WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventive medicine measures

  1. Preventive medicine in 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-12-01

    This invited commentary imagines two futures for preventive medicine and public health in the Year 2030. Using satire, the commentary describes one future in which large corporations control public health and another where a robust public sector plays the leading role. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  3. Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jani, Asim A.; Trask, Jennifer; Ali, Ather

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, the USDHHS’s Health Resources and Services Administration funded 12 accredited preventive medicine residencies to incorporate an evidence-based integrative medicine curriculum into their training programs. It also funded a national coordinating center at the American College of Preventive Medicine, known as the Integrative Medicine in Preventive Medicine Education (IMPriME) Center, to provide technical assistance to the 12 grantees. To help with this task, the IMPriME Center established a multidisciplinary steering committee, versed in integrative medicine, whose primary aim was to develop integrative medicine core competencies for incorporation into preventive medicine graduate medical education training. The competency development process was informed by central integrative medicine definitions and principles, preventive medicine’s dual role in clinical and population-based prevention, and the burgeoning evidence base of integrative medicine. The steering committee considered an interdisciplinary integrative medicine contextual framework guided by several themes related to workforce development and population health. A list of nine competencies, mapped to the six general domains of competence approved by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education, was operationalized through an iterative exercise with the 12 grantees in a process that included mapping each site’s competency and curriculum products to the core competencies. The competencies, along with central curricular components informed by grantees’ work presented elsewhere in this supplement, are outlined as a roadmap for residency programs aiming to incorporate integrative medicine content into their curricula. This set of competencies adds to the larger efforts of the IMPriME initiative to facilitate and enhance further curriculum development and implementation by not only the current grantees but other stakeholders in graduate medical education around integrative medicine

  4. Essentials of periodontal medicine in preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkle Gulati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of systemic disorders on periodontal diseases is well established. However, of growing interest is the effect of periodontal diseases on numerous systemic diseases or conditions like cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes, pre-term low birth weight babies, preeclampsia, respiratory infections and others including osteoporosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, erectile dysfunction, Alzheimer′s disease, gastrointestinal disease, prostatitis, renal diseases, which has also been scientifically validated. This side of the oral-systemic link has been termed Periodontal Medicine and is potentially of great public health significance, as periodontal disease is largely preventable and in many instances readily treatable, hence, providing many new opportunities for preventing and improving prognosis of several systemic pathologic conditions. This review article highlights the importance of prevention and treatment of periodontal diseases as an essential part of preventive medicine to circumvent its deleterious effects on general health.

  5. Preventative Medicine today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Maluf de Carvalho

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The great majority of chronic diseases can be prevented byreducing risks, understood as factors that increase the probabilityof a specific disease or condition, such as hypertension,hypercholesterolemia, inadequate diet, smoking habit, obesity andsedentarism. These aspects are evaluated in this article as wellas prevention and screening methods.

  6. Musculoskeletal imaging in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainberger, Franz; Falkowski, Anna L; Hirtler, Lena; Riegler, Georg; Schlegl, Thomas; Thaker, Siddharth; Patsch, Janina; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    The aim is to review the modalities in musculoskeletal imaging with view on the prognostic impact for the patient's and for social outcome and with view on three major fields of preventive medicine: nutrition and metabolism, sports, and patient education. The added value provided by preventive imaging is (1) to monitor bone health and body composition with a broad spectrum of biomarkers, (2) to detect and quantify variants or abnormalities of nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and joints with a risk of overuse, rupture, or fracture, and (3) to develop radiology reports from the widely used narrative format to structured text and multimedia datasets. The awareness problem is a term for describing the underreporting and the underdiagnosis of fragility fractures in osteoporosis.

  7. City planning as preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corburn, Jason

    2015-08-01

    The health and well-being of rapidly growing urban populations is a global health issue. Cities in the global north and south are faced with rising health inequities - or avoidable differences in health determinants and outcomes based on place, social status and ethnicity. This commentary suggests that focusing only on treatment interventions in cities is likely to fail because populations will be forced to go back into the urban living and working conditions that likely made them sick in the first place. City planning as preventive medicine includes taking a relational and systems approach to urban health, requiring health assessments for all urban policy making, promoting neighborhood health centers as engines of community economic development and gathering place-based health indicator data to track progress and adapt interventions over time as conditions change. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Current problems in preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheptalov, N N

    1995-01-01

    The author presents data on the incidence of diseases involving temporary invalidity among workers of the Moscow Railway. The difference in morbidity levels at various enterprises in this branch of industry is as high as 2.9 to 5.9 times, which fact is regarded as a sign of uncontrollable increase of morbidity among the workers of the predominant part of the production. A system of registration and organizational measures aimed at morbidity prevention, conditionally named Automated Monitoring System 'Morbidity' (AMSM) is presented. Results of distribution of morbidity by "days" in the final line 30 of record file 16BH in relative compatible parameters are described. Introduction of AMSM resulted in reduction of morbidity in 1993 as reflected in line 35 in "days" by 10% vs. the year 1992 and in a different rating of a test enterprise TC-18 in the total group of the Moscow Railway Depot, which moved from the 4th to 10th position. Economical estimation of the benefit due to morbidity reduction and validation of cost efficacy and self support of AMSM are presented.

  9. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  10. Lipids in psychiatric disorders and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Miriam; Levant, Beth; Reichel, Martin; Gulbins, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Müller, Christian P

    2017-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders like mood disorders, schizophrenia, or drug addiction affect a sizeable proportion of the human population and severely compromise quality of life. Therefore, measures to prevent the manifestation, and treatments to ameliorate the symptoms, of these disorders are in high demand. Brain lipids determine the localization and function of proteins in the cell membrane of neurons. Lipids may also act as neurotransmitters or other signalling molecules. The lipid composition of the brain can be influenced by nutrition, environmental factors, and by behavioural activity. Thus, lipids represent a target for preventive medicine of psychiatric disorders. Here we review how brain lipids contribute to normal behaviour and to major psychiatric disorders with the focus on phospholipids/fatty acids, sphingolipids, and endocannabinoids. Accumulating evidence suggests a crucial role for membrane forming and signalling lipids in the brain in the etiopathologies of depression, bipolar disorders, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Lipids also represent potential preventive interventions for these psychiatric disorders by either targeted dietary supplementation or pharmacological manipulation of lipid regulating enzymes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Classification of Prevention in Sports Medicine and Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas

    2015-11-01

    It is today recognized that a large share of manifestations of ill health associated with sports participation is preventable and that a focus should be on implementation of effective prevention programs. One hindrance for implementation of effective preventive measures in sports medicine may be that an update of preventive frameworks to the current health challenges has not been performed. We introduce classifications of prevention that are adjusted to the health challenges faced by sports participants in the present day. To enable more precise characterizations of preventive measures, we find it necessary to describe them in two dimensions. In one dimension, pathological developments in the body are used as a basis for classification of preventive measures, while the other dimension classifies prevention on the grounds of epidemiological risk indicators. We conclude that longitudinal research combining diagnostic procedures, surveillance, and targeted interventions is needed to enable the introduction of prevention programs for athletes in the beginning of their sporting career at the pre-diagnostic stage, as well as suitable prevention measures for the adult elite athletes. A more distinct classification of prevention supports a specific and cost-effective planning and translation of sports injury prevention and safety promotion adjusted to the delivery settings, various injury types, and different groups of athletes. The present classifications constitute an additional conceptual foundation for such efforts.

  12. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: How Integrative Medicine Fits

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ather; Katz, David L.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels o...

  13. [The vital tasks of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizh, I M

    1996-05-01

    The article discusses the actual problems of prophylaxis in common system of troops medical supply and defines the subsequent reformative ways of preventive medicine. First of all, the necessity of organized principles revision of prophylactic direction is connected with the fact of main health indices negative dynamics of Armed Forces personal, indicative of weakening of all types of prophylactic work. These are prophylactic work among recruits during their adaptation to military service conditions, prophylactic medical examination, tempering, fiscal training and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. However, we shouldn't forget about positive experience accumulated in the past, as much as possible we should use the achievements of military medical science. For further development of preventive direction of troops and fleet medical supply the priority ways of essential tasks decision of military medicine have been planned. It is necessary to connect the decision of concrete tasks with general perspective of introduction in Armed Forces of region system of servicemen medical supply.

  14. [Interdisciplinary quality management in preventive medicine institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Robert

    2004-12-01

    Like all health care institutions, preventive medicine institutions, too, need a quality assurance structure. An integrated system consisting of "balanced score card", "finite-elements-model" and "interdisciplinary quality circles" is presented. This organisational structure allows the implementation of quality assurance in complex institutions as well, such as health care organisations. In addition, this concept guarantees broad acceptance by all team members, not least due to complexity reduction.

  15. Evaluating Efficiencies in Preventive Medicine: Comparing Approaches Between the Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    assigned to Marine units; and support to Navy and Marine units from hospital , clinical, and preventive medicine units.41 Also similar to the Army...biohazards, safety, respiratory protection, hazard controls, and ergonomics .113 Moreover, they are responsible for the detection, assessment, and...Preventive Medicine Technicians Preventive Medicine Technicians are unique in how they become qualified. They begin their careers as Hospital

  16. Medicine measurements; Mesures en medecine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemin, F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer, 54 - Nancy (France)

    1995-12-31

    This twentieth chapter on measurements in medicine is made of two separate states of the art: imaging (p. 570-592) and treatment (p. 593-624). The first one explains nuclear imaging (gamma camera), NMR and SMR, bio electric impedance imaging, induced fluorescence detection. The second one explains radiotherapy (external radiotherapy, stereotaxic irradiations, proton irradiation), heart stimulation and defibrillation, tomodensitometry for computer aided conception of prothesis, corneal curvature measurement and keratometry, biological analysis. Then a conclusion is given on the reasonableness of such instrumentation in the present context of harsh economic limitations. (D.L.). Refs., tabs., figs.

  17. A medical paradox: curative versus preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, J F

    1976-08-07

    A familiar medical contrast is presented as part of a modern medical problem. The problem it reflects is the relative importance of preventive and curative services for medical practitioners, which is already, or will shortly resolve itself into, a dilemma of whether medical men should stress preventive medicine to the possible detriment of curative medicine. It is submitted that the solution to both problem and dilemma should be sought against the background of history and philosophy, where they are seen to be expressions of an eternal paradox--that of the relative value of the individual in relation to the family, group, or community. If the submission is valid, then the answer to the problem is not a purely medical exercise, nor is the dilemma purely a 'doctor's dilemma'. The paradox, being eternal, is not soluble in our time, but the community must, on the urging of the medical profession, find a general solution to the problem--'a public consensus for out time'. This must be followed by public demand for a parliamentary solution--'decision-making ex consensus'. It is argued that although the latter programme does not come easily to democracy, it can be achieved through public consensus if action is taken by the leaders of thought in appropriate categories. Initiative must be exercised by the medical profession, but public consensus can only be achieved in consultation with the leaders of all learned professions, civil servants and legislators. It must then be presented fairly and without bias to the public. In the meantime, the medical profession must formulate its own 'medical consensus' and the doctor must resolve his personal dilemma according to formulated law, public or medical consensus or, in the last resort, according to his conviction and conscience. This method of solving a problem will almost certainly be applicable to other and more recent medical problems such as the population explosion, selective abortion and euthanasia.

  18. Measuring value sensitivity in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ineichen, Christian; Christen, Markus; Tanner, Carmen

    2017-01-28

    Value sensitivity - the ability to recognize value-related issues when they arise in practice - is an indispensable competence for medical practitioners to enter decision-making processes related to ethical questions. However, the psychological competence of value sensitivity is seldom an explicit subject in the training of medical professionals. In this contribution, we outline the traditional concept of moral sensitivity in medicine and its revised form conceptualized as value sensitivity and we propose an instrument that measures value sensitivity. We developed an instrument for assessing the sensitivity for three value groups (moral-related values, values related to the principles of biomedical ethics, strategy-related values) in a four step procedure: 1) value identification (n = 317); 2) value representation (n = 317); 3) vignette construction and quality evaluation (n = 37); and 4) instrument validation by comparing nursing professionals with hospital managers (n = 48). We find that nursing professionals recognize and ascribe importance to principle-related issues more than professionals from hospital management. The latter are more likely to recognize and ascribe importance to strategy-related issues. These hypothesis-driven results demonstrate the discriminatory power of our newly developed instrument, which makes it useful not only for health care professionals in practice but for students and people working in the clinical context as well.

  19. Consensus on core competencies for preventive medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, D S; Ross, V

    1994-01-01

    Of the currently available literature on assessment of physician competency, very little applies to the needs of preventive medicine specialists. Yet the diversity of the field and the confusion among other medical specialists about the particular expertise of preventive medicine physicians suggest a need for consensus on fundamental competencies expected of graduates of preventive medicine residency training programs. We apply theoretical material on competency-based education from teacher training and instructional development to professional training in preventive medicine. We describe the process by which the Graduate Medical Education Subcommittee of the American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM), a working group of specialists, derived and refined core competencies in working sessions at professional meetings. The drafts produced at these sessions were circulated widely to residency directors and other individuals and groups in preventive medicine before being approved by the ACPM Board of Regents and included in the Residency Training Manual distributed by ACPM. This article includes this list of core competencies for preventive medicine residents. In addition, the article describes assumptions about competency development that guided the process and identifies recurrent problems in competency development. This information may be helpful to readers who wish to develop additional competencies or to tailor these competencies for their own preventive medicine residency programs.

  20. [Research on Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease by Translational Medicine Based Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shi-chao; Zhang, Jun-ping

    2015-05-01

    Translational medicine is inevitable in the development of modern medicine, and the uprising concept of translational medicine provides an opportunity for the development of Chinese medicine (CM). Their ideas are well communicated. There are two patterns of researching on CM based on translational medicine: 'literature to bench to bedside' and 'bench to bedside to bench'. CM has her advantages in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. Effective methods for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease by CM should be further studied based on translational medicine concepts.

  1. Music and Medicine: Preventing Performance Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Carol Anne

    2001-01-01

    Describes medical conditions that musicians may contract. Addresses what experts believe may help avoid some conditions and what to do if injury is possible. Provides a bibliography of resources on performing arts medicine, including books and periodicals, and a list of associations for performing arts medicine. (CMK)

  2. Application of preventive medicine resources in the health insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karla Regina Dias de; Liberal, Márcia Mello Costa de; Zucchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    To identify the financial resources and investments provided for preventive medicine programs by health insurance companies of all kinds. Data were collected from 30 large health insurance companies, with over 100 thousand individuals recorded, and registered at the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar. It was possible to identify the percentage of participants of the programs in relation to the total number of beneficiaries of the health insurance companies, the prevention and promotion actions held in preventive medicine programs, the inclusion criteria for the programs, as well as the evaluation of human resources and organizational structure of the preventive medicine programs. Most of the respondents (46.7%) invested more than US$ 50,000.00 in preventive medicine program, while 26.7% invested more than US$ 500,000.00. The remaining, about 20%, invested less than US$ 50,000.00, and 3.3% did not report the value applied.

  3. Review of Marine Corps Expeditionary Force Preventive Medicine Materiel Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edwards, Nathan; Galarneau, Michael; Konoske, Paula

    2003-01-01

    A review of the preventive medicine (PM) Authorized Medical Allowance Lists (AMALs) 637/638 was conducted by the Naval Health Research Center and held at Medical Logistics Company, Camp Pendleton, 2002...

  4. Lifestyle medicine curriculum for a preventive medicine residency program: implementation and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Petraro, Paul V.; Via, Christina; Ullah, Saif; Lim, Lionel; Wild, Dorothea; Kennedy, Mary; Phillips, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the healthcare problems burdening our society today are caused by disease-promoting lifestyles (e.g., physical inactivity and unhealthy eating). Physicians report poor training and lack of confidence in counseling patients on lifestyle changes. Objective To evaluate a new curriculum and rotation in lifestyle medicine for preventive medicine residents. Methods Training included didactics (six sessions/year), distance learning, educational conferences, and newly developed lifestyle medicine rotations at the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, and the Integrative Medicine Center. We used a number of tools to assess residents’ progress including Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), self-assessments, and logs of personal health habits. Results A total of 20 residents participated in the lifestyle medicine training between 2010 and 2013. There was a 15% increase in residents’ discussions of lifestyle issues with their patients based on their baseline and follow-up surveys. The performance of preventive medicine residents on OSCEs increased each year they were in the program (average OSCE score: PGY1 73%, PGY2 83%, PGY3 87%, and PGY4 91%, p=0.01). Our internal medicine and preliminary residents served as a control, since they did participate in didactics but not in lifestyle medicine rotations. Internal medicine and preliminary residents who completed the same OSCEs had a slightly lower average score (76%) compared with plural for resident, preventive medicine residents (80%). However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.11). Conclusion Incorporating the lifestyle medicine curriculum is feasible for preventive medicine training allowing residents to improve their health behavior change discussions with patients as well as their own personal health habits. PMID:27507540

  5. Effectiveness of preventive medicine education and its determinants among medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil, Shirin; Zawahir, Mohamed Shukry; Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Preventive medicine has been incorporated in the medical school curriculum, but its effectiveness and the factors that affect it are yet to be widely looked into in the context of Malaysia. We aimed to measure the familiarity with, perception about the importance to learn, and the ability to practice preventive medicine as well as its determinants among the medical students in Malaysia. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted through an anonymous online survey among 387 randomly selected final year medical students of four large public medical schools in Malaysia from March to September 2014. Of the total sample, 340 (response rate 87.8%) gave a written informed consent and took part in the survey. The familiarity of the sample with preventive medicine was measured in 19 preventive medicine areas, and their perception about the importance of preventive medicine and their ability to practice it were gauged on a Likert scale (low score indicates disagreement and high indicates agreement). Descriptive statistical analysis was performed, followed by logistic regression. The mean age of the respondents was 23.7 (SD 0.77) years, and 61.2% (n = 208) of them were females. Results showed that 22.9% of the sample (n = 78) had a low familiarity with preventive medicine, whereas 76.8% (n = 261) had a high familiarity. The study sample specified that among all the preventive medicine subjects, screening and control as well as smoking cessation and immunization are "extremely important to learn." In univariable analysis, being a female, medical school, family size, and perception about the importance to learn preventive medicine were associated with the ability to practice it. In multivariable analysis, the perception towards the importance to learn preventive medicine was the only significant determinant: aOR (adjusted odds ratio) for those who "agreed" 17.28 (95% CI aOR 4.44-67.26, P < 0.001) and for "strongly agreed" 35.87 (95% CI aOR 8.04-159.87, P < 0.001). Considering

  6. Prevention of perinatal loss: towards personalized medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Medvedev M.V.; Davydova Iu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The literature review on the prevention of preterm labor is carried out. Preterm labor is the actual problem of modern obstetrics due to the impact on maternal and child health. It is affects the level of perinatal morbidity, disability and infant mortality. Preterm labor occupies a dominant position in the structure of perinatal losses. Introduction of the prophylactic modern technologies of the preterm labor using micronized progesterone containing preparations allows clearly reduce their f...

  7. Prevention of perinatal loss: towards personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedev M.V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The literature review on the prevention of preterm labor is carried out. Preterm labor is the actual problem of modern obstetrics due to the impact on maternal and child health. It is affects the level of perinatal morbidity, disability and infant mortality. Preterm labor occupies a dominant position in the structure of perinatal losses. Introduction of the prophylactic modern technologies of the preterm labor using micronized progesterone containing preparations allows clearly reduce their frequency in a number of clinics that use the destination progesterone protocol for ultrasound cervical length less than 25 mm, as well as in women with preterm labor in history.

  8. Nuclear medicine environmental discharge measurement. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Prichard, H.M.; Davis, E.M.; Pirtle, O.L.; DiPietro, W.

    1975-06-01

    The discharge of most man-made radioactive materials to the environment is controlled by Federal, State or local regulatory agencies. Exceptions to this control include the radioactive wastes eliminated by individuals who have undergone diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. The purpose of this study is to estimate the amount of radioactivity released to the environment via the nuclear medicine pathway for a single sewage drainage basin and to measure the amounts discharged to the environment. The report is organized into a review of previous studies, scope of work, facility data, environmental measurements and estimates of population exposure

  9. Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Liere, Annette; Ritzen, Henk; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia

    2011-01-01

    Van Liere, A., Ritzen, H., & Brand-Gruwel, S. (2011, August). Development of Preventive Measures to Prevent School Absenteeism in Twente. Paper presented at 14th Biennial Conference for Research on Learning and Instruction of EARLI, Exeter, England.

  10. Nutritional interventions for Alzheimer's prevention: a clinical precision medicine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelke, Matthew W; Hackett, Katherine; Chen, Jaclyn L; Shih, Chiashin; Shum, Jessica; Montgomery, Mary E; Chiang, Gloria C; Berkowitz, Cara; Seifan, Alon; Krikorian, Robert; Isaacson, Richard Scott

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality, with the disease burden expected to rise as the population ages. No disease-modifying agent is currently available, but recent research suggests that nutritional and lifestyle modifications can delay or prevent the onset of AD. However, preventive nutritional interventions are not universally applicable and depend on the clinical profile of the individual patient. This article reviews existing nutritional modalities for AD prevention that act through improvement of insulin resistance, correction of dyslipidemia, and reduction of oxidative stress, and discusses how they may be modified on the basis of individual biomarkers, genetics, and behavior. In addition, we report preliminary results of clinical application of these personalized interventions at the first AD prevention clinic in the United States. The use of these personalized interventions represents an important application of precision medicine techniques for the prevention of AD that can be adopted by clinicians across disciplines. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  11. Integrative medicine outcomes: what should we measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer; Corcoran, Katherine; Leeder, Stephen; Phelps, Kerryn

    2013-02-01

    The outcomes of Integrative medicine (IM) that combine biomedicine with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) are broad, reflecting the integration. IM is concerned with acute and chronic diseases, holistic approaches, and health promotion and wellness. Before commencing a research program in a primary care IM clinic, stakeholders were interviewed about IM outcomes. Everyone thought Physical Health and Mental Health were important. Those with a more holistic view of health thought a broader range of topics should be measured. Less important topics were lifestyle; health-related aspects of life satisfaction and quality of life; and healthcare evaluation. However, no one thought these should be excluded. Spirituality was the most contentious. Some commended its inclusion. For others, once religiousness and God were removed, the remaining elements should be relocated to the domains of mental health and life satisfaction. The results highlight the importance of consulting stakeholders before measuring outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The IOC Centres of Excellence bring prevention to sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Bahr, Roald; Cook, Jill L; Derman, Wayne; Emery, Carolyn A; Finch, Caroline F; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Schwellnus, Martin; Steffen, Kathrin

    2014-09-01

    The protection of an athlete's health and preventing injuries and illnesses in sport are top priorities for the IOC and its Medical Commission. The IOC therefore partners with selected research centres around the world and supports research in the field of sports medicine. This has enabled the IOC to develop an international network of expert scientists and clinicians in sports injury and disease prevention research. The IOC wants to promote injury and disease prevention and the improvement of physical health of the athlete by: (1) establishing long-term research programmes on injury and disease prevention (including studies on basic epidemiology, risk factors, injury mechanisms and intervention), (2) fostering collaborative relationships with individuals, institutions and organisations to improve athletes' health, (3) implementing and collaborating with applied, ongoing and novel research and development within the framework and long-term strategy of the IOC and (4) setting up knowledge translation mechanisms to share scientific research results with the field throughout the Olympic Movement and sports community and converting these results into concrete actions to protect the health of the athletes. In 2009, the IOC also identified four research centres that had an established track record in research, educational and clinical activities to achieve these ambitions: (1) the Australian Centre for Research into Injury in Sport and its Prevention (ACRISP), Australia; (2) the Sport Injury Prevention Research Centre (SIPRC), Canada; (3) the Clinical Sport and Exercise Medicine Research (CSEM), South Africa and (4) the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center (OSTRC), Norway. This paper highlights the work carried out by these four IOC Centres of Excellence over the past 6 years and their contribution to the world of sports medicine. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc.

  14. Internal Medicine Hospitalists' Perceived Barriers and Recommendations for Optimizing Secondary Prevention of Osteoporotic Hip Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Keong; Loh, Kah Poh; Goff, Sarah L

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health concern affecting an estimated 10 million people in the United States. To the best of our knowledge, no qualitative study has explored barriers perceived by medicine hospitalists to secondary prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures. We aimed to describe these perceived barriers and recommendations regarding how to optimize secondary prevention of osteoporotic hip fracture. In-depth, semistructured interviews were performed with 15 internal medicine hospitalists in a tertiary-care referral medical center. The interviews were analyzed with directed content analysis. Internal medicine hospitalists consider secondary osteoporotic hip fracture prevention as the responsibility of outpatient physicians. Identified barriers were stratified based on themes including physicians' perception, patients' characteristics, risks and benefits of osteoporosis treatment, healthcare delivery system, and patient care transition from the inpatient to the outpatient setting. Some of the recommendations include building an integrated system that involves a multidisciplinary team such as the fracture liaison service, initiating a change to the hospital policy to facilitate inpatient care and management of osteoporosis, and creating a smooth patient care transition to the outpatient setting. Our study highlighted how internal medicine hospitalists perceive their role in the secondary prevention of osteoporotic hip fractures and what they perceive as barriers to initiating preventive measures in the hospital. Inconsistency in patient care transition and the fragmented nature of the existing healthcare system were identified as major barriers. A fracture liaison service could remove some of these barriers.

  15. Prevention practices of family medicine clerkship preceptors in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slatt, L M; Frasier, P Y; Strayhorn, G; Kowlowitz, V

    2001-07-01

    Before implementing a new prevention curriculum, the authors assessed the prevention practices and attitudes of community family physicians in North Carolina who precepted third-year family medicine clerkship students. An 18-item questionnaire was mailed to 165 preceptors during the 1995-96 academic year. The questionnaire explored the preceptors' levels of preparation to counsel patients, the types of prevention services they offered, and their levels of success in modifying patients' behaviors. The survey was re-sent to non-respondents. The response rate was 70% (n = 112); of these 75% were men and 55% had graduated after 1987. Over 60% of the preceptors "almost always" offered services in smoking cessation, exercise, diet and nutrition, and age-specific services (range 62-86%). Over 50% felt "very prepared" to counsel patients regarding smoking cessation, sexually transmitted diseases, depression, exercise, alcohol use, and age-specific services (range 53-74%). However, the preceptors in this study felt pessimistic about their success in getting patients to change their behaviors. Preceptors who had graduated more recently offered more preventive services for smoking cessation, alcohol use, and illicit drugs than did earlier graduates. Although North Carolina preceptors were pessimistic about their success in changing patients' behaviors regarding prevention, they were confident about their knowledge and skills to provide these services. This information was used to modify a prevention curriculum for third-year medical students.

  16. A comparative study on cancer prevention principles between Iranian traditional medicine and classic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Zeinalian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the three main causes of mortality in most human communities whose prevalence is being increased. A significant part of health budget in all countries has been allocated to treat the cancer, which is incurable in many cases. It has led the global health attitude to cancer prevention. Many cancer-related risk factors have been identified for which preventive recommendations have been offered by international organizations such as World Health Organization. Some of the most important of these risk factors are smoking and alcohol consumption, hypercaloric and low-fiber diet, obesity, inactivity, environmental and industrial pollution, some viral infections, and hereditary factors. Exact reviewing of Iranian-Islamic traditional medicine (IITM resources determines that preventive rules, which named as six essential rules (Sitteh-e-Zarurieah are abundantly found, including all identified cancer-related risk factors. These preventive rules are: Air (Hava, body movement and repose, sleep and wakefulness, food and drink, evacuation and retention, and mental movement and repose (A′raz-e-Nafsani. The associated risk factors in classic medicine are: Smoking and air pollution, sedentary life, sleep disturbance, improper nutrition and alcohol, chronic constipation, and psychoneurotic stresses. Moreover, these rules are comprehensive enough to include many of the other harmful health-related factors whose roles have been confirmed in the occurrence of different diseases, except cancer. Apparently, cancer prevention in Iran would be more successful if the sextet necessary rules of IITM are promoted among the populations and health policy makers.

  17. [Measure in Arabic and Middle Age medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, L R

    1995-01-01

    During the XIVth century to the qualitative knowledge is superimposed the concept of the importance of a quantitative evaluation of natural phenomena. The Arabic works on science, first translated in Latin by Adelard of Bath, and the recovery of classical culture into Western Europe are discussed by Grosseteste, R. Bacon and Ockham with a separation of religious truth from the scientific findings; Jean Buridan (Paris) applied this meaning to physics and Simone di Castello (Bologna) considered the necessity of the measure of elements, qualities and humours to explain and correct health and disease. So, the logica nova was acquired also by medicine, as demonstrated by the works of Anthony Ricart and by the direct quantitation made by Santorio Santorio (early XVIIth c.), who constructed appropriate instruments for measurement of medical parameters.

  18. Ethical considerations in clinical research on herbal medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in the ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonrungsesomboon, Nut; Karbwang, Juntra

    2016-10-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the ageing is a major public health problem worldwide. The nature of most CVD is subclinical with pathological processes that can span over years. Use of preventive measures could be an appropriate approach to prevailing over CVD in the ageing, and herbal medicine is one of the promising preventive approaches and is currently of interest among medical societies. In the evidence-based era, herbal medicine is, however, often underestimated and approached with skepticism, mainly due to the paucity of scientific evidence. Properly designed clinical trials on herbal medicine for prevention of CVD in a geriatric population are thus of importance and of clinical value. To review ethical issues and discuss considerations when such research is proposed. Four ethical issues, including the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent, are structured and extensively discussed in this article. Ethical core considerations of prevention research of CVD on herbal medicine involve particular attention on the scientific validity of research, risk-benefit assessments, subject selection and vulnerability, and informed consent. These issues and considerations are keys, although they must be adapted to an individual research setting in which a clinical study is proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative effectiveness of malaria preventive measures on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The burden of malaria and its associated problems in pregnancy can be reduced by the use of different malaria preventive measures. This study was conducted to determine the comparative effectiveness of three different malaria preventive measures on populations of parturient in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria.

  20. Preventive medicine oversight of splash pads on military installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardcastle, Lisa Raysby; Perry, Matthew; Browne, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, an increasing number of military installations have installed splash pads that provide fun, recreational water entertainment for Soldiers and their families. The addition of splash pads brings added responsibilities for medical treatment facility preventive medicine oversight and installation facilities maintenance to ensure a safe and healthy environment. Currently, there are no consistent standards or detailed guidance for military installations to follow when installing and maintaining splash pads. The central issues associated with splash pads on military installations are water quality and risk for waterborne illnesses, responsibility for safety and health oversight, and federal energy and water sustainability mandates. This article examines the importance of implementing a standard for design and oversight to ensure the health and safety of Soldiers and their families.

  1. Fundamentals of risk/benefit analysis in radiation uses in preventive medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stieve, F.E.

    1977-01-01

    The term 'risk' stems from the insurance branch. It serves to estimate the probability of making statements about future events on the basis of events which have taken place. Risk estimations are increasingly being made in medicine, especially for determining the advantages and dangers brought to the population by preventive measures. The international radiation protection commission has, for some time, been expressing the dangers of ionising radiation in terms of risk and using these terms as basis for the dose limit values it determined for the professional and general population. This paper deals with possibilities of determining risks in preventive medicine. For doing this, acceptable risk values must be determined and risks resulting from diseases, esp. from those which were not recognized in time, must be compared with those resulting from the application of ionising radiation. (orig.) [de

  2. Quality Measures in Orthopaedic Sports Medicine: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Geoffrey D; Greenberg, Daniel R; Dragoo, Jason L; Safran, Marc R; Kamal, Robin N

    2017-10-01

    To report the current quality measures that are applicable to orthopaedic sports medicine physicians. Six databases were searched with a customized search term to identify quality measures relevant to orthopaedic sports medicine surgeons: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the National Quality Forum (NQF) Quality Positioning System (QPS), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) National Quality Measures Clearinghouse (NQMC), the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS) database, and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) website. Results were screened by 2 Board-certified orthopaedic surgeons with fellowship training in sports medicine and dichotomized based on sports medicine-specific or general orthopaedic (nonarthroplasty) categories. Hip and knee arthroplasty measures were excluded. Included quality measures were further categorized based on Donabedian's domains and the Center for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS) National Quality Strategy priorities. A total of 1,292 quality measures were screened and 66 unique quality measures were included. A total of 47 were sports medicine-specific and 19 related to the general practice of orthopaedics for a fellowship-trained sports medicine specialist. Nineteen (29%) quality measures were collected within PQRS, with 5 of them relating to sports medicine and 14 relating to general orthopaedics. AAOS Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) comprised 40 (60%) of the included measures and were all within sports medicine. Five (8%) additional measures were collected within AHRQ and 2 (3%) within NQF. Most quality measures consist of process rather than outcome or structural measures. No measures addressing concussions were identified. There are many existing quality measures relating to the practice of orthopaedic sports medicine. Most quality measures are process measures described within PQRS or AAOS CPGs. Knowledge of quality measures are important as they may be used to improve care, are increasingly being used to

  3. Past and present of measuring apparatus for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    The history of advancement of measuring apparatus for nuclear medicine is looked back. It is presented that Japanese contribution to these advancement has been in no small quantities. The future view carrying the measuring apparatus for nuclear medicine is also described. (M.H.)

  4. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  5. Validation of an instrument to measure patients' experiences of medicine use: the Living with Medicines Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krska, Janet; Katusiime, Barbra; Corlett, Sarah A

    2017-01-01

    Medicine-related burden is an increasingly recognized concept, stemming from the rising tide of polypharmacy, which may impact on patient behaviors, including nonadherence. No instruments currently exist which specifically measure medicine-related burden. The Living with Medicines Questionnaire (LMQ) was developed for this purpose. This study validated the LMQ in a sample of adults using regular prescription medicines in the UK. Questionnaires were distributed in community pharmacies and public places in southeast England or online through UK health websites and social media. A total of 1,177 were returned: 507 (43.1%) from pharmacy distribution and 670 (56.9%) online. Construct validity was assessed by principal components analysis and item reduction undertaken on the original 60-item pool. Known-groups analysis assessed differences in mean total scores between participants using different numbers of medicines and between those who did or did not require assistance with medicine use. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Free-text comments were analyzed thematically to substantiate underlying dimensions. A 42-item, eight-factor structure comprising intercorrelated dimensions (patient-doctor relationships and communication about medicines, patient-pharmacist communication about medicines, interferences with daily life, practical difficulties, effectiveness, acceptance of medicine use, autonomy/control over medicines and concerns about medicine use) was derived, which explained 57.4% of the total variation. Six of the eight subscales had acceptable internal consistency (α>0.7). More positive experiences were observed among patients using eight or fewer medicines compared to nine or more, and those independent with managing/using their medicines versus those requiring assistance. Free-text comments, provided by almost a third of the respondents, supported the domains identified. The resultant LMQ-2 is a valid and reliable multidimensional measure of

  6. Preventive medicines: vaccination, prophylaxis of infectious diseases, disinfectants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heininger, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Immunizations belong to the most successful interventions in medicine. Like other drugs, vaccines undergo long periods of pre-clinical development, followed by careful clinical testing through study Phases I, II, and III before they receive licensure. A successful candidate vaccine will move on to be an investigational vaccine to undergo three phases of pre-licensure clinical trials in a stepwise fashion before it can be considered for approval, followed by an optional fourth phase of post-marketing assessment. The overall risk-benefit assessment of a candidate vaccine is very critical in making the licensure decision for regulatory authorities, supported by their scientific committees. It includes analyses of immunogenicity, efficacy, reactogenicity or tolerability, and safety of the vaccine. Public trust in vaccines is a key to the success of immunization programs worldwide. Maintaining this trust requires knowledge of the benefits and scientific understanding of real or perceived risks of immunizations. Under certain circumstances, pre- or post-exposure passive immunization can be achieved by administration of immunoglobulines. In terms of prevention of infectious diseases, disinfection can be applied to reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens from patient to patient, health-care workers to patients, patients to health-care workers, and objects or medical devices to patients.

  7. Danish preventive measures and deradicalization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The Danish anti- and de-radicalization strategy involves three interwoven elements: (a) an early prevention and exit programme, (b) prosecution of radicalized persons who have committed violent crimes (in Denmark or in a foreign country), including measures such as confiscation of passport, and (c...

  8. Family Medicine in a Consumer Age — Part 4: Preventive Medicine, Professional Satisfaction, and the Rise of Consumerism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Morton M.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to find out if the physician perceives the same strengths and weaknesses in today's practice of family medicine as does the consumer, the Lay Advisory Committee of the College's B.C. Chapter initiated a survey of physicians' and consumers' attitudes. This article, the fourth and last in a series, presents some of the results of the survey as they relate to preventive-medicine, professional satisfaction and the rise of consumerism.

  9. Practical measurement of affordability: An application to medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A. Cameron (ALexandra); M. Ewen (Margaret); R. Laing (Richard); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. __Methods:__ The proposed methods - catastrophic and impoverishment methods - rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a

  10. Evaluation of Digital Shadow Economy Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remeikiene Rita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Although during the past few years the scopes of shadow economy in Lithuania have slightly decreased, different forms of this phenomenon, in particular digital shadow activities, still generate a significant part of the overall value added. As no constant estimations of the scope of digital shadow economy have been made in Lithuania, alleviation of this problem is based on consequence fighting rather than reason elimination. Digital shadow economy poses a significant challenge for law enforcement agencies concerning its investigation and prevention. Hence, it is purposeful to research both theoretical and practical aspects of digital shadow economy prevention in order to identify the measures that could be used for the efficient reduction of the scope of this phenomenon. The aim of this research is to identify the measures of digital shadow economy prevention and compare the attitudes of governmental institutions and consumers towards the efficiency of these measures. The results of the empirical research showed that both consumers and experts agree that the level of tax morale has to be raised not only by using the measures of self-education but also by introducing long-term educational programmes; second, public authorities should ensure business friendly environment, actively implement the principles of justice and officially acknowledge and announce the concept of digital shadow economy; finally, for more efficient detection of the cases of digital shadow activities, it is necessary to reinforce current labour resources that should be specially trained to be able to disclose revenue hiding and tax evasion schemes, employed in e-trade.

  11. Salt and its Role in Health and Disease Prevention from the Perspectives of Iranian Medicine and Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Masoud; Vahid, Hamide

    2016-05-01

    Salt in Iranian medical sources is mentioned as Malh and has a special place in people's nutrition. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of correct use of salt on health and disease prevention in the context of Iranian medicine and its comparison with modern medicine. This article reviews Iranian medicine references on the usage of salt and its benefits. Additionally, modern medicine references were searched to identify the dos and don'ts of salt consumption. Then the results from both approaches were compared and analyzed. The main application salt in Iranian medical resources includes usage in latif supplier, solvent, dryer, laxative of phlegm and melancholy, slimy moisture body repellent, opening obstruction of liver and spleen, aid in digestion, beneficial for seeds and corruption of foods, appetizing, cold foods reformer and improving the flavor of foods. On the other hand, the major benefits of salt according to modern medicine resources are; aiding the balance of electrolytes and fluids, carry nutrients into cells, regulation of acid-base balance, support transfer of nerve impulses, regulate blood pressure, and secretion of gastric acid. According to the Iranian medicine, the amount and type of salt to maintain health and prevent diseases is determined based on factors such as temperament, age, health and disease, season, and location. While a unique approach is not prescribed for every individual, in modern medicine resources, a fixed set of guidelines is recommended for all healthy individuals. Consequently, the modern medicine pays less attention to physiological, structural, and genetic issues. Considering the importance of salt and its undeniable impact on human health, it is apparent that additional research is required to determine factors affecting the actual amount of salt per person.

  12. Managed care, consumerism, preventive medicine: does a causal connection exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, John A; Xie, Yang

    2006-07-01

    Managed care plans, and HMOs in particular, have long touted that their emphasis is on preventive care, to avoid expensive illness later in life. However, few articles in the contemporary literature adequately address this claim. The available evidence seems to support that HMOs do, in fact, provide greater access to preventive services, but the limitations of this research are substantial. This article discusses the scientific evidence on the relationships between managed care arrangements and the implications for preventive care in the current era, emphasizing consumer choices and less-restrictive plan structures.

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine and new concepts of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine in diagnosis and treatment of suboptimal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Russell, Alyce; Yan, Yuxiang

    2014-02-13

    The premise of disease-related phenotypes is the definition of the counterpart normality in medical sciences. Contrary to clinical practices that can be carefully planned according to clinical needs, heterogeneity and uncontrollability is the essence of humans in carrying out health studies. Full characterization of consistent phenotypes that define the general population is the basis to individual difference normalization in personalized medicine. Self-claimed normal status may not represent health because asymptomatic subjects may carry chronic diseases at their early stage, such as cancer, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. Currently, treatments for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) are implemented after disease onset, which is a very much delayed approach from the perspective of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM). A NCD pandemic will develop and be accompanied by increased global economic burden for healthcare systems throughout both developed and developing countries. This paper examples the characterization of the suboptimal health status (SHS) which represents a new PPPM challenge in a population with ambiguous health complaints such as general weakness, unexplained medical syndrome (UMS), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), post-viral fatigue syndrome (PVFS) and chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS). We applied clinical informatic approaches and developed a questionnaire-suboptimal health status questionnaire-25 (SHSQ-25) for measuring SHS. The validity and reliability of this approach were evaluated in a small pilot study and then in a cross-sectional study of 3,405 participants in China. We found a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol among men, and a correlation between SHS and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglycerides

  14. Ambient dose measurement and personal dosimetry in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, W.

    1992-01-01

    The dose measurements reported were performed with TLD dosemeters consisting of two glass tubes filled with CaSO 4 :TM powder. The measurements were done around a positron emission tomograph, in a nuclear medicine outpatient department, and in a hospital (therapy with unsealed radioactive substances). The personal doses measured during the campaign reported did not exceed the range of radiation doses and its fluctuations due to natural radiation exposure of the population. (DG) [de

  15. [Prevention in general practice between evidence- and narrative-based medicine: squaring the circle?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    In the German healthcare system, general practitioners (GPs) play an important role with regard to individualised prevention, as they are often the first contact for patients seeking advice. Additionally, there is a great need for preventive counselling from the patient's perspective. However, there is no clear evidence for the effectiveness of the prevention programmes established in Germany. Future prevention models need to be developed according to evidence-based criteria. Narrative-based medicine is seen as a promising complementary approach to strengthen individualised prevention in primary care. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. A bibliometric analysis in the fields of preventive medicine, occupational and environmental medicine, epidemiology, and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b the population size of each region. Results A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, at a level similar to other scientific disciplines, while USA contribution to science in the field of Public Health is by all means outstanding. Less developed regions would need to support their researchers in the above fields in order to improve scientific production and advancement of knowledge in their countries.

  17. First Consensus on Primary Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Marina; Anand, Chytra V; Besins, Thierry; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Gout, Uliana; Kerscher, Martina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Braz, Andre

    2017-09-01

    Facial aging is a complex interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic factors leading to progressive changes in the skin, subcutaneous tissue, and bone. Clinical experience suggests that early aesthetic intervention may slow the signs of aging, but treatment in the absence of symptoms or with minimal signs of aging has not yet been properly addressed. To provide treatment recommendations for primary prevention and early intervention in individuals with no or minimal signs of aging. Fourteen specialists in aesthetic medicine convened over a full-day meeting under the guidance of a certified moderator. Tailored treatment recommendations have been provided for prevention and early intervention of fine wrinkles, static lines and folds, irregular pigmentation, laxity, and subcutaneous volume loss by protecting the epidermis, stimulating neocollagenesis, reducing hyperkinetic musculature, and reinforcing supporting structures. Preventive measures and early therapeutic interventions that may alter the course of facial aging were defined. Further studies are needed to support these recommendations with the best possible evidence. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):846-854..

  18. Health screening to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, M; Picavet, P; Ricci, R; Dequenne, M; Renard, M; Bongartz, A; Farnir, F

    2015-07-01

    To describe the results of a prevention campaign in terms of participation and pet health status and to identify opportunities to improve preventive medicine in cats and dogs. An awareness campaign was designed to highlight the role of veterinarians and emphasise the benefits of a veterinary visit. Owners were invited to make an appointment for a free pet health check in a voluntarily participating veterinary clinic. Observations recorded by the veterinarians were entered in a database and subsequently analysed using simple descriptive statistics. A total of 5305 completed health check forms were analysed. The percentages of overweight and obese dogs and cats were 34 and 36%, respectively; this was the most common finding, followed by dental calculus (31% in dogs, 21% in cats). In total 67% of cats did not undergo flea control and 59% were not vaccinated. Opportunities for increased quality of care are numerous given the high percentage of intact, unvaccinated or non-permanently identified pets and the low level of worm and flea control. Animal health should benefit from preventive measures, and improved management can be undertaken after early detection of diseases. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  19. Tea as a functional food in preventive medicine from traditional Persian medicine point of view (a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: In recent years, phytomedicine has a main role to support immune system and in preventive medicine to decrease cancer incidence. Traditional medicine has a basic role to introduce herbal drugs to investigate in preventive medicine. Camellia Sinensis has two popular preparations, green (unfermented and black (fully fermented tea that among societies is beside water to drink. Methods: In this narrative review study, tea preparation as herbal infusions from traditional Persian available and reliable references beside classic herbal drugs references were studied to show benefits and risks of tea consumption in health. Results: Tea consumption is famous as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective. In traditional Persian medicine point of view its temperament is hot and dry so it can protect brain and stomach. It is sudatory and diuretic and can also increase mood. It is better to drink sweet or with milk to reduce its dryness. Conclusion: Tea preparations have a main role as a protective functional food in the human’s lives.

  20. Dignitary medicine: adapting prehospital, preventive, tactical and travel medicine to new populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Roger A; Callaway, David W; Connor, Bradley A; Haughton, Brian P; Mechem, C Crawford

    2012-09-01

    Dignitary Protection Medicine (DPM) is a new area of medical expertise that incorporates elements of virtually all medical and surgical specialties, drawing heavily from travel, tactical and expedition medicine. The fundamentals of DPM stem from the experiences of White House, State Department and other physicians who have traveled extensively with dignitaries. Furthermore, increased international travel of business executives and political dignitaries has mandated a need for proficiency in this realm. We sought to define the requisite knowledge base and skill sets that form the foundation of this new area of specialization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. History of “health risk” and its place in the development of preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.Е. Shigan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main stages of the introduction and development of preventive medicine and the term HEALTH RISK are described. The “risk” definition is related to the works by Max Fasmer and Frank Knight. The development of preventive medicine was also influenced by the works of scientists and physicians of the ancient world and the Middle Ages. Particular attention is paid to the appearance, formation and development of the medical school of Salerno, and the impact of its work and the activities of scientists and teachers on further development of prevention and treatment. The relationship of these two concepts and their history is shown. The author dwells on the prevention development in Russia, paying particular attention to domestic researchers, especially after the victory of the Great October Revolution. Works by N.A. Semashko, Z.P. Soloviev, G.V. Khlopin, A.N. Sysin and F.G. Krotkov played a huge role in the development of preventive medicine in Russia and in the world. The article also represents the prevention medicine development facts in the post-war years – the creation of large schools of medicine, aimed at the prevention of diseases and epidemiological studies of the risk incurred. The article also pays attention to the foundation of International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, some areas of its work, especially in relation to research on the health risks. The itegration at mathematical modeling and forecasting with medicine in general and health in particular, as well as the study of the health concepts of risks at individual nosological examples are written.

  2. 21 CFR 118.4 - Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. 118.4 Section 118.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN....4 Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) prevention measures. You must follow the SE prevention measures set...

  3. Measurement of Quality to Improve Care in Sleep Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Aronsky, Amy J.; Carden, Kelly A.; Chervin, Ronald D.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Watson, Nathaniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) commissioned a Task Force to develop quality measures as part of its strategic plan to promote high quality patient-centered care. Among many potential dimensions of quality, the AASM requested Workgroups to develop outcome and process measures to aid in evaluating the quality of care of five common sleep disorders: restless legs syndrome, insomnia, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea in adults, and obstructive sleep apne...

  4. Dysphagia Rehabilitation and Prevention of Aspiration Pneumonia : The trial of Integrative Medicine -

    OpenAIRE

    植田, 耕一郎; Ueda, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    Dysphagia rehabilitation has made rapid progress for ten years. It has been come into wide use across fields of medical care, health and welfare. Contacting with rehabilitation medicine, it was thought that training was possible for a mouth obstacle. However we have come to the time to reflect about dysphagia rehabilitation. Chronic diseases are increasing in aging society. And integrative medicine is new possibility of dysphagia rehabilitation and prevention of aspiration pneumonia in the si...

  5. Prevention and Treatment of Flatulence From a Traditional Persian Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Esfahani, Mohammad Medhi; Moghimi, Maryam; Shams Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Hasani Ranjbar, Shirin; Mohammadi Kenari, Hoorieh; Zargaran, Arman

    2016-04-01

    The feeling of abdominal fullness, bloating, and movement of gas in the abdomen is a very uncomfortable sensation termed flatulence. Since flatulence is one of the most common gastrointestinal symptoms that is bothersome to patients, it is important to identify effective methods to resolve this issue. In modern medicine, management of flatulence is often not satisfactory. On the other hand, traditional systems of medicine can be considered good potential sources to find new approaches for preventing and treating flatulence. The aim of this study is to review flatulence treatments from a traditional Persian medicine (TPM) viewpoint. In this study, the reasons for flatulence and methods for its prevention and treatment are reviewed in traditional Persian medicine (TPM) texts and then related with evidence from modern medicine by searching in databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and IranMedex. From a traditional Persian scholar viewpoint, one of the most important causes of flatulence is an incorrect manner of eating; valuable advice to correct bad eating habits will be illustrated. In addition, traditional practitioners describe some herbs and vegetables as well as herbal compounds that are effective food additives to relieve flatulence. The anti-flatulent effect of most of these herbs has been experimentally verified using modern medicine. Attention to TPM can lead to the identification of new preventive and curative approaches to avoid and treat flatulence. In addition, Persian viewpoints from the medieval era regarding flatulence are historically important.

  6. Mustard Group Chemical War Agents from Preventive Medicine Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Ucar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although many preventive efforts and treaties, chemical warfare agents have still been a severe assault form against both military and civilian individuals. The most important chemical warfare agents sulphur mustard and others are easy to handle and cheap those the important reasons to accept sulphur mustard as a chemical warfare agent. Many individuals attacked by sulphur mustard have severe health problems such as respiratory system diseases. After ten years of sulphur mustard exposure, several health problems such as respiratory tract problems (%42.5, eye problems (%40 and other systemic diseases have been observed to insist on induviduals when examined. Exposure of even single sulphur mustard exposure has been seen to result high level of disability and early deaths. In spite of the fact that there is no available antidote and/or remedy against sulphur mustard exposure, our country has an incremental chemical assault threat for both military personels and civilians because of its jeopolitics position. Experimental studies regarding sulphur mustard toxicity will be helpful for novel preventive strategies and antidot devolepment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 209-214

  7. A Military Doctor Pioneer of the Preventive Medicine in Turkey: Colonel Dr. Huseyin Remzi Bey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogan Ceyhan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important turning points in Turkish History of Medicine is the transfer of Western / European medical knowledge to Ottoman medicine in 19th century. This knowledge is mostly transferred by government employed Ottoman citizens and aimed at improving the health status of the Ottoman State’s elites, troops and people. Most important contributions of transferring and popularizing the concepts of microbe and vaccination to Ottoman medicine, concerning both disease and preventive medicine, were made by a military doctor, “Colonel Dr. Huseyin Remzi Bey”. He served in a large spectrum of military and civilian health services from field medicine to professorship in higher educational institutes and made important contributions for education of modern medicine in Turkish language. He was a part of the Ottoman team visiting Pasteur to learn the rabies vaccine and given credit to be one of the first users of microbiological knowledge and applications in Ottoman Country. He also tried to disseminate the knowledge about health amongst people and wrote more than 50 manuscripts, most of them published as books or newspaper periodicals. He is a figure who made important contributions of the accumulation and distribution of modern medical knowledge, including preventive medicine, in Turkey. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(4.000: 347-350

  8. Use of generic and essential medicines for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Helena; Torre, Carla; Guerreiro, José Pedro; Azevedo, Ana; Costa, Suzete; Lunet, Nuno

    2017-06-29

    The successful control of cardiovascular diseases at the lowest possible cost requires the use of the most effective and affordable medicines. We aimed to describe the trends in the ambulatory use of medicines for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases [Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical classification system (ATC): C and B01A] in Portugal, between 2004 and 2012, and to estimate the potential for expenditure reduction through changes in patterns of use. We analysed sell-out data, expressed as defined daily doses (DDD) and pharmacy retail price (€), from a nationwide database. We estimated potential reduction in expenditures through the increase, up to 90% of the volume of DDD, in the use of generic and essential medicines; the latter were defined according to guidelines from Portugal and another European country. Overall consumption increased by approximately 50% from 2004 to 2012, reaching nearly 2400 million DDD, whereas expenditure decreased to 753 million € (-31.3% since 2006). Use of generics and essential medicines increased, representing 43.6 and 39.9% of DDD consumption in 2012, respectively. The 40 most used groups of medicines in 2012 accounted for just over 80% of overall consumption; among these, increase in use of generics and essential medicines would have contributed to a saving of 275 million €. Changes in patterns of consumption of medicines towards a more frequent use of generics, a preferential use of essential medicines and a more rational use of fixed-dose combinations may contribute to a more efficient use of health resources.

  9. Fleet equipment performance measure preventive maintenance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    The Texas Department of Transportation : (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and : off-road equipment. Consequently, fleet : maintenance procedures (specifically preventive : maintenance such as oil changes) represent a : significant cost to th...

  10. Measures of Knowledge and Attitude Toward Preventive Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Charlene A.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The development and validation of an inventory of preventive cardiology at the University of Virginia is described. The inventory contains two instruments designed to measure medical students' preinstructional and postinstructional knowledge of and attitude toward preventive cardiology. (Author/MLW)

  11. THE ROLE OF THE PREVENTIVE MEDICINE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. A STUDY CASE ON THE PRIVATE MEDICINE SECTOR IN ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unita Lucian

    2011-12-01

    intercultural preventative medical approaches, and the good governance, policy relevance, and corporate social responsibility, and were analyzed mainly referring to the potential of the Romanian private medicine sector in preventive medicine. The conclusions of the paper reveal the fact that the region of Oradea is much above the average index of Romania when it comes to preventive medicine, but still behind the other EU Member States. So, the background for meeting the precondition for economic growth and sustainable development in Oradea was created, but there are still a lots to be done on short term, even because of the features of this area, which situates it at the top of the cancer diseases registered cases in the country.

  12. Social network analysis. Review of general concepts and use in preventive veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, B; Perez, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2009-05-01

    Social network analysis (SNA) and graph theory have been used widely in sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology and medicine. Social network analysis and graph theory provide a conceptual framework to study contact patterns and to identify units of analysis that are frequently or intensely connected within the network. Social network analysis has been used in human epidemiology as a tool to explore the potential transmission of infectious agents such as HIV, tuberculosis, hepatitis B and syphilis. In preventive veterinary medicine, SNA is an approach that offers benefits for exploring the nature and extent of the contacts between animals or farms, which ultimately leads to a better understanding of the potential risk for disease spread in a susceptible population. Social network analysis, however, has been applied only recently in preventive veterinary medicine, therefore the characteristics of the technique and the potential benefits of its use remain unknown for an important section of the international veterinary medicine community. The objectives of this paper were to review the concepts and theoretical aspects underlying the use of SNA and graph theory, with particular emphasis on their application to the study of infectious diseases of animals. The paper includes a review of recent applications of SNA in preventive veterinary medicine and a discussion of the potential uses and limitations of this methodology for the study of animal diseases.

