTI-SMOKING CAMPAIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Costina LUCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, according to official statistics (ec.europa.eu the percentage of smokers is about 29% of the population, and smoking still remains the main reason underlying the deaths and illnesses that could have been prevented. In the past 12 months, 31% of EU smokers have tried to quit smoking. In this gloomy context, the European Commission already has a tradition in preventing and stopping smoking, in addition to the broader tobacco control: in recent years have been organized numerous campaigns that aim to inform the European public about the problems caused by consumption tobacco, increasing awareness of the dangers of smoking, thus contributing to the long-term objective proposed by the Commission as "Europe free from tobacco smoke."

  18. Prepsychotic treatment for schizophrenia: preventive medicine, social control, or drug marketing strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, R

    1999-01-01

    The definition of schizophrenia is currently being extended to include a "prepsychotic" phase. Prepsychosis detection and intervention programs have already been established in Australia. These are intended to identify people "at-risk" for schizophrenia and treat them to prevent their transition into psychosis. However, analysis of leading research in this field shows high levels of arbitrariness in the selection of diagnostic indicators and a lack of convincing evidence about the efficacy of treatments. The favored prophylactic treatment is atypical neuroleptic medication, and sponsorship of research is providing manufacturers of these drugs with a ubiquitous presence in the field. Many risks are associated with atypical neuroleptics and adverse reactions include psychosis. Taken together these factors suggest that prepsychotic intervention may be more concerned with expanding the market for atypical neuroleptics than with preventing schizophrenia.

  19. [Institutional changes for the future of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioli, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the initiatives undertaken since 2005 by the Italian Society of Hygiene (SitI) regarding he future of Hygiene and Public Health in Italy, the authors examine the latest proposals for renewing the organizational structure of the departments of Prevention, as well as for training programs and function of public health physicians. These changes, however, may be insufficient for a real renewal of public health, in the absence of institutional changes which would allocate administrative management of healthcare functions to local government, with community participation in health promotion. The planned establishment of "metropolitan cities" in 2012 is an opportunity for the SItI to show that the management of health administrative functions by the new local government organs is compatible with the institutional framework, is useful for achieving the objectives of health promotion and disease prevention, and facilitates health policy in local governments.

  20. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  1. Air contamination measurements for the evaluation of internal dose to workers in nuclear medicine departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massimi, B.; Bianchini, D.; Sarnelli, A.; D'Errico, V.; Marcocci, F.; Mezzenga, E.; Mostacci, D.

    2017-11-01

    Radionuclides handled in nuclear medicine departments are often characterized by high volatility and short half-life. It is generally difficult to monitor directly the intake of these short-lived radionuclides in hospital staff: this makes measuring air contamination of utmost interest. The aim of the present work is to provide a method for the evaluation of internal doses to workers in nuclear medicine, by means of an air activity sampling detector, to ensure that the limits prescribed by the relevant legislation are respected. A continuous air sampling system measures isotope concentration with a Nal(TI) detector. Energy efficiency of the system was assessed with GEANT4 and with known activities of 18F. Air is sampled in a number of areas of the nuclear medicine department of the IRST-IRCCS hospital (Meldola- Italy). To evaluate committed doses to hospital staff involved (doctors, technicians, nurses) different exposure situations (rooms, times, radionuclides etc) were considered. After estimating the intake, the committed effective dose has been evaluated, for the different radionuclides, using the dose coefficients mandated by the Italian legislation. Error propagation for the estimated intake and personal dose has been evaluated, starting from measurement statistics.

  2. Study on preventive and therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts on rat with bone marrow injury induced by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jun; Chen Baotian; Meng Hua; Liu Wenchao; Xie Wei; Sheng Rong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts, Danggui (Radix angelicae sinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong), Huangqi (Radix astragali), and Danshen (Radix salviae miltiorrhizae) on rats with bone marrow injury induced with whole-body gamma-ray exposure. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomly divided into three groups, control group, model group (irradiation only with no administration of the extracts), and drug treatment group (irradiation and administration of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts). Rats were irradiated with 6 Gy cobolt-60 gamma rays after administration of the extracts for two weeks. The number of marrow nucleate cells was counted, and VEGF and PDGF expression were measured with Western blot method on the 7th day since the irradiation. Results: Bone marrow nucleate cells and VEGF and PDGF expression in bone marrow cells in the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01), and these values in the drug treatment group were significantly higher than those in the model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: The extracts of Chuanxiong, Danggui, Huangqi, and Danshen can be used to prevent from ration bone marrow injury in rats. (authors)

  3. Oriental medicine Kyung-Ok-Ko prevents and alleviates dehydroepiandrosterone-induced polycystic ovarian syndrome in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhee Jang

    Full Text Available Kyung-Ok-Ko (KOK, a traditional herbal prescription composed of Rehmannia glutinosa Liboschitz var. purpurae, Lycium chinense, Aquillaria agallocha, Poria cocos, Panax ginseng, and honey, has been widely used in traditional Oriental medicine as a vitalizing medicine or as the prescription for patients with age-associated disorders such as amnesia and stroke. However, the potential protective value of KOK for the treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is largely unknown. We investigated whether pre-administration (daily from 2 hours before PCOS induction and post-administration (daily after induction of PCOS of KOK (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/kg/day, p.o. could have a protective effect in a dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, s.c.-induced PCOS rat model. Pre-administration of KOK significantly decreased the elevated body weight and ovary weight, elevated size and number of follicular cysts, elevated level of serum glucose, and estradiol after DHEA injection. KOK reduced the elevated percentage of CD8 (+ T lymphocytes in lymph nodes, the elevated mRNA expression of CD11b and CD3 in ovaries, and infiltration of macrophages in ovarian tissue with PCOS. KOK diminished the increased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, chemokines (IL-8, MCP-1, and iNOS in the ovaries, and increased the reduced mRNA expression of growth factors (EGF, TGF-β by DHEA injection. Post-administration of KOK also improved the DHEA-induced PCOS-like symptoms, generally similar to those evident from pre-administration of KOK. KOK may effectively prevent and improve DHEA-induced PCOS via anti-inflammatory action, indicating its preventive and therapeutic potential for suppressing PCOS.

  4. Clinical Complexity in Medicine: A Measurement Model of Task and Patient Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R; Weir, C; Del Fiol, G

    2016-01-01

    Complexity in medicine needs to be reduced to simple components in a way that is comprehensible to researchers and clinicians. Few studies in the current literature propose a measurement model that addresses both task and patient complexity in medicine. The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated approach to understand and measure clinical complexity by incorporating both task and patient complexity components focusing on the infectious disease domain. The measurement model was adapted and modified for the healthcare domain. Three clinical infectious disease teams were observed, audio-recorded and transcribed. Each team included an infectious diseases expert, one infectious diseases fellow, one physician assistant and one pharmacy resident fellow. The transcripts were parsed and the authors independently coded complexity attributes. This baseline measurement model of clinical complexity was modified in an initial set of coding processes and further validated in a consensus-based iterative process that included several meetings and email discussions by three clinical experts from diverse backgrounds from the Department of Biomedical Informatics at the University of Utah. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa. The proposed clinical complexity model consists of two separate components. The first is a clinical task complexity model with 13 clinical complexity-contributing factors and 7 dimensions. The second is the patient complexity model with 11 complexity-contributing factors and 5 dimensions. The measurement model for complexity encompassing both task and patient complexity will be a valuable resource for future researchers and industry to measure and understand complexity in healthcare.

  5. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the 99Tcm measurements in the nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing 99 Tc m . Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  6. Kampo medicine "Dai-kenchu-to" prevents CPT-11-induced small-intestinal injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikakiyo, Motoya; Shimada, Mitsuo; Nakao, Toshihiro; Higashijima, Jun; Yoshikawa, Kozo; Nishioka, Masanori; Iwata, Takashi; Kurita, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The key anticancer agent, CPT-11 (irinotecan hydrochloride), induces severe diarrhea clinically. We investigated the effect of a Kampo medicine, Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), on CPT-11-induced intestinal injuries in rats. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: a control group; a CPT-11 group, given CPT-11 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 2 days; and a DKT group, given DKT 300 mg/kg orally for 5 days with CPT-11 150 mg/kg intraperitoneally on days 4 and 5. The rats were killed on day 6. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor-α expression in the small intestine of the CPT-11 group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Interleukin-1β and IFN-γ expression was improved significantly by DKT (P DKT (P DKT suppressed CPT-11 induced inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis in the intestinal mucosa and maintained the mucosal integrity.

  7. Practice Innovation for Care Integration, Opioid Management, and Quality Measurement in Family Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Anne Victoria; Bowman, Marjorie A; Seehusen, Dean A

    Ringing in the new year 2017! This may finally be the year of real practice improvement after many false starts. Research into practice transformation has informed both local work and national policy. Human factors and payment structures are key. And payment structures depend on how quality is measured. Large gaps between practicing physician recommendations for the most important quality measures and those currently imposed externally are exposed in this issue. Also see information on in-practice social work consultations and their outcomes and recommendations from innovators in integrated care, and for chronic opioid therapy management based on visits to many family medicine offices. Visit entropy is negative for hospital readmissions. Another article reaffirms the importance of family physicians in rural obstetrics, including Cesarean deliveries. Two articles address changing Latino health care access. New Mexico's innovative health extension agent implementation now includes research in ways that benefit all. And a glass half-full: the growth in the diversity of family medicine faculty is above average, but is not occurring as quickly as in the general population. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  8. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation

  9. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation. (author)

  10. Current healthcare in Bulgaria: time for predictive diagnostics and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimiter V

    2010-12-01

    Since 1990 Bulgaria gradually moved from monopolistic to market regulated economy and healthcare. In 2007 the country became member of the European Union and started to adopt EU legislations. However, significant gaps between the average European and Bulgarian level of social, health and economic efficiency remain to be narrowed. The major challenge is the demographic situation, where recent trends give alarming signals. Plans for reformation include transition towards out-patient palliative healthcare centers for the aging population as well as reduction of the costs with new electronic system of health insurance. The favorable location of the country at the Black Sea coast gives opportunities for medical tourism, which can provide quality health service for foreign customers. Finally, national platforms on prevention of major non-communicable diseases, such as obesity, cancer and diabetes, must be established as coordinated actions for the health and wellness of next generations.

  11. Consensus recommendation for meningococcal disease prevention for Hajj and Umra pilgrimage/travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibl, A; Tufenkeji, H; Khalil, M; Memish, Z

    2013-04-01

    The Islamic Hajj to Makkah (Mecca) has been associated with outbreaks of invasive meningococcal disease and the global spread of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135. For Hajj pilgrims the quadrivalent vaccination against serogroups A, C, W-135 and Y is a mandatory requirement. Novel conjugate vaccines may provide benefits for the community by reduction of carriage. With the introduction of the new generation of quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccines (Menveo, Menactra, and others pending license) and their recent implementation in Saudi Arabia, experts from 11 countries in the Middle East region met at a Meningococcal Leadership Forum (MLF), in Dubai in May 2010 to exchange opinions on meningococcal disease and prevention strategies. These experts discussed the importance of introducing conjugate vaccines for pilgrims and travellers, and elaborated a consensus recommendation to support healthcare professionals and decision-makers.

  12. Prevention is still the best medicine. Condom social marketing campaign changes attitudes and actions in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, L L

    1993-09-01

    In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students.

  13. QiShenYiQi Pills, a Compound Chinese Medicine, Prevented Cisplatin Induced Acute Kidney Injury via Regulating Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of cisplatin chemotherapy that limits its clinical application, to deal with which no effective management is available so far. The present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ, a compound Chinese medicine, against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Pretreatment with QSYQ significantly attenuated the cisplatin induced increase in plasma urea and creatinine, along with the histological damage, such as tubular necrosis, protein cast, and desquamation of epithelial cells, improved the renal microcirculation disturbance as indicated by renal blood flow, microvascular flow velocity, and the number of adherent leukocytes. Additionally, QSYQ prevented mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing the cisplatin induced downregulation of mitochondrial complex activity and the expression of NDUFA10, ATP5D, and Sirt3. Meanwhile, the cisplatin-increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, caspase9, cleaved-caspase9, and cleaved-caspase3 were all diminished by QSYQ pretreatment. In summary, the pretreatment with QSYQ remarkably ameliorated the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice, possibly via the regulation of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

  14. Assessment of the presence and quality of osteoporosis prevention education among at-risk internal medicine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulha, Jennifer A; Sviggum, Cortney B; O'Meara, John G; Berg, Melody L

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate calcium and vitamin D intake for the prevention of osteoporosis represents an important component of osteoporosis prevention education (OPE). We sought to assess the presence and quality of OPE among osteoporotic and at-risk inpatients. Prospective chart review plus cross-sectional interview. One academic tertiary referral medical center in Rochester, Minnesota. Adults admitted to an inpatient medicine service who were determined to be at risk for osteoporosis based on an investigator-developed screening tool or previously diagnosed with osteoporosis. Four hundred sixtyfour patients were screened, 192 patients were approached for participation, and 150 patients consented to be interviewed for the study. Source of OPE, rates of appropriate calcium intake and supplementation. OPE from a health care provider was reported by 31.3% of patients, with only one patient reporting education from a pharmacist. Self OPE and no OPE were received by 29.3% and 39.3% of patients, respectively. Appropriate overall calcium intake was found in 30.7% of patients, and only 21.3% of patients were taking an appropriate calcium salt. Patients with osteoporosis and risk factors for osteoporosis lack adequate education from health care providers regarding appropriate intake of dietary and supplemental calcium and vitamin D. A particular deficit was noted in pharmacist-provided education. Specific education targeting elemental calcium amounts, salt selection, and vitamin D intake should be provided to increase the presence of appropriate overall calcium consumption.

  15. Ventilator associated pneumonia: risk factors and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J L; Lobo, S; Struelens, M

    2001-11-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common nosocomial infection associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Various risk factors for VAP have been identified and include the duration of ICU stay and of mechanical ventilation, a diagnosis of trauma, and severity of illness. Knowledge of these factors can promote early diagnosis and hence treatment. In addition to simple, but very effective, basic hygiene, different preventative strategies have been suggested, and can be divided into those that aim to limit airway colonization, and those that improve host defense mechanisms. Of the former, non-invasive ventilation is effective but not always applicable or available, nursing the patient in the semi-recumbent position is also associated with a reduced incidence of VAP but carries its own problems, stress ulcer prophylaxis remains controversial, and selective digestive decontamination is probably only relevant to certain subgroups of patients. Methods to improve host defense include early nutrition. Immunostimulatory therapies, such as interferon and granulocyte colony stimulating factor, require further research to confirm their place in the prevention or management of VAP.

  16. Caries preventive measures used in orthodontic practices: an evidence-based decision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although it is well known that treatment with fixed appliances increases the risk of enamel demineralization, little information is available about preventive measures that orthodontists actually use. This study was executed to survey measures used in orthodontic practices to prevent

  17. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their

  18. Measurements of the ionising radiation level at a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulik, P.; Kowalska, M.; Golnik, N.; Budzynska, A.; Dziuk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radiation level measurements at workplaces in a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/ CT examinations. This study meticulously determines the staff radiation exposure in a PET/CT facility by tracking the path of patient movement. The measurements of the instantaneous radiation exposure were performed using an electronic radiometer with a proportional counter that was equipped with the option of recording the results on line. The measurements allowed for visualisation of the staff's instantaneous exposure caused by a patient walking through the department after the administration of "1"8F-FDG. An estimation of low doses associated with each working step and the exposure during a routine day in the department was possible. The measurements were completed by determining the average radiation level using highly sensitive thermoluminescent detectors. (authors)

  19. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy...... to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization...... are considered to be of special concern, owing to the high absolute number of reported cases of contact allergy (> 100). Additionally, 18 single substances and one natural mixture are categorized as established contact allergens in animals. SARs, combined with limited human evidence, contributed...

  20. Prevention of triplets and higher order multiples: trends in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kim L; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2005-01-01

    In the United States and throughout the world, today's healthcare providers are challenged by the risks of multiple gestation pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) often used to treat infertility raise ethical issues including informed consent, veracity, and nonmalificence. In the United States, there is the need to improve maternal and fetal/neonatal mortality and morbidity by proposing legislation regulating ART and supporting single embryo transfers with no more than 2 such transfers. Beginning with the diagnosis of infertility, providers have a responsibility to educate, inform, and treat infertile couples. From the moment pregnancy with multiples is confirmed, these families are faced with incredible stressors including decision making on multifetal or selective reduction. Full disclosure of risks involved throughout the course of care should be discussed and documented in the record and plan of care. Currently in the United States, legislation does not regulate ART, including ovulation induction/enhancement and in vitro fertilization. Although the United States does have self-regulation via limited reporting through their professional organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an unlimited number of embryos may be transferred. Unfortunately, many healthcare providers have not recognized the responsibility and burden placed on families and society as a whole. Lack of regulation means women may become pregnant with high order multiples, which raises serious moral and ethical issues.

  1. Herbal Medicine AC591 Prevents Oxaliplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Animal Model and Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin is clinically compelling because of severe peripheral neuropathy. The side effect can result in dosage reductions or even cessation of chemotherapy, and no effective treatments are available. AC591 is a standardized extract of Huangqi Guizhi Wuwu decoction, an herbal formula recorded in “Synopsis of the Golden Chamber” for improving limb numbness and pain. In this study, we investigated whether AC591 could protect against oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy. To clarify it, a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced peripheral neuropathy was established, and neuroprotective effect of AC591 was studied. Our results showed that pretreatment with AC591 reduced oxaliplatin-induced cold hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia as well as morphological damage of dorsal root ganglion. Microarray analysis indicated the neuroprotective action of AC591 depended on the modulation of multiple molecular targets and pathways involved in the downregulation of inflammation and immune response. Moreover, AC591 enhanced the antitumor activity of oxaliplatin to some extent in Balb/c mice bearing CT-26 carcinoma cells. The efficacy of AC591 is also investigated in 72 colorectal cancer patients. After four cycles of treatment, the percentage of grades 1–2 neurotoxicity in AC591-treated group (n = 36 was 25%, whereas in the control group the incidence was 55.55% (P < 0.01 (n = 36. No significant differences in the tumor response rate between the two groups were found. These evidences suggested that AC591 can prevent oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy without reducing its antitumor activity, and may be a promising adjuvant to alleviate sensory symptoms in clinical practice.

  2. Preventing the aortic complications of Marfan syndrome: a case-example of translational genomic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Wan-Po, Alain; Loeys, Bart; Farndon, Peter; Latham, David; Bradley, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The translational path from pharmacological insight to effective therapy can be a long one. We aim to describe the management of Marfan syndrome as a case-example of how pharmacological and genomic insights can contribute to improved therapy. We undertook a literature search for studies of Marfan syndrome, to identify milestones in description, understanding and therapy of the syndrome. From the studies retrieved we then weaved an evidence-based description of progress. Marfan syndrome shows considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation. It relies on defined clinical criteria with confirmation based on FBN1 mutation testing. Surgical advances have prolonged life in Marfan syndrome. First-line prophylaxis of complications with β-adrenoceptor blockers became established on the basis that reduction of aortic pressure and heart rate would help. Over-activity of proteinases, first suggested in 1980, has since been confirmed by evidence of over-expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), notably MMP-2 and MMP-9. The search for MMP inhibitors led to the evaluation of doxycycline, and both animal studies and small trials, provided early evidence that this widely used antimicrobial agent was useful. Identification of the importance of TGF-β led to evaluation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) blockers with highly promising results. Combination prophylactic therapy would appear rational. Pharmacological and genomic research has provided good evidence that therapy with losartan and doxycycline would prevent the aortic complications of Marfan syndrome. If on-going well designed trials confirm their efficacy, the outlook for Marfan syndrome patients would be improved considerably. PMID:21276043

  3. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  4. Comparisons of activity measurements in nuclear medicine with radionuclide calibrators in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsovcova, V.; Dryak, P.

    2002-01-01

    Activity measurements in nuclear medicine using so called 'radionuclide calibrators' or 'activimeters' have been performed for several decades and their reliability has varied. This paper presents comparison of data obtained in annual accuracy checks during the last decade in the Czech Republic, which were carried out by Czech Metrological Institute, Inspectorate for Ionizing Radiation (CMI IIR). Since there is a legal requirement of annual accuracy checks, all of 48 Nuclear Medicine departments in the Czech Republic have participated in the survey. During the last decade the system of accuracy checks has undergone a gradual development. In the initial system one radionuclide sample out of the offer-list was prepared and its activity measured by 4πγ reference chamber. The sample was then sent to the participants, who measured for them an unknown activity and filled out the questionnaire. Later the answers were evaluated in CMI IIR. This system was found unsatisfactory, mostly because of the long time intervals between the measurement and evaluation of results. Therefore, a different system, under which each participant can choose for the accuracy check all the radionuclides from the offered set, was first tried in the year 2000. The offered set is being gradually enlarged, so in 2001 it consisted of four nuclides 99m Tc, 131 I, 67 Ga and 201 Tl. Solution samples (5 ml volume in 10 ml standard serum bottle - the most common in the CR) are prepared in advance from all the nuclides except for 99m Tc and measured with 4πγ chamber to obtain a conventionally true value of activity. In case of 99m Tc is as the true value considered the activity measured with CMI's activimeter whose calibration is periodically compared with 4πγ chamber measurements

  5. Measurements Of Fingers Doses Of Staff Members In Nuclear Medicine Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL LEHYANI, S.H.; SHOUSHA, H.A.; HASSAN, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    For some occupationally radiation exposed groups, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority runs an extensive personal dosimetry service in Egypt, but finger doses have not been measured to a wide extent. In this study, the finger doses were measured for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for nuclear medicine physicians, technologists, nurses and physicists. The nuclear medicine staff working with the radioactive materials wears two TLD dosimeters during the whole period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. The staff performs their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and means annual doses were calculated for these groups. The doses to the fingers for the 99m Tc technologists and nurses of groups (2) and (3) were observed to be 30.24 ± 14.5 μSv/GBq (mean ± SD) and 30.37 ± 17.5 μSv/GBq, respectively. Similarly, the dose to the fingers for the 131 I technologists in group (5) was estimated to be 126.13 ± 38.2μSv/GBq. Finger doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly but their doses were reported in millisieverts that accumulated in 1 week. The doses to the fingers of the physicist were 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose in this study was found to be 2.8 mSv for the technologists handled therapeutic 131 I (group 5). It could be concluded that the maximum expected annual dose to the extremities appeared to be less than the annual limit (500 mSv/y).

  6. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  7. National comparison of {sup 131}I measurement among nuclear medicine clinics of eight countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsovcova, Veronika, E-mail: volsovcova@cmi.c [Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1, Praha 10, 102 00 (Czech Republic); Iwahara, Akira [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 Brazil (Brazil); Oropesa, Pilar [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km 31/2, Guanabacoa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Joseph, Leena; Ravindra, Anuradha [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Division, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Ghafoori, Mostafa [SSDL, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Son, Hye-Kyung [Radiation Safety Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 194 Tongilro, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Sahagia, Maria [Horia Hulubei National Institute of R and D for Physics and Engineering, POB MG-6, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Tastan, Selma [Ankara University Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cebeci 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Zimmerman, Brian [Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8462 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A generally applicable protocol for organizing comparisons among nuclear medicine clinics created within the IAEA project CRP E2.10.05 was tested in Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Iran, Republic of Korea, Romania and Turkey in 2007. Comparisons of measurement of {sup 131}I were organized by local pilot laboratories with different backgrounds and levels of experience in this field. The results and experiences gained were compared and analyzed. A majority of results in each national comparison were within 10% of the reference value.

