WorldWideScience

Sample records for preventive health behaviours

  1. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritson Christopher

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. Methods A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Results and discussion Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. Conclusion The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly

  2. Factors influencing consumer dietary health preventative behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovici, Dan A; Ritson, Christopher

    2006-09-01

    The deterioration of the health status of the Romanian population during the economic transition from a centrally planned to a free market economy has been linked to lifestyles factors (e.g. diet) regarded as a main determinants of the disparity in life expectancy between Eastern and Western Europe. Reforms in the health care system in this transition economy aim to focus on preventive action. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that impact on the individual decision to engage in Dietary Health Preventive Behaviour (DHPB) and investigate their influence in the context of an adapted health cognition model. A population-based study recruited 485 adult respondents using random route sampling and face-to-face administered questionnaires. Respondents' health motivation, beliefs that diet can prevent disease, knowledge about nutrition, level of education attainment and age have a positive influence on DHPB. Perceived barriers to healthy eating have a negative impact on alcohol moderation. The information acquisition behaviour (frequency of reading food labels) is negatively predicted by age and positively predicted by health motivation, education, self-reported knowledge about nutrition and household financial status. A significant segment of respondents believe they are not susceptible to the elicited diseases. Health promotion strategies should aim to change the judgments of health risk. The adaptation of the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Health Preventive Behaviour represents a valid framework of predicting DHPB. The negative sign of perceived threat of disease on DHPB may suggest that, under an income constraint, consumers tend to trade off long-term health benefits for short-term benefits. This cautions against the use of negative messages in public health campaigns. Raising the awareness of diet-disease relationships, knowledge about nutrition (particularly sources and risks associated with dietary fat and cholesterol) may induce people to

  3. Religiosity and the preventive health behaviour of young adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of religiosity in preventive health behaviour has received relatively little systematic research attention. Even so, extant literature suggests that religion may play complex and varied roles in enhancing people‗s health. However, the evidence has been both diverse and fragmentary One hundred and sixty unmarried ...

  4. Health behaviours of young mothers: Implications for health promotion and cancer prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hackshaw-mcgeagh, Lucy; Jamie, Kimberly; Beynon, Rhona; O’neill, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Evidence suggests that younger mothers engage in poorer health behaviours, resulting in increased cancer risk. We aimed to better understand the health behaviours of younger mothers and the factors that influence their lifestyle choices, in order to improve cancer prevention within this population. Methods: A multiple focus group, photo-elicitation-aided approach was used, in which young mothers (n = 27; aged 16–24 years) were provided with cameras and asked to capture ‘a week in y...

  5. Determinants of preventive oral health behaviour among senior dental students in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Popoola, Bamidele O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Ligali, Taofeek O; Esan, Ayodeji O; Orenuga, Omolola O

    2013-01-01

    Background To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Methods Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-u...

  6. Analysis of health behaviour change interventions for preventing dental caries delivered in primary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, P M; Burnside, G; Pine, C M

    2013-01-01

    To improve oral health in children, the key behaviours (tooth brushing and sugar control) responsible for development of dental caries need to be better understood, as well as how to promote these behaviours effectively so they become habitual; and, the specific, optimal techniques to use in interventions. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the behaviour change techniques that have been used in primary school-based interventions to prevent dental caries (utilizing a Cochrane systematic review that we have undertaken) and to identify opportunities for improving future interventions by incorporating a comprehensive range of behaviour change techniques. Papers of five interventions were reviewed and data were independently extracted. Results indicate that behaviour change techniques were limited to information-behaviour links, information on consequences, instruction and demonstration of behaviours. None of the interventions were based on behaviour change theory. We conclude that behaviour change techniques used in school interventions to reduce dental caries were limited and focused around providing information about how behaviour impacts on health and the consequences of not developing the correct health behaviours as well as providing oral hygiene instruction. Establishing which techniques are effective is difficult due to poor reporting of interventions in studies. Future design of oral health promotion interventions using behaviour change theory for development and evaluation (and reporting results in academic journals) could strengthen the potential for efficacy and provide a framework to use a much wider range of behaviour change techniques. Future studies should include development and publication of intervention manuals which is becoming standard practice in other health promoting programmes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Health behaviours and potentially preventable hospitalisation: a prospective study of older Australian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bich Tran

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the effects of health behaviours on risk of chronic diseases and mortality, but none have investigated their contribution to potentially preventable hospitalisation (PPH. We aimed to quantify the effects on risk of PPH of six health behaviours: smoking; alcohol consumption; physical activity; fruit and vegetables consumption; sitting time; and sleeping time.Prospective observational study in New South Wales, Australia.267,006 men and women aged 45 years and over.PPH admissions and mortality during follow-up according to individual positive health behaviours (non-smoking, <14 alcoholic drinks per week, ≥ 2.5 hours of physical activity per week, ≥ 2 servings of fruit and 5 servings of vegetables per day, <8 hours sitting and ≥ 7 hours sleeping per day and the total number of these behaviours.During an average of 3 years follow-up, 20971 (8% participants had at least one PPH admission. After adjusting for potential confounders, participants who reported all six positive health behaviours at baseline had 46% lower risk of PPH admission (95% CI 0.48-0.61, compared to those who reported having only one of these behaviours. Based on these risk estimates, approximately 29% of PPH admissions in Australians aged 45 years and over were attributable to not adhering to the six health behaviours. Estimates were similar for acute, chronic and vaccine-preventable categories of PPH admissions.Individual and combined positive health behaviours were associated with lower risk of PPH admission. These findings suggest that there is a significant opportunity to reduce PPH by promoting healthy behaviours.

  8. Preventing aggressive behaviour in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Orritt, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Delegates from around the world met at the University of Lincoln on June 11 and 12 for the third annual UK Dog Bite Prevention and Behaviour conference. The conference, hosted by dog trainer Victoria Stilwell, brings together dog behaviour experts to discuss possible solutions to this public health issue. Rachel Orritt, who has been examining the perceptions, assessment and management of human-directed aggressive behaviour in dogs for her PhD, reports.

  9. Travel risk behaviours and uptake of pre-travel health preventions by university students in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heywood Anita E

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Forward planning and preventative measures before travelling can significantly reduce the risk of many vaccine preventable travel-related infectious diseases. Higher education students may be at an increased risk of importing infectious disease as many undertake multiple visits to regions with higher infectious disease endemicity. Little is known about the health behaviours of domestic or international university students, particularly students from low resource countries who travel to high-resource countries for education. This study aimed to assess travel-associated health risks and preventative behaviours in a sample of both domestic and international university students in Australia. Methods In 2010, a 28 item self-administered online survey was distributed to students enrolled at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Multiple methods of distributing links to the online survey were utilised. The survey examined the international travel history, travel intentions, infection control behaviours and self-reported vaccination history. Results A total of 1663 respondents completed the online survey, 22.1% were international students and 83.9% were enrolled at an undergraduate level. Half had travelled internationally in the previous 12 months, with 69% of those travelling only once during that time with no difference in travel from Australia between domestic and international students (p = 0.8. Uptake of pre-travel health advice was low overall with 68% of respondents reporting they had not sought any advice from a health professional prior to their last international trip. Domestic students were more likely to report uptake of a range of preventative travel health measures compared to international students, including diarrhoeal medication, insect repellent, food avoidance and condoms (P Conclusions Our study highlights the need to educate students about the risk associated with travel and improve preventative

  10. Travel risk behaviours and uptake of pre-travel health preventions by university students in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Forward planning and preventative measures before travelling can significantly reduce the risk of many vaccine preventable travel-related infectious diseases. Higher education students may be at an increased risk of importing infectious disease as many undertake multiple visits to regions with higher infectious disease endemicity. Little is known about the health behaviours of domestic or international university students, particularly students from low resource countries who travel to high-resource countries for education. This study aimed to assess travel-associated health risks and preventative behaviours in a sample of both domestic and international university students in Australia. Methods In 2010, a 28 item self-administered online survey was distributed to students enrolled at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. Multiple methods of distributing links to the online survey were utilised. The survey examined the international travel history, travel intentions, infection control behaviours and self-reported vaccination history. Results A total of 1663 respondents completed the online survey, 22.1% were international students and 83.9% were enrolled at an undergraduate level. Half had travelled internationally in the previous 12 months, with 69% of those travelling only once during that time with no difference in travel from Australia between domestic and international students (p = 0.8). Uptake of pre-travel health advice was low overall with 68% of respondents reporting they had not sought any advice from a health professional prior to their last international trip. Domestic students were more likely to report uptake of a range of preventative travel health measures compared to international students, including diarrhoeal medication, insect repellent, food avoidance and condoms (P students reported low risk perception of travel threats and a low corresponding concern for these threats. Conclusions Our study highlights the need to

  11. Determinants of preventive oral health behaviour among senior dental students in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folayan, Morenike O; Khami, Mohammad R; Folaranmi, Nkiru; Popoola, Bamidele O; Sofola, Oyinkan O; Ligali, Taofeek O; Esan, Ayodeji O; Orenuga, Omolola O

    2013-06-18

    To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-up by a dentist or a classmate within the last year was defined as preventive care use. Students who performed oral self-care and attended dental clinic for check-ups were noted to have complied with recommended oral self-care. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. More male respondents agreed that the use of fluoride toothpaste was more important than the tooth brushing technique for caries prevention (P dental floss was very low (7.3%), more females were more likely to report using dental floss (p=0.03). Older students were also more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care (pdental care (p=0.008) were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a day. Gender differences in the awareness of the superiority of using fluoridated toothpaste over brushing in caries prevention; and in the use of dental floss were observed. While older students were more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care measures, younger students with good knowledge of preventive dental care were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a day.

  12. Preventing socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviour in adolescents in Europe: Background, design and methods of project TEENAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lenthe, Frank J; de Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Lien, Nanna; Moore, Laurence; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Kunst, Anton E; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Higher prevalence rates of unhealthy behaviours among lower socioeconomic groups contribute substantially to socioeconomic inequalities in health in adults. Preventing the development of these inequalities in unhealthy behaviours early in life is an important strategy to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in health. Little is known however, about health promotion strategies particularly effective in lower socioeconomic groups in youth. It is the purpose of project TEENAGE to improve knowledge on the prevention of socioeconomic inequalities in physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol consumption among adolescents in Europe. This paper describes the background, design and methods to be used in the project. Methods/design Through a systematic literature search, existing interventions aimed at promoting physical activity, a healthy diet, preventing the uptake of smoking or alcohol, and evaluated in the general adolescent population in Europe will be identified. Studies in which indicators of socioeconomic position are included will be reanalysed by socioeconomic position. Results of such stratified analyses will be summarised by type of behaviour, across behaviours by type of intervention (health education, environmental interventions and policies) and by setting (individual, household, school, and neighbourhood). In addition, the degree to which effective interventions can be transferred to other European countries will be assessed. Discussion Although it is sometimes assumed that some health promotion strategies may be particularly effective in higher socioeconomic groups, thereby increasing socioeconomic inequalities in health-related behaviour, there is little knowledge about differential effects of health promotion across socioeconomic groups. Synthesizing stratified analyses of a number of interventions conducted in the general adolescent population may offer an efficient guidance for the development of strategies and interventions to prevent

  13. Prevention of unhealthy behaviour by youth health care in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegersma, P.A.; Hofman, A.; Zielhuis, G.A.

    Background In this study the effect is assessed of (repeated) well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools on the prevalence of adolescent health-compromising behaviour and later obesity. Methods An ecological case-referent study design was used with data from the

  14. Heterogeneity in health seeking behaviour for treatment, prevention and urgent care in four districts in western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, W P; Karuru, S; Fazen, L E; Koech, J; Kizito, B; Tarus, C; Menya, D

    2014-11-01

    The impact of effective, life-saving health interventions is limited by access to and use of health services. Health seeking behaviour is likely to vary geographically and by type of health concern. However, little is known about the extent of this heterogeneity. A representative cluster-randomized sample of households in four districts in western Kenya was interviewed using a structured, interviewer-administered survey. GPS coordinates of all households and all local health facilities were also collected. Household surveys measured health seeking behaviour for three distinct health needs: family planning which is a form of prevention, delivery which is an urgent care need but can be planned in advance, and childhood febrile illness which is an unexpected and potentially life-threatening concern. Logistic regression models were used to explore the relationship between seeking health services and maternal and household characteristics, with special attention to geographic and financial access to care. Use of health services for these three different health issues varied between the districts and also differed from national estimates. Place of delivery was most strongly correlated with the type of health services available to the family, whereas family planning was correlated with the relationship of the mother to the head of household. There was no strong interaction between socio-economic status and distance to services. The level of services available nearest to households rather than the distance to travel influences treatment-seeking behaviour, particularly for urgent care. Maternal factors and household wealth were often important but, even within the same households, their effect changes based on the type of health concern. Generalizing from nationwide surveys may obscure important local heterogeneity, particularly in delivery location and fever treatment. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral health attitudes and caries-preventive behaviour of Czech parents of preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Lenčová

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize the oral health-related attitudes and behavior of Czech parents of preschool children. Materials and methods. A representative sample of 796 parents was recruited for the crosssectional questionnaire survey. Study data were collected using a validated questionnaire with 44 attitudinal items related to different aspects of caries prevention. The data were analyzed by explorative factor analysis, extracted factors were subjected to reliability analysis and Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA was used to test differences in the factor scores in respondents with different levels of education and selfperceived SES. Results. The factor analysis extracted 3 factors, labeled ”Toothbrushing – perceived significance and parental efficacy”; ”External caries control” and ”Internal caries control”. They explained 28.9% of the data variability. The comparison of the factor scores in groups with different SES and education of mothers showed highly significant differences. For all three factors, median values of the aggregated Likert scale increased with increasing SES and education of the mother. Conclusion. The parents report that they are aware of their responsibility for the prevention of tooth decay in their children. In caries prevention they concentrate on toothbrushing. Dietary measures do not seem to be of similar importance to them. The increasing self-perceived SES of the family and the education level of the mother have a significantly positive effect on the caries-preventive attitudes of the parents. Based on the study results, the message to the publichealth sector in the Czech Republic should include the need to highlight the importance of a non-cariogenic diet and the role of fluorides in caries prevention.

  16. An Investigation of Somali Women’s Beliefs, Practices, and Attitudes about Health, Health Promoting Behaviours and Cancer Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Francis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examined Somali women's perception of health/access to care, examined their knowledge and attitudes about cancer prevention, and discussed strategies to improve service provision and education. Using a multidisciplinary approach, twelve face-to-face interviews were conducted with Somali women ages 18 and older, residing in a mid-western city. Open coding was used to categorize and reflect the interview statements and to identify reoccurring themes. Somali women are concerned about a variety of health issues and cited the role of culture and religion in developing prevention strategies.   Participants emphasized the use of religious leaders, health care advocates, oral traditions, and translators in providing culturally appropriate health care services. Religion and culture play a prominent role in the Somali community and impact beliefs about health and wellness.  Health practitioners need to work closely with individuals and community leaders to tailor services that are culturally appropriate and accessible.       

  17. Preventing Behavioural and Emotional Problems in Children Who Have a Developmental Disability: A Public Health Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend…

  18. Multiple health behaviour change interventions for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in primary care: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alageel, Samah; Gulliford, Martin C; McDermott, Lisa; Wright, Alison J

    2017-06-15

    It is uncertain whether multiple health behaviour change (MHBC) interventions are effective for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in primary care. A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of MHBC interventions on CVD risk and CVD risk factors; the study also evaluated associations of theoretical frameworks and intervention components with intervention effectiveness. The search included randomised controlled trials of MHBC interventions aimed at reducing CVD risk in primary prevention population up to 2017. Theoretical frameworks and intervention components were evaluated using standardised methods. Meta-analysis with stratification and meta-regression were used to evaluate intervention effects. We identified 31 trials (36 484 participants) with a minimum duration of 12 months follow-up. Pooled net change in systolic blood pressure (16 trials) was -1.86 (95% CI -3.17 to -0.55; p=0.01) mm Hg; diastolic blood pressure (15 trials), -1.53 (-2.43 to -0.62; p=0.001) mm Hg; body mass index (14 trials), -0.13 (-0.26 to -0.01; p=0.04) kg/m 2 ; serum total cholesterol (14 trials), -0.13 (-0.19 to -0.07; p<0.001) mmol/L. There was no significant association between interventions with a reported theoretical basis and improved intervention outcomes. No association was observed between intervention intensity (number of sessions and intervention duration) and intervention outcomes. There was significant heterogeneity for some risk factor analyses, leading to uncertain validity of some pooled net changes. MHBC interventions delivered to CVD-free participants in primary care did not appear to have quantitatively important effects on CVD risk factors. Better reporting of interventions' rationale, content and delivery is essential to understanding their effectiveness. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted

  19. Does a fall prevention educational programme improve knowledge and change exercise prescribing behaviour in health and exercise professionals? A study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, A; Sturnieks, D L; Hill, A-M; Lovitt, L; Clemson, L; Lord, S R; Harvey, L; Sherrington, C

    2014-11-19

    Falling in older age is a serious and costly problem. At least one in three older people fall annually. Although exercise is recognised as an effective fall prevention intervention, low numbers of older people engage in suitable programmes. Health and exercise professionals play a crucial role in addressing fall risk in older adults. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of participation in a fall prevention educational programme, compared with a wait-list control group, on health and exercise professionals' knowledge about fall prevention and the effect on fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour and confidence to prescribe the exercises to older people. A randomised controlled trial involving 220 consenting health and exercise professionals will be conducted. Participants will be individually randomised to an intervention group (n=110) to receive an educational workshop plus access to internet-based support resources, or a wait-list control group (n=110). The two primary outcomes, measured 3 months after randomisation, are: (1) knowledge about fall prevention and (2) self-perceived change in fall prevention exercise prescription behaviour. Secondary outcomes include: (1) participants' confidence to prescribe fall prevention exercises; (2) the proportion of people aged 60+ years seen by trial participants in the past month who were prescribed fall prevention exercise; and (3) the proportion of fall prevention exercises prescribed by participants to older people in the past month that comply with evidence-based guidelines. Outcomes will be measured with a self-report questionnaire designed specifically for the trial. The trial protocol was approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee, The University of Sydney, Australia. Trial results will be disseminated via peer reviewed journals, presentations at international conferences and participants' newsletters. Trial protocol was registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (Number

  20. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. ► We merge attitude–behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. ► Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. ► Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. ► Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude–behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz’s altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals’ engagement in future policies.

  1. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula, E-mail: a.bortoleto@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke [Department of Urban Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We model waste prevention behaviour using structure equation modelling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We merge attitude-behaviour theories with wider models from environmental psychology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main behaviour predictors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental concern, moral obligation and inconvenience are the main influence on the behaviour. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Waste prevention and recycling are different dimensions of waste management behaviour. - Abstract: Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste

  2. [Health behaviour of doctors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, Anikó

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviour involves maintaining, improving and restoration of health. The aim of the author was to assess correlations of health behaviour with age, gender, job type and overtime. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted using an online questionnaire (N = 186). Data were analyzed with chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Doctors working in in-patient care drink more coffee (p = 0.034) and energy drinks (p = 0.018); they eat undisturbed only on weekends at home (p = 0.032). Men consume more alcohol (p = 0.003), red meats (pmeals (p = 0.018) and their daily fluid consumption exceeds 2 litres (p = 0.005); their body mass index values are higher compared to women (peat more hot meals (p = 0.005), and those under the age of 30 consume more crisps, fast food (p = 0.001) and energy drinks (p = 0.005), while they are more active (p = 0.010). Dietary habits of doctors are not ideal and their physical activity is diminished compared to international trends. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(30), 1198-1206.

  3. [Sedentary behaviour and health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füzéki, E; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2015-03-01

    Exercise-related public health recommendations and research for increased fitness and health had long focused on vigorous exercise or the lack thereof. Recently scientific interest in possible effects of sedentary behaviour (SB) (sitting) independent of moderate-vigorous intensity exercise has been growing.We conducted a selective literature search in Pubmed and the Sedentary Research Database with the outcomes SB, risk factors, mortality and morbidity in adults. We included only reviews and systematic reviews.Observational studies suggest an association between SB and all-cause and cardiovascular, but not cancer mortality. SB also seems to be associated with diabetes and overweight/weight gain. Evidence for other diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, cancer, and mental diseases is limited also because of the heterogeneity and poor methodology of the -studies. Intervention studies found inconsistent evidence that SB is associated with detrimental effects on markers of cardiometabolic risk.The evidence on the detrimental effects of sedentary behaviour is decreasingly convincing with the endpoints of mortality, -morbidity, and markers of metabolic risk, in that order. Higher TV and screen time, but not total SB seems to be associated with higher all-cause and cardiovascular, but not cancer mortality. Further intervention studies are needed to establish -dose-response relationships and potentially protective effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Health promotion, primary prevention and secondary prevention in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    The WHO´s aims regarding healthcare for the European region are mainly based on health promotion and preventive as well as supporting health education. The Ottawa Charta declares health promotion as a process to provide all people with a higher degree of self-determination regarding their health and thereby enabling them to increase it. General practitioners are of major importance regarding the medical area of behaviour oriented prevention by promoting health and acting preventive. ...

  5. Model development for household waste prevention behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoleto, Ana Paula; Kurisu, Kiyo H; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-12-01

    Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable local governments and decision makers to design more-effective policies for reducing the amount of waste that is generated. By merging well-known attitude-behaviour theories with elements from wider models from environmental psychology, an extensive cognitive framework that provides new and valuable insights is developed for understanding the involvement of individuals in waste prevention. The results confirm the usefulness of the theory of planned behaviour and of Schwartz's altruistic behaviour model as bases for modelling participation in waste prevention. A more elaborate integrated model of prevention was shown to be necessary for the complete analysis of attitudinal aspects associated with waste prevention. A postal survey of 158 respondents provided empirical support for eight of 12 hypotheses. The proposed structural equation indicates that personal norms and perceived behaviour control are the main predictors and that, unlike the case of recycling, subjective norms have a weak influence on WPB. It also suggests that, since social norms have not presented a direct influence, WPB is likely to be influenced by a concern for the environment and the community as well by perceptions of moral obligation and inconvenience. Results also proved that recycling and waste prevention represent different dimensions of waste management behaviour requiring particular approaches to increase individuals' engagement in future policies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Epigenetics, Behaviour, and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szyf Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of behaviour and environmental exposures, particularly during childhood, on health outcomes are well documented. Particularly thought provoking is the notion that exposures to different social environments have a long-lasting impact on human physical health. However, the mechanisms mediating the effects of the environment are still unclear. In the last decade, the main focus of attention was the genome, and interindividual genetic polymorphisms were sought after as the principal basis for susceptibility to disease. However, it is becoming clear that recent dramatic increases in the incidence of certain human pathologies, such as asthma and type 2 diabetes, cannot be explained just on the basis of a genetic drift. It is therefore extremely important to unravel the molecular links between the "environmental" exposure, which is believed to be behind this emerging incidence in certain human pathologies, and the disease's molecular mechanisms. Although it is clear that most human pathologies involve long-term changes in gene function, these might be caused by mechanisms other than changes in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequence. The genome is programmed by the epigenome, which is composed of chromatin and a covalent modification of DNA by methylation. It is postulated here that "epigenetic" mechanisms mediate the effects of behavioural and environmental exposures early in life, as well as lifelong environmental exposures and the susceptibility to disease later in life. In contrast to genetic sequence differences, epigenetic aberrations are potentially reversible, raising the hope for interventions that will be able to reverse deleterious epigenetic programming.

  7. A behavioural change package to prevent hand dermatitis in nurses working in the national health service (the SCIN trial): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Ira; Parsons, Vaughan; Cookson, Barry; English, John; Lavender, Tina; McCrone, Paul; Murphy, Caroline; Ntani, Georgia; Rushton, Lesley; Smedley, Julia; Williams, Hywel; Wright, Alison; Coggon, David

    2016-03-17

    Hand dermatitis can be a serious health problem in healthcare workers. While a range of skin care strategies and policy directives have been developed in recent years to minimise the risk, their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness remain unclear. Evidence now suggests that psychological theory can facilitate behaviour change with respect to improved hand care practices. Therefore, we will test the hypothesis that a behavioural change intervention to improve hand care, based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and implementation intentions, coupled with provision of hand moisturisers, can produce a clinically useful reduction in the occurrence of hand dermatitis, when compared to standard care, among nurses working in the UK National Health Service (NHS) who are particularly at risk. Secondary aims will be to assess impacts on participants' beliefs and behaviour regarding hand care. In addition, we will assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in comparison with normal care. We will conduct a cluster randomised controlled trial at 35 NHS hospital trusts/health boards/universities, focussing on student nurses with a previous history of atopic disease or hand eczema and on nurses in intensive care units. Nurses at 'intervention-light' sites will be managed according to what would currently be regarded as best practice, with provision of an advice leaflet about optimal hand care to prevent hand dermatitis and encouragement to contact their occupational health (OH) department early if hand dermatitis occurs. Nurses at 'intervention-plus' sites will additionally receive a behavioural change programme (BCP) with on-going active reinforcement of its messages, and enhanced provision of moisturising cream. The impact of the interventions will be compared using information collected by questionnaires and through standardised photographs of the hands and wrists, collected at baseline and after 12 months follow-up. In addition, we will assemble relevant economic data

  8. Adoption of the Good Behaviour Game: An evidence-based intervention for the prevention of behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Marieke A. M.; Harting, Janneke; van der Wal, Marcel F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective: The Good Behaviour Game (GBG) has been shown to be effective in preventing childhood disruptive behaviours and their long-term unfavourable health-related outcomes. Like many other evidence-based preventive health programmes, however, its current use in Dutch primary

  9. Associations between neighbourhood characteristics, body mass index and health-related behaviours of adolescents in the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, D; Wahrendorf, M; Siegrist, J; Plachta-Danielzik, S; Landsberg, B; Müller, M J

    2011-06-01

    To understand determinants of overweight, several studies addressed the association between neighbourhood characteristics and adult obesity. However, little is known about the association of such characteristics with adolescents' overweight. This study aims at the influence of neighbourhood characteristics on adolescent body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle and to what extent BMI and lifestyle variation between neighbourhoods can be explained by neighbourhood characteristics. We used cross-sectional data from the Kiel Obesity Prevention Study collected between 2004 and 2008 in 28 different residential districts of the city of Kiel (North Germany). Anthropometric data were available for 1675 boys and 1765 girls (n=3440) aged 13-15 years, and individual lifestyle factors and sociodemographic data were included in the analysis. At the macro level, six different neighbourhood characteristics were used: unemployment rate, population density, traffic density, prevalence of energy-dense food supply, number of sports fields and parks, and crime rate. To test our main hypothesis, linear and logistic multilevel regression analyses were performed to predict BMI and lifestyle factors in individuals nested in neighbourhoods. Findings of multilevel analysis show little between-neighbourhood variations in BMI and health-related behaviours. In all, 2% of BMI variation, 4% of media time variation and 3% of variation in snacking behaviour could be attributed to differences in neighbourhoods. Environmental factors are significantly associated with adolescent BMI and health-related behaviour; however, their total effect is small. Owing to these results, recommendations for structural policy measures as part of prevention of overweight in adolescents must be made cautiously.

  10. The health of adolescents: beliefs and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, H L

    1989-01-01

    Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood in which interlocking changes in the body, mind and social relationship take place. Healthy development depends on both a propitious environment and the action of adolescents themselves. A stable family, peace, material conditions for physical health, and educational, social and vocational opportunities with a chance to make use of them before marriage, are necessary environment conditions. However, within this context the adolescent must experiment with new behaviours and relationships inevitably courting some risks. Adolescent health is especially linked to behaviour. If the environment is inadequate or dangerous and the adolescent lacks self-esteem, behaviours dangerous to health are more likely to occur. These include: precocious and unprotected sexual behaviour sometimes resulting in too early or unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases; the use of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs; injuries arising accidentally from risk taking behaviours especially when combined with alcohol or drugs; intentional injury whether self-inflicted or inflicted by others; and poor eating and habits of hygiene leading to obesity, or emaciation, acne and poor teeth and gums. Adolescent behaviour is often governed by their beliefs about what others think. Two way communication in a trusting atmosphere will reduce myths and misinformation and encourage healthy behaviour. The promotion of health, the prevention of problems, and their treatment and rehabilitation when they arise can best be accomplished with the active co-operation of young people.

  11. Cognitive Behavioural Suicide Prevention for Male Prisoners: Case examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Daniel; Gooding, Patricia; Awenat, Yvonne; Eccles, Steve; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem but a problem that is preventable. This complex and challenging problem is particularly prevalent amongst prisoners; associated with a five-fold increase in risk compared to the general community. Being in prison can lead people to experience fear, distrust, lack of control, isolation, and shame, which is often experienced as overwhelming and intolerable with some choosing suicide as a way to escape. Few effective psychological interventions exist to prevent suicide although cognitive behaviour therapies appear to offer some promise. Offering cognitive behaviour suicide prevention (CBSP) therapy to high risk prisoners may help to reduce the likelihood of preventable self-inflicted deaths. In this paper we present three cases drawn from a randomised controlled trial designed to investigate the feasibility of CBSP for male prisoners. Implications of the current findings for future research and clinical practice are considered.

  12. Overweight prevention in adolescents and children (behavioural and environmental prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haas, Sabine

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Health political background: In 2006, the prevalence of overweight and adiposity among children and adolescents aged three to 17 years is 15%, 6.3% (800,000 of these are obese. Scientific background: Obese children and adolescents have an increased body fat ratio. The reasons for overweight are – among others – sociocultural factors, and a low social status as determined by income and educational level of the parents. The consequences of adiposity during childhood are a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and increased mortality in adulthood. Possible approaches to primary prevention in children and adolescents are measures taken in schools and kindergarten, as well as education and involvement of parents. Furthermore, preventive measures geared towards changing environmental and living conditions are of particular importance. Research questions: What is the effectiveness and efficiency of different measures and programs (geared towards changing behaviour and environmental and living conditions for primary prevention of adiposity in children and adolescents, with particular consideration of social aspects? Methods: The systematic literature search yielded 1,649 abstracts. Following a two-part selection process with predefined criteria 31 publications were included in the assessment. Results: The majority of interventions evaluated in primary studies take place in schools. As the measures are mostly multi-disciplinary and the interventions are often not described in detail, no criteria of success for the various interventions can be extrapolated from the reviews assessed. An economic model calculation for Australia, which compares the efficiency of different interventions (although on the basis of low evidence comes to the conclusion that the intervention with the greatest impact on society is the reduction of TV-ads geared towards children for foods and drinks rich in fat and sugar. There is a significant correlation between

  13. Social-class indicators differentially predict engagement in prevention vs. detection behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, Heather M; Rose, Jason P; Brown, Jill A

    2016-01-01

    Few systematic studies have examined the contexts in which social-class variables will predict engagement in health-relevant behaviours. The current research examined whether the impact of social-class on health behaviours depends upon how social-class is assessed and the category of health behaviour under consideration. Our sample was drawn from the Health Information National Trends Survey in 2012 (N = 3959). Participants reported their income and education as well as their engagement in a variety of prevention and detection behaviours. Consistent with our hypothesised framework, we found that income predicted engagement in a variety of detection behaviours above and beyond education, whereas education predicted engagement in a variety of prevention behaviours above and beyond income. Our findings suggest that income and education operate on health behaviours via different pathways and have implications for public health policy and intervention.

  14. Health risk behaviours of high school learners and their perceptions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Adolescence spans nearly a decade in which young people may initiate health risk behaviours such as unsafe sexual practices and the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs (ATOD use). Most adolescent mortality and morbidity, attributable to such health risk behaviours, are preventable. Managing the ...

  15. Why is changing health-related behaviour so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P; Barker, Mary

    2016-07-01

    To demonstrate that six common errors made in attempts to change behaviour have prevented the implementation of the scientific evidence base derived from psychology and sociology; to suggest a new approach which incorporates recent developments in the behavioural sciences. The role of health behaviours in the origin of the current epidemic of non-communicable disease is observed to have driven attempts to change behaviour. It is noted that most efforts to change health behaviours have had limited success. This paper suggests that in policy-making, discussions about behaviour change are subject to six common errors and that these errors have made the business of health-related behaviour change much more difficult than it needs to be. Overview of policy and practice attempts to change health-related behaviour. The reasons why knowledge and learning about behaviour have made so little progress in alcohol, dietary and physical inactivity-related disease prevention are considered, and an alternative way of thinking about the behaviours involved is suggested. This model harnesses recent developments in the behavioural sciences. It is important to understand the conditions preceding behaviour psychologically and sociologically and to combine psychological ideas about the automatic and reflective systems with sociological ideas about social practice. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Travel health prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    All around the world there has been a rapid growth in the number of international travels. According to the World Tourism Organisation the number of international tourist arrivals reached 1,235 billion in 2016 and continues to grow at a high rate. This has been much due to the development of air transport (including low-cost airlines), increasingly common economic migration, a growing number of travellers visiting friends and relatives, and an increase in medical tourism. With tropical destinations becoming increasingly popular among travellers, doctors have seen a rising number of patients who seek medical advice on health risks prevalent in hot countries and health prevention measures to be taken in tropical destinations, especially where sanitation is poor. The risk for developing a medical condition while staying abroad depends on a variety of factors, including the traveller's general health condition, health prevention measures taken before or during travel (vaccinations, antimalarial chemoprophylaxis, health precautions during air, road and sea travel, proper acclimatisation, prevention of heat injuries, protection against local flora and fauna, personal hygiene, water, food and feeding hygiene), as well as the prevalence of health risk factors in a given location. Health prevention is a precondition for safe travel and maintaining good physical health; in the era of a rapid growth in international tourism it has become of key importance for all travellers.

  17. Patients? Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviour and Health Care Experiences on the Prevention, Detection, Management and Control of Hypertension in Colombia: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Legido-Quigley, Helena; Camacho Lopez, Paul Anthony; Balabanova, Dina; Perel, Pablo; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Schwalm, J-D; McCready, Tara; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a leading cause of premature death worldwide and the most important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Effective screening programs, communication with patients, regular monitoring, and adherence to treatment are essential to successful management but may be challenging in health systems facing resource constraints. This qualitative study explored patients' knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and health care seeking experiences in relation to detection, treatment a...

  18. The Challenge of Behaviour Change and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Laverack

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The evidence about the effectiveness of behaviour change approaches—what works and what does not work—is unclear. What we do know is that single interventions that target a specific behavioural risk have little impact on the determinants that actually cause poor health, especially for vulnerable people. This has not prevented health promoters from continuing to invest in behaviour change interventions which are widely used in a range of programs. The future of behaviour change and health promotion is through the application of a comprehensive strategy with three core components: (1 a behaviour change approach; (2 a strong policy framework that creates a supportive environment and (3 the empowerment of people to gain more control over making healthy lifestyle decisions. This will require the better planning of policy interventions and the coordination of agencies involved in behaviour change and empowerment activities at the community level, with government to help develop policy at the national level.

  19. Does a fall prevention educational programme improve knowledge and change exercise prescribing behaviour in health and exercise professionals? A study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tiedemann, A; Sturnieks, D L; Hill, A-M; Lovitt, L; Clemson, L; Lord, S R; Harvey, L; Sherrington, C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Falling in older age is a serious and costly problem. At least one in three older people fall annually. Although exercise is recognised as an effective fall prevention intervention, low numbers of older people engage in suitable programmes. Health and exercise professionals play a crucial role in addressing fall risk in older adults. This trial aims to evaluate the effect of participation in a fall prevention educational programme, compared with a wait-list control group, on heal...

  20. Physical Health Risk Behaviours in Young People with Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloughen, Andrea; Foster, Kim; Marabong, Nikka; Miu, David; Fethney, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Comorbid physical health conditions, commonly associated with mental illness, contribute to increased morbidity and reduced life expectancy. The trajectory to poorer health begins with the onset of mental illness. For young people with mental illness, health risk behaviours and poor physical health can progress to adulthood with long-term detrimental impacts. Using a cross-sectional survey design, self-reported health risk behaviours were gathered from 56 young (16-25 years) Australians who had been hospitalised for mental illness and taking psychotropic medication. Smoking, alcohol use, minimal physical activity, and lack of primary health care were evident. While these behaviours are typical of many young people, those with mental illness have substantially increased vulnerability to poor health and reduced life expectancy. Priority needs to be given to targeted health promotion strategies for young people with mental illness to modify their risky long-term health behaviours and improve morbidity and mortality outcomes. Nurses in mental health settings play a vital role in promoting young peoples' well-being and preventing poorer physical health outcomes. Implementation of a cardiometabolic health nurse role in inpatient settings for young people with mental illness could facilitate prevention and early intervention for health risk behaviours.

  1. Suicidal behaviour and suicide prevention in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Brian M

    2014-10-01

    Despite a general decline in late life suicide rates over the last 30 years, older people have the highest rates of suicide in most countries. In contrast, non-fatal suicidal behaviour declines with age and more closely resembles suicide than in younger age groups. There are difficulties in the detection and determination of pathological suicidal ideation in older people. Multiple factors increase suicide risk ranging from distal early and mid-life issues such as child abuse, parental death, substance misuse and traumatic life experiences to proximal precipitants in late life such as social isolation and health-related concerns. Clinical depression is the most frequently identified proximal mental health concern and in many cases is a first episode of major depression. Recent studies have identified changes on neuroimaging and neurocognitive factors that might distinguish suicidal from non-suicidal depression in older people. Strategies for suicide prevention need to be 'whole of life' and, as no single prevention strategy is likely to be successful alone, a multi-faceted, multi-layered approach is required. This should include optimal detection and management of depression and of high risk individuals as available evidence indicates that this can reduce suicidal behaviour. How best to improve the quality of depression management in primary and secondary care requires further research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Neurocriminology: implications for the punishment, prediction and prevention of criminal behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Andrea L; Raine, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Criminal behaviour and violence are increasingly viewed as worldwide public health problems. A growing body of knowledge shows that criminal behaviour has a neurobiological basis, and this has intensified judicial interest in the potential application of neuroscience to criminal law. It also gives rise to important questions. What are the implications of such application for predicting future criminal behaviour and protecting society? Can it be used to prevent violence? And what are the implications for the way offenders are punished?

  3. factors associated with AIDS preventive and risky behaviours among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-05-01

    May 1, 2000 ... behaviours among different cultural groups in South Africa. The purpose of ... affecting youth today(2). A number of ..... T. The impact of knowledge, norms, and self-efficacy on intentions to engage in AIDS-preventive behaviours among young incarcerated African. American males. J. Black Psych. 1993; 19: ...

  4. [Recognition, care and prevention of suicidal behaviour in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihmer, Zoltán; Németh, Attila; Kurimay, Tamás; Perczel-Forintos, Dóra; Purebl, György; Döme, Péter

    2017-01-01

    Suicide is a major public health problem everywhere in the world and in the WHO European Region suicide accounts for over 120,000 deaths per year. 1. Recognition and diagnosis: An underlying psychiatric disorder is present in up to 90% of people who completed suicide. Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders is high. In order to achieve successful prevention of suicidality, adequate diagnostic procedures and appropriate treatment for the underlying disorder are essential. 2. Treatment and care: Acute intervention should start immediately in order to keep the patient alive. Existing evidence supports the efficacy of pharmacological treatment and cognitive behavioural therapy (including dialectical behavior therapy and problem-solving therapy) in preventing suicidal behaviour. Some other psychological treatments are promising, but the supporting evidence is currently insufficient. Studies show that antidepressant and mood stabilizer treatments decrease the risk for suicidality among responders in mood disorder patients. However, the risk of suicidal behaviour in depressed patients treated with antidepressants exists during the first 10-14 days of treatment, which requires careful monitoring. Short-term supplementary medication with anxiolytics and hypnotics in the case of anxiety and insomnia is recommended. Treatment with antidepressants of children and adolescents should only be given under supervision of a specialist. Long-term treatment with lithium has been shown to be very effective in preventing both suicide and attempted suicide in patients with unipolar and bipolar depression. Treatment with clozapine is effective in reducing suicidal behaviour in patients with schizophrenia. Other atypical antipsychotics are promising but more evidence is required. 3. Family and social support: The suicidal person should always be motivated to involve family in the treatment. Psychosocial treatment and support is recommended, as the

  5. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: The continued poor reproductive health behaviour and outcomes among youths informed the investigation of the knowledge, attitudes, sexual behaviour, outcomes and care-seeking among university students in Zaria, north western Nigeria. Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive study design, ...

  6. Preventing HIV: determinants of sexual behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, B; Ross, M W

    2000-05-27

    AIDS has Invigorated and distorted the study of sexual behaviour. Because that study began so recently, there remain many unanswered questions about why we have sex at all, why we do sex one way rather than another, or even how we define sex. Yet in every instance in which well-designed and adequately resourced behavioural Interventions have been Implemented, these have netted success in the form of falling HIV incidences or prevalences. But, despite these successes, such interventions remain patchy and poorly supported. Perhaps humankind's traditional aversion for the public discussion of sexual matters underlies this reticence. Or maybe a new era of "creeping absolutism"--in which biomedical advances are given premature credit for what they can achieve in HIV control--has arrived.