  13. The use of quality of life measures in oral medicine: a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Riordain, R Ni

    2010-07-01

    To explore the use of patient reported quality of life measures in oral medicine, to highlight the importance of use of these measures in oral medicine practice and to provide guidance for the selection of such measures in the future.

  14. [Recognizing prevention and treatment of burn sepsis with the concept of holistic integrative medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, J N

    2017-04-20

    Sepsis remains a major cause of death in severe burns. The effect of sepsis management is influenced by its complicated pathophysiologic changes. In order to improve the outcome of burn sepsis, the predisposing factor of sepsis after burn analyzed by advanced technology, the early prevention, antibiotics therapy, and combined treatment in severe burns with sepsis are discussed using the concept of holistic integrative medicine.

  15. Assessing the effectiveness of problem-based learning of preventive medicine education in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin

    2014-05-30

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.

  16. [The citation analysis of the publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2000-2005].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiang-zheng; Xue, Ai-hua; You, Su-ning; Liu, Qun; Zhou, Pei-zhen

    2008-06-01

    To carry out the citation analysis of publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine (CJPM) among the preventive medicine authors and analyze the impact of this magazine in preventive medicine domain. Using Chinese scientific periodical literature evaluation and statistical analysis system (V1.0), the citation status of all CJPM publications in 2000-2005 was analyzed, the analysis covered 21 columns, including the review, editorial and original article, the data were collected up to November, 2007. From 2000 to 2005, CJPM had more than 30 columns and carried 1196 articles and 92. 89% (1111/1196) articles were from 21 main columns. During 2003 to 2005, the impact factors of CJPM were 0. 897, 1.011 and 0. 891 respectively. Among 21 main columns, the citation frequency of six columns including original article, editorial, review, courses, discussion and case report were higher than 80%. In five columns (original article, editorial, report, review and academic trends), the average citation frequency of individual articles was more than 4 times. The citation frequency of 20 authors was higher than 20 times and these authors were from medical schools, teaching hospitals, centers of diseases control and the research institutes. The individual citation frequency of 17 articles was more than 20 times and the individual citation frequency of three articles was more than 50 times. 34.9% of the citations of the 2000-2005 CJPM articles were from the top 20 journals, and the self-citation rate was 4. 85%. The publications in Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine are most frequently cited, which indicated that those publications have high quality, this journal has a great effect in preventive medicine field of China.

  17. Predictive diagnostics and personalized medicine for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso Calogero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Progressive increase of mean age and life expectancy in both industrialized and emerging societies parallels an increment of chronic degenerative diseases (CDD such as cancer, cardiovascular, autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases among the elderly. CDD are of complex diagnosis, difficult to treat and absorbing an increasing proportion in the health care budgets worldwide. However, recent development in modern medicine especially in genetics, proteomics, and informatics is leading to the discovery of biomarkers associated with different CDD that can be used as indicator of disease’s risk in healthy subjects. Therefore, predictive medicine is merging and medical doctors may for the first time anticipate the deleterious effect of CDD and use markers to identify persons with high risk of developing a given CDD before the clinical manifestation of the diseases. This innovative approach may offer substantial advantages, since the promise of personalized medicine is to preserve individual health in people with high risk by starting early treatment or prevention protocols. The pathway is now open, however the road to an effective personalized medicine is still long, several (diagnostic predictive instruments for different CDD are under development, some ethical issues have to be solved. Operative proposals for the heath care systems are now needed to verify potential benefits of predictive medicine in the clinical practice. In fact, predictive diagnostics, personalized medicine and personalized therapy have the potential of changing classical approaches of modern medicine to CDD.

  18. “HealthOmeter”: An Aid in Advancing Preventive Medicine Media Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Trell

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjective wellbeing is an important issue on the preventive medicine and political agenda and for mutual communication, information, and interaction in society and its individuals “requires new tools for measuring phenomena previously believed unmeasurable, as well as conceptual frameworks for interpreting such measurements…considering both happiness and misery.” The task is difficult, however, due to the great span of parameters and variables of age and gender, settings, socioeconomic conditions, wellness and illness, activities and functions, roles and habits, thoughts and feelings, and experiences and expectations involved over the panorama. HealthOmeter is a clinically tested and validated instrument with design and capacity in distinct coherent chapters to meet the new measurement and interpretation demands both contentwise and operationwise. Over the range of subjective and objective health it enables, in a uniform normalized layout in quintile balance between positive and negative, an all-round self-assessment and counsel in multimedia, preferably computer/mobile app distribution including storage, collation, and follow-up in full integrity and secrecy on the individual and aggregated level.

  19. Gene–Environment Interactions in Preventive Medicine: Current Status and Expectations for the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Narimatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The progression of many common disorders involves a complex interplay of multiple factors, including numerous different genes and environmental factors. Gene–environmental cohort studies focus on the identification of risk factors that cannot be discovered by conventional epidemiological methodologies. Such epidemiological methodologies preclude precise predictions, because the exact risk factors can be revealed only after detailed analyses of the interactions among multiple factors, that is, between genes and environmental factors. To date, these cohort studies have reported some promising results. However, the findings do not yet have sufficient clinical significance for the development of precise, personalized preventive medicine. Especially, some promising preliminary studies have been conducted in terms of the prevention of obesity. Large-scale validation studies of those preliminary studies, using a prospective cohort design and long follow-ups, will produce useful and practical evidence for the development of preventive medicine in the future.

  20. Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 individuals, we show that very brief measures of young adults’ personalities predicted their midlife physical health across multiple domains (metabolic abnormalities, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, periodontal disease, and systemic inflammation). Individuals scoring low on the traits of Conscientiousness and Openness-to-Experience went on to develop poorer health even after accounting for preexisting differences in education, socioeconomic status, smoking, obesity, self-reported health, medical conditions, and family medical history. Moreover, personality ratings from peer informants who knew participants well, and from a nurse and receptionist who had just met participants for the first time, predicted health decline from young adulthood to midlife despite striking differences in level of acquaintance. Personality effect sizes were on par with other well-established health-risk factors such as socioeconomic status, smoking, and self-reported health. We discuss the potential utility of personality measurement to function as an inexpensive and accessible tool for healthcare professionals to personalize preventive medicine. Adding personality information to existing healthcare electronic infrastructures could also advance personality theory by generating opportunities to examine how personality processes influence doctor-patient communication, health service use, and patient outcomes. PMID:24588093

  1. Clinical preventive services in Guatemala: a cross-sectional survey of internal medicine physicians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan E Corral

    Full Text Available Guatemala is currently undergoing an epidemiologic transition. Preventive services are key to reducing the burden of non-communicable diseases, and smoking counseling and cessation are among the most cost-effective and wide-reaching strategies. Internal medicine physicians are fundamental to providing such services, and their knowledge is a cornerstone of non-communicable disease control.A national cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2011 to evaluate knowledge of clinical preventive services for non-communicable diseases. Interns, residents, and attending physicians of the internal medicine departments of all teaching hospitals in Guatemala completed a self-administered questionnaire. Participants' responses were contrasted with the Guatemalan Ministry of Health (MoH prevention guidelines and the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommendations. Analysis compared knowledge of recommendations within and between hospitals.In response to simulated patient scenarios, all services were recommended by more than half of physicians regardless of MoH or USPSTF recommendations. Prioritization was adequate according to the MoH guidelines but not including other potentially effective services (e.g. colorectal cancer and lipid disorder screenings. With the exception of colorectal and prostate cancer screening, less frequently recommended by interns, there was no difference in recommendation rates by level.Guatemalan internal medicine physicians' knowledge on preventive services recommendations for non-communicable diseases is limited, and prioritization did not reflect cost-effectiveness. Based on these data we recommend that preventive medicine training be strengthened and development of evidence-based guidelines for low-middle income countries be a priority.

  2. Bibliometric investigation on preventive medicine in North Korea: a coauthor and keyword network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the 2 preventive medicine journals in North Korea by using coauthor and keyword network analysis on the basis of medical informatics and bibliometrics. Used were the Journal of Chosun Medicine (JCM) and the Journal of Preventive Medicine (JPM) (from the first volume of 1997 to the fourth volume of 2006) as data. Extracted were 1734 coauthors from 1104 articles and 1567 coauthors from 1172 articles, respectively. Huge single components were extracted in the coauthor analysis, which indicated a tendency toward structuralization. However, the 2 journals differed in that JPM showed a relative tendency toward specialization, whereas JCM showed one toward generalization. Seventeen and 33 keywords were extracted from each journal in the keyword analysis; JCM mainly concerned pathological research, whereas JPM mainly concerned virus and basic medicine studies that were based on infection and immunity. In contrast to South Korea, North Korea has developed Juche medicine, which came from self-reliance ideology and gratuitous medical service. According to the present study, their ideology was embodied by the discovery of bacteria, study on immune system, and emphasis on pathology, on the basis of experimental epidemiology. However, insufficient research has been conducted thus far on population health and its related determinants.

  3. Role of Iranian Traditional Medicine in the Prevention of Respiratory Infectious Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroushzadeh, Sayed Mohammad Ali; Khiveh, Ali; Gerayelimalek, Valiollah

    2016-05-01

    In order to define appropriate plans for respiratory infectious diseases, in accordance with Iranian traditional medicine, one should cover the topic of "havae vabai". "Havae vabai" is related to the epidemics of respiratory infectious diseases. This study is a review of the role of Iranian traditional medicine in the prevention of respiratory infectious diseases .Resources of traditional medicine with the keyword "havae vabai" were reviewed in Noor digital library. The perspective of traditional medicine for the prevention of disease in "havae vabai" is based on self-recuperation and air modification. Items that are mentioned are; refine the surrounding air, move to a proper space, live in a house with no source of water like fountains and limited flow of air, air-drying, use air freshener, smell fruit sticks, use in-house plants, and place a cloth soaked with vinegar in front of the nose. For self-recuperation, reducing body moisture with proper foods and drugs or with vomiting, diarrhea, phlebotomy, wet-cupping, reduction in food and drink intake, avoiding sexual intercourse, bathing, heavy exercise, inactivity, overeating, hunger, thirst, milk, sweets, fish, fatty foods, fruits especially juicy fruits are recommended. The food that tends to have a sour taste, eating meat cooked with sour taste like vinegar is suggested. The use of the solutions offered in traditional medicine to control air is helpful as it can reduce epidemics, such as influenza; that yearly kills many patients with a heavy financial burden.

  4. [Introduction to the Preventive Medicine Program "Prevention 2006-2009" in the Institute of Cosmetology and Health Care in Bialystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is still a common habit in Poland. Nowadays, it is the way of coping with stress, it is used to become calm. It is also widely accepted by people from various backgrounds included medicine environment. Unfortunately, the number of young people--tobacco addicts is increasing. Survey proceeding in University implementing of the health promotion's program was to estimate the phenomenon of spreading smoking cigarettes among the students and accomplishing their knowledge and awareness about threats resulting from tobacco smoking. The study was performed among 501 students. They answered questions concerning smoking and knowledge about nicotine dependence. The research touched such questions as conviction about damage caused by smoking, the source of information, causes and effects of smoking, about environment whether they are, the interviewee's smoking preventive activities. Implanting health promotion's program is an interdisciplinary subject which glue together such sciences as medicine, psychology, sociology, social politics and many others.

  5. [Keywords network analysis of articles in the North Korean Journal of preventive medicine 1997-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Chung, Dongjun; Choi, Mankyu

    2008-11-01

    There are very few researches on North Korea's academic activities. Furthermore, it is doubtful that the available data are reliable. This study investigated research activities and knowledge structure in the field of Preventive Medicine in North Korea with a network analysis using co-authors and keywords. The data was composed of the North Korean Journal of preventive medicine ranged from Vol. 1 of 1997 to Vol. 4 of 2006. It was the matrix of 1,172 articles by 1,567 co-authors. We applied R procedure for keywords abstraction, and then sought for the outcome of network forms by spring-KK and shrinking network. To comprehend the whole networks explicitly demonstrated that the academic activities in North Korea's preventive medicine were predisposed to centralization as similar as South Korea's, but on the other aspect they were prone to one-off intermittent segmentation. The principal co-author networks were formulated around some outstanding medical universities seemingly in addition to possible intervention by major researchers. The knowledge structure of network was based on experimentation judging from keywords such as drug, immunity, virus detection, infection, bacteria, anti-inflammation, etc. Though North Korea is a socialist regime, there were network of academic activities, which were deemed the existence of inducive mechanism affordable for free research. Article keywords has laid greater emphasis on experiment-based bacterial detection, sustainable immune system and prevention of infection. The kind of trend was a consistent characteristic in preventive medicine of North Korea having close correlation with Koryo medical science.

  6. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  7. Knowledge and utilization of preventive measures in the control of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The burden of neonatal malaria remains a major public health problem in Nigeria receiving less attention. Knowledge and awareness of preventive measures of neonatal malaria is still very low. This study aimed at assessing the Knowledge and utilization of preventive measures in the control of neonatal ...

  8. Preventive Measures Adopted by Nigerian Farmers for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the adoption of environmental hazards preventive measures among cocoa farmers in Nigeria. It specifically identified and evaluated the preventive measures adopted by the farmers against environmental hazards associated with cocoa farming. A multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting ...

  9. A comprehensive fracture prevention strategy in older adults: the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society (EUGMS) statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, H; Masud, T; Dargent-Molina, P; Martin, F C; Rosendahl, E; van der Velde, N; Bousquet, J; Benetos, A; Cooper, C; Kanis, J A; Reginster, J Y; Rizzoli, R; Cortet, B; Barbagallo, M; Dreinhöfer, K E; Vellas, B; Maggi, S; Strandberg, T

    2016-08-01

    Prevention of fragility fractures in older people has become a public health priority, although the most appropriate and cost-effective strategy remains unclear. In the present statement, the Interest Group on Falls and Fracture Prevention of the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society, in collaboration with the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics for the European Region, the European Union of Medical Specialists, and the International Osteoporosis Foundation-European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, outlines its views on the main points in the current debate in relation to the primary and secondary prevention of falls, the diagnosis and treatment of bone fragility, and the place of combined falls and fracture liaison services for fracture prevention in older people.

  10. Impact of regionalized care on concordance of plan and preventable adverse events on general medicine services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Stephanie K; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Giannelli, Kyla; Roy, Christopher L; Boxer, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Dispersion of inpatient care teams across different medical units impedes effective team communication, potentially leading to adverse events (AEs). To regionalize 3 inpatient general medical teams to nursing units and examine the association with communication and preventable AEs. Pre-post cohort analysis. A 700-bed academic medical center. General medicine patients on any of the participating nursing units before and after implementation of regionalized care. Regionalizing 3 general medical physician teams to 3 corresponding nursing units. Concordance of patient care plan between nurse and intern, and adjusted odds of preventable AEs. Of the 414 included nurse and intern paired surveys, there were no significant differences pre- versus postregionalization in total mean concordance scores (0.65 vs 0.67, P = 0.26), but there was significant improvement in agreement on expected discharge date (0.56 vs 0.68, P = 0.003), knowledge of the other provider's name (0.56 vs 0.86,P communication and lead to patient safety improvements. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:620-627. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  11. Lifestyle precision medicine: the next generation in type 2 diabetes prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutie, Pascal M; Giordano, Giuseppe N; Franks, Paul W

    2017-09-22

    The driving force behind the current global type 2 diabetes epidemic is insulin resistance in overweight and obese individuals. Dietary factors, physical inactivity, and sedentary behaviors are the major modifiable risk factors for obesity. Nevertheless, many overweight/obese people do not develop diabetes and lifestyle interventions focused on weight loss and diabetes prevention are often ineffective. Traditionally, chronically elevated blood glucose concentrations have been the hallmark of diabetes; however, many individuals will either remain 'prediabetic' or regress to normoglycemia. Thus, there is a growing need for innovative strategies to tackle diabetes at scale. The emergence of biomarker technologies has allowed more targeted therapeutic strategies for diabetes prevention (precision medicine), though largely confined to pharmacotherapy. Unlike most drugs, lifestyle interventions often have systemic health-enhancing effects. Thus, the pursuance of lifestyle precision medicine in diabetes seems rational. Herein, we review the literature on lifestyle interventions and diabetes prevention, describing the biological systems that can be characterized at scale in human populations, linking them to lifestyle in diabetes, and consider some of the challenges impeding the clinical translation of lifestyle precision medicine.

  12. [Reducing inequality by improving preventing measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsecchi, M

    2014-01-01

    Terms of inequalities issue in health service are defined and the consolidated scientific acquisitions are recalled. Three prioritary areas of action are defined and described, that Prevention Departments are suggested to activate through focused programs in order to reduce specific inequalities. First area of action: includes three types of vital interventions: vaccinations, contrasting of tuberculosis infection and oncological screening that have to be granted to specific disadvantaged groups of population as Rom communities, immigrant women, prisoners e psychiatric patients. Second area of action: actions on focused urban planning aiming to improve conditions of social housing (with a special focus on thermal insulation, minimal distances to be kept towards streets of havy traffic), increase of increase of urban green spaces enjoyed by the population and contrasting degradation of housing (with particular attention to poisoning by carbon monoxide). Third area of action: actions contrasting cardiovascular diseases, that is the leading cause of death and inequalities in health for the working class population. A coordinated intervention directly in the workplace is proposed, where a particularly high percentage of individuals exposed to specific risk factors is present.

  13. Quality assurance for radioactive measurement in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The field of nuclear medicine continues to grow around the world, owing in part to a number of successful programmes carried out by the IAEA to enhance the use of nuclear medicine techniques in Member States. The implementation of quality assurance (QA) programmes to ensure the safe application of radiopharmaceuticals has, however, been variable in many Member States. One possible reason is the lack of a unified set of principles regarding the establishment of such programmes. This publication addresses the issue of QA programmes for radioactivity measurement in nuclear medicine. A group of experts consulted by the IAEA recommended in 2002 that unified principles concerning QA and quality control (QC) procedures for the measurement of radioactivity in nuclear medicine be developed because of its importance in controlling the safety and effectiveness of the use of radiopharmaceuticals. This publication is the result of advice provided to the IAEA by experts in the fields of radionuclide metrology, medical physics and radiopharmacy. This report can be considered to be a more detailed and updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-602, Quality Control of Nuclear Medicine Instruments, published in 1991. Advances in the field of nuclear instrumentation since that report was published, particularly in imaging, and the increased emphasis on QA and QC prompted the need for an update. Moreover, it was realized that the activity measurement and imaging aspects had each become so specialized as to be better treated in separate publications. The present report focuses on the factors affecting radioactivity measurement and the implementation of QA and QC programmes to ensure accurate and consistent results. The IAEA has developed a safety standard on The Management System for Facilities and Activities (IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-3), which replaces the IAEA publications on QA issued as Safety Series No. 50-C/SG-Q (1996). In GS-R-3, the management system is described as a set of

  14. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Meet Integrative Health: Applications of Competency Mapping to Curriculum Education at the University of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Eden V; Benn, Rita K; Warber, Sara L

    2015-11-01

    The University of Michigan School of Public Health Preventive Medicine Residency (UMSPH PMR) Integrative Medicine Program (IMP) was developed to incorporate integrative medicine (IM), public health, and preventive medicine principles into a comprehensive curriculum for preventive medicine residents and faculty. The objectives of this project were to (1) increase the preventive medicine workforce skill sets based in complementary and alternative medicine and IM that would address individual and population health issues; (2) address the increasing demand for evidence-based IM by training physicians to implement cost-effective primary and secondary prevention services and programs; and (3) share lessons learned, curriculum evaluations, and best practices with the larger cohort of funded IM PMR programs. The UMSPH PMR collaborated with University of Michigan IM faculty to incorporate existing IM competencies with those already established for preventive medicine and public health residency training as the first critical step for IMP curriculum integration. Essential teaching strategies incorporated didactic and practicum methods, and made use of seasoned IM faculty, along with newly minted preventive medicine integrative teaching faculty, and PMR resident learners as IM teachers. The major components of the IMP curriculum included resident participation in IMP Orientation Sessions, resident leadership in epidemiology graduate IM seminars, resident rotations in IM month-long clinical practicums, resident participation in interprofessional health system-wide IM clinical case conferences, and PMR faculty enrollment in the renowned Faculty Scholars Program in Integrative Healthcare. This paper describes the novel interdisciplinary collaborations and key curriculum components that resulted in the IMP, as well as evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and lessons learned. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Millstein, Rachel A.; Woodruff, Susan I.; Linton, Leslie S.; Edwards, Christine C.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. Methods The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighb...

  16. Study Of Rust Preventive Characteristics Of Rust Preventive Oil From Polarization Curve Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwashima D.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fe-Cu-C sintered steels are widely used as powder materials, because of its small volumetric shrinkage. However, Cu, which acts as cathode enhance formation of rust Fe2O3·xH2O during fabrication. To prevent formation of Fe2O3·xH2O rust preventive oils are widely used. High viscosity of those rust preventive oils decrease workability. While, low viscosity degrade rust preventive performance. Therefore, it is necessary to develop new rust preventive oils with contradictory properties of low viscosity and superior rust prevention. In this study, we developed technique to quantitatively evaluate rust prevention ability by measuring polarization curve through thin corrosive solution on Fe-Cu-C sintered steels coated with rust preventive oils. The electrochemical measurements were carried out in corrosive solution of 0.35 mass % NaCl. Using a double capillary was added dropwise to the specimen. From the experimental, it is possible to evaluate the corrosion rate quantitatively in the surface of specimen, which was coated with rust preventive oil through thin corrosive solution. From the measurement results, Corrosion rate is reduced by coating the rust preventive oil. Especially, corrosion rate of the specimen coated with oil that showed best performance indicated 10000 times better than that of without oil ones. Zn addition negative correlation between corrosion rate and period of potential oscillation.

  17. Knowledge of Emergency Medicine Residents in Relation to Prevention of Tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojjat Derakhshanfar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of emergency medicine residents about the management of patients suspected of having tetanus favoring wounds is very important due to their responsibility for the treatment of such patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate this knowledge and making sure of the adequacy of instructions they have received in relation to prevention of tetanus.  Methods: A reliable and reproducible questionnaire was used to evaluate knowledge of all the emergency medicine residents in Imam Hussein Hospital in Tehran, Iran, about conditions favoring tetanus (9 questions and proper interventions in such conditions (12 questions. The questionnaires were completed and scored as poor and good. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze data. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results: In the present study, 73 emergency medicine residents were evaluated (45.2% male. Knowledge of 31 (42.5% residents in relation to conditions favoring tetanus and 41 (56.2% residents in correct therapeutic interventions was in good level. The most frequent incorrect answer was related to diabetic ulcers and wounds in patients with sepsis. There was an increase in scores of conditions favoring tetanus (P<0.001 and correct therapeutic interventions (P=0.001 with an increase in educational years. However, age (P=0.64, gender (P=0.31, job experience (P=0.38 and participation in educational courses (P=0.67 had no effect on the knowledge level of emergency medicine residents. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, the knowledge of emergency medicine residents about correct management of patients suspected of tetanus was low, which emphasizes the necessity of providing further instructions on prevention of tetanus in wound management. 

  18. Sports Biostatistician: a critical member of all sports science and medicine teams for injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Finch, Caroline F

    2017-12-01

    Sports science and medicine need specialists to solve the challenges that arise with injury data. In the sports injury field, it is important to be able to optimise injury data to quantify injury occurrences, understand their aetiology and most importantly, prevent them. One of these specialty professions is that of Sports Biostatistician. The aim of this paper is to describe the emergent field of Sports Biostatistics and its relevance to injury prevention. A number of important issues regarding this profession and the science of sports injury prevention are highlighted. There is a clear need for more multidisciplinary teams that incorporate biostatistics, epidemiology and public health in the sports injury area. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Organised Crime Prevention in the Netherlands: Exposing the Effectiveness of Preventive Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.R.A. van der Schoot

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe preventive approach against organised crime has gained much attention since the early 1990s. On an international level as well as on a national one various preventive measures against organised crime have been developed. This is certainly true in the European Union and the

  20. Action of mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine in prevention and treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HOU Yixin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, extensive studies have been conducted on the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, and the action of mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM in NAFLD has become a new research topic. TCM has achieved good clinical efficacy in the treatment of NAFLD, with the advantages of specific, flexible, multilevel, and multi-target treatment. This article introduces the role of TCM in improving insulin, regulating lipid metabolism, preventing lipid peroxidation, regulating cytokines, regulating and maintaining the dynamic balance of factors involved in lipid metabolism, and maintaining the balance of intestinal microflora, and analyzes the major problems in TCM research.

  1. [Exploration and practice in the construction of curriculum on epidemiology in preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y M; Le, Y L; Yu, Y X; Wang, J B; Jin, M J; Tang, M L; Chen, K

    2017-12-10

    Epidemiology is one of main courses for undergraduate students majoring in preventive medicine. There are some limitations in the traditional epidemiology teaching, which is usually characterized in indoctrinated education: "lectured by the teachers and listened by the students." In Zhejiang University, staff of the epidemiology division tried to explore a new teaching mode as 'student-centered, teacher-leading, question-based, and combining with literature discussion and course practice.' After practicing for two years, students were inspired in learning initiatives, with teaching effectiveness obviously improved.

  2. The Mechanisms of Traditional Chinese Medicine Underlying the Prevention and Treatment of Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, characterized with bradykinesia, static tremor, rigidity and disturbances in balance, is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Along with the largely aging population in the world, the incidence is increasing year by year, which imposes the negative impacts on patients, their families and the whole society. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM has a positive prospect for the prevention and cure of PD due to its advantages of less side effects and multi-target effects. At present, the pathogenesis of PD is not yet fully discovered. This paper elaborates the mechanisms of TCM underlying the prevention and treatment of PD with regards to the inhibition of oxidative stress, the regulation of mitochondrial dysfunction, the reduction of toxic excitatory amino acids (EAA, the inhibition of neuroinflammation, the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis, and the inhibition of abnormal protein aggregation.

  3. Effectiveness and reliability analysis of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    During flood events emergency measures are used to prevent breaches in flood defences. However, there is still limited insight in their reliability and effectiveness. The objective of this paper is to develop a method to determine the reliability and effectiveness of emergency measures for flood

  4. Radioactive Sources in Medicine: Impact of Additional Security Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Classic, K. L.; Vetter, R. J.; Nelson, K. L.

    2004-01-01

    For many years, medical centers and hospitals have utilized appropriate security measures to prevent theft or unauthorized use of radioactive materials. Recent anxiety about orphan sources and terrorism has heightened concern about diversion of radioactive sources for purposes of constructing a radiological dispersion device. Some medical centers and hospitals may have responded by conducting threat assessments and incorporating additional measures into their security plans, but uniform recommendations or regulations have not been promulgated by regulatory agencies. The International Atomic Energy Agency drafted interim guidance for the purpose of assisting member states in deciding what security measures should be taken for various radioactive sources. The recommendations are aimed at regulators, but suppliers and users also may find the recommendations to be helpful. The purpose of this paper is to describe threat assessments and additional security actions that were taken by one large and one medium-sized medical center and the impact these measures had on operations. Both medical centers possess blood bank irradiators, low-dose-rate therapy sources, and Mo-99/Tc-99m generators that are common to many health care organizations. Other medical devices that were evaluated include high-dose-rate after loaders, intravascular brachytherapy sources, a Co-60 stereotactic surgery unit, and self-shielded irradiators used in biomedical research. This paper will discuss the impact additional security has had on practices that utilize these sources, cost of various security alternatives, and the importance of a security culture in assuring the integrity of security measures without negatively impacting beneficial use of these sources. (Author) 10 refs

  5. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    by fourteen measurement units, tapping into the dimensions of staff resources and community assets. Staff resources are, in turn, operationalized in terms of staff size, staff certification status, staff turnover rate, and the accreditation status of a provider agency. Community assets are operationalized by the number of community centers accessible to the funded agency, number of formalized teams or antidrug coalitions active in the catchment area, and other social/human services providers with whom the prevention agency has formalized networks. The totality of process output from all sources of program activities is reduced to eighteen classes of measures. These are operationalized by thirty-three summary measures. Some of these include: total count of events facilitated; total number of clients served; average number of clients served per event; clients served by single and multiple program sessions; classification of target population in terms of the severity of risk as defined by the Institute of Medicine; age groups and race/ethnicity of clients served; number of program participants retained by recurring programs; number of clients who have completed the program; penetration rates to the target population; client attrition rates; average referral rates per provider per time interval; referral success rates; and so on. All process output measures specified in the Platform are derived from two broad classes of events classified as either products or services. The collectivity of these measures is expected to present a cost-effective, parsimonious, yet comprehensive picture of the entire spectrum of the process output, i.e., "what came out of the program as program activities". For the measurement of performance outcomes, two types of data are incorporated into the Platform: outcome data from individuals and the behavior (or performance) of social indicators from aggregated data bases. Individual data are used to evaluate the outcome of substance abuse programs

  6. Communication Concepts for Prevention and Early Intervention in Aesthetic Medicine: Consensus and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gout, Uliana; Anand, Chytra V; Braz, Andre; Chao, Yates Yen Yu; Fabi, Sabrina Guillen; Kerscher, Martina; Landau, Marina; Pavicic, Tatjana; Peng, Peter Hsien Li; Rzany, Berthold; Sattler, Gerhard; Tiryaki, Tunk; Waldorf, Heidi A; Besins, Thierry

    2017-09-01

    Communication concepts relating to prevention and early intervention (P&E) within aesthetic medicine are poorly understood and highly underexplored. However, effective communication is a key criterion for successful outcomes. To introduce the framework for P&E communication strategies within a younger population and explore the barriers that may be encountered. A literature review on P&E communication strategies in aesthetic medicine and related topics of interest was conducted and used to construct a working framework that may be applied in clinical practice. Examination of existing literature revealed a need for a more structured communication framework for P&E encompassing up-to-date evidence-based learning and educational marketing that is tailored to individual needs and target populations. Message framing-the way in which a message is presented-is an important consideration in the dissemination of information to promote changes in health behaviour. A structured consultation is key to optimising patient engagement and ensures a tailored approach to understanding and catering to the specific needs of each patient. This is the first paper to discuss the communication concepts behind P&E within aesthetic medicine and paves the way for further research and focus in this significant field. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017;16(9):859-864..

  7. National Academy of Medicine Social and Behavioral Measures: Associations With Self-Reported Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Gottlieb, Laura M; Giuse, Nunzia B; Koonce, Taneya Y; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Stead, William W; Adler, Nancy E

    2017-10-01

    Social and behavioral factors play important roles in physical and mental health; however, they are not routinely assessed in the healthcare system. A brief panel of measures of social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDs) were recommended in a National Academy of Medicine report for use in electronic health records. Initial testing of the panel established feasibility of use and robustness of the measures. This study evaluates their convergent and divergent validity in relation to self-reported physical and mental health and social desirability bias. Adults, aged ≥18 years, were recruited through Qualtrics online panel survey platform in 2015 (data analyzed in 2015-2016). Participants completed the (1) panel of SBD measures; (2) 12-Item Short Form Health Survey to assess associations with global physical and mental health; and (3) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form to assess whether social desirability influenced associations between SBD measures and self-reported health. The sample included 513 participants (mean age, 47.9 [SD=14.2] years; 65.5% female). Several SBD domain measures were associated with physical and mental health. Adjusting for age, poorer physical and mental health were observed among participants reporting higher levels of financial resource strain, stress, depression, physical inactivity, current tobacco use, and a positive score for intimate partner violence. These associations remained significant after adjustment for social desirability bias. SBD domains were associated with global measures of physical and mental health and were not impacted by social desirability bias. The panel of SBD measures should now be tested in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. South korean study in a public health: preventive medicine and sports environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radut, Dan Silviu; Kim, You Jin; Min, Byung Nam; Cho, Ki Jeoung; Lee, Jong Young

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop search filters able to retrieve the South Korean scientific output and relating the fields of public health, preventive medicine, and physical education, activity, fitness, exercise and sport in MEDLINE between 2000 and 2007. The search filters were constructed and applied in MEDLINE accessed through PubMed according to the affiliation and subject. The language and place of publication were identified and the evaluation of the geographical filter performance was done. The search format was successfully elaborated and applied, and the articles originated, published in Korea and/or abroad focusing on the fields of public health, preventive medicine, physical education, activity, fitness, exercise and sport, added to MEDLINE between 2000 and 2007 were retrieved. Publications in six languages originated in South Korea were detected. A geographic search filter determined the South Korean research output, and combined with additional filters focused on specific areas. The dynamics of the scientific output followed an increased evolution in all categories. Articles were written mainly in English/Korean. Further research is recommended on developing search strategies in order to retrieve precise and reliable information.

  9. Prevention and treatment of constipation in children from the perspective of Iranian traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaharifard, Monireh Sadat; Jafari, Zahra; Paknejad, Maryam Sadat; Oveidzadeh, Laleh; Karimi, Mehrdad

    2016-11-01

    Constipation is one of the most common complaints of children and a common cause of referrals to pediatricians. Numerous reasons for this disease have been mentioned in the Iranian traditional medicine (ITM). It is believed that this disorder is mostly due to the lack of consideration of the six essential principles (Setteh-ye-Zarurieah), which are necessary to maintain health and prevent disease. In this descriptive study we collected and classified the concepts related to the topic by reviewing reliable ITM text books. Scientific databases were also searched for the most commonly used herbs in the treatment of constipation. The results showed that, from the perspective of ITM, the first step in treating constipation in children is making lifestyle changes. This includes giving appropriate training in the six essential principles, and making modification in existing habits where necessary. In the next steps, using some herbal remedies for topical or oral administration is recommended. On the other hand, a few clinical trials have been done concerning the effects of herbal medicines on pediatric constipation. Therefore, ITM's preventive and curative strategies can provide an efficient and cost-effective way to address constipation in children. This study can serve as a preface to performing clinical studies in this field.

  10. AUDITORS‘ PERCEPTION OF FRAUD PREVENTION MEASURES: EVIDENCE FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Evren Dilek Sengur

    2012-01-01

    The study has been carried out to identify auditors‘ perception regarding fraudprevention measures. In particular, the research focuses on the differences in perception ofthe effectiveness of fraud prevention measures among three categories of fraud: fraudulentfinancial statement, misappropriation of assets and corruption. In the analysis Friedman testand Wilcoxon test were used to examine differences in perception of the effectiveness of fraudprevention measures. The results of the analysis ...

  11. Measuring access to medicines: a review of quantitative methods used in household surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingues Marlos R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicine access is an important goal of medicine policy; however the evaluation of medicine access is a subject under conceptual and methodological development. The aim of this study was to describe quantitative methodologies to measure medicine access on household level, access expressed as paid or unpaid medicine acquisition. Methods Searches were carried out in electronic databases and health institutional sites; within references from retrieved papers and by contacting authors. Results Nine papers were located. The methodologies of the studies presented differences in the recall period, recruitment of subjects and medicine access characterization. Conclusions The standardization of medicine access indicators and the definition of appropriate recall periods are required to evaluate different medicines and access dimensions, improving studies comparison. Besides, specific keywords must be established to allow future literature reviews about this topic.

  12. Recent Scientific Studies of a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tea, on Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung S. Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea (綠茶 Lǜ Chá, made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen (李時珍 Lǐ Shí Zhēn of the Ming Dynasty, “tea is cold and lowers the fire.” Since fire (inflammation causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of many diseases? The possible prevention of chronic diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases has been studied with contemporary scientific methods, and the results are promising. The molecular mechanisms underlining these observations will be discussed in this presentation. One of the reasons for the failure to demonstrate a disease-preventive effect of tea in some epidemiological studies is the lower quantities of tea consumption in humans. Can we increase the quantity of tea consumption to harness its health benefits without causing gastrointestinal irritation? This is a topic for further research.

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine for prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma: From bench to bedside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bing; Wang, Shuang-Shuang; Du, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in the management of hepatocarcinoma. Hepatocarcinoma patients may present Qi-stagnation, damp-heat, blood stasis, Qi-deficiency, Yin-deficiency and other TCM syndromes (Zheng). Modern treatments such as surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and high intensity focus ultrasound treatment would influence the manifestation of TCM syndromes. Herbs with traditional efficacy of tonifying Qi, blood and Yin, soothing liver-Qi stagnation, clearing heat and detoxifying and dissolving stasis, have been demonstrated to be potent to prevent hepatocarcinogenesis. TCM has been widely used in all aspects of integrative therapy in hepatocarcinoma, including surgical resection, liver transplantation, TACE, local ablative therapies and even as monotherapy for middle-advanced stage hepatocarcinoma. Clinical practices have confirmed that TCM is effective to alleviate clinical symptoms, improve quality of life and immune function, prevent recurrence and metastasis, delay tumor progression, and prolong survival time in hepatocarcinoma patients. The effective mechanism of TCM against hepatocarcinoma is related to inducing apoptosis, autophagy, anoikis and cell senescence, arresting cell cycle, regulating immune function, inhibiting metastasis and angiogenesis, reversing drug resistance and enhancing effects of chemotherapy. Along with the progress of research in this field, TCM will contribute more to the prevention and treatment of hepatocarcinoma. PMID:26019736

  14. Awareness And Preventive Measures Against Hepatitis B Virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of Hepatitis B Virus(HBV) infection among Dental Surgeons in Lagos state and to identify preventive measures adopted against HBV infection. Materials and Methods: 220 structured self-administered questionnaires about knowledge of HBV and infection ...

  15. Evaluation of certain preventive measures to malaria infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study provides information on the infectivity rate of Plasmodium falciparum on subjects attending University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Information on the use of certain preventive measures to control malaria transmission and also the need to keep a clean environment for more ...

  16. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  17. Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of Malaria Preventive Measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment choices of malaria amongst the women were oral drugs 123 (49.4%), injections 116 (46.6%) herbs 5 (2.0%) and unspecified 5(2.0%). In the event of ... Sustained health education especially to less educated women is strongly advocated to enhance to knowledge of malaria and practice of preventive measures.

  18. Knowledge of Risk Factors and Preventive Measures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to elicit the knowledge of risk factors and preventive measures of hypertension among Child Bearing Mothers (CBMs) in Udenu Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The study adopted the descriptive research design. Specifically, three objectives with three corresponding research ...

  19. Measures and programs for preventing violence in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries across the world schools are no longer a safe place for both students and school staff. Violence in school is an issue scarcely studied in Serbia and there are few articles in domestic professional literature. At national and local level there are not developed strategies nor programs for preventing violence among students in our schools. There are no data about planned, systematic and organized prevention of violence in the practice of our schools. The data obtained by investigations indicate that it is necessary to apply adequate programs for preventing violence among students in our schools, despite the finding that violence in school is not that much conspicuous and serious problem like in other countries (USA Israel, Japan, Austria, Germany. On the basis of relevant literature review the present paper high­lights some very popular and less notorious measures and prevention programs applied in various countries. The aim of the paper is to transmit basic and essential pieces of information so as to gain insight into diverse existing approaches to prevention of violent behavior in school hopefully to encourage our schools to pay more attention to preventing violence in school as soon as possible before it is too late.

  20. Radiation exposure in nuclear medicine: real-time measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Sylvain

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available French regulations have introduced the use of electronic dosimeters for personal monitoring of workers. In order to evaluate the exposure from diagnostic procedures to nuclear medicine staff, individual whole-body doses were measured daily with electronic (digital personal dosimeters during 20 consecutive weeks and correlated with the work load of each day. Personal doses remained always below 20 µSv/d under normal working conditions. Radiation exposure levels were highest to tech staff, nurses and stretcher-bearers. The extrapolated annual cumulative doses for all staff remained less than 10 % of the maximum legal limit for exposed workers (2 mSv/yr. Electronic dosimeters are not technically justified for routine survey of staff. The high sensitivity and immediate reading of electronic semiconductor dosimeters may become very useful for exposure control under risky working conditions. It may become an important help for optimising radiation protection.A legislação francesa introduziu o uso de dosímetros eletrônicos para monitoração da exposição do trabalhador. Afim de avaliar a exposição do trabalhador proveniente de exames diagnósticos em medicina nuclear, doses individuais do corpo inteiro foram medidas diariamente com dosímetros eletrônicos (digitais durante 20 semanas consecutivas e correlatas com as atividades de trabalho de cada dia. As doses foram sempre inferiores à 20 µSv por dia em condições normais de trabalho. Os níveis de exposição de radiação mais elevados foram para os enfermeiros, manipuladores e maqueiros. A extrapolação da dose anual para todos os trabalhadores foi menos que 10 % do limite máximo legal para os trabalhadores expostos (2 mSv/ano. Dosímetros eletrônicos não são tecnicamente justificados para a o controle de rotina da exposição dos trabalhadores, mas a alta sensibilidade e a leitura imediata desses dosímetros podem vir a serem muito úteis para o controle da exposição em condi

  1. Effectiveness and safety as outcome measures in reproductive medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, M.; Kamphuis, E. I.; Mol, F.; Norman, R. J.; Bhattacharya, S.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of reproductive medicine is to help couples with an unfulfilled child wish to have a child by offering them the best treatment option. The choice of treatment reflects effectiveness and safety. While effectiveness refers to the extent to which a treatment increases the chance of a couple in

  2. [Biological safety of nanomaterials: the opportunity and challenge of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuliang

    2015-09-01

    Nanotechnology, as a newly arisen technology, does not only benefit people, but also become one of the inevitable threats to public health due to the widely application of nanomaterials. The safety evaluation of nanomaterials has become one of the hottest research topics in the 21st century, which provides opportunities and challenges in the field of preventive medicine once in a blue moon. Although the history of development in the safety assessment of nanomaterials is just over twenty years, the achievements could not be underestimated. This paper summarized the research of nano biological, predicted the directions for future research, and proposed several recommendations, based on which, we hope it can promote the sustainable development safety in China.

  3. Knowledge and prevention measures against dengue in southern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas Neupane

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the knowledge and prevention measures against dengue among selected adult population in southern Nepal. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Rapti Zonal Hospital, Dang and Bharatpur Hospital, Chitwan during August-November, 2011. A total of 212 patients were interviewed regarding their knowledge and practices about dengue fever. Serum samples were collected and investigated for the presence of anti-dengue IgM antibodies by IgM-ELISA. Results: Data from 156 patients greater than 15 years were analyzed. Among them, 21 samples were found to possess anti-dengue IgM antibodies by ELISA. Females, economically active people, farmers, unemployed and housewives were more frequently affected by dengue. Of the total, 118 (76% were reported to know the disease dengue. Fever, headache and myalgia were the most known symptoms and house drains and kitchen garden were known as the most common breeding sites of mosquitoes. Garbage disposal, use of mosquito nets and covering water containers were the best known preventive measures. Conclusions: The overall knowledge of dengue was high, but females, old persons, unemployed and housewives had relatively little knowledge of dengue. Therefore, these groups may need special attention in future dengue education programs. Persons with knowledge of the disease more frequently reported the use of preventive measures, indicating the value of education programs as a tool in dengue prevention.

  4. Measures to prevent nosocomial infections during mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Paula; Bassi, Gianluigi L; Torres, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    Endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation are lifesaving measures in critically ill patients. However, these interventions increase the risk of respiratory infections, particularly ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP constitutes a serious burden for the healthcare system and worsens the patient's outcomes; thus, several preventive strategies have been implemented. This communication reviews the current knowledge on VAP pathogenesis and the latest preventive measures. Pathogen-laden oropharyngeal secretions leak across the endotracheal tube (ETT) cuff; thus, a continuous control of the internal cuff pressure and cuffs made of polyurethane improve sealing effectiveness and associated risks of infections. Subglottic secretions aspiration prevents VAP, and the latest evidence demonstrated a reduction in the incidence of late-onset VAP. The role of ETT biofilm in the pathogenesis of VAP is not fully elucidated. Nevertheless, antimicrobial-coated ETTs have showed beneficial effects in VAP incidence. Recent experimental evidence has challenged the benefits associated with the use of the semirecumbent position; yet, these findings need to be corroborated in clinical trials. The latest results from trials testing the effects of selective digestive decontamination (SDD) showed beneficial effects on patients' outcomes, but concerns remain regarding the emergence of bacterial resistance, specifically upon digestive tract re-colonization. The use of oropharyngeal decontamination with antiseptics and the use of probiotics are potential alternatives to SDD. There is consistent evidence that strategies affecting the primary mechanisms of VAP pathogenesis efficiently reduce the occurrence of the disease. Preventive measures should be implemented grouped into bundles to improve overall efficacy.

  5. Measuring medicine-related experiences from the patient perspective: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katusiime, Barbra; Corlett, Sarah; Reeve, Joanne; Krska, Janet

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing drive to measure and so improve patients' experiences and outcomes of health care. This also applies to medicines, given their ubiquity as health care interventions. Patients' experiences of using medicines vary, and instruments which measure these are seen as an essential component to improve care. We aimed to identify generic measures of patients' experiences of using prescription medicines and to examine their properties and suitability for use in research or practice. Multiple electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINHAL Plus, PROQOLID ® , and Google Scholar. We identified, critically appraised, and summarized generic questionnaires assessing one or more aspects of the medicine use experience among adult patients using prescription medicines for chronic conditions, and the process of questionnaire development, degree of patient involvement, and/or validation processes. Fifteen questionnaires were included. Of these, nine measures were multidimensional, covering various aspects of medicine use. Six instruments covered only a single domain, assessing a specific facet of using medicines. Domains covered were the following: effectiveness; convenience, practicalities, and/or managing medicines; information, knowledge, and/or understanding; side effects; relationships and/or communication with health professionals; impact on daily living and/or social life; general satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs, concerns, and/or perceptions; medical follow-up and/or adherence-related issues; treatment- and/or medicine-related burden, perceived control, or autonomy; self-confidence about medicine use; availability and accessibility; and medicine-related quality of life. None of the identified questionnaires covered all domains. Instruments varied in the extent of patient involvement in both their development and validation. There is a scarcity of psychometrically sound, comprehensive, and generic measures of experiences

  6. [Establishing the idea of holistic integrative medicine, optimizing the quality of health care service in prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xing-guo

    2015-07-01

    Under background of reductionism in the modern science, physiology and medicine are stepwise refined into system, organ, disease, cell and gene etc. Although clinical medicine, only service in whole human object, obviously brought tremendous progress, it also appeared obvious defects and limits at the same time. Professionalized and specialized medicine not only needs to be integrated from basics to clinical fields, but also from prevention, health management, clinical treatment and functional rehabilitation medicine. People are indivisible organic whole. Professionalization, translation and integration must be combined. In order to provide the best quality and optimized medical service for the Chinese people and to lead in the world, we have to strengthen professional and technical knowledge, and have to establish the holistic integrative medical philosophy for physiology and medicine too.

  7. The Radon Book. Preventive measures in new buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil; Aakerblom, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    This book describes in text and picture how one can prevent that the radon concentrations in new buildings become to high. The book's centre of gravity lies on how to build in order to prevent that radon gas from the ground enters the building. The book contains extensive information about ground radon and how to examine the ground before constructing a new building. Release of radon from ground water and construction material is treated, as well as technology for measurement of radon and gamma radiation. The book presents current threshold values/recommended values for radon and the authorities' regulations and recommendations. The book is directed to persons who professionally need knowledge about radon and how to prevent that radon is accumulated in new buildings

  8. The historical development of temperature measurement in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, E. F. J.

    2007-01-01

    The association between temperature and disease is almost as old as medicine itself. After Galileo introduced the thermoscope thermometry evolved slowly and only became established in medicine by the work of Carl Wunderlich in the 19th Century. Thermal imaging began in the beginning of the 19th century with William and John Herschel, but was not developed commercially until World War 2. Today modern infrared imaging systems offer high resolution images of human body temperature, and can be used to quantify sensitive changes in skin temperature in relation to certain diseases, and their response to medication. Computing has dramatically improved the power of thermal imaging, and reliable imaging procedures have been established for medical use of this technique.

  9. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention services. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complementary Role of Herbal Medicine and Exercise in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Management: A Review of Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Babu, Abraham Samuel; Sundar, Lakshmi Manickavasagam

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Herbal medicine and exercise interventions have individually been shown to be effective in the prevention and management of CVD. However, the complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise interventions for CVD prevention and management have not been adequately reported. 1. Identify studies analysing complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise intervention in CVD prevention and management, 2. Identify herbs and exercise strategies that have been reported to exhibit complementary roles in CVD prevention and management, and 3. Summarize evidence of complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise interventions for CVD prevention and management. PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science were searched with a customised search strategy in May 2015. Two reviewers screened the search results for inclusion using pre-specified criteria. Data were extracted from full text of selected abstracts in a predetermined template by two reviewers and verified by the third reviewer when needed. A total of 35 titles were identified for full texts review after screening 827 abstracts. Data were extracted from 23 titles, representing 12 human studies and six animal studies. This review identified effects of 14 different herbs and 10 exercise strategies on over 18 CVD risk factors and markers. Complementary roles of herbal medicine and exercise were reported from five studies. Evidence of complementary role of herbal medicine and exercise is emerging from animal studies. More robust clinical studies on proven risk factors are needed before they can be recommended for clinical practice. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Responsibility of sport and exercise medicine in preventing and managing chronic disease: applying our knowledge and skill is overdue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Gordon O; Klügl, Martin; Dvorak, Jiri; Engebretsen, Lars; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Schwellnus, Martin; Blair, Steven N; van Mechelen, Willem; Derman, Wayne; Börjesson, Mats; Bendiksen, Fredrik; Weiler, Richard

    2011-12-01

    The rapidly increasing burden of chronic disease is difficult to reconcile with the large, compelling body of literature that demonstrates the substantial preventive and therapeutic benefits of comprehensive lifestyle intervention, including physical activity, smoking cessation and healthy diet. Physical inactivity is now the fourth leading independent risk factor for death caused by non-communicable chronic disease. Although there have been efforts directed towards research, education and legislation, preventive efforts have been meager relative to the magnitude of the problem. The disparity between our scientific knowledge about chronic disease and practical implementation of preventive approaches now is one of the most urgent concerns in healthcare worldwide and threatens the collapse of our health systems unless extraordinary change takes place. The authors believe that there are several key factors contributing to the disparity. Reductionism has become the default approach for healthcare delivery, resulting in fragmentation rather than integration of services. This, in turn, has fostered a disease-based rather than a health-based model of care and has produced medical school curricula that no longer accurately reflect the actual burden of disease. Trying to 'fit' prevention into a disease-based approach has been largely unsuccessful because the fundamental tenets of preventive medicine are diametrically opposed to those of disease-based healthcare. A clinical discipline within medicine is needed to adopt disease prevention as its own reason for existence. Sport and exercise medicine is well positioned to champion the cause of prevention by promoting physical activity. This article puts forward a strong case for the immediate, increased involvement of clinical sport and exercise medicine in the prevention and treatment of chronic disease and offers specific recommendations for how this may begin.

  12. Multidrug resistant Salmonella enterica isolated from conventional pig farms using antimicrobial agents in preventative medicine programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron-Veas, Karla; Fraile, Lorenzo; Napp, Sebastian; Garrido, Victoria; Grilló, María Jesús; Migura-Garcia, Lourdes

    2018-04-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the presence of multidrug antimicrobial resistance (multi-AR) in Salmonella enterica in pigs reared under conventional preventative medicine programmes in Spain and the possible association of multi-AR with ceftiofur or tulathromycin treatment during the pre-weaning period. Groups of 7-day-old piglets were treated by intramuscular injection with ceftiofur on four farms (n=40 piglets per farm) and with tulathromycin on another four farms (n=40 piglets per farm). A control group of untreated piglets (n=30 per farm) was present on each farm. Faecal swabs were collected for S. enterica culture prior to treatment, at 2, 7 and 180days post-treatment, and at slaughter. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of 14 antimicrobial agents, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and detection of resistance genes representing five families of antimicrobial agents were performed. Plasmids carrying cephalosporin resistant (CR) genes were characterised. Sixty-six S. enterica isolates were recovered from five of eight farms. Forty-seven isolates were multi-AR and four contained bla CTX-M genes harboured in conjugative plasmids of the IncI1 family; three of these isolates were recovered before treatment with ceftiofur. The most frequent AR genes detected were tet(A) (51/66, 77%), sul1 (17/66, 26%); tet(B) (15/66, 23%) and qnrB (10/66, 15%). A direct relation between the use of ceftiofur in these conditions and the occurrence of CR S. enterica was not established. However, multi-AR was common, especially for ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline. These antibiotics are used frequently in veterinary medicine in Spain and, therefore, should be used sparingly to minimise the spread of multi-AR. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Extended family medicine training: Measuring training flows at a time of substantial pedagogic change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F

    2016-12-01

    To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Canada. All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS-Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of extended family medicine training programs. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians

  14. Lapses in measures recommended for preventing hospital-acquired infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, P N; Milind, K

    2001-03-01

    This study was carried out in a rural tertiary care referral hospital in central India, to ascertain lapses made by people caring for neonates in measures recommended for preventing hospital-acquired infections. Unobtrusive observation of the healthcare personnel (doctors, nurses, mothers and hospital attendants) during care of the newborn was undertaken. Lapse in handwashing by healthcare personnel was observed around 41% of the time, although mothers practiced their instructions meticulously. Lapses in methods of hand drying were seen around 7-8% of the time, in those who did wash their hands. Gloves were not used around 21% of the time, when they should have been; and of those using gloves, they were unsterile in around 22% cases. At delivery babies were received unhygienically on approximately 67% of occasions observed. Lapses during cord care ranged from 14.2% to 28.6% and during resuscitation from 16.6% to 60% of occasions. An uncleaned stethoscope was used 75% of the time. The practice of putting a finger in the baby's mouth was observed on 18 occasions. Considerable lapses by all, in every measure recommended for the prevention of hospital-acquired infections were observed. It is concluded that nothing other than an individual's commitment is likely to be successful in preventing hospital-acquired infections. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  15. Development of measures to evaluate youth advocacy for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, Rachel A; Woodruff, Susan I; Linton, Leslie S; Edwards, Christine C; Sallis, James F

    2016-07-26

    Youth advocacy has been successfully used in substance use prevention but is a novel strategy in obesity prevention. As a precondition for building an evidence base for youth advocacy for obesity prevention, the present study aimed to develop and evaluate measures of youth advocacy mediator, process, and outcome variables. The Youth Engagement and Action for Health (YEAH!) program (San Diego County, CA) engaged youth and adult group leaders in advocacy for school and neighborhood improvements to nutrition and physical activity environments. Based on a model of youth advocacy, scales were developed to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention. Youth (baseline n = 136) and adult group leaders (baseline n = 47) completed surveys before and after advocacy projects. With baseline data, we created youth advocacy and adult leadership subscales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and described their psychometric properties. Youth came from 21 groups, were ages 9-22, and most were female. Most youth were non-White, and the largest ethnic group was Hispanic/Latino (35.6%). The proposed factor structure held for most (14/20 youth and 1/2 adult) subscales. Modifications were necessary for 6 of the originally proposed 20 youth and 1 of the 2 adult multi-item subscales, which involved splitting larger subscales into two components and dropping low-performing items. Internally consistent scales to assess mediators, intervention processes, and proximal outcomes of youth advocacy for obesity prevention were developed. The resulting scales can be used in future studies to evaluate youth advocacy programs.

  16. Categorization of fragrance contact allergens for prioritization of preventive measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Johansen, Jeanne D; Börje, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Contact allergy to fragrances is still relatively common, affecting ∼ 16% of patients patch tested for suspected allergic contact dermatitis, considering all current screening allergens. The objective of the review is to systematically retrieve, evaluate and classify evidence on contact allergy...... to fragrances, in order to arrive at recommendations for targeting of primary and secondary prevention. Besides published evidence on contact allergy in humans, animal data (local lymph node assay), annual use volumes and structure-activity relationships (SARs) were considered for an algorithmic categorization...... to the categorization of a further 26 substances as likely contact allergens. In conclusion, the presence of 127 single fragrance substances and natural mixtures should, owing to their skin sensitizing properties, be disclosed, for example on the label. As an additional preventive measure, the maximum use concentration...