  8. Measures for prevention illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strezov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the early 1990ies the number of illicit trafficking cases with nuclear material and radioactive sources began to appear in the press more often than before. This fact became of great concern among international organizations and different states that the nuclear material subjected to trafficking might become in possession of rogue states and be implicated in weapons production or that stolen radioactive sources may cause health and safety effects to the population or to the environment. The creation and proposition of a model scheme procedure for the developing countries is important for starting the initial process of preventing and combating the illicit traffic of nuclear materials. Particular efforts have been directed for the protection of fissile materials. The reported incidents for diversion of nuclear materials have raised the problem of potential nuclear terrorism and also for countries of proliferation to take a short cut to the bomb. There is a need of rapid implementation of comprehensive, mutually reinforcing strategy to control the existing stockpiles of fissile material and to lower the future production and use of such materials. The illicit traffic of nuclear materials is a new threat, which requires new efforts, new approaches and coordination of services and institutions and even new legislation. The propositions of a model-procedure will allow better and quicker upgrade of developing countries capabilities for combating illicit nuclear trafficking. (author)

  9. Imperative of preventive measures addressing the life-cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are fast changing. The prevalence has risen to unprecedented levels, and the young and the underprivileged are increasingly affected. The classic view of the etiology of NCD consists of a genetic susceptibility which is precipitated by aging and modern lifestyle. In a virtual absence of any methods to tackle genetic susceptibility, the preventive approach has so far been focused on the control of lifestyle factors in those at high risk (old, and those with positive family history and elevated risk factors). Such an approach might help high risk individuals, but is unlikely to curtail the burgeoning epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent research has suggested that susceptibility to NCD originates in early life through non-genetic mechanisms (fetal programming). Tackling these may offer an exciting opportunity to control the NCD epidemic by influencing the susceptibility in a more durable manner than only controlling the lifestyle factors in adult life. The imperative is to address the life cycle rather than concentrate on the end stages. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  11. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  12. Survey on quality control measurements for nuclear medicine imaging equipment in Finland in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpela, Helinae; Niemelae, Jarkko

    2008-01-01

    Routine quality control (QC) is an essential requirement in nuclear medicine (NM) in order to ensure optimal functioning of equipment. To harmonise the routine QC of NM imaging equipment in Finnish hospital s (planar gamma cameras, SPECT, coincidence gamma cameras, PET), the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) will publish guidelines on QC in collaboration with several hospital physicists. Recommendations will be provided on routine QC measurements and on the frequency of testing. It is also planned to provide recommendations for the acceptance criteria when assessing different performance parameters for NM imaging equipment. In order to determine what performance parameters of NM equipment are currently measured in hospitals, how frequently they are measured and what acceptance criteria are used, a survey was carried out on the QC of NM equipment in Finland during 2006. (author)

  13. Sustainable medical research by effective and comprehensive medical skills: overcoming the frontiers by predictive, preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research and practice require affordable objectives, sustainable tools, rewarding training strategies and meaningful collaboration. Our unit delivers courses on project design and management promoting ideas, useful skills, teaching and exploring implementation of networks and existing collaborations. We investigated the effectiveness of a sustainable approach of comprehensive diagnosis and care and its usefulness within concrete models of research project teaching methodology. The model of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM) of adolescent hypertension, developed since 1976 and still active, was displayed. This is a paradigm of comprehensive PPPM aimed at the management of a recognized, but actually neglected, societal and clinical problem. The second model was addressed to the analysis of performance of an outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit and its relationship with the emergency department. Part of the patients, 4,057 cancer patients presenting at the emergency care, were addressed to the outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit for further assessment, treatment and follow-up. The stay in DH was 6.3 ± 2.1 non-consecutive days, with shortage of costs, vs. in-hospital stays. Research planning courses, based on these models, ensued in an increase of competitive project submission and successful funding. Active promotion of interdisciplinary knowledge and skills is warranted. Misleading messages and information are detrimental not only to healthy and sick people but, equally, to all health professionals: efforts for basing on evidence by research any statement are needed. The actual pre-requisite of personalized medicine is the coherent and articulated promotion of the professional quality of staff. Health professionals should and can be skilled in sustainable non-invasive diagnostic procedures, in non-pharmacological intervention, in translational research (from epidemiology to personalized therapy) and in timely dissemination of

  14. Preventive effect of Chinese traditional medicine-Qing-Xue granula on radiation induced lung injury in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaozhen; Ji Wei; Jiang Heng; Zhao Lujun; Yang Weizhi; Yang Yufei; Wang Luhua

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate whether oral administration of Chinese traditional medicine, Qing-Xue granula, can prevent mouse lung injury caused by thoracic radiation. Methods: 128 BalB/C mice were divided into 4 groups: control (C) group; radiation (R) group; radiation plus high dose Qing-Xue granula (H) group and radiation plus median dose Qing-Xue granula (M) group. The H and M groups were fed 0.64 g and 0.32 g of Qing-Xue granula dissolved in 0.5 ml saline once daily for two months,which were 4 and 2 times of human dosage, respectively. Whole thorax radiation of 12 Gy was delivered with a single ventral-dorsal field with 6 MV X-ray. Group C and group R received 21 days of 0.5 ml saline feeding. Mice were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4 or 6 months after radiation. Macrophage cell count of lung lavage fluid and hydroxyproline content of left lung were assayed, and the lung fibrosis was scored according to the Ashcroft's criteria. The plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration were assayed with ELISA method. The One-way ANOVA was used to test the significance of any differences between groups at each time point. Results: The macrophage cell number of lung lavage fluid was significantly lower in the 1 st month in group M than in group R (2:4, q =3.92, P 0.05). The hydroxyproline content of group H was significantly lower than group R in the 1 st and 6 th months (q =3.62, 3.54, all P nd , 4 th and 6 th months (q=3.38 -4.16, all P st month (q=3.53, P 0.05). The VEGF concentration was significantly higher in group R than group C since the 2 nd month (q =3.12 - 3.78, P nd and 6 th months (q =3.08 - 3.92, all P<0.05). Conclusions: Oral Chinese traditional medicine, Qing-Xue granula, could prevent radiation induced lung fibrosis in mice, especially at high dosage. The degree of elevation of VEGF in plasma was not parallel with that of lung fibrosis. (authors)

  15. Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes with the Chinese Herbal Medicine Tianqi Capsule: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Bing; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jing; He, Li-Sha; Zheng, Yu-Jiao; Lian, Feng-Mei; Tong, Xiao-Lin

    2017-12-01

    Prevention of the rapid growth in incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a big challenge for clinicians. In China, many trials have indicated that Tianqi capsule, which contains several Chinese herbal medicines as part of a large healing system called traditional Chinese medicine, could decrease the incidence of T2DM. The review assessed the effectiveness of Tianqi capsule in prevention of T2DM. Seven electronic databases were searched to identify eligible trials published from the inception of the databases up until May 1, 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tianqi capsule for impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed according to the Cochrane review standards. A random or a fixed effect model was used to analyze outcomes which were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) or mean differences (MD), and I 2 statistics were used to assess heterogeneity. Six trials were identified that included 1027 subjects. Meta-analysis showed that subjects who received Tianqi capsule plus lifestyle modification (LM) were less likely to progress to T2DM compared to controls (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.44-0.68). Subjects who received Tianqi capsule plus LM were more likely to have glucose return to normal compared to controls (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.62-0.78); and they had reduced fasting plasma glucose (FBG) (MD - 0.35; 95% CI - 0.55 to - 0.16) and 2-h plasma glucose (2 h PG) (MD - 1.04; 95% CI - 1.75 to - 0.32). There was no statistical difference between the two groups for IGT stabilized incidence (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.71-1.12). No obvious adverse events occurred. In patients with IGT, Tianqi capsule reduced the risk of progression to T2DM and increased the possibility of regression toward normoglycemia. As a result of the limited number of RCTs and the methodological drawbacks of the included studies, the results should be interpreted with caution.

  16. Evaluating complementary and alternative medicine interventions: in search of appropriate patient-centered outcome measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory Devon

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central to the development of a sound evidence base for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM interventions is the need for valid, reliable and relevant outcome measures to assess whether the interventions work. We assessed the specific needs for a database that would cover a wide range of outcomes measures for CAM research and considered a framework for such a database. Methods The study was a survey of CAM researchers, practitioners and students. An online questionnaire was emailed to the members of the Canadian Interdisciplinary Network for CAM Research (IN-CAM and the CAM Education and Research Network of Alberta (CAMera. The majority of survey questions were open-ended and asked about outcome measures currently used, outcome measures' assessment criteria, sources of information, perceived barriers to finding outcome measures and outcome domains of importance. Descriptive quantitative analysis and qualitative content analysis were used. Results One hundred and sixty-four completed surveys were received. Of these, 62 respondents reported using outcome measures in their CAM research and identified 92 different specific outcomes. The most important barriers were the fact that, for many health concepts, outcome measures do not yet exist, as well as issues related to accessibility of instruments. Important outcome domains identified included physical, psychological, social, spiritual, quality of life and holistic measures. Participants also mentioned the importance of individualized measures that assess unique patient-centered outcomes for each research participant, and measures to assess the context of healing and the process of healing. Conclusion We have developed a preliminary framework that includes all components of health-related outcomes. The framework provides a foundation for a larger, comprehensive collection of CAM outcomes. It fits very well in a whole systems perspective, which requires an expanded set of

  17. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouadio, Isidore K; Aljunid, Syed; Kamigaki, Taro; Hammad, Karen; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters may lead to infectious disease outbreaks when they result in substantial population displacement and exacerbate synergic risk factors (change in the environment, in human conditions and in the vulnerability to existing pathogens) for disease transmission. We reviewed risk factors and potential infectious diseases resulting from prolonged secondary effects of major natural disasters that occurred from 2000 to 2011. Natural disasters including floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, tropical cyclones (e.g., hurricanes and typhoons) and tornadoes have been secondarily described with the following infectious diseases including diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infections, malaria, leptospirosis, measles, dengue fever, viral hepatitis, typhoid fever, meningitis, as well as tetanus and cutaneous mucormycosis. Risk assessment is essential in post-disaster situations and the rapid implementation of control measures through re-establishment and improvement of primary healthcare delivery should be given high priority, especially in the absence of pre-disaster surveillance data.

  18. Hygienic bases of professiographic assessment of dental specialties and prospects of its use in the practice of modern preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchuk O.Y.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Professiography of work activity is an important part of a modern system of professional orientation. In the course of research aimed at developing hygienic bases of professiographic assessment of the major dental specialties and determining prospects for its use in the practice of modern preventive medicine it was found, that in the structure of psychophysiological functions, reflecting peculiarities of higher nervous activity of the organism and necessary for successful mastery of dental specialties, professionally-important functions should be considered such things as balance and mobility of nervous processes, strength of excitation and inhibition processes, speed of differentiated visual-motor reactions and endurance of the nervous system; in the structure of psychophysiological functions that reflect features of visual sensory system of the organism – the most important indicators are visual acuity, critical rate of fusion of light nictations, differentiated linear good eye, speed of visual perception and differential light sensitivity; in the structure of psychophysiological functions, reflecting features of somatosensory analyzer of the organism – the most important their characteristics are overall coordination, combined coordination of arm movements, coordination of arms under the control of vision and coordination of movements of the fingers.

  19. A Chinese Herbal Medicine, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San, Prevents Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Chen Chien

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jia-wei-xiao-yao-san (JWXYS is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is widely used to treat neuropsychological disorders. Only a few of the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS have been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of JWXYS on dimethylnitrosamine- (DMN- induced chronic hepatitis and hepatic fibrosis in rats and to clarify the mechanism through which JWXYS exerts these effects. After the rats were treated with DMN for 3 weeks, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT levels were significantly elevated, whereas the albumin level decreased. Although DMN was continually administered, after the 3 doses of JWXYS were orally administered, the SGOT and SGPT levels significantly decreased and the albumin level was significantly elevated. In addition, JWXYS treatment prevented liver fibrosis induced by DMN. JWXYS exhibited superoxide-dismutase-like activity and dose-dependently inhibited DMN-induced lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activity in the liver of rats. Our findings suggest that JWXYS exerts antifibrotic effects against DMN-induced chronic hepatic injury. The possible mechanism is at least partially attributable to the ability of JWXYS to inhibit reactive-oxygen-species-induced membrane lipid peroxidation.

  20. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  1. Progress in organizing national and international comparisons for nuclear medicine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Waetjen, Anamaria C.; Ivan, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the progress registered by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in improvement of the quality of radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement, and assurance of the whole traceability chain from international level to the national users. The progress in organization of comparisons for radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement is analyzed. A detailed description of two recent national comparisons, and an international one, regarding 131 I solutions, within the frame of the IAEA's CRP E2.10.05 'Harmonization of quality practices for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements' is done, with the analysis of the strong and week points in measurements. The most important outcome of the paper is the analysis of the evolution in quality of comparisons since a previously reported one. At the RML level, the improvements are: demonstration of the international equivalence of primary Romanian activity standard, improvement of the secondary standard, relevance of the comparison within the IAEA frame, implementation of a quality system in standardization and in comparisons, and implication of the RML in calibrations and metrological checks. The participants' reported improvements refer to growing of the awareness in quality of measurement and improvement of the measurement equipment. Reasons for future comparisons organization are presented. (author)

  2. [Obesity in children: new controversies and present prevention measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraru, Evelina; Luchian, Ana-Maria; Bozomitu, Laura; Rusu, Tania; Sacaci, Paula; Antonesei, Luiza; Stana, B A; Tugurlan, Demetra Simona; Grudnicki, Alice; Popoiu, Anne-Marie; Ozkan, Mirçan; Moraru, D

    2006-01-01

    The authors realise a synthesis on classical data and recent pathogenic explanations in childhood obesity. The obesity is a nutritional disorder of great interest nowadays and surpasses the incidence of the major problem of pediatrics until now--the malnutrition. There is documented data concerning the global incidence of obesity which is continuously growing when it comes to children. That is why the prophylaxis must become a priority by using measures in the first period of life (natural feeding, the need of late diversification, the avoidance of hyperproteic diets). The recent pathogenic data and the long term populational studies change the old conceptions regarding the risk of some categories of children. Thus mother's malnutrition, the low birth weight, children that followed hyperproteic diets paradoxically represent categories of risk for obesity. A recent recorded phenomenon, which amplifies the risk for obesity is the early adiposity rebound which is recorded nowadays even for ages lower than five years. There are described the hormonal mechanisms involved in appetite and satiety up to the receptor level: leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, endocannabinoid receptors. There are pointed out all the long term risk elements (high birth weight, low birth weight, the pregnant woman's nutrition) and the modern medical treatments for obesity.

  3. [Physical activity as prevention and treatment resource of chronic diseases in the syllabus of Medicine and Sport Sciences at Spanish universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge Pascual, Sergio; Casajús Mallén, José Antonio; González Gross, Marcela

    2017-07-28

    Currently, there is scientific evidence about the benefits of physical exercise over human health. The aim of this study was to review the curricula of Medicine and Sport Sciences at Spanish universities, specifically regarding the contents related to physical exercise in the promotion, prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). In a systematic way, all syllabus, programs and contents of the different subjects were reviewed for all Spanish universities which offer the Bachelors of Medicine and Sport Sciences. Total, compulsory and optional European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) were analyzed and added for each university. Practicum and Bachelor thesis were not considered. In the mean, Medicine studies dedicate 3.62% (2.38% mandatory and 1.20% optional) of the total 360 ECTS to these contents. In Sport Sciences studies, of the total 240 ECTS, 17.78% (9.87% mandatory and 7.92% optional) were identified as related to these areas of knowledge. Contents ranged from 36 to 4.5 ECTS in Medicine and from 48 to 28 ECTS in Sport Sciences. There is a great disparity between universities for both degrees among Spanish universities. Contents related to the efficient use of physical exercise for the prevention and treatment of non-communicable chronic diseases are scarce, especially in Medicine. Results indicate the need of increasing these contents in undergraduate studies and/or include them in Master or other programs.

  4. Preventive measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Önen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes protective measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application in Çelikhan, Adıyaman. Methods: The target population of this descriptive study consists of 900 active farmers registered at Chamber of Agriculture in Çelikhan. The Sample included 381 farmers, who were interviewed, face to face, during January and February 2014. The Chi-square (Fisher’s exact test was used for the statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 363 farmers, who were growing tobacco, 358 used pesticides. The percentage of the farmers who use protective equipment during the application of pesticides was as follows: 78.8% used a face-mask, 73.2% used protective gloves, 29.6% used protective clothing, 16.8% used protective goggles and 15.6% used boots, while 4.7% never used any protective equipment. The following related to environmental factors: 72.3%, used appropriate doses and qualifications, 70.7% did not use pesticides during windy weather, 66.2% removed people from the field (55.6% kept it the pesticide in an appropriate warehouse and 17.6% used warning signs. A significant statistical relationship was found between the educational status and safe disposal of pesticide waste, not releasing pesticide boxes into the environment and knowing the harm of pesticide to human body (p<0.05. Conclusion: Farmers in this study are using masks and gloves for personal protection, a majority of them are not eating and drinking during spraying and nearly half of them are removing drug equipment safely. The need for protective equipment and for health education of the farmers is important as is the need for the safe disposal of waste materials. In order to awaken the interest of farmers, environmental and individual consciousness must be created.

  5. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  6. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  7. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Research progress on influencing factors of hospital infection and prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Wenlong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hospital infections are associated with the emergence of hospitals. As the understanding of hospital infections deepen and prevention and control measures improve, hospital infections have become manageable. In recent years, affected by the increase in invasive treatment technology, antimicrobial abuse, and other factors, the control of hospital infection has encountered new problems. This paper reviews the influencing factors of hospital infections and their prevention and control measures.

  9. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  10. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility

  11. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility.

  12. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, Pfood with the function of helping to decrease serum lipid, on the balance features. The subjects were middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history. Shengyi capsule was taken by the trial group while Xuezhikang capsule (with lovastatin as the main effective component) by the control group for 108 days. The balance features of ITI showed that Shengyi was significantly better than Xuezhikang in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation (including the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance). The relative efficacy rate was 81.0% for the trial group and 33.3% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). Shengyi could effectively decrease the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but the effect of Xuezhikang in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was better than Shengyi. Though the lipid-lowering effect of Shengyi was not as good as Xuezhikang, ITI reflected the obvious advantage of Shengyi in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation which indicated that helping to decrease serum lipid is only part of the health function of Shengyi. The physiology and pathology basis of the influences of Shengyi on the four balance features and its relationship with the clinical outcome deserves further study. So the prospect of infrared thermal imaging is indicated as

  13. Safety: Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotula, John R.; Digenakis, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    Underscores the need for community colleges to practice safety within the institutions and to instruct students in workplace safety procedures and requirements. Reviews Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) regulations and their impact on industry and education. Looks at the legal responsibilities of colleges for safety. (DMM)

  14. The When, What & How of Measuring Vitamin D Metabolism in Clinical Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Niek F; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Lips, Paul; de Jongh, Renate T; Vervloet, Marc G; de Jonge, Robert; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2018-04-13

    We now have the ability to measure a number of different vitamin D metabolites with very accurate methods. The most abundant vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, is currently the best marker for overall vitamin D status and is therefore most commonly measured in clinical medicine. The added value of measuring metabolites beyond 25-hydroxyvitamin D, like 1,25-, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is not broadly appreciated. Yet, in some more complicated cases, these metabolites may provide just the information needed for a legitimate diagnosis. The problem at present, is knowing when to measure, what to measure and how to measure. For 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the most frequently used automated immunoassays do not meet the requirements of today's standards for certain patient groups and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is the desired method of choice in these individuals. The less frequently measured 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolite enables us to identify a number of conditions, including 1α-hydroxylase deficiency, hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets and a number of granulomatous diseases or lymphoproliferative diseases accompanied by hypercalcaemia. Furthermore, it discriminates between the FGF23-mediated and non-FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic syndromes. The 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolite has proven its value in the diagnosis of idiopathic infantile hypercalcaemia and has the potential of having value in identifying other diseases. For both metabolites, the understanding of the origin of differences between assays is limited and requires further attention. Nonetheless, in every way, appropriate measurement of vitamin D metabolism in the clinical laboratory hinges eminently on the comprehension of the value of the different metabolites, and the importance of the choice of method.

  15. Medicine safety and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it is candy. What to Do If Your Child Takes Medicine If you think your child has taken medicine, call the poison control center ... blood pressure monitored. Preventing Medicine Mistakes When giving medicine to your young child, follow these safety tips: Use medicine made only ...

  16. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 3. Personal Health Measures and Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    lcevchles an d iot her ncx iouils p iira sites. 2.The British A rmy is aba11ncoiccnig the use icf shocrt painits wiiic shocrt sleeved shirts fo r miost...it call detiv-t alt thet psychopathis and tpotentit al psychonieIurot ic indtividlinls o)ti brief exatitinat iot . If :I screen were tight enmigh to...strike themn. 5. IDrivers should not suddenly start vehicles which have been standing for a long time without first looking around and undlerneathm the

  17. Measurement Properties of Questionnaires Assessing Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pediatrics: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupin April, Karine; Moher, David; Stinson, Jennifer; Byrne, Ani; White, Meghan; Boon, Heather; Duffy, Ciarán M.; Rader, Tamara; Vohra, Sunita; Tugwell, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objective Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by children, but estimates of that use vary widely partly due to the range of questionnaires used to assess CAM use. However, no studies have attempted to appraise measurement properties of these questionnaires. The aim of this systematic review was to critically appraise and summarize measurement properties of questionnaires of CAM use in pediatrics. Study design A search strategy was implemented in major electronic databases in March 2011 and conference websites, scientific journals and experts were consulted. Studies were included if they mentioned a questionnaire assessing the prevalence of CAM use in pediatrics. Members of the team independently rated the methodological quality of the studies (using the COSMIN checklist) and measurement properties of the questionnaires (using the Terwee and Cohen criteria). Results A total of 96 CAM questionnaires were found in 104 publications. The COSMIN checklist showed that no studies reported adequate methodological quality. The Terwee criteria showed that all included CAM questionnaires had indeterminate measurement properties. According to the Cohen score, none were considered to be a well-established assessment, two approached the level of a well-established assessment, seven were promising assessments and the remainder (n = 87) did not reach the score’s minimum standards. Conclusion None of the identified CAM questionnaires have been thoroughly validated. This systematic review highlights the need for proper validation of CAM questionnaires in pediatrics, which may in turn lead to improved research and knowledge translation about CAM in clinical practice. PMID:22768098

  18. Intercomparison of 131I and 99mTc activity measurements in Brazilian nuclear medicine services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, Akira; De Oliveira, Antonio E.; Tauhata, Luiz; Silva, Carlos J. da; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2001-01-01

    This work outlines the quality assurance program for the activity measurements of the most used radionuclides at Brazilian Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). The program aims to guarantee that the patient is given the correct prescribed amount of activity in diagnostic or therapeutic applications. This accurate administration depends upon proper use and calibration of the activity meters by the NMS. Underestimation of administered activity in diagnostic practices could delay correct diagnosis disturbing the value of the investigation. On the other hand, the overestimation would be worse, mainly in therapeutic applications, because an unnecessarily high absorbed dose would be delivered to the patient. The preliminary results of intercomparison for 131 I and 99m Tc showed that many activity meters used at NMS's present problems giving results up to 41% greater than the reference values determined at the National Metrology Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation (LNMRI) which is recognized as the Brazilian authorized metrology laboratory for ionizing radiation. These results have demonstrated that the NMS should improve the accuracy of the activity measurements of the radionuclides administered to the patients and establish the traceability to the national standards of measurements. These standards are based on a pressurized well-type ionization chamber installed at LNMRI and calibrated with reference sources standardized by absolute methods. The protocol of the intercomparison and recommendations made in order to minimize errors in measuring procedures are described and results are discussed

  19. Evaluation of systematic I-131 thyroid measurements for nuclear medicine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puscalau, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    In Nuclear Medicine, I-131 is used intensively for the diagnosis and for the treatment of the different severities maladies of the thyroid. This radionuclide generates an important internal contamination to the patients, because of its oral administration, and, also, through inhalation, to the workers involved in the radiopharmaceuticals production , to the nursing staff and to the physicians that care and treat the patients in the hospitals. The paper presents the data obtained by systematically thyroid monitoring of the physicians and nurses from the Endocrinology Hospital, that are contaminated by I-131 inhalation because of their permanent relation with the patients treated with 3.7 MBq I-131 for investigation and with activities in the range 1100 MBq - 4000 MBq for therapy. The measurements were carried out with our Body Counter equipped with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, 50 mm thickness and 40mm diameter. Values of the estimated committed equivalent doses are, also, reported

  20. Development and validation of measures to assess prevention and control of AMR in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Mindy; Ramanujam, Rangaraj; Sutherland, Jason; Vaughn, Thomas; Diekema, Daniel; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2007-06-01

    The rapid spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the US hospitals poses serious quality and safety problems. Expert panels, identifying strategies for optimizing antibiotic use and preventing AMR spread, have recommended hospitals undertake efforts to implement specific evidence-based practices. To develop and validate a measurement scale for assessing hospitals' efforts to implement recommended AMR prevention and control measures. Surveys were mailed to infection control professionals in a national sample of 670 US hospitals stratified by geographic region, bedsize, teaching status, and VA affiliation. : Four hundred forty-eight infection control professionals participated (67% response rate). Survey items measured implementation of guideline recommendations, practices for AMR monitoring and feedback, AMR-related outcomes (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence and outbreaks [MRSA]), and organizational features. "Derivation" and "validation" samples were randomly selected. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify factors underlying AMR prevention and control efforts. Multiple methods were used for validation. We identified 4 empirically distinct factors in AMR prevention and control: (1) practices for antimicrobial prescription/use, (2) information/resources for AMR control, (3) practices for isolating infected patients, and (4) organizational support for infection control policies. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale was reliable and had content and construct validity. MRSA prevalence was significantly lower in hospitals with higher resource/information availability and broader organizational support. The Prevention and Control of Antimicrobial Resistance scale offers a simple yet discriminating assessment of AMR prevention and control efforts. Use should complement assessment methods based exclusively on AMR outcomes.