  7. Changes in sexual desires and behaviours of people living with HIV after initiation of ART: Implications for HIV prevention and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seeley Janet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As immune compromised HIV sero-positive people regain health after initiating antiretroviral treatment (ART, they may seek a return to an active 'normal' life, including sexual activity. The aim of the paper is to explore the changing sexual desires and behaviour of people on ART in Uganda over a 30 month period. Methods This study employed longitudinal qualitative interviews with forty people starting ART. The participants received their ART, adherence education and counselling support from The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO. The participants were selected sequentially as they started ART, stratified by sex, ART delivery mode (clinic or home-based and HIV progression stage (early or advanced and interviewed at enrolment, 3, 6, 18 and 30 months of their ART use. Results Sexual desire changed over time with many reporting diminished desire at 3 and 6 months on ART compared to 18 and 30 months of use. The reasons for remaining abstinent included fear of superinfection or infecting others, fear that engaging in sex would awaken the virus and weaken them and a desire to adhere to the counsellors' health advice to remain abstinent. The motivations for resumption of sexual activity were: for companionship, to obtain material support, social norms around marriage, desire to bear children as well as to satisfy sexual desires. The challenges for most of the participants were using condoms consistently and finding a suitable sexual partner (preferably someone with a similar HIV serostatus who could agree to have a sexual relationship with them and provide for their material needs. Conclusions These findings point to the importance of tailoring counselling messages to the changing realities of the ART users' cultural expectations around child bearing, marriage and sexual desire. People taking ART require support so they feel comfortable to disclose their HIV status to sexual partners.

  8. [Health behaviour and changes in health behaviour - are education and social status relevant?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T; Philippi, M; Böcken, J

    2014-01-01

    Individual health behaviour counts as an important factor for health status. A healthier lifestyle substantially contributes to better health. People burdened with lower health and with lower socio-economic status could benefit notably. So far it is not known exhaustively to what extent education and social status contribute to changes in health behaviour and which motifs play a decisive role. Based on cross-sectional data from the seventh wave of the "Gesundheitsmonitor", Bertelsmann Foundation, (n=1 436), the influence of social status and education on health behaviour and changes in behaviour was analysed. Specific health behaviour correlates with level of education and socio-economic status. In contrast, regarding health behaviour changes in the last 12 months prior to survey, no social class- or education-specific effect was found. Age, health status as well as fears and wishes in relation to health seem to be important causalities for changes of health-related behaviour. Interventions to foster healthy lifestyles should include class differences in specific health-related behaviour and personal reasons for behavioural changes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Family as a factor of risk prevention and victim behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur A. Rean

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines psychological factors victim behaviour. The definition of victim behaviour is given and it is emphasized that such conduct is not necessarily passivebehaviour of the victim. Victimization and behaviour can be active and aggressive. It is shown that antisocial, deviant behaviour of children and adolescents seriously increases the risk of victimization. Family as the most important institution of socialization is considered both as a preventing factor and risk factor of victim behaviour. The role of the family in shaping the victim behaviour is revealed in the following issues: aggressive, conflict behaviour is personal inclination or absence of the “proper” skills; interdependence of the severity of punishment and child aggression; punishment for child aggression (between siblings: what is the result?; ignoring aggression – is it the best solution?; victims of sexual violence and causes of victim behaviour; demonstrative accentuation as a risk factor in rape victim behaviour; happy family – can it be a risk factor for victim behaviour? For a long time, social deviant personality development has been believed to deal with structural deformation of the family, which is defined as a single-parent family, i.e. absence of one parent (usually the father. It is now proved that the major factor of family negative impact on personal development is not structural but psychosocial family deformation. A really happy family, psychologically happy family is the cornerstone of preventing victim behaviour. The victim behaviour being mainly determined by personal qualities does not negate this conclusion, but only strengthens it, as the qualities mentioned above are shaped in many respects within family socialization, are determined by family upbringing styles and features of interpersonal relationships inside the family.

  10. Behaviour among women in the scope of cervical cancer prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Słopiecka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cytological examination is a simple and inexpensive method used in the prevention of cervical cancer. In Poland, too low proportions of women still have the test. Aim of the research : To analyse the attitudes towards cervical cancer prevention. Material and methods : Two hundred and ten hospitalized women were invited to take part in the investigation. The research used the diagnostic poll method, using the author’s original questionnaire form. The research was carried out in four gynaecological wards. Results : Of the women who participated in the research, 16.2% by the time of diagnosis had never received a Pap test. In the analysed group, 88.2% of women were not referred to a specialist for a Pap test. Among all respondents, only 35.7% underwent cervix cytology regularly, i.e. once a year or once every 2 years. Conclusions : The effort made by the women towards the attitudes of cervical cancer prevention was insufficient; still too many women had not reported to the specialist for taking material from the cervix, or did not do so regularly. A significant relation in the behaviour of women was found depending on their level of education and place of residence. Greater activity of nurses, midwives and family physicians in stimulating Polish women to participate in prevention programmes for cervical cancer is advisable. To increase the health awareness of girls and women, it is important to include in the curriculum, especially in secondary schools, the issues of prevention of female reproductive system cancer.

  11. Smart health and innovation: facilitating health-related behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfern, J

    2017-08-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) are the leading cause of death globally. Smart health technology and innovation is a potential strategy for increasing reach and for facilitating health behaviour change. Despite rapid growth in the availability and affordability of technology there remains a paucity of published and robust research in the area as it relates to health. The objective of the present paper is to review and provide a snapshot of a variety of contemporary examples of smart health strategies with a focus on evidence and research as it relates to prevention with a CVD management lens. In the present analysis, five examples will be discussed and they include a physician-directed strategy, consumer directed strategies, a public health approach and a screening strategy that utilises external hardware that connects to a smartphone. In conclusion, NCD have common risk factors and all have an association with nutrition and health. Smart health and innovation is evolving rapidly and may help with diagnosis, treatment and management. While on-going research, development and knowledge is needed, the growth of technology development and utilisation offers opportunities to reach more people and achieve better health outcomes at local, national and international levels.

  12. Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide: learning and behavioural outcomes of a training-of-trainers model to facilitate grassroots community health education to address Indigenous youth suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wexler, Lisa; Trout, Lucas; Rataj, Suzanne; Kirk, Tanya; Moto, Roberta; McEachern, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Alaska Native (AN) youth suicide remains a substantial and recalcitrant health disparity, especially in rural/remote communities. Promoting Community Conversations About Research to End Suicide (PC CARES) is a community health intervention that responds to the need for culturally responsive and evidence-supported prevention practice, using a grassroots approach to spark multilevel and community-based efforts for suicide prevention. This paper describes theoretical and practical considerations of the approach, and assesses the feasibility and preliminary learning and behavioural outcomes of the training-of-trainers model. It details the training of a first cohort of intervention facilitators in Northwest Alaska (NWA). Thirty-two people from 11 NWA village communities completed the PC CARES facilitator training, preparing them to implement the intervention in their home communities. Facilitator pre-post surveys focused on readiness to facilitate, a group quiz assessed participants' understanding of relevant research evidence, and practice facilitation exercises demonstrated competency. Curriculum fidelity and accuracy scores were calculated using audio recordings from learning circles conducted by facilitators in their home communities. Facilitator reflections describe the successes of the model and identify several areas for improvement. As of March 2017, 20 of the 32 trained facilitators in 10 of the 11 participating villages have hosted 54 LCs, with a total of 309 unique community members. Coding of these LCs by 2 independent raters indicate acceptable levels of fidelity and accurate dissemination of research evidence by facilitators. Facilitator reflections were positive overall, suggesting PC CARES is feasible, acceptable and potentially impactful as a way to translate research to practice in under-resourced, rural AN communities. PC CARES represents a practical community education and mobilisation approach to Indigenous youth suicide prevention that displays

  13. Psychosocial Factors of Different Health Behaviour Patterns in Adolescents: Association with Overweight and Weight Control Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloso, Susana M.; Matos, Margarida G.; Carvalho, Marina; Diniz, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity, nutrition, and sedentary behaviour combine to influence the risk of overweight among adolescents. This paper aims to identify psychosocial factors of different health behaviour patterns in adolescents and its association with overweight and weight control behaviours. The 3069 adolescents of both genders (average of 14.8 years old) from the 2010 Portuguese survey of Health Behaviour School-Aged Children (HBSC) answered the 2010 HBSC self-reported questionnaire. It used the cluster k-means (nonhierarchy method), qui-square, one-way ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three clusters with different behavioural patterns (physical activity, sedentary, and eating) composed the results obtained. The sedentary group (34%) had lower self-regulation, body satisfaction, health and wellness, family and classmates relationships, communication with the father than the other two groups. The active gamers (25%) had a smaller BMI but used more unhealthy weight control strategies than the other two groups. The healthy group (41%) was more motivated and more satisfied with school but was not different than the active gamers in most psychosocial variables. Differences were found between clusters for weight control behaviours and psychosocial variables. Different strategies for different patterns were necessary in order to promote obesity prevention and, simultaneously, target healthy lifestyle and wellbeing in adolescents. PMID:22811890

  14. Behavioural health analytics using mobile phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wlodarczak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Big Data analytics in healthcare has become a very active area of research since it promises to reduce costs and to improve health care quality. Behavioural analytics analyses a patients behavioural patterns with the goal of early detection if a patient becomes symptomatic and triggering treatment even before a disease outbreak happens. Behavioural analytics allows a more precise and personalised treatment and can even monitor whole populations for events such as epidemic outbreaks. With the prevalence of mobile phones, they have been used to monitor the health of patients by analysing their behavioural and movement patterns. Cell phones are always on devices and are usually close to their users. As such they can be used as social sensors to create "automated diaries" of their users. Specialised apps passively collect and analyse user data to detect if a patient shows some deviant behaviour indicating he has become symptomatic. These apps first learn a patients normal daily patterns and alert a health care centre if it detects a deviant behaviour. The health care centre can then call the patient and check on his well-being. These apps use machine learning techniques to for reality mining and predictive analysis. This paper describes some of these techniques that have been adopted recently in eHealth apps.

  15. Health promotion and prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury-Golas, Kathleen

    2013-09-01

    Opiate dependency is a medical disorder that requires treatment intervention. Primary health care not only entails treatment of illness but also involves disease prevention and health promotion. Based on Pender's revised Health Promotion Model, a descriptive study comparing the health promoting behaviors/practices in abusing and recovering opiate-dependent drug users is analyzed. Using the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, a comparative descriptive, exploratory, nonexperimental design study was conducted to identify key health-promoting behaviors in recovering opiate-dependent drug users. Prevention strategy recommendations are discussed, along with future research recommendations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A school based community randomized trial of the effect of peer health education on primary prevention knowledge, attitude and behaviours towards HPV among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract:
    Background: this study in the prospect of promoting adherence to the primary and secondary preven- tion programmes will research knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of the student population attending high schools regarding HPV infections and will also promote health education sessions based on peer education.
    Methods: we carried out a cross-sectional kaP survey regarding HPV infection, HPV vaccination, and sexual health, of students and a peer educational intervention. To verify the effectiveness of peer educators in changing opinions and beliefs about HPV a self-com- pletion questionnaire was made and distributed pre (T1 and post (T2 peer educator intervention. The same questionnaires were assigned to the control group.
    Results: the sample consisted of 900 students, mean age was 16.6±1.4, having relationship 34.4%. at T1, 64.6% of students in experimental group said that they knew HPV, 83.4% how it is transmitted and 71.1% HPV vaccination, 54.7% perceived dangerousness with significant gender-related difference. at T2 the percentages increased. at T1, 14.1% of females were vaccinated at T2 they were 17.5%. The main factors associated with the students’ propensity to vaccination were: having at least one sister; being in favour of vaccinations in general; knowing that the vaccine is aimed at preventing cervical cancer; and being aware that they could be infected by HPV.
    Conclusion: both the HPV test and HPV vaccine need effective communication and monitoring of the spread of knowledge, especially among women identified as most in need of information and included in the age group at risk, in wich it is crucial to encourage informed choices. This underlines the need to plan adequate educational programmes....

  17. Preventing toxicomania and addictive behaviour in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceaux, Pauline; Maricq, Aurélie; Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Reynaert, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Drug addicts are more and more stigmatized in our society. Recent data show a connection between substance abuse and other behaviors considered normal, such as passionate love. Adolescence is characterized by a biopsychosocial, cognitive and neurodevelopmental immaturity. This article aims to understand if these subjects are more likely to develop addictions to certain products or addictive behaviors such as passionate love. It also offers a better understanding of the current models for prevention of substance abuse during adolescence. After defining the roles played, in the brain, by dopamine and by the reward circuit, as well as the different stages of development of the human brain, we compared neurobiological data and imaging studies both in cases of passionate love and substance addiction during adolescence. The brain imaging studies highlight the role of the prefrontal cortex in the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the addictive phenomenon. Now, the maturation of the prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence, as do significant peaks in the expression of dopamine. These studies also suggest an increase in cortical activation (nucleus accumbens and amygdala) when processing emotional information, which is also increased during adolescence. Taken together, the results show a parallel between addiction and love relations, both at the level of neuroscience and imaging. A greater emotional lability and sensitivity may play a role in the higher incidence of substance abuse and dependence in love observed at this age. Preventing the use of illegal substances among young people therefore requires a very specific approach.

  18. Health Screening Behaviour among Female Urban Dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nairan Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An ageing population is a public health challenge, affects most countries. Health screenings are able to detect diseases at the earliest stage. A cross-sectional study in December 2014 conducted among 643 older women who randomly interviewed using structured questionnaire from two urban governmental health centres in Malaysia. Aims of the study were to describe health screening services behaviour and health care accessibility among women aged 50 and above. Factors such as living arrangement and age played important roles in health screening execution among older female community dwellers. Advocacy on health screening is vital as to reduce the morbidity and mortality among them.

  19. Changing your health behaviour: regulate or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maeckelberghe, Els; McKee, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The overwhelming message of the EPH-conference is that taking health inequalities seriously demands a portfolio of approaches. Regulating health behaviour is neither a choice for liberalism (self- regulation) nor for paternalism (interventionism). Regulation and fiscal policies are essential but

  20. CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the Mother's Health-seeking Behaviour and Childhood. Mortality in South East ... within the family in the right quantity (Federal Ministry of Health and Social Services,. 1992). The unfortunate .... foods, such as meat, chicken, and eggs, from infants for cultural reasons because of the. Ugwueje, E. A.: ...

  1. Health behaviour change interventions for couples: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden-Close, Emily; McGrath, Nuala

    2017-05-01

    Partners are a significant influence on individuals' health, and concordance in health behaviours increases over time in couples. Several theories suggest that couple-focused interventions for health behaviour change may therefore be more effective than individual interventions. A systematic review of health behaviour change interventions for couples was conducted. Systematic search methods identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized interventions of health behaviour change for couples with at least one member at risk of a chronic physical illness, published from 1990-2014. We identified 14 studies, targeting the following health behaviours: cancer prevention (6), obesity (1), diet (2), smoking in pregnancy (2), physical activity (1) and multiple health behaviours (2). In four out of seven trials couple-focused interventions were more effective than usual care. Of four RCTs comparing a couple-focused intervention to an individual intervention, two found that the couple-focused intervention was more effective. The studies were heterogeneous, and included participants at risk of a variety of illnesses. In many cases the intervention was compared to usual care for an individual or an individual-focused intervention, which meant the impact of the couplebased content could not be isolated. Three arm studies could determine whether any added benefits of couple-focused interventions are due to adding the partner or specific content of couple-focused interventions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Health behaviours and health behaviour change are more often concordant across couples than between individuals in the general population. Couple-focused interventions for chronic conditions are more effective than individual interventions or usual care (Martire, Schulz, Helgeson, Small, & Saghafi, ). What does this study add? Identified studies targeted a variety of health behaviours, with few studies in any one area. Further

  2. A systematic review of technology-based interventions for unintentional injury prevention education and behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Elise; Rizzutti, Nicholas; Shields, Wendy; Zhu, Jeffrey; McDonald, Eileen; Stevens, Martha W; Gielen, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this literature review are to (1) summarise how computer and mobile technology-based health behaviour change applications have been evaluated in unintentional injury prevention, (2) describe how these successes can be applied to injury-prevention programmes in the future and (3) identify research gaps. Studies included in this systematic review were education and behaviour change intervention trials and programme evaluations in which the intervention was delivered by either a computer or mobile technology and addressed an unintentional injury prevention topic. Articles were limited to those published in English and after 1990. Among the 44 technology-based injury-prevention studies included in this review, 16 studies evaluated locally hosted software programmes, 4 studies offered kiosk-based programmes, 11 evaluated remotely hosted internet programmes, 2 studies used mobile technology or portable devices and 11 studies evaluated virtual-reality interventions. Locally hosted software programmes and remotely hosted internet programmes consistently increased knowledge and behaviours. Kiosk programmes showed evidence of modest knowledge and behaviour gains. Both programmes using mobile technology improved behaviours. Virtual-reality programmes consistently improved behaviours, but there were little gains in knowledge. No studies evaluated text-messaging programmes dedicated to injury prevention. There is much potential for computer-based programmes to be used for injury-prevention behaviour change. The reviewed studies provide evidence that computer-based communication is effective in conveying information and influencing how participants think about an injury topic and adopt safety behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Towards the Prevention of Behavioural and Psychiatric Disorders in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David; Langthorne, Paul; Tonge, Bruce; Emerson, Eric; McGill, Peter; Fletcher, Robert; Dosen, Anton; Kennedy, Craig

    2013-01-01

    Intervention for behavioural and psychiatric disorders in people with intellectual disabilities often only takes place once these conditions are well established and more resistant to change. As an alternative, this paper promotes a public health prevention model and maps out opportunities for intervention at primary, secondary and tertiary…

  4. EDITORIAL HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOUR IN CONTEXT Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2003-02-01

    Feb 1, 2003 ... For this reason the nature of care seeking is not homogenous depending on cognitive and non-cognitive factors that call for a contextual analysis of care seeking behaviour. Context may ... seeking model will involve recognition of symptoms, perceived nature of illness, followed initially by appropriate home ...

  5. Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    involving the lateral ankle . • Ankle sprains represent 21 to 53% and 17 to 29% of all basketball and soccer injuries respectively. • Ankle sprains...Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention Francis G. O’Connor, MD, MPH Patricia A. Deuster, PhD, MPH Department of Military and Emergency...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  6. Assessment tools of energy balance-related behaviours used in European obesity prevention strategies: review of studies during preschool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouratidou, T.; Mesana, M.I.; Manios, Y.; Koletzko, B.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Socha, P.; Iotova, V.; Moreno, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Valid and reliable measures of energy balance-related behaviours are required when evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions aiming at prevention of childhood obesity. A structured descriptive review was performed to appraise food intake, physical activity and sedentary behaviour

  7. Infection prevention behaviour and infectious disease modelling: a review of the literature and recommendations for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Dale; Hauck, Katharina; Amlôt, Richard

    2018-03-09

    Given the importance of person to person transmission in the spread of infectious diseases, it is critically important to ensure that human behaviour with respect to infection prevention is appropriately represented within infectious disease models. This paper presents a large scale scoping review regarding the incorporation of infection prevention behaviour in infectious disease models. The outcomes of this review are contextualised within the psychological literature concerning health behaviour and behaviour change, resulting in a series of key recommendations for the incorporation of human behaviour in future infectious disease models. The search strategy focused on terms relating to behaviour, infectious disease and mathematical modelling. The selection criteria were developed iteratively to focus on original research articles that present an infectious disease model with human-human spread, in which individuals' self-protective health behaviour varied endogenously within the model. Data extracted included: the behaviour that is modelled; how this behaviour is modelled; any theoretical background for the modelling of behaviour, and; any behavioural data used to parameterise the models. Forty-two papers from an initial total of 2987 were retained for inclusion in the final review. All of these papers were published between 2002 and 2015. Many of the included papers employed a multiple, linked models to incorporate infection prevention behaviour. Both cognitive constructs (e.g., perceived risk) and, to a lesser extent, social constructs (e.g., social norms) were identified in the included papers. However, only five papers made explicit reference to psychological health behaviour change theories. Finally, just under half of the included papers incorporated behavioural data in their modelling. By contextualising the review outcomes within the psychological literature on health behaviour and behaviour change, three key recommendations for future behavioural

  8. Engineering behaviour change in an epidemic: the epistemology of NIH-funded HIV prevention science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam; Kolar, Kat

    2015-05-01

    Social scientific and public health literature on National Institutes of Health-funded HIV behavioural prevention science often assumes that this body of work has a strong biomedical epistemological orientation. We explore this assumption by conducting a systematic content analysis of all NIH-funded HIV behavioural prevention grants for men who have sex with men between 1989 and 2012. We find that while intervention research strongly favours a biomedical orientation, research into the antecedents of HIV risk practices favours a sociological, interpretive and structural orientation. Thus, with respect to NIH-funded HIV prevention science, there exists a major disjunct in the guiding epistemological orientations of how scientists understand HIV risk, on the one hand, and how they engineer behaviour change in behavioural interventions, on the other. Building on the extant literature, we suggest that the cause of this disjunct is probably attributable not to an NIH-wide positivist orientation, but to the specific standards of evidence used to adjudicate HIV intervention grant awards, including randomised controlled trials and other quantitative measures of intervention efficacy. © 2015 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cultural Environment, Health Seeking Behaviour and Survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural Environment, Health Seeking Behaviour and Survival Chances of under five Children in South East Nigeria. ... International Journal of Development and Management Review. Journal Home ... It was found that neonatal, infant, and child mortality rate is the highest among children of mothers aged less than 20 years.

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Intimate partner violence, health behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Using data from the cross-sectional, nationally representative South African Stress and Health Study, we assessed exposure to intimate partner ..... Other drug use. 0.77. 0.11. 5.51. 0.795. Health-seeking behaviours. Partner stability. 0.95. 0.64. 1.42. 0.815. Sexual precautions. 0.86. 0.61. 1.22. 0.404. AIDS test.

  11. Conditions of the Implementation of Selected Early Prevention Behaviours by High School Students from Radom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogiła-Lisowska Jolanta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The specific type of human activities that aim to maintain full health by maintaining biological, psychological and social comfort indicate the need to adopt a holistic perspective in any analysis of determinants of pro-health behaviour. When analysing the aetiology of somatic diseases, it is important to take into account biological and mental well-being as well as the connections between needs, interests and lifestyle decisions and their consequences. One of the measures used to reduce the risk of a progressive lack of immunity to non-infectious diseases is prevention, understood as actions aimed at preventing diseases or other adverse health phenomena by controlling their causes and risk factors. An important component of prevention programmes is preventing the occurrence of negative social behaviour patterns that contribute to the increased risk of diseases. Three basic components of a healthy lifestyle – regular physical activity, proper nutrition and sufficient rest and relaxation (stress management – justify the importance of practising healthy habits from an early age. The role of promoting pro-health behaviours among children and adolescents is of particular importance in the context of increasingly sedentary lifestyles, obesity and weight problems.

  12. prevention decreased sexual risk behaviour after the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-01

    Dec 1, 2006 ... Condom use with casual partners increased from 53% among the men and 46% among the women before the diagnosis ... Conclusions. The ART had an overall positive effect on health with no increase of sexual risk behaviour. ... were calculated by a statistician using the computer program for binominal ...

  13. Attitudes and behaviour of Greek households regarding food waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeliotis, Konstadinos; Lasaridi, Katia; Chroni, Christina

    2014-03-01

    Food waste is a waste stream with serious economic, environmental and social implications. The emphasis of the reported research is on the food waste generated by households in Greece. A structured questionnaire was utilised in order to identify the attitudes of the respondents and investigate the prevalence of certain behavioural good practices that can prevent the generation of food waste. The research, to our knowledge the first of its kind in Greece, took place in February and March 2012. Face-to-face interviews were employed, resulting to a total of 231 consumers fully completing the questionnaire. Results indicate that, based on self-reported behaviour, people in Greece have positive attitudes towards food waste prevention and that their habits are close to the good practices suggested in the literature for reducing food waste. For instance, most respondents do plan their food shopping in a multitude of ways and are very careful in their purchases of fresh food supplies. However, about 40% misunderstand the meaning of food date labels. The positive findings are strongly influenced by the severe recession experienced in the country, which makes consumers more conscious of their spending. Results may serve as a yardstick to further promote and establish food waste prevention behaviour at the household level on an environmental and social awareness basis that may outlast the economic crisis.

  14. Prevention of unintentional injuries in early childhood: Using an E-health4Uth home safety intervention to promote parents’ child safety behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.J. van Scholing-van Beelen (Mirjam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractEvery day around the world the lives of more than two thousand families are torn apart by the loss of a child due to an unintentional injury [1]. Such tragedy can change lives irrevocably. It is a major public health problem that requires urgent attention. “Unintentional injury” is

  15. Mother's Behaviour Towards the Prevention and Treating of Children Under Five Years Old From Diarrhea in Belawa Community Health Center Service Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ningsih, Haryati; Syafar, Muh; Nyorong, Mappeaty

    2014-01-01

    A mother's role is very important when baby suffers from diarrhea, because mother is the figure most responsible for the baby's growth. According to the data from the Health Department, in 2011 until 2012 there were 12.942 babies who suffered from diarrhea in Wajo Regency, South Sulawesi. This study implemented a qualitative method with phenomenology approach. Informants were selected using the purposive sampling method, which is a method to select informants based on certain criterias. 11 in...

  16. Universal parenting programme to prevent early childhood behavioural problems: cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscock, Harriet; Bayer, Jordana K; Price, Anna; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Rogers, Susan; Wake, Melissa

    2008-02-09

    To determine whether a parenting programme, offered universally in primary care, can prevent behavioural problems in children and improve parenting and maternal mental health. Cluster randomised trial. 40 primary care nursing centres (clusters) in Victoria, Australia. 733 English speaking mothers of 8 month old children sequentially recruited from well child appointments; 656 retained at 24 months. Structured three session programme at age 8-15 months, co-led by well child providers and a parenting expert. The programme covered normal development and behaviour, strategies to increase desired behaviour, and strategies to reduce unwanted behaviour. Maternal report of child externalising behaviour (child behavior checklist 1(1/2)-5 year old), parenting (parent behavior checklist), and maternal mental health (depression anxiety stress scales) at 18 and 24 months. At 18 months, child behaviour and parenting scores were similar in the two groups. At 24 months, externalising scores in the intervention and control groups were similar (mean 11.9 (SD 7.2) v 12.9 (7.4)); however, on the parent behavior checklist subscale scores, intervention group parents were less likely to report harsh/abusive parenting (mean 38.9 (SD 7.7) v 40.5 (8.8); adjusted mean difference -1.83, 95% confidence interval -3.12 to -0.55) and unreasonable expectations of child development (40.9 (9.9) v 42.7 (9.6); -2.18, -3.74 to -0.62). Mean scores for nurturing parenting and maternal mental health were similar in the two groups at both times. A universal parenting programme resulted in modest improvement in parenting factors that predict behavioural problems in children but did not reduce externalising behavioural problems or affect maternal mental health at 2 years. Trial registration ISRCTN 77531789.

  17. Injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNoe, Bronwen M; Chalmers, David J

    2011-11-01

    To adapt and pilot test a method for undertaking routine surveillance of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer. Surveillance system using a cohort design. Simple random samples were drawn from the player registration databases of two soccer federations. All players aged 13 years or over who intended to play in a school or club competition during the 2006 winter season were eligible. The cohort consisted of 687 male and 193 female players. The players were contacted each week and asked about their adherence to nationally recommended injury prevention measures. No more than 20% of players completed any form of pre-season screening. Almost all players warmed-up for player-matches (97%) and player-training sessions (93%). Eighty-one percent of players undertook some form of physical conditioning on at least one occasion in the off-season. Very few players (13%) reported receiving instruction on tackling technique pre-season. Shin-guards were worn in 99% of matches. For 61% of match injury events, the injured player continued to play after the injury occurred and in 65% of these cases, the player reported that in hindsight they should not have returned to play. The results provide a baseline measure of injury prevention behaviour in community-level soccer players. Future research, employing comparable surveillance methods, could be used to monitor progress on adherence to the injury prevention measures canvassed in this study. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Health seeking behaviour and challenges in utilising health facilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: While 89% of the participants were aware that mobile clinics existed in their community, only 28% had received such services in the past month. The majority of participants (84%) did not know whether community health workers existed in their community. The participants' health seeking behaviour the last time they ...

  19. Using health psychology to help patients: theories of behaviour change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Elizabeth; Lawson, Victoria

    2016-09-08

    Behaviour change theories and related research evidence highlight the complexity of making and sticking to health-related behaviour changes. These theories make explicit factors that influence behaviour change, such as health beliefs, past behaviour, intention, social influences, perceived control and the context of the behaviour. Nurses can use this information to understand why a particular patient may find making recommended health behaviour changes difficult and to determine factors that may help them. This article outlines five well-established theories of behaviour change: the health belief model, the theory of planned behaviour, the stages of change model, self-determination theory, and temporal self-regulation theory. The evidence for interventions that are informed by these theories is then explored and appraised. The extent and quality of evidence varies depending on the type of behaviour and patients targeted, but evidence from randomised controlled trials indicates that interventions informed by theory can result in behaviour change.

  20. Hazardous Health Behaviour among Medical Students: a Study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacar, Melis; Cetinkaya, Fevziye; Baykan, Zeynep; Yilmazel, Gulay; Elmali, Ferhan

    2015-01-01

    medical students, with higher risks among males and last class students. According to these results, medical curriculum may be focused on decreasing hazardous health behaviour. In addition, in order to prevent unhealthy behaviour, the number of youth-friendly health facilities should be increased.

  1. An innovative program for changing health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Valerie; Mori, Trevor A; Giangiulio, Nella; Gillam, Helen F; Beilin, Lawrie J; Houghton, Stephen; Cutt, Hayley E; Mansour, Jacqueline; Wilson, Amy

    2002-01-01

    Health-related behaviours affecting diet, weight control and physical activity are important for long-term cardiovascular health but behaviour change is difficult to initiate and even more difficult to maintain. We have developed a health promotion program, in which social support has a key role, to encourage a prudent diet, weight control and physical activity. Behaviour change is based on evaluating initial behaviour, weighing up costs and benefits, assessing barriers to change and goal-setting. We first evaluated the program in couples beginning to live together, a group chosen because of the risk of weight gain and decreased physical activity after marriage, readiness to change behaviour at that time in the life course and the opportunity to use partner's support in achieving behaviour change. In an initial short-term study with 39 couples, intake of fat and take-away foods decreased and consumption of fruit, vegetables and reduced fat foods increased. Physical activity increased and there was a 6% fall in blood cholesterol. Further evaluation in 137 couples included assessment after 12 months. A decrease in fat intake and increase in physical activity and fitness seen at the end of the program persisted 1 year later. Lower cholesterol and a trend to lower weight gain and lower blood pressure were also maintained after 12 months. We have modified the program aiming for weight loss, improved dietary habits and increased physical activity in overweight treated hypertensives, supported by their partners. Decreased intake of energy, total and saturated fat, and weight loss seen at the end of the 16 week program was significantly greater in the intervention group than with usual care. Blood pressure fell in the program group at the end of intervention and, in men, withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs was significantly associated with the intervention. Weight loss and a decrease in waist circumference were maintained in the program group up to 16 months after

  2. Initiating and continuing behaviour change within a weight gain prevention trial: a qualitative investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Kozica

    Full Text Available Preventing obesity is an international health priority. In Australia, young women who live in rural communities are at high risk of unhealthy weight gain. Interventions which engage young women and support sustainable behaviour change are needed and comprehensive evaluation of such interventions generates knowledge for population scale-up. This qualitative sub-study aims to identify enablers and barriers to behaviour change initiation and continuation within a community weight gain prevention program.In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants 6 months after baseline. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed independently by two investigators via thematic analysis.A total of 28 women with a mean age of 39.9±6.2years and a BMI of 28.6±5.2kg/m2 were purposively recruited from the larger cohort (n = 649 that participated in the prevention trial.Four behaviour change groups emerged were identified from participant interviews: (i no change, (ii relapse, (iii intermittent and (iv continued change. Factors influencing behaviour change initiation and continuation included realistic program expectations and the participant's ability to apply the core program elements including: setting small, achievable behaviour change goals, problem solving and using self-management techniques. Personal knowledge, skills, motivation, self-efficacy, accountability and perceived social and environmental barriers also affected behaviour change. Satisfaction with personal program progress and the perceived amount of program supports required to achieve ongoing behaviour change varied amongst participants. Women who relapsed expressed a desire for more intensive and regular support from health professionals, identified more barriers unrelated to the program, anticipated significant weight loss and had lower satisfaction with their progress.Initiating and continuing behaviour change is a complex

  3. Predictors of dentists' behaviours in delivering prevention in primary dental care in England: using the theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Huda; Kolliakou, Anna; Ntouva, Antiopi; Murphy, Marie; Newton, Tim; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2016-02-08

    To explore the factors predicting preventive behaviours among NHS dentists in Camden, Islington and Haringey in London, using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour. A cross-sectional survey of NHS dentists working in North Central London was conducted. A self-completed questionnaire based on the theoretical framework of the Theory of Planned Behaviour was developed. It assessed dentists' attitudes, current preventive activities, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control in delivering preventive care. In model 1, logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationship between a range of preventive behaviours (diet, smoking and alcohol) and the three TPB constructs attitude, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Model 2 was adjusted for intention. Overall, 164 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 55.0%). Dentists' attitudes were important predictors of preventive behaviours among a sample of dentists in relation to asking and providing diet, alcohol and tobacco advice. A dentist was 3.73 times (95 % CI: 1.70, 8.18) more likely ask about a patient's diet, if they had a positive attitude towards prevention, when adjusted for age, sex and intention. A similar pattern emerged for alcohol advice (OR 2.35, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.96). Dentists who had a positive attitude were also 2.59 times more likely to provide smoking cessation advice. The findings of this study have demonstrated that dentists' attitudes are important predictors of preventive behaviours in relation to delivery of diet, smoking and alcohol advice.

  4. Determinants of Malaria Prevention and Treatment Seeking Behaviours of Pregnant Undergraduates Resident in University Hostels, South-East Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinweuba, Anthonia Ukamaka; Agbapuonwu, Noreen Ebelechukwu; Onyiapat, JaneLovena Enuma; Israel, Chidimma Egbichi; Ilo, Clementine Ifeyinwa; Arinze, Joyce Chinenye

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional descriptive survey investigated determinants of malaria prevention and treatment seeking behaviours of pregnant undergraduates resident in university hostels, South-East Nigeria. Purposive sampling was used to enrol 121 accessible and consenting undergraduates with self-revealed and noticeable pregnancy residing in twenty-three female hostels of four university campuses in Enugu State, Nigeria. Structured interview guide developed based on reviewed literature and WHO-recommended malaria prevention and treatment measures was used to collect students' self-report data on malaria preventive health behaviours, sick role behaviours, and clinic use using mixed methods. The WHO-recommended malaria prevention measures were sparingly used. Some believed that pregnancy does not play any role in a woman's reaction to malaria infection. Only 41 (50.6%) visited a hospital for screening and treatment. Thirty-four (28.1%) used antimalaria medicine bought from chemist shop or over-the-counter medicines, while 33 (27.3%) used untreated net. The students were more likely to complete their antimalaria medicine when they were sick with malaria infection than for prevention ( p = 0.0186). Knowledge, academic schedule, cultural influence on perception and decision-making, and accessibility of health facility were key determinants of the women's preventive and treatment seeking behaviours. Health education on malaria prevention and dangers of drug abuse should form part of orientation lectures for all freshmen. University health centres should be upgraded to provide basic antenatal care services.

  5. Determinants of Malaria Prevention and Treatment Seeking Behaviours of Pregnant Undergraduates Resident in University Hostels, South-East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthonia Ukamaka Chinweuba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional descriptive survey investigated determinants of malaria prevention and treatment seeking behaviours of pregnant undergraduates resident in university hostels, South-East Nigeria. Purposive sampling was used to enrol 121 accessible and consenting undergraduates with self-revealed and noticeable pregnancy residing in twenty-three female hostels of four university campuses in Enugu State, Nigeria. Structured interview guide developed based on reviewed literature and WHO-recommended malaria prevention and treatment measures was used to collect students’ self-report data on malaria preventive health behaviours, sick role behaviours, and clinic use using mixed methods. The WHO-recommended malaria prevention measures were sparingly used. Some believed that pregnancy does not play any role in a woman’s reaction to malaria infection. Only 41 (50.6% visited a hospital for screening and treatment. Thirty-four (28.1% used antimalaria medicine bought from chemist shop or over-the-counter medicines, while 33 (27.3% used untreated net. The students were more likely to complete their antimalaria medicine when they were sick with malaria infection than for prevention (p=0.0186. Knowledge, academic schedule, cultural influence on perception and decision-making, and accessibility of health facility were key determinants of the women’s preventive and treatment seeking behaviours. Health education on malaria prevention and dangers of drug abuse should form part of orientation lectures for all freshmen. University health centres should be upgraded to provide basic antenatal care services.

  6. Social marketing to address attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jennifer; Zheng, Xin; Lafreniere, Kevin; Pike, Ian

    2018-03-16

    Social marketing is a tool used in the domain of public health for prevention and public education. Because injury prevention is a priority public health issue in British Columbia, Canada, a 3-year consultation was undertaken to understand public attitudes towards preventable injuries and mount a province-wide social marketing campaign aimed at adults aged 25-55 years. Public response to the campaign was assessed through an online survey administered to a regionally representative sample of adults within the target age group between 1 and 4 times per year on an ongoing basis since campaign launch. A linear regression model was applied to a subset of this data (n=5186 respondents) to test the association between exposure to the Preventable campaign and scores on perceived preventability of injuries as well as conscious forethought applied to injury-related behaviours. Campaign exposure was significant in both models (preventability: β=0.27, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.35; conscious thought: β=0.24, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.35), as was parental status (preventability: β=0.12, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.21; conscious thought: β=0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30). Exposure to the more recent campaign slogan was predictive of 0.47 higher score on conscious thought (95% CI 0.27 to 0.66). This study provides some evidence that the Preventable approach is having positive effect on attitudes and behaviours related to preventable injuries in the target population. Future work will seek to compare these data to other jurisdictions as the Preventable social marketing campaign expands to other parts of Canada. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Mobile phone messaging for preventive health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopivec-Jamsek, Vlasta; de Jongh, Thyra; Gurol-Urganci, Ipek; Atun, Rifat; Car, Josip

    2012-12-12

    Preventive health care promotes health and prevents disease or injuries by addressing factors that lead to the onset of a disease, and by detecting latent conditions to reduce or halt their progression. Many risk factors for costly and disabling conditions (such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, and chronic respiratory diseases) can be prevented, yet healthcare systems do not make the best use of their available resources to support this process. Mobile phone messaging applications, such as Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Message Service (MMS), could offer a convenient and cost-effective way to support desirable health behaviours for preventive health care. To assess the effects of mobile phone messaging interventions as a mode of delivery for preventive health care, on health status and health behaviour outcomes. We searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library 2009, Issue 2), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), EMBASE (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), PsycINFO (OvidSP) (January 1993 to June 2009), CINAHL (EbscoHOST) (January 1993 to June 2009), LILACS (January 1993 to June 2009) and African Health Anthology (January 1993 to June 2009).We also reviewed grey literature (including trial registers) and reference lists of articles. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials (QRCTs), controlled before-after (CBA) studies, and interrupted time series (ITS) studies with at least three time points before and after the intervention. We included studies using SMS or MMS as a mode of delivery for any type of preventive health care. We only included studies in which it was possible to assess the effects of mobile phone messaging independent of other technologies or interventions. Two review authors independently assessed all studies against the inclusion criteria, with any disagreements resolved by a third review author. Study design features

  8. Health seeking behaviours of female manual labourers towards ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occupation may affect health seeking behaviour. Very little is known about this behaviour in labourers. This study assessed the health-seeking behaviour of the female manual labourers to fever in Jos, Nigeria. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 300 female manual ...

  9. [Breastfeeding: health, prevention, and environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of research in the field of neuroscience and human microbiome indicates the primal period (from preconceptional up to the early years of a child's life) as crucial to the future of the individual, opening new scenarios for the understanding of the processes underlying the human health. In recent decades, the social representation of infant feeding moved in fact from the normality of breastfeeding to the normal use of artificial formulas and bottle-feeding. Even the scientific thinking and the research production have been influenced by this phenomenon. In fact, a clear dominance of studies aimed to show the benefits of breast milk compared to formula milk rather than the risks of the latter compared to the biological norm of breastfeeding. Mother milk affects infant health also through his/her microbiome. Microbial colonisation startes during intrauterine life and continues through the vaginal canal at birth, during skin to skin contact immediately after birth, with colostrum and breastfeeding. The microbial exposure of infants delivered by the mother influences the development of the child microbiota, by programming his/her future health. However, rewriting the biological normality implies also a health professional paradigm shift such as departing from the systematic separation mother-child at birth, sticking at fixed schedules for breastfeeding time and duration, as it still happens in many birth centres. Breastfeeding has economic implications and the increase of its prevalence is associated with significant reduction of avoidable hospital admissions and medical care costs, both for the child and for the mother. Success in breastfeeding is the result of complex social interactions and not simply of an individual choice. However, any successful strategy must be oriented to the mother empowerment. Therefore, health professionals and community stakeholders have to learn and practice the health promotion approach, particularly avoiding

  10. Employees' perceptions of the impact of work on health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Nicola; Jones, Fiona; Harris, Peter R

    2013-07-01

    Research examining the impact of work on health behaviours has rarely provided a complete picture of the impact across health behaviours. Twenty-four employees were interviewed about their smoking, drinking, exercise and eating. Themes included the impact of the work environment, including policy, convenience and workplace cultural norms; business events effecting one's routine and again convenience and workplace cultural norms; being busy at work effecting time and energy for healthy behaviour; and work stress leading to health behaviours being used as coping responses on bad and good days. The impact of work is similar across health behaviours and is primarily detrimental.