  17. Utility of ketone measurement in the prevention, diagnosis and management of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, S; Oliver, N S

    2015-01-01

    Ketone measurement is advocated for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis and assessment of its severity. Assessing the evidence base for ketone measurement in clinical practice is challenging because multiple methods are available but there is a lack of consensus about which is preferable. Evaluating the utility of ketone measurement is additionally problematic because of variability in the biochemical definition of ketoacidosis internationally and in the proposed thresholds for ketone measures. This has led to conflicting guidance from expert bodies on how ketone measurement should be used in the management of ketoacidosis. The development of point-of-care devices that can reliably measure the capillary blood ketone β-hydroxybutyrate (BOHB) has widened the spectrum of applications of ketone measurement, but whether the evidence base supporting these applications is robust enough to warrant their incorporation into routine clinical practice remains unclear. The imprecision of capillary blood ketone measures at higher values, the lack of availability of routine laboratory-based assays for BOHB and the continued cost-effectiveness of urine ketone assessment prompt further discussion on the role of capillary blood ketone assessment in ketoacidosis. In the present article, we review the various existing methods of ketone measurement, the precision of capillary blood ketone as compared with other measures, its diagnostic accuracy in predicting ketoacidosis and other clinical applications including prevention, assessment of severity and resolution of ketoacidosis. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  18. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ming; Wang, Yue-fei; Fan, Guan-wei; Wang, Xiao-ying; Xu, Shuang-yong; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, trimethylamine (TMA)-N-oxide (TMAO) is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella) through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and treatment

  19. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lyu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs, and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella, while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, bile acids (BAs and lipopolysaccharides (LPS, which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. In addition, trimethylamine (TMA-N-oxide (TMAO is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS and cardiovascular disease (CVD risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and

  20. Balancing Herbal Medicine and Functional Food for Prevention and Treatment of Cardiometabolic Diseases through Modulating Gut Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Ming; Wang, Yue-Fei; Fan, Guan-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Ying; Xu, Shuang-Yong; Zhu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    It has become apparent that gut microbiota is closely associated with cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs), and alteration in microbiome compositions is also linked to the host environment. Next generation sequencing (NGS) has facilitated in-depth studies on the effects of herbal medicine and functional food on gut microbiota. Both herbal medicine and functional food contain fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides, exerting prebiotics-like activities in the prevention and treatment of CMDs. The administrations of herbal medicine and functional food lead to increased the abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella , while reducing phylum Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in gut. Both herbal medicine and functional food interact with gut microbiome and alter the microbial metabolites including short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), bile acids (BAs) and lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are now correlated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In addition, trimethylamine (TMA)-N-oxide (TMAO) is recently linked to atherosclerosis (AS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks. Moreover, gut-organs axes may serve as the potential strategy for treating CMDs with the intervention of herbal medicine and functional food. In summary, a balance between herbal medicine and functional food rich in fiber, polyphenols and polysaccharides plays a vital role in modulating gut microbiota (phylum Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and genus Akkermansia, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Prevotella ) through SCFAs, BAs, LPS and TMAO signaling regarding CMDs. Targeting gut-organs axes may serve as a new therapeutic strategy for CMDs by herbal medicine and functional food in the future. This review aims to summarize the balance between herbal medicine and functional food utilized for the prevention and

  1. Practice of defensive medicine | Buowari | Jos Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Defensive medicine is prescribing of unnecessary investigation and procedure and taking measures in order to prevent medical litigations. Litigation in medicine is generally high against doctors in the surgical specialities. Methodology: Literature search on articles on defensive medicine was done. Conclusion: ...

  2. An Innovative Method for Teaching Epidemiology, Public Health, and Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerson, Margaret C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Community Health and Family Medicine at the University of Florida College of Medicine developed a curriculum component integrating epidemiologic concepts into a third year family medicine clerkship through a small-group project on a specific condition likely to be encountered by primary care physicians in community practice. (MSE)

  3. Diet Therapy for Cancer Prevention and Treatment Based on Traditional Persian Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Behjat

    2018-04-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death with profound socio-economic consequences worldwide. Growing evidence suggests the crucial role of diet on cancer prevention and treatment. In Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) there is a major focus on contribution of special diet and foods to cancer management. In the present article, the cytotoxic and antitumor activities of several food items including plants and animal products recommended by TPM as anticancer agents are discussed. Strong evidence supports the anticancer effects of beetroot (Beta vulgris) and its major compound betanin, cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde, barley (H. vulgare) and its products, extra-virgin olive oil, black pepper (P. nigrum) and its piperine, grapes (V. vinifera) and its compound resveratrol, ginger and its compound 6-gingerol, whey protein, fish, and honey. However, additional pharmacological studies and clinical trials are needed to elucidate their molecular and cellular mechanisms of actions, frequency, and amount of consumption, possible adverse effects, and optimum preparation methods. Moreover, studying mechanisms of actions of the bioactive compounds present in the discussed food items can be helpful in identifying and development of new anticancer agents.

  4. Unravelling Immunoglobulin G Fc N-Glycosylation: A Dynamic Marker Potentiating Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Alyce; Adua, Eric; Ugrina, Ivo; Laws, Simon; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-29

    Multiple factors influence immunoglobulin G glycosylation, which in turn affect the glycoproteins' function on eliciting an anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory response. It is prudent to underscore these processes when considering the use of immunoglobulin G N -glycan moieties as an indication of disease presence, progress, or response to therapeutics. It has been demonstrated that the altered expression of genes that encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of immunoglobulin G N -glycans, receptors, or complement factors may significantly modify immunoglobulin G effector response, which is important for regulating the immune system. The immunoglobulin G N -glycome is highly heterogenous; however, it is considered an interphenotype of disease (a link between genetic predisposition and environmental exposure) and so has the potential to be used as a dynamic biomarker from the perspective of predictive, preventive, and personalised medicine. Undoubtedly, a deeper understanding of how the multiple factors interact with each other to alter immunoglobulin G glycosylation is crucial. Herein we review the current literature on immunoglobulin G glycoprotein structure, immunoglobulin G Fc glycosylation, associated receptors, and complement factors, the downstream effector functions, and the factors associated with the heterogeneity of immunoglobulin G glycosylation.

  5. Unravelling Immunoglobulin G Fc N-Glycosylation: A Dynamic Marker Potentiating Predictive, Preventive and Personalised Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyce Russell

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple factors influence immunoglobulin G glycosylation, which in turn affect the glycoproteins’ function on eliciting an anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory response. It is prudent to underscore these processes when considering the use of immunoglobulin G N-glycan moieties as an indication of disease presence, progress, or response to therapeutics. It has been demonstrated that the altered expression of genes that encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of immunoglobulin G N-glycans, receptors, or complement factors may significantly modify immunoglobulin G effector response, which is important for regulating the immune system. The immunoglobulin G N-glycome is highly heterogenous; however, it is considered an interphenotype of disease (a link between genetic predisposition and environmental exposure and so has the potential to be used as a dynamic biomarker from the perspective of predictive, preventive, and personalised medicine. Undoubtedly, a deeper understanding of how the multiple factors interact with each other to alter immunoglobulin G glycosylation is crucial. Herein we review the current literature on immunoglobulin G glycoprotein structure, immunoglobulin G Fc glycosylation, associated receptors, and complement factors, the downstream effector functions, and the factors associated with the heterogeneity of immunoglobulin G glycosylation.

  6. Preventive measures to eliminate asbestos-related diseases in singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, John Wah; Koh, David; Khim, Judy Sng Gek; Le, Giang Vinh; Takahashi, Ken

    2011-09-01

    The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD) has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman's Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  7. Preventive Measures to Eliminate Asbestos-Related Diseases in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wah Lim

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of asbestos-related diseases (ARD has increased in the last four decades. In view of the historical use of asbestos in Singapore since the country started banning it in phases in 1989 and the long latency of the disease, the incidence of ARD can be expected to increase further. As occupational exposure to asbestos still occurs, preventive measures to eliminate ARD continue to be required to protect the health of both workers and the public from asbestos exposure. The majority of occupational exposures to asbestos at present occur during the removal of old buildings. Preventive measures have been utilized by different government ministries and agencies in eliminating ARD in Singapore over the past 40 years. These measures have included the enforcement of legislation, substitution with safer materials, and engineering controls during asbestos removal as well as improvements in personal hygiene and the use of personal protective equipment. The existing Workman’s Compensation System for ARD should be further refined, given that is currently stipulates that claims for asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma be made within 36 and 12 months after ceasing employment.

  8. Measuring medicine-related experiences from the patient perspective: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katusiime B

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Barbra Katusiime,1 Sarah Corlett,1 Joanne Reeve,2 Janet Krska1 1Medway School of Pharmacy, The Universities of Kent and Greenwich, Chatham, Maritime, Kent, UK; 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK Background: There is an increasing drive to measure and so improve patients’ experiences and outcomes of health care. This also applies to medicines, given their ubiquity as health care interventions. Patients’ experiences of using medicines vary, and instruments which measure these are seen as an essential component to improve care. We aimed to identify generic measures of patients’ experiences of using prescription medicines and to examine their properties and suitability for use in research or practice. Methods: Multiple electronic databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, CINHAL Plus, PROQOLID®, and Google Scholar. We identified, critically appraised, and summarized generic questionnaires assessing one or more aspects of the medicine use experience among adult patients using prescription medicines for chronic conditions, and the process of questionnaire development, degree of patient involvement, and/or validation processes. Results: Fifteen questionnaires were included. Of these, nine measures were multidimensional, covering various aspects of medicine use. Six instruments covered only a single domain, assessing a specific facet of using medicines. Domains covered were the following: effectiveness; convenience, practicalities, and/or managing medicines; information, knowledge, and/or understanding; side effects; relationships and/or communication with health professionals; impact on daily living and/or social life; general satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs, concerns, and/or perceptions; medical follow-up and/or adherence-related issues; treatment- and/or medicine-related burden, perceived control, or autonomy; self-confidence about medicine use; availability and accessibility; and medicine

  9. Childhood socioeconomic position, young adult intelligence and fillings of prescribed medicine for prevention of cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    To explore the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and filling of medicine prescriptions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with young adult intelligence (IQ) as a potential mediator.......To explore the relationship between childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) and filling of medicine prescriptions for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with young adult intelligence (IQ) as a potential mediator....

  10. [Type 2 diabetes and frecuency of prevention and control measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Corona, Aída; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To determine the frequency of application of prevention and control measures for type 2 diabetes in Mexican population. ENSANUT 2012 is a nationally and by-state representative survey. Sample design was probabilistic, multistage, stratified and clustered. The information of 46 277 adults≥20 was used for this analysis. A weighted analysis was performed using Stata 12. Prevalence of diabetes by previous diagnosis was 9.2% (6.4 millions) in ENSANUT 2012, 7.3% (3.7 millions) in 2006 and 4.6% (2.1 millions) in 2000. In 2012, the mean of medical examinations in the previous year related to diabetes control was 7.3. However, the percentage of cases in which preventive actions for chronic complications were performed (such as foot care [14.6%], ophthalmology [8.6%] and determination of HbA1c [9.6%]) was low. Patients with diabetes have frequent access to medical services. However, preventive actions are applied insufficiently both in quality and quantity.

  11. From mission to measures: performance measure development for a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farb, Amy Feldman; Burrus, Barri; Wallace, Ina F; Wilson, Ellen K; Peele, John E

    2014-03-01

    The Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) sought to create a comprehensive set of performance measures to capture the performance of the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) program. This performance measurement system needed to provide measures that could be used internally (by both OAH and the TPP grantees) for management and program improvement as well as externally to communicate the program's progress to other interested stakeholders and Congress. This article describes the selected measures and outlines the considerations behind the TPP measurement development process. Issues faced, challenges encountered, and lessons learned have broad applicability for other federal agencies and, specifically, for TPP programs interested in assessing their own performance and progress. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Measuring the affordability of medicines: Importance and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The issue of affordability of health care services remains high on the (health) policy agenda. Determining whether health care services are affordable is complex, however, as the concept 'affordability' is inherently normative. With a focus on measuring affordability

  13. A sedentary job? Measuring the physical activity of emergency medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Elaine B; Caputo, Nicholas D; Pedraza, Solimar; Reynolds, Toussaint; Sharifi, Rahim; Waseem, Muhammad; Kornberg, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The debate on the quality of health care provided in the United States has continued to be waged as concerns have grown over the years. Stress, sleep deprivation, poor diet, and lack of exercise may lead to inadequate work performance by physicians. This study was undertaken to determine whether Emergency Medicine (EM) residents satisfy daily recommendations for total number of steps taken per day set forth by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Surgeon General in a 12-h shift. An observational prospective cohort study was conducted between August 2009 and November 2009 at an urban Level I trauma center with an annual census of over 165,000 Emergency Department (ED) visits per year. The mean number of steps taken by EM residents during 12-h shifts was measured. Mean steps taken during a shift were 7333 (95% confidence interval 6901-7764). Only nine (9.9%) pedometer readings reached the target level of 10,000 (10 K) steps or above. A t-test was used to compare steps with the hypothesized 10 K steps target. Recordings of 10K steps or greater were not correlated with ED sections (p=0.60) shift (medical vs. surgical, p=0.65) or ED census (r(2)physical activity regimens may help improve the overall well-being of EM residents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Recent Progress Toward Hydrogen Medicine: Potential of Molecular Hydrogen for Preventive and Therapeutic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    Persistent oxidative stress is one of the major causes of most lifestyle-related diseases, cancer and the aging process. Acute oxidative stress directly causes serious damage to tissues. Despite the clinical importance of oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. We have proposed that molecular hydrogen (H2) has potential as a “novel” antioxidant in preventive and therapeutic applications [Ohsawa et al., Nat Med. 2007: 13; 688-94]. H2 has a number of advantages as a potential antioxidant: H2 rapidly diffuses into tissues and cells, and it is mild enough neither to disturb metabolic redox reactions nor to affect reactive oxygen species (ROS) that function in cell signaling, thereby, there should be little adverse effects of consuming H2. There are several methods to ingest or consume H2, including inhaling hydrogen gas, drinking H2-dissolved water (hydrogen water), taking a hydrogen bath, injecting H2-dissolved saline (hydrogen saline), dropping hydrogen saline onto the eye, and increasing the production of intestinal H2 by bacteria. Since the publication of the first H2 paper in Nature Medicine in 2007, the biological effects of H2 have been confirmed by the publication of more than 38 diseases, physiological states and clinical tests in leading biological/medical journals, and several groups have started clinical examinations. Moreover, H2 shows not only effects against oxidative stress, but also various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. H2 regulates various gene expressions and protein-phosphorylations, though the molecular mechanisms underlying the marked effects of very small amounts of H2 remain elusive. PMID:21736547

  15. [CONTRIBUTION OF FAMILY MEDICINE TO COLORECTAL CANCER PREVENTION AND EARLY DETECTION; FORTY-YEAR EXPERIENCE OF FAMILY MEDICINE DEPARTMENT, OSIJEK HEALTH CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebling, Z

    2015-11-01

    The paper gives a short presentation of 40 years of experience of Osijek Health Center family physicians in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and early detection. Systematic work in the prevention and early detection of cancer includes raising public awareness and knowledge of healthcare issues, educating health professionals, conducting scientific research and contributing to the development and implementation of the National Program for Early Detection of Cancer. Cooperation of the Ministry of Health and Osijek Health Center resulted in issuing brochures entitled Men and Cancer and Women and Cancer in 100,000 copies, and later 20,000 copies of a book entitled Smoking Induced Diseases. Analysis of patients undergoing surgery for CRC at Department of Surgery, Osijek General Hospital during the 1973-1984 period showed a low 5-year and 10-year survival rate. A study of early CRC detection by using fecal occult blood test (FOBT), conducted in Osijek between 1980 and 1984, included 11,431 subjects. Results of the study confirmed FOBT to be an acceptable and reliable method for early CRC detection because of its simple use, general level of acceptance by the population and relatively low cost. Physical examinations aimed at detecting CRC by using FOBT were to be implemented in a planned, systematic manner in high-risk persons (those older than 50). Based on the results of this study, guidelines on cancer control were published in 1993 by teams of primary care physicians, especially family physicians. The Osijek Health Center, specifically its Family Medicine Department, participated in the development and implementation of the National Program for Colorectal Cancer Prevention and Early Detection, which started in 2007. Response to the National Program for Early Detection of Colorectal Cancer in individual counties was under 37%. A project called Early Cancer Detection Model Integrated in Family Medicine Practice, which was implemented in Osijek and included subjects

  16. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijeong Park

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. METHODS The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. RESULTS When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. CONCLUSIONS To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  17. Infectious disease-related laws: prevention and control measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mijeong

    2017-01-01

    This study examines recently revised Korean government legislation addressing global infectious disease control for public health emergency situations, with the aim of proposing more rational, effective and realistic interpretations and applications for improvement of law. The Korea reported its first laboratory-confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus on May 20, 2015. Since the first indexed case, Korean public health authorities enforced many public health measures that were not authorized in the law; the scope of the current law was too limited to cover MERS. Korea has three levels of government: the central government, special self-governing provinces, and si/gun/gu. Unfortunately, the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act does not designate the specific roles of each level of government, and does not state how these governmental branches should be vertically integrated in a state of emergency. When thinking about these policy questions, we should be especially concerned about introducing a new act that deals with all matters relevant to emerging infectious diseases. The aim would be to develop a structure that specifies the roles of each level of government, and facilitates the close collaboration among them, then enacting this in law for the prevention and response of infectious disease. To address this problem, after analyzing the national healthcare infrastructure along with the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, we propose the revision of the relevant law(s) in terms of governance aspects, emergency medical countermeasure aspects, and the human rights aspect.

  18. Systems pharmacology dissection of multi-scale mechanisms of action for herbal medicines in stroke treatment and prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiao Zhang

    Full Text Available Annually, tens of millions of first-ever strokes occur in the world; however, currently there is lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for stroke patients. Herbal medicines, characterized as multi-constituent, multi-target and multi-effect, have been acknowledged with conspicuous effects in treating stroke, and attract extensive interest of researchers although the mechanism of action is yet unclear. In this work, we introduce an innovative systems-pharmacology method that combines pharmacokinetic prescreening, target fishing and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action of 10 herbal medicines like Salvia miltiorrhizae, Ginkgo biloba and Ephedrae herba which are efficient in stroke treatment and prevention. Our systematic analysis results display that, in these anti-stroke herbal medicines, 168 out of 1285 constituents with the favorable pharmacokinetic profiles might be implicated in stroke therapy, and the systematic use of these compounds probably acts through multiple mechanisms to synergistically benefit patients with stroke, which can roughly be classified as preventing ischemic inflammatory response, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis against ischemic cerebral damage, as well as exhibiting lipid-lowering, anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet effects to decrease recurrent strokes. Relying on systems biology-based analysis, we speculate that herbal medicines, being characterized as the classical combination therapies, might be not only engaged in multiple mechanisms of action to synergistically improve the stroke outcomes, but also might be participated in reducing the risk factors for recurrent strokes.

  19. Brigadier General James Stevens Simmons (1890-1954), Medical Corps, United States Army: a career in preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marble, Sanders

    2012-02-01

    James Simmons began his career in the US Army as a laboratory officer and his assignments progressed into tropical medicine research. His interests and work evolved into preventive medicine (PM, as the Army termed public health), and he took both a PhD and a Doctorate in Public Health. As the Army's leading PM officer he was appointed head of PM in 1940 and guided the Army's PM effort through World War II. His responsibility ran from gas masks through healthy nutrition and occupational health to an enormous variety of diseases; by the war's end, the breadth and importance of PM was reflected in the Preventive Medicine Division, having fully one-sixth of all military personnel at the Surgeon General's Office. Simmons used his strong professional credentials to tap into civilian medicine for expertise the Army lacked and he established organizations that survive to this day. After retirement, he sought to expand the field of public health and raise another generation of public health physicians.

  20. A Role for Complementary and Integrative Medicine in Alzheimer's Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashford, J Wesson; Mahoney, Louise; Burkett, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Complementary and Integrative Medicine has been maturing as a field to support treatment for a variety of medical conditions. The approaches, including yoga, meditation, acupuncture, and dietary supplements, may assist patients in a variety of ways, though clear explanations for their mechanisms of action or measurements of their possible benefit are in most cases elusive. In this issue of the Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Khalsa examines the use of meditation as a stress-reduction technique and provides an argument that with a specific technique such stress reduction can be provided efficiently, with relatively little interference in daily activities, and might decrease Alzheimer risk. This thorough review provides some evidence of physiological benefit of meditation to brain function. While any actual effect of meditation on Alzheimer pathophysiology is only conjectural, meditation has received considerable attention as a tool that may have positive psychological and medical benefits. Consequently, this review is welcome. What is less certain is whether the recommended meditation approach is of specific benefit for Alzheimer's disease or any other condition above and beyond what might be provided by many other types of exercises (like singing in a chorus or doing cross-word puzzles) or physical activities (like swimming or yoga).

  1. Radiodosimetry and preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident. Proceedings of an international symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-08-01

    An international symposium on Radiodosimetry and Preventive Measures in the Event of a Nuclear Accident was held in Cracow, Poland, from 26 to 28 May 1994. The symposium was organized by the Polish Society for Nuclear Medicine, and co-sponsored by the IAEA. Over 40 experts from Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, Germany, Poland, the Russian Federation, Sweden and Switzerland participated. The aim of the Symposium was to review models of iodine kinetics used in the calculation of internal radiation doses to the thyroid after the Chernobyl accident, to discuss internal and external radiation dose to the thyroid in terms or risk of thyroid cancer, and to present data on the incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the selected iodine deficient area in Poland. A part of the symposium was dedicated to the physiological basis of iodine prophylaxis and emergency planning for a nuclear accident. Recommendations of the IAEA on preventive measures in the event of a nuclear accident were also addressed. These proceedings contain the full text of the eight invited papers presented at the symposium. Refs, figs, tabs

  2. [Preventive measures against tuberculosis in working facilities and companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kiminori; Satou, Ken

    2007-03-01

    The health care program in working facilities and companies have played a significant part in prevention of tuberculosis. However, the ordinary national tuberculosis survey policy was abolished in April, 2005 and the tuberculosis survey for salary-earners is on the brink of drastic change. In this symposium the current status of the prevailing survey of tuberculosis in working facilities and companies was reviewed and the future direction of the tuberculosis survey in comparison to that in lung cancer survey was discussed. 1. Epidemiological trends of tuberculosis from the tuberculosis surveillance data: Masako OHMORI (Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association). The estimated rate of tuberculosis case discovery by periodical mass screening in the working facilities was 0.033% and it was higher than that in general adult population. The detection rate of tuberculosis in nurses who suffered from tuberculosis reached 40.4% by an aid of mass X-ray screening and 8.7% by contact tracing. The risk of onset of the disease was 4.3 times higher nurses than in general at the same years of age. The importance of infection control measures in the medical facilities was emphasized. 2. Current status and problems in tuberculosis control in a large-sized company: Yusuke NAKAOKA (Department of Occupational Health, Osaka Railway Hospital, West Japan Railway Company). Some preventive modalities against TB such as periodical medical check-up and awareness programs have been done for the purpose of prevention in our company. The prevalence of the disease has significantly reduced in number. The specific circumstances in large-sized company should be taken into consideration, and it is important for company workers and health professionals to recognize their roles in preventing the infectious disease. 3. Are there any differences between clinical cases and control people working for small-sized companies in the onset of tuberculosis?: Osamu NAKASHIMA, Kohei

  3. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Cao

    Full Text Available About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy.To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility.The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637.Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available.Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30.After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14 and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups.This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.

  4. Oral administration of Chinese herbal medicine during gestation period for preventing hemolytic disease of the newborn due to ABO incompatibility: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Wu, Ruohan; Han, Mei; Caldwell, Patrina Ha Yuen; Liu, Jian-Ping

    2017-01-01

    About 85.3% of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) is caused by maternal-fetal ABO blood group incompatibility. However, there is currently no recommended "best" therapy for ABO incompatibility during pregnancy. To systematically assess the safety and effectiveness of oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) for preventing HDN due to ABO incompatibility. The protocol of this review was registered on the PROSPERO website (No. CRD42016038637).Six databases were searched from inception to April 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM for maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility were included. The primary outcome was incidence of HDN. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess the methodological quality of included trials. Risk ratios (RR) and mean differences with 95% confidence interval were used as effect measures. Meta-analyses using Revman 5.3 software were conducted if there were sufficient trials without obvious clinical or statistical heterogeneity available. Totally 28 RCTs involving3413 women were included in the review. The majority of the trials had unclear or high risk of bias. Our study found that the rate of HDN and the incidence of neonatal jaundice might be 70% lower in the herbal medicine group compared with the usual care group (RR from 0.25 to 0.30).After treatment with herbal medicine, women were twice as likely to have antibody titers lower than 1:64 compared with women who received usual care(RR from 2.15 to 3.14) and the umbilical cord blood bilirubin level in the herbal medicine group was 4umol/L lower than in those receiving usual care. There was no difference in Apgar scores or birthweights between the two groups. This review found very low-quality evidence that CHM prevented HDN caused by maternal-fetal ABO incompatibility. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the effectiveness or safety of CHM for this condition.

  5. Healthcare for the Healthy People: Miniaturization, Sensing and Actuation Trends and Needs in Preventive and Predictive Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto SANNA

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern medicine the role of prevention and prediction is acquiring an increasing market share, due to augmented awareness and interest of the population toward these issues, and to the recognition by public bodies that investing on prevention will be the only mean to afford economical sustainability in the future. Prediction must rely on the dynamic collection of several personal information, not only about the physical condition of the individual, but also about his/her behaviors and the environmental conditions. Prevention will increasingly imply the ability to modify the detected behaviors. However, monitoring these parameters and acting in response to undesired conditions requires a constant presence in people's everyday life. The target population for these services is healthy people that possibly won't spend too much in terms of time or money in invasive or costly solutions. For these reasons, we foresee an emerging role for sensing and actuation technologies able to provide miniaturization, pervasiveness and low costs.

  6. [Impact of the Core Training Law on preventive medicine and public health training and other common medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latasa, Pello; Gil-Borrelli, Christian; Aguilera, José Antonio; Reques, Laura; Barreales, Saúl; Ojeda, Elena; Alemán, Guadalupe; Iniesta, Carlos; Gullón, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Core Training Law (CTL) is to amend specialised medical training to include 24 months of common training. The aim of this study is to assess its potential impact on the Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PM&PH) training programme and other medical specialties. The programmes of the 21 common medical specialties were analysed and the recommended training periods for each specialty collected, before the information was agreed upon by three observers. The training impact was calculated as the percentage of months that should be amended per specialty to adapt to the common training schedule. The Preventive Medicine and Public Health training programme is the specialty most affected by the Core Training Law (100%, 24 months). Intensive medicine (0%, 0 months) and medical oncology (17%, 4 months) is the least affected. The CTL affects the common medical specialties in different ways and requires a complete reorganisation of the activities and competencies of PM&PH professionals. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. [Research progress on antioxidation effect of traditional Chinese medicine polysaccharides and sports for diabetes prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Ling-Li; Zou, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Researchers found that oxidative stress was closely related to the development of diabetes, and hyperglycemia was a main cause for oxidative stress. Many researchers have proved that oxidative stress, present in diabetes, can aggravate diabetes. Now, traditional Chinese medicines have certain treatment and relief effects for oxidative stress in diabetes, but there are no scientific and systematic conclusions on the efficacy of different Chinese medicines for diabetes and complications. Tomakea scientific and systematic review on the recent years' researches on antioxidation effects of traditional Chinese medication polysaccharides for diabetes, analyze the antioxidation effects of sports in treatment of diabetes, and provide the reference and basis for medications and sports in diabetic patients, as well as prevention and treatments of diabetes and complications from aspects of "internal nursing and external workouts". Databases of CNKI and PubMed were retrieved with key words of "diabetes, oxidative stress, antioxidant, traditional Chinese medication, polysaccharide, sports" in both Chinese and English from Jan 2000 to Apr 2016.Finally 118 papers were included in for analysis and review. Polysaccharides of traditional Chinese medications as well as sports have antioxidation effects for diabetes and its complications, and the combination of these two would produce huge significance for relieving oxidative stress in diabetes, as well as for the prevention and treatment of diabetes and its complications. We need further researches on the levels of oxidative stress markers, doses of Chinese medicines, and the time of taking medications. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  8. [Holistic integrative medicine: application in prevention and treatment of oral mucosal diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Xie, L; Zhao, X; Li, J; Zeng, X; Chen, Q M

    2017-08-09

    Holistic integrative medicine (HIM), as one of the important ideas in the field of medicine, arouses great concern recently. HIM regards the human body as a whole, turns data and evidence in medical research back to facts, integrates technologies and experience developed in clinical research into medical skills. The repeated practices at the levels of fact, experience, and medical skills will generate true knowledge to solve the wide spread problems brought by linearized thinking and fragmented knowledge. With the development of highly divided medical disciplines, how to utilize and practice HIM has become a common concern of the medical community. Specialization of stomatology, which is a first level discipline like medicine, has also become a trend for years. However, holistic concept cannot be overlooked, especially in the development of oral medicine. This article aims at the communication and exchange of knowledge about HIM among dental professionals. In order to serve the patients better, the authors look forward to practicing the HIM concept in the field of oral medicine through the efforts of us all.

  9. Combining Clinical Information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures in Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, D.A. van

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated the use of clinical information and Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) for patient evaluation in orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine. In the first part, we showed that the Dutch version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) is a valid and reliable

  10. Travel advice for the immunocompromised traveler: prophylaxis, vaccination, and other preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel RR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Rupa R Patel,1 Stephen Y Liang,1 Pooja Koolwal,2 Frederick Matthew Kuhlmann1 1Division of Infectious Diseases, 2Division of Medical Education, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA Abstract: Immunocompromised patients are traveling at increasing rates. Physicians caring for these complex patients must be knowledgeable in pretravel consultation and recognize when referral to an infectious disease specialist is warranted. This article outlines disease prevention associated with international travel for adults with human immunodeficiency virus, asplenia, solid organ and hematopoietic transplantation, and other immunosuppressed states. While rates of infection may not differ significantly between healthy and immunocompromised travelers, the latter are at greater risk for severe disease. A thorough assessment of these risks can ensure safe and healthy travel. The travel practitioners’ goal should be to provide comprehensive risk information and recommend appropriate vaccinations or prevention measures tailored to each patient’s condition. In some instances, live vaccines and prophylactic medications may be contraindicated. Keywords: immunocompromised, vaccines, travel, malaria, diarrhea

  11. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: restore CDC funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Pamela; Redding, Colleen A; Raja, Sheela; Newton, Tamara; Beharie, Nisha; Printz, Destiny

    2018-02-21

    The Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges restoration of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funding for firearms and gun violence prevention research. Gun violence in the United States is an important and costly public health issue in need of research attention. Unfortunately, there have been no concerted CDC-funded research efforts in this area since 1996, due to the passage of the Dickey Amendment. To remedy the information-gathering restrictions caused by the Dickey Amendment bans, it is recommended that Congress remove 'policy riders' on federal appropriations bills that limit firearms research at the CDC; expand NVDRS firearms-related data collection efforts to include all fifty states; fund CDC research on the risk and protective factors of gun use and gun violence prevention; fund research on evidence-based primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention and treatment initiatives for communities that are seriously impacted by the effects of gun violence; and support the development of evidence-based policy and prevention recommendations for gun use and ownership.

  12. Measuring financial well-being in cancer prevention research: Results from the Money-Health Connection Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Reginald Tucker-Seeley joined the faculty at the University of Southern California (USC) Leonard Davis School of Gerontology in June 2017. Prior to joining USC, Dr. Tucker-Seeley was an Assistant Professor at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) and the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (HSPH). He completed master and doctoral degrees at HSPH and a postdoctoral fellowship in cancer prevention and control at HSPH and DFCI. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research focuses primarily on social determinants of health, such as the association between the neighborhood environment and health behavior; and on individual-level socioeconomic determinants of multi-morbidity, mortality, self-rated health, and health self-efficacy. His current work focuses on financial well-being across the cancer continuum, from prevention to end-of-life care. He has received R21 and K01 grants from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to develop measures of financial well-being at two points along the cancer continuum: prevention and following diagnosis. He was also funded by the Academy Health/Aetna Foundation Scholars in Residence Fellowship Program to develop measures of neighborhood economic well-being. Dr. Tucker-Seeley’s research has been published in journals such as the American Journal of Public Health, Preventive Medicine, Journal of National Cancer Institute, Cancer Causes and Control, and the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Dr. Tucker-Seeley is also committed to community service that targets the elimination of health disparities. He served for three years on the Rhode Island Commission for Health Advocacy and Equity. Based on his experience on this Commission, Dr. Tucker-Seeley developed a new course at HSPH called “Measuring and Reporting Health Disparities;” and in 2016, he received the HSPH teaching award for this course.

  13. [The environment, knowledge and preventive medicine. 2. Reductionism and holism--a dichotomy in thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersch-Sundermann, V

    1989-03-01

    The usual theories and methods of biological sciences and medicine are of important rank to valuate the potential risks of environmental pollutions. Because in notice of the represented system model the consideration of ecotoxicological processes shows, that a complete assessement of these risks and the effects of environmental pollutions against human health can only be attainable when holostic mode of thinking is integrated.

  14. ROLE OF THE INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS IN PREVENTING THE COUNTERFEIT MEDICINES ENTRY INTO THE WORLD MARKETS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukina, Valeryia; Dohnal, Jiri; Saloun, Jan

    2016-09-01

    30 years have passed since Conference of Experts on the Rational Use of Drugs was held in Nairobi, Kenya, from 25 to 29 November 1985, where the problem of counterfeit medicines was mentioned as the international for the first time. The problem of counterfeit medicines is not only a major threat to public health and national and private economy, but also it is of great interest for key decision-making actors at the international level. The authors analyzed what has been done since that time by international organizations. Combating the counterfeiting of medicines cannot be successfully achieved by the health sector alone - World Health Organization (WHO), - so the efforts of the other United Nations (UN) organizations relevant to counterfeiting were in need and were studied in the article: World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), World Trade Organization (WTO), World Customs Organization (WCO), United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), etc. Today WHO is unable to coordinate all their activities, so the few existing proposals for establishing a new mechanism of international cooperation have been examined. Will the MEDICRIME Convention that will enter into force on January 1, 2016 be the start of the new era in the combating with the counterfeit medicines? - the authors offered their vision on the international developments.

  15. Exploration of Islamic medicine plant extracts as powerful antifungals for the prevention of mycotoxigenic Aspergilli growth in organic silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tayel, Ahmed A.; Salem, Mohammed F.; El-Tras, Wael F.

    2011-01-01

    Feed contamination with mycotoxins is a major risk factor for animals and humans as several toxins can exist as residues in meat and milk products, giving rise to carry-over to consumers via ingestion of foods of animal origin. The starting point for prevention, in this chain, is to eliminate...... the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi in the animal forage. Ten plant extracts, recommended in Islamic medicine, were evaluated as antifungal agents against mycotoxigenic Aspergilli, i.e. Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, growth in organic maize silage....

  16. Fleet equipment performance measurement preventive maintenance model : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The concept of preventive maintenance is very important in the effective management and deployment of : vehicle fleets. The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) operates a large fleet of on-road and offroad : equipment. Newer engines and vehicl...

  17. Prevention measures of flooding inside building at Hamaoka NPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Naoya; Wakunaga, Takao; Ishida, Takahisa; Yasuda, Mitsuhiro; Kawabata, Tatsuo

    2013-01-01

    As the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, we will implement installing the sea wall in order to block direct intrusion of tsunami on Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station. In addition, assuming a tsunami higher than the sea wall, we will implement countermeasures to prevent flooding inside the building and the important equipment containment room. In this paper, we present countermeasures to prevent flooding for penetrations and openings of ventilation. (author)

  18. [Advances in animal model and traditional Chinese medicine prevention in coronary microvascular dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Liu, Jian-Xun; Ren, Jian-Xun; Guo, Hao; Lin, Cheng-Ren

    2017-01-01

    Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) is a common mechanism for some heart disease like cardiac X syndrome and no-reflow phenomenon after percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI). With the development of medical imageology, CMD has received increased attention. Animal model of CMD is indispensable tool for the research of pathogenesis and treatment evaluation, therefor choose an appropriate animal model is the first issue to carry out CMD research. Experimental and clinical studies have shown unique effectiveness of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) in CMD therapy. Clarifying of the TCM therapeutic effect mechanisms and seeking an optimal solution of combination of traditional Chinese and western medicine will be the focus of future research. This paper reviewed the establishment and evaluation of CMD animal model, as well as the intervention study of TCM on CMD. The article aims to provide reference for the basic research of CMD and the TCM experimental study on CMD. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Acupuncture and Traditional Herbal Medicine Therapy Prevent Deliriumin Patients with Cardiovascular Disease in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto-Miyazaki, Jun; Ushikoshi, Hiroaki; Miyata, Shusaku; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Nawa, Takahide; Okada, Hideshi; Ojio, Shinsuke; Ogura, Shinji; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and traditional herbal medicine (Kampo medicine) for reducing the incidence rate of delirium in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease in ICUs. Twenty-nine patients who had been urgently admitted to the ICU in the control period were treated with conventional intensive care. Thirty patients in the treatment period received conventional therapy plus a combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine. Acupuncture treatment was performed once a day, and the herbal formula was administered orally three times a day during the first week of the ICU stay. The standard acupuncture points were GV20, Ex-HN3, HT7, LI4, Liv3, and KI3, and the main herbal preparation was Kamikihito. The incident rates of delirium, assessed using the confusion assessment method for ICU, in the treatment and control period were compared. The incidence rate of delirium was significantly lower in the treatment group than in the control group (6.6% vs. 37.9%, [Formula: see text]). Moreover, sedative drugs and non-pharmacological approaches against aggressive behavior of patients who were delirious were used less in the treatment group than in the control group. No serious adverse events were observed in the treatment group. Combination therapy consisting of acupuncture and herbal medicine was found to be effective in lowering the incidence of delirium in patients with CV disease in ICUs. Further studies with a large sample size and parallel randomized controlled design would be required to establish the effects of this therapy.

  20. [Recent advances on pericytes in microvascular dysfunction and traditional Chinese medicine prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Jian-Xun; Guo, Hao; Ren, Jian-Xun

    2017-08-01

    Pericytesis a kind of widespread vascular mural cells embedded within the vascular basement membrane of blood microvessels, constituting the barrier of capillaries and tissue spaces together with endothelial cells. Pericytes communicate with microvascular endothelial cells through cell connections or paracrine signals, playing an important role in important physiological processes such as blood flow, vascular permeability and vascular formation. Pericytes dysfunction may participate in some microvascular dysfunction, and also mediate pathological repair process, therefore pericytes attracted more and more attention. Traditional Chinese medicine suggests that microvascular dysfunction belongs to the collaterals disease; Qi stagnation and blood stasis in collaterals result in function imbalance of internal organs. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has shown effects on pericytes in microvascular dysfunction, for example qi reinforcing blood-circulation activating medicines can reduce the damage of retinal pericytes in diabetic retinopathy. However, there are some limitations of research fields, inaccuracy of research techniques and methods, and lack of mechanism elaboration depth in the study of microvascular lesion pericytes. This paper reviewed the biological characteristics of pericytes and pericytes in microvascular dysfunction, as well as the intervention study of TCM on pericytes. The article aims to provide reference for the research of pericytes in microvascular dysfunction and the TCM study on pericytes. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  1. [Mind-body approach in the area of preventive medicine: focusing on relaxation and meditation for stress management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yunesik

    2010-09-01

    Emotional support and a stress management program should be simultaneously provided to clients as effective preventive services for healthy behavioral change. This study was conducted to review various relaxation and meditation intervention methods and their applicability for a preventive service program. The author of this paper tried to find various relaxation and meditation programs through a literature review and program searching and to introduce them. The 'Relaxation Response' and 'Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)' are the most the widely used meditative programs in mainstream medical systems. Abdominal breathing, Progressive Musclular Relaxation (PMR), Relaxative Imagery, Autogenic Training (AT) and Biofeedback are other well-known techniques for relaxation and stress management. I have developed and implemented some programs using these methods. Relaxation and meditation classes for cancer patients and a meditation based stress coping workshop are examples of this program. Relaxation and meditation seem to be good and effective methods for primary, secondary and tertiary preventive service programs. Program development and standardization and further study are needed for more and wider use of the mind-body approach in the preventive service area of medicine.

  2. Shenlingbaishusan, a chines herbal medicine, in the prevention and treatment of colo-rectal radiation reactions during pelvic tumor radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yueran; Liu Yajie; Wu Chaoquan; Chen Chuping; Wang Yaobang; Li Xianming; Zhong Heli; Wu Dong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of traditional Chinese herbal medicine-Shenlingbaishusan in preventing and treating colon and rectum radiation reactions. Methods: Ninty-six patients with female pelvic tumor (cervical and endometrial cancer) were randomly divided into two groups: radiotherapy (RT) alone group (47 patients) and RT+ Shenlingbaishusan group(49 patients). RT in both groups, being similar, 1.8-2.0 Gy/per fraction, five fractions/per week, to a total dose of 48-50 Gy/5-6 weeks to the whole pelvis by external irradiation plus brachytherapy: to a total dose of 42-49 Gy/6-7 weeks for cervix carcinoma, and 10-15 Gy/1-2 weeks for endometrial cancer. Results: All patients have been were followed for more than one year after radiotherapy. The incidence of acute and late colon and rectum radiation reactions. was:15 patients in the RT + Shenlingbaishusan group: grade I10 patients, Grade II3 patients, grade III2 patients incontrast to the 47 patients in the RT group: grade I 24 patients, grade II 14 patients and grade III 9 patients (P<0.01). Conclusions: The traditional Chinese medicine-Shenlingbaishusan is effective in preventing and treating colon and rectum radiation reactions during pelvic tumor radiotherapy.(authors)

  3. Measuring Promotion and Prevention Orientations of Secondary School Students: It Is More Than Meets the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Flaviu A.; Hattie, John A. C.; Hodis, Georgeta M.

    2016-01-01

    The General Regulatory Focus Measure has been used extensively in psychological research to gauge promotion and prevention orientations. Findings of this research show that for New Zealand secondary school students, the General Regulatory Focus Measure does not measure promotion and prevention as theoretically independent constructs.

  4. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube?related injuries.

  5. Simple measures to prevent a massive upper gastrointestinal bleed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Raghav; Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Antonio Ching; Rajnish, Ishita; Salehi, Ilnaz

    2017-08-01

    Nasogastric (NG) tube is frequently used in clinical practice for a variety of indications; however, NG tubes are not without risks, and there are a multitude of gastrointestinal complications that are associated with their use. Simple precautions can help prevent these NG tube-related injuries.

  6. Pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation: preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Benjamin P C; Shepherd, Robert K; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Clark, Graeme M; O'Leary, Stephen J

    2010-11-01

    Both clinical data and laboratory studies demonstrated the risk of pneumococcal meningitis post-cochlear implantation. This review examines strategies to prevent post-implant meningitis. Medline/PubMed database; English articles after 1980. Search terms: cochlear implants, pneumococcus meningitis, streptococcus pneumonia, immunization, prevention. Narrative review. All articles relating to post-implant meningitis without any restriction in study designs were assessed and information extracted. The presence of inner ear trauma as a result of surgical technique or cochlear implant electrode array design was associated with a higher risk of post-implant meningitis. Laboratory data demonstrated the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination in preventing meningitis induced via the hematogenous route of infection. Fibrous sealing around the electrode array at the cochleostomy site, and the use of antibiotic-coated electrode array reduced the risk of meningitis induced via an otogenic route. The recent scientific data support the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendation of pneumococcal vaccination for the prevention of meningitis in implant recipients. Nontraumatic cochlear implant design, surgical technique, and an adequate fibrous seal around the cochleostomy site further reduce the risk of meningitis. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Measures to prevent breaches in the security of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zika-Ahlberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this paper, which is the result of the co-operation between the Swedish Board of Customs, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute, the Security Police and the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, is to give an idea of the national prevention system as to illicit trafficking of nuclear materials and other radioactive sources. (author)

  8. Measures to Prevent Financial Fraud and Legalization of Illicit Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunitska Iryna I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The problems of preventing financial fraud and legalization of funds using mechanisms of the financial market are considered. The relevance of this problem in general and peculiar features of its research in developing economies are substantiated. The experience of organizations created to prevent the legalization of illicit funds is studied. It is determined that new organizations are created in response to the global challenges. It is justified that in Ukraine the fight against the legalization of illicit funds has actualized due to a lack of financial resources in the country, declaration of course towards European values and also as a result of the military conflict in the east of the country. The risk factors for financial fraud and illegal movement of financial flows are systematized according to the groups of conditions: pressure, favorable situation, propensity (justification. It is determined which levels of risk of generating illegal financial flows are inherent in different sectors of the economy depending on institutional factors. It is argued that the increase in the risks of illegal financial flows occurs under conditions of a low level of maturity of the institutional environment and a high level of information asymmetry. Types and tools of fraud in the financial market that increase the risks of illegal financial flows are systematized. It is determined that main types of fraud in the financial market are related to information manipulations and regulatory deficiencies. The world experience of legislative initiatives on counteracting the legalization of funds in financial markets is systematized. It is justified that, in order to prevent financial fraud and prevent legalization of illicit funds in Ukraine, it is necessary to ensure maximum transparency of information on the movement of financial flows in financial markets. In addition, regulators of the financial market should not only cooperate with each other but also prevent

  9. 4Ps medicine of the fatty liver: the research model of predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine-recommendations for facing obesity, fatty liver and fibrosis epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Francesca Maria; Catalano, Daniela; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Relationship between adipose tissue and fatty liver, and its possible evolution in fibrosis, is supported by clinical and research experience. Given the multifactorial pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), treatments for various contributory risk factors have been proposed; however, there is no single validated therapy or drug association recommended for all cases which can stand alone. Mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment of obesity, fatty liver and insulin resistance are displayed along with recommendations and position points. Evidences and practice can get sustainable and cost-benefit valuable outcomes by participatory interventions. These recommendations can be enhanced by comprehensive research projects, addressed to societal issues and innovation, market appeal and industry development, cultural acceptance and sustainability. The basis of participatory medicine is a greater widespread awareness of a condition which is both a disease and an easy documented and inclusive clue for associated diseases and unhealthy lifestyle. This model is suitable for addressing prevention and useful for monitoring improvement, worsening and adherence with non-invasive imaging tools which allow targeted approaches. The latter include health psychology and nutritional and physical exercise prescription expertise disseminated by continuous medical education but, more important, by concrete curricula for training undergraduate and postgraduate students. It is possible and recommended to do it by early formal teaching of ultrasound imaging procedures and of practical lifestyle intervention strategies, including approaches aimed to healthier fashion suggestions. Guidelines and requirements of research project funding calls should be addressed also to NAFLD and allied conditions and should encompass the goal of training by research and the inclusion of participatory medicine topics. A deeper awareness of ethics of competences in health professionals

  10. Air contamination measurements for the evaluation of internal dose to workers in nuclear medicine departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Massimi, B.; Bianchini, D.; Sarnelli, A.; D'Errico, V.; Marcocci, F.; Mezzenga, E.; Mostacci, D.

    2017-11-01

    Radionuclides handled in nuclear medicine departments are often characterized by high volatility and short half-life. It is generally difficult to monitor directly the intake of these short-lived radionuclides in hospital staff: this makes measuring air contamination of utmost interest. The aim of the present work is to provide a method for the evaluation of internal doses to workers in nuclear medicine, by means of an air activity sampling detector, to ensure that the limits prescribed by the relevant legislation are respected. A continuous air sampling system measures isotope concentration with a Nal(TI) detector. Energy efficiency of the system was assessed with GEANT4 and with known activities of 18F. Air is sampled in a number of areas of the nuclear medicine department of the IRST-IRCCS hospital (Meldola- Italy). To evaluate committed doses to hospital staff involved (doctors, technicians, nurses) different exposure situations (rooms, times, radionuclides etc) were considered. After estimating the intake, the committed effective dose has been evaluated, for the different radionuclides, using the dose coefficients mandated by the Italian legislation. Error propagation for the estimated intake and personal dose has been evaluated, starting from measurement statistics.

  11. Investigation of the possible use of Arglabin, new antitumor medicine to prevent oncological diseases after radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikenov, T.; Karabalin, B.; Rakhimov, K.; Adekenov, S.

    1996-01-01

    Background: One of the heaviest effects of radiation exposure and its pollutants to the environment is a growth of oncologic diseases as a sequence of breakage of genetic body substance and transmission of Genetic load to the next generation. People of Kazakstan are anxious of the present situation with harmful effect of remaining radiation doses.Purpose of research: the examination of molecular mechanisms of action for a new drug 'Arglabin' was done with the purpose of preventing the malignant tumor occurrence for those people living on the territory of higher risk (in high radiation locations). Research work of the mechanisms of action for 'Arglabin' drug: - examination of the drug effectiveness to enzymes of prenylated proteins; - examination of the drug effectiveness on functioning the oncogene products; - examination of drug metabolism. Research work of the possibility for using 'Arglabin' to prevent oncology diseases includes: - establishment of experimental model of increased risk of oncologic disease on different groups of laboratory animals using the low-dosage radiation sphere; - examination of the drug effectiveness in oncology diseases prevention; - determination of mechanisms and the prevention's results on cancer

  12. [Obesity prevention--is there any limits for primary care medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovanu, Rodica; Coman, Adorata Elena; Petrovanu, Cynthia; Murariu, G C; Popa, Elena; Grigore, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    What does obesity mean? One of the people's health markers is the nutritional steady-state, the mean ponderal equilibrium. The normal weight means the longest life expectancy assuring body weight, from all points of view. The body weight increasing means adipose tissue accumulation and the onset of obesity. Obesity quantification could be made by BMI (body mass index)--normal range 22-24 kg/m2- waist to hip ratio--normal range 0.8-0.9--and abdominal perimeter--normal range up to 80 cm. Why should we do obesity prevention? Because obesity means a high risk factor for cardio-vascular disease, cancer, bone diseases, general mortality. By 10 kg weight loss, real benefits are achieved: left ventricle hypertrophy reduction, decreasing of cardio-vascular risk, pulmonary function improve, reducing of atherosclerotic symptoms by 91%, of arterial pressure by 10-20 mmHg, of diabetes mortality by 30%, cancer by 40% and general mortality by 20%. In our country, 53% of population is overweight and obese, predominantly urban population. Obesity costs are high: about 4-8% of health budget are spent for screening, diagnosis and obesity management, including economical losses. When should we do obesity prevention? Primary care physicians must control all health indexes. If the patient passes over normal ranges of body weight, we should take account and intervene efficiently, by specific and non-specific therapeutic methods. How could we do obesity prevention? General care physicians and specialists could prevent efficiently this disease by taking apart obesity causes and risk factors: genetics, life-style, drug intake, smoking, professional and endocrine factors. Primary and secondary care physicians have to screen high risk persons, to analyze professional, familial and social conditions, to appreciate educational and economical status. All these realize an integral obesity management, together with the psychologist and the sociologist. Secondary prevention means obesity treatment

  13. Collaborative Paradigm of Preventive, Personalized, and Precision Medicine With Point-of-Care Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in biosensors, medical instrumentation, and information processing and communication technologies (ICT) have enabled significant improvements in healthcare. However, these technologies have been mainly applied in clinical environments, such as hospitals and healthcare facilities, under managed care by well-trained and specialized individuals. The global challenge of providing quality healthcare at affordable cost leads to the proposed paradigm of P reventive, Personalized, and Precision Medicine that requires a seamless use of technology and infrastructure support for patients and healthcare providers at point-of-care (POC) locations including homes, semi or pre-clinical facilities, and hospitals. The complexity of the global healthcare challenge necessitates strong collaborative interdisciplinary synergies involving all stakeholder groups including academia, federal research institutions, industry, regulatory agencies, and clinical communities. It is critical to evolve with collaborative efforts on the translation of research to technology development toward clinical validation and potential healthcare applications. This special issue is focused on technology innovation and translational research for POC applications with potential impact in improving global healthcare in the respective areas. Some of these papers were presented at the NIH-IEEE Strategic Conference on Healthcare Innovations and POC Technologies for Precision Medicine (HI-POCT) held at the NIH on November 9-10, 2015. The papers included in the Special Issue provide a spectrum of critical issues and collaborative resources on translational research of advanced POC devices and ICT into global healthcare environment.

  14. Clinical Complexity in Medicine: A Measurement Model of Task and Patient Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, R; Weir, C; Del Fiol, G

    2016-01-01

    Complexity in medicine needs to be reduced to simple components in a way that is comprehensible to researchers and clinicians. Few studies in the current literature propose a measurement model that addresses both task and patient complexity in medicine. The objective of this paper is to develop an integrated approach to understand and measure clinical complexity by incorporating both task and patient complexity components focusing on the infectious disease domain. The measurement model was adapted and modified for the healthcare domain. Three clinical infectious disease teams were observed, audio-recorded and transcribed. Each team included an infectious diseases expert, one infectious diseases fellow, one physician assistant and one pharmacy resident fellow. The transcripts were parsed and the authors independently coded complexity attributes. This baseline measurement model of clinical complexity was modified in an initial set of coding processes and further validated in a consensus-based iterative process that included several meetings and email discussions by three clinical experts from diverse backgrounds from the Department of Biomedical Informatics at the University of Utah. Inter-rater reliability was calculated using Cohen's kappa. The proposed clinical complexity model consists of two separate components. The first is a clinical task complexity model with 13 clinical complexity-contributing factors and 7 dimensions. The second is the patient complexity model with 11 complexity-contributing factors and 5 dimensions. The measurement model for complexity encompassing both task and patient complexity will be a valuable resource for future researchers and industry to measure and understand complexity in healthcare.

  15. Quality assurance of activity measurements in nuclear medicine and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodloff, G.; Debertin, K.

    1992-04-01

    This report contains 29 contributions. Only measurements with instruments were considered that have a reading for the radionuclide-specific activity in Bq, Bq/cm 2 , or Bq/cm 3 . This class of instruments covers, for example, radionuclide calibrators and contamination monitors. In the individual contributions, the basic physical concepts essential for activity measurements, the construction and calibration of the instruments, aspects of quality assurance from the producer's and applier's point of view, and the relevant regulations and standards are treated. Results of the detailed discussions that followed the lecture programme and referred separately to aspects of nuclear medicine and radiation protection are summarized. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the 99Tcm measurements in the nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Nicoli, Ieda Gomes; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing 99 Tc m . Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  17. THE ROLE OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND MARKETING IN PROMOTING OF ANTI-SMOKING CAMPAIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Costina LUCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, according to official statistics (ec.europa.eu the percentage of smokers is about 29% of the population, and smoking still remains the main reason underlying the deaths and illnesses that could have been prevented. In the past 12 months, 31% of EU smokers have tried to quit smoking. In this gloomy context, the European Commission already has a tradition in preventing and stopping smoking, in addition to the broader tobacco control: in recent years have been organized numerous campaigns that aim to inform the European public about the problems caused by consumption tobacco, increasing awareness of the dangers of smoking, thus contributing to the long-term objective proposed by the Commission as "Europe free from tobacco smoke."

  18. Prepsychotic treatment for schizophrenia: preventive medicine, social control, or drug marketing strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, R

    1999-01-01

    The definition of schizophrenia is currently being extended to include a "prepsychotic" phase. Prepsychosis detection and intervention programs have already been established in Australia. These are intended to identify people "at-risk" for schizophrenia and treat them to prevent their transition into psychosis. However, analysis of leading research in this field shows high levels of arbitrariness in the selection of diagnostic indicators and a lack of convincing evidence about the efficacy of treatments. The favored prophylactic treatment is atypical neuroleptic medication, and sponsorship of research is providing manufacturers of these drugs with a ubiquitous presence in the field. Many risks are associated with atypical neuroleptics and adverse reactions include psychosis. Taken together these factors suggest that prepsychotic intervention may be more concerned with expanding the market for atypical neuroleptics than with preventing schizophrenia.