  1. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  2. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  3. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations.

  4. Radiation Dose Measurements with Direction and from Patients Undergoing Nuclear Medicine Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Shakhrah, I.

    2003-01-01

    Rdiologists and technologists are occasionally concerned about the radiation exposure that they may receive during the performance of routine diagnostic radiologic studies, that require close proximity to a patient who has recently had a radionuclide imaging procedure. This also impacts on other medical personnel including porters, nurses, pathologists, etc. This study was conducted in order to calculate the radiation exposure that one may anticipate receiving from a patient who has recently had a nuclear midicine procedure. Radiation dose rate (μSv/hr) was measured in 34 patients for four commonly performed nuclear medicine procedures (bone, liver/spleen, renal and thyroid) at the skin surface, 10,30,60,100, and at 150 cm from the patient, within 3 and 1hr ( 3 hrs for bone scan patients and 1 hr for the other three procedures ) postinjection, with a digital survey meter. The measurements were performed also for different sides of the patients ( anterior, posterior, left and right). For bone scans, a dose of 714.1 ± 96.2 MBq ( 19.3 ± 2.6mCi ) of technetium-99m-MDP ( 99 m Tc-MDP) resulted in a radiation exposure ( from posterior side of the patient )of ( 195±41) μSv/hr at the skin surface, (110±27) μSv/hr at 10cm, (51±10) μSv/hr at 30cm, (21±5) μSv/hr at 60cm, (10±2) μSv/hr at 1m, and (6±2) μSv/hr at 1.5m. Also for the bone, the radiation dose rate measurements obtained (from left side of the patient ) were 144±30) μSv/hr at the skin surface, ( 90±21) μSv/hr at 10cm, ( 36±8)μSv/hr at30cm, (15±3)μSv/hr at 60cm, (8±2)μSv/hr at 1 m,and ( 4±1)μSv/hr at 1.5m. It has been found that the variations in percentage (%) between posterior and left side mean measurments were 28.2, 18.2, 29.4, 25.0, 20.0 and 33.3 at the skin, 10cm,30cm,60cm, 100cm and 150 cm respectively. When we search for ''conservative'' values and concepts, concerning the radiation safety in nuclear medicine department , we believe that anterior and posterior sides values must be

  5. Respiratory tract infections and its preventive measures among hajj pilgrims, 2010: A nested case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Emamian

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: This study showed that measures such as seasonal influenza vaccination, use of face masks and personal prayer carpet have no effect on the incidence of respiratory tract infections. However, washing throat and mouth with salt water can be considered the most effective preventive measures.

  6. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by

  7. Healthcare workers' challenges in the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control measures in Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Miranda; Coelho, Eliana; Mosse, Carla das Dores; Brondi, Luciana; Winterton, Laura; van Leth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare Workers (HCWs) have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC) measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to

  8. Defining and Measuring the Affordability of New Medicines: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Terkola, Robert; Overton, Paul M; Shalet, Natalie; Postma, Maarten

    2017-08-01

    In many healthcare systems, affordability concerns can lead to restrictions on the use of expensive efficacious therapies. However, there does not appear to be any consensus as to the terminology used to describe affordability, or the thresholds used to determine whether new drugs are affordable. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate how affordability is defined and measured in healthcare. MEDLINE, EMBASE and EconLit databases (2005-July 2016) were searched using terms covering affordability and budget impact, combined with definitions, thresholds and restrictions, to identify articles describing a definition of affordability with respect to new medicines. Additional definitions were identified through citation searching, and through manual searches of European health technology assessment body websites. In total, 27 definitions were included in the review. Of these, five definitions described affordability in terms of the value of a product; seven considered affordability within the context of healthcare system budgets; and 15 addressed whether products are affordable in a given country based on economic factors. However, there was little in the literature to indicate that the price of medicines is considered alongside both their value to individual patients and their budget impact at a population level. Current methods of assessing affordability in healthcare may be limited by their focus on budget impact. A more effective approach may involve a broader perspective than is currently described in the literature, to consider the long-term benefits of a therapy and cost savings elsewhere in the healthcare system, as well as cooperation between healthcare payers and the pharmaceutical industry to develop financing models that support sustainability as well as innovation.

  9. Efficacy measures associated to a plantar pressure based classification system in diabetic foot medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Matricali, Giovanni Arnoldo; Desmet, Dirk; Roosen, Philip; Keijsers, Noel; Nobels, Frank; Bruyninckx, Herman; Staes, Filip

    2016-09-01

    The concept of 'classification' has, similar to many other diseases, been found to be fundamental in the field of diabetic medicine. In the current study, we aimed at determining efficacy measures of a recently published plantar pressure based classification system. Technical efficacy of the classification system was investigated by applying a high resolution, pixel-level analysis on the normalized plantar pressure pedobarographic fields of the original experimental dataset consisting of 97 patients with diabetes and 33 persons without diabetes. Clinical efficacy was assessed by considering the occurence of foot ulcers at the plantar aspect of the forefoot in this dataset. Classification efficacy was assessed by determining the classification recognition rate as well as its sensitivity and specificity using cross-validation subsets of the experimental dataset together with a novel cohort of 12 patients with diabetes. Pixel-level comparison of the four groups associated to the classification system highlighted distinct regional differences. Retrospective analysis showed the occurence of eleven foot ulcers in the experimental dataset since their gait analysis. Eight out of the eleven ulcers developed in a region of the foot which had the highest forces. Overall classification recognition rate exceeded 90% for all cross-validation subsets. Sensitivity and specificity of the four groups associated to the classification system exceeded respectively the 0.7 and 0.8 level in all cross-validation subsets. The results of the current study support the use of the novel plantar pressure based classification system in diabetic foot medicine. It may particularly serve in communication, diagnosis and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Web-Based Evaluation System to Measure Learning Effectiveness in Kampo Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norio Iizuka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the learning effectiveness of Kampo Medicine (KM education is challenging. The aim of this study was to develop a web-based test to measure the learning effectiveness of KM education among medical students (MSs. We used an open-source Moodle platform to test 30 multiple-choice questions classified into 8-type fields (eight basic concepts of KM including “qi-blood-fluid” and “five-element” theories, on 117 fourth-year MSs. The mean (±standard deviation [SD] score on the web-based test was 30.2±11.9 (/100. The correct answer rate ranged from 17% to 36%. A pattern-based portfolio enabled these rates to be individualized in terms of KM proficiency. MSs with scores higher (n=19 or lower (n=14 than mean ± 1SD were defined as high or low achievers, respectively. Cluster analysis using the correct answer rates for the 8-type field questions revealed clear divisions between high and low achievers. Interestingly, each high achiever had a different proficiency pattern. In contrast, three major clusters were evident among low achievers, all of whom responded with a low percentage of or no correct answers. In addition, a combination of three questions accurately classified high and low achievers. These findings suggest that our web-based test allows individual quantitative assessment of the learning effectiveness of KM education among MSs.

  11. The social media index: measuring the impact of emergency medicine and critical care websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Sanders, Jason L; Lin, Michelle; Paterson, Quinten S; Steeg, Jordon; Chan, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi) was developed to help address this. We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers) for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw) formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1) temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2) correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; pimpact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; pimpact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool.

  12. Traditional Chinese and western medicine for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis after lower extremity orthopedic surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shibai; Song, Yi; Chen, Xi; Qian, Wenwei

    2018-04-10

    Chinese herbal medicine has traditionally been considered to promote blood circulation to remove obstruction in the channels and clear pathogenic heat to drain dampness effects. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate its benefits for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after lower extremity orthopedic surgery. Relevant, published studies were identified using the following keywords: lower extremity orthopedic surgery, arthroplasty, joint replacement, fracture, traditional Chinese and western medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and Venous thromboembolism (VTE). The following databases were used to identify the literature consisting of RCTs with a date of search of 31 May 2017: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of knowledge, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chongqing VIP Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, and the Wanfang Database (including three English and four Chinese databases). All relevant data were collected from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The outcome variables were the incidence rate of DVT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and D-dimer; subcutaneous hematoma; and other reported outcomes. RevMan5.2. software was adopted for the meta-analysis. A total of 20 published studies (1862 cases) met the inclusion criteria. The experimental group, 910 patients (48.87%), received the Chinese herbal medicine or traditional Chinese and western medicine for prevention of DVT; the control group, 952 patients (51.13%), received the standard western treatment. The meta-analysis showed that traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy reduced the incidence rates of DVT significantly when compared with controls (risk ratio [RR] = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54; P < 0.00001), and the D-dimer was lower in the experimental group (P = 0.01). Besides, the incidence rate of subcutaneous hematoma was lower in the experimental group (P < 0

  13. Big Five personality traits may inform public health policy and preventive medicine: Evidence from a cross-sectional and a prospective longitudinal epidemiologic study in a Swiss community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Kawohl, Wolfram; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2016-05-01

    Some evidence documents the importance of personality assessments for health research and practise. However, no study has opted to test whether a short self-report personality inventory may comprehensively inform health policy. Data were taken from a population-based epidemiologic survey in Zurich, Switzerland, conducted from 2010-2012. A short form of the Big Five Inventory was completed by n=1155 participants (54.4% women; mean age=29.6 years), while health-related outcomes were taken from a comprehensive semi-structured clinical interview. A convenience subsample averaging n=171 participants additionally provided laboratory measures and n=133 were subsequently followed-up at least once over a maximal period of 6 months. Personality traits, in particular high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, related significantly to poor environmental resources such as low social support (R(2)=0.071), health-impairing behaviours such as cannabis use (R(2)=0.071), and psychopathology, including negative affect (R(2)=0.269) and various mental disorders (R(2)=0.060-0.195). The proportion of total variance explained was R(2)=0.339 in persons with three or more mental disorders. Personality significantly related to some laboratory measures including total cholesterol (R(2)=0.095) and C-Reactive Protein (R(2)=0.062). Finally, personality prospectively predicted global psychopathological distress and vegetative symptoms over a 6-month observation period. Personality relates consistently to poor socio-environmental resources, health-impairing behaviours and psychopathology. We also found some evidence for an association with metabolic and immune functions that are assumed to influence health. A short personality inventory could provide valuable information for preventive medicine when used as a means to screen entire populations for distinct risk exposure, in particular with respect to psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. International Comparability of 131I, 201TI and 99mTc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa, P; Serra, R; Hernandez, A.T.; Varela, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper refers about the International Comparability of 131 I, 201 TI and 99m Tc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine. Traceability of activity measurements in nuclear medicine based in two aspects: Comparability of clinic results and the safe and effective use of drugs. A bilateral international comparison for activity measurements CIEMAT CENTIS DMR was done. 2000-2004 National Program for 99m Tc 201 TI, 131 I vial and syringe measurements in radionuclide calibrators including a simulated test for activity administration. It is employed the Cause Effect Diagram for the activity measurement result of a source in the calibrator and the statistical methods for comparing several characteristics of the obtained data. The result of the comparisons demonstrates that the measurement quality has increased from one year to another

  15. Performance measures for improving the prevention of venous thromboembolism: achievement in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kenneth C; Merli, Geno J

    2011-10-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common complication during and after hospitalization for acute medical illness or surgery. Despite the existence of evidence-based guidelines for VTE prevention, real-world prescribing practices are frequently suboptimal. Specific performance measures relating to VTE prevention and treatment have been developed by US health care organizations to increase adherence with best-practice recommendations and ultimately reduce the number of preventable VTE events. Two measures developed by the Surgical Care Improvement Project have been endorsed by the National Quality Forum (NQF) and focus on VTE prevention. In addition, six measures have been developed recently by The Joint Commission in collaboration with the NQF; three measures relate to VTE prevention and three focus on treatment. To attain widespread achievement of these performance goals, it is essential to raise awareness of their existence and specifications. It is also imperative that hospitals develop and implement effective VTE protocols. The use of multiple, active strategies, such as computer decision support systems with regular audit and feedback, may be particularly valuable approaches to improve current practices within an integrated quality improvement program. During practical implementation of VTE protocols at Norton Healthcare (Kentucky's largest healthcare system), strong leadership, physician engagement, and caregiver accountability were identified as key factors influencing the process. As such, more hospitals may be able to increase adherence with guidelines, improve achievement of quality goals, and help to reduce the substantial burden associated with avoidable VTE.

  16. Measurement of obesity prevention in childcare settings: A systematic review of current instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn K; Kay, Christi; Stevenson, Beth; Gazmararian, Julie A

    The incidence of childhood obesity is highest among children entering kindergarten. Overweight and obesity in early childhood track through adulthood. Programs increasingly target children in early life for obesity prevention. However, the published literature lacks a review on tools available for measuring behaviour and environmental level change in child care. The objective is to describe measurement tools currently in use in evaluating obesity-prevention in preschool-aged children. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed using the keywords "early childhood obesity," "early childhood measurement," "early childhood nutrition" and "early childhood physical activity." Inclusion criteria included a discussion of: (1) obesity prevention, risk assessment or treatment in children ages 1-5 years; and (2) measurement of nutrition or physical activity. One hundred thirty-four publications were selected for analysis. Data on measurement tools, population and outcomes were abstracted into tables. Tables are divided by individual and environmental level measures and further divided into physical activity, diet and physical health outcomes. Recommendations are made for weighing advantages and disadvantages of tools. Despite rising numbers of interventions targeting obesity-prevention and treatment in preschool-aged children, there is no consensus for which tools represent a gold standard or threshold of accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Piper betel Linn (betel vine), the maligned Southeast Asian medicinal plant possesses cancer preventive effects: time to reconsider the wronged opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Manoj P; Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Palatty, Princy L; Rao, Prathima; Rao, Suresh; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2011-01-01

    Since antiquity, Piper betel Linn (betel vine; family Piperaceae) has been an important medicinal agent in the various traditional and folk systems of medicine in Southeast Asia countries. The leaves are the most valued plant part and in the past were routinely used as a chewing agent to prevent halitosis. The leaves are also supposed to harden the gum, conserve the teeth and to prevent indigestion, bronchitis, constipation, congestion, coughs and asthma. Innumerable scientific studies have validated the ethnomedicinal claims. Betel leaves are an integral component of the betel quid that consists of areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and slaked lime; a highly abused agent with carcinogenic properties. Regular chewing of betel quid is associated mainly with oral cancer and detail studies with individual constituents of the quid have shown that both tobacco and areca nut are carcinogenic, while slaked lime is shown to promote the process of carcinogenesis. However unlike other constituents of the betel quid, the betel leaves devoid carcinogenic effects and on the contrary possesses cancer preventive effects including against the carcinogens present in tobacco. This review for the first time provides information on cancer preventive effects and also addresses the various mechanisms which might be involved.

  18. Using patient-reported measurement to pave the path towards personalized medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.; Hall, Per; Morisky, Donald E.; Narrow, William E.; Dapueto, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Given the potential and importance of personalized or individualized medicine for health care delivery and its effects on patients' quality of life, a plenary session was devoted to personalized medicine during the 19th Annual Conference of the International Society for Quality of Life Research held

  19. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoma, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi was developed to help address this. Methods: We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1 temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2 correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results: The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001 and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001. When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001 and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001. Conclusion: The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:242–249.

  20. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for 131I therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as 137 Cs, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers ((HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS)) with 125 I and 192 Ir calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 ( 131 I) therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep 131 I capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring 192 Ir activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of 131 I and 192 Ir are comparable. (author)

  1. Considerations for the definition, measurement, consequences, and prevention of dating violence victimization among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teten, Andra L; Ball, Barbara; Valle, Linda Anne; Noonan, Rita; Rosenbluth, Barri

    2009-07-01

    Violence experienced by adolescent girls from their dating partners poses considerable threat to their health and well-being. This report provides an overview of the prevalence and consequences of heterosexual teen dating violence and highlights the need for comprehensive prevention approaches to dating violence. We also discuss some considerations and future directions for the study and prevention of dating violence. We begin with a discussion of the definition of dating violence and also discuss measurement concerns and the need for evaluation of prevention strategies. Although women and men of all ages may be the victims or perpetrators, male-to-female dating violence experienced by adolescent girls is the main focus of this article. We incorporate research regarding girls' perpetration of dating violence where appropriate and as it relates to prevention.

  2. Promotion of Preventive Measures in Public Nursery Schools: Lessons From the H1N1 Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Koralia A; Ioannidou, Christina; Galanis, Petros; Tsoumakas, Kostantinos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D

    2017-09-01

    Nursery schools serve as reservoirs of transmission of infectious diseases, and teachers should be able to implement and monitor hygiene measures to prevent them. The aim of the present study was to assess the compliance of nursery school teachers on promoting preventive interventions and to identify associated factors, during the novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. A secondary objective was to evaluate their knowledge and vaccination status regarding the novel virus. A cross-sectional study was performed, with the use of a predesigned anonymous, questionnaire, and distributed to all public nursery teachers of Athens, Greece. General etiquette practices were highly acceptable to over 92% of teachers. Those with longer teaching experience promoted simple preventive measures, such as hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, more often while older children were more likely to familiarize with them. However, teachers presented inadequate knowledge concerning the novel virus and their vaccination rates with the pandemic vaccine were unacceptably low (1.1%). Our study showed that promotion of simple preventive measures is feasible and may contribute to the prevention of outbreaks in nursery schools, although knowledge gaps and fear concerning the pandemic vaccine highlight communication issues.

  3. Bullying Prevention: a Summary of the Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine : Committee on the Biological and Psychosocial Effects of Peer Victimization: Lessons for Bullying Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Todres, Jonathan; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Amar, Angela Frederick; Graham, Sandra; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Masiello, Matthew; Moreno, Megan; Sullivan, Regina; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Le Menestrel, Suzanne M; Rivara, Frederick

    2016-11-01

    Long tolerated as a rite of passage into adulthood, bullying is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem. The consequences of bullying-for those who are bullied, the perpetrators of bullying, and the witnesses-include poor physical health, anxiety, depression, increased risk for suicide, poor school performance, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Despite ongoing efforts to address bullying at the law, policy, and programmatic levels, there is still much to learn about the consequences of bullying and the effectiveness of various responses. In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report entitled Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy and Practice, which examined the evidence on bullying, its impact, and responses to date. This article summarizes the report's key findings and recommendations related to bullying prevention.

  4. Lifestyle and precision diabetes medicine: will genomics help optimise the prediction, prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes through lifestyle therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Paul W; Poveda, Alaitz

    2017-05-01

    Precision diabetes medicine, the optimisation of therapy using patient-level biomarker data, has stimulated enormous interest throughout society as it provides hope of more effective, less costly and safer ways of preventing, treating, and perhaps even curing the disease. While precision diabetes medicine is often framed in the context of pharmacotherapy, using biomarkers to personalise lifestyle recommendations, intended to lower type 2 diabetes risk or to slow progression, is also conceivable. There are at least four ways in which this might work: (1) by helping to predict a person's susceptibility to adverse lifestyle exposures; (2) by facilitating the stratification of type 2 diabetes into subclasses, some of which may be prevented or treated optimally with specific lifestyle interventions; (3) by aiding the discovery of prognostic biomarkers that help guide timing and intensity of lifestyle interventions; (4) by predicting treatment response. In this review we overview the rationale for precision diabetes medicine, specifically as it relates to lifestyle; we also scrutinise existing evidence, discuss the barriers germane to research in this field and consider how this work is likely to proceed.

  5. PA03.05. Masha taila as a preventive measure in gulpha marma injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaded, Rajani; Kulkarni, BG

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In Basketball game Gulpha Marma injuries are common. Wrong landing causes inflammation & tearing of ligament resulting into sprain. Prevention can be carried out by protective wears like Ankelet,crape bandge which gives temporary recovery. Assessment and evaluation of the application of Masha Taila as a Snehana and Avagaha Sweda as a preventive measure for Gulpha Marma injuries. Method: 30 players with Normal ankle joint (Group A) & 30 players with Ankle sprain (1st degree) of Basketball players (Group B) were taken with age group 13 to 25 yrs. Goniometer to measure Range of motion (R.O.M.), pain analog scale for pain gradation. Result: Group A and B were compared with their control groups. The statistical result for normal dorsiflexion was 0.0007 degree, plantar flexion 0.001 degree, dorsi flexion of ankle sprain players 0.002 degree, plantar flexion 0.03 degree. The measurement of ROM of all players increased by 510 times indicating increased joint flexibility, based on ROM Mash taila proved to be a preventive measure. Pain analog scale for group B players indicated moderate pain at 0 day,reduced by 50% on 15th day and completely reduced on 30th day. Conclusion: “Prevention is better than cure”. As a preventive aspect the application of Masha Taila in normal ankle joint as Snehan & Swedan with warm water increases flexibility of joint and muscle strength. In sprained joint the same Taila application relives pain and regains its movements, this recovery and strength of joints happens because of reduce adhesion & influence the direction of new collage fibres in the healing process. It eliminates toxic accumulation from secondary muscle spasm. These Marma being the vital points must be prevented by applying Snehan & Swedan before starting the game just as warm up.

  6. Knowledge of HIV Testing Guidelines Among US Internal Medicine Residents: A Decade After the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Routine HIV Testing Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandachi, Dima; Dang, Bich N; Wilson Dib, Rita; Friedman, Harvey; Giordano, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    Ten years after the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended universal HIV screening, rates remain low. Internal medicine residents are the front-line medical providers for large groups of patients. We evaluated the knowledge of internal medicine residents about HIV testing guidelines and examined adherence to universal HIV testing in an outpatient setting. A cross-sectional survey of internal medicine residents at four residency programs in Chicago was conducted from January to March 2016. Aggregate data on HIV screening were collected from 35 federally qualified community health centers in the Chicago area after inclusion of an HIV testing best practice alert in patients' electronic medical records. Of the 192 residents surveyed, 130 (68%) completed the survey. Only 58% were aware of universal HIV screening and 49% were aware that Illinois law allows for an opt-out HIV testing strategy. Most of the residents (64%) ordered no more than 10 HIV tests in 6 months. The most frequently reported barriers to HIV testing were deferral because of urgent care issues, lack of time, and the perception that patients were uncomfortable discussing HIV testing. From July 2015 to February 2016, the average HIV testing adherence rate in the 35 health centers was 18.2%. More effort is needed to change HIV testing practices among internal medicine residents so that they will adopt this approach in their future clinical practice. Improving knowledge about HIV testing and addressing other HIV testing barriers are essential for such a successful change.

  7. Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe

    2006-01-01

    Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)

  8. Preventive measures of water hammer in the design stage of mine drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dongyan

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms and types of water hammer accident in mine drainage system are introduced. Through calculating water hammer pressure head of pump-failure water hammer, the extent of the harm caused by water hammer can be displayed visually, therefore,the preventive measures to be taken in the design stage are put forward in order to reduce water hammer accident. (author)

  9. Knowledge and use of prevention measures related to dengue in northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, B. H. B.; Khantikul, N.; Panart, K.; Kessels, P. J.; Somboon, P.; Oskam, L.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the frequency and determinants of knowledge of dengue infection in three sites in northern Thailand, and to compare prevention measures of people with and without knowledge of dengue. In May 2001 we conducted an epidemiological survey among 1650 persons living in three areas in northern

  10. Evaluation of Ventricle Size Measurements in Infants by Pediatric Emergency Medicine Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halm, Brunhild M; Leone, Tina A; Chaudoin, Lindsey T; McKinley, Kenneth W; Ruzal-Shapiro, Carrie; Franke, Adrian A; Tsze, Daniel S

    2018-06-05

    The identification of hydrocephalus in infants by pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians using cranial point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has not been evaluated. We aimed to conduct a pilot/proof-of-concept study to evaluate whether PEM physicians can identify hydrocephalus (anterior horn width >5 mm) in 15 infants (mean 69 ± 42 days old) from the neonatal intensive care unit using POCUS. Our exploratory aims were to determine the test characteristics of cranial POCUS performed by PEM physicians for diagnosing hydrocephalus and the interrater reliability between measurements made by the PEM physicians and the radiologist. Depending on the availability, 1 or 2 PEM physicians performed a cranial POCUS through the open anterior fontanel for each infant after a 30-minute didactic lecture to determine the size of the left and right ventricles by measuring the anterior horn width at the foramen of Monroe in coronal view. Within 1 week, an ultrasound (US) technologist performed a cranial US and a radiologist determined the ventricle sizes from the US images; these measurements were the criterion standard. A radiologist determined 12 of the 30 ventricles as hydrocephalic. The sensitivity and specificity of the PEM physicians performed cranial POCUS was 66.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 34.9%-90.1%) and 94.4% (95% CI, 72.7%-99.9%), whereas the positive and negative predictive values were 88.9% (95% CI, 53.3%-98.2%) and 81.0% (95% CI, 65.5%-90.5%), respectively. The interrater reliability between the PEM physician's and radiologist's measurements was r = 0.91. The entire POCUS examinations performed by the PEM physicians took an average of 1.5 minutes. The time between the cranial POCUS and the radiology US was, on average, 4 days. While the PEM physicians in our study were able to determine the absence of hydrocephalus in infants with high specificity using cranial POCUS, there was insufficient evidence to support the use of this modality for identifying

  11. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose...... to increase the vaccination coverage by, for example, counselling at the mother's cervical screening appointment. Other measures to increase the coverage with vaccination will be important....