  11. Interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Meyer-Weitz, Anna

    2011-01-19

    Homeless youth are at high risk for HIV infection as a consequence of risky sexual behaviour. Interventions for homeless youth are challenging. Assessment of the effectiveness of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviours for preventing HIV in homeless youth is needed. To evaluate and summarize the effectiveness of interventions for modifying sexual risk behaviours and preventing transmission of HIV among homeless youth. We searched electronic databases (CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, AIDSearch, Gateway, PsycInfo, LILACS), reference lists of eligible articles, international health agency publication lists, and clinical trial registries. The search was updated January 2010. We contacted authors of published reports and other key role players. Randomised studies of interventions to modify sexual risk behaviour (biological, self-reporting of sexual-risk behaviour or health-seeking behaviour) in homeless youth (12-24 years). Data from eligible studies were extracted by two reviewers. We assessed risk of bias per the Cochrane Collaborations tool. None of the eligible studies reported any primary biological outcomes for this review. Reports of self-reporting sexual risk behaviour outcomes varied across studies precluding calculation of summary measures of effect; we present the outcomes descriptively for each study. We contacted authors for missing or ambiguous data. We identified three eligible studies after screening a total of 255 unique records. All three were performed in the United States of America and recruited substance-abusing male and female adolescents (total N=615) through homeless shelters into randomised controlled trials of independent and non-overlapping behavioural interventions. The three trials differed in theoretical background, delivery method, dosage (number of sessions,) content and outcome assessments. Overall, the variability in delivery and outcomes precluded estimation of summary of effect measures. We assessed the risk of bias to be high for

  12. Preventive behaviours against radiation and related factors among general workers after Fukushima's nuclear disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Koyama, Kikuo

    2013-04-01

    The nuclear power plant accidents in Fukushima resulted in a widespread release of radioactive substances in the Fukushima prefecture. To clarify what factors led to precautions among general workers who displayed preventive behaviours against radiation following the nuclear disasters in Fukushima. Descriptive study of preventive behaviours among general workers 3-5 months following the nuclear disasters. The subjects were 1394 regular workers who took part in radiation seminars conducted by the Fukushima Occupational Health Promotion Center between July and August 2011. Of 1217 responses, 1110 eligible responses were included in this study. This anonymous questionnaire survey was asking for characteristics and questions on preventive behaviours following the nuclear disasters. The authors assessed the contribution of each variable by a logistic regression analysis. Keeping track of environmental radiation levels and washing hands and gargling were significantly more frequent among female subjects, older age and workers residing up to approximately 80 km away from the power plants. Washing hands and gargling were also related with living with children. Wearing a mask when leaving home and buying bottled water were significantly more often observed with female subjects and workers residing up to 80 km. Refraining from going outdoors was positively associated with workers residing up to 80 km and workers living with children. These results provide information that may help with the targeting of health information after a nuclear disaster. This may contribute to determining an order of priority when distributing information after a nuclear disaster.

  13. Aligning product development and user perspectives: social-behavioural dimensions of multipurpose prevention technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M; Tolley, E

    2014-10-01

    Multipurpose prevention technologies provide a compelling response to the multiple and reinforcing sexual and reproductive health risks faced by women globally. To ensure that this potential is realised, product-specific characteristics and their social-behavioural correlates must be considered early in the product development process. This paper provides an overview of the key user-related social and behavioural dimensions of three broad categories of multipurpose prevention technologies: 1) sustained release vaginal rings, 2) pericoital vaginal products, and 3) co-formulated or co-administered injectables. The authors build upon the broad parameters of Target Product Profiles for such products, aligning them with user perspective considerations. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Using institutional and behavioural economics to examine animal health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, C A

    2017-04-01

    Economics provides a framework for understanding management decisions and their policy implications for the animal health system. While the neoclassical economic model is useful for framing animal health decisions on the farm, some of its assumptions and prescriptive results may be unrealistic. Institutional and behavioural economics address some of these potential shortcomings by considering the role of information, psychology and social factors in decisions. Framing such decisions under contract theory allows us to consider asymmetric information between policy-makers and farmers. Perverse incentives may exist in the area of preventing and reporting disease. Behavioural economics examines the role of internal and external psychological and social factors. Biases, heuristics, habit, social norms and other such aspects can result in farm decision-makers arriving at what might be considered irrational or otherwise sub-optimal decisions. Framing choices and providing relevant information and examples can alleviate these behavioural issues. The implications of this approach for disease policy and an applied research and outreach programme to respond to animal diseases are discussed.

  15. Early detection of children at risk for antisocial behaviour using data from routine preventive child healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijneveld Sijmen A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Youth antisocial behaviour is highly prevalent. Young people are usually not willing to disclose such behaviour to professionals and parents. Our aim was to assess whether child health professionals (CHP working in preventive child healthcare could identify pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour through using data that they obtain in routine practice. Methods CHPs examined a national sample of 974 pre-adolescents aged 8-12 years (response 79.1%, and interviewed parents and children during routine well-child assessments. We obtained data on family background and current health of the child from the CHP; on developmental concerns from parents, and on social and emotional well-being, injuries, and substance use from the children. Antisocial behaviour concerned the adolescent-reported 15 item International Self-Reported Delinquency study questionnaire, among which are 5 items on violence against people. Results The prevalence of 2+acts of any antisocial behaviour was 21.8%, and 33.9% for 1+acts of violence (10.5% for 2+. Children who were male, had a young mother, no parent employed, recent injuries, poor performance at school or who were bored by school, and who had parental concerns more often reported 2+antisocial acts and 1+violence against people. Detection algorithms on the basis of these variables were moderately able to classify outcomes, with Areas-Under-the-Curves ranging from 0.66 to 0.71. Conclusions Data from routine well-child assessment can help CHPs to detect pre-adolescents at risk for antisocial behaviour, but detection algorithms need to be further improved. This could be done by obtaining additional information on factors that are associated with antisocial behaviour.

  16. [Psychological and behavioural symptoms of dementia: prevention, diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olazaran-Rodriguez, J; Aguera-Ortiz, L F; Muniz-Schwochert, R

    2012-11-16

    The psychological and behavioural symptoms of dementia (BPSD) [corrected] give rise to personal suffering, are the cause of added deterioration and worsen the economic and social cost of dementias. To offer a systematic approach to the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of BPSD. [corrected]. The study adopts a global perspective that takes into account biological, psychological and social factors in an attempt to avoid both excessive medicalisation and a purely psychology-based attitude. Satisfying basic needs, treating medical and psychiatric comorbidity, the adaptation of the setting, and the specific pharmacological treatment of dementia, as well as offering patients and their caregivers the counselling and support they need, all contribute to prevent the onset of BPSD. [corrected]. The diagnosis of BPSD [corrected] is based on the patient's medical history and on observation. It is useful to identify a primary or destabilising BPSD [corrected] on which to deploy hypotheses and specific treatments based on modifying the environment, drugs, non-pharmacological therapies and continuous assessment. Any action taken must be integrated within a person-focused care plan aimed at accomplishing the patients' and their caregivers' welfare and quality of life. BPSD [corrected] are the result of biological, psychological and social factors. In the present scenario, in which there are no curative treatments in most cases of dementia, a systematic and multidisciplinary approach aimed at preventing and treating BPSD [corrected] is a highly cost-effective therapeutic opportunity in both personal and social terms.

  17. Sexual behaviours and preconception health in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual behaviours have been recognized as a threat for sexual and reproductive health. AIM: This article shows the results of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk" in relation to determining how a large sample of university students in Italy cope with preconception health, especially in the domains of sexual transmitted infections (STIs, fertility and vaccination preventable disease. METHODS: Twentythree questions of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey about sexual behaviour and reproductive health were analysed. Besides, results were stratified for sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: 19.7% of students have had first sexual intercourse before age 15. 21.8% of female students used emergency contraception. 66.4% of the 74.0% sexual active students reported using contraceptives, but about 32% of them used methods ineffective against STIs. A general low coverage for rubella, measles and mumps vaccination was revealed. 63.7% of men and 30.9% of woman never had urologic or gynaecological examinations. DISCUSSION: Overall, young adults in Italy are not still enough sensitized on fertility and preconception care. High schools and universities should increase awareness towards preservation of male and female fertility and preconception care.

  18. The primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: nurse practitioners using behaviour modification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Todd Charles; Keeping-Burke, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) places great financial strain on the health care system and dramatically affects individual quality of life. As primary health care providers, nurse practitioners (NPs) are ideally positioned to advise clients on risk factor and lifestyle modifications that ameliorate the impact of CVD. While the lifestyle targets for CVD prevention are established, the most effective means of achieving these goals remain uncertain. Behaviour modification strategies, including motivational interviewing (MI) and the transtheoretical model (TTM), have been suggested, but neither approach is established as being more efficacious than the other. In this paper, evidence on the effectiveness of the two approaches for modifying smoking, diet, and exercise behaviour are presented, and a recommendation for NP practice is made.

  19. The Effect of Adolescent Training Program on Risky Health Behaviours and Health Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem KÜRTÜNCÜ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the risky health behaviors and to raise the awareness of adolescents (attending high school education about prevention of risky behaviors and solutions by the effect of module-based training courses (about reproductive health and birth control, sexually transmitted infections, harmful habits, psychosocial behavior. Being planned as cross-sectional, this study was performed between September 2013-June 2014 in three states and a private high school in Zonguldak and conducted with a group of students aged between 14 and 19.926 students have participated before the training and 534 students have participated after training. It was seen that the mean scores of ‘The Adolescent Risk-Taking Questionnaire', ‘The Adolescent's Attitudes Towards Violence Scale' and ‘taking risk about social status', ‘traffic', ‘subtance use' subscales have decreased after the risk prevention trainings. The means scores of ‘Adolescent Coping with Problems Scale', ‘Nutrition Behaviour Scale' and ‘Nutrition Attitude Scale' have raised. Hence, the scores of domains reflecting adolescent health perception such as hygiene, sleep and exercise have raised while the scores of somatic symptoms domain, such as abdominal pain, headache, and fatigue have been failed. Consequently, it was determined that the training courses about risky health behaviours were effective in preventing risky health behaviors and creating positive health perceptions of adolescents.

  20. Health seeking behaviour of infertile women in Gombe, north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parity significantly influenced health seeking behaviour with the parous more likely to delay seeking help (X2=71.457, P=0.000). Conclusion: Delay in seeking care and patronage of traditional healers and non specialist tend to procrastinate arrival to appropriate health facility. Key words: health seeking behaviour, infertility, ...

  1. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB

  2. Perception of peers' behaviour regarding sexual health decision ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High-risk sexual behaviours are prevalent in tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria, but little is known about the social influences that bear on the reproductive health decision-making and behaviour of the undergraduates. On the other hand, perceptions regarding the behaviour and influence of peers have ...

  3. Health risk behaviours among adolescent girls: A questionnaire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescent girls struggle with life's complexities and there is considerable evidence supporting the idea that health risk behaviours among adolescents are mounting. These risk behaviours include violence, cigarette smoking, alcohol and drug use and abuse, irresponsible sexual behaviours, unhealthy eating habits and ...

  4. Cognitive Behavioural Suicide Prevention for Male Prisoners: Case examples

    OpenAIRE

    Pratt, Daniel; Gooding, Patricia; Awenat, Yvonne; Eccles, Steve; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is a serious public health problem but a problem that is preventable. This complex and challenging problem is particularly prevalent amongst prisoners; associated with a five-fold increase in risk compared to the general community. Being in prison can lead people to experience fear, distrust, lack of control, isolation, and shame, which is often experienced as overwhelming and intolerable with some choosing suicide as a way to escape. Few effective psychological interventions exist to...

  5. Health-related behaviour among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Farkas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Behavioural risk factors have a significant impact on health. We aimed to assess health-related behaviour, health status, and use of healthcare services among managers of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which included management (directors, scientific directors, directors’ deputies of Slovenian hospitals and institutes of public health (63 respondents; 57% women; overall mean age: 51±7 years; response rate: 74%. Data were obtained using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. Results: About 35% of respondents were directors. More than half of the respondents were overweight or obese (52%, the majority were not sufficiently physically active (59% and overloaded with stress (87%. Hypercholesterolemia (36%, spinal disease (17%, and arterial hypertension (16% were most common chronic diseases. Whilst only few participants visited their general practitioner due their health complaints, blood pressure (76%, cholesterol (51%, and glucose (54% were measured within last year in most of the respondents. Conclusion: Our findings point to a high prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as workplace-related stress among Slovenian public health managers. Therefore, effective preventive strategies should be focused on stress management along with promotion of healthy behavioural patterns.

  6. The HIV prevention cascade: integrating theories of epidemiological, behavioural, and social science into programme design and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, James R; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Hallett, Timothy B; Johnson, Saul; Kapiga, Saidi; Bhattacharjee, Parinita; Dallabetta, Gina; Garnett, Geoff P

    2016-07-01

    Theories of epidemiology, health behaviour, and social science have changed the understanding of HIV prevention in the past three decades. The HIV prevention cascade is emerging as a new approach to guide the design and monitoring of HIV prevention programmes in a way that integrates these multiple perspectives. This approach recognises that translating the efficacy of direct mechanisms that mediate HIV prevention (including prevention products, procedures, and risk-reduction behaviours) into population-level effects requires interventions that increase coverage. An HIV prevention cascade approach suggests that high coverage can be achieved by targeting three key components: demand-side interventions that improve risk perception and awareness and acceptability of prevention approaches; supply-side interventions that make prevention products and procedures more accessible and available; and adherence interventions that support ongoing adoption of prevention behaviours, including those that do and do not involve prevention products. Programmes need to develop delivery platforms that ensure these interventions reach target populations, to shape the policy environment so that it facilitates implementation at scale with high quality and intensity, and to monitor the programme with indicators along the cascade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Contextual and psychosocial factors predicting Ebola prevention behaviours using the RANAS approach to behaviour change in Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamma, Anna E; Slekiene, Jurgita; von Medeazza, Gregor; Asplund, Fredrik; Cardoso, Placido; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2017-05-15

    The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa in December 2013 was the largest Ebola outbreak in history. This study aimed to measure the underlying contextual and psychosocial factors of intentions to perform Ebola prevention behaviours (not touching people who might be suffering from Ebola, reporting suspected cases to the National Ebola Hotline, NEH) in Guinea-Bissau. Geographical location, cross-border market activities, poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) conditions, and burial practices in some communities pose a serious risk in terms of potential EVD outbreak and seriously hamper its prevention in Guinea-Bissau. In July and August 2015, quantitative data from 1369 respondents were gathered by structured face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was based on the psychosocial factors of the RANAS (risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation) model. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression analyses. The most important predictors for the intention to call the NEH were believing that calling the Hotline would help the infected person, perceiving that important members from the household approve of calling the Hotline, thinking that calling the Hotline is something they should do, and believing that it is important to call the Hotline to report a suspected case. For the intention not to touch someone who might be suffering from Ebola, the most important predictors were health knowledge, the perception of risk with regard to touching a person who might be suffering from Ebola, and the belief that they were able not to touch a possibly infected person. Age in years was the only significant contextual predictor for one of the two behavioural intentions, the intention to call the Hotline. It seems that younger people are more likely to use a service like the NEH than older people. Strengths and gaps were identified in the study population in relation to the intention to perform prevention behaviours. These call for innovative

  8. Contextual and psychosocial factors predicting Ebola prevention behaviours using the RANAS approach to behaviour change in Guinea-Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna E. Gamma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD in West Africa in December 2013 was the largest Ebola outbreak in history. This study aimed to measure the underlying contextual and psychosocial factors of intentions to perform Ebola prevention behaviours (not touching people who might be suffering from Ebola, reporting suspected cases to the National Ebola Hotline, NEH in Guinea-Bissau. Geographical location, cross-border market activities, poor water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH conditions, and burial practices in some communities pose a serious risk in terms of potential EVD outbreak and seriously hamper its prevention in Guinea-Bissau. Methods In July and August 2015, quantitative data from 1369 respondents were gathered by structured face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was based on the psychosocial factors of the RANAS (risks, attitudes, norms, abilities, and self-regulation model. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression analyses. Results The most important predictors for the intention to call the NEH were believing that calling the Hotline would help the infected person, perceiving that important members from the household approve of calling the Hotline, thinking that calling the Hotline is something they should do, and believing that it is important to call the Hotline to report a suspected case. For the intention not to touch someone who might be suffering from Ebola, the most important predictors were health knowledge, the perception of risk with regard to touching a person who might be suffering from Ebola, and the belief that they were able not to touch a possibly infected person. Age in years was the only significant contextual predictor for one of the two behavioural intentions, the intention to call the Hotline. It seems that younger people are more likely to use a service like the NEH than older people. Conclusions Strengths and gaps were identified in the study population in relation to the

  9. Australian athletes' health behaviours and perceptions of role modelling and marketing of unhealthy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunseit, Anne C; MacNiven, Rona; Orr, Rhonda; Grassmayr, Matt; Kelly, Bridget; Davies, Daniel; Colagiuri, Stephen; Bauman, Adrian E

    2012-04-01

    This study examined Australian athletes' support for athletes' role in promoting physical activity and obesity prevention, the acceptability of unhealthy products promotion in sport, and their own health behaviours. Surveys were conducted with (n = 1990) elite and sub-elite athletes recruited from 22 sports across Australia. Athletes' perceptions and behaviours were analysed across demographic and sport-related factors (e.g. individual vs team sport) and correlations calculated between perceptions and health behaviours. Most respondents supported a role for athletes in promoting physical activity and obesity prevention, and disagreed that athletes should promote unhealthy foods and alcohol (73.9%). Athletes reported low smoking rates, but high rates of binge drinking. Female, younger, individual and amateur athletes had more health-positive perceptions and healthier behaviours than older, male, team and professional athletes. More sympathy towards junk food and alcohol advertising in sport and less support for athletes as role models were associated with more unhealthy behaviours. Elite athletes are receptive to supporting health promotion through sport and many are not in agreement with the promotion of unhealthy products in sport or by sports people. Improving elite athletes' health behaviours would benefit not only the individual but also health promotion within elite sport.

  10. Mental Health Workers’ Views About Their Suicide Prevention Role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Ross

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AimMental Health workers bear responsibility for preventing suicide in their client group. Survey studies have indicated that staff can be seriously adversely affected when a client suicides. The aim of the current study is to describe and evaluate the effects on mental health (MH workers of their ongoing role in managing suicidal behaviours and to identify the thoughts and feelings associated with this role.MethodA survey was administered to 135 MH workers via an on-line self-report vehicle. The survey comprised standardised measures of anxiety and burnout as well as a questionnaire developed for this study concerning perceptions and attitudes to suicide and suicide prevention.ResultsFactor analysis of 12 retained items of the questionnaire identified three factors: 1 preventability beliefs (beliefs about suicide being always and/or permanently preventable; 2 associated distress (stress/anxiety about managing suicidal behaviour; and 3 the prevention role (covering views about personal roles and responsibilities in preventing suicidal behaviours. Analysis of these factors found that many MH workers experience an elevation of stress/anxiety in relation to their role in managing suicidal behaviours. This distress was associated with the emotional exhaustion component of burnout. Measures showed adverse responses were higher for outpatient than inpatient workers; for those who had received generic training in suicide prevention: and for those who had experienced a workplace related client suicide.ConclusionThere is a need for the development of appropriate self-care strategies to alleviate stress in MH workers exposed to suicide.

  11. Knowledge, Beliefs and Behaviours Related to STD Risk, Prevention, and Screening among a Sample of African American Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Friedman, Allison; Poehlman, Jon; Scales, Monica; Forsythe, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Current data on sexually transmitted disease (STD) among African Americans show significant racial/ethnic disparities. The purpose of this study was to explore knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviours related to STD risk, prevention, and testing among African American adults to help inform the development of a health communication…

  12. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of behavioural strategies in the prevention of cigarette smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willich, Stefan N.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The hazardous health effects of smoking and second hand smoke have been confirmed in numerous studies. For Germany, the mortality attributable to smoking is estimated at 110,000 to 140,000 deaths per year, associated with annual smoking-related costs of 17 to 21 billion euro. Because the majority of smokers initiate this habit early in life, behavioural preventive strategies usually tried to prevent the uptake of smoking among children and youths. Objectives: The goal of this HTA is to summarise the current literature on behavioural strategies for smoking prevention and to evaluate their medical effectiveness/efficacy and cost-effectiveness as well as the ethical, social and legal implications of smoking prevention programs. In addition, this report aims to compare the effectiveness and efficacy of different intervention components and to evaluate the reliability of results in the German context. Methods: Relevant publications were identified by means of a structured search of databases accessed through the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI. In addition a manual search of identified reference lists was conducted. The present report includes German and English literature published between August 2001 and August 2006 targeting youths up to 18 years old. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed according to pre-defined quality criteria, based on the criteria of evidence-based medicine. Results: Among 3,580 publications 37 medical studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall study quality was satisfactory but only half the studies reported smoking uptake as an outcome, while the remaining studies reported alternative outcome parameters. The follow-up duration varied between twelve and 120 months. Although overall effectiveness of prevention programs showed considerable heterogeneity, there was evidence for the long-term effectiveness of behavioural smoking prevention programs. However, the

  13. Health seeking behaviour among Igbo women with gynaecological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Determining the Health seeking behaviour of a community is necessary to identify areas of delay, miscoceptions and therefore plan for effective interventions. Objective: To determine the health seeking behaviour of women presenting with gynaecological complaints. Study design /setting: A prospective cross ...

  14. Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    Health-related mobile apps and behaviour change. While our knowledge about physical activity and health, physical performance and the risk of injury increases in leaps and bounds, the conversion of this information into action and changed behaviour lags behind. There seems to be a sticking point which often causes a ...

  15. Behavioural, Financial, and Health & Medical Economics: A Connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis Opinion article briefly reviews some of the literature in behavioural and financial economics that are related to health & medical economics. We then discuss some of the research on behavioural and financial economics that could be extended to health & medical economics beyond the

  16. Behavioural, Financial, and Health & Medical Economics: A Connection

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Lin; McAleer, Michael; Wong, Wing-Keung

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis Opinion article briefly reviews some of the literature in behavioural and financial economics that are related to health & medical economics. We then discuss some of the research on behavioural and financial economics that could be extended to health & medical economics beyond the existing areas in theory, statistics and econometrics.

  17. Behavioural treatment of tics: habit reversal and exposure with response prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Griendt, J M T M; Verdellen, C W J; van Dijk, M K; Verbraak, M J P M

    2013-07-01

    Behaviour therapy has been shown to be an effective strategy in treating tics; both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention (ER) are recommended as first-line interventions. This review provides an overview of the history, theoretical concepts and evidence at present for HR and ER. In addition, treatment manuals for HR and ER are described. Despite the evidence and availability of treatment manuals, many patients do not receive a first-line psychological intervention for tics. Barriers to the acceptance and dissemination of behaviour therapy are discussed as are ways to overcome these barriers, such as the use of E-health and E-learning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Krzepota

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction and objective. Teaching pregnant women behaviours connected with care for one’s health condition and a healthy lifestyle is crucial in perinatal care. Desired health behaviours, including nutritional habits, play an important role in the health of the mother, as well as the proper development of the foetus. The aim of the presented study was to analyse the subjective assessment of nutritional habits in the light of general health behaviours of pregnant women. materials and method. Research was conducted on a sample of 81 women in Szczecin. The methodological basis for investigation was Juczyński’s Health Behaviour Inventory (HBI. General index of intensity of health behaviours (GIIHB was calculated by adding the results for all the 24 statements included in the HBI. Four categories of health behaviours were analysed separately: proper nutritional habits, preventive behaviours, positive thinking and health practices. The study presents the analysis of proper nutritional habits (PNH in the light of GIIHB of women attending antenatal classes. results. Results indicate that the PNH of pregnant women displays a positive correlation with their GIIHB (r=0.654; p<0.05. It is also shown that the PNH (r=0.26, p<0.05 and GIIHB (r=0.35; p<0.05 are related to the age of pregnant women participating in antenatal classes. conclusions. Research indicates the need for education of pregnant women, initiatives and campaigns aimed at propagating and promoting proper health behaviours, including nutritional behaviours. There is a positive relationship between the PNH of women participating in antenatal classes and their GIIHB. Such measures should be addressed to women regardless of whether they participate in antenatal classes or not, and regardless of their age or level of education.

  19. Individual and environmental predictors of health risk behaviours among Dutch adolescents: the HBSC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Z; de Looze, M E; Schrijvers, C T M; van Dorsselaer, S A F M; Vollebergh, W A M

    2012-07-01

    To examine unique and common predictors of tobacco smoking, binge drinking, cannabis smoking, early sexual intercourse and multiple health risk behaviours. Cross-sectional survey study. The Dutch Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study was used to provide data on 1742 adolescents aged 15 and 16 years of age. This study focused on a variety of individual and environmental predictors of health risk behaviours, tapping into four domains (mental health, family, peers and school), retrieved by adolescent self-reports and corrected for sociodemographic variables. Logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Unique predictors (i.e., gender, low and very low education level, general health, hyperactivity problems, conduct problems, incomplete family, religion, knowledge of mother, parental rules on alcohol drinking, time spent with friends, number of friends, perceived tobacco use of classmates, truancy) were identified. In addition, common predictors (i.e., permissive rules on alcohol drinking and much time spent with friends) were also identified, explaining an increase in engagement in all investigated health risk behaviours in adolescence, including multiple risk behaviours. A prevention strategy targeting restrictive parenting and time spent with friends may be effective to reduce/discourage engagement in health risk behaviours. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health behaviours of young, rural residents: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Humphreys, John; Lukaitis, Fiona

    2009-04-01

    To analyse self-reported health behaviours of young people from a rural community and the factors influencing their behaviours. Interviews were conducted with 19 young people, 11 parents and 10 key informants from a small rural Victorian community, asking about teenage health behaviours and the factors influencing these behaviours. Young people ate both healthy and unhealthy foods, most participated in physical activity, few smoked and most drank alcohol. The study found that community level factors, including community norms, peers, access issues and geographic isolation, were particularly powerful in shaping health behaviours, especially alcohol consumption. Smoking was influenced by social participation in the community and national media health campaigns. Diet and exercise behaviour were influenced by access and availability, convenience, family, peers and local and non-local cultural influences. The rural context, including less access to and choice of facilities and services, lower incomes, lack of transport and local social patterns (including community norms and acceptance), impact significantly on young people's health behaviours. Although national health promotion campaigns are useful aspects of behaviour modification, much greater focus on the role and importance of the local contexts in shaping health decisions of young rural people is required.

  1. Empowering Yoruba Women in Nigeria to Prevent HIV/AIDS: The Relative Significance of Behavioural and Social Determinant Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwatosin Ige Alo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article uncovers the relevance to practice of behavioural and social determinant models of HIV prevention among Yoruba women in Nigeria. Exploring what factors influence health behaviour in heterosexual relationships, the key question raised was whether the women’s experiences support the assumptions and prescriptions for action of these two dominant public health models. Eight focus group discussions and 39 in-depth interviews were conducted, which involved 121 women and men who were chosen purposefully and through self-nomination technique. This study revealed that the women were very much constrained by social environments in negotiating safe sex, despite having at least a basic knowledge of HIV prevention. Limiting factors included the fear of relationship breakup, economic dependence, violence, and the difficulties in justifying why they feel the need to insist on condom use, especially since initiating condom use is antithetical to trust. Furthermore, evidence suggested that improved access to income and education might be vital but it does not automatically constitute a direct means of empowering women to prevent HIV infection. The limitations of both behavioural and social determinants perspectives thus suggests the need for a combination prevention model, which focuses on how social, behavioural and biomedical factors overlap in shaping health outcomes.

  2. Locus of control, hardiness, and emotional intelligence as predictors of waste prevention behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollahi, A.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Given that waste generation is an economic and environmental problem for nations and governments, it is necessary that we advance our knowledge on the etiology of waste prevention behaviours. This study aimed to investigate about the relationships between the locus of control, hardiness, emotional intelligence, and waste prevention behaviours. Four hundred and forty participants (226 females and 214 males from Universiti Putra Malaysia completed a survey questionnaire. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM estimated that individuals who were high in emotional intelligence and hardiness showed better waste prevention behaviours as well as those individuals with internal locus of control. Also, the results showed that older students tend to have better waste prevention behaviours. These findings reinforce the importance of personality traits and emotional intelligence in waste prevention behaviours.

  3. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  4. Menopause: Prevention and Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mª Rivas Hidalgo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account that climacteric constitutes a physiological state in woman’s life, which covers a large stage of her life cycle, it is important that nursery professionals will develop an Action Plan, whose main objective will be health. Covering, then, this stage from a multidisciplinary and holistic field is going to contribute to both: the adoption of healthy life habits and the repercussions that symptoms and physiological processes associated with menopause have on women. Another objective for nurses there must be to provide all our knowledge in a detailed and focused on the individual needs that may come up way. That way, we lay the foundations for facing climacteric with the minimum deterioration of the quality of life and well being.This article is an analysis of the etiology of every one of the most prevalent menopause problems, the predisposing factors to suffer them or to make them get worse, and the habits that are going to prevent larger spill-over effects of those problems. Furthermore, a revision about how nutrition, exercise, toxic substances consumption, etc. have repercussions on musculoskeletal problems, vascular symptoms, urogenital problems, psychological alterations, and gynaecological and breast cancer is made.

  5. Mental Health and Health Risk Behaviours of Homeless Adolescents and Youth: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppong Asante, Kwaku; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Petersen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Homeless youth, as a vulnerable population are susceptible to various mental and health risk behaviours. However, less is known of the mental health status of these homeless youth and its role in risky sexual behaviours; neither do we understand the reasons homeless youth give for their engagement in various health risk behaviour.…

  6. Physical therapists familiarity and beliefs about health services utilization and health seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clewley, Derek; Rhon, Dan; Flynn, Tim; Koppenhaver, Shane; Cook, Chad

    2018-02-21

    Physical therapists' familiarity, perceptions, and beliefs about health services utilization and health seeking behaviour have not been previously assessed. The purposes of this study were to identify physical therapists' characteristics related to familiarity of health services utilization and health seeking behaviour, and to assess what health seeking behaviour factors providers felt were related to health services utilization. We administered a survey based on the Andersen behavioural model of health services utilization to physical therapists using social media campaigns and email between March and June of 2017. In addition to descriptive statistics, we performed binomial logistic regression analysis. We asked respondents to rate familiarity with health services utilization and health seeking behaviour and collected additional characteristic variables. Physical therapists are more familiar with health services utilization than health seeking behaviour. Those who are familiar with either construct tend to be those who assess for health services utilization, use health services utilization for a prognosis, and believe that health seeking behaviour is measurable. Physical therapists rated need and enabling factors as having more influence on health services utilization than predisposing and health belief factors. Physical therapists are generally familiar with health services utilization and health seeking behaviour; however, there appears to be a disconnect between what is familiar, what is perceived to be important, and what can be assessed for both health services utilization and health seeking behaviour. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. All rights reserved.

  7. Emotional intelligence vs. health behaviour in selected groups in late adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sygit-Kowalkowska

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The study deals with the relationship between the emotional intelligence of people in late adulthood and their health behaviour not described in the earlier literature on this subject. The objective of the research was to study the impact of emotional abilities on positive mental attitude, preventive behaviour, correct dietary habits and pro-health practice in selected older persons. Materials and methods. The inventory of Pro-Health Behaviour (IZZ by Juczyński Z was applied, together with the Polish adaptation of the INTE Questionnaire of Emotional Intelligence by Ciechanowicz A, Jaworowska A and Matczak A. A total of 199 people were examined. Two groups were taken into consideration: residents of care homes (DPS group and attendees of the Third Age University (UTW group. Results. Analyses of results showed statistically significant relationships between the variables: emotional intelligence and the individual categories of pro-health behaviour. This correlation had a positive nature: an increase in the intensity of emotional abilities, including the awareness of such abilities, led to the increase of health-care oriented behaviours. The division into DPS and UTW groups proved to be significant for the relationships between emotional intelligence, a positive mental attitude, and correct dietary habits. Conclusions. The result of the study show that pro-health activities are directly associated with the abilities to understand and to control the emotions of older people. The data obtained confirm the positive relationship between the high level of emotional intelligence and pro-health behaviour.

  8. Cultural values and population health: a quantitative analysis of variations in cultural values, health behaviours and health outcomes among 42 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenbach, Johan P

    2014-07-01

    Variations in 'culture' are often invoked to explain cross-national variations in health, but formal analyses of this relation are scarce. We studied the relation between three sets of cultural values and a wide range of health behaviours and health outcomes in Europe. Cultural values were measured according to Inglehart׳s two, Hofstede׳s six, and Schwartz׳s seven dimensions. Data on individual and collective health behaviours (30 indicators of fertility-related behaviours, adult lifestyles, use of preventive services, prevention policies, health care policies, and environmental policies) and health outcomes (35 indicators of general health and of specific health problems relating to fertility, adult lifestyles, prevention, health care, and violence) in 42 European countries around the year 2010 were extracted from harmonized international data sources. Multivariate regression analysis was used to relate health behaviours to value orientations, controlling for socioeconomic confounders. In univariate analyses, all scales are related to health behaviours and most scales are related to health outcomes, but in multivariate analyses Inglehart׳s 'self-expression' (versus 'survival') scale has by far the largest number of statistically significant associations. Countries with higher scores on 'self-expression' have better outcomes on 16 out of 30 health behaviours and on 19 out of 35 health indicators, and variations on this scale explain up to 26% of the variance in these outcomes in Europe. In mediation analyses the associations between cultural values and health outcomes are partly explained by differences in health behaviours. Variations in cultural values also appear to account for some of the striking variations in health behaviours between neighbouring countries in Europe (Sweden and Denmark, the Netherlands and Belgium, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Estonia and Latvia). This study is the first to provide systematic and coherent empirical evidence that

  9. Parental investment in child health in sub-Saharan Africa: a cross-national study of health-seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggla, Caroline; Mace, Ruth

    2016-02-01

    Parents face trade-offs between investing in child health and other fitness enhancing activities. In humans, parental investment theory has mostly been examined through the analysis of differential child outcomes, with less emphasis on the actions parents take to further a particular offspring's condition. Here, we make use of household data on health-seeking for children in a high mortality context where such behaviours are crucial for offspring survival. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from 17 sub-Saharan African countries, we examine whether maternal factors (age, health, marital status) and child factors (birth order, health, sex, age) independently influence parental investment in health-seeking behaviours: two preventative behaviours (malaria net use and immunization) and two curative ones (treating fever and diarrhoea). Results indicate that children with lower birth order, older mothers and mothers with better health status have higher odds of investment. The effects of a child's sex and health status and whether the mother is polygynously married vary depending on the type of health-seeking behaviour (preventative versus curative). We discuss how these results square with predictions from parental investment theory pertaining to the state of mothers and children, and reflect on some potential mechanisms and directions for future research.

  10. The preterm child in dentistry. Behavioural aspects and oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogårdh-Roth, Susanne

    2010-01-01

    favorable oral hygiene and gingival status than C. Problems with toothbrushing were more commonly reported in PT than in C during the preschool period. During adolescence, PT reported more daily use of dental floss and extra fluoride supplements than C. Regarding caries prevalence, there were no differences between the group in either the primary or in the permanent dentition. In contrast, PT had more medical health problems, persisting from preschool period in adolescence than C. The results in this thesis indicate more behavioural problems related to dental treatment and more oral health problems in PT than in C. Therefore, PT require special attention from the dental services, with treatment planning and prevention strategies from an early age. Collaboration between medical and dental health care professionals is advocated in order to ensure good oral health in PT.

  11. Oral health behaviours of children in England, Wales and Northern Ireland 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, J; Ravaghi, V; Hill, K B; Watt, R G

    2016-09-09

    Background The 2013 Children's Dental Health Survey is the fifth in a series of national surveys.Aim To describe the oral health behaviours in children and adolescents in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.Method A representative sample of children (aged 5, 8 12 and 15 years) in England, Wales and Northern Ireland were invited to participate in dental examinations. Children and parents were also invited to complete a questionnaire about oral health behaviours.Results Overall, the majority of children and young people reported good oral health behaviours. For example, more than three quarters of the 12- and 15-year-olds reported brushing their teeth twice a day or more often. However, a sizeable proportion of the sample reported less positive behaviours. Nearly 30% of 5-year-olds first started to brush their teeth after the age of one year. Among 15-year-olds, 11% were current smokers and 37% reported that they currently drank alcohol. Sixteen percent of 12-year-olds reported to consume drinks containing sugar four or more times a day. Of particular concern was the marked differences that existed by level of deprivation. Children living in lower income households (eligible for free school meals) were less likely to brush their teeth twice a day, more likely to start brushing after six months, more likely to be a smoker and more likely to consume frequent amounts of sugary drinks.Conclusion Despite some encouraging overall patterns of good oral health behaviours, a sizeable proportion of children and young people reported behaviours that may lead to poorer oral and general health. Preventive support should be delivered in clinical dental settings to encourage positive oral health behaviours. Public health strategies are also needed to reduce inequalities in oral health behaviours among children and young people.

  12. The application of an occupational health guideline reduces sedentary behaviour and increases fruit intake at work: results from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Proper, K.I.; Weel, A.N.H; Hulshof, C.T.J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a draft occupational health practice guideline aimed at preventing weight gain on employees' physical activity, sedentary behaviour and dietary behaviour and on body weight-related outcomes. Methods: A randomised controlled trial was performed comparing

  13. Health behaviour surveillance of Health Sciences students in Northern Germany: Design and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Tobisch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHealth of students have most often been neglected in recent studies, although students face a transition of life during their studies which has strong implications on health.  During that time, universities play a key role as a setting where future professionals develop independence and learn skills possibly affecting their development and health. Nevertheless, less in known about this group in society and consequently, the aim of this research project was to monitor health of Health Sciences students through a long-term health surveillance system.MethodsSince 2014, an almost complete convenience sample of Health Sciences students is surveyed twice a year at Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. A paper-pencil questionnaire, which includes questions about socio-demographics, well-being, health-promoting and health-risk behaviours, is administered during courses.ResultsOur first surveys achieved response rates of more than 97%. Up to 83% of enrolled students were reached. Undergraduate Health Sciences students reported health-risk behaviours, e.g. binge-drinking on 1 to 2 days (33.9%, regular cannabis use (4.2%, regular cognitive-enhancement (4.0%. Moreover, unhealthy diet was prevalent but almost all students were physically active.ConclusionsA short paper-pencil questionnaire administered during courses and conducted according to standardized processes provides complete data on students’ health with little effort. Trends can be determined, which assist in making decision whether to take action in prevention and/or to evaluate campaigns. These first results show the need for a more targeted health promotion action for students.

  14. [Theories of behavior change through preventive and health promotion interventions in occupational therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Johanne; Richard, Lucie

    2005-02-01

    Community occupational therapy practice challenges therapists in their health educator role and incites them to implement preventive strategies with their clients. Working in the community also provides an interesting context for the implementation of strategies targeting health promotion at the community level. This article describes some of the theories that are used in the public health and health promotion fields to explain health-related behaviour change. It also highlights their potential for community practice in occupational therapy. The theories presented in this paper are the health belief model, social cognitive theory, theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behavior. They are among the most widely used for health-related behaviour analysis and intervention. Since these theories emphasize a set of factors that influence health behaviours, reviewing these theories could contribute to enhance the effectiveness of educational interventions with regards to clients'adherence to their prevention and health promotion recommendations.

  15. Gender Differences in Health Risk Behaviour among University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender Differences in Health Risk Behaviour among University Students: An International Study. ... female students, while physical inactivity was more frequent in female than male students. In terms of nutrition and sexual risk behaviour, the responses were mixed between the genders. Linear regression analysis found that ...

  16. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We aimed to describe health seeking and sexual behaviour including condom use among patients presenting with sexually transmitted infections (STI) and, to identify socio-demographic and behavioural risk factors associated with “no condom use” during the symptomatic period. A cross-sectional study of consecutive new ...

  17. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university ... analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and ..... risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents.

  18. 6. Sexual Behaviour and Reproductive Health Among Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the sexual behaviour and reproductive health amongst female senior secondary school students. Methods: Using cross-sectional descriptive study 374 students were studied. Information was collected on their sexual behaviours, knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), prevalence of ...