  19. Managing genetic tests, surveillance, and preventive medicine under a public health insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipova-Neumann, Lilia; Hoy, Michael

    2014-03-01

    There is a prospect in the medium to long term future of substantial advancements in the understanding of the relationship between disease and genetics. We consider the implications of increased information from genetic tests about predisposition to diseases from the perspective of managing health care provision under a public health insurance scheme. In particular, we consider how such information may potentially improve the targeting of medical surveillance (or prevention) activities to improve the chances of early detection of disease onset. We show that the moral hazard implications inherent in surveillance and prevention decisions that are chosen to be privately rather than socially optimal may be exacerbated by increased information about person-specific predisposition to disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Institutional changes for the future of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggioli, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Following a brief overview of the initiatives undertaken since 2005 by the Italian Society of Hygiene (SitI) regarding he future of Hygiene and Public Health in Italy, the authors examine the latest proposals for renewing the organizational structure of the departments of Prevention, as well as for training programs and function of public health physicians. These changes, however, may be insufficient for a real renewal of public health, in the absence of institutional changes which would allocate administrative management of healthcare functions to local government, with community participation in health promotion. The planned establishment of "metropolitan cities" in 2012 is an opportunity for the SItI to show that the management of health administrative functions by the new local government organs is compatible with the institutional framework, is useful for achieving the objectives of health promotion and disease prevention, and facilitates health policy in local governments.

  1. Translating Personality Psychology to Help Personalize Preventive Medicine for Young-Adult Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Salomon; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Hancox, Robert J.; Poulton, Richie; Roberts, Brent; Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom

    2014-01-01

    The rising number of newly insured young adults brought on by healthcare reform will soon increase demands on primary-care physicians. Physicians will face more young-adult patients which presents an opportunity for more prevention-oriented care. In the current study, we evaluated whether brief observer reports of young adults’ personality traits could predict which individuals would be at greater risk for poor health as they entered midlife. Following the Dunedin Study cohort of 1,000 indivi...

  2. Measurement of beta emitting radionuclides in dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tastan, S.; Soylu, A.; Kucuk, O.; Ibis, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radionuclides for diagnostics purposes like Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67 and In-111 are measured by using ionization type of dose calibrators. Therapeutic radionuclides, which emit both beta and gamma rays are detected by the same type of dose calibrators. Other therapeutic products like Y-90, P-32 and Sr-89 are pure beta emitters and they are gaining wider utility because various new therapy radiopharmaceuticals are being developed. The type of container material, like glass or plastic, may seriously affect radioactivity measurement due to attenuation, Since it is crucial to give the exact amount of radioactivity to the patient for therapy purposes, dedicated dose calibrators are specially manufactured for the measurement of these radionuclides. But these measuring systems are not widely available in nuclear medicine centers where therapy is applied to the patient. It is a known fact that dose calibrators routinely used in nuclear medicine departments can be calibrated for vials and syringes using standard sources of the same radioisotope. The method of calibration of Y-90 measurement for two ionization chamber dose calibrators available in the institute will be summarized in this presentation

  3. Caries preventive measures used in orthodontic practices: an evidence-based decision?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.; Frencken, J.E.F.M.; Hof, M.A. van 't; Katsaros, C.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although it is well known that treatment with fixed appliances increases the risk of enamel demineralization, little information is available about preventive measures that orthodontists actually use. This study was executed to survey measures used in orthodontic practices to prevent

  4. The Cinema Club as a Way for the Debate and Treatment to the Antidrug Preventive Education in Medicine Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GARCÍA TORRES

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The diverse influences as regards prevention presently XXI century, among those that are, the education and the art, they are erected as an unavoidable exponent of the work against the drugs consumer and their undesirable effects. In fact the operation of the Cinema Club Sara Gomez of the Ability of Medicine No.1, stimulates, by means of the debate, the creative learning of the students who you/they play a more active part in the search of the knowledge starting from the complex situations of the life that are reflected in the film materials that are shown and they analyze in cinema debates conceived to promote an attitude coherent chord with the principles of the Cuban public health.

  5. Study on preventive and therapeutic effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts on rat with bone marrow injury induced by radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Jun; Chen Baotian; Meng Hua; Liu Wenchao; Xie Wei; Sheng Rong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts, Danggui (Radix angelicae sinensis), Chuanxiong (Rhizoma chuanxiong), Huangqi (Radix astragali), and Danshen (Radix salviae miltiorrhizae) on rats with bone marrow injury induced with whole-body gamma-ray exposure. Methods: Sixty male rats were randomly divided into three groups, control group, model group (irradiation only with no administration of the extracts), and drug treatment group (irradiation and administration of Chinese medicinal herbal extracts). Rats were irradiated with 6 Gy cobolt-60 gamma rays after administration of the extracts for two weeks. The number of marrow nucleate cells was counted, and VEGF and PDGF expression were measured with Western blot method on the 7th day since the irradiation. Results: Bone marrow nucleate cells and VEGF and PDGF expression in bone marrow cells in the model group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01), and these values in the drug treatment group were significantly higher than those in the model group (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: The extracts of Chuanxiong, Danggui, Huangqi, and Danshen can be used to prevent from ration bone marrow injury in rats. (authors)

  6. Methods of the physical medicine therapy in prevention of heterotopic ossification after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojović Zoran

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/aim: In the prevention of periarticular heterotopic ossification (HO, a common complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID and irradiation are used. Some theories presume that local hypoxia of the soft tissue causes HO. The aim of this study was to investigate if the early use of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF could prevent this ossification since it accelerates the circulation and oxigenation of soft tissue. Methods. The study included three groups of the patients with primary THA. The group C consisted of 66 patients/79 hips who had only kinesitherapy in postoperative rehabilitation. The group B consisted of 117 patients/ 131 hips who had PEMF and interferential current (IC which, on average, started on the 14th day after the surgery combined with the standard kinesitherapy. The group A consisted of 117 patients/131 hips who had PEMF from the third postoperative day and IC from, on average, the 14th postoperative day with the standard kinesitherapy. The classification of HO was done on a standard AP roentgenograms of the hips, taken at least one year after the surgery. Results. The overall HO was seen in 50.63% of the group C patients, in 43.51% of the B group and in 16.67% of the group A. Severe HO (III and IV class according to Brooker was seen in 26.58% of the group C patients and in 6.10% of the group B, but none in the group A. Conclusion. According to the obtained results an early treatment with PEMF could prevent severe HO and reduce the overall HO.

  7. Measurements of the ionising radiation level at a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulik, P.; Kowalska, M.; Golnik, N.; Budzynska, A.; Dziuk, M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of radiation level measurements at workplaces in a nuclear medicine facility performing PET/ CT examinations. This study meticulously determines the staff radiation exposure in a PET/CT facility by tracking the path of patient movement. The measurements of the instantaneous radiation exposure were performed using an electronic radiometer with a proportional counter that was equipped with the option of recording the results on line. The measurements allowed for visualisation of the staff's instantaneous exposure caused by a patient walking through the department after the administration of 18 F-FDG. An estimation of low doses associated with each working step and the exposure during a routine day in the department was possible. The measurements were completed by determining the average radiation level using highly sensitive thermoluminescent detectors. (authors)

  8. Alzheimer’s disease: oral manifestations, treatment and preventive measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ortega-Martínez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the treatment of patients with dementia types such as Alzheimer’s, non-current and tough situations are faced. Treatment should be tailored to each stage of the disease and for each patient. In this type of disease, it is very important to involve families and caregivers to improve the patients´ quality of life. The main goal with these patients is prevention. All oral manifestations caused by the lack of inadequate oral hygiene, xerostomia and manifestations derived from taking drugs should be controlled. The aim of this review is to describe the main oral manifestations which can result from this disease and the best treatment options taking into account the patients’ clinical stages.

  9. [Addictions and psoriasis: an example of the dermatologist's implication in preventive medicine ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, N; Viraben, R; Paul, C

    2008-02-01

    Association between psoriasis and addictive disorders has been longtime suspected and several studies are supporting the association of psoriasis and alcohol, and of psoriasis and tobacco. The association of psoriasis and other addictive disorders has not yet been reported. The association of psoriasis and alcohol is not restricted to alcoholism (defined as excessive alcohol consumption with psychic and/or psychic (correction of physic) dependence). It has been suggested that psoriasis is more closely linked to alcohol misuse than it is to alcoholism. The association of psoriasis and alcohol seems not been influenced by the gender, and shows a dose-effect relation. The most striking link between cigarette smoking and psoriasis has been established in palmo-plantar pustulosis. This link also seems to exist for other forms of psoriasis, with a dose-effect relation. Cigarette smoking could be involved in the high prevalence of lung cancer and cardio vascular disorders in psoriatic patients. There are a number of difficulties in the assessment of the correlation between psoriasis, cigarette smoking, and alcohol, and even more so in establishing a causal or etiologic relationship between the three, because of several confusion factors. This must not occult the reality of this association and its impact of psoriatic patients' health and the importance of detecting and preventing them. The detection and the prevention of the complications of these addictions belong to the dermatologists.

  10. [Promoting development of new traditional Chinese medicine by combination disease-syndrome and multi-objective optimization research in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Guo, Li-li

    2015-09-01

    Differences in theories, application forms and evaluation standards about curative effect between traditional Chinese medicine and modern medicine lead to not only question safty and effectiveness but also hinder development and internationalization of traditional Chinese medicine. Combination of common problems in traditional Chinese new drug registration with experiences in research on traditional Chinese new drugs of prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease elucidate application value about theory of disease-syndrome combination and multi-objective optimization in several ways such as the indications positioning, preparation process optimization, preclinical efficacy evaluating and clinical assessmenting of efficacy and analysis development prospect.

  11. [The biological component of the professional standards and qualification characteristics of preventive medicine specialists (as exemplified by the specialty of parasitology)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I

    2014-01-01

    In the context of theoretical analysis, the paper characterizes a specialist training system based on the biological component of the qualification characteristics and professional standard of preventive medicine specialists. Evidence is provided for the relationship between the components of the training system for preventive medicine specialists. The authors also specify the fact that the content of qualification characteristics and professional standards, besides general requirements, must take into account requirements for training the specialists in terms of natural and climatic and socioeconomic characteristics of regions.

  12. Measurements Of Fingers Doses Of Staff Members In Nuclear Medicine Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL LEHYANI, S.H.; SHOUSHA, H.A.; HASSAN, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    For some occupationally radiation exposed groups, the hands are more heavily exposed to ionizing radiation than the rest of the body. The Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority runs an extensive personal dosimetry service in Egypt, but finger doses have not been measured to a wide extent. In this study, the finger doses were measured for five different nuclear medicine staff occupational groups for which heavy irradiation of the hands was suspected. Finger doses were measured for nuclear medicine physicians, technologists, nurses and physicists. The nuclear medicine staff working with the radioactive materials wears two TLD dosimeters during the whole period, which lasted from 1 to 4 weeks. The staff performs their work on a regular basis throughout the month, and means annual doses were calculated for these groups. The doses to the fingers for the 99m Tc technologists and nurses of groups (2) and (3) were observed to be 30.24 ± 14.5 μSv/GBq (mean ± SD) and 30.37 ± 17.5 μSv/GBq, respectively. Similarly, the dose to the fingers for the 131 I technologists in group (5) was estimated to be 126.13 ± 38.2μSv/GBq. Finger doses for the physicians could not be calculated per unit of activity because they did not handle the radiopharmaceuticals directly but their doses were reported in millisieverts that accumulated in 1 week. The doses to the fingers of the physicist were 16.3±7.7 μSv/GBq. The maximum average finger dose in this study was found to be 2.8 mSv for the technologists handled therapeutic 131 I (group 5). It could be concluded that the maximum expected annual dose to the extremities appeared to be less than the annual limit (500 mSv/y).

  13. Cancer in numbers: Do preventive measures for colorectal cancer apply?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro J. Tárraga López

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Introduction: Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second most common cancer in men, after lung cancer, and is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the second leading cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most common cause of cancer death if both genders are considered together. CRC accounts for approximately 10% of cancer deaths. Modifiable risk factors for CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, overweight and obesity, processed meat consumption, and excessive alcohol consumption. CRC screening programs are possible in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographically populated areas and western lifestyles. Objective: To evaluate the effect on the incidence and mortality of diet and lifestyle of CRC and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through the early diagnosis of CRC. Methodology: An exhaustive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC is carried out and a meta-analysis of the same blocks is carried out. Results: 301 items related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were recovered. Of these, 177 were considered valid in the meta-analysis: 12 in epidemiology, 56 in diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different projections for the early detection of CRC. Cancer is a global problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no question of which environmental factors, probably diet, may explain these cancer rates. Excessive consumption of alcohol and high cholesterol diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet low in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also associated with an increased risk of developing colon cancer with overexpression of p53. Eating pulses at least three times a week reduces the risk of

  14. Prevention is still the best medicine. Condom social marketing campaign changes attitudes and actions in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, L L

    1993-09-01

    In Guinea, jingles promoting Prudence condoms are heard on radio and television in 4 different national languages 5 times a day. This has produced an attitudinal change through an intense national media campaign orchestrated by the USAID-financed Social Marketing of Contraceptives Project carried out by Population Services International (PSI), which provides family planning information, products and services through public and private outlets for 500,000 sexually active couples. PSI's paid media campaign has sponsored call-in talk shows on women and AIDS and religion and AIDS at the rural radio station in Labe. Billboards placed in key locations remind people that using condoms helps prevent AIDS. PSI organized a team of 10 Prudence condom marketing agents in March 1992 to establish 400 nontraditional retail and 50 traditional retail and wholesale outlets for condoms. Outlets include pharmacies, restaurants, hotels, grocery stores, and nightclubs. The distributors sell the condoms at a profit. In the first 6 months, PSI distributed 2.3 million condoms. Young women want to space their children and limit the number of children, said the chief midwife for the Guinean Association for Family Well Being clinic in Conakry. Guinea's population growth rate is 2.8%, which will result in a doubling of the population in 25 years. In May 1992, Guinea's government ratified a national population policy supporting family planning. One of the primary goals is to increase contraceptive use to 25% of all couples. PSI works with the Ministry of Health and the Guinean Association for Family Well Being to integrate family planning and sexually transmitted disease prevention activities into 32 primary health care centers in Guinea's Forest Region. To combat the spread of HIV infection, PSI provides technical assistance to the National AIDS Committee to carry out AIDS information activities throughout the country, targeting the military, police, truck drivers, and students.

  15. QiShenYiQi Pills, a Compound Chinese Medicine, Prevented Cisplatin Induced Acute Kidney Injury via Regulating Mitochondrial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is a serious adverse effect of cisplatin chemotherapy that limits its clinical application, to deal with which no effective management is available so far. The present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of QiShenYiQi Pills (QSYQ, a compound Chinese medicine, against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice. Pretreatment with QSYQ significantly attenuated the cisplatin induced increase in plasma urea and creatinine, along with the histological damage, such as tubular necrosis, protein cast, and desquamation of epithelial cells, improved the renal microcirculation disturbance as indicated by renal blood flow, microvascular flow velocity, and the number of adherent leukocytes. Additionally, QSYQ prevented mitochondrial dysfunction by preventing the cisplatin induced downregulation of mitochondrial complex activity and the expression of NDUFA10, ATP5D, and Sirt3. Meanwhile, the cisplatin-increased renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, caspase9, cleaved-caspase9, and cleaved-caspase3 were all diminished by QSYQ pretreatment. In summary, the pretreatment with QSYQ remarkably ameliorated the cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in mice, possibly via the regulation of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and apoptosis.

  16. National comparison of {sup 131}I measurement among nuclear medicine clinics of eight countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsovcova, Veronika, E-mail: volsovcova@cmi.c [Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1, Praha 10, 102 00 (Czech Republic); Iwahara, Akira [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 Brazil (Brazil); Oropesa, Pilar [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km 31/2, Guanabacoa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Joseph, Leena; Ravindra, Anuradha [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Division, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Ghafoori, Mostafa [SSDL, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Son, Hye-Kyung [Radiation Safety Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 194 Tongilro, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Sahagia, Maria [Horia Hulubei National Institute of R and D for Physics and Engineering, POB MG-6, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Tastan, Selma [Ankara University Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cebeci 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Zimmerman, Brian [Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8462 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A generally applicable protocol for organizing comparisons among nuclear medicine clinics created within the IAEA project CRP E2.10.05 was tested in Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Iran, Republic of Korea, Romania and Turkey in 2007. Comparisons of measurement of {sup 131}I were organized by local pilot laboratories with different backgrounds and levels of experience in this field. The results and experiences gained were compared and analyzed. A majority of results in each national comparison were within 10% of the reference value.

  17. Prevention measures and socio-economic development result in a decrease in malaria in Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan-Qing; Li, Yu-Chun; Zhang, Zhi-Ming; Wang, Guang-Ze; Hu, Xi-Min; Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-09-15

    Historically, the incidence of malaria in the Hainan Province, China has been high. However, since 2001 the malaria incidence in Hainan has decreased due to large-scale, public educational, promotional campaigns and the adoption of preventative measures against malaria following the fast growth of socio-economic development. The present study analysed the correlation between prevention measures and social economic development on the incidence of malaria in Hainan from 2001 to 2013. The data of malaria preventative measures and socio-economic development were collected from various cities and counties in Hainan Province from 2001 to 2013 and analysed by the grey correlation analysis system. Seasonal preventive medication and local fiscal revenue increases are significantly related to the reduction of malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013 (R1 = 0.751677; R5 = 0.764795). Malaria prevention and control measures and local economic development in Hainan decreased malaria incidence from 2001 to 2013.

  18. Imperative of preventive measures addressing the life-cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD) are fast changing. The prevalence has risen to unprecedented levels, and the young and the underprivileged are increasingly affected. The classic view of the etiology of NCD consists of a genetic susceptibility which is precipitated by aging and modern lifestyle. In a virtual absence of any methods to tackle genetic susceptibility, the preventive approach has so far been focused on the control of lifestyle factors in those at high risk (old, and those with positive family history and elevated risk factors). Such an approach might help high risk individuals, but is unlikely to curtail the burgeoning epidemic of obesity and diabetes. Recent research has suggested that susceptibility to NCD originates in early life through non-genetic mechanisms (fetal programming). Tackling these may offer an exciting opportunity to control the NCD epidemic by influencing the susceptibility in a more durable manner than only controlling the lifestyle factors in adult life. The imperative is to address the life cycle rather than concentrate on the end stages. Copyright (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Survey on quality control measurements for nuclear medicine imaging equipment in Finland in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpela, Helinae; Niemelae, Jarkko

    2008-01-01

    Routine quality control (QC) is an essential requirement in nuclear medicine (NM) in order to ensure optimal functioning of equipment. To harmonise the routine QC of NM imaging equipment in Finnish hospital s (planar gamma cameras, SPECT, coincidence gamma cameras, PET), the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) will publish guidelines on QC in collaboration with several hospital physicists. Recommendations will be provided on routine QC measurements and on the frequency of testing. It is also planned to provide recommendations for the acceptance criteria when assessing different performance parameters for NM imaging equipment. In order to determine what performance parameters of NM equipment are currently measured in hospitals, how frequently they are measured and what acceptance criteria are used, a survey was carried out on the QC of NM equipment in Finland during 2006. (author)

  20. Comparison of the activity measurements in nuclear medicine services in the Brazilian northeast region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias Fragoso, Maria da Conceição; de Albuquerque, Antônio Morais; de Oliveira, Mércia L; de Lima, Fabiana Farias; Barreto, Flávio Chiappetta Paes; de Andrade Lima, Ricardo

    2013-12-01

    The Northeastern Regional Centre for Nuclear Sciences (CRCN-NE), National Nuclear Energy Commission, has organized for the first time in nuclear medicine services (NMSs) in the Brazilian northeast region a comparison of activity measurements for (99m)Tc, (131)I, (67)Ga, (201)Tl and (57)Co. This tool is widely utilized to evaluate not only the accuracy of radionuclide calibrators, but also the competence of NMSs to measure the activity of the radiopharmaceuticals and the performance of the personnel involved in these measurements. The comparison results showed that 90% of the results received from participants are within the ±10% limit established by the Brazilian Norm. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  2. [Participation as Target of Social Medicine and Nursing Care: - Legal Definition of Long-Term Care Dependency - Strategies to Prevent Long-Term Care Dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüchtern, Elisabeth; Gansweid, Barbara; Gerber, Hans; von Mittelstaedt, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Objective: By the "Second Bill to Strengthen Long-Term Care", a new concept of long-term care dependency will be introduced, valid from 2017. Long-term care dependency according to Social Code XI will be defined covering more aspects than today. Therefore, the working group "Nursing Care" of the division "Social Medicine in Practice and Rehabilitation" in the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention presents their results after working on the social medicine perspective of the definition and prevention of long-term care dependency. Methods: Both the definition and strategies to prevent long-term care dependency are systematically taken into consideration from the point of view of social medicine on the basis of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), as long-term care dependency means a defined condition of disability. Results: Both the current and the new concept of long-term care dependency focus activity limitations. The perspective of social medicine considers the interactions of health condition, its effects on daily activities and personal as well as environmental factors. From this point of view approaches for social benefits concerning prevention and rehabilitation can be identified systematically so as to work against the development and progression of long-term care dependency. The reference to the ICF can facilitate the communication between different professions. The new "graduation" of long-term care dependency would allow an international "translation" referring to the ICF. Conclusion: Experts from the field of social medicine as well as those of nursing care, care-givers and nursing researchers have in common the objective that persons in need of nursing care can participate in as many aspects of life of importance to them in an autonomous and self-determined way. The point of view of social medicine on long-term care dependency is fundamental for all occupational groups that are involved and for their

  3. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  4. Association between complementary and alternative medicine use, preventive care practices, and use of conventional medical services among adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrow, Donald; Egede, Leonard E

    2006-01-01

    To assess the association between complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use, preventive care practices, and use of conventional medical services among adults with diabetes. We analyzed data on 2,474 adults with diabetes. We created an overall CAM-use category based on use of any of the following: diets, herbs, chiropractic care, yoga, relaxation, acupuncture, ayuverda, biofeedback, chelation, energy healing, Reiki therapy, hypnosis, massage, naturopathy, and homeopathy. We used multiple logistic regression to assess the effect of CAM use on preventive care practices (receipt of influenza and pneumonia vaccines) and use of conventional medical services (number of primary care and emergency department visits). STATA was used for statistical analysis to account for the complex survey design. A total of 48% of adults with diabetes used some form of CAM. CAM use was independently associated with receipt of pneumonia vaccination (odds ratio 1.56 [95% CI 1.26-1.94]) but not significantly associated with receipt of influenza vaccination (1.17 [0.92-1.48]). CAM use was independently associated with visiting the emergency department (1.34 [1.06-1.70]), having six or more primary care visits (1.44 [1.14-1.83]), and having eight or more primary care visits (1.66 [1.22-2.25]). In contrast to the findings of previous studies, CAM use appears to be associated with increased likelihood of receipt of preventive care services and increased emergency department and primary care visits. CAM use may not be a barrier to use of conventional medical services in adults with diabetes.

  5. Using Cognitive Interviews to Enhance Measurement in Empirical Bioethics: Developing a Measure of the Preventive Misconception in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Jeremy; Seils, Damon M; Watson-Ormond, J Kemp; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2016-01-01

    We describe our use of cognitive interviews in developing a measure of "preventive misconception" to demonstrate the importance of this approach to researchers developing surveys in empirical bioethics. The preventive misconception involves research participants' false beliefs about a prevention trial, including beliefs that the interventions being tested will certainly be effective. We developed and refined a measure of the preventive misconception using qualitative interviews that focused on cognitive testing of proposed survey items with HIV prevention trial participants. Two main problems emerged during initial interviews. First, the phrase "reduce your risk," used to elicit beliefs about risk reduction from the use of study medications, was interpreted as relating to a reduction of risky behaviors. Second, the phrase "participating in this study," intended to elicit beliefs about trial group assignment, was interpreted as relating to personal behavior changes associated with study participation. Additional interviews using a revised measure were no longer problematic in these ways, and participants felt the response options were appropriate for conveying their answers. These findings underscore the importance of cognitive testing in developing surveys for empirical bioethics.

  6. Prevention of triplets and higher order multiples: trends in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Kim L; Callister, Lynn Clark

    2005-01-01

    In the United States and throughout the world, today's healthcare providers are challenged by the risks of multiple gestation pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) often used to treat infertility raise ethical issues including informed consent, veracity, and nonmalificence. In the United States, there is the need to improve maternal and fetal/neonatal mortality and morbidity by proposing legislation regulating ART and supporting single embryo transfers with no more than 2 such transfers. Beginning with the diagnosis of infertility, providers have a responsibility to educate, inform, and treat infertile couples. From the moment pregnancy with multiples is confirmed, these families are faced with incredible stressors including decision making on multifetal or selective reduction. Full disclosure of risks involved throughout the course of care should be discussed and documented in the record and plan of care. Currently in the United States, legislation does not regulate ART, including ovulation induction/enhancement and in vitro fertilization. Although the United States does have self-regulation via limited reporting through their professional organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, an unlimited number of embryos may be transferred. Unfortunately, many healthcare providers have not recognized the responsibility and burden placed on families and society as a whole. Lack of regulation means women may become pregnant with high order multiples, which raises serious moral and ethical issues.

  7. Evaluating complementary and alternative medicine interventions: in search of appropriate patient-centered outcome measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallory Devon

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central to the development of a sound evidence base for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM interventions is the need for valid, reliable and relevant outcome measures to assess whether the interventions work. We assessed the specific needs for a database that would cover a wide range of outcomes measures for CAM research and considered a framework for such a database. Methods The study was a survey of CAM researchers, practitioners and students. An online questionnaire was emailed to the members of the Canadian Interdisciplinary Network for CAM Research (IN-CAM and the CAM Education and Research Network of Alberta (CAMera. The majority of survey questions were open-ended and asked about outcome measures currently used, outcome measures' assessment criteria, sources of information, perceived barriers to finding outcome measures and outcome domains of importance. Descriptive quantitative analysis and qualitative content analysis were used. Results One hundred and sixty-four completed surveys were received. Of these, 62 respondents reported using outcome measures in their CAM research and identified 92 different specific outcomes. The most important barriers were the fact that, for many health concepts, outcome measures do not yet exist, as well as issues related to accessibility of instruments. Important outcome domains identified included physical, psychological, social, spiritual, quality of life and holistic measures. Participants also mentioned the importance of individualized measures that assess unique patient-centered outcomes for each research participant, and measures to assess the context of healing and the process of healing. Conclusion We have developed a preliminary framework that includes all components of health-related outcomes. The framework provides a foundation for a larger, comprehensive collection of CAM outcomes. It fits very well in a whole systems perspective, which requires an expanded set of

  8. [Hazard assessment and occupational safety measures in surgery : Relevant knowledge on occupational medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, S; Meyer, F; Böckelmann, I

    2016-11-01

    Surgeons routinely work in an environment with occupational risks and hazards about which they are often uninformed. Based on the currently available scientific literature this review article describes the various hazards in the operating theater and their effects on personnel, particularly from the surgical perspective. A further aim of this article is to describe the occupational safety measures to reduce the burdens and to maintain the long-term health of personnel. Ultimately, surgeons should be equipped with the necessary knowledge for implementing hazard assessments according to the German Occupational Health and Safety Act. Surgeons are exposed to increased risks and hazards by working in awkward positions with a high risk for musculoskeletal pain and injuries. They are also commonly exposed to inhalational anesthetics, surgical smoke, radiation, noise and infectious agents. Furthermore, the mental and emotional stress associated with these activities is also high. Meaningful occupational safety measures for reduction of burdens are from a technical aspect the installation of effective air extraction systems, measures to reduce exposure to radiation and noise and the use of safer instruments to prevent needle stick injuries. Furthermore, individual occupational safety measures, such as the use of personal protective equipment (e.g. radiation protective clothing and double gloves) must be observed. The consistent implementation and also adherence to these described occupational safety measures and regulations can reduce the burden on operating theater personnel and contribute to maintaining health. Furthermore, periodic preventive healthcare controls and health checks by the company medical officer and individually initiated additional prevention measures can be a sensible augmentation to these safety measures.

  9. Measuring endoscopic performance for colorectal cancer prevention quality improvement in a gastroenterology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, Karen A

    2014-03-01

    A gastroenterology practice lacked quality measures to evaluate the practice's colorectal cancer prevention efforts. Colonoscopy performance data were gathered from a retrospective review of 90 charts using a modified Colorectal Cancer Prevention Data Collection Form. Practice stakeholders and project leader reviewed the data, identified practice deficiencies, conducted root cause analysis, and developed practice changes. Implementing the prioritized recommendations and routinely benchmarking care were warranted to ensure effective practice to improve outcomes for colorectal cancer prevention. Achieving higher-value care has led to increased efforts to improve systems for measuring care, using these measures for quality improvement and directly linking quality outcomes to reimbursement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preventing the aortic complications of Marfan syndrome: a case-example of translational genomic medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Wan-Po, Alain; Loeys, Bart; Farndon, Peter; Latham, David; Bradley, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The translational path from pharmacological insight to effective therapy can be a long one. We aim to describe the management of Marfan syndrome as a case-example of how pharmacological and genomic insights can contribute to improved therapy. We undertook a literature search for studies of Marfan syndrome, to identify milestones in description, understanding and therapy of the syndrome. From the studies retrieved we then weaved an evidence-based description of progress. Marfan syndrome shows considerable heterogeneity in clinical presentation. It relies on defined clinical criteria with confirmation based on FBN1 mutation testing. Surgical advances have prolonged life in Marfan syndrome. First-line prophylaxis of complications with β-adrenoceptor blockers became established on the basis that reduction of aortic pressure and heart rate would help. Over-activity of proteinases, first suggested in 1980, has since been confirmed by evidence of over-expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), notably MMP-2 and MMP-9. The search for MMP inhibitors led to the evaluation of doxycycline, and both animal studies and small trials, provided early evidence that this widely used antimicrobial agent was useful. Identification of the importance of TGF-β led to evaluation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R) blockers with highly promising results. Combination prophylactic therapy would appear rational. Pharmacological and genomic research has provided good evidence that therapy with losartan and doxycycline would prevent the aortic complications of Marfan syndrome. If on-going well designed trials confirm their efficacy, the outlook for Marfan syndrome patients would be improved considerably. PMID:21276043

  11. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  12. [Economic class syndrome: epidemiological features and preventive measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Carlo; Pasquarella, Cesira; Trabacchi, Valeria; Carreri, Vittorio; Blangiardi, Francesco; Fara, Gaetano Maria

    2011-01-01

    The term "economic class syndrome" is generally used to describe the occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in travelers after long-distance airline travel in economic class. However, cases of VTE have also been reported in business class travelers and in subjects exposed to prolonged periods of immobilization while using other forms of transportation such as automobile, train, and bus. VTE manifests with deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism but may also present with less severe, reversible manifestations such as headache, vertigo, and respiratory symptoms. Epidemiological studies have shown that the risk of VTE doubles following airline travel lasting longer than four hours. The risk of VTE increases with increased duration of air travel even in the presence of multiple stop-overs. In subjects with known risk factors, incidence of VTE depends on the degree of risk (low, medium, high) and on the duration of the flight. The main factor leading to VTE is prolonged immobilization and the pathogenesis is based on Virchow's triad: venous stasis, vessel wall injury, and hypercoagulability of blood. Specific characteristics of airline travel such as jet lag, low air quality and dehydration may increase the risk of VTE with respect to other forms of travel. This article discusses epidemiological aspects and pathogenesis of travel-related VTE and prophylactic measures that should be undertaken.

  13. A systematic review of the literature on safety measures to prevent railway suicides and trespassing accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havârneanu, Grigore M; Burkhardt, Jean-Marie; Paran, Françoise

    2015-08-01

    This review covers a central aspect in railway safety which is the prevention of suicides and trespassing accidents. The paper attempts to answer the following research question: 'What measures are available to reduce railway suicide and trespass, and what is the evidence for their effectiveness?' The review is based on 139 relevant publications, ranging from 1978 to 2014. The analysis aimed to identify the past and current trend in the prevention practice by looking both quantitatively and qualitatively at the recommended measures. According to the results, there has been a constant focus on suicide prevention, and only relatively recent interest in trespass countermeasures. The content analysis revealed 19 main preventative categories which include more than 100 specific measures. We identified 16 common categories against railway suicide and trespass, and 3 categories of specific measures to prevent suicide. There are only 22 studies which provide empirical support for the effectiveness of measures. Actual combinations of measures are barely evaluated, but several challenges emerge from the literature. The discussion focuses on the need for a unified approach to suicide and trespass prevention, and on the importance to consider the effect mechanism of the measures in order to design better interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preventive measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Önen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes protective measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application in Çelikhan, Adıyaman. Methods: The target population of this descriptive study consists of 900 active farmers registered at Chamber of Agriculture in Çelikhan. The Sample included 381 farmers, who were interviewed, face to face, during January and February 2014. The Chi-square (Fisher’s exact test was used for the statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 363 farmers, who were growing tobacco, 358 used pesticides. The percentage of the farmers who use protective equipment during the application of pesticides was as follows: 78.8% used a face-mask, 73.2% used protective gloves, 29.6% used protective clothing, 16.8% used protective goggles and 15.6% used boots, while 4.7% never used any protective equipment. The following related to environmental factors: 72.3%, used appropriate doses and qualifications, 70.7% did not use pesticides during windy weather, 66.2% removed people from the field (55.6% kept it the pesticide in an appropriate warehouse and 17.6% used warning signs. A significant statistical relationship was found between the educational status and safe disposal of pesticide waste, not releasing pesticide boxes into the environment and knowing the harm of pesticide to human body (p<0.05. Conclusion: Farmers in this study are using masks and gloves for personal protection, a majority of them are not eating and drinking during spraying and nearly half of them are removing drug equipment safely. The need for protective equipment and for health education of the farmers is important as is the need for the safe disposal of waste materials. In order to awaken the interest of farmers, environmental and individual consciousness must be created.

  15. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  16. Preventive measures and lifestyle habits against exertional heat illness in radiation decontamination workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shota; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Sato, Sei; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-09-28

    The aim of this study was to reveal the current state of preventive measures and lifestyle habits against heat illness in radiation decontamination workers and to examine whether young radiation decontamination workers take less preventive measures and have worse lifestyle habits than the elder workers. This was a cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to 1,505 radiation decontamination workers in Fukushima, Japan. Five hundred fifty-eight men who replied and answered all questions were included in the statistical analysis. The questionnaire included age, duration of decontamination work, previous occupation, lifestyle habit, and preventive measures for heat illness. We classified age of the respondents into five groups: decontamination workers are more likely to have worse lifestyle habits and take insufficient preventive measures for heat illness. This may be the cause of higher incidence of heat illness among young workers.

  17. Antibiotics or probiotics as preventive measures against ventilator-associated pneumonia: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultz, M.J.; Haas, L.E.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanically ventilated critically ill patients frequently develop ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), a life-threatening complication. Proposed preventive measures against VAP include, but are not restricted to, selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD), selective oropharyngeal

  18. One method for objective adherence measurement in mind-body medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahbeh, Helané; Zwickey, Heather; Oken, Barry

    2011-02-01

    Home practice is frequently prescribed as part of mind-body medicine interventions, although rarely objectively measured. This brief methods report describes one method for objectively measuring home practice adherence using a custom monitoring software program. Methods for objectively measuring adherence were developed as part of a randomized controlled trial on the mechanisms of mindfulness meditation. The study was conducted at Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon. The subjects comprised 11 combat veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder. The method used was mindfulness meditation. There were subjective and objective adherence measurements of mindfulness meditation home practice. The first iteration of objective adherence monitoring used an iPod device and had limitations in participant usage and correctly capturing data. In the second iteration, objective data were easily collected, uploaded, and viewed using the custom software application, iMINDr. Participants reported that iMINDr was straightforward to use, and they returned the monitoring units as directed. The iMINDr is an example of a simple objective adherence measurement system that may help mind-body researchers examine how home practice adherence may affect outcomes in future clinical trials.

  19. The characters of emergency rescue and the measures to prevent accidents for nuclear-powered submarine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuexing

    1999-01-01

    The characteristics of emergency rescue and the measures for preventing and decreasing accidents in nuclear-powered submarine have been presented. The breakdown of equipment and human factors are the main reasons which lead to accidents. Four preventive measures are suggested: enhancing capabilities to take precautions against fire, seriously controlling the environmental factors which affect the health of the submariners, reinforcing the constitutions of the submariners, and working out emergency planning against serious accidents in advance

  20. Research progress on influencing factors of hospital infection and prevention and control measures

    OpenAIRE

    He Wenlong; Meng Lingbo; Wang Yaogang

    2015-01-01

    Hospital infections are associated with the emergence of hospitals. As the understanding of hospital infections deepen and prevention and control measures improve, hospital infections have become manageable. In recent years, affected by the increase in invasive treatment technology, antimicrobial abuse, and other factors, the control of hospital infection has encountered new problems. This paper reviews the influencing factors of hospital infections and their prevention and control measures.

  1. New possibilities in the prevention of eating disorders: The introduction of positive body image measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piran, Niva

    2015-06-01

    Delineating positive psychological processes in inhabiting the body, as well as quantitative measures to assess them, can facilitate progress in the field of prevention of eating disorders by expanding outcome evaluation of prevention interventions, identifying novel mediators of change, and increasing highly needed research into protective factors. Moreover, enhancing positive ways of inhabiting the body may contribute toward the maintenance of gains of prevention interventions. Integrated social etiological models to eating disorders that focus on gender and other social variables, such as the Developmental Theory of Embodiment (Piran & Teall, 2012a), can contribute to positive body image intervention development and research within the prevention field. Using the Developmental Theory of Embodiment as a lens, this article explores whether existing prevention programs (i.e., Cognitive Dissonance and Media Smart) may already work to promote positive body image, and whether prevention programs need to be expanded toward this goal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Consideration on Preventive and Protective Measures Against Insider Threats at R.O.K. Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Jung Ho; Koh, Moon Sung

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the current status of measures used to prevent, detect and respond to potential insiders at nuclear facilities in the Republic of KOREA. Measures against insiders are then analyzed based on IAEA guidelines. Insiders are able to take advantage of their access rights and knowledge of a facility to bypass dedicated security measures. They can also threaten cyber security, safety measures, and material control and accountancy (MC and A). Insiders are likely to have the time to plan their actions. In addition, they may work with an external adversary who shares their objectives. An insider threat is a great risk to a security system because of the access, authority, and special knowledge that someone within a facility possesses. Therefore, it is imperative that effective measures be taken to prevent insider incidents. A combination of preventive and protective measures offers the best solution to mitigating rogue elements within a facility

  3. Emergency Medicine Residency Applicant Characteristics Associated with Measured Adverse Outcomes During Residency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Bohrer-Clancy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Negative outcomes in emergency medicine (EM programs use a disproportionate amount of educational resources to the detriment of other residents. We sought to determine if any applicant characteristics identifiable during the selection process are associated with negative outcomes during residency. Methods Primary analysis consisted of looking at the association of each of the descriptors including resident characteristics and events during residency with a composite measure of negative outcomes. Components of the negative outcome composite were any formal remediation, failure to complete residency, or extension of residency. Results From a dataset of 260 residents who completed their residency over a 19-year period, 26 (10% were osteopaths and 33 (13% were international medical school graduates A leave of absence during medical school (p <.001, failure to send a thank-you note (p=.008, a failing score on United States Medical Licensing Examination Step I (p=.002, and a prior career in health (p=.034 were factors associated with greater likelihood of a negative outcome. All four residents with a “red flag” during their medicine clerkships experienced a negative outcome (p <.001. Conclusion “Red flags” during EM clerkships, a leave of absence during medical school for any reason and failure to send post-interview thank-you notes may be associated with negative outcomes during an EM residency.

  4. The When, What & How of Measuring Vitamin D Metabolism in Clinical Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Niek F; Ackermans, Mariëtte T; Lips, Paul; de Jongh, Renate T; Vervloet, Marc G; de Jonge, Robert; Heijboer, Annemieke C

    2018-04-13

    We now have the ability to measure a number of different vitamin D metabolites with very accurate methods. The most abundant vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, is currently the best marker for overall vitamin D status and is therefore most commonly measured in clinical medicine. The added value of measuring metabolites beyond 25-hydroxyvitamin D, like 1,25-, and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D is not broadly appreciated. Yet, in some more complicated cases, these metabolites may provide just the information needed for a legitimate diagnosis. The problem at present, is knowing when to measure, what to measure and how to measure. For 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the most frequently used automated immunoassays do not meet the requirements of today's standards for certain patient groups and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is the desired method of choice in these individuals. The less frequently measured 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolite enables us to identify a number of conditions, including 1α-hydroxylase deficiency, hereditary vitamin D-resistant rickets and a number of granulomatous diseases or lymphoproliferative diseases accompanied by hypercalcaemia. Furthermore, it discriminates between the FGF23-mediated and non-FGF23-mediated hypophosphatemic syndromes. The 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D metabolite has proven its value in the diagnosis of idiopathic infantile hypercalcaemia and has the potential of having value in identifying other diseases. For both metabolites, the understanding of the origin of differences between assays is limited and requires further attention. Nonetheless, in every way, appropriate measurement of vitamin D metabolism in the clinical laboratory hinges eminently on the comprehension of the value of the different metabolites, and the importance of the choice of method.

  5. Hygienic bases of professiographic assessment of dental specialties and prospects of its use in the practice of modern preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchuk O.Y.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Professiography of work activity is an important part of a modern system of professional orientation. In the course of research aimed at developing hygienic bases of professiographic assessment of the major dental specialties and determining prospects for its use in the practice of modern preventive medicine it was found, that in the structure of psychophysiological functions, reflecting peculiarities of higher nervous activity of the organism and necessary for successful mastery of dental specialties, professionally-important functions should be considered such things as balance and mobility of nervous processes, strength of excitation and inhibition processes, speed of differentiated visual-motor reactions and endurance of the nervous system; in the structure of psychophysiological functions that reflect features of visual sensory system of the organism – the most important indicators are visual acuity, critical rate of fusion of light nictations, differentiated linear good eye, speed of visual perception and differential light sensitivity; in the structure of psychophysiological functions, reflecting features of somatosensory analyzer of the organism – the most important their characteristics are overall coordination, combined coordination of arm movements, coordination of arms under the control of vision and coordination of movements of the fingers.

  6. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume 3. Personal Health Measures and Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1955-01-01

    serious situation developed because of lack of the proper immunizing materials. Antivaccination Activities Throlighout the war period, particularly during...frequencies. It is 𔄃 File. Antivaccination . HD: 720.3. u Ltr, JAG to TAG, 27 Nov 42, sub: Policy to be pursued in the event a soldier refuses to submit to...48, 490, 52-53 ter, mental hygience service, 180. 188, protective, 75 203 shoes, 62, G4. 79 Antivaccination activities, 340 socks, 77 Auzio beachhead

  7. Ongoing pregnancy qualifies best as the primary outcome measure of choice in trials in reproductive medicine: an opinion paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhekke, Miriam; Kamphuis, Esme I.; Dancet, Eline A.; Mol, Femke; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben W.

    2014-01-01

    The most appropriate primary outcome measure for reproductive medicine has been discussed frequently. In 2003 the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology recommended that the outcome measure of assisted reproductive technology (ART) and non-ART should be singleton live birth. Although

  8. Application of infrared thermal imaging in the study of preventing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases with Chinese medicine health food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2009-08-01

    To explore the assessing technique which could objectively reflect the characteristics of Chinese medicine in the prevention of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, four balance features of infrared thermal images (ITI) corresponding to the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance of blood circulation of human body were studied. First, the ITI features of the middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history were compared with those of the healthy youth. It was found that the balance state of the youth was significantly better than that of the middle-aged and elderly, Plipid, on the balance features. The subjects were middle-aged and elderly people with lipid abnormality history. Shengyi capsule was taken by the trial group while Xuezhikang capsule (with lovastatin as the main effective component) by the control group for 108 days. The balance features of ITI showed that Shengyi was significantly better than Xuezhikang in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation (including the up and down, left and right, proximal and distal balance). The relative efficacy rate was 81.0% for the trial group and 33.3% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.002). Shengyi could effectively decrease the low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) but the effect of Xuezhikang in decreasing total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C was better than Shengyi. Though the lipid-lowering effect of Shengyi was not as good as Xuezhikang, ITI reflected the obvious advantage of Shengyi in improving the whole body balance of blood circulation which indicated that helping to decrease serum lipid is only part of the health function of Shengyi. The physiology and pathology basis of the influences of Shengyi on the four balance features and its relationship with the clinical outcome deserves further study. So the prospect of infrared thermal imaging is indicated as the suitable evaluation technique which could

  9. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  10. Evidence-based draft guideline for prevention of midwifery malpractices based on referred cases to the forensic medicine commission and the medical council from 2006–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Asadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical errors are the main concerns in health systems, which considering their ascending rate in the recent years, especially in the field of midwifery, have caused a medical crisis. Considering the importance of evidence-based health services as a way to improve health systems, the aim of this study was to suggest a guideline for preventing malpractice in midwifery services. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2013, we investigated 206 cases that were referred to the Isfahan Legal Medicine Organization and Medical Council of Forensic Medicine from 2006–2011. Data were collected by a checklist and were analyzed using SPSS-16 software. Descriptive statistical tests (mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, frequency, and percentage agreement were used to describe the data. Then, we used the Delphi technique with the participation from 17 experts in midwifery, gynecology, and legal medicine to provide an evidence-based draft guideline for prevention of midwifery errors. Results: A total of 206 cases were reviewed. In 66 cases (32% the verdict for malpractice in midwifery services was approved. A practical draft guideline for preventing clinical errors for midwifery in the fields of pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period was developed. Conclusions: This evidence-based draft guideline can improve the attention of all the healthcare providers, especially midwives and physicians to prevent urgent problems and offer effective health services for mothers and infants.

  11. Medical Services: Preventive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-15

    antimicrobial agents by analyzing and using significant sur- veillance data and antimicrobial susceptibility test data. (8) Recommend to the hospital...an MTF. Pest management in food service areas is addressed in paragraph 10–9. Cockroach infestations in portable food carts are difficult to control...items.Technical assistance in controlling cockroaches in food carts may be obtained from USAEHA. 10–11. Pest management of military subsistence and stored

  12. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  13. The social media index: measuring the impact of emergency medicine and critical care websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Brent; Sanders, Jason L; Lin, Michelle; Paterson, Quinten S; Steeg, Jordon; Chan, Teresa M

    2015-03-01

    The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC) that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi) was developed to help address this. We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers) for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw) formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1) temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2) correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; pimpact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; pimpact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool.

  14. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  15. [Trends in labor medicine in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava-Hernández, Rodolfo

    2010-01-01

    Labor medicine is the natural field for searching the relation between society, work and disease. It is also the field for preventing labor diseases, and for the application resulting from search as protection measures in the laboral services. At present, tendencies in laboral medicine services are multidisciplinary where the specialists need to development competences in epidemiology, clinics, investigation, toxicology, dermatology and many other fields.

  16. International Comparability of 131I, 201TI and 99mTc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa, P; Serra, R; Hernandez, A.T.; Varela, C

    2006-01-01

    This paper refers about the International Comparability of 131 I, 201 TI and 99m Tc Activity Measurements performed in Cuban Nuclear Medicine. Traceability of activity measurements in nuclear medicine based in two aspects: Comparability of clinic results and the safe and effective use of drugs. A bilateral international comparison for activity measurements CIEMAT CENTIS DMR was done. 2000-2004 National Program for 99m Tc 201 TI, 131 I vial and syringe measurements in radionuclide calibrators including a simulated test for activity administration. It is employed the Cause Effect Diagram for the activity measurement result of a source in the calibrator and the statistical methods for comparing several characteristics of the obtained data. The result of the comparisons demonstrates that the measurement quality has increased from one year to another

  17. Potential of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Preventive Management of Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu Pandemic: Thwarting Potential Disasters in the Bud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Arora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel H1N1 has posed a situation that warrants urgent global attention. Though antiviral drugs are available in mainstream medicine for treating symptoms of swine flu, currently there is no preventive medicine available. Even when available, they would be in short supply and ineffective in a pandemic situation, for treating the masses worldwide. Besides the development of drug resistance, emergence of mutant strains of the virus, emergence of a more virulent strain, prohibitive costs of available drugs, time lag between vaccine developments, and mass casualties would pose difficult problems. In view of this, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM offers a plethora of interesting preventive possibilities in patients. Herbs exhibit a diverse array of biological activities and can be effectively harnessed for managing pandemic flu. Potentially active herbs can serve as effective anti influenza agents. The role of CAM for managing novel H1N1 flu and the mode of action of these botanicals is presented here in an evidence-based approach that can be followed to establish their potential use in the management of influenza pandemics. The complementary and alternative medicine approach deliberated in the paper should also be useful in treating the patients with serious influenza in non pandemic situations.

  18. Measurement of obesity prevention in childcare settings: A systematic review of current instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhope, Kaitlyn K; Kay, Christi; Stevenson, Beth; Gazmararian, Julie A

    The incidence of childhood obesity is highest among children entering kindergarten. Overweight and obesity in early childhood track through adulthood. Programs increasingly target children in early life for obesity prevention. However, the published literature lacks a review on tools available for measuring behaviour and environmental level change in child care. The objective is to describe measurement tools currently in use in evaluating obesity-prevention in preschool-aged children. Literature searches were conducted in PubMed using the keywords "early childhood obesity," "early childhood measurement," "early childhood nutrition" and "early childhood physical activity." Inclusion criteria included a discussion of: (1) obesity prevention, risk assessment or treatment in children ages 1-5 years; and (2) measurement of nutrition or physical activity. One hundred thirty-four publications were selected for analysis. Data on measurement tools, population and outcomes were abstracted into tables. Tables are divided by individual and environmental level measures and further divided into physical activity, diet and physical health outcomes. Recommendations are made for weighing advantages and disadvantages of tools. Despite rising numbers of interventions targeting obesity-prevention and treatment in preschool-aged children, there is no consensus for which tools represent a gold standard or threshold of accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Social Media Index: Measuring the Impact of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care Websites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoma, Brent

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The number of educational resources created for emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC that incorporate social media has increased dramatically. With no way to assess their impact or quality, it is challenging for educators to receive scholarly credit and for learners to identify respected resources. The Social Media index (SMi was developed to help address this. Methods: We used data from social media platforms (Google PageRanks, Alexa Ranks, Facebook Likes, Twitter Followers, and Google+ Followers for EMCC blogs and podcasts to derive three normalized (ordinal, logarithmic, and raw formulas. The most statistically robust formula was assessed for 1 temporal stability using repeated measures and website age, and 2 correlation with impact by applying it to EMCC journals and measuring the correlation with known journal impact metrics. Results: The logarithmic version of the SMi containing four metrics was the most statistically robust. It correlated significantly with website age (Spearman r=0.372; p<0.001 and repeated measures through seven months (r=0.929; p<0.001. When applied to EMCC journals, it correlated significantly with all impact metrics except number of articles published. The strongest correlations were seen with the Immediacy Index (r=0.609; p<0.001 and Article Influence Score (r=0.608; p<0.001. Conclusion: The SMi’s temporal stability and correlation with journal impact factors suggests that it may be a stable indicator of impact for medical education websites. Further study is needed to determine whether impact correlates with quality and how learners and educators can best utilize this tool. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:242–249.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of measures to prevent classical swine fever introduction into The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, C J; Saatkamp, H W; Huirne, R B M

    2005-09-12

    Recent history has demonstrated that classical swine fever (CSF) epidemics can incur high economic losses, especially for exporting countries that have densely populated pig areas and apply a strategy of non-vaccination, such as The Netherlands. Introduction of CSF virus (CSFV) remains a continuing threat to the pig production sector in The Netherlands. Reducing the annual probability of CSFV introduction (P(CSFV)) by preventive measures is therefore of utmost importance. The choice of preventive measures depends not only on the achieved reduction of the annual P(CSFV), but also on the expenditures required for implementing these measures. The objective of this study was to explore the cost-effectiveness of tactical measures aimed at the prevention of CSFV introduction into The Netherlands. For this purpose for each measure (i) model calculations were performed with a scenario tree model for CSFV introduction and (ii) its annual cost was estimated. The cost-effectiveness was then determined as the reduction of the annual P(CSFV) achieved by each preventive measure (DeltaP) divided by the annual cost of implementing that measure (DeltaC). The measures analysed reduce the P(CSFV) caused by import or export of pigs. Results showed that separation of national and international transport of pigs is the most cost-effective measure, especially when risk aversion is assumed. Although testing piglets and breeding pigs by a quick and reliable PCR also had a high cost-effectiveness ratio, this measure is not attractive due to the high cost per pig imported. Besides, implementing such a measure is not allowed under current EU law, as it is trade restrictive.

  1. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Ramamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the long-term stability of isotope calibrators used in nuclear medicine is to be checked periodically for their performance using a long-lived check source, such as Cs-137, of suitable activity. In view of the un-availability of such a radioactive source, we tried to develop methods to maintain traceability of these instruments, for certifying measured activities for human use. Two re-entrant chambers [(HDR 1000 and Selectron Source Dosimetry System (SSDS] with I-125 and Ir-192 calibration factors in the Department of Radiotherapy were used to measure Iodine-131 (I-131 therapy capsules to establish traceability to Mark V isotope calibrator of the Department of Nuclear Medicine. Special nylon jigs were fabricated to keep I-131 capsule holder in position. Measured activities in all the chambers showed good agreement. The accuracy of SSDS chamber in measuring Ir-192 activities in the last 5 years was within 0.5%, validating its role as departmental standard for measuring activity. The above method is adopted because mean energies of I-131 and Ir-192 are comparable.

  2. Development of Information Security-Focused Incident Prevention Measures for Critical Information Infrastructure in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kenji; Watanabe, Takahito; Nagayasu, Yukinobu

    In recent years, the dilemma of cyber attacks by malicious third parties targeting security vulnerabilities in information and communication systems has emerged, resulting in security incidents. This situation suggests that the establishment of proactive efforts and recurrence prevention measures are becoming imperative, especially in critical infrastructure sectors.This paper provides an analysis of 58 security incident cases, which occurred in critical infrastructures worldwide and were published in media. The purpose of the analysis is to conclude to a valid list of recurrence prevention measures that constitute good practices.