  12. Trends in hospitalised sport/leisure injuries in New South Wales, Australia--implications for the targetting of population-focussed preventive sports medicine efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane

    2011-01-01

    Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring medicine prices in Peru: validation of key aspects of WHO/HAI survey methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Jeanne M; Meza, Edson; Ewen, Margaret; Laing, Richard O; Stephens, Peter; Ross-Degnan, Dennis

    2010-04-01

    To assess the possibility of bias due to the limited target list and geographic sampling of the World Health Organization (WHO)/Health Action International (HAI) Medicine Prices and Availability survey used in more than 70 rapid sample surveys since 2001. A survey was conducted in Peru in 2005 using an expanded sample of medicine outlets, including remote areas. Comprehensive data were gathered on medicines in three therapeutic classes to assess the adequacy of WHO/HAI's target medicines list and the focus on only two product versions. WHO/HAI median retail prices were compared with average wholesale prices from global pharmaceutical sales data supplier IMS Health. No significant differences were found in overall availability or prices of target list medicines by retail location. The comprehensive survey of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, anti-diabetic, and anti-ulcer products revealed that some treatments not on the target list were costlier for patients and more likely to be unavailable, particularly in remote areas. WHO/HAI retail prices and IMS wholesale prices were strongly correlated for higher priced products, and weakly correlated for lower priced products (which had higher estimated retailer markups). The WHO/HAI survey approach strikes an appropriate balance between modest research costs and optimal information for policy. Focusing on commonly used medicines yields sufficient and valid results. Surveyors elsewhere should consider the limits of the survey data as well as any local circumstances, such as scarcity, that may call for extra field efforts.

  14. [Evolutionary medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wjst, M

    2013-12-01

    Evolutionary medicine allows new insights into long standing medical problems. Are we "really stoneagers on the fast lane"? This insight might have enormous consequences and will allow new answers that could never been provided by traditional anthropology. Only now this is made possible using data from molecular medicine and systems biology. Thereby evolutionary medicine takes a leap from a merely theoretical discipline to practical fields - reproductive, nutritional and preventive medicine, as well as microbiology, immunology and psychiatry. Evolutionary medicine is not another "just so story" but a serious candidate for the medical curriculum providing a universal understanding of health and disease based on our biological origin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  16. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2017-01-01

    Background In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. Objective We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. Materials and Methods A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Results Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi’s water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported ‘walking’ as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported

  17. [Errors in medicine. Causes, impact and improvement measures to improve patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeschle, R M; Bauer, M; Schmidt, C E

    2015-09-01

    The guarantee of quality of care and patient safety is of major importance in hospitals even though increased economic pressure and work intensification are ubiquitously present. Nevertheless, adverse events still occur in 3-4 % of hospital stays and of these 25-50 % are estimated to be avoidable. The identification of possible causes of error and the development of measures for the prevention of medical errors are essential for patient safety. The implementation and continuous development of a constructive culture of error tolerance are fundamental.The origins of errors can be differentiated into systemic latent and individual active causes and components of both categories are typically involved when an error occurs. Systemic causes are, for example out of date structural environments, lack of clinical standards and low personnel density. These causes arise far away from the patient, e.g. management decisions and can remain unrecognized for a long time. Individual causes involve, e.g. confirmation bias, error of fixation and prospective memory failure. These causes have a direct impact on patient care and can result in immediate injury to patients. Stress, unclear information, complex systems and a lack of professional experience can promote individual causes. Awareness of possible causes of error is a fundamental precondition to establishing appropriate countermeasures.Error prevention should include actions directly affecting the causes of error and includes checklists and standard operating procedures (SOP) to avoid fixation and prospective memory failure and team resource management to improve communication and the generation of collective mental models. Critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) provide the opportunity to learn from previous incidents without resulting in injury to patients. Information technology (IT) support systems, such as the computerized physician order entry system, assist in the prevention of medication errors by providing

  18. Exposure levels to radiation in a nuclear medicine laboratory: measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz J, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1996 in the Nuclear medicine Department and another routine and research departments of the National Institute of Medical and Nutrition Sciences (INCMNSZ) are working at least with 12 radioactive sources opened and sealed. However, it was unknown if with the Tl personal dosemeters with lithium fluoride crystals (LiF), could be possible to receive information about the equivalent dose for each radionuclide or if there was some radionuclide that by being low energy emissor or beta energy emissor, it did not represent an ionization power sufficient to excite the crystals of the thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). In this work the obtained results with control dosemeters of diverse source opened or sealed are shown, which were put at 1 cm of the LiF crystals during a time exposure 18 hours. Therefore the objective of this work is to verify which sources excite or not to DTL crystals and taking the pertinent safety measures for each radionuclide. The conclusion is that the majority of dosemeters were excited by beta or gamma radiation of the radionuclides and that LiF crystals are able to receive equivalent doses until 1200 mSv, being this a guarantee for the staff, that in an any moment could be exposed to high dose in his working day. Also it was corroborated that the radionuclides more energizer are: iodine-131, iodine-125 and sodium-22 while the phosphorus-32 must be managed with careful, since the exposure to hands can result significant, just like the technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). (Author)

  19. An improved arterial pulsation measurement system based on optical triangulation and its application in the traditional Chinese medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jih-Huah; Lee, Wen-Li; Lee, Yun-Parn; Lin, Ching-Huang; Chiou, Ji-Yi; Tai, Chuan-Fu; Jiang, Joe-Air

    2011-08-01

    An improved arterial pulsation measurement (APM) system that uses three LED light sources and a CCD image sensor to measure pulse waveforms of artery is presented. The relative variations of the pulses at three measurement points near wrist joints can be determined by the APM system simultaneously. The height of the arterial pulsations measured by the APM system achieves a resolution of better than 2 μm. These pulsations contain useful information that can be used as diagnostic references in the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the future.

  20. Measuring a critical stress for continuous prevention of marine biofouling accumulation with aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menesses, Mark; Belden, Jesse; Dickenson, Natasha; Bird, James

    2017-10-01

    When cleaning the hull of a ship, significant shear stresses are needed to remove established biofouling organisms. Given that there exists a link between the amount of time that fouling accumulates and the stress required to remove it, it is not surprising that more frequent grooming requires less shear stress. Yet, it is unclear if there is a minimum stress needed to prevent the growth of macrofouling in the limit of continuous grooming. This manuscript shows that single bubble stream aeration provides continuous grooming and prevents biofouling accumulation in regions where the average wall stress exceeds ~0.01 Pa. This value was found by comparing observations of biofouling growth from field studies with complementary laboratory measurements that probe the associated flow fields. These results suggest that aeration and other continuous grooming systems must exceed a wall stress of 0.01 Pa to prevent macrofouling accumulation.

  1. Parents' Attitudes and Adherence to Unintentional Injury Prevention Measures in Ankara, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnce, Tolga; Yalçın, Songül; Yurdakök, Kadriye

    2017-08-04

    Childhood unintentional injuries are perceived as a leading public health issue since they are one of the preventable causes of paediatric mortality and morbidity. Whether and how parental factors are related to childhood injury has been researched insufficiently. To investigate parents' attitudes to preventive measures of unintentional childhood injury, and the parental adherence to these measures. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. The data were collected from the parents of children younger than ten years of age admitted to university hospital outpatient clinics for any reason and who agreed to be involved in the study. The first part of the questionnaire included sociodemographic profiles of participating children. Serious injuries were considered to be any injury that requires hospital admission. The second part of the questionnaire was prepared to evaluate parents' adherence to injury prevention rules. A total score calculation about the adherence of the parents to the injury prevention rules was worked out the addition of the scores of each answer given in each age group. Answers for each item given by the parents were scored as wrong (0), sometimes (1) or correct (2). The score for each item was added and the result normalized to 100 points. Only complete questionnaires were used for analysis. A total of 1126 children and parent pairs agreed to participate in the survey. It was found that 13.8% of the participating children had experienced at least one serious injury. Although three-quarters of the parents had received information about injury prevention, the overall injury prevention scores were found to be low. As children's age increased, the total injury prevention scores of parents decreased significantly. Injury prevention scores were shown to increase significantly with high education and maternal occupation. However, scores were shown to decrease significantly with increased child age and family size. Our study shows that parental adherence to the

  2. Measuring trauma center injury prevention activity: an assessment and reporting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Michael J; Sise, Carol Beth

    2006-02-01

    To develop an assessment and reporting tool for a trauma center's community partnership strategy to deliver injury prevention programs in a large metropolitan area. The tool was designed to track prevention activity and serve as a reporting format for the parent health system, county designating agency, and the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center Verification Process. The tool collected data including trauma center paid and volunteer personnel time, equipment, resource, and financial costs, community group and public agency contributions, number of community members receiving prevention material or presentations, impact on public policy, and print and broadcast media coverage. These measurements were incorporated in a reporting grid format. Six youth injury prevention programs were evaluated over a recent 2-year interval to demonstrate the tool's usefulness. Of six programs, three focused on motor vehicle injuries, one on teen suicide, one on firearm injuries, and one on drug and alcohol abuse. Trauma Center personnel asset allocation included 3% full-time equivalent by the Trauma Medical Director, 30% by the Injury Prevention and Community Outreach Coordinator, and 473 person hours (both work and volunteer) by physicians, nurses, and other personnel. Trauma Center equipment and fixed asset expenses totaled $3,950 and monetary contribution totaled $4,430. Community groups and public agencies contributed 20,400 person hours with estimated in-kind costs exceeding $750,000. Five of the six programs continued during the 2-year period. A gun-lock giveaway program was suspended because of a product recall. A total of over 29,000 youth received prevention material and presentations. Four public policy initiatives and 18 Trauma Center media stories with over 50 mentions and 37 new community partnerships resulted. The reports generated were easily incorporated in the trauma center's reports to local and national organizations and agencies. This assessment tool

  3. Corrosion of circulating water pipings in thermal and nuclear power stations and corrosion prevention measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Minoru

    1982-01-01

    In the age of energy conservation at present, the power generation facilities have been examined from the viewpoint of performance, endurance and economy, and in particular, the prevention of the loss due to the corrosion of various facilities is one of most important problems. Since circulating water pipings are in contact with sea water and soil, the peculiar corrosion phenomena are brought about on their external and internal surfaces. Namely, the pitting corrosion due to the environment of soil quality difference, the defects of coating and the contact with reinforcing bars in concrete occurs on the external surface, and the overall corrosion due to the increase of flow velocity and the pitting corrosion due to the defects of coating, the contact with different kinds of metals and the gap in corrosion-resistant steel occur on the internal surface. As the measures for corrosion prevention, corrosion-preventive coating and electric corrosion prevention are applied. The principle, the potential and current density, the system, the design procedure and the examples of application of electric corrosion prevention are described. (Kako, I.)

  4. Awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult people of Thimi Municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Shrestha, A; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza is considered as a threat to global public health. Prevention and control depends on the awareness of the general population as well as high risk-groups. The avian influenza should be viewed more seriously because it may lead to pandemic influenza when the virus mutates its strain with the common human influenza. Thus, this study aims to explore the awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. The objective of this study was to explore awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. It is a cross-sectional, population based study. It was carried out in Thimi Municipality from May 15 to June 15, 2012. Pre tested structured questionnaire was used for face to face interview with randomly selected 250 subjects. Out of 250 subjects, 123 (49.2 %) were males. The mean age of subjects was 36 ± 11.8 year. Among total subjects, 94.4 percent had heard about avian influenza. The main source of information was television (94.1%). Majority of subjects (84.9 %) thought that keeping infected birds and poultry as the mode of transmission followed by eating not well cooked poultry meat (82.8 %). Out of total study subjects, 165 (66.0 percent) mentioned fever and 138 (55.2 percent) thought fatigue as the signs and symptoms. As for knowledge about preventive measures, majority (85.6%) stated that cleaning the surfaces that had come in contact with the poultry could prevent the disease and 83.2 % had knowledge that the infection could be prevented by washing hands with soap and water after poultry handling. Awareness regarding preventive measures was found significantly low in females, middle adults, illiterates, and house wives. The awareness regarding avian influenza was quite satisfactory among the adult people of Thimi Municipality. However level of awareness was seen lower in female, illiterate and middle adult. So that along with large

  5. [Employment opportunities and job satisfaction in the field of Public Health: a survey among recent graduates of the Hygiene and Preventive Medicine residency in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncini, Francesco; Odone, Anna; Lalic, Tijana; Miduri, Alessia; Paroni, Samuel; Vezzosi, Luigi; Privitera, Gaetano; Signorelli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an on-line survey among 255 specialists in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine in Italy who completed their training between October 2014 and July 2016, to assess their training experience, employment opportunities and current job satisfaction. Response rate was 49%. Mean age was 35 years. A high employment rate within two years from obtaining specialist qualification was reported by the 125 specialists who completed the questionnaire (76% are currently employed). The three main work settings of the participating specialists are hospital health directions (37%), universities (19%) and local Prevention Departments (16%). Two thirds (66%) have temporary positions and only 6% permanent positions. Job, pay, and training satisfaction are often below expectations with geographical differences that would need to be further investigated.

  6. The cost-effectiveness of remedial and preventative measures against radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Aanestad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The indoor radon concentrations in Norway are among the highest in Europe. This is partly explained by the geology due to the large occurrences of radium rich soil and bedrock (e.g. alum shale and uranium rich granites), large occurrences of highly permeable unconsolidated sediments (e.g. moraines and eskers), and the construction of buildings due to the cold climate. An additional factor is the extensive use of highly permeable light expanded clay aggregates in the foundation construction. Entry of radon from the building ground is the dominant source of indoor radon in Norway. Based on the results of nation-wide surveys it has been concluded that most homes with high levels of radon are located on highly permeable sediments, and some of the homes on are sometimes very difficult and expensive to mitigate. In order to limit the mitigation costs it is therefore important the cost -effectiveness of measures is optimised. In this paper, the results of a Norwegian analysis of the cost -effectiveness of remedial measures in existing dwellings and preventative measures in new buildings will be presented. The analysis on measures in existing dwellings is based on data from approximately 1100 buildings which were mitigated by grants from the Government during the National Action Plan against Cancer between 1999 and 2003. The results show that the mitigation costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates based on controlled experiments in research projects, and it seem as though the mitigation costs have been significantly underestimated in earlier cost-effect analysis. There are several factor that have contributed to an increase of the mitigation costs and some of these factors will be discusses in more detail in this paper. The upper level for new dwellings is 200 Bq/m 3 and it is generally recommended by the Norwegian authorities that preventative measures are implemented in all new dwellings. By this strategy the costs of

  7. Implementation Measurement for Evidence-Based Violence Prevention Programs in Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Holland, Kristin M; Gorman-Smith, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Increasing attention to the evaluation, dissemination, and implementation of evidence-based programs (EBPs) has led to significant advancements in the science of community-based violence prevention. One of the prevailing challenges in moving from science to community involves implementing EBPs and strategies with quality. The CDC-funded National Centers of Excellence in Youth Violence Prevention (YVPCs) partner with communities to implement a comprehensive community-based strategy to prevent violence and to evaluate that strategy for impact on community-wide rates of violence. As part of their implementation approach, YVPCs document implementation of and fidelity to the components of the comprehensive youth violence prevention strategy. We describe the strategies and methods used by the six YVPCs to assess implementation and to use implementation data to inform program improvement efforts. The information presented describes the approach and measurement strategies employed by each center and for each program implemented in the partner communities. YVPCs employ both established and innovative strategies for measurement and tracking of implementation across a broad range of programs, practices, and strategies. The work of the YVPCs highlights the need to use data to understand the relationship between implementation of EBPs and youth violence outcomes.

  8. Current and Ongoing Internet Crime Tendencies and Techniques. Preventive Legislation Measures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Postolache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.

  9. Dose measurement received by the exposed occupationally personnel of the nuclear medicine department of the INCan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez U, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Personal dose equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131 I, 18 F, 67 Ga, 99m Tc, 111 In and 201 Tl with main gamma emission energies between 93 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosemeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and a maximum of 9 mSv. Two of the 16 members of the OEW receive high estimated annual doses (6-9 mSv), other 5 receive annual doses between 3 and 5 mSv, other 3 between 2.5 and 3 mSv, and the rest receive dose values consistent with background radiation. These values are dependent on their daily activities and it is clear that the maximum doses are received by those OEW who perform nursing duties and receive radiopharmaceuticals for daily use. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the General Regulation of Radiological Protection, Mexico (50 mSv) as well as within the lower limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection, report no. 60 (20 mSv). Additionally, consistence was found between measured monthly values and those reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the standards given by the national regulatory

  10. Measures to prevent and combat unusual occurences in the use of atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    To achieve the objectives set out in the Ordinance on the Assurance of Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection dated 11 October 1984, senior managers of establishments using atomic energy are responsible for planning and implementing measures to prevent UOs, and staff, material and organizational preconditions necessary to immediately combat UOs, and to limit and remedy their consequences. The principles were compiled on the basis of legal regulations in force in the German Democratic Republic taking into account national and international experience

  11. Situation of radioactive wastes and their prevention and treatment measures in China's uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie.

    1988-01-01

    The sorts of radioactive wastes produced in uranium mining and metallurgy and their hazards are discribed in this paper. The characteristics of the radioactive wastes are discussed. The measurements and results are introduced for treatment and disposal of the radioactive wastes. The way to deal with prevention and treatment of radioactive wastes is presented in the stages of engineering design, construction, production and decommission of uranium mines and plants

  12. Creating a pro-active health care system to combat chronic diseases in Sri Lanka: the central role of preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagner, Michael; Arena, Ross; McNeil, Amy; Brahmam, Ginnela N V; Hills, Andrew P; De Silva, H Janaka; Karunapema, R P Palitha; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Arambepola, Carukshi; Puska, Pekka

    2016-10-01

    The current burden and future escalating threat of chronic diseases, constitutes the major global public health challenge. In Sri Lanka, cardiovascular diseases account for the majority of annual deaths. Data from Sri Lanka also indicate a high incidence and prevalence of pre-diabetes and diabetes; 1 in 5 adults have elevated blood sugar in Sri Lanka. It is well established that chronic diseases share four primary behavioral risk factors: 1) tobacco use; 2) unhealthy diet; 3) physical inactivity; and 4) harmful use of alcohol. Evidence has convincingly shown that replacing these behavioral risk factors with the converse, healthy lifestyle characteristics, decrease the risk of poor outcomes associated with chronic disease by 60 to 80%. In essence, prevention or reversal of these behavioral risk factors with effective healthy lifestyle programing and interventions is the solution to the current chronic disease crisis. Expert commentary: Healthy lifestyle is medicine with global applicability, including Sri Lanka and the rest of the South Asia region. This policy statement will discuss the chronic disease crisis in Sri Lanka, its current policies and action implemented to promote healthy lifestyles, and further recommendations on preventive medicine and healthy lifestyle initiatives that are needed to move forward.

  13. Management of Parkinson's disease in Ayurveda: Medicinal plants and adjuvant measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak-Gandhi, Namyata; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants like Mucuna pruriens L.(DC) and Withania somnifera L.(Dunal) have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to manage neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. The aim of this review is to share the role of Ayurveda's insights, traditional usage and contemporary investigations for translational, integrative applications to manage Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. High impact journals for Parkinson's diseases, traditional textbooks from Ayurveda as well as relevant clinical and para clinical studies with botanicals are selectively incorporated to evolve the aforesaid translational application. . A. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system, neurodegenerative disease. Though predominantly perceived as a motor disease, it also has debilitating non- motor features, which are frequently missed and not treated. Major treatment goals are to increase striatal dopamine levels with precursor-substitution and/or reduce its breakdown. As the disease progresses, a steady increase in the dose of levodopa is inevitable. However, higher doses cause motor complications of dyskinesia and dystonia and compromise medical treatment. B. ROLE OF MUCUNA PRURIENS L.DC), THE MOST PROMISING BOTANICAL FROM AYURVEDA: Ayurveda offers a natural source of levodopa - the seeds of Mucuna pruriens L.(DC)- which have a long standing safe use in the condition. Its clinical studies have shown pharmacokinetic profile distinct from synthetic levodopa, which is likely to reduce the untoward motor complications. Additionally, its seed extracts have shown neuroprotective benefits which are unrelated to levodopa. C. AYURVEDIC REGIMENS AND MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR NEUROPROTECTIVE AND SYMPTOMATIC BENEFITS: Other regimens (Panchakarma) and medicinal plants used in Ayurveda have been subjected to exploratory studies with promising early results in the condition. The debilitating non motor symptoms in patients have shown response with one of the regimens - medicated oil enema

  14. A quantitative risk assessment model to evaluate effective border control measures for rabies prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsin-Yi; Wu, Pei-I; Yang, Ping-Cheng; Tsai, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Border control is the primary method to prevent rabies emergence. This study developed a quantitative risk model incorporating stochastic processes to evaluate whether border control measures could efficiently prevent rabies introduction through importation of cats and dogs using Taiwan as an example. Both legal importation and illegal smuggling were investigated. The impacts of reduced quarantine and/or waiting period on the risk of rabies introduction were also evaluated. The results showed that Taiwan’s current animal importation policy could effectively prevent rabies introduction through legal importation of cats and dogs. The median risk of a rabid animal to penetrate current border control measures and enter Taiwan was 5.33 × 10−8 (95th percentile: 3.20 × 10−7). However, illegal smuggling may pose Taiwan to the great risk of rabies emergence. Reduction of quarantine and/or waiting period would affect the risk differently, depending on the applied assumptions, such as increased vaccination coverage, enforced custom checking, and/or change in number of legal importations. Although the changes in the estimated risk under the assumed alternatives were not substantial except for completely abolishing quarantine, the consequences of rabies introduction may yet be considered to be significant in a rabies-free area. Therefore, a comprehensive benefit-cost analysis needs to be conducted before recommending these alternative measures. PMID:19822125

  15. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Sio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each

  16. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day

  17. Trauma center maturity measured by an analysis of preventable and potentially preventable deaths: there is always something to be learned….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Shokei; Jung, Kyoungwon; Smith, Alan; Coimbra, Raul

    2018-06-23

    To establish the preventable and potentially preventable death rates in a mature trauma center and to identify the causes of death and highlight the lessons learned from these cases. We analyzed data from a Level-1 Trauma Center Registry, collected over a 15-year period. Data on demographics, timing of death, and potential errors were collected. Deaths were judged as preventable (PD), potentially preventable (PPD), or non-preventable (NPD), following a strict external peer-review process. During the 15-year period, there were 874 deaths, 15 (1.7%) and 6 (0.7%) of which were considered PPDs and PDs, respectively. Patients in the PD and PPD groups were not sicker and had less severe head injury than those in the NPD group. The time-death distribution differed according to preventability. We identified 21 errors in the PD and PPD groups, but only 61 (7.3%) errors in the NPD group (n = 853). Errors in judgement accounted for the majority and for 90.5% of the PD and PPD group errors. Although the numbers of PDs and PPDs were low, denoting maturity of our trauma center, there are important lessons to be learned about how errors in judgment led to deaths that could have been prevented.

  18. Preventive measures against concrete damage to ASR in the Netherlands current state-of-affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: - the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: ≥50% by mass of cement as slag); - or the use of portland fly ash cement (containing at least 25% by mass of cement as fly ash). If one of these cement types is used, then the potential reactivity of the a...