  19. Towards a preventive strategy for complaints of arm, neck and/or shoulder (CANS): the role of help seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruls, Vivian E J; Jansen, Nicole W H; de Bie, Rob A; Bastiaenen, Caroline H G; Kant, IJmert

    2016-11-28

    When developing an effective early preventive strategy for employees and students with CANS (Complaints of Arm, Neck or Shoulder, not caused by acute trauma or systemic disease), insight in help seeking behaviour and knowledge of factors associated with help seeking behaviour within the target population, is a prerequisite. The aim of this study was to examine whether perceived hindrance is associated with help seeking behaviour, specifically in employees and students identified with CANS. Additionally, the associations of factors related to functioning and participation, work-environment and demographics with help seeking behaviour were explored in these groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among employees and students of two universities in the South of the Netherlands. The questionnaire included questions to assess (1) demographics, work/study and activity related factors (2) experience of CANS (3) perceived hindrance (4) help seeking behaviour. A subpopulation of the survey, consisting of those employees and students with self-reported CANS, received additional questionnaires to examine the impact of (1) participant characteristics (2) complaint and health related variables (3) functioning and participation (4) work-environment and social support, on help seeking behaviour. 37.3% of the employees and 41.4% of the students reported CANS. Of these, respectively 43.3% and 45.5%, did not seek help and had no intention to seek help either. Employees and students who had not sought help reported less hindrance, less perceived disabilities and shorter duration of complaints, compared those who did seek help. Employees and students within this group who had also no intention to seek help, perceived fewer disabilities and reported shorter duration of complaints. The absence of help seeking behaviour in respondents with CANS is a bottleneck for implementation of preventive strategies. In employees and students with CANS, help seeking behaviour is primarily

  20. The effect of noncognitive traits on health behaviours in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendolia, Silvia; Walker, Ian

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between personality traits and health behaviours in adolescence using a large and recent cohort study. In particular, we investigate the impact of locus of control, self-esteem and work ethics at ages 15-16 years on the incidence of health behaviours such as alcohol consumption, cannabis and other drug use, unprotected and early sexual activity and sports and physical activity. We use matching methods to control for a very rich set of adolescent and family characteristics, and we find that personality traits do affect health behaviours. In particular, individuals with external locus of control, low self-esteem or with low levels of work ethics seem more likely in engage in risky health behaviours. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health seeking and sexual behaviour among patients with sexually transmitted infections - the importance of traditional healers. R Zachariah, W Nkhoma, AD Harries, V Arendt,, A Chantulo, MP Spielmann, MP Mbereko, L Buhendwa ...

  2. Mental Health Workers’ Views About Their Suicide Prevention Role

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Ross; Anoop Sankaranarayanan; Terry J. Lewin; Mick Hunter

    2016-01-01

    AimMental Health workers bear responsibility for preventing suicide in their client group. Survey studies have indicated that staff can be seriously adversely affected when a client suicides. The aim of the current study is to describe and evaluate the effects on mental health (MH) workers of their ongoing role in managing suicidal behaviours and to identify the thoughts and feelings associated with this role.MethodA survey was administered to 135 MH workers via an on-line self-report vehicle...

  3. Health risk behaviours amongst school adolescents: protocol for a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youness El Achhab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining risky behaviours of adolescents provides valuable information for designing appropriate intervention programmes for advancing adolescent’s health. However, these behaviours are not fully addressed by researchers in a comprehensive approach. We report the protocol of a mixed methods study designed to investigate the health risk behaviours of Moroccan adolescents with the goal of identifying suitable strategies to address their health concerns. Methods We used a sequential two-phase explanatory mixed method study design. The approach begins with the collection of quantitative data, followed by the collection of qualitative data to explain and enrich the quantitative findings. In the first phase, the global school-based student health survey (GSHS was administered to 800 students who were between 14 and 19 years of age. The second phase engaged adolescents, parents and teachers in focus groups and assessed education documents to explore the level of coverage of health education in the programme learnt in the middle school. To obtain opinions about strategies to reduce Moroccan adolescents’ health risk behaviours, a nominal group technique will be used. Discussion The findings of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study provide insights into the risk behaviours that need to be considered if intervention programmes and preventive strategies are to be designed to promote adolescent’s health in the Moroccan school.

  4. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Street youth are predisposed to sexual and reproductive health challenges. Most of the street children live in severe deprivation, which make them liable to various forms of health risks. Street youth have risky sexual behaviours that increase the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health ...

  5. Extending Social Cognition Models of Health Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Charles; Sheeran, Paschal; Henderson, Marion

    2011-01-01

    A cross-sectional study assessed the extent to which indices of social structure, including family socio-economic status (SES), social deprivation, gender and educational/lifestyle aspirations correlated with adolescent condom use and added to the predictive utility of a theory of planned behaviour model. Analyses of survey data from 824 sexually…

  6. Sexual behaviour, contraceptive practice and reproductive health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects. Standard 5, 6 and 7 pupils at both sexes. Outcome measures. Demographic and social characteristics, maturational and sexual behavioural milestones, and the prevalence of contraceptive use, pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Results. Data from 1 072 girls and 903 boys were anatysed.

  7. Oral health behaviours amongst homeless people attending rehabilitation services in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    Research on oral health behaviours and dental care service uptake of drug users and those in recovery remains scant. The research aimed to explore and describe perspectives of drug users on their oral health behaviours, awareness of oral health complications caused by alcohol, cigarette and drug use, dental service uptake and opinions on improved dental service for active and recovering addicts. Two focus groups with a purposeful sample of participants (n = 15) were conducted in two treatment and rehabilitation settings. The semi-structured guide consisted of open questioning relating to dental access and uptake, oral health, awareness of oral cancers, nutrition and substance consumption on oral health, and opinions around optimum oral health and dental service provision for active drug users and those in recovery. Thematic analysis of narratives was conducted. Participants described barriers to access and uptake, poor levels of preventative dental care, DIY dentistry in the event of dental emergencies, substance use to self-medicate for dental pain, mixed awareness of the effects of sugary products and substance use on oral health and cancers, and emphasised the importance of preventative dental care and dental aesthetics when in recovery. Findings illustrate a profile of oral health behaviours in Irish drug users, with information useful for private and public practice, and in the further development of street, community and treatment setting oral health interventions.

  8. Health-care-seeking behaviour among university students in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kahi, H A; Abi Rizk, G Y; Hlais, S A; Adib, S M

    2012-06-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed the health-care-seeking behaviour, barriers to accessing care and associated factors among a sample of 543 Lebanese students at Saint-Joseph University. Data were collected on health-care-seeking behaviour for health issues in the previous 12 months using an anonymous questionnaire. Health-care-seeking behaviour was categorized as: formal (professional help sought); informal relational (help sought from friends/family); informal personal (self-help). The health issues examined were: physical, psychological, social and relational, sexual, drug, alcohol and smoking. When facing health-related issues, the students tended to seek informal health care. Formal health-care-seeking behaviour was almost non-existent for psychological issues (3.3%), relational and social issues (1.8%), and issues related to substance use (5.1%). The barriers to seeking formal health care fell into 2 categories: accessibility and relational. To encourage young people to access formal health care, specific health services should be provided for them where they are assured of confidentiality and understanding.

  9. Development and validation of the pro-environmental behaviour scale for women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, HyunKyoung

    2017-05-01

    This study was aimed to develop and test the Pro-environmental Behavior Scale for Women's Health. Women adopt sustainable behaviours and alter their life styles to protect the environment and their health from environmental pollution. The conceptual framework of pro-environmental behaviours was based on Rogers' protection motivation theory and Weinstein's precaution adoption process model. The cross-sectional design was used for instrument development. The instrument development process consisted of a literature review, personal depth interviews and focus group interviews. The sample comprised 356 adult women recruited in April-May 2012 in South Korea using quota sampling. For construct validity, exploratory factor analysis was conducted to examine the factor structure, after which convergent and discriminant validity and known-group comparisons were tested. Principal component analysis yielded 17 items with four factors, including 'women's health protection,' 'chemical exposure prevention,' 'alternative consumption,' and 'community-oriented behaviour'. The Cronbach's α was 0·81. Convergent and discriminant validity were supported by performing correlations with other environmental-health and health-behaviour measures. Nursing professionals can reliably use the instrument to assess women's behaviours, which protect their health and the environment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Implications of the behavioural immune system for social behaviour and human health in the modern world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, Mark; Murray, Damian R; Bangerter, Adrian

    2015-05-26

    The 'behavioural immune system' is composed of mechanisms that evolved as a means of facilitating behaviours that minimized infection risk and enhanced fitness. Recent empirical research on human populations suggests that these mechanisms have unique consequences for many aspects of human sociality--including sexual attitudes, gregariousness, xenophobia, conformity to majority opinion and conservative sociopolitical attitudes. Throughout much of human evolutionary history, these consequences may have had beneficial health implications; but health implications in modern human societies remain unclear. This article summarizes pertinent ways in which modern human societies are similar to and different from the ecologies within which the behavioural immune system evolved. By attending to these similarities and differences, we identify a set of plausible implications-both positive and negative-that the behavioural immune system may have on health outcomes in contemporary human contexts. We discuss both individual-level infection risk and population-level epidemiological outcomes. We also discuss a variety of additional implications, including compliance with public health policies, the adoption of novel therapeutic interventions and actual immunological functioning. Research on the behavioural immune system, and its implications in contemporary human societies, can provide unique insights into relationships between fitness, sociality and health. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Developmental origins, behaviour change and the new public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, M

    2015-10-01

    A developmental approach to public health focuses attention on better nourishing girls and young women, especially those of low socio-economic status, to improve mothers' nutrition and thereby the health of future generations. There have been significant advances in the behavioural sciences that may allow us to understand and support dietary change in young women and their children in ways that have not previously been possible. This paper describes some of these advances and aims to show how they inform this new approach to public health. The first of these has been to work out what is effective in supporting behaviour change, which has been achieved by careful and detailed analysis of behaviour change techniques used by practitioners in intervention, and of the effectiveness of these in supporting change. There is also a new understanding of the role that social and physical environments play in shaping our behaviours, and that behaviour is influenced by automatic processes and 'habits' as much as by reflective processes and rational decisions. To be maximally effective, interventions therefore have to address both influences on behaviour. An approach developed in Southampton aims to motivate, support and empower young women to make better food choices, but also to change the culture in which those choices are being made. Empowerment is the basis of the new public health. An empowered public demand for better access to better food can go a long way towards improving maternal, infant and family nutrition, and therefore the health of generations to come.

  12. Behaviour change communication targeting four health behaviours in developing countries: a review of change techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Ciara; Aboud, Frances

    2012-08-01

    Behaviour change communication is vital for increasing the enactment of particular behaviours known to promote health and growth. The techniques used to change behaviour are important for determining how successful the intervention is. In order to integrate findings from different interventions, we need to define and organize the techniques previously used and connect them to effectiveness data. This paper reviews 24 interventions and programs implemented to change four health behaviours related to child health in developing countries: the use of bed nets, hand washing, face washing and complementary feeding. The techniques employed are organized under six categories: information, performance, problem solving, social support, materials, and media. The most successful interventions use three or even four categories of techniques, engaging participants at the behavioural, social, sensory, and cognitive levels. We discuss the link between techniques and theories. We propose that program development would be more systematic if researchers considered a menu of technique categories appropriate for the targeted behaviour and audience when designing their studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Safety & Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Motor-Vehicle Safety of Law Enforcement Officers Nail Gun Safety National Occupational Mortality Surveillance (NOMS) Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention Occupational Health Safety Network (OHSN) Occupational Hearing Loss Surveillance Occupational ...

  14. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy People healthfinder Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Spotlight: This Diabetes Month, Don’t Forget About the Importance of Exercise for People with Type 1 Diabetes In honor ...

  15. GIS, Pollution Prevention and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using examples of preventing pollution and reducing risk of exposure to communities, this guide answers basic interest and start-up questions, addresses benefits and limitations and illustrates the value of GIS for local health departments.

  16. The influence of gender and other patient characteristics on health care-seeking behaviour: a QUALICOPC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ashley E; Anisimowicz, Yvonne; Miedema, Baukje; Hogg, William; Wodchis, Walter P; Aubrey-Bassler, Kris

    2016-03-31

    Canadians' health care-seeking behaviour for physical and mental health issues was examined using the international Quality and Cost of Primary Care (QUALICOPC) survey that was conducted in 2013 in Canada. This study used the cross-sectional Patient Experiences Survey collected from 7260 patients in 759 practices across 10 Canadian provinces as part of the QUALICOPC study. A Responsive Care Scale (RCS) was constructed to reflect the degree of health care-seeking behaviour across 11 health conditions. Using several patient characteristics as independent variables, four multiple regression analyses were conducted. Patients' self-reports indicated that there were gender differences in health care-seeking behaviour, with women reporting they visited their primary care provider to a greater extent than did men for both physical and mental health concerns. Overall, patients were less likely to seek care for mental health concerns in comparison to physical health concerns. For both women and men, the results of the regressions indicated that age, illness prevention, trust in physicians and chronic conditions were important factors when explaining health care-seeking behaviours for mental health concerns. This study confirms the gender differences in health care-seeking behaviour advances previous research by exploring in detail the variables predicting differences in health care-seeking behaviour for men and women. The variables were better predictors of health care-seeking behaviour in response to mental health concerns than physical health concerns, likely reflecting greater variation among those seeking mental health care. This study has implications for those working to improve barriers to health care access by identifying those more likely to engage in health care-seeking behaviours and the variables predicting health care-seeking. Consequently, those who are not accessing primary care can be targeted and policies can be developed and put in place to promote their

  17. Applying theories of health behaviour and change to hearing health research: Time for a new approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulson, Neil S; Ferguson, Melanie A; Henshaw, Helen; Heffernan, Eithne

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the application of behavioural models, such as social cognition models, to the promotion of hearing health. Despite this, there exists a well-developed body of literature that suggests such models may fail to consistently explain reliable amounts of variability in human behaviours. This paper provides a summary of this research across selected models of health-related behaviour, outlining the current state of the evidence. Recent work in the field of behaviour change is presented together with commentary on the design and reporting of behaviour change interventions. We propose that attempts to use unreliable models to explain and predict hearing health behaviours should now be replaced by work which integrates the latest in behaviour change science, such as the Behaviour Change Wheel and Theoretical Domains Framework.

  18. Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, Stefanie M; Krämer, Alexander; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T

    2012-12-29

    Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306). The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external) and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition) were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance) were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one's own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

  19. Health-related locus of control and health behaviour among university students in North Rhine Westphalia, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmer Stefanie M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health control beliefs were postulated to be associated with health behaviour. However, the results of studies assessing these associations suggest that they might not be universal. Among young adults associations have been reported, but the evidence is limited. The objective of this analysis was to re-examine these associations in a sample of university students in Germany. Findings Data from a multicentre cross-sectional study among university students in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany was used (N=3,306. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale with three dimensions (one internal and two external and six aspects of health behaviour (smoking habits, alcohol use, drug consumption, being over-/ or underweight, physical activity, and importance of healthy nutrition were evaluated. Students with stronger internal locus of control paid more attention to healthy nutrition and displayed a higher level of physical activity. Individuals with a stronger belief in health professionals were less likely to use drugs and paid more attention to healthy nutrition. Furthermore, higher scores in the second external locus of control dimension (beliefs in luck or chance were associated with a higher likelihood of current smoking, lower physical activity and less attention to healthy nutrition. Conclusions Students engaged more strongly in unhealthy behaviour if they believed that luck determines health. In contrast, believing in having control over one’s own health was associated with more healthy behaviour. These findings support the need to consider health control beliefs while designing preventive strategies in this specific population.

  20. RELEVANCE OF USE OF MULTIMEDIA IN ORDER TO PREVENT JUNIOR PUPILS’ AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia V. Oleksiuk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problem of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils and reasons for its occurrence. There are determined advantages of multimedia use in the prevention of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils and described types of multimedia, which should be used to work with pupils. Problem of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils become one of the main problems of our society. As noted by the most researchers, one of the cause of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils is media, the use of video games, watching movies, cartoons that provoke aggression. One of the important areas of prevention of aggressive behaviour of junior pupils is competence improvement of teachers, social workers and psychologists on the use of multimedia in social and educational classes for junior pupils.

  1. Socio-cultural determinants of health-seeking behaviour on the Kenyan coast: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Amina; Van Baar, Anneloes; Fischer, Ronald; Bomu, Grace; Gona, Joseph K; Newton, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Severe childhood illnesses present a major public health challenge for Africa, which is aggravated by a suboptimal response to the child's health problems with reference to the health-seeking behaviour of the parents or guardians. We examined the health-seeking behaviour of parents at the Kenyan coast because understanding impediments to optimal health-seeking behaviour could greatly contribute to reducing the impact of severe illness on children's growth and development. Health-seeking behaviour, and the factors influencing this behaviour, were examined in two traditional communities. We held in-depth interviews with 53 mothers, fathers and caregivers from two rural clinics at the Kenyan Coast. Biomedical medicine (from health facilities and purchased over the counter) was found to be the most popular first point of treatment. However, traditional healing still plays a salient role in the health care within these two communities. Traditional healers were consulted for various reasons: a) attribution of causation of ill-health to supernatural sources, b) chronic illness (inability of modern medicine to cure the problem) and c) as prevention against possible ill-health. In developing an explanatory model of decision-making, we observed that this was a complex process involving consultation at various levels, with elders, but also between both parents, depending on the perceived nature and chronicity of the illness. However, it was reported that fathers were the ultimate decision makers in relation to decisions concerning where the child would be taken for treatment. Health systems need to see traditional healing as a complementary system in order to ensure adequate access to health care. Importantly, fathers also need to be addressed in intervention and education programs.

  2. Socio-cultural determinants of health-seeking behaviour on the Kenyan coast: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Abubakar

    Full Text Available Severe childhood illnesses present a major public health challenge for Africa, which is aggravated by a suboptimal response to the child's health problems with reference to the health-seeking behaviour of the parents or guardians. We examined the health-seeking behaviour of parents at the Kenyan coast because understanding impediments to optimal health-seeking behaviour could greatly contribute to reducing the impact of severe illness on children's growth and development.Health-seeking behaviour, and the factors influencing this behaviour, were examined in two traditional communities. We held in-depth interviews with 53 mothers, fathers and caregivers from two rural clinics at the Kenyan Coast. Biomedical medicine (from health facilities and purchased over the counter was found to be the most popular first point of treatment. However, traditional healing still plays a salient role in the health care within these two communities. Traditional healers were consulted for various reasons: a attribution of causation of ill-health to supernatural sources, b chronic illness (inability of modern medicine to cure the problem and c as prevention against possible ill-health. In developing an explanatory model of decision-making, we observed that this was a complex process involving consultation at various levels, with elders, but also between both parents, depending on the perceived nature and chronicity of the illness. However, it was reported that fathers were the ultimate decision makers in relation to decisions concerning where the child would be taken for treatment.Health systems need to see traditional healing as a complementary system in order to ensure adequate access to health care. Importantly, fathers also need to be addressed in intervention and education programs.

  3. Health behaviour among non-Western immigrants with Danish citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne R; Ekholm, Ola; Kjøller, Mette

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To compare belief in own effort to stay healthy, health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among non-Western immigrants with Danish citizenship and citizens with Danish background. METHODS: Based on the National Health Interview Survey 2005, logistic regression analyses were used to examine...... differences in belief in own effort to stay healthy, in health behaviour and in BMI between 136 non-Western immigrants with Danish citizenship and 9,901 citizens with Danish background in the age group 25-64 years. RESULTS: Non-Western immigrants had lower odds for reporting that own effort is very important...

  4. Health Behaviour and Body Mass Index Among Problem Gamblers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst Algren, Maria; Ekholm, Ola; Davidsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Problem gambling is a serious public health issue. The objective of this study was to investigate whether past year problem gamblers differed from non-problem gamblers with regard to health behaviour and body mass index (BMI) among Danes aged 16 years or older. Data were derived from the Danish...... Health and Morbidity Surveys in 2005 and 2010. Past year problem gambling was defined using the lie/bet questionnaire. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between past year problem gambling and health behaviour and BMI. Problem gambling was associated with unhealthy...... behaviour and obesity. The odds of smoking was significantly higher among problem gamblers than among non-problem gamblers. Further, the odds of high-risk alcohol drinking and illicit drug use were significantly higher among problem gamblers. The prevalence of sedentary leisure activity, unhealthy diet...

  5. Oral and general health behaviours among Chinese urban adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Jiang, Han; Peng, Bin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to measure the association of general and oral health-related behaviours with living conditions and to explore the interrelationships between general and oral health-related behaviours in Chinese urban adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey...... of 2662 adolescents was conducted in eight Chinese provincial capitals. The response rate was 92%. The study population was selected through multistage cluster sampling and comprised three age groups: 11, 13 and 15 years. Data on oral and general health, lifestyles as well as living conditions were...... distributions, regression analyses and factor analyses. RESULTS: Oral health-related behaviours among adolescents were associated with socioeconomic status of parents, school performance and peer relationships. The odds of a dental visit was 0.63 in adolescents of poorly educated parents and the corresponding...

  6. Mental health variables and sexual risk behaviour among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It becomes a great concern if mental health status has something to do with high sexual risk behaviour in this population. For a more specific and dynamic intervention in reducing cases of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, the study therefore examines depression, anxiety and stress as mental health variables influencing sexual risk ...

  7. Pattern of health seeking behaviour of mothers for common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TheObjective of the study is to assess the Health Seeking Behaviour ofmotherswhen their children presentwith the common aliments and their preferred treatment options. A cross sectional survey of 300 women that brought their children for routine immunization and growthmonitoring to three health institutions in ...

  8. Literacy and Health Seeking Behaviours among Patients in Benue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is a report of a study carried out to determine the relationship between outpatients literate status and their health seeking behaviour. It was a survey study in which a questionnaire was administered to a total of 451 outpatients in four health facilities in Benue and Cross River State of Nigeria. The data collected ...

  9. Mother's health seeking behaviour during child illness in a rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In most developing countries, the health of the children is strongly dependant on maternal healthcare behaviour. The study describes the prevalence of illness among preschool children in a rural sugarcane growing community and the mother's health seeking behavior. Objectives: To document the presence of ...

  10. Oral health related knowledge and behaviour among nursing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To investigate oral health knowledge and behaviour amongst nursing students in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital on respondents aged 17 to 40 years, using self administered structured questionnaire. Result: From oral health ...

  11. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... streetism.[8]. Street youth are exposed to situations that make them vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health problems on a day to day basis.[9-12] A risky sexual behaviour is one that increases the likelihood of adverse sexual and reproductive health consequences.[9-12] Available data shows that HIV ...

  12. Maori Identification, Alcohol Behaviour and Mental Health: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbett, Erin; Clarke, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Maori identification on alcohol behaviour and mental health and has been neglected in the psychological literature. This paper consists of a review of literature on the history of alcohol use in New Zealand and its impact on indigenous Maori, on their cultural identity and on their mental health. Previous research has been primarily…

  13. The SENSE Study (Sleep and Education: learning New Skills Early): a community cognitive-behavioural therapy and mindfulness-based sleep intervention to prevent depression and improve cardiac health in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Schwartz, Orli; Simmons, Julian G; Blake, Matthew; Blake, Laura; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Dahl, Ronald E; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil; Dudgeon, Paul; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B

    2015-11-04

    Sleep problems are a major risk factor for the emergence of depression in adolescence. The aim of this study was to test whether an intervention for improving sleep habits could prevent the emergence of depression, and improve well-being and cardiovascular indices amongst at-risk adolescents. A longitudinal randomised controlled trial (RCT) is being conducted across Victorian Secondary Schools in Melbourne, Australia. Adolescents (aged 12-17 years) were defined as at-risk for depression if they reported high levels of anxiety and sleep problems on in-school screening questionnaires and had no prior history of depression (assessed by clinical diagnostic interview). Eligible participants were randomised into either a sleep improvement intervention (based on cognitive behavioral and mindfulness principles) or an active control condition teaching study skills. Both programs consisted of seven 90 minute-long sessions over seven weeks. All participants were required to complete a battery of mood and sleep questionnaires, seven-days of actigraphy, and sleep diary entry at pre- and post-intervention. Participants also completed a cardiovascular assessment and two days of saliva collection at pre-intervention. Participants will repeat all assessments at two-year follow up (ongoing). This will be the first efficacy trial of a selective group-based sleep intervention for the prevention of depression in an adolescent community sample. If effective, the program could be disseminated in schools and greatly improve health outcomes for anxious adolescents. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612001177842. Date of Registration: 06-Nov-2012.

  14. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  15. [Study protocol of a prevention of recurrent suicidal behaviour program based on case management (PSyMAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Pilar A; Rodríguez-Revuelta, Julia; González-Blanco, Leticia; Burón, Patricia; Al-Halabí, Susana; Garrido, Marlen; García-Alvarez, Leticia; García-Portilla, Paz; Bobes, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of suicidal behaviour is a public health priority in the European Union. A previous suicide attempt is the best risk predictor for future attempts, as well as completed suicides. The primary aim of this article is to describe a controlled study protocol designed for prevention of recurrent suicidal behaviour that proposes case management, and includes a psychoeducation program, as compared with the standard intervention (PSyMAC). Patients admitted from January 2011 to June 2013 to the emergency room of the Hospital Universitario Central de Asturias were evaluated using a protocol including sociodemographic, psychiatric, and psychosocial assessment. Patients were randomly assigned to either a group receiving continuous case management including participation in a psychoeducation program (experimental group), or a control group receiving standard care. The primary objective is to examine whether or not the period of time until recurrent suicidal behaviour in the experimental group is significantly different from that of the control group. PSyMAC proposes low cost and easily adaptable interventions to the usual clinical setting that can help to compensate the shortcoming of specific action protocols and suicidal behaviour prevention programs in our country. The evaluation of PSyMAC results will determine their real effectivity as a case-magament program to reduce suicidal risk. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Preventing Undesirable Seismic Behaviour of Infill Walls in Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Noorifard

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dividing walls are usually considered as non-structural elements, but experiences of past earthquakes show that some buildings designed and constructed by engineers have been damaged during earthquakes because of disregarding the negative effects of walls. Apart from the poor quality of construction and materials, inattention in design process is the main reason for undesirable seismic behaviour of walls.The main aim of this paper is to investigate the measures taken in different stages of architectural and structural design for improving the seismic behaviour of infilled concrete structures. As a general principle, with the further progress of project from basic architectural design to detailed structural design, there is a need to reduce designer authority and increase obligation, furthermore the cost of project increases too. The conclusion of this study implies that, in order to achieve the desirable seismic behaviour of walls, close collaboration between architects and structural engineers is required from the early stages of design. The results of this study are presented in a check list for designing reinforced concrete (RC moment resisting frame and RC shear wall.

  17. [Clinical and preventive intervention in eating behaviour: a dialogue between psychology and nutritional sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco, Rui; Paiva, Isabel

    2011-12-01

    The eating habits modification is a clinical challenge, both on therapeutic and preventive levels, which requires tools from various areas of health, such as psychology and nutrition. In the structured work in these areas, that includes the referral to specialist consultants, there is a need of a first intervention in Primary Health Care, in clinical and community levels. In this paper, we attempt to systematize useful information for intervention. We will start by reviewing some important interviewing skills, some models of motivational interviewing, and we will make a brief reflection about the client. Then we will analyse an individual case structured in two complementary levels of interpretation: a closer look in general factors and another that reflect the antecedents, consequences and the description of the behaviour problem. We will also tackle issues related to the context in which the individual moves. We will analyse some group intervention programs within a clinical and preventive perspectives. Finally, we will discuss some concepts related to therapeutic adherence.

  18. Dissonance-based interventions for health behaviour change: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freijy, Tanya; Kothe, Emily J

    2013-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that various health behaviours are amenable to change following the induction of cognitive dissonance. This systematic review sought to evaluate the effectiveness and methodological quality of dissonance-based health behaviour interventions and to explore identified sources of heterogeneity in intervention effects. Bibliographic databases were searched for relevant articles from inception to March 2012. Only studies targeting non-clinical health behaviour in non-clinical populations were included in the review. One author extracted data and assessed quality of evidence and a second author verified all content. Reports of 20 studies were included. A variety of health behaviours and outcome measures were addressed across studies. Most studies produced one or more significant effects on measures of behaviour, attitude or intention. Across studies, methodological risk for bias was frequently high, particularly for selection bias. Gender and self-esteem were identified as potential moderator variables. The evidence for the effectiveness of dissonance-based interventions was generally positive. The hypocrisy paradigm was found to be the most commonly applied research paradigm and was most effective at inciting change across a range of health behaviours. There was no observable link between type of target behaviour and positive outcomes. Researchers are encouraged to minimize potential for bias in future studies and explore moderators of the dissonance effect. What is already known on this subject? A recent meta-analysis indicates that dissonance-based interventions primarily based on the induced compliance paradigm are effective for eating disorder prevention (Stice, Shaw, Becker, & Rohde, 2008, Prev. Sci., 9, 114). However, it is currently unclear whether such outcomes are generalizable to interventions targeting non-clinical health behaviours such as smoking, sun protection and sexual risk taking. Other research indicates that studies based

  19. Leadership skills are associated with health behaviours among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferland, Adam; Chu, Yen Li; Gleddie, Doug; Storey, Kate; Veugelers, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Life skills development is a core area for action in the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. The role of life skills in influencing health behaviours among children has received little attention in research. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the relationship between self-leadership, as a model of life skills, and diet quality, physical activity, sleep duration and body weight. A provincially representative sample of 2328 grade 5 students (aged 10-11 years) was surveyed in Alberta, Canada. Self-leadership skills were assessed based on student responses indicating frequency of performing various leadership traits. Diet quality was based on responses to the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire and physical activity on responses to the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children. Sleep duration was assessed based on parent survey responses, and body mass index determined based on measured height and weight. Random effects regression models with children nested within schools were used to determine the associations. Higher self-leadership was associated with better diet quality (P self-leadership was suggestive of healthier body weight status (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.27). No association of self-leadership with sleep duration was found. The incorporation of leadership skill development may enhance the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs. This study reinforces the importance of leadership skill promotion in the promotion of healthy eating and active living, which may help curb the obesity epidemic in the short term, and prevention of chronic diseases and mounting healthcare costs in the long term. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Early prevention of the antisocial behaviour of youth: situation in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Kronberga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Public opinion on prevention is often very narrow and stigmatised: the concept of prevention is more often related to a crime than to antisocial behaviour. Often such approach limits not only the understanding of the usability and content of prevention methods but also the age of children at which a successful use of these methods is acceptable. Due to the aforementioned, it is possible to put forward a hypothesis: successful prevention of antisocial behaviour in the work with children at a young age decreases the necessity of crime prevention in later years of children and youth development. Therefore, this publication will focus on the use and practice of prevention methods in the early period of child development – pre-school and primary school.

  1. Health literacy is associated with health behaviour and self-reported health: A large population-based study in individuals with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Anna; Friis, Karina; Christensen, Bo; Rowlands, Gill; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2017-11-01

    Background Health literacy may constitute a modifiable determinant of health behaviour and affect cardiovascular disease prevention. This study investigates the associations between health literacy and health behaviour as well as health status. Design A cross-sectional study on a population-based sample of people with acute myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or stroke ( N = 3116). Methods Health literacy was assessed using two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire: 'understanding health information' and 'engaging with healthcare providers'. Health behaviour included physical activity, dietary habits, smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index. Health status was examined using Short Form Health Survey 12 version 2 (four-week recall) (physical and mental components). We used regression analyses to examine the associations. Results 'Understanding health information' was inversely associated with physical inactivity (odds ratio (OR) 0.48 (0.39;0.59), unhealthy diet (OR 0.64 (0.47;0.88)), underweight (OR 0.43 (0.21;0.89)) and obesity (OR 0.79 (0.63;0.99)). 'Engaging with healthcare providers' was inversely associated with physical inactivity (OR 0.64 (0.53;0.77)), less than healthy diet (OR 0.79 (0.64;0.96)) and daily smoking (OR 0.81 (0.66;1.0)). An increase in 'understanding health information' as well as 'engaging with healthcare providers' was associated with an increase in both physical and mental health status. Conclusions The findings suggest that aspects of health literacy are associated with health status and health behaviour in cardiovascular patients and should be considered in interventions regarding cardiovascular disease prevention.

  2. ‘Gamification’ for Health Behaviour Change in Smartphone Apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ann Edwards

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gamification techniques are showing promise in promoting healthy behaviours and delivering health promotion advice, however, their use in Mobile-Health is relatively new. Gamification involves using ‘gaming’ elements such as badges, leader boards, health-related challenges, rewards, ability to ‘level up’ and use of avatars to motivate and engage people to change health behavior. Gamification techniques may also overlap with validated health behaviour change techniques (BCTs, however, few apps appear to apply the techniques systematically or to define the BCTs they include. Aim: We aimed a to assess the number apps that incorporate gamification to modify health behaviors, b to examine the BCT repertoire and combinations used in these apps c to consider associations with user satisfaction. Methods: English-language health apps that contain gamification techniques were identified through a systematic search of the official Apple and Google Play store and the NHS health apps library. Top rated free and paid Medical, Health & Wellness, Health & Fitness apps as defined by Apple and Google Play stores were searched. Apps were coded for BCTs according to the Michie et al. taxonomy. The taxonomy comprises 16 categories and 93 individual BCTs. BCT coding was conducted by two trained researchers (EE, JL who scored independently and then cross-checked for discrepancies. BCT numbers, user ratings and app pricing were compared. We explored the association between number of BCTs per app, user and NHS libraries’ ratings and price. We also investigated, which of the 16 BCT categories and the individual 93 BCTs and their combinations were most commonly used. Results: 1,680 Medical, Health & Wellness or Health & Fitness Apps were reviewed and seventy containing gamification techniques were identified. The mean number of BCTs used was 12.5 (range 1-24. There was no correlation between number of BCTs, customer ratings, NHS library app rating or

  3. Physical fitness, health behaviour and health among nursing students: A descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainin-Yobas, Piyanee; He, Hong-Gu; Lau, Ying

    2015-12-01

    Health behaviour is of great importance for nursing students to achieve optimal health. Healthy students tend to complete their study and remain in the nursing workforce. They will also serve as a role model of for patients. However, there is limited research concerning physical fitness and health behaviour (such as sleep problems) in this population. This study aims to examine the relationships among health behaviour, personal variables, physical fitness, perceived physical health and psychological health. A cross-sectional descriptive correlational study was used. A total of 335 nursing students who were enrolled in a university in Thailand. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires and physical fitness tests. Independent variables were personal variables and health behaviour. Outcome variables included physical fitness, perceived physical health and psychological health. Descriptive statistics and path analyses were used to analyse data. Nursing students had poor to moderate levels of total physical fitness, with cardiovascular fitness and body flexibility components having the lowest scores. Students who exercised regularly tended to have better physical fitness, perceived physical health and psychological health. Those who did not have sleep problems had better psychological health. Some personal variables and health behaviours were associated with health among nursing students. Appropriate interventions are required to promote positive health behaviour in this population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HEALTH BEHAVIOURS OF THE PERSONNEL OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN ANKARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife AK

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of study is to define the health behaviour profile of the personnel of primary schools as well as to define the topics to be given priority in health education activities. The research population consisted of all personnel of 564 primary schools in Ankara province. The study group (30 schools was estimated by cluster sampling method. The Health Behaviours Questionnaire, which consists of 47 items on health behaviours and demographic characteristics, was used for data collection. In the study, 849 school workers (67,5% female were interviewed. Teachers constituted the largest group (82,3% while the cleaning staff (7.0%, school administrators (6.3%, and other personnel (4.4% were sharing the rest in small proportions. Of the study group 41,7 % are cigarette smokers and of them 67.3% smoke every time and 11,9% sometime in school. Very few school personnel (14,8% do physical exercise regularly. Majority of school personnel (71,3% stated that they brush their teeth at least twice a day regularly. However, only 23,7% of school personnel go to have regular dental control. All results were discussed in details considering the effects of health behaviours of school personnel on students, and some recommendations were developed for health education activities in schools. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(2.000: 83-93

  5. Sociodemographic, lifestyle and health determinants of suicidal behaviour in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Yong Kang; Azahadi, Mohd; Phang, Siew Nooi; Abd Manaf, Noor Hazilah

    2018-03-01

    Suicide has become a serious matter in both developed and developing countries. The objective of the present study is to examine the factors affecting suicidal behaviour among adults in Malaysia. A nationally representative data which consists of 10,141 respondents is used for analysis. A trivariate probit model is utilised to identify the probability of having suicide ideation, suicide plan and suicide attempt. Results of the regression analysis show that to ensure unbiased estimates, a trivariate probit model should be used instead of three separate probit models. The determining factors of suicidal behaviour are income, age, gender, ethnicity, education, marital status, self-rated health and being diagnosed with diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. The likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour is lower among higher income earners and older individuals. Being male and married significantly reduce the propensity to engage in suicidal behaviour. Of all the ethnic groups, Indian/others displays the highest likelihood of adopting suicidal behaviour. There is a positive relationship between poor health condition and suicide. Policies targeted at individuals who are likely to adopt suicidal behaviour may be effective in lowering the prevalence of suicide. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal and child health nurses' self-perceived confidence in dealing with child behaviour problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkadi, A; Gulenc, A; Hiscock, H

    2015-03-01

    Addressing behaviour problems in children is increasingly becoming part of routine care. The question therefore arises as to which workforce members are best suited to deliver structured interventions and what skill sets they might need apart from knowledge of the specific parenting programme offered. To assess maternal and child health (MCH) nurses' self-perceived confidence in dealing with child behaviour problems. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Data collection occurred prior to cluster randomization in the Families in Mind trial. MCH clinics in nine local government areas in greater Melbourne, in 2010. All MCH nurses in the nine areas were invited to participate, 153 (79%) completed the survey. Nurses' comfort, competency, attitudes and perceived difficulties in dealing with child behaviour problems. The majority of nurses (63%) viewed it as their role to deal with, rather than refer, child behaviour problems and felt that the task was rewarding (86%). They believed that parenting advice should be offered universally, rather than only to families with severe problems (94%). Nurses felt rather comfortable and competent to broach and discuss child behaviour problems without need for prior parental request, but somewhat less comfortable and competent to manage child behaviour problems or to make a difference. Experienced nurses (>10 years in practice) felt more comfortable and competent. Nurses described that the major challenge in their dealing with child behaviour problems was parental denial or resistance (60%). MCH nurses are at the frontline of preventive medical services for families with young children where behaviour problems are a common concern. Because managing young children's behaviour problems primarily occurs through adult behaviour change, techniques addressing parent denial and non-compliance, such as motivational interviewing and empowerment should be a part of MCH nurses' skill sets. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Behavioural Verification: Preventing Report Fraud in Decentralized Advert Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stylianos S. Mamais

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Service commissions, which are claimed by Ad-Networks and Publishers, are susceptible to forgery as non-human operators are able to artificially create fictitious traffic on digital platforms for the purpose of committing financial fraud. This places a significant strain on Advertisers who have no effective means of differentiating fabricated Ad-Reports from those which correspond to real consumer activity. To address this problem, we contribute an advert reporting system which utilizes opportunistic networking and a blockchain-inspired construction in order to identify authentic Ad-Reports by determining whether they were composed by honest or dishonest users. What constitutes a user’s honesty for our system is the manner in which they access adverts on their mobile device. Dishonest users submit multiple reports over a short period of time while honest users behave as consumers who view adverts at a balanced pace while engaging in typical social activities such as purchasing goods online, moving through space and interacting with other users. We argue that it is hard for dishonest users to fake honest behaviour and we exploit the behavioural patterns of users in order to classify Ad-Reports as real or fabricated. By determining the honesty of the user who submitted a particular report, our system offers a more secure reward-claiming model which protects against fraud while still preserving the user’s anonymity.

  8. AQUASPINING AS ANTI-STRESS HEALTH PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Trendafilov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In a nutshell SPA is something old and good, but nowadays enriched with the miraculous impact of the water culture and aqua practices. But in our opinion is very important to know that the SPA is the health prevention of a healthy people for their recovery from social and professional everyday stress. In most European countries and it became another kind of SPA effects called a short - Medical SPA. Our working hypothesis is based on the assumption that the development of modules for practicing aquaspinning will allow to optimize the proposed relaxing and procreative prevention programs and promoting the health and beauty. The aim of this study was to determine the specificity of the effects aquaspinning through the application of current methods of prevention and health promotion.

  9. Suicide Prevention Strategies for Improving Population Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Holly C; Wyman, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    Suicide is a public health problem that accounts for more than 1 million deaths annually worldwide. This article addresses evidence-based and promising youth suicide prevention approaches at the primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. Coordinated, developmentally timed, evidence-based suicide prevention approaches at all intervention levels are likely to reduce youth suicide. For most youth who die by suicide, there are opportunities for intervention before imminent risk develops. Current research in suicide prevention points to the value of investing in "upstream" universal interventions that build skills and resilience as well as policies that enable access to care and protection from lethal means. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older adults: An application of the theory of planned behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Maessen, Mia; de Bruijn, Renske; Smets, Bianca

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: This article examines the intentions to seek (preventive) psychological help among older persons. The study is carried out from the theory of planned behaviour and distinguishes attitudes (psychological openness), subjective norms (indifference to stigma), and perceived behavioural

  11. Prevention of health care-associated infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vincent

    2014-09-15

    Health care-associated infections cause approximately 75,000 deaths annually, in addition to increasing morbidity and costs. Over the past decade, a downward trend in health care-associated infections has occurred nationwide. Basic prevention measures include administrative support, educating health care personnel, and hand hygiene and isolation precautions. Prevention of central line- or catheter-associated infections begins with avoidance of unnecessary insertion, adherence to aseptic technique when inserting, and device removal when no longer necessary. Specific recommendations for preventing central line-associated bloodstream infections include use of chlorhexidine for skin preparation, as a component of dressings, and for daily bathing of patients in intensive care units. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections are the most common device-related health care-associated infection. Maintaining a closed drainage system below the patient reduces the risk of infection. To prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia, which is associated with high mortality, mechanically ventilated patients should be placed in the semirecumbent position and receive antiseptic oral care. Prevention of surgical site infections includes hair removal using clippers, glucose control, and preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Reducing transmission of Clostridium difficile and multidrug-resistant organisms in the hospital setting begins with hand hygiene and contact precautions. Institutional efforts to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing are also strongly recommended. Reducing rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection can be achieved through active surveillance cultures and decolonization therapy with mupirocin.