  3. The effect of an active on-ward participation of hospital pharmacists in Internal Medicine teams on preventable Adverse Drug Events in elderly inpatients: protocol of the WINGS study (Ward-oriented pharmacy in newly admitted geriatric seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkgraaf Marcel G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of clinical interventions, aiming at reduction of preventable Adverse Drug Events (preventable ADEs during hospital stay, have been studied extensively. Clinical Pharmacy is a well-established and effective service, usually consisting of full-time on-ward participation of clinical pharmacists in medical teams. Within the current Hospital Pharmacy organisation in the Netherlands, such on-ward service is less feasible and therefore not yet established. However, given the substantial incidence of preventable ADEs in Dutch hospitals found in recent studies, appears warranted. Therefore, "Ward-Oriented Pharmacy", an on-ward service tailored to the Dutch hospital setting, will be developed. This service will consist of multifaceted interventions implemented in the Internal Medicine wards by hospital pharmacists. The effect of this service on preventable ADEs in elderly inpatients will be measured. Elderly patients are at high risk for ADEs due to multi-morbidity, concomitant disabilities and polypharmacy. Most studies on the incidence and preventability of ADEs in elderly patients have been conducted in the outpatient setting or on admission to a hospital, and fewer in the inpatient setting. Moreover, recognition of ADEs by the treating physicians is challenging in elderly patients because their disease presentation is often atypical and complex. Detailed information about the performance of the treating physicians in ADE recognition is scarce. Methods/Design The design is a multi-centre, interrupted time series study. Patients of 65 years or older, consecutively admitted to Internal Medicine wards will be included. After a pre-measurement, a Ward-Oriented Pharmacy service will be introduced and the effect of this service will be assessed during a post-measurement. The primary outcome measures are the ADE prevalence on admission and ADE incidence during hospital stay. These outcomes will be assessed using structured

  4. Implications of the Institute of Medicine weight gain recommendations for preventing adverse pregnancy outcomes in black and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, L E; Stoltzfus, R J; Witter, F R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relation between gestational weight gain and risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age or large-for-gestational-age infant by race, along with the implications of gaining weight according to the Institute of Medicine guidelines. METHODS: Logistic regression methods were used to identify risk factors for small- and large-for-gestational-age births among 2617 Black and 1253 White women delivering at the Johns Hopkins Hospital between 1987 and 1989. RESULTS: Rate of total weight gain was related to risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age births; the relationship differed according to maternal body mass index but not race. No differences in outcome by race were evident for women with low body mass indexes; among those with average or high indexes, however, Black women were at higher risk of small-for-gestational-age births and at lower risk of large-for-gestational-age births. CONCLUSIONS: Having Black women gain at the upper end of the recommended range is unlikely to produce measurable reductions in small-for-gestational-age births. Some beneficial reductions in the risk of large-for-gestational-age births may occur if weight gain recommendations are lowered for average-weight and overweight White women. PMID:9702142

  5. Big Five personality traits may inform public health policy and preventive medicine: Evidence from a cross-sectional and a prospective longitudinal epidemiologic study in a Swiss community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, Michael P; Kawohl, Wolfram; Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2016-05-01

    Some evidence documents the importance of personality assessments for health research and practise. However, no study has opted to test whether a short self-report personality inventory may comprehensively inform health policy. Data were taken from a population-based epidemiologic survey in Zurich, Switzerland, conducted from 2010-2012. A short form of the Big Five Inventory was completed by n=1155 participants (54.4% women; mean age=29.6 years), while health-related outcomes were taken from a comprehensive semi-structured clinical interview. A convenience subsample averaging n=171 participants additionally provided laboratory measures and n=133 were subsequently followed-up at least once over a maximal period of 6 months. Personality traits, in particular high neuroticism and low conscientiousness, related significantly to poor environmental resources such as low social support (R(2)=0.071), health-impairing behaviours such as cannabis use (R(2)=0.071), and psychopathology, including negative affect (R(2)=0.269) and various mental disorders (R(2)=0.060-0.195). The proportion of total variance explained was R(2)=0.339 in persons with three or more mental disorders. Personality significantly related to some laboratory measures including total cholesterol (R(2)=0.095) and C-Reactive Protein (R(2)=0.062). Finally, personality prospectively predicted global psychopathological distress and vegetative symptoms over a 6-month observation period. Personality relates consistently to poor socio-environmental resources, health-impairing behaviours and psychopathology. We also found some evidence for an association with metabolic and immune functions that are assumed to influence health. A short personality inventory could provide valuable information for preventive medicine when used as a means to screen entire populations for distinct risk exposure, in particular with respect to psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI: Patient-reported outcome measures and oral mucosal disease: current status and future direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ní Ríordáin, Rícheal; Shirlaw, Penelope; Alajbeg, Ivan; Al Zamel, Ghada Y; Fung, Pok Lam; Yuan, Anna D; McCreary, Christine; Stoopler, Eric T; De Rossi, Scott S; Lodi, Giovanni; Greenberg, Martin S; Brennan, Michael T

    2015-08-01

    This systematic review aimed to (1) explore the patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) currently used in the oral mucosal disease literature and report on the type and context of the use of these instruments and (2) provide a future direction for PROMs in Oral Medicine practice and research. A systematic review of published English-language articles relating to the use of PROMs in the oral mucosal diseases literature was performed in November 2013. In total, 131 articles met the inclusion criteria; these articles addressed the following oral mucosal conditions: lichen planus (75); recurrent aphthous stomatitis (30); mucous membrane pemphigoid/pemphigus vulgaris (14); orofacial granulomatosis (1); and multiple oral mucosal diseases (11). The most commonly used instruments were visual analog scales (VAS) and the oral health impact profile (OHIP). Limited progress has been achieved with use of PROMs in Oral Medicine in the last few decades in both clinical practice and a research setting. With the engagement of allied medical disciplines in PROM usage and the promotion of PROMs by national health care bodies globally, advancement of PROMs is imperative for Oral Medicine. Exposure through the World Workshop on Oral Medicine (WWOM), along with potential involvement in the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) or other such initiatives, will enable worldwide collaboration to promote the development and utilization of valid and reliable PROMs in oral medicine, and improve patient care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Traditional Chinese and western medicine for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis after lower extremity orthopedic surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shibai; Song, Yi; Chen, Xi; Qian, Wenwei

    2018-04-10

    Chinese herbal medicine has traditionally been considered to promote blood circulation to remove obstruction in the channels and clear pathogenic heat to drain dampness effects. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate its benefits for the prevention of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after lower extremity orthopedic surgery. Relevant, published studies were identified using the following keywords: lower extremity orthopedic surgery, arthroplasty, joint replacement, fracture, traditional Chinese and western medicine, Chinese herbal medicine, deep venous thrombosis (DVT), and Venous thromboembolism (VTE). The following databases were used to identify the literature consisting of RCTs with a date of search of 31 May 2017: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of knowledge, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, the Chongqing VIP Database, the Chinese Biomedical Database, and the Wanfang Database (including three English and four Chinese databases). All relevant data were collected from studies meeting the inclusion criteria. The outcome variables were the incidence rate of DVT, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and D-dimer; subcutaneous hematoma; and other reported outcomes. RevMan5.2. software was adopted for the meta-analysis. A total of 20 published studies (1862 cases) met the inclusion criteria. The experimental group, 910 patients (48.87%), received the Chinese herbal medicine or traditional Chinese and western medicine for prevention of DVT; the control group, 952 patients (51.13%), received the standard western treatment. The meta-analysis showed that traditional Chinese and western medicine therapy reduced the incidence rates of DVT significantly when compared with controls (risk ratio [RR] = 0.40; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.54; P < 0.00001), and the D-dimer was lower in the experimental group (P = 0.01). Besides, the incidence rate of subcutaneous hematoma was lower in the experimental group (P < 0

  8. The numeracy understanding in medicine instrument: a measure of health numeracy developed using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapira, Marilyn M; Walker, Cindy M; Cappaert, Kevin J; Ganschow, Pamela S; Fletcher, Kathlyn E; McGinley, Emily L; Del Pozo, Sam; Schauer, Carrie; Tarima, Sergey; Jacobs, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Health numeracy can be defined as the ability to understand and apply information conveyed with numbers, tables and graphs, probabilities, and statistics to effectively communicate with health care providers, take care of one's health, and participate in medical decisions. To develop the Numeracy Understanding in Medicine Instrument (NUMi) using item response theory scaling methods. A 20-item test was formed drawing from an item bank of numeracy questions. Items were calibrated using responses from 1000 participants and a 2-parameter item response theory model. Construct validity was assessed by comparing scores on the NUMi to established measures of print and numeric health literacy, mathematic achievement, and cognitive aptitude. Community and clinical populations in the Milwaukee and Chicago metropolitan areas. Twenty-nine percent of the 1000 respondents were Hispanic, 24% were non-Hispanic white, and 42% were non-Hispanic black. Forty-one percent had no more than a high school education. The mean score on the NUMi was 13.2 (s = 4.6) with a Cronbach α of 0.86. Difficulty and discrimination item response theory parameters of the 20 items ranged from -1.70 to 1.45 and 0.39 to 1.98, respectively. Performance on the NUMi was strongly correlated with the Wide Range Achievement Test-Arithmetic (0.73, P < 0.001), the Lipkus Expanded Numeracy Scale (0.69, P < 0.001), the Medical Data Interpretation Test (0.75, P < 0.001), and the Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test (0.82, P < 0.001). Performance was moderately correlated to the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (0.43, P < 0.001). The NUMi was found to be most discriminating among respondents with a lower-than-average level of health numeracy. The NUMi can be applied in research and clinical settings as a robust measure of the health numeracy construct.

  9. Sellers to Preventive and Control Measures on Bird Flu, Benin City, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated was the knowledge of preventive measures of avian influenza from farmers, live chicken sellers, and poultry veterinarian in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. A cross-sectional descriptive study using standardized questionnaire was conducted. Respondents included 236 poultry farmers, live chicken sellers (LCS, and veterinarian aged 12–70 years in contact with birds through husbandry. The study duration was from October 2010 to May 2011. Participants knowledge on transmission sources showed low understanding with highest being from bird-bird (57.3%. The medium most commonly utilized was electronic media (82.5% as information source. Respondents thought that vaccination of birds (80.6% would prevent infection. Farmers’ education on bird flu needs to be improved through veterinary public health and health promotion approach. Nonpharmaceutical preventive measures such as hand washing freely and avoidance of eye, nose, and mouth touching must be improved.

  10. Data-as-a-Service Platform for Delivering Healthy Lifestyle and Preventive Medicine: Concept and Structure of the DAPHNE Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Catherine; Bailador Del Pozo, Gonzalo; Andrés, Javier; Lobstein, Tim; Manco, Melania; Lewy, Hadas; Bergman, Einat; O'Callaghan, David; Doherty, Gavin; Kudrautseva, Olga; Palomares, Angel; Ram, Roni; Olmo, Alberto

    2016-12-09

    Overweight and obesity is related to many health problems and diseases. The current obesity epidemic, which is a major health problem, is closely related to a lack of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, and increased energy intake; with evidence to show increasing incidence of these issues in the younger population. Tackling obesity and its comorbid conditions requires a holistic approach encompassing attention on physical activity, healthy diet, and behavioral activation in order to enable and maintain meaningful and long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. The objective of the Data-as-a-Service Platform for Healthy Lifestyle and Preventive Medicine (DAPHNE) project is to develop a breakthrough information communications technology (ICT) platform for tracking health, weight, physical activity, diet, lifestyle, and psychological components within health care systems, whereby the platform and clinical support is linked. The DAPHNE platform aims to deliver personalized guidance services for lifestyle management to the citizen/patient by means of (1) advanced sensors and mobile phone apps to acquire and store continuous/real-time data on lifestyle aspects, behavior, and surrounding environment; (2) individual models to monitor their health and fitness status; (3) intelligent data processing for the recognition of behavioral trends; and (4) specific services for personalized guidance on healthy lifestyle and disease prevention. It is well known that weight loss and maintenance of weight loss are particularly difficult. This tool will address some of the issues found with conventional treatment/advice in that it will collect data in real time, thereby reducing reliability issues known with recalling events once they have passed and will also allow adjustment of behavior through timely support and recommendations sent through the platform without the necessity of formal one-to-one visits between patient and clinician. Patient motivation

  11. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 274 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Handling of Pesticides A Appendix A to Part 274 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS... Appendix A to Part 274—Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Pesticides 1. Follow the label on each... permitted while pesticides are being handled. 4. All pesticides must be handled in well-vetilated areas to...

  12. The effects of suicide prevention measures reported through a psychoeducational video: a practice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanaka, Eriko; Kameyama, Akiko; Takizawa, Tohru; Takizawa, Shiho; Fujishima, Satoko; Nara, Mieko; Sakashita, Tomoe; Oyama, Hirofumi; Ono, Yutaka

    2014-12-01

    As the suicide rate in Japan has remained high since 1998, various suicide prevention measures have been implemented in Japanese local communities. To report our findings on the effect of a psychoeducational video as a suicide prevention measure in a Japanese rural town. Questionnaires were randomly mailed to 2,000 residents aged between 30 and 79 years. Within 4 weeks, volunteers in the town visited the residents individually and collected the questionnaires. The variables reported in this study are demographics, awareness of suicide prevention measures available in the town, whether the residents watched the video, help-seeking from advisers regarding suicidal ideation and financial problems and attitudes towards suicide. We analysed data collected from 1,118 people who reported their demographics (i.e. sex, age, and job) and whether they had watched the video. By conducting a series of logistic regression and multiple regression analyses and controlling for demographic variables, we found that watching the video had substantial psychoeducational effects. Despite conducting a cross-sectional study, our new suicide prevention measures were considered effective for psychoeducation. However, further studies using a longitudinal design are needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Knowledge Of HIV/AIDS And Preventive Measures Use By City ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of the drivers and conductors on HIV/AIDS epidemic and its preventive measures. Methods: This descriptive study was prospectively conducted among randomly selected city commuter-bus drivers and conductors from. December 2006 to April 2007 in Dar Es ...

  14. Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe

    2006-01-01

    Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)

  15. Knowledge and use of prevention measures related to dengue in northern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, B. H. B.; Khantikul, N.; Panart, K.; Kessels, P. J.; Somboon, P.; Oskam, L.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the frequency and determinants of knowledge of dengue infection in three sites in northern Thailand, and to compare prevention measures of people with and without knowledge of dengue. In May 2001 we conducted an epidemiological survey among 1650 persons living in three areas in northern

  16. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose...... to increase the vaccination coverage by, for example, counselling at the mother's cervical screening appointment. Other measures to increase the coverage with vaccination will be important....

  17. [Errors in medicine. Causes, impact and improvement measures to improve patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeschle, R M; Bauer, M; Schmidt, C E

    2015-09-01

    The guarantee of quality of care and patient safety is of major importance in hospitals even though increased economic pressure and work intensification are ubiquitously present. Nevertheless, adverse events still occur in 3-4 % of hospital stays and of these 25-50 % are estimated to be avoidable. The identification of possible causes of error and the development of measures for the prevention of medical errors are essential for patient safety. The implementation and continuous development of a constructive culture of error tolerance are fundamental.The origins of errors can be differentiated into systemic latent and individual active causes and components of both categories are typically involved when an error occurs. Systemic causes are, for example out of date structural environments, lack of clinical standards and low personnel density. These causes arise far away from the patient, e.g. management decisions and can remain unrecognized for a long time. Individual causes involve, e.g. confirmation bias, error of fixation and prospective memory failure. These causes have a direct impact on patient care and can result in immediate injury to patients. Stress, unclear information, complex systems and a lack of professional experience can promote individual causes. Awareness of possible causes of error is a fundamental precondition to establishing appropriate countermeasures.Error prevention should include actions directly affecting the causes of error and includes checklists and standard operating procedures (SOP) to avoid fixation and prospective memory failure and team resource management to improve communication and the generation of collective mental models. Critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) provide the opportunity to learn from previous incidents without resulting in injury to patients. Information technology (IT) support systems, such as the computerized physician order entry system, assist in the prevention of medication errors by providing

  18. Awareness on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among urban married women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Praween; Gupta, Kamla; Mishra, Vinod; Agrawal, Sutapa

    2013-10-01

    In spite of the numerous chronic diseases that have been linked to obesity, studies focusing on the awareness regarding causes, consequences and strategies to prevent and control of obesity among women are lacking in the literature, especially in developing countries such as India, where obesity is culturally accepted and nurtured and women bearded the highest weight gain in the recent decade. We explored the awareness regarding causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity among 325 ever-married aged 20-54 years women with different levels of body mass index (BMI) in the national capital territory of Delhi representing urban India. A population based follow-up survey of women systematically selected from the second round of National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99) samples who were re-interviewed after four years in 2003. As a part of qualitative data collection, the respondents were asked to free list open-ended questions on causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Responses were analyzed through Anthropac software package. Over eating was reported as the most important cause of obesity by normal and overweight women whereas obese women reported fried food consumption as the most important cause of weight gain. A few women from each group reported changing lifestyle as a cause of obesity. Also, there were lots of misconceptions about the cause of obesity among women (such as no tension in life, more tension, happiness, constipation, problem in Delhi's water etc.). In terms of the consequences of obesity, the participants were well aware of the common physical consequences. Normal and obese women reported breathlessness as the most important consequence whereas overweight women reported problem in standing and sitting. Regarding preventive measures, overweight and obese women reported 'walking' as most important preventive measure of obesity whereas normal women reported 'doing exercise'. In addition, 'dieting' was reported as the

  19. Exposure levels to radiation in a nuclear medicine laboratory: measurements with thermoluminescence dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz J, A.

    2000-01-01

    Since 1996 in the Nuclear medicine Department and another routine and research departments of the National Institute of Medical and Nutrition Sciences (INCMNSZ) are working at least with 12 radioactive sources opened and sealed. However, it was unknown if with the Tl personal dosemeters with lithium fluoride crystals (LiF), could be possible to receive information about the equivalent dose for each radionuclide or if there was some radionuclide that by being low energy emissor or beta energy emissor, it did not represent an ionization power sufficient to excite the crystals of the thermoluminescent dosemeters (DTL). In this work the obtained results with control dosemeters of diverse source opened or sealed are shown, which were put at 1 cm of the LiF crystals during a time exposure 18 hours. Therefore the objective of this work is to verify which sources excite or not to DTL crystals and taking the pertinent safety measures for each radionuclide. The conclusion is that the majority of dosemeters were excited by beta or gamma radiation of the radionuclides and that LiF crystals are able to receive equivalent doses until 1200 mSv, being this a guarantee for the staff, that in an any moment could be exposed to high dose in his working day. Also it was corroborated that the radionuclides more energizer are: iodine-131, iodine-125 and sodium-22 while the phosphorus-32 must be managed with careful, since the exposure to hands can result significant, just like the technetium-99m ( 99m Tc). (Author)

  20. Psychological and Pedagogical Measures of Preventing Conflicts of Interest Among Employees of Law Enforcement Agencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk N.V.,

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers significant characteristics of the phenomenon of corruption resistance of employees of internal affairs agencies as civil servants. The outlined problem of preventing corruption manifestations and conflicts of interests in operational and service activities is characterized by the fact that it exceeds the limits of legal regulation. The possible solution in this case might be the selection of relevant psychological and pedagogical measures of preventing the conflict of interests and the formation of corruption resistance in the personnel of the internal affairs bodies. The article describes the value basis of law enforcement service and personal meanings in the profession.

  1. Bullying Prevention: a Summary of the Report of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine : Committee on the Biological and Psychosocial Effects of Peer Victimization: Lessons for Bullying Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Daniel J; Todres, Jonathan; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Amar, Angela Frederick; Graham, Sandra; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Masiello, Matthew; Moreno, Megan; Sullivan, Regina; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Le Menestrel, Suzanne M; Rivara, Frederick

    2016-11-01

    Long tolerated as a rite of passage into adulthood, bullying is now recognized as a major and preventable public health problem. The consequences of bullying-for those who are bullied, the perpetrators of bullying, and the witnesses-include poor physical health, anxiety, depression, increased risk for suicide, poor school performance, and future delinquent and aggressive behavior. Despite ongoing efforts to address bullying at the law, policy, and programmatic levels, there is still much to learn about the consequences of bullying and the effectiveness of various responses. In 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine published a report entitled Preventing Bullying Through Science, Policy and Practice, which examined the evidence on bullying, its impact, and responses to date. This article summarizes the report's key findings and recommendations related to bullying prevention.

  2. A descriptive review of additional risk minimisation measures applied to EU centrally authorised medicines 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Annalisa; Artime, Esther

    2017-08-01

    Guidance on therapeutic risk management, first released in EU in 2005, was updated in 2012-2013 with increased requirements on additional risk minimisation measures (aRMM). This study describes aRMM imposed at initial EU central marketing authorisation of medicines in 2006-2015. Non-generic medicines authorised between 01/01/2006 and 31/12/2015 were identified in the European Public Assessment Report (EPAR) database. Data on aRMM, including effectiveness measures were extracted, tabulated and analysed with Excel 2016 for chi-square p value estimates and linear regression modelling as appropriate. The EPAR database encompassed 717 medicines, including 550 non-generic products authorised in 2006-2015. Those authorised with aRMM accounted for 26% (144/550). Yearly frequency ranged from 12% (6/49) in 2008 to 41% (13/32) in 2010, though no time-trend was detected. Antineoplastic/immunomodulating products were the most prevalent (26%, 38/144). All aRMM consisted of educational interventions, mostly targeting physicians/nurses (96%, 139/144). Patients were targeted in 50% of instances (72/144). Effectiveness evaluation was limited to 31% (44/144) of medicines, though an accelerated increase by year was detected. Through 2006-2015, aRMM were imposed to approximately a quarter of EU centrally authorised medicines. No time-trends were observed. Updated regulatory guidance did not appear to impact frequency of aRMM, type of interventions, or target population, however, further investigation is required. Effectiveness measurements, though increasing in time, remained limited to a minority of instances.

  3. Measuring trauma center injury prevention activity: an assessment and reporting tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sise, Michael J; Sise, Carol Beth

    2006-02-01

    To develop an assessment and reporting tool for a trauma center's community partnership strategy to deliver injury prevention programs in a large metropolitan area. The tool was designed to track prevention activity and serve as a reporting format for the parent health system, county designating agency, and the American College of Surgeons' Trauma Center Verification Process. The tool collected data including trauma center paid and volunteer personnel time, equipment, resource, and financial costs, community group and public agency contributions, number of community members receiving prevention material or presentations, impact on public policy, and print and broadcast media coverage. These measurements were incorporated in a reporting grid format. Six youth injury prevention programs were evaluated over a recent 2-year interval to demonstrate the tool's usefulness. Of six programs, three focused on motor vehicle injuries, one on teen suicide, one on firearm injuries, and one on drug and alcohol abuse. Trauma Center personnel asset allocation included 3% full-time equivalent by the Trauma Medical Director, 30% by the Injury Prevention and Community Outreach Coordinator, and 473 person hours (both work and volunteer) by physicians, nurses, and other personnel. Trauma Center equipment and fixed asset expenses totaled $3,950 and monetary contribution totaled $4,430. Community groups and public agencies contributed 20,400 person hours with estimated in-kind costs exceeding $750,000. Five of the six programs continued during the 2-year period. A gun-lock giveaway program was suspended because of a product recall. A total of over 29,000 youth received prevention material and presentations. Four public policy initiatives and 18 Trauma Center media stories with over 50 mentions and 37 new community partnerships resulted. The reports generated were easily incorporated in the trauma center's reports to local and national organizations and agencies. This assessment tool

  4. Trends in hospitalised sport/leisure injuries in New South Wales, Australia--implications for the targetting of population-focussed preventive sports medicine efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane

    2011-01-01

    Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Corrosion of circulating water pipings in thermal and nuclear power stations and corrosion prevention measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Minoru

    1982-01-01

    In the age of energy conservation at present, the power generation facilities have been examined from the viewpoint of performance, endurance and economy, and in particular, the prevention of the loss due to the corrosion of various facilities is one of most important problems. Since circulating water pipings are in contact with sea water and soil, the peculiar corrosion phenomena are brought about on their external and internal surfaces. Namely, the pitting corrosion due to the environment of soil quality difference, the defects of coating and the contact with reinforcing bars in concrete occurs on the external surface, and the overall corrosion due to the increase of flow velocity and the pitting corrosion due to the defects of coating, the contact with different kinds of metals and the gap in corrosion-resistant steel occur on the internal surface. As the measures for corrosion prevention, corrosion-preventive coating and electric corrosion prevention are applied. The principle, the potential and current density, the system, the design procedure and the examples of application of electric corrosion prevention are described. (Kako, I.)

  6. Awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult people of Thimi Municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manandhar, K; Chataut, J; Khanal, K; Shrestha, A; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S

    2013-01-01

    Avian influenza is considered as a threat to global public health. Prevention and control depends on the awareness of the general population as well as high risk-groups. The avian influenza should be viewed more seriously because it may lead to pandemic influenza when the virus mutates its strain with the common human influenza. Thus, this study aims to explore the awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. The objective of this study was to explore awareness regarding preventive measures of avian influenza among the adult population of Thimi Municipality. It is a cross-sectional, population based study. It was carried out in Thimi Municipality from May 15 to June 15, 2012. Pre tested structured questionnaire was used for face to face interview with randomly selected 250 subjects. Out of 250 subjects, 123 (49.2 %) were males. The mean age of subjects was 36 ± 11.8 year. Among total subjects, 94.4 percent had heard about avian influenza. The main source of information was television (94.1%). Majority of subjects (84.9 %) thought that keeping infected birds and poultry as the mode of transmission followed by eating not well cooked poultry meat (82.8 %). Out of total study subjects, 165 (66.0 percent) mentioned fever and 138 (55.2 percent) thought fatigue as the signs and symptoms. As for knowledge about preventive measures, majority (85.6%) stated that cleaning the surfaces that had come in contact with the poultry could prevent the disease and 83.2 % had knowledge that the infection could be prevented by washing hands with soap and water after poultry handling. Awareness regarding preventive measures was found significantly low in females, middle adults, illiterates, and house wives. The awareness regarding avian influenza was quite satisfactory among the adult people of Thimi Municipality. However level of awareness was seen lower in female, illiterate and middle adult. So that along with large

  7. The cost-effectiveness of remedial and preventative measures against radon in Norwegian dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Aanestad, K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The indoor radon concentrations in Norway are among the highest in Europe. This is partly explained by the geology due to the large occurrences of radium rich soil and bedrock (e.g. alum shale and uranium rich granites), large occurrences of highly permeable unconsolidated sediments (e.g. moraines and eskers), and the construction of buildings due to the cold climate. An additional factor is the extensive use of highly permeable light expanded clay aggregates in the foundation construction. Entry of radon from the building ground is the dominant source of indoor radon in Norway. Based on the results of nation-wide surveys it has been concluded that most homes with high levels of radon are located on highly permeable sediments, and some of the homes on are sometimes very difficult and expensive to mitigate. In order to limit the mitigation costs it is therefore important the cost -effectiveness of measures is optimised. In this paper, the results of a Norwegian analysis of the cost -effectiveness of remedial measures in existing dwellings and preventative measures in new buildings will be presented. The analysis on measures in existing dwellings is based on data from approximately 1100 buildings which were mitigated by grants from the Government during the National Action Plan against Cancer between 1999 and 2003. The results show that the mitigation costs are significantly higher than earlier estimates based on controlled experiments in research projects, and it seem as though the mitigation costs have been significantly underestimated in earlier cost-effect analysis. There are several factor that have contributed to an increase of the mitigation costs and some of these factors will be discusses in more detail in this paper. The upper level for new dwellings is 200 Bq/m 3 and it is generally recommended by the Norwegian authorities that preventative measures are implemented in all new dwellings. By this strategy the costs of

  8. Responsibilities of the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Provider in the Treatment and Prevention of Climate Change-Related Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkison, William B; Kearney, Gregory D; Saberi, Pouné; Guidotti, Tee; McCarthy, Ronda; Cook-Shimanek, Margaret; Pensa, Mellisa A; Nabeel, Ismail

    2018-02-01

    : Workers are uniquely susceptible to the health hazards imposed by environmental changes. Occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) providers are at the forefront of emerging health issues pertaining to working populations including climate change, and must be prepared to recognize, respond to, and mitigate climate change-related health effects in workers. This guidance document from the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine focuses on North American workers health effects that may occur as a result of climate change and describes the responsibilities of the OEM provider in responding to these health challenges.

  9. Sports Medicine Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allan J.

    1978-01-01

    Includes a general discussion of sports medicine including exercise and conditioning techniques, prevention of illness and injury, treatment of and rehabilitation after sports injury, and the future of sports medicine. (BB)

  10. The problems of the late implementation of the legal prevention measures for flood risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanseverino-Godfrin Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three main laws, 13th July 1982, 2nd February 1995 and 30th July 2003, have reformed the French legal framework and introduced special measures to prevent flood risks. Besides, completing these measures, the urban planning law have imposed since the 1987 Law that the urban planning documents have had to take into account the natural hazards to define the buildable areas. But, the late implementation of the prevention provisions and the lack of the urban planning documents concerning the natural hazards have led to a development of the urbanism in the flood prone areas. As consequences, most of the constructions are not flood proof, and many large damages are caused each time a flood occurs. We present this problematic through 8 municipalities in three departments (Aude, Gard, and Var.

  11. Current and Ongoing Internet Crime Tendencies and Techniques. Preventive Legislation Measures in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Postolache

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet crime techniques that pilfer from victims millions each year continue to plague the Internet through a range of methods. Trends and techniques identified by many organizations along with itsdescription are followed by preventative measures that will support you in being informed prior to entering into dealings and transactions over the Internet. Techniques as Auction Fraud, Counterfeit Cashier's Check, Credit Card Fraud, Debt Elimination, Parcel Courier Email Scheme, Employment/Business Opportunities,Escrow Services Fraud, Identity Theft, Internet Extortion, Investment Fraud, Lotteries, Nigerian Letter or "419", Phishing/Spoofing, Ponzi/Pyramid, Reshipping, Spam, Third Party Receiver of Funds are clarified in this paper and, also the internet crime prevention and legislative measures are treated, too.

  12. Modeling and preventive measures of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Zhang, Jinhui; Zhang, Xinan

    2014-03-13

    This paper concentrates on the HFMD data of China from March 2009 to December 2012. We set up a mathematical model to fit those data with the goodness of fit and obtain the optimal parameter values of the model. By the Chi-square test of statistical inference, the optimal parameter values of the model are reasonable. We obtained the basic reproductive number of the disease for each year, and it is larger than 1. Thus, we conclude that HFMD will persist in China under the current conditions, so we investigate the preventive measures to control the HFMD. If the preventive measures proposed in our paper were implemented, HFMD would be controlled quickly and the number of infections would decline rapidly over a period of time.

  13. Dose measurement received by the exposed occupationally personnel of the nuclear medicine department of the INCan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez U, N. A.

    2011-01-01

    Personal dose equivalent (PDE) values were determined for occupational exposed workers (OEW) at the Nuclear Medicine Department (NMD) of Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia (INCan), Mexico, using TLD-100 thermoluminescent dosemeters. OEW at NMD, INCan make use of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Radionuclides associated to a pharmaceutical compound used at this Department are 131 I, 18 F, 67 Ga, 99m Tc, 111 In and 201 Tl with main gamma emission energies between 93 and 511 keV. Dosemeter calibration was performed at the metrology department of Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Mexico. Every occupational worker used dark containers with three dosemeters which were replaced monthly for a total of 5 periods. Additionally, control dosemeters were also placed at a site free of radioactive sources in order to determine the background radiation. Results were adjusted to find PDE/day and estimating annual PDE values in the range between 2 mSv (background) and a maximum of 9 mSv. Two of the 16 members of the OEW receive high estimated annual doses (6-9 mSv), other 5 receive annual doses between 3 and 5 mSv, other 3 between 2.5 and 3 mSv, and the rest receive dose values consistent with background radiation. These values are dependent on their daily activities and it is clear that the maximum doses are received by those OEW who perform nursing duties and receive radiopharmaceuticals for daily use. All obtained values are well within the established annual OEW dose limit stated in the General Regulation of Radiological Protection, Mexico (50 mSv) as well as within the lower limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection, report no. 60 (20 mSv). Additionally, consistence was found between measured monthly values and those reported by the firm that performs the monthly service. These results verify the adequate compliance of the NMD at INCan, Mexico with the standards given by the national regulatory

  14. Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and physical activity level in medicine students from Santa Fe (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Monsted

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD are increasing in the world and in Argentina too. Lifestyles, especially diet and physical activity (PA, are presented as key in preventing these diseases. The aim of the study was to assess anthropometric measurements, dietary intake and physical activity level in medical students, and evaluate the possible association between these variables.Material and methods: a cross-sectional study was performed in 141 students from the last three years of the career (21-31 years old. Body Mass Index (BMI, % Body Fat (%BF and Waist Circumference (WC were assessed and subjects were classified according to their cardiovascular risk (CVR from the WC. Dietary intake was assessed by a 24-hours register, a food frequency questionnaire and the pattern of consumption was compared with the Food Guide for Argentinean population. “Argenfoods” Table of Food Composition was used for nutritional assessment and compared with WHO goals for the Prevention of Non-communicable Chronic Diseases. Diet was evaluated by the International Dietary Quality Index (DQI-I and the compliance of the WHO goals for the Prevention of Non-communicable Chronic Diseases. Exercise was assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. The possible association between different anthropometric variables, anthropometry and intake, and anthropometry and physical activity was assessed.Results: 3.5% of the students were obese (31.7 ± 0.7 kg/m2 and 25.5% were overweight (26.8 ± 1.6 kg/m2, 27.7% showed increased BF (women: 36.8 ± 3.4 %; men: 29.1 ± 3.4 % and 14.9% had limit BF (women: 31.7 ± 0,7%, men: 23.6 ± 3.4%, 23.4% had CVR per WC (women: 85.8 ± 5.6 cm; men: 101.4 ± 2.3 cm. 27.8% of normal weight individuals (women showed increased and limit BF (35.0 ± 0.9 %. CVR by WC was associated to BMI in both sexes (p=0.001, OR=6.24 and with BF (p=0.003, OR=4.57 in women. Dietary quality was good only in a 5% and poor in a 49

  15. An Anonymous Survey of Psychosomatic Medicine Fellowship Directors regarding Breaches of Contracts and a Proposal for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, James L.; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. Methods: An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. Results: It is fairly common for applicants to sign…

  16. Awareness of Causes, Consequences and Preventive Measures of Obesity among Adolescents in India

    OpenAIRE

    kansra, pooja

    2016-01-01

    Background: The burden of obesity is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity is associated with wide range of diseases, including cardio respiratory disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and coronary heart disease. Aims: This study aimed to assess the awareness of the adolescents towards the causes, consequences and preventive measures of obesity. Methods: The present study was based on primary data. The study included 200 adolescents surveyed as per convenience sampling. The an...

  17. The school counsellor's role in recognizing eating disorders and implementing preventive measures

    OpenAIRE

    Berčnik, Sanja

    2012-01-01

    The present article discusses eating disorders. Eating disorders are defined as a serious health threat due to an abnormal relation to food which has become a way of coping with stress. They are also often linked to personality disorders. We have focused mainly on the three most common types of eating disorder – anorexia, bulimia, and compulsive (binge) eating – their recognizable features, the causes that lead to eating disorders, and on preventive measures practiced in ...

  18. Situation of radioactive wastes and their prevention and treatment measures in China's uranium mining and metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Renjie.

    1988-01-01

    The sorts of radioactive wastes produced in uranium mining and metallurgy and their hazards are discribed in this paper. The characteristics of the radioactive wastes are discussed. The measurements and results are introduced for treatment and disposal of the radioactive wastes. The way to deal with prevention and treatment of radioactive wastes is presented in the stages of engineering design, construction, production and decommission of uranium mines and plants

  19. Management of Parkinson's disease in Ayurveda: Medicinal plants and adjuvant measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak-Gandhi, Namyata; Vaidya, Ashok D B

    2017-02-02

    Medicinal plants like Mucuna pruriens L.(DC) and Withania somnifera L.(Dunal) have been used in traditional Ayurvedic medicine to manage neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease. The aim of this review is to share the role of Ayurveda's insights, traditional usage and contemporary investigations for translational, integrative applications to manage Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease. High impact journals for Parkinson's diseases, traditional textbooks from Ayurveda as well as relevant clinical and para clinical studies with botanicals are selectively incorporated to evolve the aforesaid translational application. . A. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex multi-system, neurodegenerative disease. Though predominantly perceived as a motor disease, it also has debilitating non- motor features, which are frequently missed and not treated. Major treatment goals are to increase striatal dopamine levels with precursor-substitution and/or reduce its breakdown. As the disease progresses, a steady increase in the dose of levodopa is inevitable. However, higher doses cause motor complications of dyskinesia and dystonia and compromise medical treatment. B. ROLE OF MUCUNA PRURIENS L.DC), THE MOST PROMISING BOTANICAL FROM AYURVEDA: Ayurveda offers a natural source of levodopa - the seeds of Mucuna pruriens L.(DC)- which have a long standing safe use in the condition. Its clinical studies have shown pharmacokinetic profile distinct from synthetic levodopa, which is likely to reduce the untoward motor complications. Additionally, its seed extracts have shown neuroprotective benefits which are unrelated to levodopa. C. AYURVEDIC REGIMENS AND MEDICINAL PLANTS FOR NEUROPROTECTIVE AND SYMPTOMATIC BENEFITS: Other regimens (Panchakarma) and medicinal plants used in Ayurveda have been subjected to exploratory studies with promising early results in the condition. The debilitating non motor symptoms in patients have shown response with one of the regimens - medicated oil enema

  20. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio

    2018-01-01

    Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54-93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919), Scopus (1257) e Cochrane Library (12). We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each working session and at the end of the working day

  1. Ergonomic risk and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in the dentistry environment: an umbrella review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone De Sio

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dental practitioners are exposed to different occupational hazards during the course of their professional activity, such as physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic factors. The ergonomic hazards, caused by strained posture and prolonged repetitive movements, can induce musculoskeletal disorders. It occurs in 54–93% of dental professionals and involve the spine, shoulder and hand-wrist tract. Through a systematic review of international literature, we analyzed specific ergonomic risk factors and preventive measures of musculoskeletal disorders in professional dental activity. Methods This systematic review is coherent with the PRISMA statement. The scientific research on the major online databases was based on the following keywords: dentist, prevention, ergonomic, dentistry, musculoskeletal, neck pain, posture, ergonomics, work and occupational. The studies included in this review focus on disorders related to ergonomics and on the most effective preventive measures to be adopted. No restrictions were applied for language or publication type. We excluded reports not related to ergonomic prevention in dentistry, reports of minor academic significance, editorial articles, individual contributions, and studies published in scientific conferences. Results Online research indicated 4188 references: PubMed (2919, Scopus (1257 e Cochrane Library (12. We excluded 3012 of these, because they were unrelated to ergonomics theme and 187 due to duplication. From the remaining 989 studies, 960 papers did not meet inclusion criteria and they were excluded. Therefore, we analyzed 29 articles, including 16 narrative reviews and 13 original article. The main risk factor for the development of musculoskeletal disorders found in our analysis is static posture adopted during work, highlighted in 87.5% of reviews and 84% of original articles. With regard to preventive measures, 75% of the reviews highlighted the importance of stretching after each

  2. Mobile tele-medicine systems in the multidisciplinary approach of diabetes management : the remote prevention of diabetes complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammas, Constantinos S; Geropoulos, Spyros; Markou, Georgia; Saatsakis, George; Lemonidou, Chryssa; Tentolouris, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of feasibility and reliability of Mobile-Telemedicine Systems (M-TS) in the remote prevention of diabetes related complications. A feasibility-reliability evaluation based on a simulating experimentation by ten specialists (N=10) who examined a diabetic patient on the electronic space of a mobile experimental telemedicine system (MU-Exp.-TS). I. Remote prevention of diabetic foot and other diabetes related complications is feasible (acceptability: 89-100%). II. Remote ulcer classification and diabetic foot amputation risk estimation: Accuracy=89%. The proposed MU-TS based multidisciplinary approach and prevention of diabetes related complications is feasible while that of diabetic foot is both feasible and reliable.

  3. Prioritizing and optimizing sustainable measures for food waste prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristóbal, Jorge; Castellani, Valentina; Manfredi, Simone; Sala, Serenella

    2018-02-01

    Food waste has gained prominence in the European political debate thanks to the recent Circular Economy package. Currently the waste hierarchy, introduced by the Waste Framework Directive, has been the rule followed to prioritize food waste prevention and management measures according to the environmental criteria. But when considering other criteria along with the environmental one, such as the economic, other tools are needed for the prioritization and optimization. This paper addresses the situation in which a decision-maker has to design a food waste prevention programme considering the limited economic resources in order to achieve the highest environmental impact prevention along the whole food life cycle. A methodology using Life Cycle Assessment and mathematical programing is proposed and its capabilities are shown through a case study. Results show that the order established in the waste hierarchy is generally followed. The proposed methodology revealed to be especially helpful in identifying "quick wins" - measures that should be always prioritized since they avoid a high environmental impact at a low cost. Besides, in order to aggregate the environmental scores related to a variety of impact categories, different weighting sets were proposed. In general, results show that the relevance of the weighting set in the prioritization of the measures appears to be limited. Finally, the correlation between reducing food waste generation and reducing environmental impact along the Food Supply Chain has been studied. Results highlight that when planning food waste prevention strategies, it is important to set the targets at the level of environmental impact instead of setting the targets at the level of avoided food waste generation (in mass). Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  5. Analysis of occupational accidents: prevention through the use of additional technical safety measures for machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dźwiarek, Marek; Latała, Agata

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of results of 1035 serious and 341 minor accidents recorded by Poland's National Labour Inspectorate (PIP) in 2005-2011, in view of their prevention by means of additional safety measures applied by machinery users. Since the analysis aimed at formulating principles for the application of technical safety measures, the analysed accidents should bear additional attributes: the type of machine operation, technical safety measures and the type of events causing injuries. The analysis proved that the executed tasks and injury-causing events were closely connected and there was a relation between casualty events and technical safety measures. In the case of tasks consisting of manual feeding and collecting materials, the injuries usually occur because of the rotating motion of tools or crushing due to a closing motion. Numerous accidents also happened in the course of supporting actions, like removing pollutants, correcting material position, cleaning, etc.

  6. Overview of revised measures to prevent malaria transmission by blood transfusion in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraud, O; Assal, A; Pelletier, B; Danic, B; Kerleguer, A; David, B; Joussemet, M; de Micco, P

    2008-10-01

    Plasmodial transmission by blood donation is rare in non-endemic countries, but a very serious complication of blood transfusion. The French national blood service (Etablissement Français du Sang and Centre de Transfusion sanguine des Armees) intended to revise the measures to strengthen blood safety with regard to Plasmodiae as transmissible pathogens. To limit the risk of transmission during infusion, serious additive measures have been taken for more than a decade in France, which is the European country with the highest rate of exposure to imported plasmodial infections or malaria. These measures were revised and strengthened after the occurrence of a lethal transfusion-transmitted infection in 2002, but did not prevent another occurrence in 2006. This report examines the weaknesses of the systems and aims at emphasizing the safety measures already taken and addresses issues to best respond to that risk.

  7. Healthcare workers' challenges in the implementation of tuberculosis infection prevention and control measures in Mozambique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Brouwer

    Full Text Available Healthcare Workers (HCWs have a higher frequency of TB exposure than the general population and have therefore an occupational TB risk that infection prevention and control (IPC measures aim to reduce. HCWs are crucial in the implementation of these measures. The objective of the study was to investigate Mozambican HCWs' perceptions of their occupational TB risk and the measures they report using to reduce this risk. In addition, we explored the challenges HCWs encounter while using these TBIPC measures.Focus group discussion. Analysis according content method.Four categories of HCWs: auxiliary workers, medical (doctors and clinical officers, nurses and TB program staff.HCWs are aware of their occupational TB risk and use various measures to reduce their risk of infection. HCWs find it challenging to employ measures that minimize such risks and a lack of clear guidelines contributes to these challenges. HCWs' and patient behavior further complicate the use of TBIPC measures.HCWs in Mozambique perceive a high occupational risk of TB infection. They report several challenges using measures to reduce this risk such as shortage of material, lack of clear guidelines, insufficient motivation and inadequate training. Robust training with motivational approaches, alongside supervision and support for HCWs could improve implementation of TBIPC measures. Healthcare management should address the areas for improvement that are beyond the individual HCW's control.

  8. Prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: Updated Guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health, and HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masur, Henry; Brooks, John T; Benson, Constance A; Holmes, King K; Pau, Alice K; Kaplan, Jonathan E

    2014-05-01

    In May 2013, a revised and updated version of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/National Institutes of Health/HIV Medicine Association Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents was released online. These guidelines, since their inception in 1989, have been widely accessed in the United States and abroad. These guidelines have focused on the management of HIV/AIDS-related opportunistic infections that occur in the United States. In other parts of the world, the spectrum of complications may be different and the resources available for diagnosis and management may not be identical to those in the United States. The sections that have been most extensively updated are those on immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human papillomavirus, and immunizations. The guidelines will not be published in hard copy form. This document will be revised as needed throughout each year as new data become available.

  9. Critical thinking, curiosity and parsimony in (emergency) medicine: 'Doing nothing' as a quality measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzers, Gerben

    2017-06-01

    Current medical decision-making is influenced by many factors, such as competing interests, distractions, as well as fear of missing an important diagnosis. This can result in ordering tests or providing treatments that can be harmful. Unnecessary tests are more likely to lead to false positive diagnosis or incidental findings that are of uncertain clinical relevance. Estimates indicate that almost one-third of all health spending is wasteful. The 'Choosing Wisely' campaign has identified many of these wasteful tests and treatments. This perspective proposes some suggestions to focus on our critical thinking, embrace shared decision-making and stay curious about the patient we are treating. Most importantly, 'doing nothing' could be a quality indicator for EDs, and ACEM supported audits and research to develop benchmarks for certain tests and procedures in the ED are important to achieve a cultural change. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. Current and Future Challenges in Point-of-Care Technologies: A Paradigm-Shift in Affordable Global Healthcare With Personalized and Preventive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhawan, Atam P; Heetderks, William J; Pavel, Misha; Acharya, Soumyadipta; Akay, Metin; Mairal, Anurag; Wheeler, Bruce; Dacso, Clifford C; Sunder, T; Lovell, Nigel; Gerber, Martin; Shah, Milind; Senthilvel, S G; Wang, May D; Bhargava, Balram

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the panel discussion at the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Point-of-Care Healthcare Technology Conference (POCHT 2013) held in Bangalore India from Jan 16-18, 2013. Modern medicine has witnessed interdisciplinary technology innovations in healthcare with a continuous growth in life expectancy across the globe. However, there is also a growing global concern on the affordability of rapidly rising healthcare costs. To provide quality healthcare at reasonable costs, there has to be a convergence of preventive, personalized, and precision medicine with the help of technology innovations across the entire spectrum of point-of-care (POC) to critical care at hospitals. The first IEEE EMBS Special Topic POCHT conference held in Bangalore, India provided an international forum with clinicians, healthcare providers, industry experts, innovators, researchers, and students to define clinical needs and technology solutions toward commercialization and translation to clinical applications across different environments and infrastructures. This paper presents a summary of discussions that took place during the keynote presentations, panel discussions, and breakout sessions on needs, challenges, and technology innovations in POC technologies toward improving global healthcare. Also presented is an overview of challenges and trends in developing and developed economies with respect to priority clinical needs, technology innovations in medical devices, translational engineering, information and communication technologies, infrastructure support, and patient and clinician acceptance of POC healthcare technologies.

  11. Measuring the quality of pressure ulcer prevention: A systematic mapping review of quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, Jan; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Büscher, Andreas

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to provide a systematic overview of available pressure ulcer prevention quality indicators and to evaluate the underlying empirical evidence. A systematic mapping review was conducted with combined searches in Embase and Medline, and websites of relevant institutions and organisations. The eligibility criteria were clear use of the term "quality indicator" regarding pressure ulcer prevention; English or German language; and all settings, populations, and types of resources, including articles, brochures, and online material. In total, n = 146 quality indicators were identified. Most indicators were published in the United States (n = 50). The majority of indicators was developed for the hospital setting (n = 102). Process indicators were the most common (n = 71), followed by outcome indicators (n = 49). Less than half of identified indicators appeared to be practically used. Evidence supporting the validity and reliability were reported for n = 25 and n = 30 indicators respectively. The high number of indicators demonstrate the importance of measuring pressure ulcer prevention quality. This is not an indicator of our ability to accurately measure and evaluate this construct. There is an urgent need to develop evidence-based and internationally comparable indicators to help improve patient care and safety worldwide. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Measures Taken to Prevent Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy - Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Denise V; Salvesen von Essen, Beatriz; Lamias, Mark J; Shulman, Holly; Hernandez-Virella, Wanda I; Taraporewalla, Aspy J; Vargas, Manuel I; Harrison, Leslie; Ellington, Sascha R; Soto, Leslianne; Williams, Tanya; Rodriguez, Aurea; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Rivera, Brenda; Cox, Shanna; Pazol, Karen; Rice, Marion E; Dee, Deborah L; Romero, Lisa; Lathrop, Eva; Barfield, Wanda; Smith, Ruben A; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Deseda, Carmen; Warner, Lee

    2017-06-09

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3). CDC and the Puerto Rico Department of Health analyzed data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System Zika Postpartum Emergency Response (PRAMS-ZPER) survey conducted from August through December 2016 among Puerto Rico residents with a live birth. Most women (98.1%) reported using at least one measure to avoid mosquitos in their home environment. However, only 45.8% of women reported wearing mosquito repellent daily, and 11.5% reported wearing pants and shirts with long sleeves daily. Approximately one third (38.5%) reported abstaining from sex or using condoms consistently throughout pregnancy. Overall, 76.9% of women reported having been tested for Zika virus by their health care provider during the first or second trimester of pregnancy. These results can be used to assess and refine Zika virus infection prevention messaging and interventions for pregnant women and to reinforce measures to promote prenatal testing for Zika.

  13. Analytical Tools and Strategic Approach to Detect Poor Quality Medicines, Identify Unknown Components, and Timely Alerts for Appropriate Measures: Case Study of Antimalarial Medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Habyalimana, Védaste; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie; Kalenda Tshilombo, Nicodème; Dispas, Amandine; Yemoa Loconon, Achille; Sacre, Pierre-Yves; Widart, Joëlle; De Tullio, Pascal; Counerotte, Stéphane; Kadima Ntokamunda, Justin-Léonard; Ziemons, Eric; Hubert, Philippe; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the circulation of poor quality medicines is becoming an alarming worldwide phenomenon with serious public health and socio-economic concerns. The situation is particularly critical in developing countries where drug quality assurance and regulatory systems for drug manufacturing, importation, distribution and sales are weak. A sustained vigilance on poor quality medicines that regroup counterfeit/falsified, substandard and degraded medicines is therefore required to ensure patient ...

  14. Measuring the burden of preventable diabetic hospitalisations in the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo-Palacios, David G; Cairns, John; Masetto, Cynthia

    2016-08-02

    The prevalence of diabetes among adults in Mexico has increased markedly from 6.7 % in 1994 to 14.7 % in 2015. Although the main diabetic complications can be prevented or delayed with timely and effective primary care, a high percentage of diabetic patients have developed them imposing an important preventable burden on Mexican society and on the health system. This paper estimates the financial and health burden caused by potentially preventable hospitalisations due to diabetic complications in hospitals operated by the largest social security institution in Latin America, the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), in the period 2007-2014. Hospitalisations in IMSS hospitals whose main cause was a diabetic complication were identified. The financial burden was estimated using IMSS diagnostic-related groups. To estimate the health burden, DALYs were computed under the assumption that patients would not have experienced complications if they had received timely and effective primary care. A total of 322,977 hospitalisations due to five diabetic complications were identified during the period studied, of which hospitalisations due to kidney failure and diabetic foot represent 78 %. The financial burden increased by 8.4 % in real terms between 2007 and 2014. However, when measured as cost per IMSS affiliate, it decreased by 11.3 %. The health burden had an overall decrease of 13.6 % and the associated DALYs in 2014 reached 103,688. Resources used for the hospital treatment of diabetic complications are then not available for other health care interventions. In order to prevent these hospitalisations more resources might need to be invested in primary care; the first step could be to consider the financial burden of these hospitalisations as a potential target for switching resources from hospital care to primary care services. However, more evidence of the effectiveness of different primary care interventions is needed to know how much of the burden could

  15. Effectiveness of biosecurity measures in preventing badger visits to farm buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Johanna; McDonald, Robbie A; Walker, Neil; Delahay, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis is a serious and economically important disease of cattle. Badgers have been implicated in the transmission and maintenance of the disease in the UK since the 1970s. Recent studies have provided substantial evidence of widespread and frequent visits by badgers to farm buildings during which there is the potential for close direct contact with cattle and contamination of cattle feed. Here we evaluated the effectiveness of simple exclusion measures in improving farm biosecurity and preventing badger visits to farm buildings. In the first phase of the study, 32 farms were surveyed using motion-triggered infrared cameras on potential entrances to farm buildings to determine the background level of badger visits experienced by each farm. In the second phase, they were divided into four treatment groups; "Control", "Feed Storage", "Cattle Housing" and "Both", whereby no exclusion measures were installed, exclusion measures were installed on feed storage areas only, cattle housing only or both feed storage and cattle housing, respectively. Badger exclusion measures included sheet metal gates, adjustable metal panels for gates, sheet metal fencing, feed bins and electric fencing. Cameras were deployed for at least 365 nights in each phase on each farm. Badger visits to farm buildings occurred on 19 of the 32 farms in phase one. In phase two, the simple exclusion measures were 100% effective in preventing badger entry into farm buildings, as long as they were appropriately deployed. Furthermore, the installation of exclusion measures also reduced the level of badger visits to the rest of the farmyard. The findings of the present study clearly demonstrate how relatively simple practical measures can substantially reduce the likelihood of badger visits to buildings and reduce some of the potential for contact and disease transmission between badgers and cattle.

  16. Validation and evaluation of measuring methods for the 3D documentation of external injuries in the field of forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ursula; Buße, Kirsten; Campana, Lorenzo; Schyma, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) measurement techniques are gaining importance in many areas. The latest developments brought more cost-effective, user-friendly, and faster technologies onto the market. Which 3D techniques are suitable in the field of forensic medicine and what are their advantages and disadvantages? This wide-ranging study evaluated and validated various 3D measurement techniques for the forensic requirements. High-tech methods as well as low-budget systems have been tested and compared in terms of accuracy, ease of use, expenditure of time, mobility, cost, necessary knowhow, and their limitations. Within this study, various commercial measuring systems of the different techniques were tested. Based on the first results, one measuring system was selected for each technique, which appeared to be the most suitable for the forensic application or is already established in forensic medicine. A body of a deceased, a face and an injury of a living person, and a shoe sole were recorded by 11 people with different professions and previous knowledge using the selected systems. The results were assessed and the personal experiences were evaluated using a questionnaire. In addition, precision investigations were carried out using test objects. The study shows that the hand-held scanner and photogrammetry are very suitable for the 3D documentation of forensic medical findings. Their moderate acquisition costs and easy operation could lead to more frequent application in forensic medicine in the future. For special applications, the stripe-light scanner still has its justification due to its high precision, the flexible application area, and the high reliability. The results show that, thanks to the technological advances, the 3D measurement technology will have more and more impact on the routine of the forensic medical examination.