  19. Risk factors and effectiveness of preventive measures against influenza in the community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Jesús; Godoy, Pere; Domínguez, Ángela; Martín, Vicente; Delgado‐Rodríguez, Miguel; Martínez‐Baz, Iván; Baricot, Maretva; Soldevila, Nuria; Mayoral, José M.; Astray, Jenaro; Quintana, José M.; Cantón, Rafael; Castro, Ady; González‐Candelas, Fernando; Alonso, Jordi; Saez, Marc; Tamames, Sonia; Pumarola, Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Castilla et al. (2013) Risk factors and effectiveness of preventive measures against influenza in the community. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(2) 177–183. Background  The role of different risk exposures and preventive measures against influenza has not been well established. Objective  The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors and measures to prevent influenza infection in the community. Methods  We conducted a multicenter case–control study. Cases were 481 outpatients aged 18 years or older with laboratory‐confirmed influenza A(H1N1)09 in the 2009–2010 season in Spain. A control was selected for each case from outpatients from the same area matched by age and date of consultation. Information on risk situations, preventive measures and other variables was obtained by interview and review of the medical record. Results  In the multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the risk of a diagnosis of influenza increased with the number of cohabitants (compared with <3 cohabitants, three cohabitants had an OR = 1·80, 95% CI 1·12–2·89, and ≥5 cohabitants had an OR = 2·66, 95% CI 1·31–5·41) and for health care workers (OR = 2·94, 95% CI 1·53–5·66). The use of metropolitan public transport was associated with a lower frequency of a diagnosis of influenza (OR = 0·45, 95% CI 0·30–0·68) but not the use of taxis or long‐distance transport. The influenza A(H1N1)09 vaccine had a protective effect (OR = 0·13, 95% CI 0·04–0·48), unlike hand washing after touching contaminated surfaces or the use of alcohol‐based hand sanitizers. Conclusion  The home environment appears to play an important role in the spread of influenza in adults, but not the use of public transport. Health care workers have a higher risk of contracting influenza. Vaccination was the most effective preventive measure. PMID:22458533

  20. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  1. Prioritizing and optimizing sustainable measures for food waste prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Castellani, Valentina; Manfredi, Simone; Sala, Serenella

    2018-02-01

    Food waste has gained prominence in the European political debate thanks to the recent Circular Economy package. Currently the waste hierarchy, introduced by the Waste Framework Directive, has been the rule followed to prioritize food waste prevention and management measures according to the environmental criteria. But when considering other criteria along with the environmental one, such as the economic, other tools are needed for the prioritization and optimization. This paper addresses the situation in which a decision-maker has to design a food waste prevention programme considering the limited economic resources in order to achieve the highest environmental impact prevention along the whole food life cycle. A methodology using Life Cycle Assessment and mathematical programing is proposed and its capabilities are shown through a case study. Results show that the order established in the waste hierarchy is generally followed. The proposed methodology revealed to be especially helpful in identifying "quick wins" - measures that should be always prioritized since they avoid a high environmental impact at a low cost. Besides, in order to aggregate the environmental scores related to a variety of impact categories, different weighting sets were proposed. In general, results show that the relevance of the weighting set in the prioritization of the measures appears to be limited. Finally, the correlation between reducing food waste generation and reducing environmental impact along the Food Supply Chain has been studied. Results highlight that when planning food waste prevention strategies, it is important to set the targets at the level of environmental impact instead of setting the targets at the level of avoided food waste generation (in mass). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Overview of revised measures to prevent malaria transmission by blood transfusion in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Assal, A; Pelletier, B; Danic, B; Kerleguer, A; David, B; Joussemet, M; de Micco, P

    2008-10-01

    Plasmodial transmission by blood donation is rare in non-endemic countries, but a very serious complication of blood transfusion. The French national blood service (Etablissement Français du Sang and Centre de Transfusion sanguine des Armees) intended to revise the measures to strengthen blood safety with regard to Plasmodiae as transmissible pathogens. To limit the risk of transmission during infusion, serious additive measures have been taken for more than a decade in France, which is the European country with the highest rate of exposure to imported plasmodial infections or malaria. These measures were revised and strengthened after the occurrence of a lethal transfusion-transmitted infection in 2002, but did not prevent another occurrence in 2006. This report examines the weaknesses of the systems and aims at emphasizing the safety measures already taken and addresses issues to best respond to that risk.

  3. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005–2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc. PMID:26652689

  4. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  5. Healthcare workers' challenges in the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control measures in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Miranda; Coelho, Eliana; Mosse, Carla das Dores; Brondi, Luciana; Winterton, Laura; van Leth, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare Workers (HCWs) have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC) measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to investigate Mozambican HCWs' perceptions of their occupational TB risk and the measures they report using to reduce this risk. In addition, we explored the challenges HCWs encounter while using these TBIPC measures. Focus group discussion. Analysis according content method. Four categories of HCWs: auxiliary workers, medical (doctors and clinical officers), nurses and TB program staff. HCWs are aware of their occupational TB risk and use various measures to reduce their risk of infection. HCWs find it challenging to employ measures that minimize such risks and a lack of clear guidelines contributes to these challenges. HCWs' and patient behavior further complicate the use of TBIPC measures. HCWs in Mozambique perceive a high occupational risk of TB infection. They report several challenges using measures to reduce this risk such as shortage of material, lack of clear guidelines, insufficient motivation and inadequate training. Robust training with motivational approaches, alongside supervision and support for HCWs could improve implementation of TBIPC measures. Healthcare management should address the areas for improvement that are beyond the individual HCW's control.

  6. Prevention of the causes and consequences of a criticality accident - measures adopted in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Lavie, J.M.

    1966-01-01

    The question of safety in regard to criticality accident risks has two aspects: prevention of the cause and limitation of the consequences. These two aspects are closely connected. The effort devoted to prevention of the causes depends on the seriousness of the possible human psychologic and economic consequences of the accident. The criticality accidents which have occurred in the nuclear industry, though few in number, do reveal the imperfect nature of the techniques adopted to prevent the causes, and also constitute the only available realistic basis for evaluating the consequences and developing measures to limit them. The authors give a analysis of the known causes and consequences of past criticality accidents and on this basis make a number of comments concerning: the validity of traditional safety criteria, the probability of accidents for different types of operations, characteristic accidents which can serve as models, and the extent of possible radiological consequences. The measures adopted in France to limit the consequences of a possible criticality accident under the headings: location, design and lay-out of the installations, accident detection, and dosimetry for the exposed personnel, are briefly described after a short account of the criteria used in deciding on them. (author) [fr

  7. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Salvesen von Essen, Beatriz; Lamias, Mark J; Shulman, Holly; Hernandez-Virella, Wanda I; Taraporewalla, Aspy J; Vargas, Manuel I; Harrison, Leslie; Ellington, Sascha R; Soto, Leslianne; Williams, Tanya; Rodriguez, Aurea; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rivera, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Rice, Marion E; Dee, Deborah L; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Barfield, Wanda; Smith, Ruben A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Deseda, Carmen; Warner, Lee

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.

  8. Caries preventive measures in orthodontic practice: the development of a clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterkamp, B C M; van der Sanden, W J M; Frencken, J E F M; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M

    2016-02-01

    White spot lesions (WSLs) are a side effect of orthodontic treatment, causing esthetic problems and a risk of deeper enamel and dentine lesions. Many strategies have been developed for preventing WSLs, but great variability exists in preventive measures between orthodontists. This study developed statements on which a clinical practice guideline (CPG) can be developed in order to help orthodontists select preventive measures based on the best available evidence. A nominal group technique (RAND-e modified Delphi procedure) was used. A multidisciplinary expert panel rated 264 practice- and evidence-based statements related to the management of WSLs. To provide panel members with the same knowledge, a total of six articles obtained from a systematic review of the literature were read by the panel in preparation of three consensus rounds. According to the technique, a threshold of 75% of all ratings within any 3-point section of the 9-point scale regarding a specific statement was accepted as consensus. After the first and second consensus rounds, consensus was reached on 37.5 and 31.1% of statements, respectively. For the remaining 31.4% of statements, consensus was reached during a 4-h consensus meeting. Statements on the management of WSLs derived from a systematic literature review combined with expert opinion were formally integrated toward consensus through a nominal group technique. These statements formed the basis for developing a CPG on the management of WSLs before and during orthodontic treatment. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Exploration of Islamic medicine plant extracts as powerful antifungals for the prevention of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli growth in organic silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayel, Ahmed A.; Salem, Mohammed F.; El-Tras, Wael F.

    2011-01-01

    Feed contamination with mycotoxins is a major risk factor for animals and humans as several toxins can exist as residues in meat and milk products, giving rise to carry-over to consumers via ingestion of foods of animal origin. The starting point for prevention, in this chain, is to eliminate the...

  10. Preventable and mitigable adverse events in cancer care: Measuring risk and harm across the continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Pfister, David; Classen, David; Atoria, Coral L; Killen, Aileen; Epstein, Andrew S; Anderson, Christopher; Fortier, Elizabeth; Weingart, Saul N

    2017-12-01

    Patient safety is a critical concern in clinical oncology, but the ability to measure adverse events (AEs) across cancer care is limited by a narrow focus on treatment-related toxicities. The objective of this study was to assess the nature and extent of AEs among cancer patients across inpatient and outpatient settings. This was a retrospective cohort study of 400 adult patients selected by stratified random sampling who had breast (n = 128), colorectal (n = 136), or lung cancer (n = 136) treated at a comprehensive cancer center in 2012. Candidate AEs, or injuries due to medical care, were identified by trained nurse reviewers over the course of 1 year from medical records and safety-reporting databases. Physicians determined the AE harm severity and the likelihood of preventability and harm mitigation. The 400-patient sample represented 133,358 days of follow-up. Three hundred four AEs were identified for an overall rate of 2.3 events per 1000 patient days (91.2 per 1000 inpatient days and 0.9 per 1000 outpatient days). Thirty-four percent of the patients had 1 or more AEs (95% confidence interval, 29%-39%), and 16% of the patients had 1 or more preventable or mitigable AEs (95% confidence interval, 13%-20%). The AE rate for patients with breast cancer was lower than the rate for patients with colorectal or lung cancer (P ≤ .001). The preventable or mitigable AE rate was 0.9 per 1000 patient days. Six percent of AEs and 4% of preventable AEs resulted in serious harm. Examples included lymphedema, abscess, and renal failure. A heavy burden of AEs, including preventable or mitigable events, has been identified. Future research should examine risk factors and improvement strategies for reducing their burden. Cancer 2017;123:4728-4736. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  11. Measuring the burden of preventable diabetic hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John; Masetto, Cynthia

    2016-08-02

    The prevalence of diabetes among adults in Mexico has increased markedly from 6.7 % in 1994 to 14.7 % in 2015. Although the main diabetic complications can be prevented or delayed with timely and effective primary care, a high percentage of diabetic patients have developed them imposing an important preventable burden on Mexican society and on the health system. This paper estimates the financial and health burden caused by potentially preventable hospitalisations due to diabetic complications in hospitals operated by the largest social security institution in Latin America, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), in the period 2007-2014. Hospitalisations in IMSS hospitals whose main cause was a diabetic complication were identified. The financial burden was estimated using IMSS diagnostic-related groups. To estimate the health burden, DALYs were computed under the assumption that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received timely and effective primary care. A total of 322,977 hospitalisations due to five diabetic complications were identified during the period studied, of which hospitalisations due to kidney failure and diabetic foot represent 78 %. The financial burden increased by 8.4 % in real terms between 2007 and 2014. However, when measured as cost per IMSS affiliate, it decreased by 11.3 %. The health burden had an overall decrease of 13.6 % and the associated DALYs in 2014 reached 103,688. Resources used for the hospital treatment of diabetic complications are then not available for other health care interventions. In order to prevent these hospitalisations more resources might need to be invested in primary care; the first step could be to consider the financial burden of these hospitalisations as a potential target for switching resources from hospital care to primary care services. However, more evidence of the effectiveness of different primary care interventions is needed to know how much of the burden could

  12. The Effects of Mitigation Measures on Flood Damage Prevention in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheol-Hee Son

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the characteristics of flood damages and the effects of structural and non-structural flood damage mitigation measures in Korea. First, a theoretical discussion of the structural and non-structural measures to mitigate flood damages was used to select the variables and devise the hypotheses. An analysis was conducted using the Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving-Average (ARIMA time series methodology, Korean socioeconomic data, and damage characteristics of major flood events. The effects of flood damage mitigation measures on the extent of flood damages were assessed using an intervention time series model. The major findings were that the intervention effects of structural and non-structural measures were statistically significant from 1958 to 2013 (a period of 55 years and that while the former were ineffective at mitigating flood damages, the latter were successful in doing so. Based on the above findings, policy suggestions for future flood damage mitigation measures in Korea were offered. For structural measures, the government should manage its existing facilities, recover ecosystems of damaged rivers, and devise mitigation measures for urban areas. For non-structural measures, the government should enhance its flood forecasting capacity, revise laws related to flood control and prevention, and update and rationalize land-use plans.

  13. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  14. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Judge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. METHODOLOGY: Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. RESULTS: Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  15. Validation and evaluation of measuring methods for the 3D documentation of external injuries in the field of forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Buße, Kirsten; Campana, Lorenzo; Schyma, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are gaining importance in many areas. The latest developments brought more cost-effective, user-friendly, and faster technologies onto the market. Which 3D techniques are suitable in the field of forensic medicine and what are their advantages and disadvantages? This wide-ranging study evaluated and validated various 3D measurement techniques for the forensic requirements. High-tech methods as well as low-budget systems have been tested and compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, expenditure of time, mobility, cost, necessary knowhow, and their limitations. Within this study, various commercial measuring systems of the different techniques were tested. Based on the first results, one measuring system was selected for each technique, which appeared to be the most suitable for the forensic application or is already established in forensic medicine. A body of a deceased, a face and an injury of a living person, and a shoe sole were recorded by 11 people with different professions and previous knowledge using the selected systems. The results were assessed and the personal experiences were evaluated using a questionnaire. In addition, precision investigations were carried out using test objects. The study shows that the hand-held scanner and photogrammetry are very suitable for the 3D documentation of forensic medical findings. Their moderate acquisition costs and easy operation could lead to more frequent application in forensic medicine in the future. For special applications, the stripe-light scanner still has its justification due to its high precision, the flexible application area, and the high reliability. The results show that, thanks to the technological advances, the 3D measurement technology will have more and more impact on the routine of the forensic medical examination.

  16. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  17. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-08-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  18. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  19. An anonymous survey of psychosomatic medicine fellowship directors regarding breaches of contracts and a proposal for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, James L; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. It is fairly common for applicants to sign contracts for fellowship positions and then back out of the contracts. Only one program reported ever knowingly offering a contract to an applicant who had accepted a position elsewhere. Programs are divided over whether there are extenuating circumstances under which it would be acceptable to offer a position to an applicant who has already signed a contract with another program. Guidelines for fellowship programs that do not use the National Resident Match Program can improve the recruitment process.

  20. Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency Program: Relationship between Lifestyle Behaviors and Burnout and Wellbeing Measures in First-Year Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClafferty, Hilary; Brooks, Audrey J; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Brenner, Michelle; Brown, Melanie; Esparham, Anna; Gerstbacher, Dana; Golianu, Brenda; Mark, John; Weydert, Joy; Yeh, Ann Ming; Maizes, Victoria

    2018-04-23

    It is widely recognized that burnout is prevalent in medical culture and begins early in training. Studies show pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout rates comparable to other specialties. Newly developed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in professionalism and personal development recognize the unacceptably high resident burnout rates and present an important opportunity for programs to improve residents experience throughout training. These competencies encourage healthy lifestyle practices and cultivation of self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, mindfulness, and compassion—a paradigm shift from traditional medical training underpinned by a culture of unrealistic endurance and self-sacrifice. To date, few successful and sustainable programs in resident burnout prevention and wellness promotion have been described. The University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency (PIMR) curriculum, developed in 2011, was designed in part to help pediatric programs meet new resident wellbeing requirements. The purpose of this paper is to detail levels of lifestyle behaviors, burnout, and wellbeing for the PIMR program’s first-year residents ( N = 203), and to examine the impact of lifestyle behaviors on burnout and wellbeing. The potential of the PIMR to provide interventions addressing gaps in lifestyle behaviors with recognized association to burnout is discussed.

  1. Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency Program: Relationship between Lifestyle Behaviors and Burnout and Wellbeing Measures in First-Year Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilary McClafferty

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that burnout is prevalent in medical culture and begins early in training. Studies show pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout rates comparable to other specialties. Newly developed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME core competencies in professionalism and personal development recognize the unacceptably high resident burnout rates and present an important opportunity for programs to improve residents experience throughout training. These competencies encourage healthy lifestyle practices and cultivation of self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, mindfulness, and compassion—a paradigm shift from traditional medical training underpinned by a culture of unrealistic endurance and self-sacrifice. To date, few successful and sustainable programs in resident burnout prevention and wellness promotion have been described. The University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency (PIMR curriculum, developed in 2011, was designed in part to help pediatric programs meet new resident wellbeing requirements. The purpose of this paper is to detail levels of lifestyle behaviors, burnout, and wellbeing for the PIMR program’s first-year residents (N = 203, and to examine the impact of lifestyle behaviors on burnout and wellbeing. The potential of the PIMR to provide interventions addressing gaps in lifestyle behaviors with recognized association to burnout is discussed.

  2. [Preventive measures for avoiding transmission of microorganisms between hospitalised patients. Hand hygiene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupión, Carmen; López-Cortés, Luis Eduardo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Health-care associated infections are an important public health problem worldwide. The rates of health-care associated infections are indicators of the quality of health care. The infection control activities related to prevention of transmission of hospital microorganisms can be grouped in 4 mayor areas: standard precautions, specific precautions (including isolation if appropriate), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and surveillance activities (including providing infection rates and monitoring procedures). Hand hygiene and the correct use of gloves are the most important measures to prevent health-care associated infections and to avoid the dissemination of multidrug-resistant microorganisms. Continuous educational activities aimed at improving adherence to hand hygiene are needed. Periodical assessment of adherence to hand hygiene recommendations with feed-back have been shown to provide sustained improvement. Several complementary activities are being evaluated, including skin decolonization prior to certain surgeries, a package of measures in patients with central venous catheters or mechanical ventilation, and universal body hygiene with chlorhexidine. The present area of discussion concerns in which situations and in which groups would such measures be effective and efficient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Healthy lifestyle interventions to combat noncommunicable disease-a novel nonhierarchical connectivity model for key stakeholders: a policy statement from the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Cherie Franklin, Nina; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter; Arena, Ross; Berra, Kathy; Dengel, Donald; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Hivert, Marie-France; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Myers, Jonathan; Whitsel, Laurie; Williams, Mark; Corra, Ugo; Cosentino, Francesco; Dendale, Paul; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Gielen, Stephan; Guazzi, Marco; Halle, Martin; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Piepoli, Massimo F; Pinto, Fausto J; Guthrie, George; Lianov, Liana; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-14

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, and the European Society of Cardiology. This article is being published concurrently in Mayo Clinic Proceedings [1]. The articles are identical except for minor stylistic and spelling differences in keeping with each journal's style. Either citation can be used when

  4. Shareholder‘s derivate action: "ex lege" measures to prevent shareholder’s abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Mikalonienė, Lina

    2015-01-01

    This article is the second article on the topic related to the shareholder‘s derivate action. After evaluating the key general aspects of the shareholder’s derivate action (e.g. concept, rationale and goals) with respect to the Lithuanian Corporate Law, this article analyzes some ex lege protective measures to prevent shareholder’s abuse in bringing shareholder‘s derivate action as well as evaluates need to revise the related Lithuanian legislation. The focus of the article is, first, on spec...

  5. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  6. Taking measures in times of crisis: The political economy of obesity prevention in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    GRACIA ARNAIZ, MARIA ISABEL

    2017-01-01

    DOI: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2017.01.001 URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306919217300258 Filiació URV: SI Inclòs a la memòria: SI This article reports on a qualitative analysis of the measures proposed at the international level, but with a special focus on those adopted in Spain during the last decade. Analyzing biomedical definition of obesity as an epidemic and costly disease, this text aims is to unpack the conceptual structure of the obesity prevention model...

  7. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrocardiogram as an important tool in Preventive & Community Medicine - A rare case report of asymptomatic non paroxysmal accelerated junctional rhythm detected on routine ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Deolalikar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fifty four year old asymptomatic employee was detected to have Inverted P waves with normal QRS complex on Electrocardiogram [ECG] during his Annual Medical Examination. The ECG reverted to normal after few days. Inverted P is suggestive of retrograde conduct of impulse from A-V Node. Case of Non Paroxysmal Accelerated Junctional Rhythm. Causes are inferior wall myocardial infarction, myocarditis or recent open heart surgery. Troponin T Test was negative, Treadmill test was negative, and 2D Echo showed 55 % ejection fraction with no regional wall motion abnormalities. It needs no treatment if underlying causes are ruled out. Case would have gone un-noticed as patient was asymptomatic, thus emphasizing the importance of ECG in preventive and community medicine.

  9. Barriers and facilitators to implementation of the institute of medicine recommendations on preventing mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders among young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary E

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the barriers and facilitators to implementation of the five overarching recommendations of the Institute of Medicine report and to consider the implications for nursing. Data were collected through use of a semi-structured interview of purposive sample of 22 key informants regarding the barriers and facilitators to implementation of the report's five major recommendations. The major barriers were competing priorities, lack of infrastructure for implementation, lack of public education regarding mental health and the effectiveness of prevention, stigma, and a paucity of facilitating factors. The facilitators were leadership, flexible resources, linkage to healthcare reform or other legislation, coordination across agencies and governmental levels, and additional research. The discussion focuses on ways of promoting facilitating factors and consideration of nursing's potential contributions in the areas of education, practice, and research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Society for Health Psychology (APA Division 38) and Society of Behavioral Medicine joint position statement on the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Wilson, Dawn K; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2017-06-01

    Beginning in January 2018, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) plans to cover the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), also referred to as Medicare DPP. The American Psychological Association Society for Health Psychology (SfHP) and the Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) reviewed the proposed plan. SfHP and SBM are in support of the CMS decision to cover DPP for Medicare beneficiaries but have a significant concern that aspects of the proposal will limit the public health impact. Concerns include the emphasis on weight outcomes to determine continued coverage and the lack of details regarding requirements for coaches. SfHP and SBM are in strong support of modifications to the proposal that would remove the minimum weight loss stipulation to determine coverage and to specify type and qualifications of "coaches."

  11. PREVENTIVE MEASURES - EXCEPTION TO THE PRINCIPLE OF THE RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Alin DĂNILĂ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the specific obligations arising from the exercise of criminal action and civil action in criminal proceedings and taking into account the need to ensure a better conduct of activities that are undertaken in solving criminal cases, it sometimes appears necessary, taking certain procedural measures. Procedural measures were defined [1] as institutions available for criminal procedural law and criminal judicial bodies consisting of privations or certain constraints, real or personal, of the conditions and circumstances under which the criminal proceedings are being realized. By the function pursued by the legislature, these measures work as a legal means of prevention or suppression of circumstances or situations likely to jeopardize the effectiveness of the criminal proceedings through the obstacles, difficulties and confusion which they can produce [2]. Procedural measures arise as opportunities, but not being specific to any criminal case, judicial bodies take measures according to the specific circumstances of each criminal case. From this derives the adjacent character of the criminal procedural measures to the main job [3].

  12. Individualized prevention against hypertension based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution Theory: A large community-based retrospective, STROBE-compliant study among Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Xin; Yin, Lu; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Liu, Chang; He, Yong-Mei; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) theory states that individuals with a biased TCMC are more likely to suffer from specific diseases. However, little is known regarding the influence of TCMC on susceptibility to hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the possible relationship between TCMC and hypertension. Retrospective evaluation and observation were performed using the STROBE guidelines checklist. A large community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 in Changsha, China. TCMC was assessed using a questionnaire that included 68 items. TCMC distributions and the associations of different TCMCs with hypertension risk were analyzed. In total, 144,439 subjects underwent evaluations of TCMC and blood pressure (BP). There were significant differences in the hypertension prevalence among the various TCMC groups (P medicine criteria; for example, phlegm wetness with hypertension was similar to obesity-related hypertension. Our results suggest that phlegm wetness, yin deficiency, blood stasis, and qi deficiency have different effects on the prevalence of hypertension. More attention should be paid to TCMCs associated with susceptibility to hypertension, and corresponding preventive and therapeutic treatments should be developed according to different TCMCs.

  13. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam.

  14. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo A. Palombo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes. Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium. Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described.

  15. Essentials of Periodontal Medicine in Preventive Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Minkle; Anand, Vishal; Jain, Nikil; Anand, Bhargavi; Bahuguna, Rohit; Govila, Vivek; Rastogi, Pavitra

    2013-01-01

    Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer′s disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has a...