  12. Rethinking HIV-prevention for school-going young people based on current behaviour patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maretha

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the research was to gain increased knowledge regarding the sexual risk behaviour of school-going young people in South Africa after two decades of HIV-education in schools, to contribute to the development of improved HIV prevention strategies. In collaboration with the Department of Education, a sample of 5305 learners (between 10 and 18 years in Grades 5-12) from high-risk communities were identified. They completed a survey that assessed self-reported sexual risk behaviour and variables that potentially underlie sexual risk, such as attitudes towards preventive behaviour, perceived social norms and self-efficacy (based on the theory of planned behaviour [TPB]) and social factors like caregiver relationships and gender norms (based on the social ecological theory). Lifetime sex was reported by 49.4% of boys and 30.5% of girls in Grades 8-12, while 56% of the sexually active young people reported consistent condom use. Accurate knowledge about HIV transmission was low (37.8%). Regression analysis showed that risk behaviour was more prominent among older male youths, who perceived social norms as encouraging sexual activity, who use alcohol excessively, and who have negative attitudes towards abstinence. Perceived traditional community gender norms and negative relationships with caregivers were also associated with sexual risk behaviour. This research showed that the TPB can be used in planning HIV prevention interventions for young people. It also revealed that HIV-prevention strategies should focus beyond educating the individual, to address community factors such as improving caregiver relationships, the culture of substance abuse, peer group norms and inequality in community gender norms. These community processes influence young people's behaviour and need to be addressed to allow the youth to make healthy behavioural choices.

  13. Health behaviour advice from health professionals to Canadian adults with hypertension: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robin L; Gee, Marianne E; Bancej, Christina; Nolan, Robert P; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Joffres, Michel; Bienek, Asako; Gwadry-Sridhar, Femida; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-01

    Health professionals play an important role in providing health information to patients. The objectives of this study were to examine the type of advice that Canadians with hypertension recall receiving from health professionals to manage their condition, and to assess if there is an association between health behaviour advice provided by health professionals and self-reported engagement in health behaviour modification. Respondents of the 2009 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada (N = 6142) were asked about sociodemographic characteristics, health care utilization, and health behaviour modification to control hypertension. Association between receipt of advice from health professional and ever engaging, continuing to engage, and not engaging in health behaviour modification was quantified by prevalence rate ratios. Most participants (90.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 89.6-92.2) reported that the health professional most responsible for treating their high blood pressure was their general practitioner. Approximately 9% reported that they had not received or do not recall receiving any advice for blood pressure control. The most commonly reported advice received from a health professional was to participate in physical activity or exercise (70.0%). Respondents who had received advice on health behaviour change to manage their high blood pressure were more likely to report engaging in the behaviour compared with those who did not receive such advice. Many Canadians with hypertension receive health behaviour change advice from their health professionals. Receiving this advice was associated with a greater likelihood of attempting health behaviour change and attempting to sustain that change. Copyright © 2011 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Do nurses' personal health behaviours impact on their health promotion practice? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Muireann; Wills, Jane; Sykes, Susie

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing expectation in national and international policy and from professional bodies that nurses be role models for healthy behaviours, the rationale being that there is a relationship between nurses' personal health and the adoption of healthier behaviours by patients. This may be from patients being motivated by, and modelling, the visible healthy lifestyle of the nurse or that nurses are more willing to promote the health of their patients by offering public health or health promotion advice and referring the patient to support services. An integrated systematic review was conducted to determine if nurses' personal health behaviour impacted on (1) their health promotion practices, and (2) patient responses to a health promotion message. Medline, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO databases were searched. A narrative synthesis was conducted. 31 studies were included in the review. No consistent associations were noted between nurses' weight, alcohol use, or physical activity level and their health promotion practice, although smoking appeared to negatively impact on the likelihood of discussing and engaging in cessation counselling. Nurses who reported confidence and skills around health promotion practice were more likely to raise lifestyle issues with patients, irrespective of their own personal health behaviours. The two studies included in the review that examined patient responses noted that the perceived credibility of a public health message was not enhanced by being delivered by a nurse who reported adopting healthy behaviours. Although it is assumed that nurses' personal health behaviour influences their health promotion practice, there is little evidence to support this. The assertion in health care policy that nurses should be role models for healthy behaviours assumes a causal relationship between their health behaviours and the patient response and adoption of public health messages that is not borne out by the research evidence. Copyright

  15. [Health and environment, prevention or precaution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Denis

    2018-03-01

    The health status of the populations of developed countries has never been as satisfactory, but will it stay that way? Research on the subject is difficult due to the complex interactions between our environment and our health, with risks inherent to each noxious agent. Preventing the risks proven to be linked to the quality of our living environments is usually the responsibility of authorities, but individuals can also adopt precautionary practices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. GST – the idea and recommendations for the prevention of criminal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Agnew

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a presentation of the main assumptions of the General Strain Theory (GST and the possibility to put theory into practice in the field of prevention of criminal behaviour. The GST was created in the ‘90s by Robert Agnew as a continuation of previous structural theories (Merton, Cloward – Ohlin, Cohen. Up to this day it has been widely verified empirically and along with other criminology theories (the theory of social learning/theory of different relations, theory of social control, theories of interaction is both a fundamental but also alternative ground for interpreting social behaviour. Due to its universal assumptions, GST is now being developed also by Polish researchers. In the article are presented the fundamental strategies of prevention of criminal behaviour based on GST and examples of particular programs being carried out in the US and Poland. Pilot studies on building in Poland a pioneer local system of prevention, based on GST, are presented. In the conclusions the authors stress the importance of GST in the genesis of criminal behaviour. The content of this article is therefore a result of an American-Polish cooperation in the field of prevention of criminal behaviour. It seems that international and based on mutual partnership approach is the hallmark of the current stage of the Polish resocialization system development.

  17. Health Seeking Behaviours as Predictors of Hypertension Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined health seeking behaviour as predictor of hypertension among traders in Osun State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used for this study while the instrument for data collection is self developed and structured questionnaire with reliability coefficient of 0.702. The population for this study ...

  18. Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral health related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-demographic and behavioural correlates of oral health related quality of life among Tanzanian adults: a national pathfinder survey. ... A higher proportion of those who reported poor conditions of teeth had difficulties in chewing and sleeping was often interrupted. Multivariate analysis indicated that those who ...

  19. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Mheen, H.; Stronks, K.; Looman, C. W.; Mackenbach, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. Data were obtained from the baseline of a prospective cohort

  20. Does childhood socioeconomic status influence adult health through behavioural factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van de Mheen (Dike); K. Stronks (Karien); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to assess to what extent the effect of childhood socioeconomic status on adult health could be explained by a higher prevalence of unhealthy behaviour among those with lower childhood socioeconomic status. METHODS:

  1. Intimate partner violence, health behaviours, and chronic physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intimate partner violence was not significantly associated with chronic physical illness, although rates of headache, heart attack and high blood pressure reached near-significance. Conclusions. Partner violence against women is a significant public health problem in South Africa, associated with healthrisk behaviours and ...

  2. Gender differences in oral health attitudes and behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study aims to use the modified Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory (HU-DBI) to determine the differences in oral health attitudes and behaviour between male and female clinical dental students at the clinical level in University of Benin. Method: This study included 141 clinical dental students ...

  3. Oral health knowledge, perceptions and behaviour among nursing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The purpose of the study was to investigate oral health knowledge, perceptions and behaviour amongst nursing students in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital on 244 respondents aged 17 to 40 years, using self administered ...

  4. Health-related knowledge and behaviour of primary school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are however reasons for concern in some areas relating to a relatively high consumption of eggs, salt, snacks and soft drinks that may negatively affect the learners' health. Some learners were involved in unprotected sex, the use of alcohol, cigarette smoking and experimenting with drugs. These behaviours should ...

  5. Demographic Factors as Correlates of Health – Seeking Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate whether demographic factors could be taken as correlates of health-seeking behaviour of the people of Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive research design of survey type was adopted for this study. Sample size of one thousand, one hundred and fifty-two respondents were used.

  6. Health care seeking-behaviour of people in Schistosomiasis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the dynamics of health-care seeking-behaviour of people living in communities endemic for schistosomiasis was carried out in Borgu and Shagamu Local Government areas of Niger State and Ewekoro, Odeda and Abeokuta North Local Government Areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were ...

  7. Perception, practices and health-seeking behaviour of lymphatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative and qualitative studies to investigate lymphatic-filariasis-related perceptions, practices and health-seeking behaviour of patients was conducted in Benue State, Nigeria. Questionnaires, key informant, interviews and Matrix Ranking Exercises were employed to collect data. A total of 113 questionnaires ...

  8. Oral hygiene practices and oral health care seeking behaviours ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To determine the oral hygiene practices and oral health care seeking behaviours among primary school teachers. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among primary school teachers from public schools in Ndola district, Zambia.The primary schools were selected using stratified ...

  9. Influence Of Social Factors On The Reproductive Health Behaviour ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the relationship between demographic variables and the reproductive health behaviour of the adolescents in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The sample for the study consisted of 164 adolescents, male and female, in Oyo State, Nigeria. Multi stage ...

  10. Sexual and reproductive health risk behaviours among South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual and reproductive health risk behaviours among South African university students: results from a representative campus-wide survey. Susie Hoffman, Michael Levasseur, Joanne E. Mantell, Mags Beksinska, Zonke Mabude, Claudia Ngoloyi, Elizabeth A. Kelvin, Theresa Exner, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Lavanya Pillay, ...

  11. Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse and HIV risk behaviours amongst primary health care service users in Cape Town. ... African Journal of Psychiatry ... We assessed substance use with the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test, and HIV risk with items addressing injection drug use, blood-sharing rituals, and sexual ...

  12. Influence Of Mass Media On Sexual Health Behaviour Of College ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of mass media on the sexual health behaviour of single college students in Nigeria. Simple random sampling procedure was adopted. A total of 300 pre-coded questionnaires were administered in study population. Data analysis reveals that the respondents are more frequently exposed to ...

  13. Sexually transmitted infections and health seeking behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexually transmitted infections and health seeking behaviour among Ghanaian women in Accra. RMK Adanu, AG Hill, JD Seffah, R Darko, JK Anarfi, RB Duda. Abstract. The study was to measure the prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms among women in Accra, Ghana, to identify characteristics that ...

  14. Impact of Health Education on Sexual Risk Behaviour of Secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They could also be easily reached with health education interventions. There is as yet no global consensus on the nature, content and effectiveness of this intervention among this group. It is also not known how effective this intervention is in reducing sexual risk behaviour among secondary school students in our ...

  15. Exposure to Media Content and Sexual Health Behaviour among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to Media Content and Sexual Health Behaviour among Adolescents in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. ... In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal ...

  16. [Stress after labour - significance for maternal health behaviour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieshop, M; Schücking, B

    2012-04-01

    Maternal stress and lack of social support in the postpartum period have a negative impact on health behaviour of new mothers. Midwives can enhance mother's coping with stress and improve their social support by early interventions in postpartum care. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Health care-seeking behaviour for child illnesses among rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to examine the health care-seeking behaviour of mothers when their children under five years suffer from common childhood illnesses such as diarrhoea, fever, cough and worms. The study was conducted in a rural community in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The sample consisted of 100 ...

  18. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled ‘Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability’. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today’s environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes – particularly in developing and emerging countries – imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public

  19. Psychosocial determinants of oral health behaviour in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agel, Mona

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesPubMed, Embase, Ebsco/PsycInfo, Ebsco/CINAHL and ISI/Web of Science databases.Study selectionStudies that evaluated the association between the psychosocial correlates and oral hygiene behaviour varying from self-reports to clinical measurements, including plaque and bleeding scores were considered.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers independently selected studies, abstracted data and assessed study quality using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.ResultsTwenty-four studies were included providing 31 datasets. Three studies were prospective, the remainder being cross-sectional. 39% of the studies based their research on a behavioural theory, 61% of the studies did not refer to a specific theoretical framework. The theory of planned behaviour was the most commonly used. Meta-analysis of 27 data sets; for both tooth brushing and oral hygiene behaviour, random effect models revealed significant weighted average correlation (r + ) for the psychosocial factors: 'intention', 'self-efficacy', 'attitude' (not significant for tooth brushing), 'social influence', 'coping planning' and 'action planning' (r + ranging from 0.18 to 0.57). Little or no associations were found for 'locus of control', 'self-esteem' and 'sense of coherence' (r + ranges from 0.01 to 0.08).ConclusionsThe data at present indicate that 'self-efficacy', 'intention', 'social influences', 'coping planning' and 'action planning' are potential psychosocial determinants of oral health behaviour. Future studies should consider a range of psychological factors that have not been studied, but have shown to be important psychosocial determinants of health behaviours, such as 'self-determination', 'anticipated regret', 'action control' and 'self-identity'. Effectiveness of addressing these potential determinants to induce behaviour change should be further examined by intervention trials.

  20. Behaviour change for better health: nutrition, hygiene and sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newson, Rachel S; Lion, Rene; Crawford, Robert J; Curtis, Valerie; Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Feunekes, Gerda I J; Hicks, Cheryl; van Liere, Marti; Lowe, C Fergus; Meijer, Gert W; Pradeep, B V; Reddy, K Srinath; Sidibe, Myriam; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    As the global population grows there is a clear challenge to address the needs of consumers, without depleting natural resources and whilst helping to improve nutrition and hygiene to reduce the growth of noncommunicable diseases. For fast-moving consumer goods companies, like Unilever, this challenge provides a clear opportunity to reshape its business to a model that decouples growth from a negative impact on natural resources and health. However, this change in the business model also requires a change in consumer behaviour. In acknowledgement of this challenge Unilever organised a symposium entitled 'Behaviour Change for Better Health: Nutrition, Hygiene and Sustainability'. The intention was to discuss how consumers can be motivated to live a more healthy and sustainable lifestlye in today's environment. This article summarises the main conclusions of the presentations given at the symposium. Three main topics were discussed. In the first session, key experts discussed how demographic changes - particularly in developing and emerging countries - imply the need for consumer behaviour change. The second session focused on the use of behaviour change theory to design, implement and evaluate interventions, and the potential role of (new or reformulated) products as agents of change. In the final session, key issues were discussed regarding the use of collaborations to increase the impact and reach, and to decrease the costs, of interventions. The symposium highlighted a number of key scientific challenges for Unilever and other parties that have set nutrition, hygiene and sustainability as key priorities. The key challenges include: adapting behaviour change approaches to cultures in developing and emerging economies; designing evidence-based behaviour change interventions, in which products can play a key role as agents of change; and scaling up behaviour change activities in cost-effective ways, which requires a new mindset involving public-private partnerships.

  1. Health care help seeking behaviour among prisoners in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Nesset, Merete Berg; Rustad, ?se-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen; Almvik, Roger; Bj?rngaard, Johan H?kon

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate). Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results: Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep ...

  2. [Art, health and prevention: initial collaborations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Noemí; Orellana, Ana; Cano, Marta G; Antúnez, Noelia; Claver, Dolores

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a summary of the first 2 years of the collaboration between the Faculty of Fine Arts of the Universidad Complutense in Madrid and Madrid Health, an autonomous organism of Madrid Council. This collaboration has allowed the development of joint experiences and projects among distinct professionals with highly diverse profiles: health professionals (sexologists, psychiatrists, nurses, etc.), and teachers, researchers, artists and students in the Faculty of Fine Arts. As a result, these experiences could be the beginning of future collaborations between the arts, health and prevention. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Change in health behaviours following acute coronary syndrome: Arab-Jewish differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reges, Orna; Vilchinsky, Noa; Leibowitz, Morton; Khaskia, Abdulrahem; Mosseri, Morris; Kark, Jeremy D

    2015-04-01

    Health-promoting behaviours after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are effective in preventing recurrence. Ethnicity impacts on such behaviours. We assessed the independent association of Arab vs. Jewish ethnicity with persistence of smoking and physical inactivity 6 months after ACS in central Israel. Prospective cohort study. During their admission for ACS and subsequently 6 months later, 420 patients were interviewed about their smoking and exercise habits. The association of ethnicity with health-promoting behaviours was assessed by logistic regression adjusting for socio-demographic and clinical covariates. Smoking prevalence and physical inactivity were substantially higher among Arab patients than Jewish patients at admission (gender-adjusted prevalence rate ratio (RR) 2.25, 95% CI 1.80-2.81, p Arab vs. Jewish patients who were smokers at admission (adjusted OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.00-4.20, p = 0.049) was largely mediated through the 3.5-fold higher participation of Jewish patients in cardiac prevention and rehabilitation program (CPRP) (OR adjusted also for CPRP 1.31, 95% CI 0.59-2.93, p = 0.51). Greater persistent sedentary behaviour at 6 months among nonexercisers at admission among Arab patients (adjusted OR 3.68, 95% CI 1.93-7.02, p Arab patients. A comprehensive understanding of the determinants of the Arab-Jewish differences in efficacious health-promoting behaviours is crucial to inform appropriate ethnic-specific health-promoting strategies. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  4. The Clustering of Health Behaviours in Ireland and their Relationship with Mental Health, Self-Rated Health and Quality of Life

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conry, Mary C

    2011-09-06

    Abstract Background Health behaviours do not occur in isolation. Rather they cluster together. It is important to examine patterns of health behaviours to inform a more holistic approach to health in both health promotion and illness prevention strategies. Examination of patterns is also important because of the increased risk of mortality, morbidity and synergistic effects of health behaviours. This study examines the clustering of health behaviours in a nationally representative sample of Irish adults and explores the association of these clusters with mental health, self-rated health and quality of life. Methods TwoStep Cluster analysis using SPSS was carried out on the SLÁN 2007 data (national Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition, n = 10,364; response rate =62%; food frequency n = 9,223; cluster analysis n = 7,350). Patterns of smoking, drinking alcohol, physical activity and diet were considered. Associations with positive and negative mental health, quality of life and self-rated health were assessed. Results Six health behaviour clusters were identified: Former Smokers, 21.3% (n = 1,564), Temperate, 14.6% (n = 1,075), Physically Inactive, 17.8% (n = 1,310), Healthy Lifestyle, 9.3% (n = 681), Multiple Risk Factor, 17% (n = 1248), and Mixed Lifestyle, 20% (n = 1,472). Cluster profiles varied with men aged 18-29 years, in the lower social classes most likely to adopt unhealthy behaviour patterns. In contrast, women from the higher social classes and aged 65 years and over were most likely to be in the Healthy Lifestyle cluster. Having healthier patterns of behaviour was associated with positive lower levels of psychological distress and higher levels of energy vitality. Conclusion The current study identifies discernible patterns of lifestyle behaviours in the Irish population which are similar to those of our European counterparts. Healthier clusters (Former Smokers, Temperate and Healthy Lifestyle) reported higher levels of energy vitality, lower

  5. Environmental and nursing-staff factors contributing to aggressive and violent behaviour of patients in mental health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-08-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe patients’ perceptions of the possible environmental and staff factors that might contribute to their aggressive and violent behaviour after admission to a mental health facility; and to propose strategies to prevent and manage such behaviour. Research design: A qualitative, phenomenological study was utilised, in which purposefully sampled inpatients were interviewed over a six-month period. Inpatients were invited to participate if they had been admitted for at least seven days and were in touch with reality. Method: Forty inpatients in two mental health facilities in Cape Town participated in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews over a period of six months. Tesch’s descriptive method of open coding formed the framework for the data analysis and presentation of the results. Trustworthiness was ensured in accordance with the principles of credibility, confirmability, transferability and dependability. Results: Analysis of the data indicates two central categories in the factors contributing to patients’ aggressive and violent behaviour, namely, environmental factors and the attitude and behaviour of staff. Conclusion: From the perspective of the inpatients included in this study, aggressive and violent episodes are common and require intervention. Specific strategies for preventing such behaviour are proposed and it is recommended that these strategies be incorporated into the in-service training programmes of the staff of mental health facilities. These strategies could prevent, or reduce, aggressive and violent behaviour in in-patient facilities.

  6. Health seeking behaviour in general population with psychological symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko

    2014-06-01

    Health seeking behaviour is a complex construct in patients with psychological symptoms. The aim of this study was to determine a one-month prevalence of psychological symptoms in Slovenian general population and to identify correlates of health seeking behaviour. This study was conducted in a representative sample of 1,002 randomly selected Slovenian citizens, stratified according to sex and age. We used a method of computer assisted telephone interview (CATI). The questionnaire consisted of demographic questions, questions about the prevalence and duration of preselected symptoms in the past month (irritability, nervousness), questions about the presence of chronic diseases, EQ-5D questionnaire and the questions on health seeking behaviour (self-treatment, lay advice seeking and medical advice seeking). The self-reported prevalence of psychological symptoms in the past month was 38.0% (381/1,002). Multivariate analysis for the presence of self-reported psychological symptoms revealed that female sex, higher age, the presence of chronic disease, primary education, lay-advice seeking, pain and the presence of anxiety/depression on EQ-5D questionnaire were independently associated with psychological symptoms. Psychological symptoms are a major public health problem in Slovenian general adult population and the self-reported utilization of professional health care services by Slovenian population is high. Other patterns such as lay referral system might have a crucial influence on the final decision to seek medical help.

  7. The prevalence of two major health risk behaviours in an Irish older adult population & their relationship to ageing self-perceptions: Findings from the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Copley, Antoinette Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The leading causes of death among older Irish adults are diseases of the circulatory system. These are in a major part, diseases of lifestyle and so health behaviours across the lifecycle, including older age, are important targets for prevention. It is imperative to understand older adults’ engagement in preventive health behaviours such as not smoking and drinking sensibly. While research on the association between ageing self-perceptions and health behaviours is relatively no...

  8. Heavy Internet use and its associations with health risk and health-promoting behaviours among Thai university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Apidechkul, Tawatchai

    2014-01-01

    The Internet provides significant benefits for learning about the world, but excessive Internet use can lead to negative outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between heavy Internet use and health-promoting behaviour, health risk behaviour and health outcomes among university students. The sample included 860 undergraduate university students chosen at random from Mae Fah Luang University in Thailand. Of the participants, 27.3% were male and and 72.7% were female in the age range of 18-25 years (M age=20.1 years, SD=1.3). Overall, students spent on average 5.3 h (SD=2.6) per day on the internet, and 35.3% engaged in heavy internet use (6 or more hours per day). In multivariate logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographics, lack of dental check-ups, three health risk behaviours (sedentary lifestyle, illicit drug use and gambling) and three health outcomes [being underweight, overweight or obese and having screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)] were found to be associated with heavy Internet use. The results from this study may support the importance of developing early protective and preventive actions against problematic Internet use to promote university student health.

  9. Behavioural sciences at university of health sciences: the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, J.S.; Mukhtar, O.; Tabasum, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of medical ethics with teaching and training and health profession has been informal, largely dependent on role modelling and the social contract of the physicians with the community that they abide by. This study was conducted to examine the effect, if any, of introducing the subject of Behavioural Sciences on students performance in the clinical years viva voce and patient interactions components of the examinations. Methods: A prospective study on four cohorts of students at UHS from 2007 to 2012 (8,155 candidates). Reliability was calculated through Cronbach Alpha. Linear Regression Analysis was applied to determine the relationship between the scores of Basic Medical Sciences, Behavioural Sciences and Forensic medicine with the viva voce and Structured Stations marks of the Clinical Sciences in OSCE. Gender and demographics analysis was also done. Results: Cronbach Alpha was 0.47, 0.63, 0.67 and 0.53 for the Papers of Behavioural Sciences from 2007 to 2010 respectively. Poor predictive value of Behavioural Sciences for performance in the clinical years viva voce and OSCE was identified. Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine were statistically significant predictors for the performance of female candidates in all four cohorts of the study (p<0.05). In Central Punjab, Behavioural Sciences statistically significantly predicted for better performance in all four cohorts of the study (p<0.05). Conclusion: It is premature to understand the results of Behavioural Sciences teaching at University of Health Sciences (UHS). We can still safely conclude that it can only have a positive sustained effect on the healthcare delivery systems and patient care in Pakistan if it is integrated within each subject and taught and learned not as a theoretical construct but rather an evaluation of one values within the code of conduct of medical professionalism in the larger context of the societal and cultural norms. (author)

  10. THE STUDY OF RESILIENCE OF A PERSON IN PREVENTION OF ADDICTIVE BEHAVIOUR OF TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Gennadyevna Shubnikova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to reveal interrelation between a level of resilience of a person and addictive behaviour of teenagers, to analyse resilience structure as a basic category of preventive pedagogics.Methodology: a theoretical analysis of psychological and pedagogical literature according to the theory of resilience and addictive behaviour of teenagers; psychodiagnostics of teenagers.Results: the resilience structure as a basic category of primary prevention of using psychoactive agents among children and youth is revealed; the interrelation between a level of resilience and behaviour strategies of a person in a difficult life situation, a level of subjective control, motivation are revealed on the basis of the theoretical and empirical analysis.Practical implications: the system of education.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-8-27

  11. Socio-Economic Gradients in Maternal and Child Health-Seeking Behaviours in Egypt: Systematic Literature Review and Evidence Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benova, Lenka; Campbell, Oona M. R.; Ploubidis, George B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Health-seeking behaviour lies on the direct pathway between socio-economic position (SEP) and health outcomes. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesise evidence of socio-economic gradients in health-seeking behaviours related to maternal and child health in Egypt. Methods Four databases (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science) were searched in September 2013 for material published in English from 1992 to 2013 for a combination of terms describing health-seeking behaviours, indicators of socio-economic position and geographical limitation to Egypt. Findings of studies were described and synthesised in a narrative format as meta-analysis was not possible. Findings Among the 786 references identified, 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined maternal and five studies child health-seeking behaviours (one study examined both). For maternal health, three dimensions of health-seeking behaviour (receipt of any care, type of care and intensity of care) were covered by studies of ante-natal and one dimension (type of care) by analyses of delivery care. For child health, two dimensions of preventive care (coverage of and intensity of immunisation) and three dimensions of curative care (receipt of any care, type and cost of care) were analysed. Conclusions Based on two studies of time trends in nationally-representative surveys, socio-economic inequalities in seeking care for basic preventive and curative interventions in maternal and child health appear to have narrowed. Limited evidence of gradients in intensity of maternal preventive and provider selection in child curative care showed that inequalities may have widened. In studies of more geographically and socially homogeneous samples, fewer gradients were identified. Current body of evidence contains numerous limitations and gaps and is insufficient to draw a conclusive summary of such gradients. Improved understanding of SEP gradients is crucial in

  12. Socio-economic gradients in maternal and child health-seeking behaviours in egypt: systematic literature review and evidence synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Benova

    Full Text Available Health-seeking behaviour lies on the direct pathway between socio-economic position (SEP and health outcomes. The objective of this systematic review is to identify and synthesise evidence of socio-economic gradients in health-seeking behaviours related to maternal and child health in Egypt.Four databases (Medline, Embase, Global Health and Web of Science were searched in September 2013 for material published in English from 1992 to 2013 for a combination of terms describing health-seeking behaviours, indicators of socio-economic position and geographical limitation to Egypt. Findings of studies were described and synthesised in a narrative format as meta-analysis was not possible.Among the 786 references identified, 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. Six studies examined maternal and five studies child health-seeking behaviours (one study examined both. For maternal health, three dimensions of health-seeking behaviour (receipt of any care, type of care and intensity of care were covered by studies of ante-natal and one dimension (type of care by analyses of delivery care. For child health, two dimensions of preventive care (coverage of and intensity of immunisation and three dimensions of curative care (receipt of any care, type and cost of care were analysed.Based on two studies of time trends in nationally-representative surveys, socio-economic inequalities in seeking care for basic preventive and curative interventions in maternal and child health appear to have narrowed. Limited evidence of gradients in intensity of maternal preventive and provider selection in child curative care showed that inequalities may have widened. In studies of more geographically and socially homogeneous samples, fewer gradients were identified. Current body of evidence contains numerous limitations and gaps and is insufficient to draw a conclusive summary of such gradients. Improved understanding of SEP gradients is crucial in designing and prioritising

  13. [Sedentary behaviour 13-years-olds and its association with selected health behaviours, parenting practices and body mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodkowska, Maria; Tabak, Izabela; Oblacińska, Anna; Stalmach, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    1. To estimate the time spent in sedentary behaviour (watching TV, using the computer, doing homework). 2. To assess the link between the total time spent on watching TV, using the computer, doing homework and dietary habits, physical activity, parental practices and body mass. Cross-sectional study was conducted in Poland in 2008 among 13-year olds (n=600). They self-reported their time of TV viewing, computer use and homework. Their dietary behaviours, physical activity (MVPA) and parenting practices were also self-reported. Height and weight were measured by school nurses. Descriptive statistics and correlation were used in this analysis. The mean time spent watching television in school days was 2.3 hours for girls and 2.2 for boys. Boys spent significantly more time using the computer than girls - respectively 1.8 and 1.5 hours, while girls took longer doing homework - respectively 1.7 and 1.3 hours. Mean screen time was about 4 hours in school days and about 6 hours during weekend, statistically longer for boys in weekdays. Screen time was positively associated with intake of sweets, chips, soft drinks, "fast food" and meals consumption during TV, and negatively with regularity of meals and parental supervision. There was no correlation between screen time with physical activity and body mass. Sedentary behaviours and physical activity are not competing behaviours in Polish teenagers, but their relationship with unhealthy dietary patterns may lead to development of obesity. Good parental practices, both mother's and father's supervision seems to be crucial for screen time limitation in their children. Parents should become aware that relevant lifestyle monitoring of their children is a crucial element of health education in prevention of civilization diseases. This is a task for both healthcare workers and educational staff.

  14. Behavioural treatment of tics: Habit reversal and exposure with response prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griendt, J.M.T.M. van de; Verdellen, C.W.J.; Dijk, M.K. van; Verbraak, M.J.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Behaviour therapy has been shown to be an effective strategy in treating tics; both habit reversal (HR) and exposure and response prevention (ER) are recommended as first-line interventions. This review provides an overview of the history, theoretical concepts and evidence at present for HR and ER.

  15. Predictors of sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study design was used to assess sexual-risk behaviour and HIV-preventive practices among students at Hawassa University, Ethiopia, in 2009. Among 1 220 students eligible for the study, approximately 29% reported experience of sex (36.3% of the males and 9.3% of the females). Of the total sexually ...

  16. ESTIMATION OF SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND VULNERABILITY OF ADOLESCENT REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Stanojević

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are reproductive potential of society. Protection of their reproductive health is one of the biggest challenges of modern society. Adolescent reproductive health is endangered by early sexual activities, inadequate protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. It is necessary to take measures which would protect and improve adolescent reproductive health.Adoption of knowledge about sexuality, physiology of reproduction, protection against unwanted pregnancy and sexual infections are prerequisites for formation of correct attitudes related to family planning and taking over responsibility for their own sexual behaviour.

  17. Stroke-Related Knowledge, Lifestyle Behaviours and Health Beliefs in Singaporean Chinese: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wai Pong; Yeung, Meredith; Loh, Susan; Lee, Mina; Ghazali, F.; Chan, C. J.; Feng, S.; Liew, Y. V.; Seah, P. F.; Wee, J.; Wang, J.; Huang, X.; Dean, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to describe stroke-related knowledge (risk factors, warning signs and emergency response), lifestyle behaviours and health beliefs among Singaporean Chinese, and to identify any factors associated with such knowledge, behaviours and beliefs. Design: This was a cross-sectional study design employing…

  18. Effectiveness of health education on Toxoplasma-related knowledge, behaviour, and risk of seroconversion in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L; Leroy, Valériane; Gilbert, Ruth; Chêne, Geneviève; Wallon, Martine

    2008-02-01

    We conducted a bibliographic literature search using MEDLINE to review the effectiveness of health education on Toxoplasma-related knowledge, behaviour, and risk of seroconversion in pregnant women. We pre-selected studies that used comparative study designs (randomized clinical trial, quasi-experimental design or historical control), that were conducted among pregnant women, and which employed specific, Toxoplasma-related outcome measures: knowledge, behaviour, or Toxoplasma infection rate. Four studies met the inclusion criteria. All had serious methodological flaws. A Belgian study reported a significant decrease in the incidence of Toxoplasma seroconversion after the introduction of intensive counselling for pregnant women about toxoplasmosis. In Poland, a significant increase in knowledge was observed after a multi-pronged, public health educational program was launched. In Canada, an increase in knowledge and prevention behaviours was reported in the intervention group receiving counselling by trained facilitators compared with the control group. In France, no significant changes in risk behaviour were observed following a physician-delivered intervention. This review highlights the weakness of the literature in the area and the lack of studies measuring actual seroconversion. There is suggestive evidence that health education approaches may help reduce risk of congenital toxoplasmosis but this problem requires further study using more rigorous research design and methodology.

  19. Dental health behaviours among early adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, K K; Day, J R

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and socioeconomic differences in dental health behaviours among Hong Kong early adolescents.  A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4927 students (44.7% boys) aged 14-15 from 36 secondary schools in 2000-2001. Students reported their socioeconomic information and dental health behaviours using the Health Related Behaviour General Questionnaire (HRBGQ). Logistic regression models were used to determine the adjusted odds ratios of regular tooth brushing (at least twice daily), weekly use of dental floss (in the past 7days) and annual dental visit (in the past 12months) for different socioeconomic characteristics. Of the subjects, 77.8% reported to have brushed regularly, but only 22.3% used dental floss weekly and 37.9% had annual dental visit. Male gender and Chinese ethnicity were significantly associated with lower odds of regular brushing, use of dental floss and annual dental visit. Two or more siblings and not living with both parents were also significantly associated with lower odds of regular brushing and annual dental visit. Furthermore, students living in non-private housing were significantly less likely to have annual dental visit than those in private housing. Regular brushing was common, but not use of dental floss and annual dental visits among Hong Kong early adolescents. In general, socioeconomic disparity in dental health behaviours was observed. Extending the existing government-run dental health programmes to secondary school students in Hong Kong is warranted. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Health care help seeking behaviour among prisoners in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesset, Merete Berg; Rustad, Ase-Bente; Kjelsberg, Ellen; Almvik, Roger; Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon

    2011-11-04

    Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate). Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.

  1. Health care help seeking behaviour among prisoners in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesset Merete

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prisoners are associated with high health care needs compared with the general population. This study aims to investigate prisoners' use of health service. Methods A cross-sectional study of 29 prisons in central and southern parts of Norway. A questionnaire was distributed to 1, 454 prisoners (90% response rate. Multilevel analyses were employed to analyse help seeking behaviour among the prisoners. Results Help seeking was substantially associated with sleep problems and drug problems. There was also a tendency for closed prisons as well as high staffing levels of healthcare professionals to be associated with elevated health care use. Conclusions This study suggests that sleep problems and drug use are most frequently associated with health service use. The differences in health care use between prisons suggest that the implementation of prison health care standards should be addressed.

  2. Preventing childhood obesity: health in the balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koplan, Jeffrey; Liverman, Catharyn T; Kraak, Vivica I

    2005-01-01

    ... for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by Contract No. 200-2000-00629, T.O. #14 between the National Academy of Sciences and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; by Contract No. N01-OD-4-2139, T.O. #126 with the National Institutes of Health; and by Grant No. 04...

  3. OBESITY: health prevention strategies in school environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Ferreira Todendi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, obesity configures a public health problem which calls for attention from different sectors, given the proportion it assumes all over the world. Several studies relate this problem to metabolic health problems, including endocrinal, cardiovascular, lung, gastrointestinal, psychiatric, hematological disturbances, among others. Obesity is not only associated with genetic and environmental factors, but also with unhealthy lifestyles. In view of its social importance, it is ascertained, through analyses of studies, that there are not many health prevention strategies focused on this situation. As a result of this ascertainment, the proposal is for updating prevention actions in the realm of obese schoolchildren, resulting from a work conducted during the Master’s Degree lessons in Health Promotion at the University of Santa Cruz do Sul (UNISC. The point in question is the fact that many schools pose no restrictions to products sold in their canteens. Food stuffs sold in schools should have adequate nutritional quality, and snacks prepared at school are extremely important in meeting all nutritional requirements. However, many children do not consume these school lunches, but they bring them from home or purchase them at the canteen, spending public resources, along with not taking in healthy foods and, as a consequence, leading to health problems over the years. For all this, it is of fundamental importance to carry out investigating processes with regard to how public actions and policies are being implemented towards this end, in view of the fact that obesity in schoolchildren is on a rising trend.

  4. Health Seeking Behaviour and Access to Health Care Facilities at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Health care at the primary level is accepted as the model for delivering basic health care to low income populations especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. Despite all the efforts and strategiesadapted in Nigeria, there is still high level of morbidity and mortality from the diseases primary health care ...

  5. Effect of health risk assessment and counselling on health behaviour and survival in older people: a pragmatic randomised trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas E Stuck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Potentially avoidable risk factors continue to cause unnecessary disability and premature death in older people. Health risk assessment (HRA, a method successfully used in working-age populations, is a promising method for cost-effective health promotion and preventive care in older individuals, but the long-term effects of this approach are unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of an innovative approach to HRA and counselling in older individuals for health behaviours, preventive care, and long-term survival.This study was a pragmatic, single-centre randomised controlled clinical trial in community-dwelling individuals aged 65 y or older registered with one of 19 primary care physician (PCP practices in a mixed rural and urban area in Switzerland. From November 2000 to January 2002, 874 participants were randomly allocated to the intervention and 1,410 to usual care. The intervention consisted of HRA based on self-administered questionnaires and individualised computer-generated feedback reports, combined with nurse and PCP counselling over a 2-y period. Primary outcomes were health behaviours and preventive care use at 2 y and all-cause mortality at 8 y. At baseline, participants in the intervention group had a mean ± standard deviation of 6.9 ± 3.7 risk factors (including unfavourable health behaviours, health and functional impairments, and social risk factors and 4.3 ± 1.8 deficits in recommended preventive care. At 2 y, favourable health behaviours and use of preventive care were more frequent in the intervention than in the control group (based on z-statistics from generalised estimating equation models. For example, 70% compared to 62% were physically active (odds ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.16-1.77, p = 0.001, and 66% compared to 59% had influenza vaccinations in the past year (odds ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.66, p = 0.005. At 8 y, based on an intention-to-treat analysis, the estimated proportion alive was 77.9% in

  6. The predictive role of health-promoting behaviours and perceived stress in aneurysmal rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Park, Chang G; Hughes, Tonda L; Jun, Sang-Eun; Whang, Kum; Kim, Nahyun

    2018-03-01

    rupture. Our findings may stimulate greater understanding of mechanisms underlying aneurysmal rupture and suggest practical strategies for nurses to employ in optimising conservative management of rupture risk by teaching patients how to modify their risk. Both health-promoting behaviour and perceived stress should be addressed when designing preventive nursing interventions for patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Health insurance and care-seeking behaviours of female migrants in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattof, Samantha R

    2018-05-01

    People working in Ghana's informal sector have low rates of enrolment in the publicly funded National Health Insurance Scheme. Informal sector workers, including migrant girls and women from northern Ghana working as head porters (kayayei), report challenges obtaining insurance and seeking formal health care. This article analyses how health insurance status affects kayayei migrants' care-seeking behaviours. This mixed-methods study involved surveying 625 migrants using respondent-driven sampling and conducting in-depth interviews with a sub-sample of 48 migrants. Analyses explore health status and health seeking behaviours for recent illness/injury. Binary logistic regression modelled the effects of selected independent variables on whether or not a recently ill/injured participant (n = 239) sought health care. Although recently ill/injured participants (38.4%) desired health care, less than half (43.5%) sought care. Financial barriers overwhelmingly limit kayayei migrants from seeking health care, preventing them from registering with the National Health Insurance Scheme, renewing their expired health insurance policies, or taking time away from work. Both insured and uninsured migrants did not seek formal health services due to the unpredictable nature of out-of-pocket expenses. Catastrophic and impoverishing medical expenses also drove participants' migration in search of work to repay loans and hospital bills. Health insurance can help minimize these expenditures, but only 17.4% of currently insured participants (58.2%) reported holding a valid health insurance card in Accra. The others lost their cards or forgot them when migrating. Access to formal health care in Accra remains largely inaccessible to kayayei migrants who suffer from greater illness/injury than the general female population in Accra and who are hindered in their ability to receive insurance exemptions. With internal migration on the rise in many settings, health systems must recognize the

  8. Identification and management of psychosocial problems among toddlers by preventive child health care professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Velderman, Mariska; Crone, Matty R.; Wiefferink, Carin H.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    Background: Objective of this study was to assess the degree to which preventive child health professionals (CHPs) identify and act upon psychosocial problems among young toddlers in the general population and to determine the concordance with parent-reported behavioural and emotional problems.

  9. Childhood social circumstances and health behaviour in midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Prescott, Eva

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that the association between social disadvantage in childhood and adult mortality could come about through processes related to the family environment in which the child is raised. This study examines the relationship of fathers' social class with health behaviour in middle...... age and assesses the potential mediating role of cognitive function, educational status and social integration in young adulthood in these relationships....