  17. Is prevention a fantasy, or the future of medicine? A panoramic view of recent data, status, and direction in cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kones, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Americans are under assault by a fierce epidemic of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, of their own doing. Lowered death rates from heart disease and reduced rates of smoking are seriously threatened by the inexorable rise in overweight and obesity. Latest data indicate that 32% of children are overweight or obese, and fewer than 17% exercise sufficiently. Over 68% of adults are overweight, 35% are obese, nearly 40% fulfill criteria for the metabolic syndrome, 8-13% have diabetes, 34% have hypertension, 36% have prehypertension, 29% have prediabetes, 15% of the population with either diabetes, hypertension, or dyslipidemia are undiagnosed, 59% engage in no vigorous activity, and fewer than 5% of the US population qualifies for the American Heart Association (AHA) definition of ideal cardiovascular health. Health, nutrition, and exercise illiteracy is prevalent, while misinformation and unrealistic expectations are the norm. Half of American adults have at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Up to 65% do not have their conventional risk biomarkers under control. Of those patients with multiple risk factors, fewer than 10% have all of them adequately controlled. Even when patients are treated according to evidence-based protocols, about 70% of cardiac events remain unaddressed. Undertreatment is also common. Poor patient adherence, probably well below 50%, adds further difficulty in reducing cardiovascular risk. Available data indicate that only a modest fraction of the total cardiovascular risk burden in the population is actually now being eliminated. A fresh view of these issues, a change in current philosophy, leading to new and different, multimechanistic methods of prevention may be needed. Adherence to published guidelines will improve substantially outcomes in both primary and secondary prevention. Primordial prevention, which does not allow risk values to appear in a population, affords more complete protection than subsequent partial reversal

  18. Measures to prevent, intercept and respond to illicit uses of nuclear material and radioactive sources. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear programmes have evolved, the quantities of nuclear material in use or storage, and the number of facilities operating or shut down has increased. In particular, the dismantling of nuclear weapons has resulted in greatly increased stockpiles of weapons usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium. Concern over the security of these and related materials has been further raised by the continued occurrence of cases of illicit trafficking. The risks are theft, leading to trafficking and possible illicit use, and sabotage which could lead to the creation of radiological hazards. The challenge is threefold: prevention, detection and interception, and response. Prevention starts with effective national systems for accountancy, control and protection. Detection and interception involves effective measures to combat illicit trafficking, and response requires planning for the consequences of theft and sabotage. Responsibilities in these fields are national, but nuclear security also has a powerful international dimension. The consequences of failures in national measures reach beyond national boundaries. The effectiveness of national nuclear security can be enhanced through international measures: through agreed international norms, standards and guides, through training and advice, through information exchange and the sharing of experience, and through developing common understandings and perceptions. The Stockholm Conference contributed by focusing on the threats, including terrorist, to nuclear and other radioactive materials; on how to assess them and on how to develop the appropriate security measures. National measures to protect nuclear material and facilities and the continuing development of international standards and obligations were described. The conference discussed the patterns and trends in the illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and national and international measures to combat such trafficking. Finally, it considered

  19. Course Setting as a Prevention Measure for Overuse Injuries of the Back in Alpine Ski Racing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spörri, Jörg; Kröll, Josef; Fasel, Benedikt; Aminian, Kamiar; Müller, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Background: A combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk has been suggested to be a mechanism leading to overuse injuries of the back in Alpine ski racing. However, there is limited knowledge about the effect of course setting on the aforementioned back-loading patterns. Purpose: To investigate the effect of increased gate offset on the skier’s overall trunk kinematics and the occurring ground-reaction forces and to compare these variables between the competition disciplines giant slalom (GS) and slalom (SL). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Ten top-level athletes were divided into GS and SL groups. Both groups performed a total of 240 GS and 240 SL turns at 2 different course settings. The overall trunk movement components (frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion angle) were measured using 2 inertial measurement units fixed on the sacrum and sternum. Total ground-reaction forces were measured by pressure insoles. Results: In SL, ground-reaction force peaks were significantly lower when the gate offset was increased, while in GS, no differences between course settings were observed. During the turn phase in which the highest spinal disc loading is expected to occur, the back-loading patterns in both GS and SL included a combination of frontal bending, lateral bending, and torsion in the loaded trunk. SL was characterized by shorter turns, lower frontal and lateral bending angles after gate passage, and a trend toward greater total ground-reaction force peaks compared with GS. Conclusion: Course setting is a reasonable measure to reduce the skier’s overall back loading in SL but not in GS. The distinct differences observed between GS and SL should be taken into account when defining discipline-specific prevention measures for back overuse injuries. Clinical Relevance: To reduce the magnitude of the overall back loading, in SL, minimal gate offsets should be avoided. Prevention measures in GS might

  20. Do women in rural areas of Serbia rarely apply preventive measures against cervical cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Ljiljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The incidence of cervical cancer in Central Serbia has the higher rate as compared with that in other European countries. Considering mortality rate for cervical cancer, the standardized rate in Serbia is 10.1 per 10,000 females, which is the second highest one after that in Romania with 13.0. The aim of this study was to examine application of preventive measures for cervical cancer in women both from rural and urban areas in Serbia and if they are associated with sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Methods. We analyzed secondary data of the 2006 National Health Survey of the population of Serbia focused on characteristics of adult females aged 25 to 65 years (5.314 in total taking into consideration that programme of the organized screening will include female population aged over 25 years. Results. Respondents from rural areas have gynecological examination less than once a year in comparison with those from urban areas (OR = 0.60, 95% Cl 0.54-0.68. Less women from rural areas did Pap test during the last 12 months in comparison with respondents from urban areas (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.48- 0.64. Respondents from urban areas less often do the Pap test on doctor's advice in comparison with those from rural one (OR = 0.55, 95% Cl 0.42-0.62. Conclusion. This study shows that women in rural areas rarely implement preventive gynecological measures againt cervical cancer in comparison with those in urban areas. Implementation of preventive measures among rural women is conditioned by lower levels of education and lower socioeconomic status. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175025

  1. Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency Program: Relationship between Lifestyle Behaviors and Burnout and Wellbeing Measures in First-Year Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClafferty, Hilary; Brooks, Audrey J; Chen, Mei-Kuang; Brenner, Michelle; Brown, Melanie; Esparham, Anna; Gerstbacher, Dana; Golianu, Brenda; Mark, John; Weydert, Joy; Yeh, Ann Ming; Maizes, Victoria

    2018-04-23

    It is widely recognized that burnout is prevalent in medical culture and begins early in training. Studies show pediatricians and pediatric trainees experience burnout rates comparable to other specialties. Newly developed Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies in professionalism and personal development recognize the unacceptably high resident burnout rates and present an important opportunity for programs to improve residents experience throughout training. These competencies encourage healthy lifestyle practices and cultivation of self-awareness, self-regulation, empathy, mindfulness, and compassion—a paradigm shift from traditional medical training underpinned by a culture of unrealistic endurance and self-sacrifice. To date, few successful and sustainable programs in resident burnout prevention and wellness promotion have been described. The University of Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine Pediatric Integrative Medicine in Residency (PIMR) curriculum, developed in 2011, was designed in part to help pediatric programs meet new resident wellbeing requirements. The purpose of this paper is to detail levels of lifestyle behaviors, burnout, and wellbeing for the PIMR program’s first-year residents ( N = 203), and to examine the impact of lifestyle behaviors on burnout and wellbeing. The potential of the PIMR to provide interventions addressing gaps in lifestyle behaviors with recognized association to burnout is discussed.

  2. Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators a tool for quality assessment and improvement in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa Verdecia, Pilar; Hernandez Rivero Aerulio Tulio; Serra Aguila, Rolando A.; Varela Corona, Consuelo

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, an attempt has been made to ascertain the quality of activity measurements in the field of nuclear medicine in Cuba, on the basis of the results of a national program of ongoing comparisons for assaying gamma emitting radiopharmaceuticals for amount of radioactivity using radionuclide calibrators. Nuclides of the most wide spread use in Cuban nuclear medicine, 1 31 I, 201 Tl and 99m Tc, as well as two measurement geometries, glass vials and plastic syringes, were employed. The participants' performance is assessed regarding to the value of † 10 % required in the Pharmacopoeia as an accuracy limit of the measurement. Performance tables have been obtained and a c2 statistic is calculated from observed and expected frequencies, with the aim of testing the hypothesis about the independence of some characteristics of the comparison results, at a significance level a equal to 0.05. Particularly, the proportion of satisfactory results in the years 2002 2004 were found to be at the same level, but higher than in 2000. It reveals an improvement of the measurement quality since 2002. The causes of improvement were investigated using the statistical treatment of several data available as supplementary information. Cuban results are also compared with published results for similar comparisons organized in other countries

  3. Research on Chinese life cycle-based wind power plant environmental influence prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-08-19

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  4. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian

    2014-01-01

    The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474

  5. Research on Chinese Life Cycle-Based Wind Power Plant Environmental Influence Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanxi Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.

  6. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Sunbul, Mustafa; Memish, Ziad A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Bodur, Hurrem; Ozkul, Aykut; Gucukoglu, Ali; Chinikar, Sadegh; Hasan, Zahra

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. PREVENTIVE MEASURES - EXCEPTION TO THE PRINCIPLE OF THE RIGHT TO LIBERTY AND SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin-Alin DĂNILĂ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the specific obligations arising from the exercise of criminal action and civil action in criminal proceedings and taking into account the need to ensure a better conduct of activities that are undertaken in solving criminal cases, it sometimes appears necessary, taking certain procedural measures. Procedural measures were defined [1] as institutions available for criminal procedural law and criminal judicial bodies consisting of privations or certain constraints, real or personal, of the conditions and circumstances under which the criminal proceedings are being realized. By the function pursued by the legislature, these measures work as a legal means of prevention or suppression of circumstances or situations likely to jeopardize the effectiveness of the criminal proceedings through the obstacles, difficulties and confusion which they can produce [2]. Procedural measures arise as opportunities, but not being specific to any criminal case, judicial bodies take measures according to the specific circumstances of each criminal case. From this derives the adjacent character of the criminal procedural measures to the main job [3].

  8. Bicycling crashes on streetcar (tram) or train tracks: mixed methods to identify prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Kay; Dennis, Jessica; Reynolds, Conor C O; Winters, Meghan; Harris, M Anne

    2016-07-22

    Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada. We complemented this with engineering information about the rail systems, interviews of personnel at seven bike shops about advice they provide to customers, and width measurements of tires on commonly sold bikes. In our study, 32 % of injured cyclists had crashes that directly involved tracks. The vast majority resulted from the bike tire being caught in the rail flangeway (gap in the road surface alongside rails), often when cyclists made unplanned maneuvers to avoid a collision. Track crashes were more common on major city streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure, with left turns at intersections, with hybrid, racing and city bikes, among less experienced and less frequent bicyclists, and among women. Commonly sold bikes typically had tire widths narrower than the smallest track flangeways. There were no track crashes in route sections where streetcars and trains had dedicated rights of way. Given our results, prevention efforts might be directed at individual knowledge, bicycle tires, or route design, but their potential for success is likely to differ. Although it may be possible to reach a broader audience with continued advice about how to avoid track crashes, the persistence and frequency of these crashes and their unpredictable circumstances indicates that other solutions are needed. Using tires wider than streetcar or train flangeways could prevent some crashes, though there are other considerations that lead many

  9. Bicycling crashes on streetcar (tram or train tracks: mixed methods to identify prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Teschke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streetcar or train tracks in urban areas are difficult for bicyclists to negotiate and are a cause of crashes and injuries. This study used mixed methods to identify measures to prevent such crashes, by examining track-related crashes that resulted in injuries to cyclists, and obtaining information from the local transit agency and bike shops. Methods We compared personal, trip, and route infrastructure characteristics of 87 crashes directly involving streetcar or train tracks to 189 crashes in other circumstances in Toronto, Canada. We complemented this with engineering information about the rail systems, interviews of personnel at seven bike shops about advice they provide to customers, and width measurements of tires on commonly sold bikes. Results In our study, 32 % of injured cyclists had crashes that directly involved tracks. The vast majority resulted from the bike tire being caught in the rail flangeway (gap in the road surface alongside rails, often when cyclists made unplanned maneuvers to avoid a collision. Track crashes were more common on major city streets with parked cars and no bike infrastructure, with left turns at intersections, with hybrid, racing and city bikes, among less experienced and less frequent bicyclists, and among women. Commonly sold bikes typically had tire widths narrower than the smallest track flangeways. There were no track crashes in route sections where streetcars and trains had dedicated rights of way. Conclusions Given our results, prevention efforts might be directed at individual knowledge, bicycle tires, or route design, but their potential for success is likely to differ. Although it may be possible to reach a broader audience with continued advice about how to avoid track crashes, the persistence and frequency of these crashes and their unpredictable circumstances indicates that other solutions are needed. Using tires wider than streetcar or train flangeways could prevent some

  10. Travel medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To define the practice of travel medicine, provide the basics of a comprehensive pretravel consultation for international travelers, and assist in identifying patients who might require referral to travel medicine professionals. Sources of information Guidelines and recommendations on travel medicine and travel-related illnesses by national and international travel health authorities were reviewed. MEDLINE and EMBASE searches for related literature were also performed. Main message Travel medicine is a highly dynamic specialty that focuses on pretravel preventive care. A comprehensive risk assessment for each individual traveler is essential in order to accurately evaluate traveler-, itinerary-, and destination-specific risks, and to advise on the most appropriate risk management interventions to promote health and prevent adverse health outcomes during travel. Vaccinations might also be required and should be personalized according to the individual traveler’s immunization history, travel itinerary, and the amount of time available before departure. Conclusion A traveler’s health and safety depends on a practitioner’s level of expertise in providing pretravel counseling and vaccinations, if required. Those who advise travelers are encouraged to be aware of the extent of this responsibility and to refer all high-risk travelers to travel medicine professionals whenever possible. PMID:25500599

  11. Adherence to vector preventive measures decrease cases of acute Dengue among Abuja residents, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Abdullahi Nasir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nigeria is one of the dengue hyper-endemic nations. This study investigated the level of knowledge about dengue and vector preventive practices and their impacts on acute dengue among febrile patients at Abuja, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted on febrile patients attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria. Blood samples were individually collected from 171 febrile patients residing at Gwagwalada suburb. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to assess subjects’ knowledge about preventive measures against vector breeding and bites. Blood samples were tested for dengue virus Nonstructural glycoprotein-1antigen using enzyme linked Immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: Fifteen out of 171 febrile persons (8.8% were Dengue NS1 positive. Sixty percent of the subjects do not know about dengue, while 33% knew about dengue virus infection through television/ radio programs, 5% through healthcare professionals and 2% from friends/families. Those who persistently use indoor residual spraying and long sleeves/trousers during daytime had less cases of DENV NS1 than those who do not. There was statistical association between DENV NS1 and residence in proximity to waste dumpsites (P<0.0001 and frequent use of long sleeve clothing and trousers (P=0.005. However, there was no statistical association between DENV NS1 antigenemia and persistent use of indoor residual spraying and presence of in-door water containers (P>0.05. Conclusions: Findings from this study imply that proper education and adherence to preventive measures minimize people from being susceptible to Dengue virus infections.

  12. [Prevention of melanoma by sun protective measures in childhood. Temporal changes in awareness of parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölmel, K F; Pfahlberg, A; Gefeller, O

    1997-06-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies on risk factors of malignant melanoma confirm the etiologic role of excessive UV-exposure especially in childhood. Preventive educational campaigns directed to parents of pre-school children have been inaugurated in several countries. In Germany the information was distributed by the "Working group for Preventive Measures in Dermatology" in cooperation with different public health institutions and the media starting in 1993. To evaluate the influence of these efforts on the knowledge and behaviour of the parents, two successive cross-sectional studies at all 56 nursery schools using the same standardised questionnaire were performed. The first interview took place in spring 1993 (before the campaign) with 1341 evaluable questionnaires', the second in fall 1994 (after the campaign) with 1150 evaluable questionnaire. The knowledge of the parents on melanoma risk factors was significantly improved in the second interview. Also the parental behavior regarding sun-protective measures when their children were outdoor at the beach or in the garden definitely changed. In 1993 the best textile sun protection was used by 21% of the parents at the beach and 36% in the garden. These numbers rose to 34% (beach) and 57% (garden) by the second interview. The percentage of children with no sunburn recorded during the preceding summer rose from 39% to 51%. According to the child's gender the parental behavior was different between the sexes; boys were always better protected than girls. The design of this study with two cross-sectional surveys in the same populations does not provide a methodologically sound basis for attributing the observed positive changes to the campaign. Without any doubt it can be stated that the parental knowledge and their attention to sun protection in their children showed substantial improvement in the second survey after the campaign. Thus, these results provide some evidence for the success of the preventive activities

  13. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease and irradiated blood products as its preventive measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masaru

    1996-01-01

    In this article, the outline of TA-GVHD is presented and its preventive measures, especially the effects of radiation exposure of transfusion blood, is reported. TA-GVHD is a transfusion complication with the highest mortality. In Japan, 1 of 659 patients who underwent cardiac surgery suffers this disease. If this is caused by on way matching of HLA antigen type, 1 of 312 patients are to be observed in Japanese (Europe, 1/1024; North America, 1/797). Furthermore, the primary diseases of 171 patients whose definitive diagnosis was TA-GVHD were chest vascular surgery diseases in 67, malignant tumors in 61, and pediatric diseases in 14. The relative risk rates of cardiac surgery patients are 3 times higher than that of cancer patients. The current most effective preventive therapy for TA-GVHD is radiotherapy. The ions produced by H 2 O decomposition due to radiation destroy cells. Since TA-GVHD often appears in the case of using fresh blood, authors always use irradiated blood for infusion when blood was collected within 72 hours regardless of the subject diseases. In the authors' hospitals, there have been no report of TA-GVHD between December 1993 and August 1995. Radiological effects on lymphocytes, erythrocytes, platelets, and granulocytes were also studied. As the other preventive measures, lymphocytes eliminating filter, MAP-erythrocytes, and ultraviolet irradiation are also reported. The current most safe blood is therefore considered the blood of which lymphocytes were eliminated within 24 hours after collection and exposured to irradiation. (S.Y.). 57 refs

  14. Phlebotomy as a preventive measure for crocidolite-induced mesothelioma in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, Yuuki; Chew, Shan-Hwu; Shibata, Takahiro; Okazaki, Yasumasa; Yamashita, Kyoko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2018-02-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a rare but socially important neoplasm due to its association with asbestos exposure. Malignant mesothelioma is difficult to diagnose at an early stage, yet there are no particularly effective treatments available at the advanced stage, thus necessitating efficient strategies to prevent MM in individuals already exposed to asbestos. We previously showed that persistent oxidative damage caused by foreign body reaction and affinity of asbestos both to hemoglobin and histones is one of the major pathogeneses. Accordingly, as an effective strategy to prevent asbestos-induced MM, we undertook the use of an iron chelator, deferasirox, which decreased the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in a crocidolite-induced rat MM model. However, this agent may show adverse effects. Here, we studied the effects of iron removal by phlebotomy as a realistic measure on the same rat model. We injected a total of 5 mg crocidolite i.p. to F1 hybrid rats between the Fischer-344 and Brown-Norway strains at the age of 6 weeks. We repeated weekly or biweekly phlebotomy of 6-8 mL/kg/time from 10 to 60 weeks of age. The animals were observed until 120 weeks. In male rats, phlebotomy significantly decreased the weight and nuclear grade of MM, and modestly reduced the associated ascites and the fraction of more malignant sarcomatoid subtype. Weekly phlebotomy prolonged long-term survival. Our results indicate that appropriate phlebotomy may be a practical preventive measure to attenuate the initiation and promotion capacity of asbestos towards MM by reducing iron in individuals exposed to asbestos. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  15. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the Council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. 'PPRT'] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough -bar 2-4 billions, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies

  16. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities

  17. A Simulation-based Approach to Measuring Team Situational Awareness in Emergency Medicine: A Multicenter, Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Elizabeth D; Dixon, Aurora J; Webb, Jessica M; Brolliar, Sarah; Golden, Simon J; Jones, Kerin A; Shah, Sachita; Grand, James A; Kozlowski, Steve W J; Chao, Georgia T; Fernandez, Rosemarie

    2018-02-01

    Team situational awareness (TSA) is critical for effective teamwork and supports dynamic decision making in unpredictable, time-pressured situations. Simulation provides a platform for developing and assessing TSA, but these efforts are limited by suboptimal measurement approaches. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a novel approach to TSA measurement in interprofessional emergency medicine (EM) teams. We performed a multicenter, prospective, simulation-based observational study to evaluate an approach to TSA measurement. Interprofessional emergency medical teams, consisting of EM resident physicians, nurses, and medical students, were recruited from the University of Washington (Seattle, WA) and Wayne State University (Detroit, MI). Each team completed a simulated emergency resuscitation scenario. Immediately following the simulation, team members completed a TSA measure, a team perception of shared understanding measure, and a team leader effectiveness measure. Subject matter expert reviews and pilot testing of the TSA measure provided evidence of content and response process validity. Simulations were recorded and independently coded for team performance using a previously validated measure. The relationships between the TSA measure and other variables (team clinical performance, team perception of shared understanding, team leader effectiveness, and team experience) were explored. The TSA agreement metric was indexed by averaging the pairwise agreement for each dyad on a team and then averaging across dyads to yield agreement at the team level. For the team perception of shared understanding and team leadership effectiveness measures, individual team member scores were aggregated within a team to create a single team score. We computed descriptive statistics for all outcomes. We calculated Pearson's product-moment correlations to determine bivariate correlations between outcome variables with two-tailed significance testing (p teams (n = 41

  18. Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) position statement: Enact taxes on sugar sweetened beverages to prevent chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Fallon, Megan; Chaloupka, Frank J; Andreyeva, Tatiana; Schwartz, Marlene B; Harris, Jennifer L

    2018-04-10

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) encourages stakeholders to implement a sugar sweetened beverage excise tax. Sugar sweetened beverages are the largest source of added sugars in the USA and have detrimental effects on population health by increasing risks for chronic diseases. Based on existing research evidence, SBM supports an excise tax equivalent to at least 20% to meaningfully affect consumption patterns. As evidenced by research studies in Mexico and the USA, sugar sweetened beverage taxes can have positive impacts on population health and can raise significant tax revenue. To avoid potential unintended consequences that may arise from taxes to improve diet-related behaviors, it is important to monitor industry and consumer behavior in response to the tax.

  19. An anonymous survey of psychosomatic medicine fellowship directors regarding breaches of contracts and a proposal for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, James L; Bialer, Philip

    2010-01-01

    The authors studied how often applicants accept positions at more than one program, or programs offer positions to applicants who have already signed contracts with other programs. An anonymous survey was distributed to all psychosomatic medicine fellowship program directors. It is fairly common for applicants to sign contracts for fellowship positions and then back out of the contracts. Only one program reported ever knowingly offering a contract to an applicant who had accepted a position elsewhere. Programs are divided over whether there are extenuating circumstances under which it would be acceptable to offer a position to an applicant who has already signed a contract with another program. Guidelines for fellowship programs that do not use the National Resident Match Program can improve the recruitment process.

  20. Ebola outbreak preparedness and preventive measures among healthcare providers in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almutairi, Khalid M; Alodhayani, Abdulaziz Alhomaidi; Moussa, Mahaman; Aboshaiqah, Ahmad E; Tumala, Regie B; Vinluan, Jason M

    2016-08-31

    As medical professionals on the front lines in the outbreaks of infectious disease like Ebola Virus Disease (EVD), healthcare providers must have sufficient knowledge, skills, and best practices to protect themselves and the public from the disease. The purpose of this study is to identify the level of awareness, attitudes and practices among healthcare workers in relation to precautionary measures to EVD. A total of 177 physicians and 545 nurses participated in a descriptive cross-sectional study from a tertiary government hospital in Saudi Arabia. All subjects answered a self-administered questionnaire focusing on their level of awareness, concerns, and clinical practice related to EVD. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about the etiology, mode of transmission, signs and symptoms, and treatment of EVD. All of the participants had high levels of concern about EVD (p=0.001) and about the implementation of strict standard infection control precautionary measures. The study found that greater infection control measures were taken by the participants including frequent hand washing, use of personal protective equipment, and avoiding normal activities such as going to work, school, travel, etc. if fever symptoms appear. A combination of evidence based knowledge about EVD and high levels of concern of healthcare providers in relation to precautionary measures to EVD are the main factors leading to strict compliance with the infection control measures recommended in this study. Additionally, healthcare providers must be trained in infection control and adhere to the universal infection control standard guidelines to facilitate prevention and precaution.

  1. A quality control circle process to improve implementation effect of prevention measures for high-risk patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Haixia; Li, Guohong; Xu, Cuirong; Ju, Changping; Suo, Peiheng

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of prevention measures on pressure injuries for high-risk patients and to establish the most appropriate methods of implementation. Nurses assessed patients using a checklist and factors influencing the prevention of a pressure injury determined by brain storming. A specific series of measures was drawn up and an estimate of risk of pressure injury determined using the Braden Scale, analysis of nursing documents, implementation of prevention measures for pressure sores and awareness of the system both before and after carrying out a quality control circle (QCC) process. The overall scores of implementation of prevention measures ranged from 74.86 ± 14.24 to 87.06 ± 17.04, a result that was statistically significant (P prevention measure scores ranged from 11.48 ± 4.18 to 13.96 ± 3.92. Differences in all of the above results are statistically significant (P prevention measures for patients who are vulnerable to pressure sores and is of practical importance to their prevention and control. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. [Pressure ulcers in intensive care: assessment of risk and prevention measures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizpitarte Pegenaute, Eva; García de Galdiano Fernández, Ana; Zugazagoitia Ciarrusta, Nerea; Margall Coscojuela, María Angeles; Asiain Erro, María Carmen

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PU) are associated to greater patient morbidity and mortality. Thus, all prevention measures are very important. In order to establish the appropriate care early, the first measure is the identification of patients at risk of developing PU, using specific scales. 1) to assess the risk of developing PU in the patients admitted in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), using the Waterlow scale; 2) to identify patients with PU and to analyse the possible relationship between them and the measured risk; 3) to analyse the preventive care received by patients for its prevention. This descriptive study analysed the risk of developing PU in 91 critical patients with a stay greater than 3 days. To measure the risk the Waterlow scale (modified by Weststrate in 1998), that included 14 risk factors, was used. Sociodemographic data, cause of admission, patients with PU, its location and grade and care applied were also collected. Risk grade obtained on the Waterlow scale was: without risk (ulcer, in 10 of them it was present on admission. Their score obtained on the scale was risk in 2 patients, high risk in 5 and very high risk in the remaining 6. A statistically significant difference was found between the mean score of risk of the 13 patients who had ulcer and the remaining sample (21.85-16.83; p = 0.005). When the risk factors included in the scale and its relationship with the presence of ulcer were analysed, statistically significant difference was only found in the "heart failure" factor (vasoconstrictor treatment), p = 0.045. No association was found between age, gender, diagnosis and presence of ulcer. Regarding the daily care applied to patients, the following results were obtained: skin hydration and hygiene were done in 100% of the patients, patient repositioning were done every 2 hours or more frequently in 80% of the patients, every 3 hours in 10% and in the remaining 10%, with a frequency greater than 4 hours. Heel protection was applied in 57% of the

  3. Society for Health Psychology (APA Division 38) and Society of Behavioral Medicine joint position statement on the Medicare Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Wilson, Dawn K; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2017-06-01

    Beginning in January 2018, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) plans to cover the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), also referred to as Medicare DPP. The American Psychological Association Society for Health Psychology (SfHP) and the Society for Behavioral Medicine (SBM) reviewed the proposed plan. SfHP and SBM are in support of the CMS decision to cover DPP for Medicare beneficiaries but have a significant concern that aspects of the proposal will limit the public health impact. Concerns include the emphasis on weight outcomes to determine continued coverage and the lack of details regarding requirements for coaches. SfHP and SBM are in strong support of modifications to the proposal that would remove the minimum weight loss stipulation to determine coverage and to specify type and qualifications of "coaches."

  4. Method for screening prevention and control measures and technologies based on groundwater pollution intensity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuan@craes.org.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Yang, Yang [College of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Huan, Huan; Li, Mingxiao [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xibd413@yeah.net [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Lanzhou Jiaotong University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Lv, Ningqing [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China); Wu, Yi [Guizhou Academy of Environmental Science and Designing, Guizhou 550000 (China); Xie, Yiwen, E-mail: qin3201@126.com [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan University of Technology, Dongguan, 523808 (China); Li, Xiang; Yang, Jinjin [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Simulation and Control of Groundwater Pollution, Beijing, 100012 (China)

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a system for determining the evaluation and gradation indices of groundwater pollution intensity (GPI). Considering the characteristics of the vadose zone and pollution sources, the system decides which anti-seepage measures should be implemented at the contaminated site. The pollution sources hazards (PSH) and groundwater intrinsic vulnerability (GIV) are graded by the revised Nemerow Pollution Index and an improved DRTAS model, respectively. GPI is evaluated and graded by a double-sided multi-factor coupling model, which is constructed by the matrix method. The contaminated sites are categorized as prior, ordinary, or common sites. From the GPI results, we develop guiding principles for preventing and removing pollution sources, procedural interruption and remediation, and end treatment and monitoring. Thus, we can select appropriate prevention and control technologies (PCT). To screen the technological schemes and optimize the traditional analytical hierarchy process (AHP), we adopt the technique for order preference by the similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method. Our GPI approach and PCT screening are applied to three types of pollution sites: the refuse dump of a rare earth mine development project (a potential pollution source), a chromium slag dump, and a landfill (existing pollution sources). These three sites are identified as ordinary, prior, and ordinary sites, respectively. The anti-seepage materials at the refuse dump should perform as effectively as a 1.5-m-thick clay bed. The chromium slag dump should be preferentially treated by soil flushing and in situ chemical remediation. The landfill should be treated by natural attenuation technology. The proposed PCT screening approach was compared with conventional screening methods results at the three sites and proved feasible and effective. The proposed method can provide technical support for the monitoring and management of groundwater pollution in China. - Highlights: • An

  5. Individualized prevention against hypertension based on Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution Theory: A large community-based retrospective, STROBE-compliant study among Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Xiao-Hui; Huang, Xin; Yin, Lu; Guo, Cheng-Xian; Liu, Chang; He, Yong-Mei; Liu, Xing; Yuan, Hong

    2017-11-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine Constitution (TCMC) theory states that individuals with a biased TCMC are more likely to suffer from specific diseases. However, little is known regarding the influence of TCMC on susceptibility to hypertension. The aim of this study is to examine the possible relationship between TCMC and hypertension. Retrospective evaluation and observation were performed using the STROBE guidelines checklist. A large community-based cross-sectional study was conducted between 2009 and 2013 in Changsha, China. TCMC was assessed using a questionnaire that included 68 items. TCMC distributions and the associations of different TCMCs with hypertension risk were analyzed. In total, 144,439 subjects underwent evaluations of TCMC and blood pressure (BP). There were significant differences in the hypertension prevalence among the various TCMC groups (P medicine criteria; for example, phlegm wetness with hypertension was similar to obesity-related hypertension. Our results suggest that phlegm wetness, yin deficiency, blood stasis, and qi deficiency have different effects on the prevalence of hypertension. More attention should be paid to TCMCs associated with susceptibility to hypertension, and corresponding preventive and therapeutic treatments should be developed according to different TCMCs.

  6. Evolving trade policy and the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement: does it threaten Vietnam's access to medicine and its progress towards scaling up HIV prevention, treatment and care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linh, Nguyen Nhat; Huong, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Hua Thanh

    2015-01-01

    The Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPP) has undergone 18 rounds of secretive negotiation between the USA and 11 Asia-Pacific countries. Aiming at a free trade area, this multilateral trade proposal covers all aspects of commercial relations among the countries involved. Despite some anticipated positive impacts in trade, specific articles in this proposal's intellectual property and transparency chapters might negatively impact access to medicine, in general, and to antiretroviral (ARV) drugs, in particular, in Vietnam. Drawing on a desk review and qualitative in-depth interviews with 20 key informants from government, academia, hospitals and civil society, we analyse various provisions of the proposal being negotiated leaked after the 14th round of negotiations in September 2012. Findings suggest that the TPP could lead to increased monopoly protection and could limit technological advancements within the local pharmaceutical manufacturing industry, resulting in higher medicine prices in Vietnam. This outcome would have a significant impact on Vietnam's ability to achieve goals for HIV prevention, treatment and care, and create barriers to universal health-care coverage. This research provides unique evidence for Vietnam to advocate for more equitable pharmaceutical provisions in and to raise awareness of the implications of the TPP among the pharmaceutical stakeholder community in Vietnam.

  7. Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Products with Activity against Oral Bacteria: Potential Application in the Prevention and Treatment of Oral Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo A. Palombo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral diseases are major health problems with dental caries and periodontal diseases among the most important preventable global infectious diseases. Oral health influences the general quality of life and poor oral health is linked to chronic conditions and systemic diseases. The association between oral diseases and the oral microbiota is well established. Of the more than 750 species of bacteria that inhabit the oral cavity, a number are implicated in oral diseases. The development of dental caries involves acidogenic and aciduric Gram-positive bacteria (mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and actinomycetes. Periodontal diseases have been linked to anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Actinobacillus, Prevotella and Fusobacterium. Given the incidence of oral disease, increased resistance by bacteria to antibiotics, adverse affects of some antibacterial agents currently used in dentistry and financial considerations in developing countries, there is a need for alternative prevention and treatment options that are safe, effective and economical. While several agents are commercially available, these chemicals can alter oral microbiota and have undesirable side-effects such as vomiting, diarrhea and tooth staining. Hence, the search for alternative products continues and natural phytochemicals isolated from plants used as traditional medicines are considered as good alternatives. In this review, plant extracts or phytochemicals that inhibit the growth of oral pathogens, reduce the development of biofilms and dental plaque, influence the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces and reduce the symptoms of oral diseases will be discussed further. Clinical studies that have investigated the safety and efficacy of such plant-derived medicines will also be described.

  8. Development of new concepts of non-adherence measurements among users of antihypertensives medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lene Juel; Bjerrum, Lars; Herborg, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    : Users of antihypertensive medication were included in the study. 2,914 medication users received questionnaires by mail. Participating patients were asked to fill in two questionnaire regarding demographics, self-reported blood pressure, and various adherence measures. Two factor analyses were conducted...... with the developed concepts. RESULTS: 1,426 (49%) participants answered the questionnaires. The analyses resulted in two sets of components: three adherence behaviour measures and two self-efficacy measures which showed similarities in concepts. The adherence behaviour measures included two concepts of intentional...... measures of non-adherence resulted in prevalence between 2.2 and 39.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that concepts of non-adherence measurements could be determined including self-efficacy aspects, unintentional non-adherence and intentional non-adherence related to self-regulation and effect concerns...

  9. Measuring Sexual Behavior Stigma to Inform Effective HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs for Key Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James R; Sprague, Laurel; Stangl, Anne L; Baral, Stefan D

    2017-04-26

    The levels of coverage of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment and prevention services needed to change the trajectory of the HIV epidemic among key populations, including gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) and sex workers, have consistently been shown to be limited by stigma. The aim of this study was to propose an agenda for the goals and approaches of a sexual behavior stigma surveillance effort for key populations, with a focus on collecting surveillance data from 4 groups: (1) members of key population groups themselves (regardless of HIV status), (2) people living with HIV (PLHIV) who are also members of key populations, (3) members of nonkey populations, and (4) health workers. We discuss strengths and weaknesses of measuring multiple different types of stigma including perceived, anticipated, experienced, perpetrated, internalized, and intersecting stigma as measured among key populations themselves, as well as attitudes or beliefs about key populations as measured among other groups. With the increasing recognition of the importance of stigma, consistent and validated stigma metrics for key populations are needed to monitor trends and guide immediate action. Evidence-based stigma interventions may ultimately be the key to overcoming the barriers to coverage and retention in life-saving antiretroviral-based HIV prevention and treatment programs for key populations. Moving forward necessitates the integration of validated stigma scales in routine HIV surveillance efforts, as well as HIV epidemiologic and intervention studies focused on key populations, as a means of tracking progress toward a more efficient and impactful HIV response. ©Shauna Stahlman, James R Hargreaves, Laurel Sprague, Anne L Stangl, Stefan D Baral. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 26.04.2017.

  10. Selecting measures to prevent deleterious alkali-silica reaction in concrete : rationale for the AASHTO PP65 prescriptive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    PP65-11 provides two approaches for selecting preventive measures: (i) a performance approach based on laboratory testing, and (ii) a prescriptive approach based on a consideration of the reactivity of the aggregate, type and size of structure, expos...

  11. Ovarian Cancer: Prevention, Detection and Treatment of the Disease and Its Recurrence. Molecular Mechanisms and Personalized Medicine Meeting Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modugno, Francesmary; Edwards, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To review the current understanding of the underlying molecular, biologic and genetic mechanisms involved in ovarian cancer development and how these mechanisms can be targets for prevention, detection and treatment of the disease and its recurrence. Methods In May 2012, we convened a meeting of researchers, clinicians and consumer advocates to review the state of current knowledge on molecular mechanisms and identify fruitful areas for further investigations. Results The meeting consisted of seven scientific sessions, ranging from Epidemiology, Early Detection, and Biology to Therapeutics and Quality of Life. Sessions consisted of talks and panel discussions by international leaders in ovarian cancer research. A special career-development session by the CDMRP Department of Defense Ovarian Cancer Academy as well as an oral abstract and poster session showcased promising new research by junior scientists. Conclusions Technological advances in the last decade have increased our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in a host of biological activities related to ovarian cancer. Understanding the role these mechanisms play in cancer initiation and progression will help lead to the development of prevention and treatment modalities that can be personalized to each patient, thereby helping to overcome this highly-fatal malignancy. PMID:23013733

  12. Dose estimation and radiation control measures for individuals having close contact with patients administered in vivo nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, E.; Abe, K.; Kusama, T.

    1993-01-01

    Patients who have been administered radiopharmaceuticals become a source of exposure to a non-occupational individual helping in support and comfort of these patients. We measured external dose rates at several distances from 84 adult patients administered radiopharmaceuticals, and urinary excretion of radioactivity in their patients. And we estimated the maximal dose for persons having close contact with patients administered radiopharmaceuticals from the combination of these measurement data and scenarios of contact with patients. On the basis of the estimated values, we proposed the following dose constraint for care givers. (1) The dose constraint for a non-occupational care givers to an adult nuclear medicine patient should in no case exceed 300 μSv per patient per examination of any kind. (2) The dose constraint in ordinary examinations employing a radionuclide should not be greater than 15 μSv per patient per examination. (3 tabs.)

  13. Evaluation of adherence to measures for the prevention of surgical site infections by the surgical team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina de Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEEvaluate pre- and intraoperative practices adopted by medical and nursing teams for the prevention of surgical infections.METHODA prospective study carried out in the period of April to May 2013, in a surgical center of a university hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais.RESULTS18 surgeries were followed and 214 surgical gloves were analyzed, of which 23 (10.7% had postoperative glove perforation detected, with 52.2% being perceived by users. Hair removal was performed on 27.7% of patients in the operating room, with the use of blades in 80% of the cases. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered to 81.8% of patients up to 60 minutes prior to surgical incision. An average of nine professionals were present during surgery and the surgery room door remained open in 94.4% of the procedures.CONCLUSIONPartial adhesion to the recommended measures was identified, reaffirming a need for greater attention to these critical steps/actions in order to prevent surgical site infection.

  14. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  15. Developing a common framework for evaluating the implementation of genomic medicine interventions in clinical care: the IGNITE Network's Common Measures Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Lori A; Sperber, Nina R; Voils, Corrine; Nichols, Marshall; Myers, Rachel A; Wu, R Ryanne; Rakhra-Burris, Tejinder; Levy, Kenneth D; Levy, Mia; Pollin, Toni I; Guan, Yue; Horowitz, Carol R; Ramos, Michelle; Kimmel, Stephen E; McDonough, Caitrin W; Madden, Ebony B; Damschroder, Laura J

    2017-09-14

    PurposeImplementation research provides a structure for evaluating the clinical integration of genomic medicine interventions. This paper describes the Implementing Genomics in Practice (IGNITE) Network's efforts to promote (i) a broader understanding of genomic medicine implementation research and (ii) the sharing of knowledge generated in the network.MethodsTo facilitate this goal, the IGNITE Network Common Measures Working Group (CMG) members adopted the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) to guide its approach to identifying constructs and measures relevant to evaluating genomic medicine as a whole, standardizing data collection across projects, and combining data in a centralized resource for cross-network analyses.ResultsCMG identified 10 high-priority CFIR constructs as important for genomic medicine. Of those, eight did not have standardized measurement instruments. Therefore, we developed four survey tools to address this gap. In addition, we identified seven high-priority constructs related to patients, families, and communities that did not map to CFIR constructs. Both sets of constructs were combined to create a draft genomic medicine implementation model.ConclusionWe developed processes to identify constructs deemed valuable for genomic medicine implementation and codified them in a model. These resources are freely available to facilitate knowledge generation and sharing across the field.GENETICS in MEDICINE advance online publication, 14 September 2017; doi:10.1038/gim.2017.144.

  16. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of legal measures prevent transplant tourism: the interrelated experience of The Philippines and Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Benita; Danovitch, Gabriel M; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parallel changes that have taken place in recent years in two countries, Israel and The Philippines, the former once an "exporter" of transplant tourists and the latter once an "importer" of transplant tourists. These changes were in response to progressive legislation in both countries under the influence of the Declaration of Istanbul. The annual number of Israeli patients who underwent kidney transplantation abroad decreased from a peak of 155 in 2006 to an all-time low of 35 in 2011 while in the Philippines the annual number of foreign transplant recipients fell from 531 in 2007 to two in 2011. The experience of these two countries provides a "natural experiment" on the potential impact of legal measures to prevent transplant tourism.

  18. Pancreatic Fistula after Pancreatectomy: Definitions, Risk Factors, Preventive Measures, and Management—Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Oneil Machado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Resection of pancreas, in particular pancreaticoduodenectomy, is a complex procedure, commonly performed in appropriately selected patients with benign and malignant disease of the pancreas and periampullary region. Despite significant improvements in the safety and efficacy of pancreatic surgery, pancreaticoenteric anastomosis continues to be the “Achilles heel” of pancreaticoduodenectomy, due to its association with a measurable risk of leakage or failure of healing, leading to pancreatic fistula. The morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy remains high in the range of 30% to 65%, although the mortality has significantly dropped to below 5%. Most of these complications are related to pancreatic fistula, with serious complications of intra-abdominal abscess, postoperative bleeding, and multiorgan failure. Several pharmacological and technical interventions have been suggested to decrease the pancreatic fistula rate, but the results have been controversial. This paper considers definition and classification of pancreatic fistula, risk factors, and preventive approach and offers management strategy when they do occur.

  19. TECA (Titrated Extract of Centella Asiatica): new microcirculatory, biomolecular, and vascular application in preventive and clinical medicine. A status paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Maquart, F-X; Scoccianti, M; Dugall, M; Hosoi, M; Cesarone, M R; Luzzi, R; Cornelli, U; Ledda, A; Feragalli, B

    2011-09-01

    Plant-derived elements used for pharmacological applications constitute an increasing research field. Centella asiatica is widely used mainly as an extract (TECA). Triterpenic fractions, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica, produce a wide range of preventive and therapeutic effects. The modulation of collagen production and deposition in wound healing is of primary importance. TECA is also used to treat several microcirculatory problems, inflammatory skin conditions (leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis) and also intestinal problems, fever, amenorrhea and genitourinary conditions. Cognitive functions, anxiety and mental impairment may be also affected by TECA administration. New applications in neurology include nerve growth factor enhancement and applications in neurological degenerative conditions. Interaction with other products is also indicated in this document. The multiplicity of actions of TECA is associated to six important mechanisms, all inter-connected and modulating each other: 1) edema - and capillary filtration - control; 2) a strong antioxidant power, effective on several forms of oxidative stress associated to inflammation or infections and synergic with other antioxidant products; 3) an anti-inflammatory action; 4) a modulation of the collagen production avoiding slower scarring or faster, hyperthrophic scarring and cheloids; 5) a modulating action of local growth factors; 6) a modulation of angiogenesis. This "status" paper - resulting from an expert meeting held in Cobham, Surrey, indicates most of the therapeutic potential of TECA, still to be explored in further studies. The status paper constitutes the basis for a consensus document on TECA to be developed in the next future. This "status" paper opens a new window on an ancient but still partially unexplored product that may become an important value in prevention and treatment of several pre-clinical and risk conditions and in clinically significant

  20. The Traditional Herbal Medicine, Dangkwisoo-San, Prevents Cerebral Ischemic Injury through Nitric Oxide-Dependent Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dangkwisoo-San (DS is an herbal extract that is widely used in traditional Korean medicine to treat traumatic ecchymosis and pain by promoting blood circulation and relieving blood stasis. However, the effect of DS in cerebrovascular disease has not been examined experimentally. The protective effects of DS on focal ischemic brain were investigated in a mouse model. DS stimulated nitric oxide (NO production in human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs. DS (10–300 μg/mL produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in mouse aorta, which was significantly attenuated by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor L-NAME, suggesting that DS causes vasodilation via a NO-dependent mechanism. DS increased resting cerebral blood flow (CBF, although it caused mild hypotension. To investigate the effect of DS on the acute cerebral injury, C57/BL6J mice received 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 22.5 h of reperfusion. DS administered 3 days before arterial occlusion significantly reduced cerebral infarct size by 53.7% compared with vehicle treatment. However, DS did not reduce brain infarction in mice treated with the relatively specific endothelial NOS (eNOS inhibitor, N5-(1-iminoethyl-L-ornithine, suggesting that the neuroprotective effect of DS is primarily endothelium-dependent. This correlated with increased phosphorylation of eNOS in the brains of DS-treated mice. DS acutely improves CBF in eNOS-dependent vasodilation and reduces infarct size in focal cerebral ischemia. These data provide causal evidence that DS is cerebroprotective via the eNOS-dependent production of NO, which ameliorates blood circulation.

  1. Measuring factors that influence the utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldenburg Brian

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relatively little research attention has been given to the development of standardised and psychometrically sound scales for measuring influences relevant to the utilisation of health services. This study aims to describe the development, validation and internal reliability of some existing and new scales to measure factors that are likely to influence utilisation of preventive care services provided by general practitioners in Australia. Methods Relevant domains of influence were first identified from a literature review and formative research. Items were then generated by using and adapting previously developed scales and published findings from these. The new items and scales were pre-tested and qualitative feedback was obtained from a convenience sample of citizens from the community and a panel of experts. Principal Components Analyses (PCA and internal reliability testing (Cronbach's alpha were then conducted for all of the newly adapted or developed scales utilising data collected from a self-administered mailed survey sent to a randomly selected population-based sample of 381 individuals (response rate 65.6 per cent. Results The PCA identified five scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency were: (1 social support (ten items, alpha 0.86; (2 perceived interpersonal care (five items, alpha 0.87, (3 concerns about availability of health care and accessibility to health care (eight items, alpha 0.80, (4 value of good health (five items, alpha 0.79, and (5 attitudes towards health care (three items, alpha 0.75. Conclusion The five scales are suitable for further development and more widespread use in research aimed at understanding the determinants of preventive health services utilisation among adults in the general population.

  2. Crisis prevention centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for Northeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are particularly important and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, inter-related categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. First, technology is required to establishing communication systems and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Second, technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues. In addition, technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries. Establishing a CPC in Northeast Asia does not require the existence of an Asian security regime. Potential first steps for such a CPC should include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a {open_quotes}Hot Line{close_quotes} in bilateral and multilateral emergency situations. A central CPC could also be established as a regional communications hub. The central CPC could coordinate a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities, perhaps initially in an unofficial capacity. Specific recommendations for confidence building measures are discussed.

  3. Crisis Prevention Centers as confidence building measures: Suggestions for the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    Relationships between countries generally exist somewhere in the grey area between war and peace. Crisis prevention activities are important in this area, and should have two goals: stabilizing tense situations that could push countries toward war, and supporting or reinforcing efforts to move countries toward peace. A Crisis Prevention Center (CPC) should facilitate efforts to achieve these goals. Its functions can be grouped into three broad, interrelated categories: establishing and facilitating communication among participating countries; supporting negotiations and consensus-building on regional security issues; and supporting implementation of agreed confidence and security building measures. Technology will play a critical role in a CPC. Technology is required for establishing communication systems to ensure the timely flow of information between countries and to provide the means for organizing and analyzing this information. Technically-based cooperative monitoring can provide an objective source of information on mutually agreed issues, thereby supporting the implementation of confidence building measures and treaties. Technology can be a neutral subject of interaction and collaboration between technical communities from different countries, thereby providing an important channel for improving relationships. Potential first steps for a CPC in the Middle Ease could include establishing communication channels and a dedicated communications center in each country, together with an agreement to use the system as a ``Hot Line` in bilateral and multilateral-lateral emergency situations. Bilateral cooperative monitoring centers could be established to assist with implementation of agreements. A centrally located CPC could serve as a regional communications hub, coordinating a number of functions aimed at stabilizing regional tensions and supporting confidence building activities. Specific recommendations for confidence building activities are discussed.

  4. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Patouillard, Edith; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hanson, Kara; Pok, Sochea; Palafox, Benjamin; Tougher, Sarah; O?Connell, Kate; Goodman, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have met...

  5. Measurement of Radon (222Rn) in the High School of Medicine 'Dr.Ali Sokoli' in Prishtina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadiri, S.; Hodolli, G.; Pllana, X.; Dumani, S.; Hasani, F.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration (222Rn) were performed in the largest High School of Medicine ''Dr. Ali Sokoli'' in Prishtina. We choose four locations (classrooms) at ground level, three at first and three on the second floor. In the same premises, the measurements were performed with two methods: using a scintillation cell and a continuous method. The maximum value of radon concentration, measurements with scintillation cells, were obtained by the ground level moving to (573 ± 26) Bq m -3 , while the minimum value of (176 ± 11) Bq m -3 was obtained in the second floor. The maximum value of radon concentration measurements with the continuous method was 116 Bq m -3 in ground level, and the minimum value was 70 Bq m -3 . Based on these results, we calculated annual effective dose, which ranges between (0.76 ± 0.06) mSv and (2.48 ± 0.11) mSv, by scintillation cells. Whereas, the annual effective dose measuring by continuous method was between 0.30 mSv and 0.50 mSv. Based on those results, we conclude that radon concentration and annual effective doses were within accepted international standards. (author)

  6. Radiation protection in medicine (542) comparison of different dosimetry systems for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkovic, D.; Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Miljanic, S.; Knezevic, Z.; Krpan, K.

    2006-01-01

    The dose measurement on patients in X-ray diagnostic is not simple, because low doses with low and various energies have to be measured. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare high sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeter (T.L.D.) (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) and radio-photoluminescent (R.P.L.) glass dosimeters for dose measurements in routine X-ray diagnostic of chest of children. The energy dependence of the dosimeters was investigated in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). The energy range was 33- 65 keV mean energy, the dosimeters were placed free in air and on the water phantom. The results were compared to calculated values of Hp(10). The next step was the irradiation in a routine X-ray diagnostic unit. Irradiations were performed by the Shimadzu X-ray unit. The selected irradiation conditions were the same as that most commonly used for baby examinations. Doses were measured with dosimeters placed free-in-air and also with the dosimeters placed on the water phantom and baby phantom. The results show that the R.P.L. glass dosimeters and LiF:Mg,Cu,P based T.L.D. are suitable for low dose measurements in X-ray diagnostic. The uncertainty of dose determination is mainly caused by the energy dependence of dosimeters. (authors)

  7. Radiation protection in medicine (542) comparison of different dosimetry systems for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milkovic, D. [Srebrnjak, Specialized Hospital for Respiratory System Diseases in Children and Youth, Zagreb (Croatia); Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Miljanic, S.; Knezevic, Z.; Krpan, K. [Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2006-07-01

    The dose measurement on patients in X-ray diagnostic is not simple, because low doses with low and various energies have to be measured. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare high sensitivity thermoluminescent dosimeter (T.L.D.) (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) and radio-photoluminescent (R.P.L.) glass dosimeters for dose measurements in routine X-ray diagnostic of chest of children. The energy dependence of the dosimeters was investigated in Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). The energy range was 33- 65 keV mean energy, the dosimeters were placed free in air and on the water phantom. The results were compared to calculated values of Hp(10). The next step was the irradiation in a routine X-ray diagnostic unit. Irradiations were performed by the Shimadzu X-ray unit. The selected irradiation conditions were the same as that most commonly used for baby examinations. Doses were measured with dosimeters placed free-in-air and also with the dosimeters placed on the water phantom and baby phantom. The results show that the R.P.L. glass dosimeters and LiF:Mg,Cu,P based T.L.D. are suitable for low dose measurements in X-ray diagnostic. The uncertainty of dose determination is mainly caused by the energy dependence of dosimeters. (authors)

  8. Nursing workload and adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jam, R; Hernández, O; Mesquida, J; Turégano, C; Carrillo, E; Pedragosa, R; Gómez, V; Martí, L; Vallés, J; Delgado-Hito, P

    To analyse whether adherence to non-pharmacological measures in the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with nursing workload. A prospective observational study performed in a single medical-surgical ICU. Nurses in charge of patients under ventilator support were assessed. knowledge questionnaire, application of non-pharmacological VAP prevention measures, and workload (Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score). Phases: 1) the nurses carried out a educational programme, consisting of 60-minute lectures on non-pharmacological measures for VAP prevention, and at the end completed a questionnaire knowledge; 2) observation period; 3) knowledge questionnaire. Among 67 ICU-staff nurses, 54 completed the educational programme and were observed. A total of 160 observations of 49 nurses were made. Adequate knowledge was confirmed in both the initial and final questionnaires. Application of preventive measures ranged from 11% for hand washing pre-aspiration to 97% for the use of a sterile aspiration probe. The Nine Equivalents of Nursing Manpower Use Score was 50±13. No significant differences were observed between the association of the nurses' knowledge and the application of preventive measures or between workload and the application of preventive measures. Nurses' knowledge of VAP prevention measures is not necessarily applied in daily practice. Failure to follow these measures is not subject to lack of knowledge or to increased workload, but presumably to contextual factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias (SEEIUC). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezli, Saber; Bin Saeed, Abdulaziz A; Assiri, Abdullah M; Alhakeem, Rafat F; Yunus, Muslim A; Turkistani, Abdulhafiz M; Booy, Robert; Alotaibi, Badriah M

    2016-06-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD). KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevention of meningococcal disease during the Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings: past and current measures and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Yezli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has a long history of instituting preventative measures against meningococcal disease (MD. KSA is at risk of outbreaks of MD due to its geographic location, demography, and especially because it hosts the annual Hajj and Umrah mass gatherings. Preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah include vaccination, targeted chemoprophylaxis, health awareness and educational campaigns, as well as an active disease surveillance and response system. Preventative measures have been introduced and updated in accordance with changes in the epidemiology of MD and available preventative tools. The mandatory meningococcal vaccination policy for pilgrims has possibly been the major factor in preventing outbreaks during the pilgrimages. The policy of chemoprophylaxis for all pilgrims arriving from the African meningitis belt has also probably been important in reducing the carriage and transmission of Neisseria meningitidis in KSA and beyond. The preventative measures for Hajj and Umrah are likely to continue to focus on vaccination, but to favour the conjugate vaccine for its extra benefits over the polysaccharide vaccines. Additionally, the surveillance system will continue to be strengthened to ensure early detection and response to cases and outbreaks; ongoing disease awareness campaigns for pilgrims will continue, as will chemoprophylaxis for target groups. Local and worldwide surveillance of the disease and drug-resistant N. meningitidis are crucial in informing future recommendations for vaccination, chemoprophylaxis, and treatment. Preventative measures should be reviewed regularly and updated accordingly, and compliance with these measures should be monitored and enhanced to prevent MD during Hajj and Umrah, as well as local and international outbreaks.

  11. Application of eye movement measuring system OBER 2 to medicine and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Jozef; Hajda, Janusz; Loska, Jacek; Jamicki, Michal

    1997-08-01

    The OBER 2 is an infrared light eye movement measuring system and it works with IBM PC compatible computers. As one of the safest systems for measuring of eye movement it uses a very short period of infrared light flashing time (80 microsecond for each measure point). System has an advanced analog-digital controller, which includes background suppression and prediction mechanisms guaranteeing elimination of slow changes and fluctuations of external illumination frequency up to 100 Hz, with effectiveness better than 40 dB. Setting from PC the active measure axis, sampling rate (25 - 4000 Hz) and making start and stop the measure, make it possible to control the outside environment in real-time. By proper controlling of gain it is possible to get high time and position resolution of 0.5 minute of arc even for big amplitude of eye movement (plus or minus 20 degree of visual angle). The whole communication system can also be driven directly by eye movement in real time. The possibility of automatic selection of the most essential elements of eye movement, individual for each person and those that take place for each person in determined situations of life independently from personal features, is a key to practical application. Hence one of conducted research topic is a personal identification based on personal features. Another task is a research project of falling asleep detection, which can be applied to warn the drivers before falling asleep while driving. This measuring system with a proper expert system can also be used to detect a dyslexia and other disabilities of the optic system.