  16. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the Council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. 'PPRT'] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough -bar 2-4 billions, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies

  17. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  18. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities

  19. A quality control circle process to improve implementation effect of prevention measures for high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haixia; Li, Guohong; Xu, Cuirong; Ju, Changping; Suo, Peiheng

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of prevention measures on pressure injuries for high-risk patients and to establish the most appropriate methods of implementation. Nurses assessed patients using a checklist and factors influencing the prevention of a pressure injury determined by brain storming. A specific series of measures was drawn up and an estimate of risk of pressure injury determined using the Braden Scale, analysis of nursing documents, implementation of prevention measures for pressure sores and awareness of the system both before and after carrying out a quality control circle (QCC) process. The overall scores of implementation of prevention measures ranged from 74.86 ± 14.24 to 87.06 ± 17.04, a result that was statistically significant (P prevention measure scores ranged from 11.48 ± 4.18 to 13.96 ± 3.92. Differences in all of the above results are statistically significant (P prevention measures for patients who are vulnerable to pressure sores and is of practical importance to their prevention and control. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Simulation-based Approach to Measuring Team Situational Awareness in Emergency Medicine: A Multicenter, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Dixon, Aurora J; Webb, Jessica M; Brolliar, Sarah; Golden, Simon J; Jones, Kerin A; Shah, Sachita; Grand, James A; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chao, Georgia T; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2018-02-01

    Team situational awareness (TSA) is critical for effective teamwork and supports dynamic decision making in unpredictable, time-pressured situations. Simulation provides a platform for developing and assessing TSA, but these efforts are limited by suboptimal measurement approaches. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel approach to TSA measurement in interprofessional emergency medicine (EM) teams. We performed a multicenter, prospective, simulation-based observational study to evaluate an approach to TSA measurement. Interprofessional emergency medical teams, consisting of EM resident physicians, nurses, and medical students, were recruited from the University of Washington (Seattle, WA) and Wayne State University (Detroit, MI). Each team completed a simulated emergency resuscitation scenario. Immediately following the simulation, team members completed a TSA measure, a team perception of shared understanding measure, and a team leader effectiveness measure. Subject matter expert reviews and pilot testing of the TSA measure provided evidence of content and response process validity. Simulations were recorded and independently coded for team performance using a previously validated measure. The relationships between the TSA measure and other variables (team clinical performance, team perception of shared understanding, team leader effectiveness, and team experience) were explored. The TSA agreement metric was indexed by averaging the pairwise agreement for each dyad on a team and then averaging across dyads to yield agreement at the team level. For the team perception of shared understanding and team leadership effectiveness measures, individual team member scores were aggregated within a team to create a single team score. We computed descriptive statistics for all outcomes. We calculated Pearson's product-moment correlations to determine bivariate correlations between outcome variables with two-tailed significance testing (p teams (n = 41

  1. [QUALITY MEASURES IN MEDICINE-- A PLEA FOR NEW, VALUE BASED THINKING].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Menachem; Wagner, Oded; Keinarl, Talia; Solt, Ido

    2015-09-01

    Quality is an important and basic conduct of complex systems in general and health systems in particular. Quality is a cornerstone of medicine, necessary in the eyes of the community of consumers, caregivers, and the systems that manage both. In Israel, the Ministry of Health has set the quality issue on the agenda of healthcare organizations in all existing frameworks. In this article we seek to offer an acceptable alternative perspective, in examining the quality of public health. We suggest highlighting the ethical aspect of medical care, while reducing the quantitative monitoring component of existing quality metrics. Relying solely on indices has negative effects that might cause damage. The proposed alternative focuses on the personal responsibility of health care providers, using. values and moral reasonin.

  2. Use of preventive measures for air travel-related venous thrombosis in professionals who attend medical conferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, S.; Cannegieter, S. C.; Middeldorp, S.; Rosendaal, F. R.; Büller, H. R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lack of guidelines for prevention of air travel-related venous thrombosis may lead to excessive use of potentially dangerous precautions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the use of preventive measures for air travel-related thrombosis in professionals employed in the field of thrombosis and

  3. Guidelines on suicide prevention measures for South Korea and Japan based on recent suicide trends: the need to utilize this approach to devise future suicide prevention measures for the rest of asia and the rest of the world

    OpenAIRE

    INOUE K.; CHAIZHUNUSOVA N.; HOSHI M.; NOSO Y.; TAKEICHI N.; OSPANOVA N.; MOLDAGALIEV T.; SARSEMBINA ZH.; KALIEVA A.; JAMEDINOVA U.; CHEGEDEKOVA SH.; SHARAPIYEVA A.; BITEBAYEVA D.; RAKHYPBEKOV T.K.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Devising and implementing effective suicide prevention measures is an urgent matter for countries around the world. South Korea and Japan have some of the world’s highest suicide rates, so the current study examined more effective suicide prevention measures for those countries with a focus on recent suicide rates by age group. Materials and Methods: This study examined the suicide rate for each sex by age group in South Korea and Japan in 2009 and 2012, and this study then calc...

  4. [Pre-eclampsia prevention in 2018 in general population and in lupic women: At the dawn of a personalized medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moreuil, C; Fauchais, A-L; Merviel, P; Tremouilhac, C; Le Moigne, E; Pasquier, E; Pan-Petesch, B; Lacut, K

    2018-06-19

    Pre-eclampsia prevention represents a major public health issue, as this vasculo-placental disorder generates a great burden of foeto-maternal morbi-mortality. Aspirin has proved its efficacy in primary and secondary pre-eclampsia prevention, especially when it is given at 150mg per day bedtime before 15 weeks of gestation to high-risk women. In the English trial ASPRE, high-risk women were identified by an algorithm taking into account angiogenic biomarkers ascertained at the end of first trimester of pregnancy. This article focuses on physiopathological mechanisms and risk factors of pre-eclampsia and on the interest of early angiogenic biomarkers dosing during pregnancy, for the assessment of pre-eclampsia risk. Unlike Great Britain or Israel, cost-effectiveness of this algorithm in general population has not been assessed in France. Finally, systemic lupus erythematous is at high risk of vasculo-placental disorders. Although few studies of angiogenic biomarkers dosing during lupus pregnancies identified a correlation between high sFlt1 levels at the end of first trimester and subsequent onset of severe vasculo-placental disorders, with a very good negative predictive value of sFtl1. Angiogenic biomarkers ascertainment for screening of vasculo-placental disorders in pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematous could allow targeting at best women needing an aspirin treatment and a closer monitoring. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  6. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  7. Gualou Xiebai Decoction, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Prevents Cardiac Reperfusion Injury of Hyperlipidemia Rat via Energy Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Wei-Yang; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Yan, Li; Pan, Chun-Shui; Yu, Yang; Fan, Jing-Yu; Liu, Yu-Ying; Zhou, Hua; Han, Jing-Yan; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Background: Gualou Xiebai Decoction (GLXB) is a classic prescription of Chinese medicine used for the treatment of cardiac problems. The present study was designed to explore the effect and mechanism of GLXB on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) induced disorders in myocardial structure and function, focusing on the regulation of energy metabolism and the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Methods: After hyperlipidemic rat model was established by oral administration of high fat diet, the rats were treated with GLXB for 6 weeks and subjected to 30 min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) followed by 90 min reperfusion to elicit I/R challenge. Myocardial infarct size was assessed by Evans blue-TTC staining. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) and cardiac function were evaluated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to examine the content of ATP, ADP, AMP, CK, CK-MB, LDH, cTnT, cTnI, and IL-6. Double staining of F-actin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling was conducted to assess myocardial apoptosis. Expressions of ATP synthase subunit δ (ATP 5D), and RhoA and ROCK were determined by Western blotting. Results: Administration with GLXB at high dose for 6 weeks protected heart against I/R-induced MBF decrease, myocardial infarction and apoptosis, ameliorated I/R-caused impairment of cardiac function and myocardial structure, restored the decrease in the ratio of ADP/ATP and AMP/ATP, and the expression of ATP 5D with inhibiting the expression of RhoA and ROCK. Conclusions: Treatment with GLXB effectively protects myocardial structure and function from I/R challenge, possibly via regulating energy metabolism involving inactivation of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

  8. The Traditional Herbal Medicine, Dangkwisoo-San, Prevents Cerebral Ischemic Injury through Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dangkwisoo-San (DS is an herbal extract that is widely used in traditional Korean medicine to treat traumatic ecchymosis and pain by promoting blood circulation and relieving blood stasis. However, the effect of DS in cerebrovascular disease has not been examined experimentally. The protective effects of DS on focal ischemic brain were investigated in a mouse model. DS stimulated nitric oxide (NO production in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs. DS (10–300 μg/mL produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in mouse aorta, which was significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor L-NAME, suggesting that DS causes vasodilation via a NO-dependent mechanism. DS increased resting cerebral blood flow (CBF, although it caused mild hypotension. To investigate the effect of DS on the acute cerebral injury, C57/BL6J mice received 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 22.5 h of reperfusion. DS administered 3 days before arterial occlusion significantly reduced cerebral infarct size by 53.7% compared with vehicle treatment. However, DS did not reduce brain infarction in mice treated with the relatively specific endothelial NOS (eNOS inhibitor, N5-(1-iminoethyl-L-ornithine, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of DS is primarily endothelium-dependent. This correlated with increased phosphorylation of eNOS in the brains of DS-treated mice. DS acutely improves CBF in eNOS-dependent vasodilation and reduces infarct size in focal cerebral ischemia. These data provide causal evidence that DS is cerebroprotective via the eNOS-dependent production of NO, which ameliorates blood circulation.

  9. Eye problems in mountain and remote areas: prevention and onsite treatment--official recommendations of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine ICAR MEDCOM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerton, John A; Zuljan, Igor; Agazzi, Giancelso; Boyd, Jeffrey J

    2009-01-01

    Although eyes are not frequently injured in the mountains, they are exposed to many adverse factors from the environment. This article, intended for first responders, paramedics, physicians, and mountaineers, is the consensus opinion of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine (ICAR-MEDCOM). Its aim is to give practical advice on the management of eye problems in mountainous and remote areas. Snow blindness and minor injuries, such as conjunctival and corneal foreign bodies, could immobilize a person and put him or her at risk of other injuries. Blunt or penetrating trauma can result in the loss of sight in the eye; this may be preventable if the injury is managed properly. In almost all cases of severe eye trauma, protecting the eye and arranging an immediate evacuation are necessary. The most common eye problems, however, are due to ultraviolet light and high altitude. People wearing contact lenses and with previous history of eye diseases are more vulnerable. Any sight-threatening eye problem or unexplained visual loss at high altitude necessitates descent. Wearing appropriate eye protection, such as sunglasses with sidepieces and goggles with polarized or photochromic lenses, could prevent most of the common eye problems in mountaineering.

  10. Errors in medicine administration - profile of medicines: knowing and preventing Perfil de medicamentos envueltos en errores de administración: conocer para prevenir Perfil de medicamentos envolvidos com erros de administração: conhecer para prevenir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Max Moreira Reis

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the pharmacological characteristics of medicines involved in administration errors and determine the frequency of errors with potentially dangerous medicines and low therapeutic index, in clinical units of five teaching hospitals, in Brazil. METHODS: Multicentric study, descriptive and exploratory, using the non-participant observation technique (during the administration of 4958 doses of medicines and the anatomical therapeutic chemical classification (ATC. RESULTS: Of that total, 1500 administration errors were identified (30.3%. The administration of pharmacological groups - ATC (cardiovascular system, nervous system, alimentary tract and metabolism system and anti-infectives for systemic use showed a higher frequency of errors. In 13.0% of errors were involved potentially dangerous medicines and in 12.2% medicines with low therapeutic index. CONCLUSION: The knowledge of the pharmacological profile could be an important strategy to be used in the prevention medication errors in health institutions.OBJETIVOS: Describir las características farmacológicas de los medicamentos envueltos en errores de administración y determinar la frecuencia de esos errores en medicamentos potencialmente peligrosos y en los de bajo índice terapéutico, en unidades de clínica médica de cinco hospitales de enseñanza brasileños. MÉTODOS: Estudio multicéntrico, descriptivo-exploratorio utilizando la técnica de observación no participante (durante la administración de 4.958 dosis de medicamentos y la clasificación anatómica terapéutica química (ATC. RESULTADOS: Fueron identificados 1500 errores de administración de medicamentos (30,3%. La administración de los fármacos de los grupos ATC (sistema cardiovascular, sistema nervioso, sistema digestivo y metabolismo, y, anti-infecciosos de uso sistémico presentó mayor frecuencia de errores. En 13,0% de los errores estaban envueltos medicamentos potencialmente peligrosos y en 12

  11. Adoption of preventive measures during and after the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus pandemic peak in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, Fernando; Adell, Manel Nebot; Pérez Giménez, Anna; López Medina, María José; Garcia Continente, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    This study describes the preventive measures adopted by the Spanish population towards 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus and their associated factors. An anonymous computer-assisted telephone interview survey was conducted in Spain in December 2009 and February 2010. Respondents were asked about their perceptions of influenza A (H1N1) virus and the preventive measures adopted. Factors associated with the adoption of preventive measures were assessed by logistic regression analyses. Out of 4892 households approached, 1627 valid responses were obtained (response rate of 33.3%). The most commonly adopted preventive measures were respiratory hygiene and hand washing. Factors independently associated with the adoption of the preventive measures recommended by the Spanish Ministry of Health were female gender, higher educational level, size of municipality of residence >50,000 inhabitants, high perceived susceptibility to infection, high perceived effectiveness of the measures and high perceived usefulness of the information provided by the government. The presence of school-aged children in household was associated with purchasing masks and hand sanitizer. In addition to demographic factors, modifiable factors such as personal beliefs and expectations play a role in the adoption of preventive measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-01-01

    Background The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. Objective The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. Methods We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. Results With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Conclusions Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. PMID:28446420

  13. Selecting measures to prevent deleterious alkali-silica reaction in concrete : rationale for the AASHTO PP65 prescriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    PP65-11 provides two approaches for selecting preventive measures: (i) a performance approach based on laboratory testing, and (ii) a prescriptive approach based on a consideration of the reactivity of the aggregate, type and size of structure, expos...

  14. Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques in Medicine and Biology. Proceedings of the Symposium on Radioisotope Sample Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    The medical and biological applications of radioisotopes depend on two basically different types of measurements, those on living subjects in vivo and those on samples in vitro. The International Atomic Energy Agency has in the past held several meetings on in vivo measurement techniques, notably whole-body counting and radioisotope scanning. The present volume contains the Proceedings of the first Symposium the Agency has organized to discuss the various aspects of techniques for sample measurement in vitro. The range of these sample measurement techniques is very wide. The sample may weigh a few milligrams or several hundred grams, and may be in the gaseous, liquid or solid state. Its radioactive content may consist of a single, known radioisotope or several unknown ones. The concentration of radioactivity may be low, medium or high. The measurements may be made manually or automatically and any one of the many radiation detectors now available may be used. The 53 papers presented at the Symposium illustrate the great variety of methods now in use for radioactive- sample measurements. The first topic discussed is gamma-ray spectrometry, which finds an increasing number of applications in sample measurements. Other sections of the Proceedings deal with: the use of computers in gamma-ray spectrometry and multiple tracer techniques; recent developments in activation analysis where both gamma-ray spectrometry and computing techniques are applied; thin-layer and paper radio chromatographic techniques for use with low energy beta-ray emitters; various aspects of liquid scintillation counting techniques in the measurement of alpha- and beta-ray emitters, including chemical and colour quenching; autoradiographic techniques; calibration of equipment; and standardization of radioisotopes. Finally, some applications of solid-state detectors are presented; this section may be regarded as a preview of important future developments. The meeting was attended by 203 participants

  15. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: Participant experiences and measurement issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  16. Mental stress as consequence and cause of vision loss: the dawn of psychosomatic ophthalmology for preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Wang, Jiaqi; Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Faiq, Muneeb; Heim, Christine

    2018-06-01

    The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy. Although stress is a known risk factor, its causal role in the development or progression of certain visual system disorders is not widely appreciated. This review of the literature discusses the relationship of stress and ophthalmological diseases. We conclude that stress is both consequence and cause of vision loss. This creates a vicious cycle of a downward spiral, in which initial vision loss creates stress which further accelerates vision loss, creating even more stress and so forth. This new psychosomatic perspective has several implications for clinical practice. Firstly, stress reduction and relaxation techniques (e.g., meditation, autogenic training, stress management training, and psychotherapy to learn to cope) should be recommended not only as complementary to traditional treatments of vision loss but possibly as preventive means to reduce progression of vision loss. Secondly, doctors should try their best to inculcate positivity and optimism in their patients while giving them the information the patients are entitled to, especially regarding the important value of stress reduction. In this way, the vicious cycle could be interrupted. More clinical studies are now

  17. Evaluation of adherence to measures for the prevention of surgical site infections by the surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEEvaluate pre- and intraoperative practices adopted by medical and nursing teams for the prevention of surgical infections.METHODA prospective study carried out in the period of April to May 2013, in a surgical center of a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.RESULTS18 surgeries were followed and 214 surgical gloves were analyzed, of which 23 (10.7% had postoperative glove perforation detected, with 52.2% being perceived by users. Hair removal was performed on 27.7% of patients in the operating room, with the use of blades in 80% of the cases. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to 81.8% of patients up to 60 minutes prior to surgical incision. An average of nine professionals were present during surgery and the surgery room door remained open in 94.4% of the procedures.CONCLUSIONPartial adhesion to the recommended measures was identified, reaffirming a need for greater attention to these critical steps/actions in order to prevent surgical site infection.

  18. Results of using engineering and technological measures for rock burst prevention. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulikov, A P; Nechaev, A V; Khmara, O I

    1980-01-01

    The paper evaluates methods for rock burst forecasting and rock burst prevention used in the Donbass, Kuzbass, Karaganda and Pechora basins. Forecasting methods are based on measuring the initial velocity of gas flow from test boreholes and/or quantity ratio of drillings leaving a test borehole and monitoring seismoacoustic signals. Number of working faces at which each of the methods for rock burst forecasting is used is given. Methods for rock burst prevention are comparatively evaluated: explosive fracturing of rocks in seam roof or seam floor, fluid injection (water and surfactants), drilling destressing boreholes, cutting destressing slots using cutting machines or water jets, mining protective coal seams first for reducing rock burst hazard in protected coal seams, using narrow web coal cutter loaders, remote control of coal cutters at working faces with extremely high rock burst hazard, using mining schemes which reduce rock burst hazards (e.g. long pillar mining system). From 1976 to 1979 number of rock bursts in underground coal mines in the USSR decreased by 5 times in comparison to the period 1961 to 1965. (3 refs.) (In Russian)

  19. Healthy Lifestyle Interventions to Combat Noncommunicable Disease—A Novel Nonhierarchical Connectivity Model for Key Stakeholders: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association, European Society of Cardiology, European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, and American College of Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ross; Guazzi, Marco; Lianov, Liana; Whitsel, Laurie; Berra, Kathy; Lavie, Carl J; Kaminsky, Leonard; Williams, Mark; Hivert, Marie-France; Franklin, Nina Cherie; Myers, Jonathan; Dengel, Donald; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Pinto, Fausto J; Cosentino, Francesco; Halle, Martin; Gielen, Stephan; Dendale, Paul; Niebauer, Josef; Pelliccia, Antonio; Giannuzzi, Pantaleo; Corra, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Guthrie, George; Shurney, Dexter

    2015-08-01

    Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have become the primary health concern for most countries around the world. Currently, more than 36 million people worldwide die from NCDs each year, accounting for 63% of annual global deaths; most are preventable. The global financial burden of NCDs is staggering, with an estimated 2010 global cost of $6.3 trillion (US dollars) that is projected to increase to $13 trillion by 2030. A number of NCDs share one or more common predisposing risk factors, all related to lifestyle to some degree: (1) cigarette smoking, (2) hypertension, (3) hyperglycemia, (4) dyslipidemia, (5) obesity, (6) physical inactivity, and (7) poor nutrition. In large part, prevention, control, or even reversal of the aforementioned modifiable risk factors are realized through leading a healthy lifestyle (HL). The challenge is how to initiate the global change, not toward increasing documentation of the scope of the problem but toward true action-creating, implementing, and sustaining HL initiatives that will result in positive, measurable changes in the previously defined poor health metrics. To achieve this task, a paradigm shift in how we approach NCD prevention and treatment is required. The goal of this American Heart Association/European Society of Cardiology/European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation/American College of Preventive Medicine policy statement is to define key stakeholders and highlight their connectivity with respect to HL initiatives. This policy encourages integrated action by all stakeholders to create the needed paradigm shift and achieve broad adoption of HL behaviors on a global scale. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research and the European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dose estimation and radiation control measures for individuals having close contact with patients administered in vivo nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, E.; Abe, K.; Kusama, T.

    1993-01-01

    Patients who have been administered radiopharmaceuticals become a source of exposure to a non-occupational individual helping in support and comfort of these patients. We measured external dose rates at several distances from 84 adult patients administered radiopharmaceuticals, and urinary excretion of radioactivity in their patients. And we estimated the maximal dose for persons having close contact with patients administered radiopharmaceuticals from the combination of these measurement data and scenarios of contact with patients. On the basis of the estimated values, we proposed the following dose constraint for care givers. (1) The dose constraint for a non-occupational care givers to an adult nuclear medicine patient should in no case exceed 300 μSv per patient per examination of any kind. (2) The dose constraint in ordinary examinations employing a radionuclide should not be greater than 15 μSv per patient per examination. (3 tabs.)

  1. Neuropeptide Y stimulation as primary target for preventive measures of maladaptative cardiovascular reactions in occupational chronic stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciumaşu-Rîmbu, Mălina; Popa, Livia; Vulpoi, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Chronic stress may produce a decrease in central NPY expression and subjects exposed to it may prove hypersensitivity to a novel stressor with dysfunctions in the NPY system and cardiovascular maladaptation to stress, even hypertension. Upregulation of NPY expression may contribute to successful behavioral adaptation to stress by reducing cardiovascular tone and suppressing anxious behaviors. Adaptogens, a new class of metabolic regulators stimulate NPY expression and release. The aim of this study is to increase tolerance and adaptation to stress of hypersensitive to novel stressor, occupational chronic stress exposed subjects with cardiovascular maladaptation to mild new stressor using adaptogens as part of prevention protocol. 40 military personnel with known cardiostressor reactional mode and occupational chronic stress exposure were exposed to mild novel stressor: occupational medicine routine evaluation and clinically assessed for maladaptative cardiovascular response prior and before application of 30 day prevention protocol. Employees were randomly split in two groups, one receiving standard prevention protocol (lifestyle counseling) plus adaptogens in multiple dose administration, twice daily and the other receiving only standard prevention protocol. We found significant statistic differences in all cardiovascular parameters in adaptogen group and only in diastolic blood pressure in control group. Adaptogens could be an important factor in successful prevention protocols of chronic occupational stress dysfunctions involving NPY systems.

  2. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkawa, Naotaka; Itoh, Kazuya; Hori, Tomohito; Toyosawa, Yasuo; Orense, Rolando P

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events.

  3. Impact of legal measures prevent transplant tourism: the interrelated experience of The Philippines and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Benita; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parallel changes that have taken place in recent years in two countries, Israel and The Philippines, the former once an "exporter" of transplant tourists and the latter once an "importer" of transplant tourists. These changes were in response to progressive legislation in both countries under the influence of the Declaration of Istanbul. The annual number of Israeli patients who underwent kidney transplantation abroad decreased from a peak of 155 in 2006 to an all-time low of 35 in 2011 while in the Philippines the annual number of foreign transplant recipients fell from 531 in 2007 to two in 2011. The experience of these two countries provides a "natural experiment" on the potential impact of legal measures to prevent transplant tourism.

  4. Peripartum depression and anxiety as an integrative cross domain target for psychiatric preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Jessica A; Deligiannidis, Kristina M; Murgatroyd, Christopher A; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of early life stress has been identified as a potent risk factor for neurodevelopmental delays in infants, behavioral problems and autism in children, but also for several psychiatric illnesses in adulthood, such as depression, anxiety, autism, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Despite having robust adverse effects on both mother and infant, the pathophysiology of peripartum depression and anxiety are poorly understood. The objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using an integrated approach addressing several behavioral domains in both animal and clinical studies of peripartum depression and anxiety. It is postulated that a greater focus on integrated cross domain studies will lead to advances in treatments and preventative measures for several disorders associated with peripartum depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatectomy: Definitions, Risk Factors, Preventive Measures, and Management—Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Oneil Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resection of pancreas, in particular pancreaticoduodenectomy, is a complex procedure, commonly performed in appropriately selected patients with benign and malignant disease of the pancreas and periampullary region. Despite significant improvements in the safety and efficacy of pancreatic surgery, pancreaticoenteric anastomosis continues to be the “Achilles heel” of pancreaticoduodenectomy, due to its association with a measurable risk of leakage or failure of healing, leading to pancreatic fistula. The morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy remains high in the range of 30% to 65%, although the mortality has significantly dropped to below 5%. Most of these complications are related to pancreatic fistula, with serious complications of intra-abdominal abscess, postoperative bleeding, and multiorgan failure. Several pharmacological and technical interventions have been suggested to decrease the pancreatic fistula rate, but the results have been controversial. This paper considers definition and classification of pancreatic fistula, risk factors, and preventive approach and offers management strategy when they do occur.