  10. Cognitive Behavioural Suicide Prevention for Male Prisoners: A pilot randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D.; Tarrier, N.; Dunn, G.; Awenat, Y.; Shaw, J.; Ulph, F.; Gooding, P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prisoners have an exceptional risk of suicide. Cognitive behavioural therapy for suicidal behaviour has been shown to offer considerable potential, but has yet to be formally evaluated within prisons. This study investigated the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a novel, manualised cognitive behavioural suicide prevention (CBSP) therapy for suicidal male prisoners. Methods A pilot randomised controlled trial of CBSP in addition to treatment as usual (CBSP; n=31) compared to treatment as usual alone (TAU; n=31), was conducted in a male prison in England. The primary outcome was self-injurious behaviour occurring within the past six months. Secondary outcomes were dimensions of suicidal ideation, psychiatric symptomatology, personality dysfunction and psychological determinants of suicide, including depression and hopelessness. The trial was prospectively registered (number ISRCTN59909209). Results Relative to TAU, participants receiving CBSP therapy achieved a significantly greater reduction in suicidal behaviours with a moderate treatment effect (Cohen’s d=−0.72, 95%CI: −1.71 to 0.09; baseline mean [SD], TAU: 1.39[3.28] vs CBSP: 1.06[2.10], 6 months mean [SD], TAU: 1.48[3.23] vs CBSP: 0.58[1.52]). Significant improvements were achieved on measures of psychiatric symptomatology and personality dysfunction. Improvements on psychological determinants of suicide were non-significant. More than half of participants in the CBSP group achieved a clinically significant recovery by the end of therapy, compared to a quarter of the TAU group. Conclusions The delivery and evaluation of cognitive behavioural suicide prevention therapy within a prison is feasible. CBSP therapy offers significant promise in the prevention of prison suicide and an adequately powered randomised controlled trial is warranted. PMID:26165919

  11. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of children and adolescents in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A national representative study to describe oral health behaviour, illness behaviour, oral health knowledge and attitudes among 12-year-old and 18-year-old Chinese, to analyse the oral health behaviour profile of the two age groups in relation to province and urbanisation, and to asse...

  12. What Makes a Mobile App Successful in Supporting Health Behaviour Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Martin; McClelland, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Health promotion apps designed to support and reinforce health behaviours or to reduce risk behaviours are the most commonly downloaded apps. Such technologies have the potential to reach and deliver health care to new populations. But the extent to which they are successful in enabling the adoption of new and desired behaviours can…

  13. Health Problems and Health Care Seeking Behaviour of Rohingya Refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Masud, Abdullah Al; Ahmed, Md. Shahoriar; Sultana, Mst. Rebeka; Alam, S. M. Iftekhar; Kabir, Russell; Arafat, S. M. Yasir; Papadopoulos, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rohingya refugees are one of the most vulnerable group due to lack of health care system, personal hygiene, shelter, sanitation and violence. Aim: The present study aims to find out the health problems and health care seeking behavior of rohingya refugee peoples, to identify the socio-demographic information for such exposure group in relation to age, sex, occupation, living areas, to explore the patient's physical, emotional, perceptions, attitudes and environmen...

  14. Health care seeking behaviour and utilisation in a multiple health insurance system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice Nahyuha; Mujinja, Phares G M; Enemark, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    to the differential revenue raising capacities and benefit packages offered by the various funds resulting in inequity and inefficiency within the health system. This paper examines how the existence of multiple health insurance funds affects health care seeking behaviour and utilisation among members...

  15. Orthopedic Health: Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prevention Regular exercise, a balanced diet, and a healthful weight can help you reduce your risk of developing osteoarthritis, especially in the hips and knees, or suffering sports injuries. Exercise helps bone density, improves muscle strength and ...

  16. Health Seeking Behaviour among Individuals with Presumptive Tuberculosis in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda-Kapata, Pascalina; Kapata, Nathan; Masiye, Felix; Maboshe, Mwendaweli; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Cobelens, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) prevalence surveys offer a unique opportunity to study health seeking behaviour at the population level because they identify individuals with symptoms that should ideally prompt a health consultation. To assess the health-seeking behaviour among individuals who were presumptive TB cases in a national population based TB prevalence survey. A cross sectional survey was conducted between 2013 and 2014 among 66 survey clusters in Zambia. Clusters were census supervisory areas (CSAs). Participants (presumptive TB cases) were individuals aged 15 years and above; having either cough, fever or chest pain for 2 weeks or more; and/or having an abnormal or inconclusive chest x-ray image. All survey participants were interviewed about symptoms and had a chest X-ray taken. An in-depth interview was conducted to collect information on health seeking behaviour and previous TB treatment. Of the 6,708 participants, the majority reported at least a history of chest pain (3,426; 51.1%) followed by cough (2,405; 35.9%), and fever (1,030; 15.4%) for two weeks or more. Only 34.9% (2,340) had sought care for their symptoms, mainly (92%) at government health facilities. Of those who sought care, 13.9% (326) and 12.1% (283) had chest x-ray and sputum examinations, respectively. Those ever treated for TB were 9.6% (644); while 1.7% (114) was currently on treatment. The average time (in weeks) from onset of symptoms to first care-seeking was 3 for the presumptive TB cases. Males, urban dwellers and individuals in the highest wealth quintile were less likely to seek care for their symptoms. The likelihood of having ever been treated for TB was highest among males, urban dwellers; respondents aged 35-64 years, individuals in the highest wealth quintile, or HIV positive. Some presumptive TB patients delay care-seeking for their symptoms. The health system misses opportunities to diagnose TB among those who seek care. Improving health-seeking behaviour among males, urban

  17. Sexual behaviour of heterosexual men and women receiving antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugwanya, Kenneth K; Donnell, Deborah; Celum, Connie; Thomas, Katherine K; Ndase, Patrick; Mugo, Nelly; Katabira, Elly; Ngure, Kenneth; Baeten, Jared M

    2013-12-01

    Scarce data are available to assess sexual behaviour of individuals using antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention. Increased sexual risk taking by individuals using effective HIV prevention strategies, like pre-exposure prophylaxis, could offset the benefits of HIV prevention. We studied whether the use of pre-exposure prophylaxis in HIV-uninfected men and women in HIV-serodiscordant couples was associated with increased sexual risk behaviour. We undertook a longitudinal analysis of data from the Partners PrEP Study, a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-uninfected partners of heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples (n=3163, ≥18 years of age). Efficacy for HIV prevention was publicly reported in July 2011, and participants continued monthly follow-up thereafter. We used regression analyses to compare the frequency of sex-unprotected by a condom-during the 12 months after compared with the 12 months before July 2011, to assess whether knowledge of pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy for HIV prevention caused increased sexual risk behaviour. We analysed 56 132 person-months from 3024 HIV-uninfected individuals (64% male). The average frequency of unprotected sex with the HIV-infected study partner was 59 per 100 person-months before unmasking versus 53 after unmasking; we recorded no immediate change (p=0·66) or change over time (p=0·25) after July, 2011. We identified a significant increase in unprotected sex with outside partners after July, 2011, but the effect was small (average of 6·8 unprotected sex acts per year vs 6·2 acts in a predicted counterfactual scenario had patients remained masked, p=0·04). Compared with before July, 2011, we noted no significant increase in incident sexually transmitted infections or pregnancy after July, 2011. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, provided as part of a comprehensive prevention package, might not result in substantial changes in risk

  18. Health related behavioural change in context: young people in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavis, S; Cunningham-Burley, S; Amos, A

    1998-11-01

    Post-modern theorists have highlighted the impacts of rapid social and economic change in lessening structural constraints, arguing that the concepts of "gender" and "social class" are now less useful in understanding people's life chances and choices. While the epochal nature of such changes has been questioned, increasing levels of individualisation and reflexivity have been widely recognised. Agency is prioritised and structural disembeddedness increasingly assumed: people are held to construct their identities and biographies reflexively from a diverse range of experiences and opportunities. When used in relation to understanding health related behaviours this theorising has led to an increasing focus upon the symbolic significance of consumption (and indeed risk) in defining lifestyles and identities. Here we report on the health related behaviours of 106 young people (15/16 yr) during their transition from school to employment, training or further education. This period is arguably central in the process of creating adult identities and accordingly should involve considerable lifestyle choice, reflexivity and symbolic consumption as identities are formed. By drawing on two rounds of data (semi-structured interviews and structured questionnaires) we consider how smoking and drinking behaviours related to the wider social transitions towards adulthood. We provide a situated account of health related behaviours which acknowledges both subjective experience and social location. We argue that the current challenge is to integrate the different levels of structural constraint and individual agency within the context of current rapid social and economic change and suggest that it is only through empirical investigation which embraces an analysis both at the level of structure and individual experience that the conditions of late modernity can be more thoroughly understood.

  19. Health-related behaviours and sickness absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, M; Piha, K; Martikainen, P; Rahkonen, O; Lahelma, E

    2009-12-01

    To compare associations of health-related behaviours with self-certified and medically confirmed sickness absence, and to examine whether these associations can be explained by psychosocial and physical working conditions and occupational social class. The study included 5470 female and 1464 male employees of the City of Helsinki surveyed in 2000-2002. These data were linked to sickness absence records until the end of 2005, providing a mean follow-up time of 3.9 years. Poisson regression analysis was used to examine associations of smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, dietary habits and relative weight (body mass index) with self-certified (1-3 days) and medically confirmed (> or =4 days) absence spells. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to quantify the sickness absence burden related to the behaviours. Smoking and high relative weight were most strongly associated with sickness absence, while the associations of other studied health-related behaviours were weaker. The associations were stronger for medically confirmed sickness absence spells for which heavy smoking and obesity more than doubled the risk of sickness absence in men and nearly doubled it in women. Adjusting for psychosocial working conditions had little or no effect on the associations. Physical working conditions and social class somewhat attenuated the associations, especially for smoking and relative weight. In self-certified sickness absence the PAF for smoking (16.4 in men, 10.3 in women) was largest, while in medically confirmed absence relative weight had the largest PAF (23.5 in men, 15.0 in women). Health-related behaviours, smoking and high relative weight in particular, were associated with subsequent sickness absence independently of psychosocial and physical working conditions and social class. Decreasing smoking and relative weight is likely to provide important gains in work ability and reduce sickness absence.

  20. Measuring psychosocial variables that predict older persons' oral health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyak, H A

    1996-12-01

    The importance of recognising psychosocial characteristics of older people that influence their oral health behaviours and the potential success of dental procedures is discussed. Three variables and instruments developed and tested by the author and colleagues are presented. A measure of perceived importance of oral health behaviours has been found to be a significant predictor of dental service utilization in three studies. Self-efficacy regarding oral health has been found to be lower than self-efficacy regarding general health and medication use among older adults, especially among non-Western ethnic minorities. The significance of self-efficacy for predicting changes in caries and periodontal disease is described. Finally, a measure of expectations regarding specific dental procedures has been used with older people undergoing implant therapy. Studies with this instrument reveal that patients have concerns about the procedure far different than those focused on by dental providers. All three instruments can be used in clinical practice as a means of understanding patients' values, perceived oral health abilities, and expectations from dental care. These instruments can enhance dentist-patient rapport and improve the chances of successful dental outcomes for older patients.

  1. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adults in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying

    2005-01-01

    was reported by 25% of all participants and 6% had a dental check-up during the past two years. Nearly 15% of the subjects would visit a dentist if they experienced bleeding from gums; about 60% of the subjects paid no attention to signs of caries if there was no pain. Two thirds of the urban residents and one......-behavioural risk factors on dental caries experience. METHODS: A total number of 4,398 35-44-year-olds and 4,399 65-74-year-olds were selected by multistage stratified cluster random sampling which involved 11 provinces in China. Data were collected by self-administered structured questionnaires and clinical...... against 28% at age 65-74 years. Dental caries experience was affected by urbanisation, gender, frequency, time spent on and method of tooth brushing. Knowledge of causes and prevention of dental diseases was low with somewhat negative attitudes to prevention observed. CONCLUSION: Systematic community...

  2. Development of the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarang Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: It is not yet understood how attitudes concerning dementia risk may affect motivation to change health behaviours and lifestyle. This study was designed to develop a reliable and valid theory-based measure to understand beliefs underpinning the lifestyle and health behavioural changes needed for dementia risk reduction. Methods: 617 participants aged ≥50 years completed a theory-based questionnaire, namely, the Motivation to Change Lifestyle and Health Behaviours for Dementia Risk Reduction (MCLHB-DRR scale. The MCLHB-DRR consists of 53 items, reflecting seven subscales of the Health Belief Model. Results: Confirmatory factor analysis was performed and revealed that a seven-factor solution with 27 items fitted the data (comparative fit index = 0.920, root-mean-square error of approximation = 0.047 better than the original 53 items. Internal reliability (α = 0.608-0.864 and test-retest reliability (α = 0.552-0.776 were moderate to high. Measurement of invariance across gender and age was also demonstrated. Conclusions: These results propose that the MCLHB-DRR is a useful tool in assessing the beliefs and attitudes of males and females aged ≥50 years towards dementia risk reduction. This measure can be used in the development and evaluation of interventions aimed at dementia prevention.

  3. Health seeking behaviour of parents of burned children in Bangladesh is related to family socioeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Chowdhury, S M; Svanström, L; Shafinaz, S; Khan, T F; Rahman, F

    2010-05-01

    The study was design to explore the health seeking behaviour of Bangladeshi parents for their children during burn injuries. A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted between January and December 2003 in Bangladesh. Nationally representative data were collected from 171,366 rural and urban households comprising of a total population of 819,429, including 351,651 children of 0-18 years. Mothers or heads of households were interviewed with a structured questionnaire in obtaining the information. About sixty percent parents seek health care from unqualified service providers for their children during a childhood burn injury. Educated and the higher income groups parents choose qualified service provider at significantly higher rate compared to illiterate and poor. Higher proportion of parents of urban residence chooses qualified service provider compared to rural. No significant difference of health seeking behaviour of parent in choosing care provider was found in relation to sex of the children. Education, economic condition and place of residence were found as the contributory factors in choosing service provider. Education to the parents can contribute in changes in health seeking behaviour which ultimately contribute in reducing morbidity and mortality from childhood burn injuries. Including parent's education a national burn prevention program needs to be developed to combat the devastating child injury, burn. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of the Prevention Plan on Employee Health Risk Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Loeppke, Ronald; Edington, Dee W.; Bég, Sami

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of The Prevention Plan™ on employee health risks after 1 year of integrated primary prevention (wellness and health promotion) and secondary prevention (biometric and lab screening as well as early detection) interventions. The Prevention Plan is an innovative prevention benefit that provides members with the high-tech/high-touch support and encouragement they need to adopt healthy behaviors. Support services include 24/7 nurse hotlines, one-on-one health coach...

  5. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORAL HEALTH BEHAVIOUR OF CHILDREN FOR THEIR ORAL HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Ivana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Caries or tooth decay regardless of the good knowledge of the nature of the disease and the possibility of its effective prevention is still the most widespread disease in our population. It also very often threatens the functions of organs and even the entire organism. Health culture is an integral part of general culture and health education plays an important role in maintaining health of individuals. Aim. The main objective of this study is to determine the influence of oral health behaviour of schoolchildren aged 12 to 14 on their oral health. The schoolchildren attended the seventh and eight grade at Drago Milovic Elementary School in Tivat. Method. The survey was conducted during the period from the end of January to April 2015 at Drago Milovic Elementary School in Tivat. It comprised all seventh and eight-graders that were at school those days. The survey instrument was a questionnaire specially designed for this study and it consisted of 36 closed-ended questions. Clinical examination of oral health in children was used as an additional research instrument. Assessment of oral health was carried out under natural light with dental mirror and probe according to WHO recommendations. The parameter used to assess the state of oral health was DMFT index — the number of carious, extracted and filled teeth. In addition, the assessment of oral hygiene was conducted using soft debris index according to Green-Vermillion which determines absence or presence, quantity and distribution of dental plaque and other soft deposits. Results. The majority of students stated that they lack knowledge regarding the effectiveness of fluoride toothpaste (69.4%. It was found that the lowest incidence of caries occurred among those students who think that teeth should be brushed after every meal, and the highest incidence of this diagnosis occurred in respondents who think that teeth should be brushed once a day. Half of the surveyed students

  6. Oral health behaviour of urban and semi-urban schoolchildren in the Lao PDR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, N; Petersen, P E

    2011-01-01

    To describe the oral health related knowledge, behaviour, and attitude towards health of 12-year old Lao schoolchildren; analyse how health risk factors relate to socio-demographic background; and determine the relative effect of living conditions on health and risk behaviour.......To describe the oral health related knowledge, behaviour, and attitude towards health of 12-year old Lao schoolchildren; analyse how health risk factors relate to socio-demographic background; and determine the relative effect of living conditions on health and risk behaviour....

  7. A reader on applying statistics in public health and prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijckevorsel, J.L.A. van; Bijleveld, C.C.J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Contributions to this volume discuss the application of statistics in public health and prevention, dealing with subjects in the field of working conditions and occupational health, sexually transmissible disease, dental health, public health tables, the geographical distribution of diseases,

  8. Identification of cancer risk and associated behaviour: implications for social marketing campaigns for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippen, Rebecca; James, Erica; Ward, Bernadette; Buykx, Penny; Shamsullah, Ardel; Watson, Wendy; Chapman, Kathy

    2017-08-17

    Community misconception of what causes cancer is an important consideration when devising communication strategies around cancer prevention, while those initiating social marketing campaigns must decide whether to target the general population or to tailor messages for different audiences. This paper investigates the relationships between demographic characteristics, identification of selected cancer risk factors, and associated protective behaviours, to inform audience segmentation for cancer prevention social marketing. Data for this cross-sectional study (n = 3301) are derived from Cancer Council New South Wales' 2013 Cancer Prevention Survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between respondent demographic characteristics and identification of each of seven cancer risk factors; demographic characteristics and practice of the seven 'protective' behaviours associated with the seven cancer risk factors; and identification of cancer risk factors and practising the associated protective behaviours, controlling for demographic characteristics. More than 90% of respondents across demographic groups identified sun exposure and smoking cigarettes as moderate or large cancer risk factors. Around 80% identified passive smoking as a moderate/large risk factor, and 40-60% identified being overweight or obese, drinking alcohol, not eating enough vegetables and not eating enough fruit. Women and older respondents were more likely to identify most cancer risk factors as moderate/large, and to practise associated protective behaviours. Education was correlated with identification of smoking as a moderate/large cancer risk factor, and with four of the seven protective behaviours. Location (metropolitan/regional) and country of birth (Australia/other) were weak predictors of identification and of protective behaviours. Identification of a cancer risk factor as moderate/large was a significant predictor for five out

  9. Is Healthier Nutrition Behaviour Associated with Better Self-Reported Health and Less Health Complaints?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansari, Walid El; Suominen, Sakari; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    associated with a higher consumption of sweets, cookies and snacks and a lower adherence to dietary guidelines. More healthy nutrition behaviour was consistently associated with better self-reported health and less health complaints. Of the four nutrition behaviour indicators we employed, the dietary...... (sweets, cakes and snacks; and fruits and vegetables), a dietary guideline adherence index and the subjective importance of healthy eating. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the association of students' nutrition behaviour with three levels of self-reported health, controlling for many potential......' eating habits with the three components of health complaints, controlling for the same confounders. Fruits and raw and cooked vegetable consumption, dietary guideline adherence index and subjective importance of healthy eating were highest among students with excellent/very good self-reported health...

  10. [Health issues and preventive health strategies for adolescent girls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wei-Fen; Chao, Fen-Hao; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Liou, Yiing-Mei; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2009-12-01

    As adolescent girls have specific healthcare needs, this paper was designed to provide a better understanding of their healthcare needs in both physical and psychosocial terms. After conducting a targeted review of the literature on children and adolescents, we identified factors of importance to physical health as body weight, physical activity, menstruation, sexual knowledge and attitude and to psychosocial health as anxiety, interpersonal relationships, depression, and suicide behavior. Reflecting these factors, this paper presents four preventive suggestions to clinical practice, education, and research to facilitate improvements in adolescent girl's health. These suggestions include: 1) strengthening health education and media responsibility with regard to adolescent girl health; 2) improving awareness of the needs of adolescent girls within healthcare and education organizations; 3) making health guidelines for promoting proper health behavior in adolescent girls; and 4) mobilizing nurses to assert the health of adolescent girls in clinical, education, and research fields. This is the first paper that focuses on the health needs of adolescent Taiwanese girls. The authors hope that more people become involved in the care of adolescent girl's health in Taiwan.

  11. Predicting Oral Health-Related Behaviour in the Parents of Preschool Children: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Branden, Sigrid; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Leroy, Roos; Declerck, Dominique; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to test the predictive validity of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) when applied to the oral health-related behaviours of parents towards their preschool children in a cross-sectional and prospective design over a 5-year interval. Methods: Data for this study were obtained from parents of 1,057 children born…

  12. Predicting adherence to health care recommendations using health promotion behaviours in kidney transplant recipients within 1-5 years post-transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Su-Yueh; Fetzer, Susan J; Lee, Po-Chang; Chen, Ching-Huey

    2011-12-01

    This study examined health promotion behaviours of kidney transplant recipients, 1-5 years after transplant and identified the risk factors predicting non-adherence to post-transplant recommendations. Non-adherence to health care recommendations and health promotion behaviours is one of the top three reasons for graft loss following kidney transplantation. A cross-sectional study. Kidney transplant recipients (n=101) in southern Taiwan completed a self reported survey, the Kidney Transplant Health Promotion Behavior and Healthcare Provider Support survey. Kidney transplant patients had better adherence with medication and least adherence with regular exercise health promotion behaviours. Age, post kidney transplant time, health care provider support and financial satisfaction accounted for 37·2% of the explained variance in monitoring and management for rejection and infection. Marital status, post kidney transplant time and gender accounted for 16·2% of the explained variance in infection prevention. Age was the sole predictor of exercise (odds ratio=1·08, p=0·025). Health promotion behaviours declined with time and perceived healthcare provider support decreased at the third (p=0·04) post kidney transplant year. In this study, young, single, males were identified as requiring specific strategies to improve post kidney transplant health promotion behaviours. The need for health promotion must be continually reinforce by healthcare providers throughout the lifespan of a kidney transplant recipient. Understanding the changes of health behaviours of post kidney transplant recipients and their risk factors, healthcare providers can be more aware of the needs of patients in maintaining health promotion behaviours. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Selective international migration by social position, health behaviour and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silventoinen, Karri; Hammar, Niklas; Hedlund, Ebba; Koskenvuo, Markku; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2008-04-01

    Immigrants is an important minority in many countries, but little is known how they are self-selected. We analysed differences in psycho-social and health behavioural factors between international migrants and non-migrants prior to migration in a large cohort of Finnish twins. A questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins in 1975 (response rate 89%, N = 26555 twin individuals). Follow-up data on migration and mortality were derived from population registries in Finland and Sweden up to 31 March 2002. In 1998, another questionnaire was sent to Finnish twins migrated to Sweden and their co-twins (response rate 71%, N = 1534 twin individuals). The data were analysed using Cox and conditional logistic regression models. Life dissatisfaction, higher alcohol use and smoking at baseline predicted future migration. In men additionally, unemployment, neuroticism and extroversion increased the probability to migrate. Similar associations were found for alcohol use in men and smoking in men and women within twin pairs discordant for migration. Twins also reported retrospectively that prior to migration the migrated twin had been less satisfied with his/her educational institution or job and was generally less satisfied with life, used more alcohol (men) and smoked more (women) than the co-twin stayed in Finland. Migrants are self-selected by health behavioural and personality factors, which may compromise their health. The special requirements of migrants should be recognized in health care.

  14. European consumers and health claims: attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Josephine M; Storcksdieck genannt Bonsmann, Stefan; Kolka, Magdalena; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-05-01

    Health claims on food products are often used as a means to highlight scientifically proven health benefits associated with consuming those foods. But do consumers understand and trust health claims? This paper provides an overview of recent research on consumers and health claims including attitudes, understanding and purchasing behaviour. A majority of studies investigated selective product-claim combinations, with ambiguous findings apart from consumers' self-reported generic interest in health claims. There are clear indications that consumer responses differ substantially according to the nature of carrier product, the type of health claim, functional ingredient used or a combination of these components. Health claims tend to be perceived more positively when linked to a product with an overall positive health image, whereas some studies demonstrate higher perceived credibility of products with general health claims (e.g. omega-3 and brain development) compared to disease risk reduction claims (e.g. bioactive peptides to reduce risk of heart disease), others report the opposite. Inconsistent evidence also exists on the correlation between having a positive attitude towards products with health claims and purchase intentions. Familiarity with the functional ingredient and/or its claimed health effect seems to result in a more favourable evaluation. Better nutritional knowledge, however, does not automatically lead to a positive attitude towards products carrying health messages. Legislation in the European Union requires that the claim is understood by the average consumer. As most studies on consumers' understanding of health claims are based on subjective understanding, this remains an area for more investigation.

  15. Shared decision-making behaviours in health professionals: a systematic review of studies based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson-Leduc, Philippe; Clayman, Marla L; Turcotte, Stéphane; Légaré, France

    2015-10-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) requires health professionals to change their practice. Socio-cognitive theories, such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), provide the needed theoretical underpinnings for designing behaviour change interventions. We systematically reviewed studies that used the TPB to assess SDM behaviours in health professionals to explore how theory is being used to explain influences on SDM intentions and/or behaviours, and which construct is identified as most influential. We searched PsycINFO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Index to theses, Proquest dissertations and Current Contents for all years up to April 2012. We included all studies in French or English that used the TPB and related socio-cognitive theories to assess SDM behavioural intentions or behaviours in health professionals. We used Makoul & Clayman's integrative SDM model to identify SDM behaviours. We extracted study characteristics, nature of the socio-cognitive theory, SDM behaviour, and theory-based determinants of the SDM behavioural intention or behaviour. We computed simple frequency counts. Of 12,388 titles, we assessed 136 full-text articles for eligibility. We kept 20 eligible studies, all published in English between 1996 and 2012. Studies were conducted in Canada (n = 8), the USA (n = 6), the Netherlands (n = 3), the United Kingdom (n = 2) and Australia (n = 1). The determinant most frequently and significantly associated with intention was the subjective norm (n = 15/21 analyses). There was great variance in the way socio-cognitive theories predicted SDM intention and/or behaviour, but frequency of significance indicated that subjective norm was most influential. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Behavioural Indicators of Motives for Barroom Aggression: Implications for Preventing Bar Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Wells, Samantha; Osgood, D. Wayne; Abbey, Antonia; Felson, Richard B.; Saltz, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction/Aims To develop new strategies for preventing violence in high risk licensed premises, we identify behavioural indicators of apparent motives for aggression in these settings and outline the implications of different motivation for prevention. Design/Methods The four types of motives for aggressive or coercive acts defined by the theory of coercive actions framed the research: gaining compliance, expressing grievances/restoring justice, attaining a favourable social identity, and pursuing fun/excitement. Incidents of aggression from the Safer Bars evaluation research [1] were analysed to identify behavioural indicators of each motivation. Results Compliance-motivated aggression typically takes the form of unwanted social overtures, third party intervention to stop conflicts or staff rule enforcement. Prevention strategies include keeping the aggressor’s focus on compliance to avoid provoking grievance and identity motives which are likely to escalate aggression. Grievance motives are typically elicited by perceived wrongdoing and, therefore, prevention should focus on eliminating sources of grievances and adopting policies/practices to resolve grievances peacefully. Social identity motives are endemic to many drinking establishments especially among male patrons and staff. Prevention involves reducing identity cues in the environment, hiring staff who do not have identity concerns, and training staff to avoid provoking identity concerns. Aggression motivated by fun/excitement often involves low-level aggression where escalation can be prevented by avoiding grievances and attacks on identity. Discussion/Conclusions Knowledge of behavioural indicators of motives can be used to enhance staff hiring and training practices, reduce environmental triggers for aggression, and develop policies to reduce motivation for aggression. PMID:21896078

  17. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pengpid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Little attention has been paid to the role of poor mental health among young people with regard to HIV risk behaviour and HIV prevention in Africa. Objective. To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university students in South Africa. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate students who were recruited conveniently from public campus venues at the University of Limpopo Medical University of Southern Africa (Medunsa campus. The sample included 722 university students (57.6% men and 42.4% women with a mean age of 21.7 years (standard deviation ±8.8. Results. Of the 722 students, 39.5% reported depression, 23.4% screened positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, 22% reported hazardous or harmful alcohol use, 33% reported ≥2 sexual partners in the past 12 months, 50% reported inconsistent condom use, 46% reported unknown HIV status of a sexual partner and 20% reported alcohol use in the context of sex in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and among women, being in the 4th or more year of study and current cannabis use. Conclusion. Poor mental health, including substance use, was found to be associated with HIV risk behaviour. Co-ordinated mental health and sexual and reproductive health services that meet the needs of university students would be desirable.

  18. Oral health behaviour among adolescents in Kerala, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumary Muttappallymyalil

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Oral health behaviour is essential for planning & evaluation of oral health promotion programmes. This study was conducted to assess the oral health behaviour among adolescents aged between 11 to 19 years in Kannur district, Kerala state in India, including their inter-dental cleaning habits.

    Methods: 512 school children aged 11 to 1 9 years, studying from 6th to 12th standards formed the study subjects.

    Results: 52.5% were females and remaining were males. 40.8% were Hindus. Brushing of teeth twice daily was practiced by 75% of students. A significant association was found between the correct brushing technique and male gender as well as students in upper primary school compared to high school and higher secondary school education level. The prevalence of inter-dental cleaning habit was observed to be 58%. 76.3% of males and 58.9% of females used coconut leaf toothpicks for inter-dental cleaning. Multivariate analysis revealed age, religion and positive attitude towards inter-dental cleaning as significant factors associated with the practice of inter-dental cleaning.

    Conclusions: There was a statistically significant association between gender, age, class of study and recommended method of tooth brushing. More than half of the study subjects practiced inter-dental cleaning and the materials used were locally and easily available those are not recommended by oral health professionals. Multivariate analysis shows age, religion and attitude were the factors significantly associated with regular practice of inter-dental cleaning. Oral health professionals can plan, propose and implement school oral health promotion activities as part of building up oral health promoting school.

  19. Oral health behaviour of children and adults in urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso, Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varenne, Benoît; Petersen, Poul Erik; Ouattara, Seydou

    2006-01-01

    differences were found in oral health knowledge, attitudes and practices according to location and gender. At age 12, important factors of high caries experience were location (urban), and consumption of soft drinks and fresh fruits. In 35-44-year-olds, gender (female), high education level, dental visit...... and occupation (government employee) were the significant factors of high dental caries experience whereas adults using traditional chewing sticks had lower DMFT. CONCLUSIONS: Health authorities should strengthen the implementation of oral disease prevention and health promotion programmes rather than......OBJECTIVES: To assess the level of dental knowledge and attitudes among 12 year-old children and 35-44 year-olds in Burkina Faso; to evaluate the pattern of oral health behaviour among these cohorts in relation to location, gender and social characteristics and; to evaluate the relative effect...

  20. Low knowledge of physical health behaviours is associated with poor diet and chronic illness in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Governments invest heavily in health promotion strategies to improve physical health behaviours. However, the dietary and physical activity practices of many Australians fail to meet minimum levels for health, leading to the unacceptably high prevalence of chronic and complex illness. Health literacy is known to impact on health behaviour, and to be related to health knowledge; however, no studies have specifically examined knowledge of physical health behaviours in an Australian context. We assessed knowledge of physical health behaviours in 1244 adults in Queensland, Australia. Almost two-thirds of respondents had a 'Good' knowledge of physical health behaviour. People with 'Good' knowledge of physical health behaviours were more likely to be female, educated beyond secondary school, be employed and have an annual household income of >$52000 (Pphysical health behaviours were significantly more likely to report insufficient intake of vegetables and have at least one chronic illness (Passociation with low knowledge of physical health behaviours. Given the association between health knowledge and health literacy, assessment of the knowledge of physical health behaviours may provide considerable insight into the effectiveness of future health promotion interventions.

  1. The correlates and course of multiple health risk behaviour in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Daniel R; Viner, Russell M

    2016-05-31

    Health risk behaviours often co-occur in adolescence. This may be partially explained by a set of common risk and protective factors. The current study examines the association between risk behaviours throughout adolescence and identifies common risk factors for multiple risk behaviour in late adolescence. We use data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England. We examined the association between risk behaviours at age 14 (n = 15,588), age 16 (n = 12,416) and age 19 (n = 9,548). The associations between age 19 risk behaviour and earlier risk behaviours and risk and protective factors were assessed longitudinally. Health risk behaviours included smoking, alcohol use, illicit drug use, delinquency and unsafe sexual behaviour. All risk behaviours were found to be associated with other risk behaviours with associations weakening through adolescence. A number of sociodemographic, interpersonal, school and family factors at age 14 predicted risk behaviour and multiple risk behaviour at 19, though predictors for heavy alcohol use often differed from other health risk behaviours. Past risk behaviour was a strong predictor of age 19 risk behaviour though many involved in only one form of risk behaviour in mid-adolescence do not progress to multiple risk behaviour. Our findings reaffirm the links between health risk behaviours, but these diminish throughout adolescence with multiple risk behaviour usually initiated in mid-adolescence. Multiple risk behaviour is initiated in early or mid adolescence with a number of common risk factors explaining the co-occurrence of risk behaviours.

  2. Socio-Cultural Determinants of Health-Seeking Behaviour on the Kenyan Coast: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar, Amina; Van Baar, Anneloes; Fischer, Ronald; Bomu, Grace; Gona, Joseph K.; Newton, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe childhood illnesses present a major public health challenge for Africa, which is aggravated by a suboptimal response to the child's health problems with reference to the health-seeking behaviour of the parents or guardians. We examined the health-seeking behaviour of parents at the Kenyan coast because understanding impediments to optimal health-seeking behaviour could greatly contribute to reducing the impact of severe illness on children's growth and development. METHODS ...

  3. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R.; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P.; Bjourson, Anthony J.; O'Neill, Siobhan M.

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond. PMID:29236727

  4. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P; Bjourson, Anthony J; Murray, Elaine K; O'Neill, Siobhan M

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.

  5. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret McLafferty

    Full Text Available Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI, was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739, using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.

  6. Health-Seeking Behaviour towards Poverty-Related Disease (PRDs):

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dione Makoge Epse Forbin, Valerie; Maat, H.; Vaandrager, L.; Koelen, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Poverty-Related Diseases (PRDs) emphasize poverty as a ‘breeding-ground’ for a range of diseases. The study presented here starts from the premise that poverty is a general condition that can limit people’s capacity to prevent, mitigate or treat diseases. Using an interpretation of health seeking

  7. Modeling the effect of sedentary behaviour on the prevention of population obesity using the system dynamics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is a medical condition where an individual has an excessive amount of body fat. There are many factors contributing to obesity and one of them is the sedentary behaviour. Rapid development in industrialization and urbanization has brought changes to Malaysia's socioeconomic, especially the lifestyles of Malaysians. With this lifestyle transition, one of the impact is on weight and obesity. How does sedentary behaviour have an impact on the growth of Malaysian population's weight and obesity? What is the most effective sedentary behaviour preventing strategy to obesity? Is it through reduction in duration or frequency of sedentary behaviour? Thus, the aim of this paper is to design an intervention to analyse the effect of decreasing duration and frequency of sedentary behaviour on the population reversion trends of average weight (AW), average body mass index (ABMI), and prevalence of overweight and obesity (POVB). This study combines the different strands of sub-models comprised of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism, and then synthesis these knowledge into a system dynamics of weight behaviour model, namely SIMULObese. Findings from this study revealed that Malaysian's adults spend a lot of time engaged in sedentary behaviour and this resulted in weight gain and obesity. Comparing between frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour, this study reported that reduced in duration or time spend in sedentary behaviour is a better preventing strategy to obesity compared to duration. As a summary, this study highlighted the importance of decreasing the frequency and duration of sedentary behaviour in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  8. Health behaviour, decision making and perceived parenting: are ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings, therefore, suggest that authoritative parenting, vigilant decision making and frequent engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviours were the most prevalent behaviours amongst male and female learners. Keywords: Adolescence, decision making, gender, healthy lifestyle behaviours, learners, parenting ...

  9. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion: How Integrative Medicine Fits

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Ather; Katz, David L.

    2015-01-01

    As a discipline, preventive medicine has traditionally been described to encompass primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. The fields of preventive medicine and public health share the objectives of promoting general health, preventing disease, and applying epidemiologic techniques to these goals. This paper discusses a conceptual approach between the overlap and potential synergies of integrative medicine principles and practices with preventive medicine in the context of these levels o...

  10. Health behaviour of adolescents in Slovenia: major results from 2010 and trends from 2002 to 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Jeriček Klanšček

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monitoring of health behaviours, especially of adolescents, is essential for the future of each nation. Over the last decades, many changes have occurred in all aspects of our lives, affecting the health and quality of life of all people, including children and adolescents. Methods: The study is based on a quantitative research method. The survey was conducted on a representative sample of Slovenian 11-, 13- and 15-year-old adolescents, using a standardised international questionnaire (HBSC study – Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children. The survey was carried out with the assistance of school counsellors in the spring of 2002, 2006 and 2010 (n = 15.080. For determining the correlation between two individual years, the chi-square test (c2 was used. The significance level was calculated using the statistical significance value of p ≤ 0.05. Through the Cochran-Armitage trend test, it was established whether a trend existed  for the selected indicators in the period between 2002 and 2010. Results: There are some favourable trends, e.g. eating breakfast (p = 0.000, tooth brushing (p = 0.000, lower proportion of individuals who rate their health as poor (p = 0.002 and experience several psychosomatic symptoms (p = 0.000, but also unfavourable trends, e.g. decrease in physical activity (p = 0.023, increase in early alcohol consumption (p = 0.000, dissatisfaction with school (p = 0.000 and bullying others (p = 0.000. Discussion and conclusion: The conclusions of the analyses can serve as a useful basis for further work and development of systemic measures to promote healthy behaviours and prevent risky and unhealthy behaviours among children and adolescents.

  11. An exploration of beliefs and attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour in an urban population in The Netherlands: Results from a focus group study in a community-based prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterboer, Sanne M; van den Brekel, Karolien; Rengers, Antonia H; Peek, Niels; de Wit, Niek J

    2015-06-01

    The positive effects of lifestyle intervention programmes might be enhanced when targeted to the health-related behaviour of the users. This study explores the beliefs and attitudes regarding a healthy lifestyle, the influences on lifestyle behavioural change and the needs to support a healthy lifestyle in the local community, during an integrated community-based prevention project in newly developed urban area in the Netherlands. Three focus groups were conducted with urban residents aged 45-70 (n = 28). Thematic qualitative analysis was applied to verbatim transcripts to identify emerging themes. The following themes were identified: beliefs to healthy behaviour, responsibility for health, perceived behavioural control, external influences on behavioural change and needs in the local community. Within these themes, personal responsibility for health and the influence of the social and physical environment emerged to be important for health and lifestyle. The participants expressed the need for clearly organized health and lifestyle facilities, a personalized approach and an easily accessible health risk assessment to support lifestyle behavioural change in the community. In our study, urban residents experienced a strong influence of the social and physical environment to their lifestyle behaviour. This finding supports an integrated approach for preventive health services in this population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  12. Cognitive-behavioural suicide prevention for male prisoners: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, D; Tarrier, N; Dunn, G; Awenat, Y; Shaw, J; Ulph, F; Gooding, P

    2015-12-01

    Prisoners have an exceptional risk of suicide. Cognitive-behavioural therapy for suicidal behaviour has been shown to offer considerable potential, but has yet to be formally evaluated within prisons. This study investigated the feasibility of delivering and evaluating a novel, manualized cognitive-behavioural suicide prevention (CBSP) therapy for suicidal male prisoners. A pilot randomized controlled trial of CBSP in addition to treatment as usual (CBSP; n = 31) compared with treatment as usual (TAU; n = 31) alone was conducted in a male prison in England. The primary outcome was self-injurious behaviour occurring within the past 6 months. Secondary outcomes were dimensions of suicidal ideation, psychiatric symptomatology, personality dysfunction and psychological determinants of suicide, including depression and hopelessness. The trial was prospectively registered (number ISRCTN59909209). Relative to TAU, participants receiving CBSP therapy achieved a significantly greater reduction in suicidal behaviours with a moderate treatment effect [Cohen's d = -0.72, 95% confidence interval -1.71 to 0.09; baseline mean TAU: 1.39 (S.D. = 3.28) v. CBSP: 1.06 (S.D. = 2.10), 6 months mean TAU: 1.48 (S.D. = 3.23) v. CBSP: 0.58 (S.D. = 1.52)]. Significant improvements were achieved on measures of psychiatric symptomatology and personality dysfunction. Improvements on psychological determinants of suicide were non-significant. More than half of the participants in the CBSP group achieved a clinically significant recovery by the end of therapy, compared with a quarter of the TAU group. The delivery and evaluation of CBSP therapy within a prison is feasible. CBSP therapy offers significant promise in the prevention of prison suicide and an adequately powered randomized controlled trial is warranted.

  13. The ethological approach as a new way of investigating behavioural health in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafforin, Carole

    2011-04-01

    From an interdisciplinary perspective, the goal of our research in human ethology is to investigate the adaptive dynamics of small groups in isolation and confinement with a particular emphasis on unexplored environments, from circumpolar missions on earth to interplanetary missions in space. The ethological observations were designed to monitor the polar teams on the Subantarctic islands, the Antarctic continent and the Arctic Ocean. The working hypothesis viewed the periodic changes in the groups' organization as optimal behavioural strategies in extreme living and working conditions. The general methodological feature is a quantitative description of observable events based on the motor activity of individuals, interactions and communications among individuals and spatial mapping in collective areas. We observed group organization, group disorganization and group reorganization over extended time periods in the polar stations. Cultural grouping and gender-based individualities were observed as well. Focusing on the Tara Expedition in the Arctic, we observed variations in spatial indicators, including inter-individual positions, and in temporal indicators, like collective times, as behavioural strategies for preventing the monotony of social life. The ethological approach, using non-invasive techniques of observation, description and quantification of spontaneous human behaviour, offers an innovative and complementary tool for sociocultural approaches, enhancing the knowledge of contemporary circumpolar micro-societies. With the changing of environmental context, the Arctic natives would undertake changes in their group organization for maintaining their behavioural health. Such social adaptation could be investigated with this new approach in the field.