  12. Measurement of the performance characteristics of diagnostic X-ray systems used in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A booklet has been produced by the Diagnostic Radiology Topic Group of the Hospital Physicists' Association, providing the basis for exhaustive performance tests on X-ray image intensifier television systems. After a general introduction to the equipment, the parameters which may need to be assessed are outlined in section 1. The measurement techniques and equipment necessary to undertake the measurements are presented in section 2. Specimen data sheets are also presented which the user may find useful to record the data acquired in the field. (U.K.)

  13. Does evidence based medicine support the effectiveness of surgical facemasks in preventing postoperative wound infections in elective surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahli, Zahid Mehmood

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of postoperative wound infection is usually not the cause of death but it increases the length of hospital stay and cost of care and morbidity. Since their introduction a century ago there is still controversy about primary purpose of the facemasks as whether they provide protection for the patient from surgical team or weather they protect surgical team from the patient? The Objectives of this study were to critically analyze and systematically review the randomized trials regarding effectiveness of surgical facemasks in preventing post operative wound infection in elective surgery. Systematic literature review and analysis of all available trials (randomized controlled trials) regarding use of surgical face masks in elective surgeries. Medline (1966-2007), Embase (1996-2007), Cochrane database, Pubmed, Google Scholar, were searched for the selection of literature for the review. No significance difference in the incidence of postoperative wound infection was observed between masks group and groups operated with no masks (1.34, 95% CI, 0.58-3.07). There was no increase in infection rate in 1980 when masks were discarded. In fact there was significant decrease in infection rate (p masks harms or benefit the patients undergoing elective surgery.

  14. Personalized Medicine and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in the United States, and more than 1.5 million new cases and more than 0.5 million deaths were reported during 2010 in the United States alone. Following completion of the sequencing of the human genome, substantial progress has been made in characterizing the human epigenome, proteome, and metabolome; a better understanding of pharmacogenomics has been developed, and the potential for customizing health care for the individual has grown tremendously. Recently, personalized medicine has mainly involved the systematic use of genetic or other information about an individual patient to select or optimize that patient’s preventative and therapeutic care. Molecular profiling in healthy and cancer patient samples may allow for a greater degree of personalized medicine than is currently available. Information about a patient’s proteinaceous, genetic, and metabolic profile could be used to tailor medical care to that individual’s needs. A key attribute of this medical model is the development of companion diagnostics, whereby molecular assays that measure levels of proteins, genes, or specific mutations are used to provide a specific therapy for an individual’s condition by stratifying disease status, selecting the proper medication, and tailoring dosages to that patient’s specific needs. Additionally, such methods can be used to assess a patient’s risk factors for a number of conditions and to tailor individual preventative treatments. Recent advances, challenges, and future perspectives of personalized medicine in cancer are discussed.

  15. The prevention of workplace bullying as a question of human resource management: measures adopted and underlying organizational factors

    OpenAIRE

    Salin, Denise

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study has been to analyze measures adopted to counteract workplace bullying from the perspective of human resource management. First, the kind of measures that are adopted to prevent bullying were examined. Second, factors affecting the extent of such measures were explored. The introduction of written anti-bullying policies and the provision of information were found to be the most common measures adopted. The policies strongly emphasized the role of supervisors and the immed...

  16. Failure Analysis of Pitted Copper Pipes Used in Underground Water and Preventive Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Gi-ho; Lee, Jong-kwon; Kim, Kyung-ja

    2018-03-01

    This study performed an experiment on the causes of pitting corrosion in a copper tubing used for a sprinkler system. Corrosion products of a copper tubing that sustained pitting corrosion were collected and cultured in Culture medium [Luria-Bertani, Brain heart infusion, Tryptic soy broth (TSB), R2A]. Four types of bacteria were found through identification: Micrococcus luteus sp (species)., Staphylococcus sp., Sphingomonas sp., and Bacillus sp. The copper toxicity test was performed for each microorganism. Among the four microorganisms, Micrococcus luteus sp. showed good growth in the environment containing copper ions. On the immersion test, changes in pH and Optical density were measured; On the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry test, the copper concentration of each culture medium was measured. The surface of each copper sample was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The corrosion potential of a copper sample, after 48 h exposure of the TSB medium containing Micrococcus luteus sp., was measured using a potentiodynamic polarization experiment. The next experiment was conducted to prevent microbial corrosion by suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Six 30 ml TSB culture media with controlled pH value of 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 through HCl and NaOH were manufactured. Then the microorganisms were cultured in 37 °C 133 rpm, of which the growth status was checked every 24 h for 3 days. It was found that microorganisms did not grow on culture media with the pH value of 6 and lower. The same experiment conducted on culture media controlled with acetic acid, nitric acid, and sulfuric acid, also showed no growth of microorganisms on media with pH value of 6 and lower. Six 5 ml TSB culture media each containing 0.5, 0.25, 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312%, and 0.0156% NaOCl and NaOBr as germicides were manufactured. 0.01 μl of microorganisms were inoculated on the media and cultured in 37 °C for 48 h. It was found that microorganisms did not

  17. Injuries in skiing and snowboarding: Epidemiology and risk factors as a basis for prevention measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ropret Robert

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the subject of injury in alpine skiing and snowboarding and the aim was to define the characteristics of injuries and the risk factors as the basis for establishing preventive measures. The types of injuries and risk factors were analyzed by examining previous papers. During the last thirty years, the number of injuries has generally decreased by 50-70%. The changes were recorded in the types of injuries, and the number of certain injuries increased. It was found that there was a mutual difference in the number and structure of the injuries of skiers and snowboarders. Injuries can be classified topologically and according to risk factors. The risk factors may be manifold: the characteristics of the equipment, the characteristics of the trail and snow surface, protective equipment, age, gender, physical fitness, risky behaviours, time of day, skiing discipline, climate factors, the presence of other skiers and others. By the analysis of these factors it was concluded that there were three entities in the implementation of security measures: the state that stipulates laws (relevant ministries, owners or organizers who provide services in skiing (ski centres, ski services, ski schools, clubs and skiers and snowboarders themselves.

  18. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ACCESS TO PATENTED HIV/AIDS PHARMACEUTICAL MEDICINES THROUGH THE CANADIAN AND EU TRIPS FLEXIBILITIES MEASURES: ARE THEY EFFICACIOUS OR OVERLY BURDENSOME AND INEFFECTIVE MEASURES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omphemetse S Sibanda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the Canadian and the European Union's (EU implementation of the World Trade Organisation (WTO General Council Decision of 2003, which resolved that developed nations could export patented pharmaceutical drugs to member states in order to address public health challenges such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and other epidemics, such states including Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The author makes a primarily textual appraisal of how and to what extent the Canada Access to Medicine Regime (CAMR and European Union (EU Regulations benefit, for instance, SSA countries in the WTO in their quest to make essential medicine more accessible. The author argues that although there are identifiable complexities inherent in the Canadian and the EU's access to pharmaceutical product regimes, there are far more important incentives and benefits that can be reaped in taking advantage of the respective systems. The author recommends that countries facing public health crises/emergencies, such as SSA countries, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs take advantage of the regulatory flexibilities of Canada and the EU in their efforts to provide their communities with essential HIV/AIDS treatment, and treatment for other diseases such as malaria. The author dismisses the arguments against TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property flexibilities-inspired legislation and similar measures as mostly mere rhetoric and hair-splitting, because they sometimes unwarrantedly dismiss a workable solution to public-health problems.

  19. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [de

  20. Cytomics in predictive medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnok, Attila; Valet, Guenther K.

    2004-07-01

    Predictive Medicine aims at the detection of changes in patient's disease state prior to the manifestation of deterioration or improvement of the current status. Patient-specific, disease-course predictions with >95% or >99% accuracy during therapy would be highly valuable for everyday medicine. If these predictors were available, disease aggravation or progression, frequently accompanied by irreversible tissue damage or therapeutic side effects, could then potentially be avoided by early preventive therapy. The molecular analysis of heterogeneous cellular systems (Cytomics) by cytometry in conjunction with pattern-oriented bioinformatic analysis of the multiparametric cytometric and other data provides a promising approach to individualized or personalized medical treatment or disease management. Predictive medicine is best implemented by cell oriented measurements e.g. by flow or image cytometry. Cell oriented gene or protein arrays as well as bead arrays for the capture of solute molecules form serum, plasma, urine or liquor are equally of high value. Clinical applications of predictive medicine by Cytomics will include multi organ failure in sepsis or non infectious posttraumatic shock in intensive care, or the pretherapeutic identification of high risk patients in cancer cytostatic. Early individualized therapy may provide better survival chances for individual patient at concomitant cost containment. Predictive medicine guided early reduction or stop of therapy may lower or abrogate potential therapeutic side effects. Further important aspects of predictive medicine concern the preoperative identification of patients with a tendency for postoperative complications or coronary artery disease patients with an increased tendency for restenosis. As a consequence, better patient care and new forms of inductive scientific hypothesis development based on the interpretation of predictive data patterns are at reach.

  1. Severe accident approach - final report. Evaluation of design measures for severe accident prevention and consequence mitigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentner, A. M.; Parma, E.; Wei, T.; Wigeland, R.; Nuclear Engineering Division; SNL; INL

    2010-03-01

    An important goal of the US DOE reactor development program is to conceptualize advanced safety design features for a demonstration Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR). The treatment of severe accidents is one of the key safety issues in the design approach for advanced SFR systems. It is necessary to develop an in-depth understanding of the risk of severe accidents for the SFR so that appropriate risk management measures can be implemented early in the design process. This report presents the results of a review of the SFR features and phenomena that directly influence the sequence of events during a postulated severe accident. The report identifies the safety features used or proposed for various SFR designs in the US and worldwide for the prevention and/or mitigation of Core Disruptive Accidents (CDA). The report provides an overview of the current SFR safety approaches and the role of severe accidents. Mutual understanding of these design features and safety approaches is necessary for future collaborations between the US and its international partners as part of the GEN IV program. The report also reviews the basis for an integrated safety approach to severe accidents for the SFR that reflects the safety design knowledge gained in the US during the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) and Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) programs. This approach relies on inherent reactor and plant safety performance characteristics to provide additional safety margins. The goal of this approach is to prevent development of severe accident conditions, even in the event of initiators with safety system failures previously recognized to lead directly to reactor damage.

  2. Comparative analysis of two methods for measuring sales volumes during malaria medicine outlet surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patouillard, Edith; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Hanson, Kara; Pok, Sochea; Palafox, Benjamin; Tougher, Sarah; O'Connell, Kate; Goodman, Catherine

    2013-09-05

    There is increased interest in using commercial providers for improving access to quality malaria treatment. Understanding their current role is an essential first step, notably in terms of the volume of diagnostics and anti-malarials they sell. Sales volume data can be used to measure the importance of different provider and product types, frequency of parasitological diagnosis and impact of interventions. Several methods for measuring sales volumes are available, yet all have methodological challenges and evidence is lacking on the comparability of different methods. Using sales volume data on anti-malarials and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for malaria collected through provider recall (RC) and retail audits (RA), this study measures the degree of agreement between the two methods at wholesale and retail commercial providers in Cambodia following the Bland-Altman approach. Relative strengths and weaknesses of the methods were also investigated through qualitative research with fieldworkers. A total of 67 wholesalers and 107 retailers were sampled. Wholesale sales volumes were estimated through both methods for 62 anti-malarials and 23 RDTs and retail volumes for 113 anti-malarials and 33 RDTs. At wholesale outlets, RA estimates for anti-malarial sales were on average higher than RC estimates (mean difference of four adult equivalent treatment doses (95% CI 0.6-7.2)), equivalent to 30% of mean sales volumes. For RDTs at wholesalers, the between-method mean difference was not statistically significant (one test, 95% CI -6.0-4.0). At retail outlets, between-method differences for both anti-malarials and RDTs increased with larger volumes being measured, so mean differences were not a meaningful measure of agreement between the methods. Qualitative research revealed that in Cambodia where sales volumes are small, RC had key advantages: providers were perceived to remember more easily their sales volumes and find RC less invasive; fieldworkers found it more

  3. Educação sanitária e medicina preventiva Health education and preventive medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Maria Lucchesi

    1969-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram apresentados programas de atividades educativas, sanitárias e cursos desenvolvidos desde setembro de 1967, com o fito de melhorar os padrões de saúde e alimentação de parte da população do município de Santo André, São Paulo. Os cursos têm sido ministrados às normalistas e às mães de instrução primária, residentes em zonas afastadas do Centro urbano. As alunas dos Cursos já estão pondo em prática os ensinamentos recebidos, divulgando conhecimentos de Educação Sanitária, de Agricultura e de Educação Alimentar em todos os Estabelecimentos de Ensino primário de Santo André, num total de 80 unidades com 54.000 alunos matriculados. Conclui-se que através de cursos dessa natureza é possível conseguir a participação de uma população para sanar possíveis problemas advindos da falta de conhecimento de medidas de saneamento, práticas agrícolas e de uma alimentação bem orientada. Trabalhos desta natureza só são votados a êxito quando houver participação conjunta de elementos técnicos dos setôres administrativos municipais, estaduais, federais, particulares e da própria comunidade trabalhada.This work will be accomplished through educational and sanitary activities, and courses developed since September 1967, with the purpose of improving health and nourishment standards. These courses are being given to 2nd and 3rd grades from "Escolas Normais", and to mothers of primary educational level, who live in the suburbs. More advanced students, in the 1st grade of high-school are already applying the education received, about Health Education, Agriculture, and Food Education in all primary schools establishments in Santo André (80 units with 54000 students. We conclude, by stating that attending courses of this sort, it is possible, to obtain participation of the population, in preventing problems which may arise from the lack of knowledge on sanitation, agricultural practices and well oriented nourshment

  4. Application of legal measures as part of the policy for prevention of corruption in public sphere: Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the application of legal measures as part of the policy of corruption prevention in the public sphere. At present, corruption offenses have become a very dangerous phenomenon for the stability and security of societies, undermining the institutions and values of democracy, ethical values and justice, and jeopardizing the essential development and the rule of law. Knowing that these criminal offenses carry a high social risk and are conducted with high professionalism from people who have the state power, a greater focus should be placed on its prevention. Naturally, the criminal sanctions against criminal acts of corruption have their positive effect, punitive and preventive, but these are the last measures that the state should use. The state of Kosovo in an effort to prevent corruption, has established in legal terms an advanced legislation in accordance with international laws and comparable to developed countries.

  5. Preventive measures for radioactive contamination in iron and steel used as construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsi Huo-Wang; Wu Ching-Hwa; Chou Kei-Den; Yeh Chin-Shiun

    2000-01-01

    At the end of July 1992, Atomic Energy Council (AEC) received tips-off from Taipei local residents, saying some buildings in Taipei had their rebar been contaminated by radioactive materials. Regarding causes and sources of those radioactively contaminated rebar, views from every aspects were pointing toward that scraps mixed with radioactive source smelting in the steel mill as the most possible reason. After investigating houses and constructors, AEC found that most contaminated buildings were constructed during the period of 1982 and 1984. For protection of public rights, AEC then actively undertook nation-wide survey of more than forty thousand buildings constructed between 1982 and 1984. Thermal Luminescent Dosimeters (TLD) and house by house surveying were major methods to investigate houses contamination. Finally, it was found that radiation contaminated houses are concentrated in Taipei City, Taipei County, Tauoyen County, Keelung County. According to data collected up to December 31, 1999, there were 180 cases, with a total of 1601 contaminated housing units. Based on information data of dose assessment, distribution of annual dose are as the following: higher than 15 mSv -143 housing units (9.21%), 5-15 mSv -117 housing units (7.53%), less than 5 mSv -1293 housing units (83.26%). Except actively conducting remodeling of contaminated houses and granting compensation to house owners, AEC has established following measures to prevent rebars from being radioactively contaminated. (1) Radiation detection training of iron and steel detectors (2) Strengthening controls over radioactive sources (3) Enforcing examination of radioactive levels for imported rebars (4) Requesting domestic steel companies establish radiation detection capability (5) Promoting installation of portal type radiation detectors for steel companies having smelting furnace (6) Enforcing no-radioactive contamination certificate system. The radiation detection training of iron and steel

  6. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle.

  7. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations: Generator training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This computer-based program is designed to help waste generators in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program prevent pollution at the DOE Oak Ridge Field Office (DOE-OR) facilities in Oak Ridge, Paducah, and Portsmouth. The Numerical Scoring System (NSS) is an interactive system designed to maintain data on ER Program pollution prevention efforts and to measure the success of these efforts through the ER Program life cycle

  8. Sports Medicine: What is a Sports Medicine Specialist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is a Sports Medicine Specialist? A physician with significant specialized training in both the treatment and prevention of illness and injury. The Sports Medicine Specialist helps patients maximize function and minimize ...

  9. Hospital variation in use of secondary preventive medicine after discharge for first acute myocardial infarction during 1995-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell; Rasmussen, Jeppe Nørgaard

    2008-01-01

    during 1995-2004. OUTCOME MEASURES: At least 1 prescription claim for angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, or statins within 90 days of discharge for AMI. FINDINGS: The odds ratios between hospitals in the highest and lowest deciles, adjusted for age, gender, period, income......, comorbidity, concomitant, and prior pharmaceutical therapy, in 1995 were 8.5 [95% confidence interval (CI), 5.5-12.2] for beta-blockers, 3.0 (2.3-3.7) for ACE inhibitors, and 6.2 (4.1-8.8) for statins. By 2004, the hospital variation had decreased for beta-blockers (3.2; 2.3-4.0) and statins (4.2; 3...

  10. Personalized medicine in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Background: Personalized medicine is a model in which a patient’s unique clinical, genetic, and environmental characteristics are the basis for treatment and prevention.  Aim, method, and results: This review aims to describe the current tools, phenomenological features, clinical risk factors......, and biomarkers used to provide personalized medicine. Furthermore, this study describes the target areas in which they can be applied including diagnostics, treatment selection and response, assessment of risk of side-effects, and prevention.  Discussion and conclusion: Personalized medicine in psychiatry....... The discussion proposes possible solutions to narrow this gap and to move psychiatric research forward towards personalized medicine....

  11. Outcome measurement in sleep medicine practice and research. Part 2: assessment of neurobehavioral performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, T E.

    2001-06-01

    Neurobehavioral performance and alterations in mood consequent to sleep disorders and their treatment has recently been the focus of clinical investigations. Primarily in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), there has been increased interest in the effects of sleep fragmentation and hypoxemia on the brain's ability to process information and to alter affect. The purpose of the second part of this two-part series is to describe measures that could be applied to document the impact of sleep disorders on neurobehavioral performance and mood, discuss factors affecting the selection of measures for research and practice, and to describe evidence generated by the use of these instruments in research. The neurobehavioral deficits that accompany sleep deprivation can be categorised as decrements in cognitive throughput, working memory and sustained attention. Usually evaluated using tasks of short duration, impairments associated with OSA have included impaired information processing and decline in the total number of completed and/or correct responses per unit time. Using assessments of working memory, including short recall maneuvers involving words or paragraphs, investigators have documented in sleep apnea patients the inability to consolidate and recall material producing deficits in the recollection and retention of new information. Evaluations of sustained attention appraise reaction time, the ability to remain on task, and the number of errors of omission and false responses. Evidence suggests that OSA patients display slowing of response time as well as increased errors, lapses and number of false responses. Similar deficits have been documented with sustained and divided attention tasks that present the respondent with challenges in tracking and reaction response, tasks required for driving. Although untreated sleep apnea patients were more impaired than normal controls, their performance on such tasks was greatly enhanced following CPAP treatment. In

  12. Measuring professionalism in medicine and nursing: results of a European survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiki M J M H Lombarts

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leveraging professionalism has been put forward as a strategy to drive improvement of patient care. We investigate professionalism as a factor influencing the uptake of quality improvement activities by physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. OBJECTIVE: To (i investigate the reliability and validity of data yielded by using the self-developed professionalism measurement tool for physicians and nurses, (ii describe their levels of professionalism displayed, and (iii quantify the extent to which professional attitudes would predict professional behaviors. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We designed and deployed survey instruments amongst 5920 physicians and nurses working in European hospitals. This was conducted under the cross-sectional multilevel study "Deepening Our Understanding of Quality Improvement in Europe" (DUQuE. We used psychometric and generalized linear mixed modelling techniques to address the aforementioned objectives. RESULTS: In all, 2067 (response rate 69.8% physicians and 2805 nurses (94.8% representing 74 hospitals in 7 European countries participated. The professionalism instrument revealed five subscales of professional attitude and one scale for professional behaviour with moderate to high internal consistency and reliability. Physicians and nurses display equally high professional attitude sum scores (11.8 and 11.9 respectively out of 16 but seem to have different perceptions towards separate professionalism aspects. Lastly, professionals displaying higher levels of professional attitudes were more involved in quality improvement actions (physicians: b = 0.019, P<0.0001; nurses: b = 0.016, P<0.0001 and more inclined to report colleagues' underperformance (physicians--odds ratio (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.24; nurses - OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.01-1.23 or medical errors (physicians--OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.23; nurses - OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.22-1.67. Involvement in QI actions was found to increase the odds of

  13. Infection prevention and control measures currently applied in South African audiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ehlert

    2014-11-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the study was to ascertain the methods that audiologists in South Africa use to prevent and control the spread of infections during and after consultation with clients. Method: A survey study was conducted, using a self-administered questionnaire. Fifty currently practising audiologists participated in the study. Results: The majority (84%; n = 42 of respondents acknowledged the importance of hand hygiene for the purpose of infection control, with 76% (n = 38 making use of no-rinse hand sanitisers. Approximately a third of audiologists wear gloves during procedures such as otoscopy and immittance, and while handling hearing aids. Disinfecting audiological equipment seem to be the preferred choice of infection control, with only 60% (n = 30 of respondents sterilising audiological equipment after each individual patient consultation. Less than half of the respondents disinfected touch surfaces and toys in the reception area. Conclusions: Based on the results, further education and training should focus on measures implemented in infection control, awareness of possible risk factors at work settings, and vaccination as an effective means of infection control.

  14. Measurement and Modeling of the Ability of Crack Fillers to Prevent Chloride Ingress into Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott Z; Bentz, Dale P; Davis, Jeffrey M; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L; Molloy, John L; Sieber, John R

    2017-09-01

    A common repair procedures applied to damaged concrete is to fill cracks with an organic polymer. This operation is performed to increase the service life of the concrete by removing a preferential pathway for the ingress of water, chlorides, and other deleterious species. To effectively fulfill its mission of preventing chloride ingress, the polymer must not only fully fill the macro-crack, but must also intrude the damage zone surrounding the crack perimeter. Here, the performance of two commonly employed crack fillers, one epoxy, and one methacrylate, are investigated using a combined experimental and computer modeling approach. Neutron tomography and microbeam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) measurements are employed on pre-cracked and chloride-exposed specimens to quantify the crack filling and chloride ingress limiting abilities, respectively, of the two polymers. A two-dimensional model of chloride transport is derived from a mass balance and solved by the finite element method. Crack images provided by μXRF are used to generate the input microstructure for the simulations. When chloride binding and a time-dependent mortar diffusivity are both included in the computer model, good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. Both crack fillers significantly reduce chloride ingress during the 21 d period of the present experiments; however, the epoxy itself contains approximately 4 % by mass chlorine. Leaching studies were performed assess the epoxy as a source of deleterious ions for initiating corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures.

  15. Preventive or punitive disciplinary measures in South African schools: Which should be favoured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Oosthuizen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent research shows a major paradigm shift towards preventive and positive rather than punitive disciplinary measures. Since the essence of learner discipline is correctional and educational rather than punitive, this approach seems to be the correct one – especially after the abolition of corporal punishment in South African schools. However, the question remains: is there still room for punitive and reactive learner discipline in our schools? And if so, which is the better approach, and where should the emphasis be? This article endeavours to evaluate the two approaches by means of a normative framework. Rather than ruling which approach is the more successful one, the authors argue that it is not the one or the other, but rather a combination of the two approaches. One of the guiding determinants for correct decision-making is vested in maintaining a safe, harmonious and orderly environment conducive to education and learning. The decision regarding the most effective form of discipline in a particular instance should therefore be determined by the context of the situation. For example, it depends on the seriousness of the misconduct, the attitude of the learners (e.g. was it as a result of intent or negligence?, the age of the learner, the influence it had on the teaching-learning environment, et cetera.

  16. Preventive measures of water pollution in China; Chugoku ni okeru suishitsu odaku boshi taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Y.; Huang, X.

    1996-01-10

    This paper describes the progress and the major results of research and development on technologies and measures to prevent water pollution in China. Tests and researches have been performed on an upward anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), a vertical baffled anaerobic sludge blanket, two-phase anaerobic digestion, and an anaerobic fluidized bed. When anaerobically digested sludge and aerobic active sludge are inoculated in the UASB, particle-shaped sludge was formed well in both sludges. This technology has begun to be used in breweries and citric acid factories. With anaerobic treatment of waste water containing sulfate, the sulfate was recovered as sulfur by using the first and second phases. Research and development is being progressed on the oxidation ditch technology as an improved version of the active sludge method. In a pilot test of a soil treatment system and a stabilization pond treatment system as alternative technology for the active sludge method, the BOD in the treated water was found 2.5 mg{times}1/l. Attentions are drawn on primary treatment, a living organism contact oxidation method, and a continuous filtration treatment process as technologies to turn polluted water into resources. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  17. [Assessment of job stress after implementation of prevention measures in a pension fund].

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa-Rodriguez, Emilio; Le Clesiau, Hervé; Dubois, Gérard; Izard, Jean-Luc; Bonin, Michel; Bordron, Julien; Neveu, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Work stress and its impact on health have been widely studied. However, very few studies have examined the effect of implementing measures designed to reduce work stress, a risk factor for psychological health problems. The purpose of this study was to fill this gap. Two surveys were conducted in October 2009 and October 2011. 150 employees participated in the first trial, while 108 took part in the second trial. Among them, 74 employees participated in both surveys and were matched. Participation in the two surveys was anonymous and the participants were asked to complete three questionnaires. The intervention was not effective in reducing perceived poor health, accidents, hospitalizations, sick leaves, medication use, musculoskeletal disorders, psychosocial distress and job stress. However, there wasa significant decrease in iso-strain and an increase in social support. Iso-strain decreased, especially among women (p < 0.002) and employees (p < 0.001). The increased support provided by supervisors and colleagues benefited women and employees, while improved emotional support from supervisors and colleagues mainly benefited employees. These trends were associated with psychological and musculoskeletal disorders. The significant decrease of iso-strain through improved social support suggests that efforts to prevent work-related stress need to be pursued.

  18. An additional measurement of glycated albumin can help prevent missed diagnosis of diabetes in Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xingxing; Ying, Lingwen; Ma, Xiaojing; Shen, Yun; Su, Hang; Peng, Jiahui; Wang, Yufei; Bao, Yuqian; Zhou, Jian; Jia, Weiping

    2017-12-01

    In subjects who present a first fasting plasma glucose (FPG 1 ) ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes, diagnosis of diabetes will likely be missed without an additional oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in the Chinese population. Recent studies have shown that glycated albumin (GA) has advantages in reflecting postprandial hyperglycemia. Therefore, the present study evaluated whether additional measurement of GA could reduce the rate of missed diagnosis of diabetes. A total of 1287 participants (711 men, 576 women) with a FPG 1 ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes were enrolled and underwent a 75-g OGTT. Serum GA was measured by a liquid enzyme method. Diabetes was diagnosed based on the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) criteria. A total of 992 (77.08%) participants were diagnosed diabetes by OGTT and glycated hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ). The diagnostic validity of 2-h postload plasma glucose (2hPG) was superior to other glycemic index (the diagnostic sensitivity of 2hPG, HbA 1c , the second FPG (FPG 2 ) was 87.50%, 73.99%, 63.21%, respectively). Without 2hPG after OGTT, repeat testing of FPG 2 alone would result in missed diagnosis of 36.79% of diabetic participants, whereas testing FPG 2 with HbA 1c was associated with a missed diagnosis rate of 14.31%. While using the combined criteria of FPG 2 ≥7.0mmol/l and/or HbA 1c ≥6.5% and/or GA≥17.1%, the rate of missed diagnosis was merely 9.48%. That is, the rate of missed diagnosis was reduced by 33.75% with the addition of GA measurement. The k value reflecting the consistency of diagnosis between the FPG 2 and/or HbA 1c and/or GA criteria and the 2010 ADA criteria was 0.788. For subjects with FPG 1 ≥7.0mmol/l without classic symptoms of diabetes, additional measurement of GA can help prevent missed diagnosis of diabetes in Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of caries preventive measures directed to expectant mothers on caries experience in their children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanata Régia Luzia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effectiveness of caries preventive measures started during pregnancy on the caries experience of first-time mothers and their infants. Eighty-one pregnant women with low social background were selected on the basis of the presence of active carious lesions and were randomly divided into control (38 and experimental (43 groups. The initial dental status (DMFS and white spot lesions was established through clinical examination. The prophylactic measures were repeated during pregnancy and 6 and 12 months after delivery. Both groups received primary care intervention. They were instructed in relation to the etiologic factors of dental caries and received oral hygiene kits. Oral hygiene instructions were reinforced through interactive brushing. The experimental group also received antimicrobial treatment (topical application of NaF and iodine solution immediately after prophylaxis and 3 and 5 days later and restorative care using glass ionomer cement. By the time the children were 2 years of age, 33.3% of the infants in the control group and 14.7% in the experimental group had caries activity. A significant difference in caries prevalence was observed between children with and without visible dental plaque. The mean number of tooth surfaces with carious lesions (including areas of demineralization was higher among the children in the control group compared to the experimental group (6.3 x 3.2, however, with no statistical significance. Maternal caries increase was a significant factor influencing the caries experience of the children. These data support the evidence of an association between caries prevalence in young children and clinical (dental plaque and maternal factors.

  20. Preventive measures for safety and helth at work with the amphibious transporter PTS-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Kovačević

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the knowledge of using the amphibious transporter STM-M ( STM-M is very limited. A small number of professional soldiers in the Serbian Armed Forces know how to use thisvery useful and high-quality military vehicle in a regular way. From the day onethis vehicle has remained in its basic shape without any modifications since it was made in the former Soviet Union. Today, the Serbian Armed Forces have only 12 of these vehicles in the operational use. The Serbian Armed Forces have two amphibious platoons in two pontoon batalions in the River Flotilla. As the author of this article was an officer in charge of maintaining this complex and “unusual” vehicle, the article deals with the provisions from the Regulations on preventive measures for safety and health while using work equipment (Ministry of Labour, 2012, applied to work with STM-Ms, The article makes a parallel between the provisions of the Regulations and the actual situation and specific conditions of using and maintaining STM-Ms . Introduction Some basic information about the STM-M is given here, twith Figure 1 of this vehicle and its tactical and technicalspecifications.The dangerous places onthe vehicle are presented as well. Mesuares and rules for safe work This part ofthe article presents all speciall tools on the STM-M that are used for safe work. Each piece of tool is described in detail -itslocationon the STM-M, its physical characteristics,  and most common mistakes during its use. Some measures for better maintenance and improved safety at work are also proposed. Conclusion The conclusion deals with the misuse and wrong maintenance of STM-Ms and gives some proposals for their better use. A critical commentary about the conditions of safety engineering in the Serbian Armed Forces can be found here as well.  

  1. Nuclear Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents/Teachers Resource Links for Students Glossary Nuclear Medicine What is nuclear medicine? What are radioactive tracers? ... funded researchers advancing nuclear medicine? What is nuclear medicine? Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty that uses ...

  2. Pre- and postharvest preventive measures and intervention strategies to control microbial food safety hazards of fresh leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Maria I; Selma, Maria V; Suslow, Trevor; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Allende, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This review includes an overview of the most important preventive measures along the farm to fork chain to prevent microbial contamination of leafy greens. It also includes the technological and managerial interventions related to primary production, postharvest handling, processing practices, distribution, and consumer handling to eliminate pathogens in leafy greens. When the microbiological risk is already present, preventive measures to limit actual contamination events or pathogen survival are considered intervention strategies. In codes of practice the focus is mainly put on explaining preventive measures. However, it is also important to establish more focused intervention strategies. This review is centered mainly on leafy vegetables as the commodity identified as the highest priority in terms of fresh produce microbial safety from a global perspective. There is no unique preventive measure or intervention strategy that could be applied at one point of the food chain. We should encourage growers of leafy greens to establish procedures based on the HACCP principles at the level of primary production. The traceability of leafy vegetables along the chain is an essential element in ensuring food safety. Thus, in dealing with the food safety issues associated with fresh produce it is clear that a multidisciplinary farm to fork strategy is required.

  3. Measuring the impact of medicines regulatory interventions - Systematic review and methodological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedecke, Thomas; Morales, Daniel R; Pacurariu, Alexandra; Kurz, Xavier

    2018-03-01

    Evaluating the public health impact of regulatory interventions is important but there is currently no common methodological approach to guide this evaluation. This systematic review provides a descriptive overview of the analytical methods for impact research. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE for articles with an empirical analysis evaluating the impact of European Union or non-European Union regulatory actions to safeguard public health published until March 2017. References from systematic reviews and articles from other known sources were added. Regulatory interventions, data sources, outcomes of interest, methodology and key findings were extracted. From 1246 screened articles, 229 were eligible for full-text review and 153 articles in English language were included in the descriptive analysis. Over a third of articles studied analgesics and antidepressants. Interventions most frequently evaluated are regulatory safety communications (28.8%), black box warnings (23.5%) and direct healthcare professional communications (10.5%); 55% of studies measured changes in drug utilization patterns, 27% evaluated health outcomes, and 18% targeted knowledge, behaviour or changes in clinical practice. Unintended consequences like switching therapies or spill-over effects were rarely evaluated. Two-thirds used before-after time series and 15.7% before-after cross-sectional study designs. Various analytical approaches were applied including interrupted time series regression (31.4%), simple descriptive analysis (28.8%) and descriptive analysis with significance tests (23.5%). Whilst impact evaluation of pharmacovigilance and product-specific regulatory interventions is increasing, the marked heterogeneity in study conduct and reporting highlights the need for scientific guidance to ensure robust methodologies are applied and systematic dissemination of results occurs. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of

  4. [Personal contextual factors of the ICF draft from the Working Group "ICF" of Specialty Group II of the Geman Society for Social Medicine and Prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotkamp, S; Cibis, W; Behrens, J; Bucher, P O; Deetjen, W; Nyffeler, I D; Gutenbrunner, C; Hagen, T; Hildebrandt, M; Keller, K; Nüchtern, E; Rentsch, H P; Schian, H; Schwarze, M; Sperling, M; Seger, W

    2010-12-01

    Personal contextual factors play an essential part in the ICF model in relation to patient-centred care. It is generally assumed that their classification must refer to the country-specific social and cultural setting and its particular linguistic terms. Therefore personal factors are not classified as yet by the WHO for general use. In Germany in 2006 a group of experts working on the medical advisory board of statutory health insurance published a proposal for a systematic classification of relevant personal factors to describe the background of an individual's life and living. This classification was now further analysed and thoroughly revised by a more comprehensive group of German specialists working in different health care insurances and institutions, authorised by the German Society for Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP), supported by German-speaking Swiss ICF specialists. This classification is published as work in progress intending to broaden and prepare the process of discussion for a consensus conference to be held in Germany in 2011. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study: An experimental medicine platform for evaluating new drugs for relapse prevention in addiction. Part A: Study description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Louise M; Flechais, Remy S A; Murphy, Anna; Reed, Laurence J; Abbott, Sanja; Boyapati, Venkataramana; Elliott, Rebecca; Erritzoe, David; Ersche, Karen D; Faluyi, Yetunde; Faravelli, Luca; Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Kalk, Nicola J; Kuchibatla, Shankar S; McGonigle, John; Metastasio, Antonio; Mick, Inge; Nestor, Liam; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Smith, Dana G; Suckling, John; Tait, Roger; Taylor, Eleanor M; Waldman, Adam D; Robbins, Trevor W; Deakin, J F William; Nutt, David J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R

    2015-09-01

    Drug and alcohol dependence are global problems with substantial societal costs. There are few treatments for relapse prevention and therefore a pressing need for further study of brain mechanisms underpinning relapse circuitry. The Imperial College Cambridge Manchester (ICCAM) platform study is an experimental medicine approach to this problem: using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques and selective pharmacological tools, it aims to explore the neuropharmacology of putative relapse pathways in cocaine, alcohol, opiate dependent, and healthy individuals to inform future drug development. Addiction studies typically involve small samples because of recruitment difficulties and attrition. We established the platform in three centres to assess the feasibility of a multisite approach to address these issues. Pharmacological modulation of reward, impulsivity and emotional reactivity were investigated in a monetary incentive delay task, an inhibitory control task, and an evocative images task, using selective antagonists for µ-opioid, dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) and neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors (naltrexone, GSK598809, vofopitant/aprepitant), in a placebo-controlled, randomised, crossover design. In two years, 609 scans were performed, with 155 individuals scanned at baseline. Attrition was low and the majority of individuals were sufficiently motivated to complete all five sessions (n=87). We describe herein the study design, main aims, recruitment numbers, sample characteristics, and explain the test hypotheses and anticipated study outputs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Cost effective measures to prevent obesity: epidemiological basis and appropriate target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J.C.; Nooyens, A.C.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.

    2005-01-01

    Cost-effective prevention strategies to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity should be based on appropriate knowledge of the determinants of weight gain. The body of evidence on the dietary determinants of weight gain is, however, fragmentary at best, partly because inappropriate

  7. Cost-effective measures to prevent obesity : epidemiological basis and appropriate target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, Jacob C; Nooyens, Astrid J; Visscher, Tommy L S

    Cost-effective prevention strategies to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity should be based on appropriate knowledge of the determinants of weight gain. The body of evidence on the dietary determinants of weight gain is, however, fragmentary at best, partly because inappropriate

  8. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in

  9. Efficacies of prevention and control measures applied during an outbreak in Southwest Madrid, Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaiá da Paixão Sevá

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus, and hare (Lepus granatensis, were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans. Various measures were adopted to prevent and control the disease, and since 2013 there was a slight decline in the human sickness. We used a mathematical model to evaluate the efficacy of each measure in reducing the number of infected hosts. We identified in the present model that culling both hares and rabbits, without immediate reposition of the animals, was the best measure adopted, decreasing the proportion of all infected hosts. Particularly, culling hares was more efficacious than culling rabbits to reduce the proportion of infected individuals of all hosts. Likewise, lowering vector contact with hares highly influenced the reduction of the proportion of infected hosts. The reduction of the vector density per host in the park decreased the leishmaniasis incidence of hosts in the park and the urban areas. On the other hand, the reduction of the vector density per host of the urban area (humans, dogs and cats decreased only their affected population, albeit at a higher proportion. The use of insecticide-impregnated collar and vaccination in dogs affected only the infected dogs' population. The parameters related to the vector contact with dog, cat or human do not present a high impact on the other hosts infected by Leishmania. In conclusion, the efficacy of each control strategy was determined, in order to direct future actions

  10. Comparisons of activity measurements with radionuclide calibrators, a tool for quality assessment and improvement in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oropesa, P. A.; Hernandez, T.; Serra, R.; Varela, C.

    2007-01-01

    A national program of ongoing comparisons for assaying gamma-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for amount of radioactivity using radionuclide calibrators was begun in 2000. Nuclides of the most wide-spread use in Cuban nuclear medicine, 131 I, 201 Tl and 99 mTc, as well as two measurement geometries, glass vials and plastic syringes, were employed. In this paper, the participants' performance is assessed by mean of a statistical analysis of the reported data. Performance tables have been obtained and a w2 statistic is calculated from observed and expected frequencies, with the aim of testing the hypothesis about the independence of some characteristics of the comparison results, at a significance level a 1/4 0:05. The proportion of satisfactory results in the years 2002-2004 were found to be at the same level, but higher than in 2000. It reveals an improvement of the measurement quality since 2002. The causes of improvement were investigated using the statistical treatment of several data available as supplementary information

  11. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young

    2012-01-01

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and management

  12. A study on fatigue measurement of operators for human error prevention in NPPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Oh Yeon; Il, Jang Tong; Meiling, Luo; Hee, Lee Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    The identification and the analysis of individual factor of operators, which is one of the various causes of adverse effects in human performance, is not easy in NPPs. There are work types (including shift), environment, personality, qualification, training, education, cognition, fatigue, job stress, workload, etc in individual factors for the operators. Research at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) reported that a 'burn out (extreme fatigue)' is related to alcohol dependent habits and must be dealt with using a stress management program. USNRC (U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission) developed FFD (Fitness for Duty) for improving the task efficiency and preventing human errors. 'Managing Fatigue' of 10CFR26 presented as requirements to control operator fatigue in NPPs. The committee explained that excessive fatigue is due to stressful work environments, working hours, shifts, sleep disorders, and unstable circadian rhythms. In addition, an International Labor Organization (ILO) developed and suggested a checklist to manage fatigue and job stress. In domestic, a systematic evaluation way is presented by the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) chapter 18, Human Factors, in the licensing process. However, it almost focused on the interface design such as HMI (Human Machine Interface), not individual factors. In particular, because our country is in a process of the exporting the NPP to UAE, the development and setting of fatigue management technique is important and urgent to present the technical standard and FFD criteria to UAE. And also, it is anticipated that the domestic regulatory body applies the FFD program as the regulation requirement so that a preparation for that situation is required. In this paper, advanced researches are investigated to find the fatigue measurement and evaluation methods of operators in a high reliability industry. Also, this study tries to review the NRC report and discuss the causal factors and

  13. Outbreak of resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: measures and proposal for prevention and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Maia de Castro Romanelli

    Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii colonization and infection, frequent in Intensive Care Unit (ICU patients, is commonly associated with high morbimortality. Several outbreaks due to multidrug-resistant (MDR A. baumanii have been reported but few of them in Brazil. This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with colonization and infection by MDR and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains isolated from patients admitted to the adult ICU at HC/UFMG. A case-control study was performed from January 2007 to June 2008. Cases were defined as patients colonized or infected by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and controls were patients without MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolation, in a 1:2 proportion. For statistical analysis, due to changes in infection control guidelines, infection criteria and the notification process, this study was divided into two periods. During the first period analyzed, from January to December 2007, colonization or infection by MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii was associated with prior infection, invasive device utilization, prior carbapenem use and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, prior infection and mechanical ventilation proved to be statistically significant risk factors. Carbapenem use showed a tendency towards a statistical association. During the second study period, from January to June 2008, variables with a significant association with MDR/carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii colonization/infection were catheter utilization, carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use, hepatic transplantation, and clinical severity. In the multivariate analysis, only CVC use showed a statistical difference. Carbapenem and third-generation cephalosporin use displayed a tendency to be risk factors. Risk factors must be focused on infection control and prevention measures considering A. baumanni dissemination.

  14. Infection prevention and control measures and tools for the prevention of entry of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae into healthcare settings: guidance from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Magiorakos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE are increasingly being reported from patients in healthcare settings. They are associated with high patient morbidity, attributable mortality and hospital costs. Patients who are “at-risk” may be carriers of these multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (MDR-E. The purpose of this guidance is to raise awareness and identify the “at-risk” patient when admitted to a healthcare setting and to outline effective infection prevention and control measures to halt the entry and spread of CRE. Methods The guidance was created by a group of experts who were functioning independently of their organisations, during two meetings hosted by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. A list of epidemiological risk factors placing patients “at-risk” for carriage with CRE was created by the experts. The conclusions of a systematic review on the prevention of spread of CRE, with the addition of expert opinion, were used to construct lists of core and supplemental infection prevention and control measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients upon admission to healthcare settings. Results Individuals with the following profile are “at-risk” for carriage of CRE: a a history of an overnight stay in a healthcare setting in the last 12 months, b dialysis-dependent or cancer chemotherapy in the last 12 months, c known previous carriage of CRE in the last 12 months and d epidemiological linkage to a known carrier of a CRE. Core infection prevention and control measures that should be considered for all patients in healthcare settings were compiled. Preliminary supplemental measures to be implemented for “at-risk” patients on admission are: pre-emptive isolation, active screening for CRE, and contact precautions. Patients who are confirmed positive for CRE will need additional supplemental measures. Conclusions Strengthening the microbiological

  15. 33 CFR Appendix E to Part 273 - Preventive Safety Measures in Handling of Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Special care is required to prevent contamination of the inside of gloves. 9. Approved respirators must be... holes in top, bottom, and sides of metal containers or crush them so they cannot collect water or be...

  16. [Travel medicine and vaccination as a task of infection prevention--data of the special consultation hours of the public health department Frankfurt on the Main, Germany, 2002-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, U; Tiarks-Jungk, P; Stark, S

    2006-05-01

    Infection prevention is one of the main tasks of the Public Health authorities. Because of hundreds of travel associated infections imported by travellers every year and considering increasing travel activities to tropical countries, travel medicine and consultation on the correct prevention measures including vaccination is becoming more and more important. Hence the data of the special consultation hours of the public health department of Frankfurt am Main are reported and discussed with regard to possible improvements. The public health department of Frankfurt am Main has been offering special consultation hours for travel medicine for many years. Here, data derived from the anamneses of the clients from 2002 - 2004 are reported: personal data such as age, sex, travel destination as well as medical data such as vaccination and malaria prevention. 2002 - 2004, more than 14,000 persons were seen in the consultation hours, more than 66% of them asked for travel health advice, about 25% of them asked for standard vaccination (such as influenza), some others asked for attestation or certification. More than 20,000 doses of vaccines were given, the most important vaccination against hepatitis A (n = 5791), hepatitis B (n = 4064), typhoid fever (n = 2718) and yellow fever (n = 2473). 2814 were informed with regard to malaria prevention, including recipes. 7814 persons with complete data on their reason for travel were subjected to more detailed analysis: 75% of them were holiday tourists, 18% travelled as "hikers", 7% were business travellers and less than 1% of them planned a round-the-world tour. The most frequent travel destinations were: Asian or African countries about 33% each, 25% Middle or South America. Thailand, South Africa with Namibia, Brazil and India were the most important countries. The time from health consultation to the beginning of the journey was too short for full vaccine protection against typhoid fever and meningococcal disease in 10% and

  17. Herbal medicines in migraine prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DeWeerdt, CJ; Bootsma, HPR; Hendriks, H

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy of feverfew capsules on migraine prophylaxis was investigated in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study in which 50 patients, who had not used feverfew before, participated. The capsules were filled with a dried alcoholic extract of feverfew on microcristalline

  18. Climate change and preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faergeman, Ole

    2007-12-01

    Thermal stress, food poisoning, infectious diseases, malnutrition, psychiatric illness as well as injury and death from floods, storms and fire are all likely to become more common as the earth warms and the climate becomes more variable. In contrast, obesity, type II diabetes and coronary artery disease do not result from climate change, but they do share causes with climate change. Burning fossil fuels, for example, is the major source of greenhouse gases, but it also makes pervasive physical inactivity possible. Similarly, modern agriculture's enormous production of livestock contributes substantially to greenhouse gas emissions, and it is the source of many of our most energy-rich foods. Physicians and societies of medical professionals have a particular responsibility, therefore, to contribute to the public discourse about climate change and what to do about it.

  19. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more ...

  20. Climate change and preventive medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergeman, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Thermal stress, food poisoning, infectious diseases, malnutrition, psychiatric illness as well as injury and death from floods, storms and fire are all likely to become more common as the earth warms and the climate becomes more variable. In contrast, obesity, type II diabetes and coronary artery...

  1. Preventive Measures Taken by Islam to Avoid Bloodshed and War with Non-Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasoul Ahangaran

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is important to prevent bloodshed and war to the extent that it is proper to pay maximum attention to prevention of conflict in comparison with trying to extinguish the flames of war. Although trying to achieve reconciliation between conflict parties is in itself important, it is less important than prevention of conflict. Since the followers of any religion or sect, regard themselves right and others wrong and on the other hand there is some thing seen in many religions or sects concerning the killing of other religions or sects’ followers, these two may cause religious or doctrinal motivated- or otherwise but with doctrinal or religious color- conflict and war between the followers of religions or sects. Islam has taken preventive measures to avoid many conflicts and bloodshed between Muslims with the followers of other religions. Compared with other religions in this regard it will be clear that how much Islam seeks peaceful and safe environment. دین مقدس اسلام از همان آغاز جهت برقراری صلح و آرامش و آنچه که امروزه بشر به اهمیت آن بیشتر پی برده یعنی تدابیر پیشگیرانه، توجه داشته و بر اساس آن سعی نموده تا از بسیاری از نزاع‌های میان مسلمانان و غیرمسلمانان ممانعت ورزد. تدابیری چون توجه به ترک جدال و بحث‌های غیر منطقی، ایجاد انگیزه درونی از طریق ترس از عذاب اُخروی، وضع مجازات نسبت به متجاوزگر، ایجاد محدودیت در جنگ با هدف جلوگیری از شعله‌ورتر شدن آتش آن و تقویت احساس نوع دوستی و دادن چهره مقدس دینی به آن، محورهای بحث در مقاله حاضر است که سعی گردید در قالب جدید به یکی دیگر از جوانب صلح‌طلبانه بودن

  2. Human Rights, Positive Obligations, and Measures to Prevent Human Trafficking in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Ian David

    2015-01-01

    Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights is freedom from slavery. A key feature of this right is the obligation it imposes on states such as the UK to prevent violations of the freedom, such as the trafficking in human beings, by third parties. This piece finds that the UK’s response to its duties in preventing human trafficking is patchy but concludes that this will be much improved with its new Modern Slavery Bill 2014-15.

  3. Different opinions of physicians on the importance of measures to prevent acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, Gratiana; Ullrich, Gerald

    2003-12-01

    Since chronic infection with mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with deteriorating lung function, many parents of young children with cystic fibrosis (CF) fear the first PA positive throat swab as a milestone in the progression of the disease. To reduce the risk of PA acquisition from the environment, they perform preventive measures at home or outdoors. In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of CF physicians towards these measures and the respective consulting practice, we mailed a questionnaire to all 65 certified paediatric CF centres in Germany. Physicians from 54 (83%) CF clinics replied. They expressed widely different ideas about the impact of the environment for the acquisition of P. aeruginosa, and recommended a large spectrum of preventive measures. Some physicians proposed only few precautions, which focussed on the prevention of cross-infection between patients, whereas others suggested prevention of any contact with moist or wet places, e.g. use different toothbrushes for mornings and evenings, or do without air-conditioning in the car. CF physicians have different opinions on the risk of PA acquisition from the environment. Doctors who recommend strict precautions could engender a parental fear of a ubiquous threat from invisible bacteria. The resulting extended safety measures might impair the family's quality of life. Copyright 2003 European Cystic Fibrosis Society

  4. [Flu symptoms and preventive measures practiced by the inhabitants of Mexico City during the AH1N1 influenza epidemic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Licea, Verónica; González-Domínguez, Fernando; Avila, Guillermina; Flisser, Ana

    2013-01-01

    To know the frequency of flu symptoms and describe preventive measures practiced by the inhabitants of Mexico City during the AH1N1 epidemic. A cross-sectional design was used and a survey containing demographic and health information was conducted in August and September 2009 in a sample of 4003 randomly selected people living in Mexico City. Referred flu symptoms were: 29% running nose, 25% cough, 25% throat infection, 17% muscle and joint pain, 10% respiratory problems, and 7% fever. Also 16% said having hypertension, 10% diabetes, and 2% morbid obesity. Among the preventive measures, 74% washed hands, 32% covered the nose and mouth with the forearm when coughing or sneezing, 28% used sanitizer gel five times a day in average, and 47% did not greet with a kiss or handshake. Almost all the population followed preventive measures and did not show high percentages of influenza symptoms. Useful elements for prevention were identified, such as the frequency of seasonal influenza vaccination, self-medication, and living with a person diagnosed with AH1N1. It is important to continue with mass communication to strengthen adequate hygiene and health measures.

  5. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  6. Relevant Measures to Prevent the Spread of African Swine Fever in the European Union Domestic Pig Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Jurado

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During the past decade, African swine fever (ASF has spread from the Caucasus region to eastern European Union countries affecting domestic pig and wild boar populations. In order to avert ASF spread, mitigation measures targeting both populations have been established. However, despite these efforts, ASF has been reported in thirteen different countries (Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Moldova, Czech Republic, and Romania. In the absence of an effective vaccine or treatment to ASF, introduction and spread of ASF onto domestic pig farms can only be prevented by strict compliance to control measures. This study systematically reviewed available measures to prevent the spread of ASF in the EU domestic pig sector distinguishing between commercial, non-commercial, and outdoor farms. The search was performed in PubMed and using a common browser. A total of 52 documents were selected for the final review process, which included scientific articles, reports, EU documents and official recommendations, among others. From this literature review, 37 measures were identified as preventive measures for the introduction and spread of ASF. Subsequently, these measures were assessed by ASF experts for their relevance in the mitigation of ASF spread on the three mentioned types of farms. All experts agreed that some of the important preventive measures for all three types of farms were: the identification of animals and farm records; strict enforcement of the ban on swill feeding; and containment of pigs, so as to not allow direct or indirect pig–pig and/or pig–wild boar contacts. Other important preventive measures for all farms were education of farmers, workers, and operators; no contact between farmers and farm staff and external pigs; appropriate removal of carcasses, slaughter residues, and food waste; proper disposal of manure and dead animals, and abstaining from hunting

  7. [Application of wavelength selection algorithm to measure the effective component of Chinese medicine based on near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Ke-Xin; Wang, Yan

    2006-09-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has raised a lot of interest in the pharmaceutical industry because it is a rapid and cost-effective analytical type of spectroscopy with no need for extensive sample preparation, and with the easy-realizable ability of on-line application. The NIR technology can increase the quality control standard of the Chinese medicine and accelerate the entry into the international market. In the present paper, two methods for wavelength selection are applied to the measurement of borneol, one of which is the multiple-chain stepwise, which tends to select many variables in the same area containing valuable information, and the other is the mixture genetic algorithm, which incorporates simulated annealing so as to improve the local searching ability while maintaining the global searching ability. The results present that the number of wavelength is reduced to 16% compared with the original number of wavelength, and the prediction accuracy has increased 47.6%. Therefore, the method of wavelength selection is a good way to enhance the prediction accuracy and simplify the model in NIR region.

  8. Blood gas testing and related measurements: National recommendations on behalf of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Kopčinović, Lara Milevoj; Dorotić, Adrijana; Baršić, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Blood gas analysis (BGA) is exposed to risks of errors caused by improper sampling, transport and storage conditions. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) generated documents with recommendations for avoidance of potential errors caused by sample mishandling. Two main documents related to BGA issued by the CLSI are GP43-A4 (former H11-A4) Procedures for the collection of arterial blood specimens; approved standard – fourth edition, and C46-A2 Blood gas and pH analysis and related measurements; approved guideline – second edition. Practices related to processing of blood gas samples are not standardized in the Republic of Croatia. Each institution has its own protocol for ordering, collection and analysis of blood gases. Although many laboratories use state of the art analyzers, still many preanalytical procedures remain unchanged. The objective of the Croatian Society of Medical Biochemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CSMBLM) is to standardize the procedures for BGA based on CLSI recommendations. The Working Group for Blood Gas Testing as part of the Committee for the Scientific Professional Development of the CSMBLM prepared a set of recommended protocols for sampling, transport, storage and processing of blood gas samples based on relevant CLSI documents, relevant literature search and on the results of Croatian survey study on practices and policies in acid-base testing. Recommendations are intended for laboratory professionals and all healthcare workers involved in blood gas processing. PMID:27812301

  9. Students do not reduce patient satisfaction in a family medicine clinic as measured by a nationally used patient satisfaction instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Mark R; Sterrenberg, Timothy R

    2015-03-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys are widely used to give physicians feedback on their treatment of patients, included in physician performance evaluation and payment, and correlated with better health outcomes. Our research uses industry-standard satisfaction measures to gauge the impact on patient satisfaction of having students involved in a patient's medical care at the family medicine clinic of a large southwestern osteopathic medical school. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Press-Ganey Survey, a national survey commonly used by hospitals and clinics. The survey was modified to indicate the presence of a learner in the patient's treatment room. The survey provided data on patient satisfaction with the office, the visit, and the care received. Overall, 730 survey responses were used in the study, 434 from patients with whose visit included a student. There were no statistically significant differences in patient satisfaction scores, including overall satisfaction with the visit. Our findings indicate that student doctors do not decrease patient satisfaction and that satisfaction scores may be useful in student evaluations. This finding should encourage outpatient physicians who teach medical students that their patient satisfaction scores on the most widely used patient satisfaction survey will not be impacted by teaching students.