  6. Analysis of labour accidents in tunnel construction and introduction of prevention measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIKKAWA, Naotaka; ITOH, Kazuya; HORI, Tomohito; TOYOSAWA, Yasuo; ORENSE, Rolando P.

    2015-01-01

    At present, almost all mountain tunnels in Japan are excavated and constructed utilizing the New Austrian Tunneling Method (NATM), which was advocated by Prof. Rabcewicz of Austria in 1964. In Japan, this method has been applied to tunnel construction since around 1978, after which there has been a subsequent decrease in the number of casualties during tunnel construction. However, there is still a relatively high incidence of labour accidents during tunnel construction when compared to incidence rates in the construction industry in general. During tunnel construction, rock fall events at the cutting face are a particularly characteristic of the type of accident that occurs. In this study, we analysed labour accidents that possess the characteristics of a rock fall event at a work site. We also introduced accident prevention measures against rock fall events. PMID:26027707

  7. Personalized Medicine and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, and more than 1.5 million new cases and more than 0.5 million deaths were reported during 2010 in the United States alone. Following completion of the sequencing of the human genome, substantial progress has been made in characterizing the human epigenome, proteome, and metabolome; a better understanding of pharmacogenomics has been developed, and the potential for customizing health care for the individual has grown tremendously. Recently, personalized medicine has mainly involved the systematic use of genetic or other information about an individual patient to select or optimize that patient’s preventative and therapeutic care. Molecular profiling in healthy and cancer patient samples may allow for a greater degree of personalized medicine than is currently available. Information about a patient’s proteinaceous, genetic, and metabolic profile could be used to tailor medical care to that individual’s needs. A key attribute of this medical model is the development of companion diagnostics, whereby molecular assays that measure levels of proteins, genes, or specific mutations are used to provide a specific therapy for an individual’s condition by stratifying disease status, selecting the proper medication, and tailoring dosages to that patient’s specific needs. Additionally, such methods can be used to assess a patient’s risk factors for a number of conditions and to tailor individual preventative treatments. Recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives of personalized medicine in cancer are discussed.

  8. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  10. Measures for preventing and mitigating severe accidents of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengge

    1993-01-01

    Safety goals, integrity of the containment, accident management, functions of existing equipment and measures and emergency preparedness are discussed as technical basis for implementing the new safety code on the nuclear power plant safety design (HAF-0200(91)). The main quantitative safety goals are presented as core melt frequency -5 /ry for new plants and -4 /ry for existing or constructed plants, and 0.1% I, Cs release frequency -6 /ry. To keep the integrity of the containment, main efforts should be placed on the prevention of early failure of the containment and by pass or isolation failures. Should a late failure of the containment occur at a high probability, measures such as filtering vent should be considered. The leak rate of the containment could be higher than the previous 0.1-0.5 wt%/day, depending on the source term and dose results. But, a limiting leak rate of 1 wt%/day is defined. Accident management involves emergency operating procedures, training and retraining for the AM and adding some supporting equipment and display and diagnostic system for the AM. Those requirements are described. Emergency preparedness and measures can reduced the risk significantly. In the most case of accidents, sheltering is preferred as an effective protective actions

  11. Development of new concepts of non-adherence measurements among users of antihypertensives medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Bjerrum, Lars; Herborg, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    based on responses to questions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Medication-taking behaviour and self-efficacy (beliefs about ability and capacity to accomplish a task), respectively. Other measures of non-adherence collected by questionnaire were also addressed in the data for comparison of prevalence...... respectively. The prevalence of the adherence behaviour components were found to be between 10.3 and 34.9%, which is in the range of expected values. Associations between the new concepts of non-adherence measurement and characteristics of nonadherers remain to be established and would be a subject for further...

  12. Educação sanitária e medicina preventiva Health education and preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Maria Lucchesi

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram apresentados programas de atividades educativas, sanitárias e cursos desenvolvidos desde setembro de 1967, com o fito de melhorar os padrões de saúde e alimentação de parte da população do município de Santo André, São Paulo. Os cursos têm sido ministrados às normalistas e às mães de instrução primária, residentes em zonas afastadas do Centro urbano. As alunas dos Cursos já estão pondo em prática os ensinamentos recebidos, divulgando conhecimentos de Educação Sanitária, de Agricultura e de Educação Alimentar em todos os Estabelecimentos de Ensino primário de Santo André, num total de 80 unidades com 54.000 alunos matriculados. Conclui-se que através de cursos dessa natureza é possível conseguir a participação de uma população para sanar possíveis problemas advindos da falta de conhecimento de medidas de saneamento, práticas agrícolas e de uma alimentação bem orientada. Trabalhos desta natureza só são votados a êxito quando houver participação conjunta de elementos técnicos dos setôres administrativos municipais, estaduais, federais, particulares e da própria comunidade trabalhada.This work will be accomplished through educational and sanitary activities, and courses developed since September 1967, with the purpose of improving health and nourishment standards. These courses are being given to 2nd and 3rd grades from "Escolas Normais", and to mothers of primary educational level, who live in the suburbs. More advanced students, in the 1st grade of high-school are already applying the education received, about Health Education, Agriculture, and Food Education in all primary schools establishments in Santo André (80 units with 54000 students. We conclude, by stating that attending courses of this sort, it is possible, to obtain participation of the population, in preventing problems which may arise from the lack of knowledge on sanitation, agricultural practices and well oriented nourshment

  13. Nursing workload and adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam, R; Hernández, O; Mesquida, J; Turégano, C; Carrillo, E; Pedragosa, R; Gómez, V; Martí, L; Vallés, J; Delgado-Hito, P

    To analyse whether adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with nursing workload. A prospective observational study performed in a single medical-surgical ICU. Nurses in charge of patients under ventilator support were assessed. knowledge questionnaire, application of non-pharmacological VAP prevention measures, and workload (Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score). Phases: 1) the nurses carried out a educational programme, consisting of 60-minute lectures on non-pharmacological measures for VAP prevention, and at the end completed a questionnaire knowledge; 2) observation period; 3) knowledge questionnaire. Among 67 ICU-staff nurses, 54 completed the educational programme and were observed. A total of 160 observations of 49 nurses were made. Adequate knowledge was confirmed in both the initial and final questionnaires. Application of preventive measures ranged from 11% for hand washing pre-aspiration to 97% for the use of a sterile aspiration probe. The Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score was 50±13. No significant differences were observed between the association of the nurses' knowledge and the application of preventive measures or between workload and the application of preventive measures. Nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures is not necessarily applied in daily practice. Failure to follow these measures is not subject to lack of knowledge or to increased workload, but presumably to contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of Radon (222Rn) in the High School of Medicine 'Dr.Ali Sokoli' in Prishtina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadiri, S.; Hodolli, G.; Pllana, X.; Dumani, S.; Hasani, F.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration (222Rn) were performed in the largest High School of Medicine ''Dr. Ali Sokoli'' in Prishtina. We choose four locations (classrooms) at ground level, three at first and three on the second floor. In the same premises, the measurements were performed with two methods: using a scintillation cell and a continuous method. The maximum value of radon concentration, measurements with scintillation cells, were obtained by the ground level moving to (573 ± 26) Bq m -3 , while the minimum value of (176 ± 11) Bq m -3 was obtained in the second floor. The maximum value of radon concentration measurements with the continuous method was 116 Bq m -3 in ground level, and the minimum value was 70 Bq m -3 . Based on these results, we calculated annual effective dose, which ranges between (0.76 ± 0.06) mSv and (2.48 ± 0.11) mSv, by scintillation cells. Whereas, the annual effective dose measuring by continuous method was between 0.30 mSv and 0.50 mSv. Based on those results, we conclude that radon concentration and annual effective doses were within accepted international standards. (author)

  15. Conflict Prevention and Confidence Building Measures in the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Prevention and Conflict Management in Northeast Asia (Uppsala, Sweden: Uppsala University, 2005), 13. 4 Oliver Ramsbotham, Tom Woodhouse, Hugh Miall...Contemporary Conflict Resolution (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2011), 138. 28 5 Niklas Swanström, Conflict Prevention and Conflict Management in...II): Regional Responses”, 4. 19 Niklas Swanström, Conflict Prevention and Conflict Management in Northeast Asia, 8. 20 Kofi A. Annan, Prevention of

  16. Radiation protection in medicine (542) comparison of different dosimetry systems for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, D.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Miljanic, S.; Knezevic, Z.; Krpan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The dose measurement on patients in X-ray diagnostic is not simple, because low doses with low and various energies have to be measured. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare high sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeter (T.L.D.) (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) and radio-photoluminescent (R.P.L.) glass dosimeters for dose measurements in routine X-ray diagnostic of chest of children. The energy dependence of the dosimeters was investigated in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). The energy range was 33- 65 keV mean energy, the dosimeters were placed free in air and on the water phantom. The results were compared to calculated values of Hp(10). The next step was the irradiation in a routine X-ray diagnostic unit. Irradiations were performed by the Shimadzu X-ray unit. The selected irradiation conditions were the same as that most commonly used for baby examinations. Doses were measured with dosimeters placed free-in-air and also with the dosimeters placed on the water phantom and baby phantom. The results show that the R.P.L. glass dosimeters and LiF:Mg,Cu,P based T.L.D. are suitable for low dose measurements in X-ray diagnostic. The uncertainty of dose determination is mainly caused by the energy dependence of dosimeters. (authors)

  17. New organic forms of preventive medicine and correction of neurotic and psichosomatic disorders for personnel of the Pripyat' and Spetsatom research and production joint enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabachnikov, S.I.; Snizhenko, Yu.N.; Aleksandrovskij, Yu.A.; Kazakov, V.N.; Bebeshko, E.G.; Mecheret, E.L.; Rymar', I.B.; Cherenkov, V.P.; Roslyakov, V.S.; Titievskij, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    The differentiated harmonious system of new organizing forms and methods, as well as necessary preventive and medical measures, which is introduced in the MSCh-26 rehabilitation department is discussed. The Antitabak and Antibakhus programs are developed and introduced. Modifications of emotional-stress psychotherapy and tabacco dependence reflexotherapy are used. The system of rehabilitation-sanitation measures (RSM) includes 4 stage, which are: RSM organization directly in the Chernobyl' NPP dispensary (manual therapy, massage, psychotherapy reflexotherapy); RSM organization on the basis of medical-sanitary departments; RSM during interduty period at a place of residence; rehabilitation under conditions of special sanatoria

  18. Specific features of occupational medicine in nuclear research and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, J.M.; Quesne, B.

    2003-01-01

    Measures to prevent the exposure of personnel to ionising radiation were taken as soon as the first nuclear laboratories were set up. This branch of occupational preventive medicine has since kept pace with advances in research and in the industrial applications of nuclear energy. (authors)

  19. Application of eye movement measuring system OBER 2 to medicine and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Jozef; Hajda, Janusz; Loska, Jacek; Jamicki, Michal

    1997-08-01

    The OBER 2 is an infrared light eye movement measuring system and it works with IBM PC compatible computers. As one of the safest systems for measuring of eye movement it uses a very short period of infrared light flashing time (80 microsecond for each measure point). System has an advanced analog-digital controller, which includes background suppression and prediction mechanisms guaranteeing elimination of slow changes and fluctuations of external illumination frequency up to 100 Hz, with effectiveness better than 40 dB. Setting from PC the active measure axis, sampling rate (25 - 4000 Hz) and making start and stop the measure, make it possible to control the outside environment in real-time. By proper controlling of gain it is possible to get high time and position resolution of 0.5 minute of arc even for big amplitude of eye movement (plus or minus 20 degree of visual angle). The whole communication system can also be driven directly by eye movement in real time. The possibility of automatic selection of the most essential elements of eye movement, individual for each person and those that take place for each person in determined situations of life independently from personal features, is a key to practical application. Hence one of conducted research topic is a personal identification based on personal features. Another task is a research project of falling asleep detection, which can be applied to warn the drivers before falling asleep while driving. This measuring system with a proper expert system can also be used to detect a dyslexia and other disabilities of the optic system.

  20. Measurement of the performance characteristics of diagnostic X-ray systems used in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A booklet has been produced by the Diagnostic Radiology Topic Group of the Hospital Physicists' Association, providing the basis for exhaustive performance tests on X-ray image intensifier television systems. After a general introduction to the equipment, the parameters which may need to be assessed are outlined in section 1. The measurement techniques and equipment necessary to undertake the measurements are presented in section 2. Specimen data sheets are also presented which the user may find useful to record the data acquired in the field. (U.K.)

  1. Applying data envelopment analysis to preventive medicine: a novel method for constructing a personalized risk model of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Narimatsu

    Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a method of operations research that has not yet been applied in the field of obesity research. However, DEA might be used to evaluate individuals' susceptibility to obesity, which could help establish effective risk models for the onset of obesity. Therefore, we conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of applying DEA to predict obesity, by calculating efficiency scores and evaluating the usefulness of risk models. In this study, we evaluated data from the Takahata study, which was a population-based cohort study (with a follow-up study of Japanese people who are >40 years old. For our analysis, we used the input-oriented Charnes-Cooper-Rhodes model of DEA, and defined the decision-making units (DMUs as individual subjects. The inputs were defined as (1 exercise (measured as calories expended and (2 the inverse of food intake (measured as calories ingested. The output was defined as the inverse of body mass index (BMI. Using the β coefficients for the participants' single nucleotide polymorphisms, we then calculated their genetic predisposition score (GPS. Both efficiency scores and GPS were available for 1,620 participants from the baseline survey, and for 708 participants from the follow-up survey. To compare the strengths of the associations, we used models of multiple linear regressions. To evaluate the effects of genetic factors and efficiency score on body mass index (BMI, we used multiple linear regression analysis, with BMI as the dependent variable, GPS and efficiency scores as the explanatory variables, and several demographic controls, including age and sex. Our results indicated that all factors were statistically significant (p < 0.05, with an adjusted R2 value of 0.66. Therefore, it is possible to use DEA to predict environmentally driven obesity, and thus to establish a well-fitted model for risk of obesity.

  2. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja

    2018-05-01

    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  3. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja

    2018-03-01

    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  4. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  5. Injuries in skiing and snowboarding: Epidemiology and risk factors as a basis for prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fitness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries, owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs and skiers and snowboarders themselves.

  6. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tentner, A.M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.

    2010-01-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  7. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  8. Precautionary measures to prevent damage, as defined in the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marburger, P.

    1983-01-01

    The requirement to take every 'precaution which is necessary in the light of existing scientific knowledge and technology to prevent damage' (section 7, sub-section (2), no. 3 Atomic Energy Act) is not restricted to conventional (preventive) measures but is to be understood as a duty to actively provide for appropriate protection from conceivable damage. Below the level of legally binding laws and regulations, there is the level of scientific-technical codes and standards, which are of great significance to the licensing procedure under atomic energy law. As these codes and standards do not form part of the law but nevertheless represent the essence of scientific knowledge needed to fulfill the duty defined by the law, they are gaining full impact only through the licensing procedure, thus being transformed into concrete legal requirements. Hence one can say that the legal situation in atomic energy law relating to the licensing requirements as laid down in section 7, sub-section (2), no. 3 is presently characterised by a regulatory deficit. This regulatory deficit cannot be overcome by the means and tools offered by the current law. One possibility to fill the gap is to give a legally binding status to the safety guides defined by the deterministic safety concept, by listing the conceivable accidents to be mastered. This recommendable procedure could lead to an ordinance on the safety of nuclear installations. Such an ordinance could be kept abreast with technical progress and scientific knowledge by creating a referring legal instrument, pointing to, e.g., the KTA Safety Guide. (orig./HSCH) [de

  9. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Yang, Yang; Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Lv, Ningqing; Wu, Yi; Xie, Yiwen; Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. Copyright © 2015

  10. Prevention and health promotion from theory to practice: The interprofessional MeMPE Summer University for students of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idler, Nadja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During the 2015 summer semester of Munich’s Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU medical school, the pilot project “MeMPE Summer University – An Interprofessional Seminar on Prevention and Health Promotion” was implemented as a compulsory elective subject. In 90 teaching units of 45 minutes each, 20 students from the degree programs of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Master of Science Epidemiology (MeMPE completed modules in theoretical introduction, scientific project work as well as practical assignments and conference attendance.Methods: The project was evaluated by students using pre- and post-project questionnaires (26 and 57 items, evaluated on a Five-level Likert scale of 1=“fully agree” to 5=“fully disagree”. The evaluation interviews of the instruction participants were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to Mayring’s qualitative content analysis.Results: Questionnaire response rate was 100 %. In pre/post comparison, the students reported an improvement in factual knowledge (pre median=3.0; post median=2.0; p<0.0001, in scientific work (pre median=3.0; post median=1.0; p<0.0001 and in interprofessional work (pre median=2.0; post median=1.0; p=0.024. In 18 interviews, the instructors largely expressed their motivation to participate in the project again.Conclusion: The MeMPE Summer University can serve as an example of best practice for interprofessional communication of prevention and health-promotion topics in theory and practice. The evaluation results show that the project enjoyed a high level of acceptance among students and instructors, and that it should be conducted in a revised version again in 2016.

  11. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [de

  12. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACCESS TO PATENTED HIV/AIDS PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICINES THROUGH THE CANADIAN AND EU TRIPS FLEXIBILITIES MEASURES: ARE THEY EFFICACIOUS OR OVERLY BURDENSOME AND INEFFECTIVE MEASURES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omphemetse S Sibanda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the Canadian and the European Union's (EU implementation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO General Council Decision of 2003, which resolved that developed nations could export patented pharmaceutical drugs to member states in order to address public health challenges such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics, such states including Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The author makes a primarily textual appraisal of how and to what extent the Canada Access to Medicine Regime (CAMR and European Union (EU Regulations benefit, for instance, SSA countries in the WTO in their quest to make essential medicine more accessible. The author argues that although there are identifiable complexities inherent in the Canadian and the EU's access to pharmaceutical product regimes, there are far more important incentives and benefits that can be reaped in taking advantage of the respective systems. The author recommends that countries facing public health crises/emergencies, such as SSA countries, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs take advantage of the regulatory flexibilities of Canada and the EU in their efforts to provide their communities with essential HIV/AIDS treatment, and treatment for other diseases such as malaria. The author dismisses the arguments against TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property flexibilities-inspired legislation and similar measures as mostly mere rhetoric and hair-splitting, because they sometimes unwarrantedly dismiss a workable solution to public-health problems.

  13. Developing a common framework for evaluating the implementation of genomic medicine interventions in clinical care: the IGNITE Network's Common Measures Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Lori A; Sperber, Nina R; Voils, Corrine; Nichols, Marshall; Myers, Rachel A; Wu, R Ryanne; Rakhra-Burris, Tejinder; Levy, Kenneth D; Levy, Mia; Pollin, Toni I; Guan, Yue; Horowitz, Carol R; Ramos, Michelle; Kimmel, Stephen E; McDonough, Caitrin W; Madden, Ebony B; Damschroder, Laura J

    2018-06-01

    PurposeImplementation research provides a structure for evaluating the clinical integration of genomic medicine interventions. This paper describes the Implementing Genomics in Practice (IGNITE) Network's efforts to promote (i) a broader understanding of genomic medicine implementation research and (ii) the sharing of knowledge generated in the network.MethodsTo facilitate this goal, the IGNITE Network Common Measures Working Group (CMG) members adopted the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide its approach to identifying constructs and measures relevant to evaluating genomic medicine as a whole, standardizing data collection across projects, and combining data in a centralized resource for cross-network analyses.ResultsCMG identified 10 high-priority CFIR constructs as important for genomic medicine. Of those, eight did not have standardized measurement instruments. Therefore, we developed four survey tools to address this gap. In addition, we identified seven high-priority constructs related to patients, families, and communities that did not map to CFIR constructs. Both sets of constructs were combined to create a draft genomic medicine implementation model.ConclusionWe developed processes to identify constructs deemed valuable for genomic medicine implementation and codified them in a model. These resources are freely available to facilitate knowledge generation and sharing across the field.

  14. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  15. Measures to prevent concrete damage due to alkali-silica reaction in the Netherlands: Current state-of-affairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, W.M.M.; Larbi, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    In CUR-Recommendation 38, various vital measures that need to be taken during design of new concrete-mixtures in order to prevent damage due to ASR in the concrete have been outlined. The most important of these measures are: • the use of blast furnace slag cement (with a high slag content: 50 % by

  16. Application of legal measures as part of the policy for prevention of corruption in public sphere: Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the application of legal measures as part of the policy of corruption prevention in the public sphere. At present, corruption offenses have become a very dangerous phenomenon for the stability and security of societies, undermining the institutions and values of democracy, ethical values and justice, and jeopardizing the essential development and the rule of law. Knowing that these criminal offenses carry a high social risk and are conducted with high professionalism from people who have the state power, a greater focus should be placed on its prevention. Naturally, the criminal sanctions against criminal acts of corruption have their positive effect, punitive and preventive, but these are the last measures that the state should use. The state of Kosovo in an effort to prevent corruption, has established in legal terms an advanced legislation in accordance with international laws and comparable to developed countries.

  17. Prevention of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow of mice by Indian medicinal plant, Alstonia scholaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahan, Swafiya; Ranuchaudhary; Goyal, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: It is well established that ionizing radiation can damage biologically important macromolecules such as DNA via both direct and indirect mechanisms. Chromosomal aberrations are a measure of direct effects on the genetic material and serve as useful biological dosimeter. With the realization of deleterious effects of ionizing radiation, a need was felt to protect human beings against these harmful effects by using physical and/or chemical means. Numerous chemical compounds have been tested for their ability to protect against ionizing radiation. Despite extensive screening of several synthetic compounds for radio protective activity, no single compound has emerged as a good radio protector so far. The plants have been the companion of man since time immemorial, providing several useful drugs for the treatment of various ailments. Therefore, it is natural that the choices of alternative radio protectors would include plants and plants products. However, some plants have been tested for radio protective action but a detailed study, with all possible end points, is still lacking. Hence, screening of natural products presents a major avenue for the discovery of new radioprotective drugs. Alstonia scholaris, a non toxic herbal preparation, has been reported to be clinically effective in treating syphilis insanity and epilepsy. A. scholaris has also been reported to inhibit liver injuries. These results encourage us to conduct further experiments to prove its radioprotective potential. The present study was performed to verify the radioprotective capacity of Alstonia scholaris on radiation-induced clastogenic change in term of chromosomal aberrations. For this purpose, one group of male Swiss albino mice was exposed to 5 Gy gamma radiation to serve as the control while the other group received Alstonia scholaris bark extract (100 mg/kg b. wt.) orally for 5 consecutive days before irradiation to serve as experimental. Such animals were pretreated with colchicine

  18. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  19. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Management training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  20. Preventive or punitive disciplinary measures in South African schools: Which should be favoured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Oosthuizen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows a major paradigm shift towards preventive and positive rather than punitive disciplinary measures. Since the essence of learner discipline is correctional and educational rather than punitive, this approach seems to be the correct one – especially after the abolition of corporal punishment in South African schools. However, the question remains: is there still room for punitive and reactive learner discipline in our schools? And if so, which is the better approach, and where should the emphasis be? This article endeavours to evaluate the two approaches by means of a normative framework. Rather than ruling which approach is the more successful one, the authors argue that it is not the one or the other, but rather a combination of the two approaches. One of the guiding determinants for correct decision-making is vested in maintaining a safe, harmonious and orderly environment conducive to education and learning. The decision regarding the most effective form of discipline in a particular instance should therefore be determined by the context of the situation. For example, it depends on the seriousness of the misconduct, the attitude of the learners (e.g. was it as a result of intent or negligence?, the age of the learner, the influence it had on the teaching-learning environment, et cetera.

  1. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Disability management: the application of preventive measures, health promotion and case management in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Torre, G; De Giusti, M; Mannocci, A; De Waure, C; Agostinelli, A; Schena, S; Capelli, G; Ricciardi, W; Boccia, A; Damiani, G; von Pinoci, M; Fanton, C; Federico, B

    2009-03-01

    Disability Management can be defined as a practice to improve workers' health and to reduce the impact and costs of disability. The aim of the study was to estimate the diffusion of DM in Italian companies. A survey was conducted using a questionnaire, the Worksite Disability Management Audit. The questionnaire was structured into five parts addressing the following domains: 1) characteristics of the company; 2) health promotion activities; 3) preventive measures; 4) case management; 5) disability management. We selected public and private companies and collected information by direct interview. Twenty companies entered the survey. Twelve Companies (60%) indicated that health promotion programs and sensibilisation campaigns are usually carried out. The presence of an individual who provided workplace safety indications and materials was stated by 19 companies (95%). Periodical medical examinations are carried out by 19 companies (95%); 16 (80%) have an evaluation process for ergonomics concerns. Risk assessment and analysis are performed by all companies and the security procedures and policies are updated at least once in a year in 40% of cases. Health status monitoring of injured workers is performed in eight (40%) of the companies, while Disability Management is present as a whole in only three companies. This survey highlights that Disability Management is not undertaken in most companies and that, where applied, there is still confusion and disorganization about ways to promote health and manage workers' illness and disability. Hence, there is still the need to promote an all-inclusive evaluation and management of workers' safety, illness and disabilities.