  14. Information Behaviour, Health Self-Efficacy Beliefs and Health Behaviour in Icelanders' Everyday Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsdottir, Agusta

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study is to gather knowledge about how different groups of Icelanders take advantage of information about health and lifestyle in their everyday life. Method: A random sample of 1,000 people was used in the study and data was gathered as a postal survey. Response rate was 50.8%. Analysis: K-means cluster analysis was…

  15. Higher risk sexual behaviour is associated with unawareness of HIV-positivity and lack of viral suppression - implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerga, Helena; Venables, Emilie; Ben-Farhat, Jihane; van Cutsem, Gilles; Ellman, Tom; Kenyon, Chris

    2017-11-23

    Efficacy of Treatment as Prevention Strategy depends on a variety of factors including individuals' likelihood to test and initiate treatment, viral load and sexual behaviour. We tested the hypothesis that people with higher risk sexual behaviour are less likely to know their HIV-positive status and be virologically suppressed. A cross-sectional population-based survey of individuals aged 15-59 years old was conducted in 2013 in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A two-stage cluster probability sampling was used. After adjustment for age and sex, lack of awareness of HIV-positivity was strongly associated with having more than one sexual partner in the preceding year (aOR: 2.1, 95%CI: 1.5-3.1). Inconsistent condom use was more common in individuals with more than one sexual partner (aOR: 16.6, 95%CI: 7.6-36.7) and those unaware (aOR: 3.7, 95%CI: 2.6-5.4). Among people aware of their HIV-positivity, higher risk sexual behaviour was associated with lack of viral suppression (aOR: 2.2, 95%CI: 1.1-4.5). Risky sexual behaviour seems associated with factors linked to poor health-seeking behaviour which may have negative implications for HIV testing and Treatment as Prevention. Innovative strategies, driven by improved epidemiological and anthropological understanding, are needed to enable comprehensive approaches to HIV prevention.

  16. Oral health behaviour of urban and semi-urban schoolchildren in the Lao PDR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, N; Petersen, P E

    2011-01-01

    To describe the oral health related knowledge, behaviour, and attitude towards health of 12-year old Lao schoolchildren; analyse how health risk factors relate to socio-demographic background; and determine the relative effect of living conditions on health and risk behaviour....

  17. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  18. The relationship between physical activity, sedentary behaviour and mental health in Ghanaian adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Asare, Mavis; Danquah, Samuel A

    2015-01-01

    Background Research development is needed in physical activity and sedentary behaviour and their associations with mental health in young people. In Western countries the weather is a key contributing factor of sedentary behaviour in youth. The likely contributing factor of sedentary behaviour among African youth has not been explored. This study examined the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health in African young people. Methods Participants were 296 adolescents (150 males...

  19. A multi-method study of health behaviours and perceived concerns of sexual minority females in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Banik, Swagata; Bartelt, Elizabeth; Rawat, Shruta; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Hensel, Devon; Herbenick, Debby; Anand, Vivek

    2018-02-01

    This multi-method study explores the perceived health status and health behaviours of sexual minority (i.e. self-identifying with a sexual identity label other than heterosexual) females (i.e. those assigned female at birth who may or may not identify as women) in Mumbai, India, a population whose health has been generally absent in scientific literature. Using community-based participatory research approaches, this study is a partnership with The Humsafar Trust (HST). HST is India's oldest and largest LGBT-advocacy organisation. An online survey targeted towards sexual minority females was conducted (n=49), with questions about sexual identity, perceived health and wellbeing, physical and mental healthcare access and experiences, and health behaviours (including substance use). Additionally, photo-elicitation interviews in which participants' photos prompt interview discussion were conducted with 18 sexual minority females. Sexual minority females face obstacles in health care, mostly related to acceptability and quality of care. Their use of preventative health screenings is low. Perceived mental health and experiences with care were less positive than that for physical health. Participants in photo-elicitation interviews described bodyweight issues and caretaking of family members in relation to physical health. Substance use functioned as both a protective and a risk factor for their health. Our findings point to a need for more resources for sexual minority females. Education on screening guidelines and screening access for sexual minority females would also assist these individuals in increasing their rates of preventative health.

  20. A journey to HIV prevention research: From social psychology to social health via multidisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippax, Susan

    2018-03-01

    This is a personal account of my research in HIV prevention from 1984 to the present day. It demonstrates my disquiet with the individualism of psychology as a way of thinking about what was needed to prevent HIV transmission. HIV prevention requires social transformation which is produced via changes in social practices and norms of communities and networks rather than by changes in behaviours of individuals. My colleagues and I developed a 'social health' model of social transformation that involves enabling communities to modify their social practices by building on emergent community responses, responses that were identified by the use of a reflexive research methodology.

  1. Health Behaviours during Pregnancy in Women with Very Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor A. Mohd-Shukri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The health behaviours of pregnant women with very severe obesity are not known, though these women are at high risk of pregnancy complications. We carried out a prospective case-control study including 148 very severely obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 and 93 lean (BMI <25 kg/m2 pregnant women. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and folic acid consumption were assessed by questionnaire in early and late (16 and 28 weeks gestation pregnancy. Circulating levels of iron, vitamin B12 and folate and other essential trace elements and minerals were measured in a subset at each time point. The findings biochemically confirmed that very severely obese women consumed diets that were energy-rich but poor in essential micronutrients. A third of all women met physical activity recommendations for pregnancy. A third of very severely obese women and two thirds of lean women took folic acid supplements prior to pregnancy. Very severely obese women were more likely to smoke but less likely to drink alcohol than lean women (all p < 0.05. Women with very severe obesity have low self-reported intakes and circulating levels of essential micronutrients in pregnancy and few follow current recommendations for pregnancy nutrition and lifestyle. These high-risk women represent a group to target for education about health behaviours prior to and during pregnancy.

  2. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vayssiere Christophe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche ( Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context. Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3% were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6], early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0] and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]. Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours.

  3. Asymptotic behaviour of solutions to the Keller–Segel model for chemotaxis with prevention of overcrowding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Haojie; Zheng, Sining; Liang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the Keller–Segel chemotaxis model of parabolic–elliptic type with the volume-filling effect studied by Burger et al (2006 The Keller–Segel model for chemotaxis with prevention of overcrowding: linear versus nonlinear diffusion SIAM J. Math. Anal. 38 1288–315). In their discussion on the large time asymptotic behaviour of solutions, the diffusion rate of ρ (the density of cells) had to be assumed to be large with ε> 1/4 . While for the nonlinear diffusion model, it was proved that the asymptotic behaviour of solutions is fully determined by the diffusion constant being larger or smaller than the threshold value ε = 1. The same ‘large ε-restriction’ (ε> 1/4 ) was also made for studying the parallel parabolic–parabolic model in Di Francesco and Rosado (2008 Fully parabolic Keller–Segel model for chemotaxis with prevention of overcrowding Nonlinearity 21 2715–30), where it was pointed out that ‘Whether this condition is necessary to have large time decay (and consequently a self-similar behaviour) for ρ is still an open problem even in the (simpler) parabolic–elliptic case’. The aim of the paper is to answer this problem for the parabolic–elliptic model. We prove the mentioned time decay estimate without the restriction ε> 1/4 . The main technique used in this paper is the L p -L q estimate method. (paper)

  4. Why bother about health? A study on the factors that influence health information seeking behaviour among Malaysian healthcare consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Ainin, Sulaiman; Yeong, Mun Wai

    2017-08-01

    The general improvement of socio-economic conditions has resulted in people becoming more educated to make better-informed decisions in health related matters. Individual's perspective on health increases with better understanding of ways to improve lifestyle for better health and living. With the increase in lifestyle related diseases that lead to health problems, there is an increase in the availability of healthcare information. Thus, it is important to identify the factors that influence information seeking behaviour in the area of healthcare and lifestyle. This exploratory study examines the relationship between the factors that affect online health information-seeking behaviour among healthcare product in the capital city of Malaysia. Survey questionnaire was used to collect empirical data. A survey was conducted among 300 healthcare consumers in three main cities in Malaysia where questionnaires were personally distributed through snowball sampling. A total of 271 questionnaire forms were used in the analysis. Health Behaviour of the consumers influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. And this relationship is strongly affected by Gender whereby the affect is strongly among females compared to males. The findings indicate that Health Behaviour influences Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Marketers can find out which target segment of population to target when devising information channels for consumers, especially through the Internet. However, message that promotes positive health behaviour to a target audience who already has positive Health Behaviour increase the motivation to Health Information Seeking Behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of a School-Based Stress Prevention Programme on Adolescents in Different Phases of Behavioural Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierhaus, Marc; Maass, Asja; Fridrici, Mirko; Lohaus, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    This study examines whether the assumptions of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) are useful to evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based stress prevention programme in adolescence to promote appropriate coping behaviour. The TTM assumes three consecutive phases in the adoption of behavioural patterns. Progress throughout the phases is promoted…

  6. CanPrevent: a telephone-delivered intervention to reduce multiple behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Anna L; Patrao, Tania A; Green, Anita; Aitken, Joanne F

    2012-11-27

    This pilot study aimed to test the acceptability and short-term effectiveness of a telephone-delivered multiple health behaviour change intervention for relatives of colorectal cancer survivors. A community-based sample of 22 first-degree relatives of colorectal cancer survivors were recruited via a media release. Data were collected at baseline and at six weeks (post-intervention). Outcome measures included health behaviours (physical activity, television viewing, diet, alcohol, body mass index, waist circumference and smoking), health-related quality of life (Short Form-36) and perceived colorectal cancer risk. Intervention satisfaction levels were also measured. The intervention included six telephone health coaching sessions, a participant handbook and a pedometer. It focused on behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer [physical activity, diet (red and processed meat consumption, fruit and vegetable intake), alcohol, weight management and smoking], and colorectal cancer risk. From baseline to six weeks, improvements were observed for minutes moderate-vigorous physical activity (150.7 minutes), processed meat intake (-1.2 serves/week), vegetable intake (1 serve/day), alcohol intake (-0.4 standard drinks/day), body mass index (-1.4 kg/m2), and waist circumference (-5.1 cm). Improvements were also observed for physical (3.3) and mental (4.4) health-related quality of life. Further, compared with baseline, participants were more likely to meet Australian recommendations post-intervention for: moderate-vigorous physical activity (27.3 vs 59.1%); fruit intake (68.2 vs 81.8%); vegetable intake (4.6 vs 18.2%); alcohol consumption (59.1 vs 72.7%); body mass index (31.8 vs 45.5%) and waist circumference (18.2 vs 27.3%). At six weeks participants were more likely to believe a diagnosis of CRC was related to family history, and there was a decrease in their perceived risk of developing CRC in their lifetime following participation in CanPrevent. The intervention

  7. CanPrevent: a telephone-delivered intervention to reduce multiple behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot study aimed to test the acceptability and short-term effectiveness of a telephone-delivered multiple health behaviour change intervention for relatives of colorectal cancer survivors. Methods A community-based sample of 22 first-degree relatives of colorectal cancer survivors were recruited via a media release. Data were collected at baseline and at six weeks (post-intervention. Outcome measures included health behaviours (physical activity, television viewing, diet, alcohol, body mass index, waist circumference and smoking, health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 and perceived colorectal cancer risk. Intervention satisfaction levels were also measured. The intervention included six telephone health coaching sessions, a participant handbook and a pedometer. It focused on behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer [physical activity, diet (red and processed meat consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol, weight management and smoking], and colorectal cancer risk. Results From baseline to six weeks, improvements were observed for minutes moderate-vigorous physical activity (150.7 minutes, processed meat intake (−1.2 serves/week, vegetable intake (1 serve/day, alcohol intake (−0.4 standard drinks/day, body mass index (−1.4 kg/m2, and waist circumference (−5.1 cm. Improvements were also observed for physical (3.3 and mental (4.4 health-related quality of life. Further, compared with baseline, participants were more likely to meet Australian recommendations post-intervention for: moderate-vigorous physical activity (27.3 vs 59.1%; fruit intake (68.2 vs 81.8%; vegetable intake (4.6 vs 18.2%; alcohol consumption (59.1 vs 72.7%; body mass index (31.8 vs 45.5% and waist circumference (18.2 vs 27.3%. At six weeks participants were more likely to believe a diagnosis of CRC was related to family history, and there was a decrease in their perceived risk of developing CRC in their lifetime following

  8. Social orientations and adolescent health behaviours in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piko, Bettina F; Skultéti, Dóra; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Gibbons, Frederick X

    2010-02-01

    Adolescent health behaviours are influenced by a variety of social factors, including social orientations, such as social comparison or competitiveness. The main goal of the present study was to investigate the role that these social orientations might play in health behaviours (both health-impairing and health-promoting). Data were collected from high school students (N = 548; ages 14-20 years; 39.9% males) in two counties of the Southern Plain Region of Hungary. The self-administered questionnaires contained items on sociodemographics, such as age, sex, parental schooling, and socioeconomic status (SES) self-assessment; school achievement, health behaviours, competitiveness and social comparison. Multiple regression analyses suggest that those who scored higher on competitiveness engaged in more substance use, a pattern that was not present for health-promoting behaviours. Social comparison, however, was associated with lower levels of substance use. In addition, in relation to health-impairing behaviours, both competitiveness and social comparison interacted with sex; both social orientation variables proved to be more important for boys. Social comparison also contributed to health-promoting behaviours among boys. Findings support the idea that the role of social orientations, such as competitiveness and social comparison, can be quite different depending on sex and the nature of the health behaviour. While competitiveness may act as a risk factor for substance use among boys, social comparison may act as a protection. It appears that social orientations play less of a role in girls' health-related behaviours. More focus is needed on gender differences in influences on adolescents' health-related behaviours. Les comportements de santé des adolescents sont influencés par une variété de facteurs sociaux, incluant les orientations sociales telles que la comparaison sociale ou la compétitivité. Le but principal de la présente étude était d'examiner le r

  9. Health seeking behaviour and challenges in utilising health facilities in Wakiso district, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musoke, David; Boynton, Petra; Butler, Ceri; Musoke, Miph Boses

    2014-12-01

    The health seeking behaviour of a community determines how they use health services. Utilisation of health facilities can be influenced by the cost of services, distance to health facilities, cultural beliefs, level of education and health facility inadequacies such as stock-out of drugs. To assess the health seeking practices and challenges in utilising health facilities in a rural community in Wakiso district, Uganda. The study was a cross sectional survey that used a structured questionnaire to collect quantitative data among 234 participants. The sample size was obtained using the formula by Leslie Kish. While 89% of the participants were aware that mobile clinics existed in their community, only 28% had received such services in the past month. The majority of participants (84%) did not know whether community health workers existed in their community. The participants' health seeking behaviour the last time they were sick was associated with age (p = 0.028) and occupation (p = 0.009). The most significant challenges in utilising health services were regular stock-out of drugs, high cost of services and long distance to health facilities. There is potential to increase access to health care in rural areas by increasing the frequency of mobile clinic services and strengthening the community health worker strategy.

  10. Oral health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour of adults in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Ling; Petersen, Poul Erik; Wang, Hong-Ying

    2005-01-01

    examinations (WHO criteria). RESULTS: 32% of the 35-44-year-olds and 23% of the 65-74-year-olds brushed at least twice a day but only 5% used fluoridated toothpaste; 30% and 17% respectively performed 'Love-Teeth-Day' recommended methods of tooth brushing. A dental visit within the previous 12 months......-based oral health promotion should be strengthened and preventive-oriented oral health care systems are needed, including promotion of further self-care practices and the use of fluoridated toothpaste....

  11. Parental investments in child health - maternal health behaviours and birth outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüst, Miriam

    A growing economic literature has begun to focus on the effect of parental investments in child health in developed countries. However, this literature is not conclusive. Empirical work has concentrated on estimating the effect of a wide set of parental inputs comprising maternal health behaviour...... the ways in which child health is generated, and - for children of higher birth order - earlier children's outcomes will shape parental investments in child health....... consumption, exercise and diet during pregnancy on birth outcomes and considers the problem of identifying the causal effect of these endogenous maternal health behaviours. The analysis controls for a wide range of covariates and exploits sibling variation in the Danish National Birth Cohort. The paper...

  12. A survey of social support for exercise and its relationship to health behaviours and health status among endurance Nordic skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul J; Bovard, Ralph S; Wang, Zhen; Beebe, Timothy J; Murad, Mohammad Hassan

    2016-06-23

    Regular exercise is a key component of obesity prevention and 48% of Americans do not meet minimum guidelines for weekly exercise. Social support has been shown to help individuals start and maintain exercise programmes. We evaluated social support among endurance athletes and explored the relationship between social support for exercise, health behaviours and health status. Survey. The largest Nordic ski race in North America. 5433 past participants responded to an online questionnaire. Social support, health behaviours and health status. The mean overall support score was 32.1 (SD=16.5; possible range=-16.0 to 88.0). The most common forms of social support were verbal such as discussing exercise, invitations to exercise and celebrating the enjoyment of exercise. We found that an increase of 10 points in the social support score was associated with a 5 min increase in weekly self-reported exercise (5.02, 95% CI 3.63 to 6.41). Physical activity recommendations should incorporate the importance of participation in group activities, especially those connected to strong fitness cultures created by community and competitive events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. A salutogenic perspective to oral health:sense of coherence as a determinant of oral and general health behaviours, and oral health-related quality of life

    OpenAIRE

    Savolainen, J. (Jarno)

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Dental diseases such as dental caries and periodontal disease could well be seen as being behaviour-related. The high prevalence of periodontal disease in the Finnish adult population mirrors the need for improving oral health behaviours in a comprehensive manner. Thus far, scant attention has been drawn to the underlying psycho-social factors that could, in part, explain oral health and oral health behaviours. Deficiencies in oral health behaviour may also be indicative of an ind...

  14. Health behaviours in emerging adulthood: Their relationship with perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and the mediating role of self-efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The present research examined the mediating role of self-efficacy in the association between perceived maternal and paternal parental attitudes and health behaviours of males and females in emerging adulthood. Parental attitudes shape children’s self-esteem, positive self-image, and self-competence. This may affect their physical health and health behaviours throughout their lives. Participants and procedure A total of 147 (mean age: 19.70, SD = 0.85, 68.7% females participants took part in the study. They completed several questionnaires measuring health behaviours, perceived parental attitudes, and self-efficacy: the Inventory of Health Behaviours, the Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitude, and the General Self-Efficacy Scale. Results We found that that female participants exhibited healthier eating habits but lower self-efficacy than male participants did. Accepting and autonomy granting maternal and paternal parental attitudes predicted a positive health attitude (of both male and female participants, preventive behaviours (of male participants, and healthy eating habits (of male participants. As predicted, emerging adults’ self-efficacy mediated the relationship between their health behaviours and perceived parental attitudes. However, the mediation patterns were different for female and male participants. Conclusions The quality of perceived parental attitudes and self-efficacy are important for health-related lifestyle choices among emerging adults. Mothers and fathers may play different roles in the formation of health behaviours.

  15. 75 FR 33983 - Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... 13544 of June 10, 2010 Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council... of Health and Human Services, the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council..., the public health system, and integrative health care in the United States; (b) develop, after...

  16. Characteristics of health behaviours and health status indicators among pregnant women in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy is a period when women reconsider their own health and health related behaviour for the sake of their future child. Along with their health providers, they are faced with a number of risk assessments and decisions, which become far more complex as their effect on two organisms rather than one is at play. This paper provides an overview of possible associations between self-reported health status, health behaviours and socio-demographics during pregnancy.Methods: Study data were obtained from the case-control research project “Analysis of folate metabolism biomarkers in the risk assessment for neural tube defects, orofacial clefts and congenital heart defects”, which recruited participants from May 2013 to September 2015. Questionnaires about maternal health, health related behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics were completed by 450 women. The data include pregnancies from the 1980s to 2015.Results: We observed that younger and less educated women more frequently reported positive smoking status during pregnancy, while higher prevalence of folate/multivitamin supplementation was found among more educated, older and nulliparous women. There was a U-shaped distribution of medication intake (over-the-counter and prescribed with respect to educational level, with the highest intake in mothers with a masters/PhD degree and among those that completed elementary school. Higher medication usage was also reported among older women. With increasing maternal age there was an increase in medication intake, folate/multivitamin intake, as well as incidence of gestational diabetes over the studied time period, with the highest frequencies occurring in later decades. A higher incidence of chronic diseases was observed in a group of multiparous women than among monoparous women.Conclusions: Considerable socio-demographic disparities exist in health-related behaviour among pregnant women. Improved public health campaigns and

  17. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. METHODS: this is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279. RESULTS: men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION: both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  18. 75 FR 22140 - Office of Clinical and Preventive Services; Division of Oral Health; Dental Preventive and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... Services; Division of Oral Health; Dental Preventive and Clinical Support Centers Program Announcement Type...' oral health by directly addressing the perceived needs of dental personnel and Area or regional dental... clinic-based and community-based oral health promotion/disease prevention (HP/DP) initiatives. Centers...

  19. Happiness and health behaviour in Iranian adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fararouei, M; Brown, I J; Akbartabar Toori, M; Estakhrian Haghighi, R; Jafari, J

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to examine the association of happiness in adolescent females with leisure time and health related behaviours namely diet, physical activity and first or second hand smoking. Using a self-administered questionnaire, data were collected from 8159 female high school students ages 11-19 years. Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed statistically significant associations between happiness and weight, regular exercise, exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, daily fruit or vegetable consumption and the way participants spent their leisure time. Happiness was associated with lower BMI, regular physical activity, absence of exposure to second-hand smoke, higher consumption of fruits and vegetables, and spending leisure time with family (all P < 0.005). These exploratory findings suggest that encouraging children and adolescents to adopt healthy behaviours, providing family time and a smoke-free environment may make them not only healthier but also happier. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health-care seeking behaviour and the use of traditional medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Health-care seeking behaviour is important as it determines acceptance of health care and outcomes of chronic conditions but it has been investigated to a limited extent among persons with diabetes in developing countries. The aim of the study was to explore health-care seeking behaviour among persons ...

  1. The Relation of Socio-Ecological Factors to Adolescents' Health-Related Behaviour: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Annamari; Sormunen, Marjorita; Tossavainen, Kerttu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe adolescents' health-related behaviours from a socio-ecological perspective. Socio-ecological factors have been widely shown to be related to health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet) in adolescence and to affect health. The review integrates evidence…

  2. A systematic review investigating the behaviour change strategies in interventions to prevent misuse of anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Geoff; Begley, Emma; Tod, David; Jones, Lisa; Leavey, Conan; McVeigh, Jim

    2017-10-01

    We examined intervention effectiveness of strategies to prevent image- and performance-enhancing drug use. Comprehensive searches identified 14 interventions that met review inclusion criteria. Interventions were predominantly educational and delivered within school sport settings, but targeted a wide range of mediating factors. Identification of effective components was limited across studies by brief or imprecise descriptions of intervention content, lack of behavioural outcome measures and short-term follow-up times. However, studies with components in addition to information provision may be more promising. Interventions outside of sport settings are required to reflect the transition of this form of substance use to the general population.

  3. Health behaviours and mental health status of parents with intellectual disabilities: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, E; Brigham, P

    2013-12-01

    The authors sought to: (1) estimate the prevalence of health behaviours, mental health and exposure to social determinants of poorer health among parents with and without intellectual disability; and (2) determine the extent to which between-group differences in health behaviours/status may be attributable to differential exposure to social determinants of poorer health. Cross sectional survey. Secondary analysis of confidentialized needs analysis data collected in three Primary Care Trusts in England on 46,023 households with young children. Households containing a parent with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk of: (1) poorer parental mental health, parental drug and alcohol abuse and smoking; (2) exposure to a range of environmental adversities. Controlling for the latter eliminated the increased risk of poorer health for single parent households headed by a person with intellectual disabilities. For two parent headed households, risk of poorer parental mental health remained elevated. The poorer health of parents with intellectual disability may be accounted for by their markedly greater risk of exposure to common social determinants of poorer health rather than being directly attributable to their intellectual disability. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Co-occurrence of protective health behaviours and perceived psychosocial job characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera J.C. Mc Carthy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between positive job characteristics of older workers and the co-occurrence of protective health behaviours. This study aims to investigate the association between perceived psychosocial job characteristics and the adoption of protective health behaviours. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1025 males and females (age-range 50–69-years attending a primary healthcare clinic. Perceived job characteristics (job demands: quantitative and cognitive demands; resources: possibility for development and influence at work were determined using the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Each scale is presented in tertiles. Protective health behaviours were; consumption of five or more portions of fruit and vegetables a day, moderate alcohol, non/ex-smoker, and high and moderate physical activity. Each participant was scored 0–4 protective health behaviours. The majority of the sample had three protective health behaviours. Higher levels of influence at work and cognitive demands were associated with higher self-reported physical activity, but not with any number of protective health behaviours. Conversely, higher quantitative and higher cognitive demands were associated with reporting any number of protective health behaviours or above average number of protective health behaviours respectively. The findings on protective health behaviours were inconsistent in relation to the different measures of perceived psychosocial job characteristics and were largely confined to physical activity and diet.

  5. Speeding the growth of primary mental health prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Wissow, Lawrence S

    2015-01-01

    While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common...

  6. Speeding the growth of primary mental health prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissow, Lawrence S

    2015-01-01

    While there is a strong case for primary prevention of mental health problems, relatively little mental health scholarship has been devoted to it in the last decade. Efforts to accelerate prevention scholarship could potentially benefit from strengthening pathways for interdisciplinary research; developing new training and working models for mental health professionals; developing a common language for public, policy, and scientific discussion of prevention; learning how to measure the common outcomes of heterogeneous interventions tailored to diverse communities.

  7. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  8. Oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13-year-olds in Bhopal, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bhambal, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries, to describe the periodontal conditions, and to assess the level of attitude, knowledge and practice in relation to oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13 year-old children in Bhopal, India. The data would aim to provide a baseline...... for planning and evaluation of oral health education programmes for children in the region. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: A cross sectional study of 599 children 11-13 years was conducted. Random sampling procedures were used to obtain representative samples of children in rural (n = 181......) and urban areas (n = 277). In urban slum areas convenience sampling was applied (n = 141). The data were collected through clinical examinations by means of WHO standard method, and a sub-sample completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health behaviour, knowledge, and attitude. RESULTS...

  9. Oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13-year-olds in Bhopal, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lisa Bøge; Petersen, Poul Erik; Bhambal, Ajay

    2003-01-01

    ) and urban areas (n = 277). In urban slum areas convenience sampling was applied (n = 141). The data were collected through clinical examinations by means of WHO standard method, and a sub-sample completed a self-administered questionnaire on oral health behaviour, knowledge, and attitude. RESULTS....... Mean number of sextants with CPI score 0 was 3.5 among children in urban areas and 0.6 for children in slum areas. Seventy-five per cent of the children reported toothbrushing once a day, 31% used a plastic toothbrush and the general level of knowledge on oral health was low. Intake of sugary food......OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries, to describe the periodontal conditions, and to assess the level of attitude, knowledge and practice in relation to oral health and oral health behaviour among 11-13 year-old children in Bhopal, India. The data would aim to provide a baseline...

  10. Revisiting the impact of macroeconomic conditions on health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Giorgio

    2018-02-01

    This paper estimates the average population effect of macroeconomic conditions on health behaviours accounting for the heterogeneous impact of the business cycle on individuals. While previous studies use models relying on area-specific unemployment rates to estimate this average effect, this paper employs a model based on area-specific unemployment rates by gender and age group. The rationale for breaking down unemployment rates is that the severity of cyclical upturns and downturns does not only significantly vary across geographical areas, but also across gender and age. The empirical analysis uses microdata from the Italian Multipurpose Household Survey on Everyday Life Issues. The estimates suggest that models employing aggregated and disaggregated unemployment rate measures as a proxy for the business cycle produce similar findings for some health behaviours (such as smoking), whereas different results are obtained for others. While using unemployment rates by gender and age group, fruits and/or vegetables consumption turns out to be procyclical (a 1pp increase in this unemployment rate decreases the probability of consuming at least five daily fruit and/or vegetable servings by 0.0016pp), the opposite effect, though statistically insignificant, is observed once general unemployment rates are used. While both models conclude that physical activity declines during economic downturns, the size of the procyclical effect is much smaller when employing disaggregated rather than aggregated unemployment rates (a 1pp increase in the unemployment rate by gender and age group decreases the probability of doing any physical activity by 0.0017pp). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A global comprehensive review of economic interventions to prevent intimate partner violence and HIV risk behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Jacobson, Jessica; Kerr Wilson, Alice

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are co-occurring global epidemics, with similar root causes of gender and economic inequalities. Economic interventions have become a central approach to preventing IPV and HIV. We undertook a comprehensive scoping review of published evaluations of economic interventions that sought to prevent IPV and/or HIV risk behaviours. Forty-five separate analyses of interventions met our criteria. Broadly, unconditional cash transfer interventions showed either flat or positive outcomes; economic strengthening interventions had mixed outcomes, with some negative, flat and positive results reported; interventions combining economic strengthening and gender transformative interventions tended to have positive outcomes. The review highlighted a number of gaps. Specifically, there were limited studies evaluating the impact of economic interventions on female sex workers, young women, and men. In addition, there were missed opportunities, with many evaluations only reporting either IPV- or HIV-related outcomes, rather than both, despite overlaps.

  12. Assessing mediators between discrimination, health behaviours and physical health outcomes: a representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, João Luiz; Celeste, Roger Keller; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Priest, Naomi; Paradies, Yin Carl

    2015-11-01

    Discrimination is a social determinant of health; however, the pathways linking discrimination to ill-health are under-researched. This study investigated the mediators through which discrimination affects health behaviours and physical health outcomes, as well as assessed whether sex moderated these mechanisms. Data from a representative survey (n = 1023) of undergraduate students enrolled in a Brazilian university in 2012 were used. Structural equation models were applied to assess the following mediation mechanisms--(1) discrimination influences self-rated health and body mass index via anxiety/depression; (2) discrimination affects behaviours (alcohol consumption, problem drinking, smoking, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity) through discomfort associated with discriminatory experiences. The potential of sex to act as an effect-modifying variable was also explored in each of the postulated pathways. The effect of discrimination on self-rated poor health was totally (100.0%) mediated by anxiety/depression, while body mass index was not correlated with discrimination. Self-reported discrimination was associated with some behaviours via discomfort. Particularly, discomfort partially mediated the positive association between discrimination, leisure time physical activity (43.3%), and fruit/vegetable consumption (52.2%). Sex modified the association between discrimination, discomfort and physical activity in that such mechanism (more discrimination → more discomfort → more physical activity) was statistically significant in the entire sample and among females, but not among males. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate that discrimination is associated with physical health outcomes and behaviours via distinct pathways. Future investigations should further explicate the mediational pathways between discrimination and key health outcomes.

  13. Health behaviour changes and onset of chronic health problems in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke Veenstra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess five-year changes in health behaviours in later life and associations with onset of chronic health problems. The results may inform policy and interventions to promote healthy life years in ageing populations.Methods: Data are derived from the Norwegian study on Life-course, Ageing and Generation (NorLAG, a five-year (2002-2007 panel survey comprising a nation wide community sample. The present analyses include a sample of 1,019 respondents aged 60 years and older. Five-year changes in smoking, alcohol use, physical exercise and Body Mass Index (BMI are assessed according to prevalent and incident chronic health problems. Multivariate logistic analyses of “healthy” behavioural changes are conducted.Results: A total of 453 respondents (45% reported at least one chronic condition and 13% (N=133 reported onset of chronic conditions in the course of the past five years. Over a five-year period, there was an overall reduction in smoking rates and a decrease in regular physical activity. Alcohol consumption in older people slightly increased over time, but the incidence of chronic health problems tended to reduce alcohol intake. Older persons experiencing chronic health problems were less likely to initiate physical activity.Conclusions: The results provide limited support for the assumption that the onset of a chronic health condition triggers improved health behaviours. This suggests that the health care system could do more in targeting a potential “window of opportunity” for individuals to adopt new healthy behaviours in later life.

  14. Consumers' online social network topologies and health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Dunn, Adam; Mortimer, Nathan; Proudfoot, Judith; Andrews, Annie; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Crimmins, Jacinta; Arguel, Amaël; Coiera, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Personally controlled health management systems (PCHMS) often consist of multiple design features. Yet, they currently lack empirical evidence on how consumers use and engage with a PCHMS. An online prospective study was designed to investigate how 709 consumers used a web-based PCHMS to manage their physical and emotional wellbeing over five months. The web-based PCHMS, Healthy.me, was developed at UNSW and incorporates an untethered personal health record, consumer care pathways, forums, polls, diaries, and messaging links with healthcare professionals. The two PCHMS features that consumers used most frequently, found most useful, and engaging were the social features, i.e. forum and poll. Compared to participants who did not use any PCHMS social feature, those who used either the poll or the forum were 12.3% more likely to visit a healthcare professional (P=0.001) during the study. Social network analysis of forums revealed a spectrum of social interaction patterns - from question-and-answer structures to community discussions. This study provides a basis for understanding how a PCHMS can be used as a socially-driven intervention to influence consumers' health behaviours.

  15. Quality of life and health behaviours of patients with tuberculosis - sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska-Polanska, Beata Katarzyna; Kamińska, Małgorzata; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Rycombel, Anna

    2015-01-01

    differences between the sexes in this field. The respondents rated lowest their QoL in the physical domain, 12.4 ± 3.1 (12.9 ± 3.0 women vs. 11.8 ± 3.1 men) and 12.6 ± 2.4 in the environmental domain (13.1 ± 2.3 women vs 12.1± 2.4 men). Women received a higher rating of health behaviour on all subscales of the IZZ questionnaire, with the highest score in the prevention behaviour subscale (3.6 ± 0.7) and the lowest in the subscale of proper eating habits (3.1 ± 0.8). In men the highest score of health behaviour was observed in the subscale of positive mental attitude (3.1 ± 1.0) and the lowest in the subscale of proper eating habits (2.5 ± 0.8). 1. There are differences between sociodemographic profile of TB patients: women are younger, better educated, economically active and more likely to remain in relationships; 2. There is no difference in QoL of TB patients between the sexes, whereas there are differences in the strategies of stress management and in applied health behavior; 3. Differences between genders indicate the need for matching treatment and preventive action for different patients profiles based on the cooperation of doctors, social workers, therapists, and psychologists.

  16. Health Seeking Behaviour of Non Communicable Disease in Sulaho Village, Lasusua Sub District, North Kolaka Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cati Martiyana

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non communicable diseases is a chronic disease that is not spread from person to person. Public knowledge about type of non communicable disease is quite good, but generally they don’t understand about effect of non communicable disease risk factors, impacts and consider non communicable disease due to genetic factors, disease ofolder or rich people. This research to describe the fi ndings of non communicable diseases and health seeking behavior for these types of disease. Method: This study is a qualitative study used ethnographic methods. The research location at Sulaho village, Lasusua sub district, North Kolaka regency. Informants selected with snowball sampling methods. Participant observation and indepth interviews supported with documentation as data collection methods. Analysis of qualitative data with domain analysis, taxonomic analysis, komponensial analysis and analysis of the cultural theme supported with triangulation of sources and data collection methods. Results: Non communicable disease founded at Sulaho were cases of hypertension, stroke, diseases caused by workplace accidents and iodine defi ciency disorders (IDD. Informan knows name of diseases, but they did not know good knowledge of caused, impact and prevention of it. Traditional healer (sanro is still the main reference before went to the health worker when someone sick, this indicates that people still have the will to take advantage of health care of health seeking behaviour. Conclusion: Traditional healer (sanro generally become the main reference for health seeking behaviour of non communicable diseases before someone went to the health workers.Recommendation: Health workers has to be practice to approach the community through community leaders or kinship based.

  17. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baheiraei Azam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. Methods In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Results Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. Conclusion The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health.

  18. The experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baheiraei, Azam; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Mohammadi, Eesa; Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammad-Alizadeh

    2012-07-30

    Health promotion is critical for community and family health. Health-promoting behaviours provide solutions for maintaining and promoting health. Although several studies have addressed the frequency and different types of health-promoting behaviours in women, little information is available about their experiences. This study aimed to explore the experiences of women of reproductive age regarding health-promoting behaviours. In the present study, which was conducted in Tehran, Iran, 15 females, who were selected purposefully, participated in individual in-depth, semi-structured interviews. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed using conventional content analysis. Nine main categories were derived from the analysis, including establishing an appropriate eating pattern, establishing a balanced rest/activity pattern, spirituality, stress management, personal sensitivity and responsibility, establishing an appropriate pattern of social interactions, practicing safe and healthy recreations, feeling improvement in physical-functional health, and feeling improvement in emotional and psychological health. The first 7 categories represent the nature and types of real health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age, whereas the last 2 constitute feeling and understanding of the implementation of these behaviours. The study findings show that the women experience improvement in physical-functional, emotional, and psychological health by implementing health-promoting behaviours. It is therefore necessary to introduce strategies in the context of the community culture for improving different aspects of health-promoting behaviours in women of reproductive age to maintain and improve their overall health.

  19. Intervention Effects of a School-Based Health Promotion Programme on Obesity Related Behavioural Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Kobel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown preventive effects of an active lifestyle during childhood on later life; therefore, health promotion has to start early. The programme “Join the Healthy Boat” promotes a healthy lifestyle in primary school children. In order to evaluate it, children’s behaviours in respect of increased physical activity (PA, a decrease in screen media use (SMU, more regular breakfast, and a reduction of the consumption of soft drinks (SDC were investigated. 1943 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years participated in the cluster-randomised study and were assessed at baseline and 1736 of them at follow-up. Teachers delivered lessons, which included behavioural contracting and budgeting of SMU and SDC. Daily SMU, PA behaviours, SDC, and breakfast patterns were assessed via parental questionnaire. After one-year intervention, significant effects were found in the intervention group for SMU of girls, children without migration background, and children with parents having a low education level. In the control group, second grade children skipped breakfast significantly more often. Tendencies but no significant differences were found for PA and SDC. This intervention seems to affect groups, which are usually hard to reach, such as children of parents with low education levels, which shows that active parental involvement is vital for successful interventions.

  20. The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Behaviour in People with Diabetes: A Danish Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Karina; Vind, Benedicte Donslund; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2016-01-01

    Background. People with diabetes who have poor health behaviours are at greater risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and health behaviour (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet) in people with diabetes. Methods. The study was based on respondents aged 25 years or older from a population-based survey in 2013 who reported having diabetes (). Two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: “understa...

  1. The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Behaviour in People with Diabetes: A Danish Population-Based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Friis, Karina; Vind, Benedicte Donslund; Simmons, Rebecca K.; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2016-01-01

    Background. People with diabetes who have poor health behaviours are at greater risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and health behaviour (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet) in people with diabetes. Methods. The study was based on respondents aged 25 years or older from a population-based survey in 2013 who reported having diabetes (n = 1685). Two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: ?...

  2. Effectiveness of a Community-Based Health Education Intervention in Cervical Cancer Prevention in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chania

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be

  3. Social and regional variations in health status and health behaviours among Swiss young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Thomas; Hofmann, Karen; Schori, Dominik

    2013-12-20

    To provide nationwide data on health status and health behaviours among young adults in Switzerland, and to illustrate social and regional variations. Data came from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 2010/11. The sample consisted of 32,424 young men and 1,467 young women. We used logistic regression models to examine patterns of social inequality for three measures of health status and three measures of health behaviour. Among men, lower self-rated health, overweight and lower physical fitness levels were associated with lower educational and fewer financial resources. Patterns were similar among young women. Unfavourable self-rated health (odds ratio [OR]: men 0.83, women 0.75) and overweight (OR: men 0.84, women 0.85; p >0.05) were less common in the French- than in the German-language region. Low physical fitness was more common in the French- than in the German-language region. In both sexes, daily smoking was associated with fewer educational resources, and physical inactivity was associated with lower educational and fewer financial resources. Males from the Italian-language region were three times more likely to be physically inactive than their German-speaking counterparts (OR 2.95). Risk drinking was more widespread among males in the French- than in the German-speaking language region (OR 1.47). Striking social and moderate regional differences exist in health status and health behaviours among young Swiss males and females. The current findings offer new empirical evidence on social determinants of health in Switzerland and suggest education, material resources and regional conditions to be addressed in public health practice and in more focused future research.