  10. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies I: defining content and format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritenbaugh Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients receiving complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies often report shifts in well-being that go beyond resolution of the original presenting symptoms. We undertook a research program to develop and evaluate a patient-centered outcome measure to assess the multidimensional impacts of CAM therapies, utilizing a novel mixed methods approach that relied upon techniques from the fields of anthropology and psychometrics. This tool would have broad applicability, both for CAM practitioners to measure shifts in patients' states following treatments, and conventional clinical trial researchers needing validated outcome measures. The US Food and Drug Administration has highlighted the importance of valid and reliable measurement of patient-reported outcomes in the evaluation of conventional medical products. Here we describe Phase I of our research program, the iterative process of content identification, item development and refinement, and response format selection. Cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation are reported separately. Methods From a database of patient interviews (n = 177 from six diverse CAM studies, 150 interviews were identified for secondary analysis in which individuals spontaneously discussed unexpected changes associated with CAM. Using ATLAS.ti, we identified common themes and language to inform questionnaire item content and wording. Respondents' language was often richly textured, but item development required a stripping down of language to extract essential meaning and minimize potential comprehension barriers across populations. Through an evocative card sort interview process, we identified those items most widely applicable and covering standard psychometric domains. We developed, pilot-tested, and refined the format, yielding a questionnaire for cognitive interviews and psychometric evaluation. Results The resulting questionnaire contained 18 items, in visual analog scale format

  11. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippitzi, M. E.; Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Postma, M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different...... European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative...... on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used...

  12. Reasons for slagging during stemwood pellet combustion and some measures for prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehman, M.; Nordin, A. [Umeaa Univ., Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umeaa (Sweden); Hedman, H. [Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden); Jirjis, R. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Bioenergy, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Ash related problems have more than occasionally been observed in pellet burners during the last years. These problems lead to reduced accessibility of the appliances and also bad publicity for the pellet market. The objectives of the present work were therefore to: (i) determine the critical levels of the problematic ash components in stemwood pellets regarding slagging, (ii) document the variations of these problematic elements in the outgoing pellets from two pellet-mills during one operational season, (iii) determine how frequently these elements exceed the critical levels, (iv) determine how different sub-processes in the pelletising process (especially the dryer) effect the slagging properties of the pellet, and if possible (v) suggest some measures for prevention. A significant number of wood pellets reported to be problematic and problem-free, regarding slagging in ordinary residential pellet burners, were collected from the Swedish market. The ash compositions of these fuels were analysed and the results compiled in a database. Partial Least-Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) and F-tests were used to statistically identify both the critical ash components and the critical levels of these components that separated the two reported classes. In addition, chemical equilibrium model calculations were used to interpret the findings. The variations of these elements in the in-going raw material and in the produced pellets were determined during one season in two pellet mills equipped with exhaust gas dryers. The results showed that the problematic wood-pellets had a significantly higher amount of Si, but also Al and Fe, in the fuel ash. The critical level of Si (given as SiO{sub 2} was about 20-25 wt% of the fuel ash, i.e. pellets with levels in or over this range resulted in slagging problems in residential burners. This critical Si content was exceeded once and twice for the analysed samples in the two studied pellet mills. In one of the studied mills, this

  13. Second hand smoke (SHS exposure in children. An evaluation of a preventative measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Precioso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness of the preventative programme “Smoke-free Homes” undertaken in 4th year children and their parents or guardians, aiming to reduce children's exposure to second hand smoke (SHS in the home. Material and methods: This was a pre-and post-test pre-experimental study, in students from 32 Braga district primary schools 2007/08. A self-administered and structured questionnaire was given out to 795 students in the classroom before and after the programme. In analysing data, we used the chi-squared test for the categorical variables. Results: The rate of children exposed to regular or occasional SHS due to living with at least one smoker dropped from 42.2% to 32.6% (p = 0.001. The percentage of students, children of smokers who stated that their father smoked regularly or occasionally at home, dropped from 68.0% pre-test to 51.6% posttest (p = 0.000. No significant reduction was seen in mothers. Conclusion: Based on the data, we can conclude that the “Smoke-free Homes” programme was effective in preventing smoking in the home, and therefore reducing the rate of children exposed to SHS by about 10%. However, it appears that about a third of children are still exposed, which highlights the need for further measures in this area. Healthcare professionals, particularly those working in Paediatrics, should advise parents to quit smoking, especially in the home. Resumo: Objectivo: Avaliar a eficácia de uma intervenção preventiva, dirigida a alunos do 4.° ano de escolaridade e aos seus pais/encarregados de educação, com a finalidade de reduzir a exposição das crianças ao fumo ambiental do tabaco (FAT no domicílio. Material e métodos: Trata-se de um estudo pré-experimental, do tipo pré-teste e pós-teste, com alunos pertencentes a 32 escolas do 1.° ciclo do ensino básico, de cinco agrupamentos de escolas do concelho de Braga, no ano lectivo 2007

  14. [Preventing transmission of infection in endoscopy: hygienic maintainance of flexible endoscopes and measures for personal protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiss, O; Exner, M; Niebel, J

    1995-12-01

    For prevention of transfer of infective agents by the contaminated endoscope the importance of thorough mechanical cleaning of the endoscope and adequate disinfection is stressed. Mode of action and side effects of liquid disinfectants as well as resistance of microorganisms (spores and some mycobacteria) to germicidal chemicals are mentioned. The different steps of disinfection procedures and potential causes of failure are discussed. Automatic disinfection systems are required for a higher degree of security of both patient and staff of the endoscopic unit. A regular control of the efficacy of the disinfection process is recommended and models for implementation are discussed. For prevention of occupationally acquired infection general precaution guidelines (use of gloves, prevention of needle-stick injuries) and vaccination programs are stressed.

  15. Lifestyle measures for primary prevention of T2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S A Mansur Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the number of adults with diabetes was 285 million in 2010 and it will be 439 million in the year 2030. Although the genes we inherit may influence the development of type 2 diabetes, they take a back seat to behavioral and lifestyle factors. Data from the Nurses’ Health Study suggest that 90 percent of type 2 diabetes in women can be attributed to five such factors: excess weight, lack of exercise, a less-than-healthy diet, smoking, and abstaining from alcohol. From this data it can be said that up to 90 percent of diabetes prevention is possible with behavioral and lifestyle factors intervention. This intervention should be given to the people through primary prevention. The purpose of primary prevention is to limit the number of people who develop a disease by controlling causes and risk factors for the disease.

  16. The Preventive Effect on Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions of the Medicinal Plant Plumeria rubra: Involvement of the Latex Proteins in the NO/cGMP/KATP Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nylane Maria Nunes de Alencar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plumeria rubra (Apocynaceae is frequently used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hepatitis, and tracheitis, among other infirmities. The aim of this study was to investigate the gastroprotective potential of a protein fraction isolated from the latex of Plumeria rubra (PrLP against ethanol-induced gastric lesions and describe the underlying mechanisms. In a dose-dependent manner, the pretreatment with PrLP prevented ethanol-induced gastric lesions in mice after single intravenous administration. The gastroprotective mechanism of PrLP was associated with the involvement of prostaglandins and balance of oxidant/antioxidant factors. Secondarily, the NO/cGMP/KATP pathway and activation of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents were also demonstrated as part of the mechanism. This study shows that proteins extracted from the latex of P. rubra prevent gastric lesions induced in experimental animals. Also, the results support the use of the plant in folk medicine.

  17. Quantitative measures of corrosion and prevention: application to corrosion in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Schouten, J.C.; Gellings, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The corrosion protection factor (c.p.f.) and the corrosion condition (c.c.) are simple instruments for the study and evaluation of the contribution and efficiency of several methods of corrosion prevention and control. The application of c.p.f. and c.c. to corrosion and prevention in agriculture in The Netherlands is considered in detail. Attention is paid to relations between c.p.f. and c.c., the corrosion costs, possible cost savings and the applied corrosion protection scheme on farms. It ...

  18. [Sports medicine in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhuth, H-H

    2005-08-01

    Sports medicine covers many different aspects, ranging from clinical specialties, such as internal medicine, orthopedics or pediatrics to physiology and sports sciences. The requirements for sports medicine evolve mainly from exercise physiology (elite, leisure and health oriented physical activity), orthopedics and traumatology as well as from preventive and rehabilitative issues. In the new German curriculum, sports medicine is defined as a subspecialty. Historically, sports medicine in Germany has a federal structure with a governing body (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin und Prävention). Due to these facts, University Departments of Sports Medicine (which vary greatly in size and performance) are either attached to Medical or non-Medical Faculties, such as Sports Sciences. In medical schools, sports medicine can be selected as an elective subject. However, the main part of teaching sports medicine is covered by Sports Science Faculties. In an international context, the strength of German sports medicine is its clinical orientation and close cooperation with the sport itself, especially high-performance sports. In the future, like in the Anglo- American countries, sports medicine in Germany will play a major role in health prevention and rehabilitation.

  19. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Bochenek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating

  20. Systemic Measures and Legislative and Organizational Frameworks Aimed at Preventing or Mitigating Drug Shortages in 28 European and Western Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochenek, Tomasz; Abilova, Vafa; Alkan, Ali; Asanin, Bogdan; de Miguel Beriain, Iñigo; Besovic, Zeljka; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Bucsics, Anna; Davidescu, Michal; De Weerdt, Elfi; Duborija-Kovacevic, Natasa; Fürst, Jurij; Gaga, Mina; Gailīte, Elma; Gulbinovič, Jolanta; Gürpınar, Emre U.; Hankó, Balázs; Hargaden, Vincent; Hotvedt, Tor A.; Hoxha, Iris; Huys, Isabelle; Inotai, Andras; Jakupi, Arianit; Jenzer, Helena; Joppi, Roberta; Laius, Ott; Lenormand, Marie-Camille; Makridaki, Despina; Malaj, Admir; Margus, Kertu; Marković-Peković, Vanda; Miljković, Nenad; de Miranda, João L.; Primožič, Stanislav; Rajinac, Dragana; Schwartz, David G.; Šebesta, Robin; Simoens, Steven; Slaby, Juraj; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Tesar, Tomas; Tzimis, Leonidas; Warmińska, Ewa; Godman, Brian

    2018-01-01

    Drug shortages have been identified as a public health problem in an increasing number of countries. This can negatively impact on the quality and efficiency of patient care, as well as contribute to increases in the cost of treatment and the workload of health care providers. Shortages also raise ethical and political issues. The scientific evidence on drug shortages is still scarce, but many lessons can be drawn from cross-country analyses. The objective of this study was to characterize, compare, and evaluate the current systemic measures and legislative and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages within health care systems across a range of European and Western Asian countries. The study design was retrospective, cross-sectional, descriptive, and observational. Information was gathered through a survey distributed among senior personnel from ministries of health, state medicines agencies, local health authorities, other health or pharmaceutical pricing and reimbursement authorities, health insurance companies and academic institutions, with knowledge of the pharmaceutical markets in the 28 countries studied. Our study found that formal definitions of drug shortages currently exist in only a few countries. The characteristics of drug shortages, including their assortment, duration, frequency, and dynamics, were found to be variable and sometimes difficult to assess. Numerous information hubs were identified. Providing public access to information on drug shortages to the maximum possible extent is a prerequisite for performing more advanced studies on the problem and identifying solutions. Imposing public service obligations, providing the formal possibility to prescribe unlicensed medicines, and temporary bans on parallel exports are widespread measures. A positive finding of our study was the identification of numerous bottom-up initiatives and organizational frameworks aimed at preventing or mitigating drug shortages. The

  1. PREVENTION AND POSSIBLE PRIORITY MEASURES IN TREATING THE PATIENTS SUFFERING FROM DIABETES KETOACIDOSIS IN THE HEALTH CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aca Spasic

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available The prevention measures and possible priority measures in treating the patients suffering from diabetes ketoacidosis at the Health Center are defined. A retrospective analysis of the patients suffering from diabetes in the Health Center of Bela Palanka for the period from January, 1,1995 to December, 31,1991 is used. The series numbers 461 patients while the newly-detected ones is 134. The registered number of the patients with ketoacidosis is 17. The priority measures in treating the patients suffering from ketoacidosis in the health centers have a multi - functional character.

  2. An approach for optimal allocation of safety resources: using the knapsack problem to take aggregated cost-efficient preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reniers, Genserik L L; Sörensen, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    On the basis of the combination of the well-known knapsack problem and a widely used risk management technique in organizations (that is, the risk matrix), an approach was developed to carry out a cost-benefits analysis to efficiently take prevention investment decisions. Using the knapsack problem as a model and combining it with a well-known technique to solve this problem, bundles of prevention measures are prioritized based on their costs and benefits within a predefined prevention budget. Those bundles showing the highest efficiencies, and within a given budget, are identified from a wide variety of possible alternatives. Hence, the approach allows for an optimal allocation of safety resources, does not require any highly specialized information, and can therefore easily be applied by any organization using the risk matrix as a risk ranking tool. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Development of departmental standard for traceability of measured activity for I-131 therapy capsules used in nuclear medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, JP

    2011-01-01

    International Basic Safety Standards (International Atomic Energy Agency, IAEA) provide guidance levels for diagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine indicating the maximum usual activity for various diagnostic tests in terms of activities of injected radioactive formulations. An accuracy of ± 10% in the activities of administered radio-pharmaceuticals is being recommended, for expected outcome in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine procedures. It is recommended that the l...

  4. Measurement of movement patterns to enhance ACL injury prevention – A dead end?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam-Ming Mok

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical drop jump has been suggested to be an effective movement screening task for ACL injury risk, but recent studies have questioned the ability of such tasks to accurately identify players with increased risk of injury. In this paper, we discuss the usefulness of movement screening tests from an injury prevention perspective.

  5. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies II: refining content validity through cognitive interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer J; Kelly, Kimberly L; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hopkins, Allison L; Sims, Colette M; Coons, Stephen J

    2011-12-29

    Available measures of patient-reported outcomes for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) inadequately capture the range of patient-reported treatment effects. The Self-Assessment of Change questionnaire was developed to measure multi-dimensional shifts in well-being for CAM users. With content derived from patient narratives, items were subsequently focused through interviews on a new cohort of participants. Here we present the development of the final version in which the content and format is refined through cognitive interviews. We conducted cognitive interviews across five iterations of questionnaire refinement with a culturally diverse sample of 28 CAM users. In each iteration, participant critiques were used to revise the questionnaire, which was then re-tested in subsequent rounds of cognitive interviews. Following all five iterations, transcripts of cognitive interviews were systematically coded and analyzed to examine participants' understanding of the format and content of the final questionnaire. Based on this data, we established summary descriptions and selected exemplar quotations for each word pair on the final questionnaire. The final version of the Self-Assessment of Change questionnaire (SAC) includes 16 word pairs, nine of which remained unchanged from the original draft. Participants consistently said that these stable word pairs represented opposite ends of the same domain of experience and the meanings of these terms were stable across the participant pool. Five pairs underwent revision and two word pairs were added. Four word pairs were eliminated for redundancy or because participants did not agree on the meaning of the terms. Cognitive interviews indicate that participants understood the format of the questionnaire and considered each word pair to represent opposite poles of a shared domain of experience. We have placed lay language and direct experience at the center of questionnaire revision and refinement. In so doing, we provide

  6. Flow measurement in turbine bearings. A measure to prevent damage; Durchflussmessung an Turbinenlagern. Eine Massnahme zur Verhuetung von Schaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagler, T. [STEAG AG, Heizkraftwerk Herne (Germany); Schenk, K. [STEAG AG, Essen (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The temperature of sliding bearings for turbines, pumps, compressors, blowers and motors is normally continually monitored. Depending on the type of construction and size of the aggregates, it has been common practice since the beginning of 1960 to measure the temperature of the bearing metal directly instead of the outflowing oil. Provided measurements are made also in areas of the highest surface compression, any deficiency, i.e. overload due to increasing bearing metal temperatues, are noticed at an early stage. In case of other design types, however, serious damage might result. But also serious maintenance errors due to the closure of bearing oil flow have forced us to implement more suitable measuring measures, one of them being an ultrasonic quantity measurement, that can be refurbished without great expenditure during operation. (orig.) [Deutsch] Gleitlager fuer Turbinen, Pumpen, Verdichter, Geblaese, Getriebe und Motoren werden ueblicherweise kontinuierlich temperaturmaessig ueberwacht. Seit Anfang 1960 werden je nach Bauart und Groesse der Aggregate Temperaturen nicht mehr des ablaufendes Oeles, sondern des Weissmetalls direkt gemessen. Vorausgesetzt, es wird auch im Bereich der hoechsten Flaechenpressung gemessen, werden Maengel, d.h. Ueberbelastung durch ansteigende Weissmetalltemperaturen, schnell erkannt. Bei anderen Konstruktionen hingegen kann es zu schweren Schaeden kommen. Aber auch gravierende Wartungsfehler durch Verschluss der Lageroelzufuhr haben uns gezwungen, geeignetere Messmethoden anzuwenden. Hierzu gehoert eine Mengenmessung mittels Ultraschall, die ohne viel Aufwand waehrend des Betriebes nachgeruestet werden kann. (orig.)

  7. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...... systems are being developed within the framework of the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of noncommunicable, chronic disease, and data stored in the WHO Global InfoBase may allow advanced health systems research. Sound knowledge about progress made in prevention of oral and chronic disease......This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...

  8. Assessing prevention measures and Sin Nombre hantavirus seroprevalence among workers at Yosemite National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilken, Jason A; Jackson, Rebecca; Materna, Barbara L; Windham, Gayle C; Enge, Barryett; Messenger, Sharon; Xia, Dongxiang; Knust, Barbara; Buttke, Danielle; Roisman, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    During 2012, a total of 10 overnight visitors to Yosemite National Park (Yosemite) became infected with a hantavirus (Sin Nombre virus [SNV]); three died. SNV infections have been identified among persons with occupational exposure to deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). We assessed SNV infection prevalence, work and living environments, mice exposures, and SNV prevention training, knowledge, and practices among workers of two major employers at Yosemite during September-October, 2012 by voluntary blood testing and a questionnaire. One of 526 participants had evidence of previous SNV infection. Participants reported frequently observing rodent infestations at work and home and not always following prescribed safety practices for tasks, including infestation cleanup. Although participants had multiple exposures to deer mice, we did not find evidence of widespread SNV infections. Nevertheless, employees working around deer mice should receive appropriate training and consistently follow prevention policies for high-risk activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Research on the Structure, Quality and Measures to Prevent and Combat Soil Erosion in the Village Stejaru from Teleorman County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Popa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is part of a research project on the influence of agro-livestock activities on surface water quality inTeleorman County. The paper presents structure, quality and measures to prevent and combat soil erosion in relationto agro-livestock activities in this area. The paper presents structure, quality and measures to prevent and combat soilerosion in relation to agro-livestock activities in this area. The research has been done in the whole locality, and tooksoil samples to determine the type and soil texture and soil supply status with major nutrients (N, P, K. Based onthese results and knowing the types of main crops and livestock structure, at Stejaru level, recommendations weremade about avoiding the risks of pollution of surface water by nitrates from agricultural and livestock activities.

  10. Approaches to measuring the extent and impact of environmental change in three California community-level obesity prevention initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Samuels, Sarah E; Rauzon, Suzanne; Yoshida, Sallie C; Schwartz, Pamela M; Boyle, Maria; Beery, William L; Craypo, Lisa; Solomon, Loel

    2010-11-01

    Despite growing support among public health researchers and practitioners for environmental approaches to obesity prevention, there is a lack of empirical evidence from intervention studies showing a favorable impact of either increased healthy food availability on healthy eating or changes in the built environment on physical activity. It is therefore critical that we carefully evaluate initiatives targeting the community environment to expand the evidence base for environmental interventions. We describe the approaches used to measure the extent and impact of environmental change in 3 community-level obesity-prevention initiatives in California. We focus on measuring changes in the community environment and assessing the impact of those changes on residents most directly exposed to the interventions.

  11. Measures needed to strengthen strategic HIV/AIDS prevention programmes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P

    2007-01-01

    This paper traces the commonly believed three phases of the HIV/AIDs epidemic in China from the early 1980s to the present time and reviews how the Chinese Government and NGOs are dealing with the crisis. Transmission routes for HIV infection in China are thought to be via IDUs, blood plasma donors, sexual contacts and from mother-to-child transmissions. The author examined interventions for HIV/ AIDS prevention tried in other countries that could provide useful lessons learned and discussed how they could be adapted or replicated in China. While recognising the need for the treatment of HIV positive persons and AIDS patients, this paper is limited to suggesting a number of proven strategic interventions to prevent new HIV infections in China among the "general population", adolescents in schools, sex workers and their clients, injecting drug users, and, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS to stem the epidemic. An extensive literature search of articles in published academic journals, published and unpublished documents of international agencies and development NGOs and media reports was conducted for data source to this paper. Internet search engines such as ProQuest, PubMed, Google and Yahoo search engines were used as well as hard copies of reports and internal documents available at the UNFPA Country Technical Services Team's Office in Bangkok tapped for information.

  12. Preventive and Prophylactic Measures in Intensive Salmonid Fish Breeding – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Palíková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture represents the fastest growing animal husbandry in many countries word-wide. Intensive fish production has increased the risk of infectious diseases all over the world. Bacterial pathogens probably cause most disease problems in aquaculture. Most infectious bacterial diseases in commercial fish species continue to be controlled by treatment with chemotherapeutic agents although they represent a potential environmental hazard and could also have negative effects on the quality of the final product. The most important problem of antibiotic treatment is the increase in resistant bacteria, the presence of their residues in aquaculture products and the resulting threat to human health. Therefore, it is most effective to prevent the introduction or onset of the disease. Beside preventing the introduction of pathogens, good water quality, reduction of environmental stressors, adequate nutrition and immunization, many substances improving the health status of fish, such as immunostimulants, probiotics, prebiotics, symbiotics and so on, are used in fish breeding. The present review gives an overview of preventive and prophylactic substances which can be used in salmonid fish breeding to improve the health status of fish.

  13. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... must an operator take? 192.935 Section 192.935 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... measures must an operator take? (a) General requirements. An operator must take additional measures beyond... consequence area and enhance public safety. Such additional measures include, but are not limited to...

  14. Factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit in underground uranium mines and preventive measures of misfiring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of non-electric detonating circuit are introduced. The main factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit are described. Taking an underground blasting of a uranium mine for example, the reliability of various kinds of detonating network system is calculated using the reliability theory and numerical analysis method. The reasons that cause the misfiring in non-electric detonating circuit system are analyzed, and preventive measures are put forward.(authors)

  15. Physical activity prescription: a critical opportunity to address a modifiable risk factor for the prevention and management of chronic disease: a position statement by the Canadian Academy of Sport and Exercise Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Jane S; Frémont, Pierre; Khan, Karim; Poirier, Paul; Fowles, Jonathon; Wells, Greg D; Frankovich, Renata J

    2016-09-01

    Non-communicable disease is a leading threat to global health. Physical inactivity is a large contributor to this problem; in fact, the WHO ranks it as the fourth leading risk factor for overall morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Canada, at least 4 of 5 adults do not meet the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines of 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per week. Physicians play an important role in the dissemination of physical activity (PA) recommendations to a broad segment of the population, as over 80% of Canadians visit their doctors every year and prefer to get health information directly from them. Unfortunately, most physicians do not regularly assess or prescribe PA as part of routine care, and even when discussed, few provide specific recommendations. PA prescription has the potential to be an important therapeutic agent for all ages in primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of chronic disease. Sport and exercise medicine (SEM) physicians are particularly well suited for this role and should collaborate with their primary care colleagues for optimal patient care. The purpose of this Canadian Academy and Sport and Exercise Medicine position statement is to provide an evidence-based, best practices summary to better equip SEM and primary care physicians to prescribe PA and exercise, specifically for the prevention and management of non-communicable disease. This will be achieved by addressing common questions and perceived barriers in the field.Author note This position statement has been endorsed by the following nine sport medicine societies: Australasian College of Sports and Exercise Physicians (ACSEP), American Medical Society for Sports Medicine (AMSSM), British Association of Sports and Exercise Medicine (BASEM), European College of Sport & Exercise Physicians (ECOSEP), Norsk forening for idrettsmedisin og fysisk aktivite (NIMF), South African Sports Medicine Association (SASMA), Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Sportmedizin

  16. Risk factors and disease prevalence in 3331 personal check-ups performed in preventive medicine between 2006 and 2011. cross-sectional and follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keipes, M; Bellucci, A; Hansen, E

    2012-01-01

    The present data results from a retrospective analysis of 3331 check-ups made in the preventive medicine department of the "ZithaKlinik", named "ZithaGesondheetsZentrum". These check-ups are done for the employee's of several firm's and institutions. According to gender and age, several tests and examinations are performed and the results are given to the person's general practitioner or another doctor of his choice. We will present a global synthesis of all the results but also a follow-up study of persons having performed 2 check-ups or more over a 5-year period. In the cross-sectional part, the analysis is done on 3331 individual check-ups (1447 woman, 1884 men). The average age is 50.3 years +/- 11.4. In the follow-up study, 478 persons (191 women, 287 men) had at least 2 (maximum 5) check-ups in the 5-year period of our observation. Initial age was 54.1 +/- 10.9 years for woman and 51.4 +/- 11.4 for men, respectively 56.4 +/- 10.9 and 53.7+/- 11.2 at their last check-up. An alarming number of persons present with a weight or obesity problem (according to age ranging from 22.0% overweight and 7.3% obese from 18-29 years, respectively 37.5% and 11.3% from 30-49 years, finally 44.0% and 20.6% in the range 50-69 years). Associated risk factors and pathologies (Hypertension, Dyslipidemia, NASH, diabetes type 2 and complete metabolic syndromes) are extremely frequent and getting more so with growing age. Furthermore, physical activity is insufficient in grossly 2/3 of the studied population. The only positive point is a tendency of decreasing tobacco use in all age groups. The follow-up study is frustrating because most of the examined criteria get worse in-between check-ups instead of getting better with changes in lifestyle in an informed population. Asymptomatic diseases or risk factors for non-communicable diseases are extremely frequent in the population examined. The follow-up data shows that huge parts of this group are not sufficiently conscientious of their

  17. Tuberculosis and mass gatherings-opportunities for defining burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumla, Alimuddin; Saeed, Abdulaziz Bin; Alotaibi, Badriah; Yezli, Saber; Dar, Osman; Bieh, Kingsley; Bates, Matthew; Tayeb, Tamara; Mwaba, Peter; Shafi, Shuja; McCloskey, Brian; Petersen, Eskild; Azhar, Esam I

    2016-06-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is now the most common infectious cause of death worldwide. In 2014, an estimated 9.6 million people developed active TB. There were an estimated three million people with active TB including 360000 with multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) who were not diagnosed, and such people continue to fuel TB transmission in the community. Accurate data on the actual burden of TB and the transmission risk associated with mass gatherings are scarce and unreliable due to the small numbers studied and methodological issues. Every year, an estimated 10 million pilgrims from 184 countries travel to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to perform the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. A large majority of pilgrims come from high TB burden and MDR-TB endemic areas and thus many may have undiagnosed active TB, sub-clinical TB, and latent TB infection. The Hajj pilgrimage provides unique opportunities for the KSA and the 184 countries from which pilgrims originate, to conduct high quality priority research studies on TB under the remit of the Global Centre for Mass Gatherings Medicine. Research opportunities are discussed, including those related to the definition of the TB burden, transmission risk, and the optimal surveillance, prevention, and control measures at the annual Hajj pilgrimage. The associated data are required to develop international recommendations and guidelines for TB management and control at mass gathering events. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. An interdisciplinary framework for measuring and supporting adherence in HIV prevention trials of ARV-based vaginal rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Kathleen M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Owen, Derek H; Amico, K Rivet; Morrow, Kathleen M; Moench, Thomas; Friend, David R; Friedland, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Product adherence and its measurement have emerged as a critical challenge in the evaluation of new HIV prevention technologies. Long-acting ARV-based vaginal rings may simplify use instructions and require less user behaviour, thereby facilitating adherence. One ARV-based ring is in efficacy trials and others, including multipurpose rings, are in the pipeline. Participant motivations, counselling support and measurement challenges during ring trials must still be addressed. In previous HIV prevention trials, this has been done largely using descriptive and post-hoc methods that are highly variable and minimally evaluated. We outline an interdisciplinary framework for systematically investigating promising strategies to support product uptake and adherence, and to measure adherence in the context of randomized, blinded clinical trials. The interdisciplinary framework highlights the dual use of adherence measurement (i.e. to provide feedback during trial implementation and to inform interpretation of trial findings) and underscores the complex pathways that connect measurement, adherence support and enacted adherence behaviour. Three inter-related approaches are highlighted: 1) adherence support - sequential efforts to define motivators of study product adherence and to develop, test, refine and evaluate adherence support messages; 2) self-reported psychometric measures - creation of valid and generalizable measures based in easily administered scales that capture vaginal ring use with improved predictive ability at screening, baseline and follow-up that better engage participants in reporting adherence; and 3) more objective measurement of adherence - real-time adherence monitoring and cumulative measurement to correlate adherence with overall product effectiveness through innovative designs, models and prototypes using electronic and biometric technologies to detect ring insertion and/or removal or expulsion. Coordinating research along these three pathways will

  19. Standards for definitions and use of outcome measures for clinical effectiveness research in perioperative medicine: European Perioperative Clinical Outcome (EPCO) definitions: a statement from the ESA-ESICM joint taskforce on perioperative outcome measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jammer, Ib; Wickboldt, Nadine; Sander, Michael; Smith, Andrew; Schultz, Marcus J.; Pelosi, Paolo; Leva, Brigitte; Rhodes, Andrew; Hoeft, Andreas; Walder, Bernhard; Chew, Michelle S.; Pearse, Rupert M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for large trials that test the clinical effectiveness of interventions in the field of perioperative medicine. Clinical outcome measures used in such trials must be robust, clearly defined and patient-relevant. Our objective was to develop standards for the use of clinical outcome

  20. [Needle exchange programs are a cost-effective preventative measure against HIV in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eythórsson, Elías Sæbjorn; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Gottfređsson, Magnús

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 there was a sudden increase in HIV cases among intravenous drug users (IDUs) in Iceland. In 2007 - 2011 there were 34 new HIV cases among IDUs compared to four in the previous four year period. The purpose of this study was to assess whether needle exchange programs (NEPs) were cost-effective in preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs in Iceland. Cost-utility analysis was conducted from a societal perspective. Costs are presented at the 2011 price level and values were discounted using a 3% discount rate. A ten year period, 2011 - 2020 was compared with and without NEPs. The Incremental Cost-Utility Ratio (ICUR) was calculated as societal cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY). Sensitivity analysis was performed on study assumptions. The estimated societal costs associated with HIV infections among IDUs from 2011 - 2020 was 914.369.621 ISK without NEP and 947.653.758 ISK with NEP. Excess societal cost due to NEP was 33.284.137 ISK. Societal utility from NEP was 7,39 QALYs. Additionally, NEP prevented 4-5 HIV infections. The ICUR of providing NEP was 4.506.720 ISK. According to WHO an intervention is considered cost-effective if the ICUR is less than three-fold national GDP per capita. In 2011 the GDP per capita in Iceland was 15.315.000 ISK. Sensitivity analysis on study assumptions yielded a societal cost within the WHO limit. Therefore, the results indicate that NEPs are cost-effective in preventing the spread of HIV among IDUs in Iceland.

  1. Ethics in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues.

  2. Measuring progress in tobacco prevention and control: the role of surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu B Ahluwalia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nearly six million people worldwide die from tobacco-attributable causes every year, making tobacco the leading cause of preventable disease and death. If current trends continue, tobacco use is expected to result in one billion deaths by the end of the century, most of these in low- and middle-income countries. Cigarette smoking is the most common form of tobacco use in most countries, and the majority of adult smokers try their first cigarette before the age of 18...

  3. Electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass: an evaluation of incidence, causes, management and guidelines for preventative measures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hargrove, M

    2012-02-03

    The incidence of electrical failure during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) has been reported to occur in approximately 1 per 1000 cases. While the resultant morbidity and mortality is low, electrical failure is a life-threatening scenario. We report three major electrical failures during CPB in a patient population of 3500 over a 15-year period. These cases involved mains failure and generator shut down, mains failure and generator power surge, and failure of the uninterruptable power supply (UPS), which caused protected sockets to shut down. Protocols for preventative maintenance, necessary equipment, battery backup and guidelines for the successful management of such accidents during CPB are discussed.

  4. [French Society of Vascular Medicine good medical practice guidelines on safety and environment in vascular medicine: Treatment of varicose veins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordana, P; Miserey, G

    2014-12-01

    These guidelines proposed by the French Society of Vascular Medicine define the optimal environment for vascular medicine practice: outpatient clinic; equipment, layout and maintenance of the care center; infection risk prevention (hand hygiene, individual protective measures, exposure to blood, ultrasound apparatus, etc.); common interventions and techniques (liquid and foam sclerotherapy, endovenous thermal treatments). These guidelines do not include phlebectomy and use of ultrasound contrast agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Stress in Burnout among Students of Medicine and Dentistry – A Study in Ljubljana, Slovenia, Faculty of Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Krokter Kogoj, Tina; Čebašek Travnik, Zdenka; Zaletel Kragelj, Lijana

    2014-01-01

    Medical education is challenging, but for some students it can be very stressful. Studies suggest that stress during medical education can have a negative impact on students’ mental health and that burnout is frequent among medical school students. The aim of this study was to measure burnout among students of medicine/dentistry (M/D) at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia, in relation to their perception of stress, so as to enable planning preventative activities for s...

  6. Standards for definitions and use of outcome measures for clinical effectiveness research in perioperative medicine: European Perioperative Clinical Outcome (EPCO) definitions: a statement from the ESA-ESICM joint taskforce on perioperative outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Ib; Wickboldt, Nadine; Sander, Michael; Smith, Andrew; Schultz, Marcus J; Pelosi, Paolo; Leva, Brigitte; Rhodes, Andrew; Hoeft, Andreas; Walder, Bernhard; Chew, Michelle S; Pearse, Rupert M

    2015-02-01

    There is a need for large trials that test the clinical effectiveness of interventions in the field of perioperative medicine. Clinical outcome measures used in such trials must be robust, clearly defined and patient-relevant. Our objective was to develop standards for the use of clinical outcome measures to strengthen the methodological quality of perioperative medicine research. A literature search was conducted using PubMed and opinion leaders worldwide were invited to nominate papers that they believed the group should consider. The full texts of relevant articles were reviewed by the taskforce members and then discussed to reach a consensus on the required standards. The report was then circulated to opinion leaders for comment and review. This report describes definitions for 22 individual adverse events with a system of severity grading for each. In addition, four composite outcome measures were identified, which were designed to evaluate postoperative outcomes. The group also agreed on standards for four outcome measures for the evaluation of healthcare resource use and quality of life. Guidance for use of these outcome measures is provided, with particular emphasis on appropriate duration of follow-up. This report provides clearly defined and patient-relevant outcome measures for large clinical trials in perioperative medicine. These outcome measures may also be of use in clinical audit. This report is intended to complement and not replace other related work to improve assessment of clinical outcomes following specific surgical procedures.

  7. [Preventive measures against human error based on the classification of the adverse events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    It is impossible to entirely eliminate human error; however, systematic attempts have been made to comprehensively minimize accidents originating in human error. It appears that the "work classification" we proposed previously is not able to reduce adverse events, fifty percent of which were duty confirmation failures. We have therefore reviewed and classified the causes of human error from the perspective of working conditions to create a simpler and more preventative strategy. Text-mining analysis was applied to speech part classification to reveal areas with room for improvement. In an objective approach, a conduct code was created and put into practice, based on the common features revealed from a classification of human error in the examples investigated. The average number of accidents per year was reduced from 36 to 24, and those due to human error per year were reduced from 17.6 to 11. This objective approach appears to achieve a reduction of adverse events, including those caused by human error. However, these results were obtained over only one year, in a single-center analysis, and thus, widespread and continuous enforcement would be needed to demonstrate the validity of this objective approach to the prevention of human error.

  8. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer: Timing and Impact of Preventive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type. Studies that have examined the impact of GC prevention through H. pylori eradication have shown mixed results, but recent data suggest that prevention is only efficacious in patients without intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. This indicates that, like in Barrett's esophagus, we need better clinical risk markers to indicate which patients are at greatest risk of developing cancer to guide clinical strategies. Furthermore, recent epidemiological data have suggested a possible contribution of H. pylori in modifying the risk of developing other gastrointestinal malignancies (including esophageal, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer), although mechanistically these associations remain unexplained. We review clinically relevant aspects of H. pylori infection in the context of GC development as well as studies that have examined the impact of eradication on GC development and, lastly, discuss these recent epidemiological studies connecting H. pylori infection to extragastric gastrointestinal malignancies.

  9. Measurements for reduction and prevention of radioiodine uptake by the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, W.; Becker, W.

    1987-01-01

    After incorporation of radioiodine the thyroid gland is the organ with the highest radiation exposure. The most important methods for reduction or prevention of radioiodine incorporation by inhalation, ingestion or cutaneous resorption are the prevention of contamination and incorporation. The protection against external radiation and the prophylaxis with iodine are also very useful. The maximum of radioiodine exposure is reached within the first few days after exposure due to the short physical half-life of I-131. In addition to non-specific methods of protection for contamination and incorporation, thyroid blockage by iodine is of major importance. With 100 mg potassium iodide, taken in intervalls of eight hours, the radioiodine uptake of the thyroid gland can be reduced to 1%, provided that administration takes place before, or simultaneously with the exposure. The most important side effect, especially in endemic goiter areas, is the induction of thyrotoxicosis. In newborns and infants myxedema and the induction of an iodide-goiter may occur. Alternatively to iodide prophylaxis, the competitive restriction of the radioiodine uptake into the thyroid gland may be achieved using perchlorate. However, perchlorate shall not be preferred to iodide because of its potential side-effects. High doses of iodide should only be given, if the calculated thyroid radiation exposure is more than 0.25 Sv, because only at this dose level benefit is higher than risk. (orig.) [de

  10. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippitzi, M E; Brinch Kruse, A; Postma, M; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D; Alban, L; Nielsen, L R; Dewulf, J

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative analysis was performed using the Biocheck.UGent™, a risk-based scoring system to evaluate biosecurity in pig herds, to obtain an insight into the implementation of these biosecurity measures. The database contained farm-specific biosecurity data from 574 pig farms in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, entered between January 2014 and January 2016. Third, a qualitative analysis based on a review of literature and other relevant information resources was performed for every subcategory of internal and external biosecurity in the Biocheck.UGent™ questionnaire. The quantitative analysis indicated that at the level of internal, external and overall biosecurity, Denmark had a significantly distinct profile with higher external biosecurity scores and less variation than the rest of the countries. This is likely due to a widely used specific pathogen-free (SPF) system with extensive focus on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used for shaping country-specific biosecurity advice to attain improved prevention and control of important pig diseases in European pig farms. © 2017 Blackwell

  11. Overwork-related disorders in Japan: recent trends and development of a national policy to promote preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Toru; Takamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shun; Kayashima, Kotaro; Takeshima, Tadashi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2017-06-08

    Overwork-related disorders, such as cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork, are a major occupational and public health issue worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. This report discusses the recent trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan from the perspective of workers' compensated occupational diseases, as well as the development of a national policy for preventive measures against overwork-related disorders in Japan. Recently, the number of claimed and compensated cases of occupational mental disorders has increased substantially, particularly among young workers, as compared to those of occupational CCVD. In response to these situations and action from society, the Japanese Government passed the "Act on Promotion of Preventive Measures against Karoshi and Other Overwork-Related Health Disorders" in June 2014 to develop a national initiative towards the prevention of overwork-related disorders. Changes in the trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan under a legal foundation and an initiative by the central government should be closely monitored so that other countries can benefit from the experiences.

  12. Psychometric characteristics of process evaluation measures for a rural school-based childhood obesity prevention study: Louisiana Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert L; Thomson, Jessica L; Rau, Kristi K; Ragusa, Shelly A; Sample, Alicia D; Singleton, Nakisha N; Anton, Stephen D; Webber, Larry S; Williamson, Donald A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the implementation of intervention components of the Louisiana Health study, which was a multicomponent childhood obesity prevention program conducted in rural schools. Content analysis. Process evaluation assessed implementation in classrooms, gym classes, and cafeterias. Classroom teachers (n  =  232), physical education teachers (n  =  53), food service managers (n  =  33), and trained observers (n  =  9). Five process evaluation measures were created: Physical Education Questionnaire (PEQ), Intervention Questionnaire (IQ), Food Service Manager Questionnaire (FSMQ), Classroom Observation (CO), and School Nutrition Environment Observation (SNEO). Interrater reliability and internal consistency were assessed on all measures. Analysis of variance and χ(2) were used to compare differences across study groups on questionnaires and observations. The PEQ and one subscale from the FSMQ were eliminated because their reliability coefficients fell below acceptable standards. The subscale internal consistencies for the IQ, FSMQ, CO, and SNEO (all Cronbach α > .60) were acceptable. After the initial 4 months of intervention, there was evidence that the Louisiana Health intervention was being implemented as it was designed. In summary, four process evaluation measures were found to be sufficiently reliable and valid for assessing the delivery of various aspects of a school-based obesity prevention program. These process measures could be modified to evaluate the delivery of other similar school-based interventions.

  13. The effects of disease awareness on lifestyle changes and the use of preventive measures in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilski, Adam J; Lusawa, Adam; Lipiec, Agnieszka; Piekarska, Barbara; Raciborski, Filip; Krzych-Fałta, Edyta; Tomaszewska, Aneta; Samoliński, Bolesław

    2015-01-01

    Reduction in asthma incidences and mortality, as well as improved quality of life, can be achieved via a wide use of prevention methods. A number of randomized cohort studies demonstrated the effectiveness of such management and the need for multiple treatments. Here, we evaluate whether asthma awareness influences the lifestyle and the use of prevention, as well as the effects of age, sex, economic status, and education on the use of prophylaxis. A total of 18,617 (53.8% female; 24.2% 6-7 years old, 25.4% 13-14 years old, and 50.4% 20-44 years old) were selected by a stratified cluster sampling method in eight cities and one rural area, each over 150,000 citizens. The sample was selected based on the methods and questionnaires of International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood and European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Patients aware of asthma significantly less often (p owning asthma-inducing items and significantly more often reported behaviors minimizing the number of allergens (p < 0.05). Patients aware of asthma took all actions reducing their exposure to in-house allergens significantly more often than the healthy (p < 0.05) and individuals with symptoms only (p < 0.05). Allergy prevention was used more often in children (p < 0.0005), responders aware of diseases (p < 0.05), higher levels of education (p < 0.05), and higher household income (p < 0.05). The most common type of prophylaxis used is prophylactic actions, which are undertaken by patients diagnosed with asthma and who are aware of their disease. Adults do not use preventive measures as often as children or adolescents do. Higher rates of prevention-oriented behavior were observed in groups characterized by higher levels of education and higher household income.

  14. A study of ventilator-associated pneumonia: Incidence, outcome, risk factors and measures to be taken for prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Gadani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a major cause of hospital morbidity and mortality despite recent advances in diagnosis and accuracy of management. However, as taught in medical science, prevention is better than cure is probably more appropriate as concerned to VAP because of the fact that it is a well preventable disease and a proper approach decreases the hospital stay, cost, morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study is to critically review the incidence and outcome, identify various risk factors and conclude specific measures that should be undertaken to prevent VAP. We studied 100 patients randomly, kept on ventilatory support for more than 48 h. After excluding those who developed pneumonia within 48 h, VAP was diagnosed when a score of ≥6 was obtained in the clinical pulmonary infection scoring system having six variables and a maximum score of 12. After evaluating, the data were subjected to univariate analysis using the chi-square test. The level of significance was set at P96 h was 73%. Late-onset VAP had poor prognosis in terms of mortality (66% as compared to the early-onset type (20%. The mortality of patients of the non-VAP group was found to be 41% while that of VAP patients was 54%. Targeted strategies aimed at preventing VAP should be implemented to improve patient outcome and reduce length of intensive care unit stay and costs. Above all, everyone of the critical care unit should understand the factors that place the patients at risk of VAP and utmost importance must be given to prevent VAP.

  15. “Capacitive sensor” to measure flow electrification and prevent electrostatic hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillat, Thierry; Touchard, Gerard; Bertrand, Yves

    2012-10-25

    At a solid/liquid interface, physico-chemical phenomena occur that lead to the separation of electrical charges, establishing a zone called electrical double layer. The convection of one part of these charges by the liquid flow is the cause of the flow electrification phenomenon which is suspected of being responsible of incidents in the industry. The P’ Institute of Poitiers University and CNRS has developed an original sensor called “capacitive sensor” that allows the characterization of the mechanisms involved in the generation, accumulation and transfer of charges. As an example, this sensor included in the design of high power transformers, could easily show the evolution of electrostatic charge generation developed during the operating time of the transformer and, therefore, point out the operations leading to electrostatic hazards and, then, monitor the transformer to prevent such risks.

  16. Oral health information systems--towards measuring progress in oral health promotion and disease prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Bourgeois, Denis; Bratthall, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the essential components of oral health information systems for the analysis of trends in oral disease and the evaluation of oral health programmes at the country, regional and global levels. Standard methodology for the collection of epidemiological data on oral health has...... been designed by WHO and used by countries worldwide for the surveillance of oral disease and health. Global, regional and national oral health databanks have highlighted the changing patterns of oral disease which primarily reflect changing risk profiles and the implementation of oral health...... programmes oriented towards disease prevention and health promotion. The WHO Oral Health Country/Area Profile Programme (CAPP) provides data on oral health from countries, as well as programme experiences and ideas targeted to oral health professionals, policy-makers, health planners, researchers...

  17. Aerospace Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Vince

    2015-01-01

    NASA Aerospace Medicine overview - Aerospace Medicine is that specialty area of medicine concerned with the determination and maintenance of the health, safety, and performance of those who fly in the air or in space.

  18. Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Ramsey D.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the use of nuclear medicine techniques in diagnosis and therapy. Describes instrumentation in diagnostic nuclear medicine and predicts future trends in nuclear medicine imaging technology. (Author/MM)

  19. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Schöffmann, Christine

    2010-03-16

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are dangerous agents of nosocomial infections. In 2007 the prevalence of MRSA is 20.3% in Germany (Oxacilline-resistance according to EUCAST-criteria [EUCAST = European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing]). Which measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in the hospital?How effective are contact precautions, screening, decolonisation, education and surveillance?Which recommendations can be given to health care politics on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies?Have there been any adverse effects on patients and clinical staff?What kind of liability problems exist? Based on a systematic review of the literature studies are included which have been published in German or English language since 2004. 1,508 articles have been found. After having surveyed the full text, 33 medical, eight economic and four ethical/juridical studies are included for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA) report. The key result of the HTA report is that different measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in hospitals, though the majority of the studies has a low quality. Effective are the conduction of differentiated screening measurements if they take into account the specific endemic situation, the use of antibiotic-control programs and the introduction and control of hygienic measurements. The break even point of preventive and control measurements cannot be defined because the study results differ too much. In the future it has to be more considered that MRSA-infections and contact precautions lead to a psycho-social strain for patients. It is hardly possible to describe causal efficacies because in the majority of the studies confounders are not sufficiently considered. In many cases bundles of measurements have been established but not analyzed individually. The internal and external validity of the studies is too weak to evaluate single interventions

  20. Medical and health economic evaluation of prevention- and control measures related to MRSA infections or -colonisations at hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczak, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA are dangerous agents of nosocomial infections. In 2007 the prevalence of MRSA is 20.3% in Germany (Oxacilline-resistance according to EUCAST-criteria [EUCAST = European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing]. Objectives: * Which measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in the hospital? * How effective are contact precautions, screening, decolonisation, education and surveillance? * Which recommendations can be given to health care politics on the basis of cost-effectiveness studies? * Have there been any adverse effects on patients and clinical staff? * What kind of liability problems exist?MethodsBased on a systematic review of the literature studies are included which have been published in German or English language since 2004. Results: 1,508 articles have been found. After having surveyed the full text, 33 medical, eight economic and four ethical/juridical studies are included for the Health Technology Assessment (HTA report. The key result of the HTA report is that different measurements are effective in the prevention and control of MRSA-infections in hospitals, though the majority of the studies has a low quality. Effective are the conduction of differentiated screening measurements if they take into account the specific endemic situation, the use of antibiotic-control programs and the introduction and control of hygienic measurements. The break even point of preventive and control measurements cannot be defined because the study results differ too much. In the future it has to be more considered that MRSA-infections and contact precautions lead to a psycho-social strain for patients. Discussion: It is hardly possible to describe causal efficacies because in the majority of the studies confounders are not sufficiently considered. In many cases bundles of measurements have been established but not analyzed individually. The

  1. Relevance of balance measurement tools and balance training for fall prevention in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Noohu, Majumi M.; Dey, Aparajit B.; Hussain, Mohammed E.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately one in three older people fall each year owing to gait/balance disorder/weakness, the second leading cause of falls in older adults. This review evaluates the capability of different balance measurement tools to predict falls in the elderly, which are used routinely for assessing balance impairment. Balance measurement tools reviewed are the Timed Up and Go test, Berg Balance Scale, Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, Functional Reach Test, Clinical Test of Sensory...

  2. The Use of Herbal Medicine in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Suryawati, Suryawati; Suardi, Hijra Novia

    2015-01-01

    The herbal medicine has been widely used in children for the treatment of several symptoms and the prevention of diseases before accessing the hospital for professionals help. There are 3 kinds of marketed herbal medicine including empirical based herbal medicine (jamu), standardized herbal medicine (obat herbal terstandar) and clininically tested herbal medicine (fitofarmaka). This study aimed to investigate the utilization of the marketed herbal medicine along with non marketed ones which w...

  3. Advances in outcomes measurement in rehabilitation medicine: current initiatives from the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Cella, David

    2011-10-01

    The articles in this supplement present recent advances in the measurement of patient-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes. Specifically, these articles highlight the combined efforts of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Center on Medical Rehabilitation Research, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service to improve HRQOL measurement. In addition, this supplement is intended to provide rehabilitation professionals with information about these efforts and the implications that these advances in outcomes measurement have for rehabilitation medicine and clinical practice. These new measurement scales use state-of-the-art method techniques, including item response theory and computerized adaptive testing. In addition, scale development involves both qualitative and quantitative methods, as well as the administration of items to hundreds or even thousands of research participants. The scales deliberately have been built with overlap of items between scales so that linkages and equivalency scores can be computed. Ultimately, these scales should facilitate direct comparison of outcomes instruments across studies and will serve as standard data elements across research trials without compromising the specificity of disease- or condition-targeted measures. This supplement includes the initial publications for many of these new measurement initiatives, each of which provides researchers and clinicians with better tools for evaluation of the efficacy of their interventions. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bias and other limitations affect measures of journals in integrative and complementary medicineKa-wai Fan, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ka-wai

    2015-07-01

    Publishing articles in a prestigious journal is a golden rule for university professors and researchers nowadays. Impact factor, journal rank, and citation count, included in Science Citation Index managed by Thomson Reuters Web of Science, are the most important indicators for evaluating the quality of academic journals. By listing the journals encompassed in the "Integrative and Complementary Medicine" category of Science Citation Index from 2003 to 2013, this paper examines the publication trends of journals in the category. The examination includes number, country of origin, ranking, and languages of journals. Moreover, newly listed or removed journals in the category, journal publishers, and open access strategies are examined. It is concluded that the role of journal publisher should not be undermined in the "Integrative and Complementary Medicine" category.

  5. Measurement of effects of the Chinese herbal medicine higenamine on left ventricular function using a cardiac probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.J.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Tao, S.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the Chinese herbal medicine higenamine on left ventricular function were studied by means of an external radiation detector in 15 patients with heart disease. Higenamine, administered intravenously, markedly increased the ejection fraction of LV, as well as the ejection rate. The LVEF increased from 46%+-9% to 60%+-15% and 61%+-12% (P<0.005) after a 30- and 60-min infusion of higenamine, respectively. The percentage increase in LVEF paralleled the increase in the heart rate. The effects of higenamine on LV function were similar to the response obtained with isoproterenol. These results document the pharmacologic effect of the Chinese herbal medicine, higenamine, on heart function. (orig.)

  6. A survey of preventive measures used and their impact on central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in intensive care units (SPIN-BACC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Milagros; Rocher, Isabelle; Fortin, Elise; Fontela, Patricia; Kaouache, Mohammed; Tremblay, Claude; Frenette, Charles; Quach, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    The Quebec central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) in intensive care units (ICUs) Surveillance Program saw a decrease in CLABSI rates in most ICUs. Given the surveillance trends observed in recent years, we aimed to determine what preventive measures have been implemented, if compliance to measures was monitored and its impact on CLABSI incidence rates. All hospitals participating in the Quebec healthcare-associated infections surveillance program (SPIN-BACC - n = 48) received a 77-question survey about preventive measures implemented and monitored in their ICU. The questionnaire was validated for construct, content, face validity, and reliability. We used Poisson regression to measure the association between compliance monitoring to preventive measures and CLABSI rates. Forty-two (88%) eligible hospitals completed the survey. Two components from the maximum barrier precautions were used less optimally: cap (88%) and full sterile body drape (71%). Preventive measures reported included daily review of catheter need (79%) and evaluation of insertion site for the presence of inflammation (90%). Two hospitals rewired lines even if an infection was suspected or documented.In adult ICUs, there was a statistically significant greater decrease in CLABSI rates in ICUs that monitored compliance to preventive insertion measures, after adjusting for teaching status and the number of hospital beds (p = 0.036). Hospitals participating to the SPIN-BACC program follow recommendations for CLABSI prevention, but only a minority locally monitor their application. Compliance monitoring of preventive measures for catheter insertion was associated with a decrease in CLABSI incidence rates.

  7. Definitions and methods of measuring and reporting on injurious falls in randomised controlled fall prevention trials: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenk Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standardisation of the assessment methodology and case definition represents a major precondition for the comparison of study results and the conduction of meta-analyses. International guidelines provide recommendations for the standardisation of falls methodology; however, injurious falls have not been targeted. The aim of the present article was to review systematically the range of case definitions and methods used to measure and report on injurious falls in randomised controlled trials (RCTs on fall prevention. Methods An electronic literature search of selected comprehensive databases was performed to identify injurious falls definitions in published trials. Inclusion criteria were: RCTs on falls prevention published in English, study population ≥ 65 years, definition of injurious falls as a study endpoint by using the terms "injuries" and "falls". Results The search yielded 2089 articles, 2048 were excluded according to defined inclusion criteria. Forty-one articles were included. The systematic analysis of the methodology applied in RCTs disclosed substantial variation