  3. Expert assessment of preventive measures in the zone of guaranteed voluntary resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozerova, I I; Prilipko, V A; Myshkovska, A A

    2013-01-01

    An expert evaluation of preventive measures focused on population health maintenance in the zone of guaranteed voluntary resettlement taking into account the limitations of the provisions of certain articles of the Law of Ukraine on the clean-up of the Chornobyl disaster aftermath. The research survey was applied using a peer review method. The three-level (national, regional, district) expert workgroup was involved been employed within recovery of the Chornobyl disaster aftermath. Professional experience of minimum 10 years, corresponding profile and current position were the requirements for selection. A simple streamlining the values of paired or consistent comparison was applied on the primary empirical data. The arrangements made in recent years by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and ministries engaged in clean-up and recovery from the Chornobyl nuclear power plant accident are ineffective. Costs from the Fund for the implementation of measures to clean-up the consequences of the Chornobyl disaster and social protection are reduced. There is no consensus among experts regarding some constraint of an action of certain articles of the Law of Ukraine "On the status and social protection of citizens affected by the Chornobyl disaster" on the principles of social protection and healthcare of the population living in contaminated areas. In addressing the social and health consequences of the Chornobyl disaster the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine just for a long time has passes no amendment to the legislation on the subject. At that there are several restrictions in force for a large number of articles of the existing laws that were adopted in 1991. The mentioned above exacerbates social strain and destroys the "citizen-state relationship". The extreme need has emerged in a comprehensive public review of existing laws with involvement of multidisciplinary group of experts to a "round table" to justify the draft laws. Ozerova Ju. Ju., Prylypko V. A., Myshkovska A. A

  4. Preventive measures for safety and helth at work with the amphibious transporter PTS-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the knowledge of using the amphibious transporter STM-M ( STM-M is very limited. A small number of professional soldiers in the Serbian Armed Forces know how to use thisvery useful and high-quality military vehicle in a regular way. From the day onethis vehicle has remained in its basic shape without any modifications since it was made in the former Soviet Union. Today, the Serbian Armed Forces have only 12 of these vehicles in the operational use. The Serbian Armed Forces have two amphibious platoons in two pontoon batalions in the River Flotilla. As the author of this article was an officer in charge of maintaining this complex and “unusual” vehicle, the article deals with the provisions from the Regulations on preventive measures for safety and health while using work equipment (Ministry of Labour, 2012, applied to work with STM-Ms, The article makes a parallel between the provisions of the Regulations and the actual situation and specific conditions of using and maintaining STM-Ms . Introduction Some basic information about the STM-M is given here, twith Figure 1 of this vehicle and its tactical and technicalspecifications.The dangerous places onthe vehicle are presented as well. Mesuares and rules for safe work This part ofthe article presents all speciall tools on the STM-M that are used for safe work. Each piece of tool is described in detail -itslocationon the STM-M, its physical characteristics,  and most common mistakes during its use. Some measures for better maintenance and improved safety at work are also proposed. Conclusion The conclusion deals with the misuse and wrong maintenance of STM-Ms and gives some proposals for their better use. A critical commentary about the conditions of safety engineering in the Serbian Armed Forces can be found here as well.  

  5. Proactive infection control measures to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Vincent Chi-Chung; Tai, Josepha Wai-Ming; Chen, Jonathan Hon-Kwan; So, Simon Yung-Chun; Ng, Wing-Chun; Hung, Ivan Fan-Ngan; Leung, Sally Sau-Man; Wong, Sally Cheuk-Ying; Chan, Tuen-Ching; Chan, Felix Hon-Wai; Ho, Pak-Leung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    The study describes a proactive infection control approach to prevent nosocomial transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and tests if this approach is effective for controlling multiple-drug resistant organisms in a nonendemic setting. In response to the increasing prevalence of VRE in Hong Kong since 2011, we adopted a multifaceted assertive approach in our health care network. This included active surveillance culture, extensive contact tracing, directly observed hand hygiene in conscious patients before they received meals and medications, stringent hand hygiene and environmental cleanliness, and an immediate feedback antimicrobial stewardship program. We report the occurrence of VRE outbreaks in our hospital after institution of these measures and compared with the concurrent occurrence in other public hospitals in Hong Kong. Between July 1, 2011 and November 13, 2013, VRE was identified in 0.32% (50/15,851) of admission episodes by active surveillance culture. The risk of VRE carriage was three times higher in patients with a history of hospitalization outside our hospital networks in the past 3 months (0.56% vs. 0.17%; p = 0.001) compared with those who were not. Extensive contact tracing involving 3277 patient episodes was performed in the investigation for the 25 VRE index patients upon whom implementation of contact precautions was delayed (more than 48 hours of hospitalization). One episode of VRE outbreak was identified in our hospital network, compared with the 77 VRE outbreaks reported in the other hospital networks (controls) without these proactive infection control measures. Our multifaceted assertive proactive infection control approach can minimize the nosocomial transmission and outbreak of VRE in a nonendemic area. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  7. Measuring Diversity and Inclusion in Academic Medicine: The Diversity Engagement Survey (DES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Sharina D.; Jordan, C. Greer; Allison, Jeroan J.; Fink Ogawa, Lisa M.; Castillo-Page, Laura; Conrad, Sarah; Nivet, Marc A.; Plummer, Deborah L.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To produce a physician and scientific workforce capable of delivering high quality, culturally competent health care and research, academic medical centers must assess their capacity for diversity and inclusion and respond to identified opportunities. Thus, the Diversity Engagement Survey (DES) is presented as a diagnostic and benchmarking tool. Method The 22-item DES connects workforce engagement theory with inclusion and diversity constructs. Face and content validity were established based on decades of previous work to promote institutional diversity. The survey was pilot tested at a single academic medical center and subsequently administered at 13 additional academic medical centers. Cronbach alphas assessed internal consistency and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) established construct validity. Criterion validity was assessed by observed separation in scores for groups traditionally recognized to have less workforce engagement. Results The sample consisted of 13,694 individuals at 14 medical schools from across the U.S. who responded to the survey administered between 2011– 2012. The Cronbach alphas for inclusion and engagement factors (range: 0.68 to 0.85), CFA fit indices, and item correlations with latent constructs, indicated an acceptable model fit and that questions measured the intended concepts. DES scores clearly distinguished higher and lower performing institutions. The DES detected important disparities for black, women, and those who did not have heterosexual orientation. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the DES is a reliable and valid instrument for internal assessment and evaluation or external benchmarking of institutional progress in building inclusion and engagement. PMID:26466376

  8. Promoting quality through measurement of performance and response: prevention success stories.

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, C.; Emori, T. G.; Peavy, G.; Gaynes, R.

    2001-01-01

    Successful efforts to prevent health-care acquired infections occur daily in U.S. hospitals. However, few of these "success stories" are presented in the medical literature or discussed at professional meetings. Key components of successful prevention efforts include multidisciplinary teams, appropriate educational interventions, and data dissemination to clinical staff.

  9. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in

  10. Body contour measurements by conoscopy: application in nuclear medicine, study of feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheiber, C.; Musse, O.; Mallet, Y.; Sirat, G.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a precise mapping of the human body contours as viewed by the gamma camera during acquisition for pathological focus detection and as intermediary in the fusion with morphological images sources (CT, IRM, US). The measurement of the human body contours, making use of a telemeter system, was proposed by O. Peria (Ph.D Thesis, University of Grenoble) by using a laser telemeter and then structured-light sources. We proposed utilization of a non-coherent interferometer, the conoscope developed by G. Sirat, coupled to an electro-mechanical sweeping system mounted on the gamma camera rack. The first tests realized with a slow prototype (3 pt/s), have allowed the recording of visage contours (a profile obtained by angular rotation of the camera (10 deg.) on an (Elscint, Haifa) Helix gamma camera). For this experiment the voluntary subject has worn protection spectacles (the light source being a laser of 1 mW). Among the advantages of this compact system (14 x 10 x 15 cm) we stress: a) a high precision (0.2 mm); b) being installed on the rack, the calibration procedures are simplified and their shifts are potentially reduced; c) the procedures of intra-modality image matching is simplified; d) an integrated fast electronic circuitry (DSP) allows to exploit directly, in real time if necessary, the obtained results (x,y,z coordinates of the studied point). We considered that by its precision, its insensitivity to luminous environment conditions and its integration with the turning gamma camera, the system deserves to be evaluated for application in medical imaging. This system as other intermediate captors, using body contours, allows the superimposing of data, other than the image data, what helps the stereotaxic localization

  11. Herbal medicines in migraine prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeWeerdt, CJ; Bootsma, HPR; Hendriks, H

    The efficacy of feverfew capsules on migraine prophylaxis was investigated in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which 50 patients, who had not used feverfew before, participated. The capsules were filled with a dried alcoholic extract of feverfew on microcristalline

  12. Climate change and preventive medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergeman, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Thermal stress, food poisoning, infectious diseases, malnutrition, psychiatric illness as well as injury and death from floods, storms and fire are all likely to become more common as the earth warms and the climate becomes more variable. In contrast, obesity, type II diabetes and coronary artery...

  13. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  14. Efficacies of prevention and control measures applied during an outbreak in Southwest Madrid, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, and hare (Lepus granatensis, were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans. Various measures were adopted to prevent and control the disease, and since 2013 there was a slight decline in the human sickness. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficacy of each measure in reducing the number of infected hosts. We identified in the present model that culling both hares and rabbits, without immediate reposition of the animals, was the best measure adopted, decreasing the proportion of all infected hosts. Particularly, culling hares was more efficacious than culling rabbits to reduce the proportion of infected individuals of all hosts. Likewise, lowering vector contact with hares highly influenced the reduction of the proportion of infected hosts. The reduction of the vector density per host in the park decreased the leishmaniasis incidence of hosts in the park and the urban areas. On the other hand, the reduction of the vector density per host of the urban area (humans, dogs and cats decreased only their affected population, albeit at a higher proportion. The use of insecticide-impregnated collar and vaccination in dogs affected only the infected dogs' population. The parameters related to the vector contact with dog, cat or human do not present a high impact on the other hosts infected by Leishmania. In conclusion, the efficacy of each control strategy was determined, in order to direct future actions

  15. Mesopotamian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retief, F P; Cilliers, L

    2007-01-01

    Although the Mesopotamian civilisation is as old as that of Egypt and might even have predated it, we know much less about Mesopotamian medicine, mainly because the cuneiform source material is less well researched. Medical healers existed from the middle of the 3rd millennium. In line with the strong theocratic state culture, healers were closely integrated with the powerful priestly fraternity, and were essentially of three main kinds: barû (seers) who were experts in divination, âshipu (exorcists), and asû (healing priests) who tended directly to the sick. All illness was accepted as sent by gods, demons and other evil spirits, either as retribution for sins or as malevolent visitations. Treatment revolved around identification of the offending supernatural power, appeasement of the angry gods, for example by offering amulets or incantations, exorcism of evil spirits, as well as a measure of empirical therapy aimed against certain recognised symptom complexes. Medical practice was rigidly codified, starting with Hammurabi's Code in the 18th century BC and persisting to the late 1st millennium BC. Works like the so-called Diagnostic Handbook, the Assyrian Herbal and Prescription Texts describe the rationale of Mesopotamian medicine, based predominantly on supernatural concepts, although rudimentary traces of empirical medicine are discernible. There is evidence that Egyptian medicine might have been influenced by Mesopotamian practices, but Greek rational medicine as it evolved in the 5th/4th centuries BC almost certainly had no significant Mesopotamian roots.

  16. Infection prevention and control measures and tools for the prevention of entry of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae into healthcare settings: guidance from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Magiorakos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE are increasingly being reported from patients in healthcare settings. They are associated with high patient morbidity, attributable mortality and hospital costs. Patients who are “at-risk” may be carriers of these multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E. The purpose of this guidance is to raise awareness and identify the “at-risk” patient when admitted to a healthcare setting and to outline effective infection prevention and control measures to halt the entry and spread of CRE. Methods The guidance was created by a group of experts who were functioning independently of their organisations, during two meetings hosted by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. A list of epidemiological risk factors placing patients “at-risk” for carriage with CRE was created by the experts. The conclusions of a systematic review on the prevention of spread of CRE, with the addition of expert opinion, were used to construct lists of core and supplemental infection prevention and control measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients upon admission to healthcare settings. Results Individuals with the following profile are “at-risk” for carriage of CRE: a a history of an overnight stay in a healthcare setting in the last 12 months, b dialysis-dependent or cancer chemotherapy in the last 12 months, c known previous carriage of CRE in the last 12 months and d epidemiological linkage to a known carrier of a CRE. Core infection prevention and control measures that should be considered for all patients in healthcare settings were compiled. Preliminary supplemental measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients on admission are: pre-emptive isolation, active screening for CRE, and contact precautions. Patients who are confirmed positive for CRE will need additional supplemental measures. Conclusions Strengthening the microbiological

  17. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and

  18. Outbreak of resistant Acinetobacter baumannii- measures and proposal for prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Roberta Maia de Castro; Jesus, Lenize Adriana de; Clemente, Wanessa Trindade; Lima, Stella Sala Soares; Rezende, Edna Maria; Coutinho, Rosane Luiza; Moreira, Ricardo Luiz Fontes; Neves, Francelli Aparecida Cordeiro; Brás, Nelma de Jesus

    2009-10-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection, frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients, is commonly associated with high morbimortality. Several outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) A. baumanii have been reported but few of them in Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with colonization and infection by MDR and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to the adult ICU at HC/UFMG. A case-control study was performed from January 2007 to June 2008. Cases were defined as patients colonized or infected by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and controls were patients without MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolation, in a 1:2 proportion. For statistical analysis, due to changes in infection control guidelines, infection criteria and the notification process, this study was divided into two periods. During the first period analyzed, from January to December 2007, colonization or infection by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was associated with prior infection, invasive device utilization, prior carbapenem use and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, prior infection and mechanical ventilation proved to be statistically significant risk factors. Carbapenem use showed a tendency towards a statistical association. During the second study period, from January to June 2008, variables with a significant association with MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii colonization/infection were catheter utilization, carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use, hepatic transplantation, and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, only CVC use showed a statistical difference. Carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use displayed a tendency to be risk factors. Risk factors must be focused on infection control and prevention measures considering A. baumanni dissemination.

  19. Outbreak of resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: measures and proposal for prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection, frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients, is commonly associated with high morbimortality. Several outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant (MDR A. baumanii have been reported but few of them in Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with colonization and infection by MDR and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to the adult ICU at HC/UFMG. A case-control study was performed from January 2007 to June 2008. Cases were defined as patients colonized or infected by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and controls were patients without MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolation, in a 1:2 proportion. For statistical analysis, due to changes in infection control guidelines, infection criteria and the notification process, this study was divided into two periods. During the first period analyzed, from January to December 2007, colonization or infection by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was associated with prior infection, invasive device utilization, prior carbapenem use and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, prior infection and mechanical ventilation proved to be statistically significant risk factors. Carbapenem use showed a tendency towards a statistical association. During the second study period, from January to June 2008, variables with a significant association with MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii colonization/infection were catheter utilization, carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use, hepatic transplantation, and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, only CVC use showed a statistical difference. Carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use displayed a tendency to be risk factors. Risk factors must be focused on infection control and prevention measures considering A. baumanni dissemination.

  20. Marine litter plastics and microplastics and their toxic chemicals components: the need for urgent preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Frederic; Fossi, Cristina; Weber, Roland; Santillo, David; Sousa, Joao; Ingram, Imogen; Nadal, Angel; Romano, Dolores

    2018-01-01

    Persistent plastics, with an estimated lifetime for degradation of hundreds of years in marine conditions, can break up into micro- and nanoplastics over shorter timescales, thus facilitating their uptake by marine biota throughout the food chain. These polymers may contain chemical additives and contaminants, including some known endocrine disruptors that may be harmful at extremely low concentrations for marine biota, thus posing potential risks to marine ecosystems, biodiversity and food availability. Although there is still need to carry out focused scientific research to fill the knowledge gaps about the impacts of plastic litter in the marine environment (Wagner et al. in Environ Sci Eur 26:9, 2014), the food chain and human health, existing scientific evidence and concerns are already sufficient to support actions by the scientific, industry, policy and civil society communities to curb the ongoing flow of plastics and the toxic chemicals they contain into the marine environment. Without immediate strong preventive measures, the environmental impacts and the economic costs are set only to become worse, even in the short term. Continued increases in plastic production and consumption, combined with wasteful uses, inefficient waste collection infrastructures and insufficient waste management facilities, especially in developing countries, mean that even achieving already established objectives for reductions in marine litter remains a huge challenge, and one unlikely to be met without a fundamental rethink of the ways in which we consume plastics. This document was prepared by a working group of Regional Centres of the Stockholm and Basel Conventions and related colleagues intended to be a background document for discussion in the 2017 Conference of the Parties (COP) of the Basel Convention on hazardous wastes and the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The COP finally approved that the issue of plastic waste could be dealt by its

  1. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young

    2012-01-01

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and management

  2. Response characteristics of probe-transducer systems for pressure measurements in gas-solid fluidized beds: how to prevent pitfalls in dynamic pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, van J.R.; Schouten, J.C.; Stappen, van der M.L.M.; Bleek, van den C.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is long known already that the pressure probe–transducer systems applied in gas–solid fluidized beds can distort the measured pressure fluctuations. Several rules of thumb have been proposed to determine probe length and internal diameter required to prevent this. Recently, Xie and Geldart [H.-Y.

  3. Measurement of Fall Prevention Awareness and Behaviours among Older Adults at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Katherine; Taing, Darcie; Roy, Jacqueline

    2017-12-01

    This study surveyed awareness of, and adherence to, six national fall prevention recommendations among community-dwelling older adults (n = 1050) in Ottawa. Although 76 per cent of respondents agreed falling is a concern and preventable, fewer perceived susceptibility to falling (63%). Respondents had high awareness that home modifications and physical activity can prevent falls. Reported modifications included grab bars (50%), night lights (44%), and raised toilet seats (19%). Half met aerobic activity recommendations; 38 per cent met strength recommendations. Respondents had lower awareness that an annual medication review, annual eye and physical examination, and daily vitamin D supplementation could reduce fall risk. However, reported annual medication review (79%) and eye examination (75%) was high. Nearly half met recommendations for vitamin D intake. These findings suggest a gap in knowledge of awareness and adherence to national recommendations, highlighting the ones that may require attention from those who work to prevent falls.

  4. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative...

  5. Preventive measures to reduce the transfer of Streptococcus mutans from pregnant women to their babies†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eda Güler

    2011-03-01

    Conclusions: Streptococcus mutans is commonly transferred from mothers to their babies, and the preventive program applied to the pregnant women reduced both the amount of plaque and S. mutans colonization and thus had a positive effect.

  6. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wearing. Special care is required to prevent contamination of the inside of gloves. 9. Approved... containers should be disposed of by breaking. Chop holes in top, bottom, and sides of metal containers or...

  7. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Special care is required to prevent contamination of the inside of gloves. 9. Approved respirators must be... holes in top, bottom, and sides of metal containers or crush them so they cannot collect water or be...

  8. Activity measurements of {sup 18}F and {sup 90}Y with commercial radionuclide calibrators for nuclear medicine in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caffari, Yvan, E-mail: Yvan.Caffari@chuv.c [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland); Spring, Philippe; Bailat, Claude; Nedjadi, Youcef; Bochud, Francois [Institut de Radiophysique Appliquee, Grand-Pre 1, 1007 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2010-07-15

    The activity of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine is measured before patient injection with radionuclide calibrators. In Switzerland, the general requirements for quality controls are defined in a federal ordinance and a directive of the Federal Office of Metrology (METAS) which require each instrument to be verified. A set of three gamma sources (Co-57, Cs-137 and Co-60) is used to verify the response of radionuclide calibrators in the gamma energy range of their use. A beta source, a mixture of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 90}Y in secular equilibrium, is used as well. Manufacturers are responsible for the calibration factors. The main goal of the study was to monitor the validity of the calibration factors by using two sources: a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source and a {sup 18}F source. The three types of commercial radionuclide calibrators tested do not have a calibration factor for the mixture but only for {sup 90}Y. Activity measurements of a {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y source with the {sup 90}Y calibration factor are performed in order to correct for the extra-contribution of {sup 90}Sr. The value of the correction factor was found to be 1.113 whereas Monte Carlo simulations of the radionuclide calibrators estimate the correction factor to be 1.117. Measurements with {sup 18}F sources in a specific geometry are also performed. Since this radionuclide is widely used in Swiss hospitals equipped with PET and PET-CT, the metrology of the {sup 18}F is very important. The {sup 18}F response normalized to the {sup 137}Cs response shows that the difference with a reference value does not exceed 3% for the three types of radionuclide calibrators.

  9. Human Rights, Positive Obligations, and Measures to Prevent Human Trafficking in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ian David

    2015-01-01

    Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights is freedom from slavery. A key feature of this right is the obligation it imposes on states such as the UK to prevent violations of the freedom, such as the trafficking in human beings, by third parties. This piece finds that the UK’s response to its duties in preventing human trafficking is patchy but concludes that this will be much improved with its new Modern Slavery Bill 2014-15.

  10. Different opinions of physicians on the importance of measures to prevent acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Gratiana; Ullrich, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Since chronic infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with deteriorating lung function, many parents of young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) fear the first PA positive throat swab as a milestone in the progression of the disease. To reduce the risk of PA acquisition from the environment, they perform preventive measures at home or outdoors. In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of CF physicians towards these measures and the respective consulting practice, we mailed a questionnaire to all 65 certified paediatric CF centres in Germany. Physicians from 54 (83%) CF clinics replied. They expressed widely different ideas about the impact of the environment for the acquisition of P. aeruginosa, and recommended a large spectrum of preventive measures. Some physicians proposed only few precautions, which focussed on the prevention of cross-infection between patients, whereas others suggested prevention of any contact with moist or wet places, e.g. use different toothbrushes for mornings and evenings, or do without air-conditioning in the car. CF physicians have different opinions on the risk of PA acquisition from the environment. Doctors who recommend strict precautions could engender a parental fear of a ubiquous threat from invisible bacteria. The resulting extended safety measures might impair the family's quality of life. Copyright 2003 European Cystic Fibrosis Society

  11. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  12. Exploring the line between the preventive and punitive character of measures in the frame of a just culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanikas, Nektarios; Chionis, Dimitrios

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey which aimed at exploring the perceptions of the employees of a large aviation organization regarding the punitive or preventive character of possible measures that management could take in cases of errors and violations. The analysis of the quantitative

  13. Which is the most preventive measure against tail damage in finisher pigs: tail docking, straw provision or lowered stocking density?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mona Lilian Vestbjerg; Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2018-01-01

    One challenge of intensive pig production is tail damage caused by tail biting, and farmers often decrease the prevalence of tail damage through tail docking. However, tail docking is not an optimal preventive measure against tail damage and thus, it would be preferable to replace it. The aim of ...

  14. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  15. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Cristina; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; De La Torre, Ana; Štukelj, Marina; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena Cardoso; Cerioli, Monica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Bellini, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF) has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania). In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig-pig and/or pig-wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting activities during the

  16. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Jurado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania. In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig–pig and/or pig–wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting

  17. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Cristina; Martínez-Avilés, Marta; De La Torre, Ana; Štukelj, Marina; de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena Cardoso; Cerioli, Monica; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel; Bellini, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF) has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania). In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig–pig and/or pig–wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting activities during the

  18. Viscoelasticity as a measurement of clot structure in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients: towards a precision and personalized medicine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette

    2016-08-09

    Type 2 diabetes patients (T2D) have a considerably higher cardiovascular risk, which is closely associated with systemic inflammation, and an accompanying pathologic coagulation system. Due to the complexity of the diabetic profile, we suggest that we need to look at each patient individually and particularly at his or her clotting profile; as the healthiness of the coagulation system gives us an indication of the success of clinical intervention. T2D coagulability varied markedly, although there were no clear difference in medication use and the standards of HbA1c levels. Our sample consisted of 90 poorly controlled T2D and 71 healthy individuals. We investigated the medication use and standards of HbA1c levels of T2D and we used thromboelastography (TEG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their clot formation.