  4. Public health interventions and behaviour change: reviewing the grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, H; Hardiker, N R; McGrath, M; McQuarrie, C

    2012-01-01

    This study identified and reviewed grey literature relating to factors facilitating and inhibiting effective interventions in three areas: the promotion of mental health and well-being, the improvement of food and nutrition, and interventions seeking to increase engagement in physical activity. Sourcing, reviewing and analysis of relevant grey literature. Evidence was collected from a variety of non-traditional sources. Thirty-six pieces of documentary evidence across the three areas were selected for in-depth appraisal and review. A variety of approaches, often short-term, were used both as interventions and outcome measures. Interventions tended to have common outcomes, enabling the identification of themes. These included improvements in participant well-being as well as identification of barriers to, and promoters of, success. Most interventions demonstrated some positive impact, although some did not. This was particularly the case for more objective measures of change, such as physiological measurements, particularly when used to evaluate short-term interventions. Objective health measurement as part of an intervention may act as a catalyst for future behaviour change. Time is an important factor that could either promote or impede the success of interventions for both participants and facilitators. Likewise, the importance of involving all stakeholders, including participants, when planning health promoting interventions was established as an important indicator of success. Despite its limited scope, this review suggests that interventions can be more efficient and effective. For example, larger-scale, longer-term interventions could be more efficient, whilst outcomes relating to the implementation and beyond could provide a clearer picture of effectiveness. Additionally, interventions and evaluations must be flexible, evolve in partnership with local communities, and reflect local need and context. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health

  5. Health behaviour procrastination: a novel reasoned route towards self-regulatory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Floor M; de Ridder, Denise T D

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we highlight a novel perspective on health behaviour failure by considering reasoned procrastination as a contributing factor. We argue that the failure to enact intentions does not necessarily occur because people are victims of their strong impulses, but that people may also knowingly and wilfully postpone their intended actions. While procrastination is acknowledged as a factor associated with intention-behaviour gaps in other domains, it has surprisingly received only very little attention in the domain of health behaviour. We argue that it is particularly important to recognise the waxing and waning of intentions: rather than being truly abandoned, intentions may sometimes be temporarily put aside. This paper describes how the procrastination account relates to the intention-behaviour gap as we know it, what is known about procrastination and health behaviour, and what theoretical and practical implications can be derived from the addition of this novel perspective to our understanding of health behaviour change.

  6. Impact of obesity and mood disorders on physical comorbidities, psychological well-being, health behaviours and use of health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Ahmed Jérôme; Marleau, Jacques; Baillot, Aurélie

    2018-01-01

    Albeit obesity and mood disorders frequently co-occur, few studies examined the impacts of this co-occurrence. The aim was to compare individuals with obesity and mood disorders (ObMD) to those with obesity without mood disorder in terms of physical comorbidities, psychological well-being, health behaviours and use of health services. Cross-sectional study using the Canadian Community Health Survey including a weighted sample of individuals with obesity (n = 1298) representing inhabitants from the province of Quebec (Canada). Adjusted multivariate logistic regressions indicated that ObMD reported more physical conditions with odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.8 [95%CI: 1.1 - 2.8] (hypertension) to 2.8 [95%CI: 1.3 - 6.0] (stomach ulcer). Also, ObMD reported poorer psychological well-being with OR ranging from 2.1 [95%CI: 1.4 - 3.3] (stress) to 25.6 [95%CI: 14.7 - 45.0] (poor perceived mental health). ObMD also reported more consultations with health professionals with OR ranging from 1.9 [95%CI: 1.0 - 3.5] (physicians) to 7.7 [95%CI: 4.2 - 14.3] (psychologists), and less healthy behaviours with OR ranging from 1.7 [95%CI: 1.1 - 2.6] (fruits and vegetables intake) to 2.1 [95%CI: 1.3 - 3.3] (tobacco). Self-reported data so we cannot discard the possibility of a bias in reporting. Also, given the cross-sectional design, no directional conclusion or causality about our results is possible. The co-occurrence of mood disorder and obesity seems to be an aggravating factor of obesity-related factors because it is associated with poorer health in several areas. Interventions to prevent or manage obesity in mood disorders are necessary. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Access, literacy and behavioural correlates of poor self-rated oral health amongst an indigenous south Australian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Parker, E J; Jamieson, L M

    2014-09-01

    To better understand the determinants of self-rated oral health within an Indigenous population by: 1, examining potential individual-level correlates of socio-demographic, health behaviours, dental care access and oral health literacy-related outcomes with self-rated oral health; and, 2, examining the relative contribution of these domains to self-rated oral health in multivariable modelling. We conducted nested logistic regression analyses on self-reported status of 'fair or poor' versus 'better' oral health using data from a convenience sample of rural dwelling Indigenous Australians (n = 468). Data were collected on background characteristics, health behaviours, access to dental care, oral health literacy-related outcome variables and REALD 30, an oral health literacy scale. Overall 37.0 % of the Indigenous adult population reported fair or poor oral health. In multivariable modelling, risk indicators for fair or poor self-rated oral health that persisted after adjusting for other covariates included being aged 38+ years (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.9,4.6), holding a Government Health Concession card (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1,4.5), avoiding the dentist due to financial constraints (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.4,3.6), not knowing how to make an emergency dental visit (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1,2.7) and poor understanding of the prevention of dental disease (OR 1.7, 95%CI 1.1,2.7). In this vulnerable population, risk indicators contributing to poor self-rated oral health included socio-demographic, dental care access and oral health literacy-related factors. Health behaviours were not significant.

  8. Health Beliefs Related to Diabetes Mellitus Prevention among Adolescents in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem L. Al-Mutairi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is growing rapidly in the Saudi population. The purpose of this study was to assess the constructs of the health belief model (HBM as they relate to T2DM lifestyle and prevention behaviours among adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between May and October 2013 among 426 non-diabetic secondary school students from randomly selected schools in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. An Arabic version of an adapted English language questionnaire was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the severity and prevention of T2DM. A preventative behaviour assessment was also conducted to assess physical activity and dietary habits. Results: The majority of the students (63.4% had at least one diabetic family member. Obesity was more frequent in males compared to females (P = 0.013. Awareness about the importance of maintaining a healthy body weight to prevent T2DM was lower in males than females (P = 0.037, although males engaged in routine exercise more often (P = 0.001. Males were less likely than females to recognise the risks for T2DM, including obesity (P = 0.030, heredity (P = 0.013 and high fat intake (P = 0.001. Conclusion: An alarmingly high number of Saudi students were unaware of T2DM severity and associated risk factors. Female students were more aware of the benefits of T2DM preventative lifestyle behaviours than males, although males engaged in routine exercise more often. Raising adolescents’ awareness about the primary prevention strategies for T2DM should be a public health priority in Saudi Arabia. The HBM could inform further research on diabetes prevention among Saudi adolescents.

  9. Barriers and Recommended Interventions to Prevent Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand: A Focus Group Study Using the Behaviour Change Wheel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpan Suntornsut

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease in Northeast Thailand, is caused by skin inoculation, inhalation or ingestion of the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The major underlying risk factor for melioidosis is diabetes mellitus. Recommendations for melioidosis prevention include using protective gear such as rubber boots and gloves when in direct contact with soil and environmental water, and consuming bottled or boiled water. Only a small proportion of people follow such recommendations.Nine focus group discussions were conducted to evaluate barriers to adopting recommended preventive behaviours. A total of 76 diabetic patients from northeast Thailand participated in focus group sessions. Barriers to adopting the recommended preventive behaviours and future intervention strategies were identified using two frameworks: the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel.Barriers were identified in the following five domains: (i knowledge, (ii beliefs about consequences, (iii intention and goals, (iv environmental context and resources, and (v social influence. Of 76 participants, 72 (95% had never heard of melioidosis. Most participants saw no harm in not adopting recommended preventive behaviours, and perceived rubber boots and gloves to be hot and uncomfortable while working in muddy rice fields. Participants reported that they normally followed the behaviour of friends, family and their community, the majority of whom did not wear boots while working in rice fields and did not boil water before drinking. Eight intervention functions were identified as relevant for the intervention: (i education, (ii persuasion, (iii incentivisation, (iv coercion, (v modeling, (vi environmental restructuring, (vii training, and (viii enablement. Participants noted that input from role models in the form of physicians, diabetic clinics, friends and families, and from the government via mass media would be required for them

  10. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Tagoe, Henry A; Dake, Fidelia AA

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with he...

  11. Factors Influencing the Health Behaviour of Indigenous Australians: Perspectives from Support People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, Pippa; Pescud, Melanie; Braham, Rebecca; Dimmock, James; Rosenberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Disparities between the health of Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations continue to be prevalent within Australia. Research suggests that Indigenous people participate in health risk behaviour more often than their non-Indigenous counterparts, and that such behaviour has a substantial impact on health outcomes. Although this would indicate that reducing health risk behaviour may have positive effects on health outcomes, the factors that influence Indigenous health behaviour are still poorly understood. This study aimed to interview people who support Indigenous groups to gain an understanding of their views on the factors influencing health behaviour within Indigenous groups in Western Australia. Twenty nine people participated in the study. The emergent themes were mapped against the social ecological model. The results indicated that: (1) culture, social networks, history, racism, socioeconomic disadvantage, and the psychological distress associated with some of these factors interact to affect health behaviour in a complex manner; (2) the desire to retain cultural identity and distinctiveness may have both positive and negative influence on health risk behaviour; (3) strong social connections to family and kin that is intensified by cultural obligations, appears to affirm and disrupt positive health behaviour; (4) the separation between Indigenous and non-Indigenous social connection/networks that appeared to be fostered by marginalisation and racism may influence the effect of social networks on health behaviour; and (5) communication between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people may be interrupted by distrust between the groups, which reduces the influence of some non-Indigenous sources on the health behaviour of Indigenous people.

  12. Health Promotion/Disease Prevention: New Directions for Geriatric Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkoff, Sue; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Describes 10 modules for primary care practitioners on health promotion/disease prevention for the elderly on these topics: Alzheimer's disease in minorities, dehydration, diabetes, elder abuse, geriatric nutrition, oncology, oral health in long-term care, incontinence, injury prevention, and physical activity. These areas are significant for…

  13. Life skills as predictors of engagement in health risk behaviours: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, it is recommended that the abovementioned life skill domains be incorporated into intervention programmes or life orientation curricula in order to reduce the incidence of health risk behaviours among South African youth. Keywords: Health risk behaviour, life skills, smoking, drinking sexual activity, drug use, ...

  14. Parental Perceptions of Adolescent Health Behaviours: Experiences from Croatian High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burusic, Josip; Sakic, Marija; Koprtla, Natalija

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore parental perceptions of adolescent health behaviours and to examine to what extent parents' perceptions of their children's health behaviours are determined by the family's socio-demographic characteristics. Method: Participants in the study were 605 parents. They completed questionnaires in which…

  15. Adolescent binge drinking and risky health behaviours: findings from northern Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Koposov, Roman; Razvodovsky, Yury; Ruchkin, Vladislav

    2013-12-15

    Some evidence suggests that in recent years the prevalence of heavy drinking has increased among Russian adolescents. However, as yet, little is known about either heavy alcohol consumption or its relationship with other adolescent health risk behaviours in Russia. The aim of this study therefore was to investigate the association between binge drinking and health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Data were drawn from the Social and Health Assessment (SAHA), a survey carried out in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2003. Information was obtained from a representative sample of 2868 adolescents aged 13-17 regarding the prevalence and frequency of binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in a couple of hours) and different forms of substance use, risky sexual behaviour and violent behaviour. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between binge drinking and adolescent involvement in various health risk behaviours. Adolescent binge drinking was associated with the occurrence of every type of health risk behaviour - with the sole exception of non-condom use during last sex. In addition, there was a strong association between the number of days on which binge drinking occurred and the prevalence of many health risk behaviours. Binge drinking is associated with a variety of health risk behaviours among adolescents in Russia. Public health interventions such as reducing the affordability and accessibility of alcohol are now needed to reduce binge drinking and its harmful effects on adolescent well-being. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combined Use of Self-Efficacy Scale for Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Questionnaire: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…

  17. Changing oral health status and oral health behaviour of schoolchildren in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierzbicka, Maria; Petersen, Poul Erik; Szatko, Franciszek

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the occurrence of dental caries over time in Polish schoolchildren, to analyse the oral health behaviour of children and mothers, and to compare the levels of dental knowledge and attitudes of mothers and schoolteachers. DESIGN: Cross-sectional oral health surveys of children...... aged 6 and 12 years were carried out in 1995, 1997, 1999 and 2000; questionnaire surveys of a sample of mothers and schoolteachers were conducted in 1999. SETTING: The surveys in schools intended to aid planning and evaluation of the revitalised school oral health programme in Poland. SUBJECTS...... conditions in children and wanted to become involved in oral health education. In conclusion, the need for oral health education of children and mothers was shown and the continuous implementation of school oral health programmes is most relevant....

  18. Mediation, moderation, and context: Understanding complex relations among cognition, affect, and health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Ellis, Erin M; Hall, Marissa G; Moss, Jennifer L; Lillie, Sarah E; Brewer, Noel T; Klein, William M P

    2018-01-01

    Researchers have historically treated cognition and affect as separate constructs in motivating health behaviour. We present a framework and empirical evidence for complex relations between cognition and affect in predicting health behaviour. Main Outcome, Design and Results: First, affect and cognition can mediate each other's relation to health behaviour. Second, affect and cognition can moderate the other's impact. Third, context can change the interplay of affect and cognition. Fourth, affect and cognition may be indelibly fused in some psychological constructs (e.g. worry, anticipated regret and reactance). These four propositions in our framework are not mutually exclusive. Examination of the types of complex relations described here can benefit theory development, empirical testing of theories and intervention design. Doing so will advance the understanding of mechanisms involved in regulation of health behaviours and the effectiveness of interventions to change health behaviours.

  19. Sexual Health and Risk Behaviour among East Asian Adolescents in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Homma, Yuko; Saewyc, Elizabeth M.; Wong, Sabrina T.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large number of adolescents of East Asian origin in Canada, there is limited research on sexual health among this population. A first step to develop strategies for sexual health promotion for adolescents is to document the prevalence of sexual behaviours. This study thus estimated the prevalence of sexual health and risk behaviours among East Asian adolescents in grades 7 to 12, using the province-wide, school-based 2008 British Columbia Adolescent Health Survey (unweighted N = 4...

  20. Harnessing centred identity transformation to reduce executive function burden for maintenance of health behaviour change: the Maintain IT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Ann E; Masters, Kevin S; Peters, John C; Bryan, Angela D; Grigsby, Jim; Hooker, Stephanie A; Wyatt, Holly R; Hill, James O

    2018-02-19

    The inability to produce sustainable lifestyle modifications (e.g., physical activity, healthy diet) remains a major barrier to reducing morbidity and mortality from prevalent, preventable conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a model that builds on and extends foundational theory and research to suggest novel approaches that may help to produce lasting behaviour change. The model aims to integrate factors not typically examined together in order to elucidate potential processes underlying a shift from behaviour initiation to long-term maintenance. The central premise of the Maintain IT model builds on approaches demonstrating that in-tact executive function (EF) is critical for health behaviour initiation, for more complex behaviours beyond initiation, and in unsupportive environments and circumstances, but successful recruitment of EF is effortful and prone to error. Enduring changes are more likely if the underlying cognitive processes can become less effortful (non-conscious, automatic). The Maintain IT model posits that a centred identity transformation is one path leading to less effortful processing and facilitating successful recruitment of EF when necessary over the long term, increasing the sustainability of health behaviour change. A conceptual overview of the literature supporting the utility of this integrative model, future directions, and anticipated challenges are presented.

  1. Brief sexuality communication--a behavioural intervention to advance sexually transmitted infection/HIV prevention: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, B; Toskin, I; Kulier, R; Allen, T; Hawkes, S

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the last decade substantial research has been undertaken to develop evidence-based behaviour change interventions for sexual health promotion. Primary care could provide an opportunistic entry for brief sexual health communication. We conducted a systematic review to explore opportunistic sexual and reproductive health services for sexual health communication delivered at primary health care level. We searched for studies on PubMed, ProQuest, CINAHL, Jstor, Scopus/Science Direct, Cochrane database of systematic reviews, EBSCO, CINAHL, PsychoInfo, and Web of Knowledge. Both published and unpublished articles were reviewed. All randomised controlled trials and controlled clinical trials were included. Participants of all ages, from adolescence onwards were included. Brief (10-60 minutes) interventions including some aspect of communication on sexual health issues were included. Data were extracted by two reviewers independently using a standardised form. Interventions differed from each other, hence meta-analysis was not performed, and results are presented individually. A total of 247 articles were selected for full-text evaluation, 31 of which were included. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/HIV were less often reported in the intervention group compared with the control group. Condom use was higher in most studies in the intervention group. Numbers of sexual partners and unprotected sexual intercourse were lower in the intervention groups. There is evidence that brief counselling interventions have some effect in the reduction and prevention of STIs/HIV. Some questions could not be answered, such as the effect over time and in different settings and population groups. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. Women's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activities you enjoy, from brisk walking to ballroom dancing. Limit alcohol. If you choose to drink alcohol, ... lifestyle also might play a role in preventing Alzheimer's disease. Women are more vulnerable than men to ...

  3. The role of stress in the relationships between gender and health-promoting behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Michal

    2010-09-01

    Studies have shown that in Western societies, women live longer than men. Among other factors, this has been attributed to health behaviours; men engage in health-risking behaviours, while women perform health-promoting behaviours. These tendencies were argued to align with cultural notions of masculinity and femininity. There may be some evidence, however, that men and women engage in different types of health-promoting behaviours, and stress may play a role in these tendencies. This study attempts to examine the various types of health-promoting behaviours women engage in and compare them to the tendencies of men. Secondly, it examines the mediating role of stress in the relationships between gender and health-promoting behaviours. The sample was comprised of 402 young Israeli adults. Half were undergraduate university students majoring in social work. The remaining participants were sampled by 'snowball sampling'. Participants completed a questionnaire containing 63 closed-ended questions on various health issues. For the purpose of this study, gender, stress and health-promoting behaviours measures were used. Data were collected over three academic years by the teacher responsible for the course and were received by the author at the end of the data collection phase. The study was approved by the institution's internal review board. The results indicate that,-while women engage in 'type 2 behaviours'- refraining from smoking and drinking, eating breakfast regularly and sleeping 7-8 hours per night-men engage in 'type 1 behaviours'- physical exercise, refraining from snacking, and maintaining an appropriate body mass. We also found that, to some extent, women refrain from 'type 1 behaviours' because of their levels of general stress. Our study suggests that the social construction of masculinity and femininity which undermines individuals' health needs to be challenged and addressed. In particular, the enduring role of stress in women's health outcomes should be

  4. Health Seeking Behaviour among Tuberculosis Patients in India: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya

    2016-10-01

    The Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme's (RNTCP) passive case finding approach strongly influence the health seeking behaviour of patients and the timing of health seeking as well. A systematic review was carried out to understand the health seeking behaviour, related delays and the knowledge and attitude regarding Tuberculosis (TB) and the health services linked with it. A manual search strategy was adopted using PUBMED and Google Scholar search engines to obtain research papers in the said subject. Of 113 articles obtained by the end of this search process 10 full text articles were finally selected for the purpose of this review. Of the 10 studies identified, the results were delineated in 7 thematic areas such as: (1) Knowledge and perception of TB patients regarding TB and health services for TB; (2) Delays in seeking help; (3) Facility based health seeking behaviour; (4) Reasons for not seeking care/Delay in seeking care; (5) Geographical pattern (Rural-Urban) of health seeking; (6) Socio-cultural factors associated with health seeking; and (7) Gender based health seeking behaviour. Health seeking behaviour and related delays are of utmost importance in TB care from two important perspectives; firstly TB requires timely treatment and secondly it requires protracted treatment. Required level of knowledge and positive health behaviour helps the patients in taking timely help from appropriate health facility.

  5. Behaviour health pregnant women with secondary and higher education – preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Pieszko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is a special physiological condition in a woman’s life. It usually involves a substantial change in health behaviour and lifestyle. The aim of rational nutrition among pregnant women is to prevent complications during pregnancy and ensure normal development of the foetus. Practical realisation of the principles of rational nutrition involves the application of a balanced diet. It limits both shortages and excessive amount of nutrients in the body. The aim of the paper was to evaluate health behaviour of pregnant women with secondary and higher education and the level of knowledge about healthy lifestyle and its impact on child development. The study included 43 pregnant women aged 20–40 years from Gdańsk birth schools of higher and secondary education. The study based on questionnaire provided information about the current state of knowledge about nutrition while pregnant and assessed the health behaviour of women: nutrition, substance abuse and physical activity. A pilot study reported that 84% of pregnant women were interested in proper nutrition while pregnant. An increased amount of food consumed per day (69% and portions of fruit and vegetables (98% was noticed. Also, it was noted that 58.1% of the respondents did not increase the consumption of sweets. Good appetite was observed only in the case of 53% of studied women, 47% presented loss of appetite; 19% of the respondents occasionally consumed alcohol, 30% drank coffee once per day and 9% several times a day. There was no woman smoking tobacco. Among the respondents, physically active ones included 51.2% and 39.5% did physical activity occasionally. The studied group of pregnant women with secondary and higher education changed their eating habits during pregnancy. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates the validity of conducting nutrition education in antenatal classes, which raises the nutritional knowledge and

  6. Effectiveness of a Brief Health Education Intervention for Breast Cancer Prevention in Greece Under Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakoula Merakou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence rates in breast cancer have now reached epidemic levels. One of the main reasons behind onset of breast cancer is poor preventive beliefs and behavior of women towards cancer prevention. We examined the effectiveness of health education intervention in two communities of South Greece.Objective: The study investigates the effectiveness of a brief health education intervention on women’s beliefs and behaviour changes concerning breast cancer prevention.Methodology: A 90-minute, one-off encounter, health education study was designed for 300 women from Peloponissos, South Greece. A Health Belief Model questionnaire, was used before the intervention, immediately after and 6-months after the intervention.Results: Despite certain perception-related barriers (embarrassment, anxiety, ect women’s overall beliefs towards breast cancer prevention (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits and perceived barriers changed positively after the health education intervention and this change was sustained at 6-month follow up. However, specific barriers (embarrassment, fear of pain, anxiety when anticipating tests’ results were not maintained at the same level of post-intervention during the same follow up. During the follow up period, women performed breast self-examination every month (73% and 55.10% had breast examination by a clinician and underwent a mammography.Conclusions: Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be effective in changing beliefs and behaviour. Tailored interventions are necessary to overcome relapsing of specific barriers. Emphasis should be given on the importance of doctor/nurse role in breast screening.

  7. Pricing behaviour of nonprofit insurers in a weakly competitive social health insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, Rudy C H M; Schut, Frederik T

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we examine the pricing behaviour of nonprofit health insurers in the Dutch social health insurance market. Since for-profit insurers were not allowed in this market, potential spillover effects from the presence of for-profit insurers on the behaviour of nonprofit insurers were absent. Using a panel data set for all health insurers operating in the Dutch social health insurance market over the period 1996-2004, we estimate a premium model to determine which factors explain the price setting behaviour of nonprofit health insurers. We find that financial stability rather than profit maximisation offers the best explanation for health plan pricing behaviour. In the presence of weak price competition, health insurers did not set premiums to maximize profits. Nevertheless, our findings suggest that regulations on financial reserves are needed to restrict premiums. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Men's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can significantly lower your risk of these common killers. Take charge of your health by making better ... other substances, and don't drive while sleepy. Suicide is another leading men's health risk. An important ...

  9. Adverse childhood experiences and associations with health-harming behaviours in young adults: surveys in eight eastern European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Leckenby, Nicola; Jones, Lisa; Baban, Adriana; Kachaeva, Margarita; Povilaitis, Robertas; Pudule, Iveta; Qirjako, Gentiana; Ulukol, Betül; Raleva, Marija; Terzic, Natasa

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the association between adverse childhood experiences - e.g. abuse, neglect, domestic violence and parental separation, substance use, mental illness or incarceration - and the health of young adults in eight eastern European countries. Between 2010 and 2013, adverse childhood experience surveys were undertaken in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Romania, the Russian Federation, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey. There were 10,696 respondents - 59.7% female - aged 18-25 years. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate the relationships between adverse childhood experiences and health-harming behaviours in early adulthood including substance use, physical inactivity and attempted suicide. Over half of the respondents reported at least one adverse childhood experience. Having one adverse childhood experience increased the probability of having other adverse childhood experiences. The number of adverse childhood experiences was positively correlated with subsequent reports of health-harming behaviours. Compared with those who reported no adverse experiences, respondents who reported at least four adverse childhood experiences were at significantly increased risk of many health-harming behaviours, with odds ratios varying from 1.68 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.32-2.15) - for physical inactivity - to 48.53 (95% CI: 31.98-76.65) - for attempted suicide. Modelling indicated that prevention of adverse childhood experiences would substantially reduce the occurrence of many health-harming behaviours within the study population. Our results indicate that individuals who do not develop health-harming behaviours are more likely to have experienced safe, nurturing childhoods. Evidence-based programmes to improve parenting and support child development need large-scale deployment in eastern European.

  10. Prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular disease among university students in nine ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2018-02-13

    Understanding behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is of great importance for CVD prevention and control. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence, risk awareness and health beliefs of behavioural risk factors of cardiovascular disease among university students in Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states. In a cross-sectional survey 8806 (37.5% male and 62.5% female) university students (Mean age 20.6, SD = 2.0) from nine ASEAN countries responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Results indicate that across all nine countries, among men and women, 27.5% and 16.9%, respectively, were overweight or obese, 39.0% and 53.0% engaged in low physical activity, 6.9% and 2.5% were current tobacco users, 10.1% and 4.2% had engaged in binge drinking in the past month and 62.7% and 58.2%, respectively, did not avoid eating fat and cholesterol. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health status and health benefits, poor risk awareness was associated with tobacco use and binge drinking, and after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health status and risk awareness, poorer health benefits beliefs predicted overweight, low physical activity, tobacco use, binge drinking and non-avoidance of fat and cholesterol. The study found a high prevalence of behavioural risk factors of CVD. Results may inform health promotion strategies among university students in ASEAN.

  11. The effects on depression of Internet-administered behavioural activation and physical exercise with treatment rationale and relapse prevention: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite their potential as low-threshold, low-cost and high-flexibility treatments of depression, behavioural activation and physical exercise have not yet been directly compared. This study will examine the effects of these interventions, administered via the Internet. The added effect of providing a treatment rationale will also be studied, as well as a relapse prevention program featuring cognitive behavioural therapy components. Methods/Design This randomised controlled trial will include 500 participants meeting the diagnostic criteria for major depression, recruited in multiple cycles and randomised to either a waiting list control group with delayed treatment, or one of the four treatment groups: (1) physical exercise without a clear treatment rationale; (2) physical exercise with treatment rationale; (3) behavioural activation with treatment rationale; or (4) behavioural activation without a clear treatment rationale. Post treatment, half of the participants will be offered a relapse prevention program. Primary outcome measure will be the Patient Health Questionnaire 9-item. Secondary measures include diagnostic criteria for depression, as well as self-reported anxiety, physical activity and quality of life. Measurements - done via telephone and the Internet - will be collected pre-treatment, weekly during treatment period, immediately post treatment and then monthly during a 24-month follow-up period. Discussion The results of this study will constitute an important contribution to the body of knowledge of the respective interventions. Limitations are discussed. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01619930 PMID:23374879

  12. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception among nursing students during outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Choi, Jeong Sil

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to survey nursing students' Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception to examine the correlations among the variables during a Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak. Middle East respiratory syndrome is a new viral respiratory illness. Nursing students who engage in clinical practice at hospitals may have been exposed to Middle East respiratory syndrome infection during the Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey. Participants (n = 249) were nursing students in their third or fourth year of the programme who were engaged in clinical practice for eight hours per day at the tertiary hospitals with Middle East respiratory syndrome patients. Knowledge, preventive behaviours and risk perception related to Middle East respiratory syndrome were measured using scales developed through a preliminary survey and validity testing. The subjects' knowledge level of Middle East respiratory syndrome was 84·4%; their practice of preventive behaviours was rated at 44·5%; and their risk perception rating was 2·4 out of 5. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related risk perception was significantly different according to gender and Middle East respiratory syndrome education. Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge was significantly correlated with preventive behaviours and risk perception. Considering the low scores for items regarding knowledge and preventive behaviours, it is necessary to develop effective and systematic publicity and education programmes for nursing students. Enhancing Middle East respiratory syndrome-related knowledge by considering cooperation between hospitals and universities will sharpen nursing students' risk perception of the disease and effectively increase their preventive behaviours. Similar to other emerging infectious diseases, Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreaks may occur in other countries. The

  13. The Career Woman and Reproductive Health Behaviour in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maternal mortality rate in Nigeria is still very high and as such has been topical. This problem is partly a result of patriarchy and therefore has been of great interest to many scholars. This study was aimed at creating knowledge on reproductive behaviour of career women and the role of men in such behaviour.

  14. A scoping review of statistical approaches to the analysis of multiple health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAloney, Kareena; Graham, Hilary; Law, Catherine; Platt, Lucinda

    2013-06-01

    Smoking, diet, exercise, and alcohol are leading causes of chronic disease and premature death, many engage in two or more of these behaviours concurrently. The paper identified statistical approaches used to investigate multiple behavioural risk factors. A scoping review of papers published in English from 2000 to 2011 was conducted; papers are related to concurrent participation in at least two of the behaviours. Statistical approaches were recorded and categorised. Across 50 papers, two distinct approaches were identified. Co-occurrence analyses focused on concurrent but independent behaviours, represented by prevalence of behavioural combinations and/or by the summing behaviours into risk indexes. Clustering analyses investigated underlying associations between the concurrent behaviours, with clustering identified by divergences in observed and expected prevalence of combinations or through identification of latent or unobservable clusters. Co-occurrence was more frequently reported, but the use of clustering techniques and, in particular, cluster analytic and latent variable techniques increased across the study period. The two approaches investigate concurrent participation in multiple health behaviours but differ in conceptualisation and analysis. Despite differences, inconsistency in the terminology describing the study of multiple health behaviours was apparent, with potential to influence understandings of concurrent health behaviours in policy and practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouttebarge Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01 were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population.

  16. Patients' and practitioners' views on health behaviour change: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Laura; Povey, Rachel; Grogan, Sarah; Allen, Candia; Prestwich, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine patients' and health professionals' perspectives on lifestyle behaviour change and to inform the development of a lifestyle behaviour change intervention to be used in primary care. Focus groups were conducted with seven patients and 13 health professionals where they were asked to discuss lifestyle behaviour change in relation to the design and development phase of a tailored lifestyle behaviour change intervention package. An inductive thematic analysis of transcripts suggested a range of issues that are relevant to the development and implementation of lifestyle change interventions such as time, lack of resources and starting interventions too late, as well as personal circumstances and the continuous effort that behaviour change requires. They were interpreted as two superordinate themes of 'internal and external influences on behaviour change' and 'behaviour change initiation and maintenance'. The results are discussed in relation to the implications they may have for researchers and health service commissioners designing interventions and practitioners implementing lifestyle change interventions in primary care. Many factors are involved in patients' and health care professionals' understanding of interventions and lifestyle behaviour change. These should be taken into consideration when designing interventions based on behaviour change theories.

  17. Childhood nutrition education in health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, C. M.

    1989-01-01

    In the last 10 to 15 years, nutrition has become a major component of health promotion and chronic disease prevention. Two widely recommended strategies for incorporating nutrition education directed toward children and youth into health promotion and disease prevention efforts are school-based nutrition education and the integration of nutritional care into health care. School-based nutrition education programs targeted toward very specific eating behaviors are showing very promising results in regard to behavior and attitude change of children and adolescents. Substantial changes in health care providers' attitudes and practices and in the funding and financing of health care will be needed if nutrition education delivered in the context of routine health care is to be a major force in health promotion and disease prevention for youth. PMID:2629968

  18. Preventing the Epidemic of Mental Ill Health: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Diet, lifestyle and environment do not just affect a person's health, they also determine the health of their children and possibly the health of their grandchildren. Mental ill health is an epidemic worldwide because of the combined effect of the modern diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Primary prevention of mental ill health starts, crucially, with optimal adult nutrition before the inception of pregnancy, includes breastfeeding, and continues throughout the life of th...

  19. Interventions to reduce risky sexual behaviour for preventing HIV infection in workers in occupational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, Olumuyiwa; Verbeek, Jos H; Rasanen, Kimmo; Heikkinen, Jarmo; Isotalo, Leena K; Mngoma, Nomusa; Ruotsalainen, Eija

    2011-12-07

    The workplace provides an important avenue to prevent HIV. To evaluate the effect of behavioral interventions for reducing HIV on high risk sexual behavior when delivered in an occupational setting. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO up until March 2011 and CINAHL, LILACS, DARE, OSH Update, and EPPI database up until October 2010. Randomised control trials (RCTs) in occupational settings or among workers at high risk for HIV that measured HIV, sexual transmitted diseases (STD), Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), or risky sexual behaviour. Two reviewers independently selected studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We pooled studies that were similar. We found 8 RCTs with 11,164 participants but one study did not provide enough data. Studies compared VCT to no VCT and education to no intervention and to alternative education.VCT uptake increased to 51% when provided at the workplace compared to a voucher for VCT (RR=14.0 (95% CI 11.8 to16.7)). After VCT, self-reported STD decreased (RR = 0.10 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.73)) but HIV incidence (RR=1.4 (95% CI 0.7 to 2.7)) and unprotected sex (RR=0.71 (0.48 to 1.06)) did not decrease significantly. .Education reduced STDs (RR = 0.68 (95%CI 0.48 to 0.96)), unprotected sex (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD)= -0.17 (95% CI -0.29 to -0.05), sex with a commercial sex worker (RR = 0.88 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.96) but not multiple sexual partners (Mean Difference (MD) = -0.22 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.08) nor use of alcohol before sex (MD = -0.01 (95% CI of -0.11 to 0.08). Workplace interventions to prevent HIV are feasible. There is moderate quality evidence that VCT offered at the work site increases the uptake of testing. Even though this did no lower HIV-incidence, there was a decrease in self-reported sexual transmitted diseases and a decrease in risky sexual behaviour. There is low quality evidence that educational interventions decrease sexually

  20. Health behaviours associated with indoor tanning based on the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Harland

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although indoor tanning causes cancer, it remains relatively common among adolescents. Little is known about indoor tanning prevalence and habits in Canada, and even less about associated behaviours. This study explores the prevalence of adolescent indoor tanning in Manitoba and its association with other demographic characteristics and health behaviours. Methods: We conducted secondary analyses of the 2012/13 Manitoba Youth Health Survey data collected from Grade 7 to 12 students (n = 64 174 and examined associations between indoor tanning (whether participants had ever used artificial tanning equipment and 25 variables. Variables with statistically significant associations to indoor tanning were tested for collinearity and grouped based on strong associations. For each group of highly associated variables, the variable with the greatest effect upon indoor tanning was placed into the final logistic regression model. Separate analyses were conducted for males and females to better understand sex-based differences, and analyses were adjusted for age. Results: Overall, 4% of male and 9% of female students reported indoor tanning, and prevalence increased with age. Relationships between indoor tanning and other variables were similar for male and female students. Binary logistic regression models indicated that several variables significantly predicted indoor tanning, including having part-time work, being physically active, engaging in various risk behaviours such as driving after drinking for males and unplanned sex after alcohol/drugs for females, experiencing someone say something bad about one's body shape/size/appearance, identifying as trans or with another gender, consuming creatine/other supplements and, for females only, never/rarely using sun protection. Conclusion: Indoor tanning among adolescents was associated with age, part-time work, physical activity and many consumption behaviours and lifestyle risk factors. Though

  1. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L. Giles

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI. Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. Methods We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Results Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential ‘gaming’, and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI – including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for ‘gaming the system’. Secondly, a tension between participants’ own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants’ personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that

  2. Acceptability of financial incentives for health behaviour change to public health policymakers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2016-09-15

    Providing financial incentives contingent on healthy behaviours is one way to encourage healthy behaviours. However, there remains substantial concerns with the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives (HPFI). Previous research has studied acceptability of HPFI to the public, recipients and practitioners. We are not aware of any previous work that has focused particularly on the views of public health policymakers. Our aim was to explore the views of public health policymakers on whether or not HPFI are acceptable; and what, if anything, could be done to maximise acceptability of HPFI. We recruited 21 local, regional and national policymakers working in England via gatekeepers and snowballing. We conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with participants exploring experiences of, and attitudes towards, HPFI. We analysed data using the Framework approach. Public health policymakers working in England acknowledged that HPFI could be a useful behaviour change tool, but were not overwhelmingly supportive of them. In particular, they raised concerns about effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, potential 'gaming', and whether or not HPFI address the underlying causes of unhealthy behaviours. Shopping voucher rewards, of smaller value, targeted at deprived groups were particularly acceptable to policymakers. Participants were particularly concerned about the response of other stakeholders to HPFI - including the public, potential recipients, politicians and the media. Overall, the interviews reflected three tensions. Firstly, a tension between wanting to trust individuals and promote responsibility; and distrust around the potential for 'gaming the system'. Secondly, a tension between participants' own views about HPFI; and their concerns about the possible views of other stakeholders. Thirdly, a tension between participants' personal distaste of HPFI; and their professional view that they could be a valuable behaviour change tool. There are aspects of

  3. Factors affecting patients' online health information-seeking behaviours: The role of the Patient Health Engagement (PHE) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Barello, Serena; Bonanomi, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    To identify the variables affecting patients' online health information-seeking behaviours by examining the relationships between patient participation in their healthcare and online health information-seeking behaviours. A cross-sectional survey of Italian chronic patients (N=352) was conducted on patient's online health information-seeking behaviours and patient participation-related variables. Structural equation modeling analysis was conducted to test the hypothesis. This study showed how the healthcare professionals' ability to support chronic patients' autonomy affect patients' participation in their healthcare and patient's online health information-seeking behaviours. However, results do not confirm that the frequency of patients' online health-information seeking behavior has an impact on their adherence to medical prescriptions. Assuming a psychosocial perspective, we have discussed how patients' engagement - conceived as the level of their emotional elaboration of the health condition - affects the patients' ability to search for and manage online health information. To improve the effectiveness of patients' online health information-seeking behaviours and to enhance the effectiveness of technological interventions in this field, healthcare providers should target assessing and improving patient engagement and patient empowerment in their healthcare. It is important that health professionals acknowledge patients' online health information-seeking behaviours that they discuss the information offered by patients and guide them to reliable and accurate web sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of health promotion and prevention financing mechanisms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Akihito; Wongwatanakul, Weranuch; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Prakongsai, Phusit; Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-08-01

    In the transition to the post-2015 agenda, many countries are striving towards universal health coverage (UHC). Achieving this, governments need to shift from curative care to promotion and prevention services. This research analyses Thailand's financing system for health promotion and prevention, and assesses policy options for health financing reforms. The study employed a mixed-methods approach and integrates multiple sources of evidence, including scientific and grey literature, expenditure data, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Thailand. The analysis was underpinned by the use of a well-known health financing framework. In Thailand, three agencies plus local governments share major funding roles for health promotion and prevention services: the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), the National Health Security Office, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation and Tambon Health Insurance Funds. The total expenditure on prevention and public health in 2010 was 10.8% of the total health expenditure, greater than many middle-income countries that average 7.0-9.2%. MOPH was the largest contributor at 32.9%, the Universal Coverage scheme was the second at 23.1%, followed by the local governments and ThaiHealth at 22.8 and 7.3%, respectively. Thailand's health financing system for promotion and prevention is strategic and innovative due to the three complementary mechanisms in operation. There are several methodological limitations to determine the adequate level of spending. The health financing reforms in Thailand could usefully inform policymakers on ways to increase spending on promotion and prevention. Further comparative policy research is needed to generate evidence to support efforts towards UHC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Health expenditures spent for prevention, economic performance, and social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuhmei; Wang, Jung-Der; Huang, Yu-Xiu

    2016-12-01

    Countries with limited resources in economic downturns often reduce government expenditures, of which spending on preventive healthcare with no apparent immediate health impact might be cut down first. This research aims to find the optimum share of preventive health expenditure to gross domestic product (GDP) and investigate the implications of preventive health services on economic performance and the population's wellbeing. We develop the economic growth model to undertake health-economic analyses and parameterize for Taiwan setting. Based on the US experiences over the period from 1975 to 2013, this research further examines the model's predictions on the relationship between preventive health expenditure and economic performance. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that an inverse U-shaped relationship exists between the proportion of GDP spent on prevention and social welfare, as well as between the proportion spent on prevention and economic growth. Empirical analysis shows an under-investment in prevention in Taiwan. The spending of preventive healthcare in Taiwan government was 0.0027 GDP in 2014, while the optimization levels for economic development and social welfare would be 0 · 0119 and 0 · 0203, respectively. There is a statistically significant nonlinear relationship between health expenditure on prevention and the estimated real impact of economic performance from US experiences. The welfare-maximizing proportion of preventive expenditure is usually greater than the proportion maximizing economic growth, indicating a conflict between economic growth and welfare after a marginal share. Our findings indicate that it is worthwhile increasing investment on prevention up until an optimization level for economic development and social welfare. Such levels could also be estimated in other economies.

  6. Preventive Healthcare and Health Promotion for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowski, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This issue on preventive health care and health promotion for older adults includes 14 articles on history and definition, development of guidelines, responsibility, implementation of programs for the elderly and how it differs from that for other populations, programs for minorities, access to health care information, and a description of a…

  7. Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of health education on knowledge and prevention on Hepatitis infection among secondary school students in Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state. ... Based on these findings, the study recommended that health education/ health campaign should be directed to school students and Specific risk practices ...

  8. Theory in Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael; Elise, Eifert

    2016-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality related to chronic diseases are a primary concern of health professionals, including Health Educators. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, over one half of the adult population in the United States suffer from one or more chronic conditions. Understanding the health risk behaviors that contribute to…

  9. Social support group attendance is related to blood pressure, health behaviours, and quality of life in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Ute; Pischke, Claudia Ruth; Weidner, Gerdi; Daubenmier, Jennifer; Elliot-Eller, Melanie; Scherwitz, Larry; Bullinger, Monika; Ornish, Dean

    2008-08-01

    Changes in coronary risk factors, health behaviours, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) were examined by tertiles of social support group attendance in 440 patients (21% females) with coronary artery disease. All patients participated in the Multicenter Lifestyle Demonstration Project (MLDP; eight hospital sites in the USA), an insurance-covered multi-component cardiac prevention program including dietary changes, stress management, exercise and group support for 1 year. Significant improvements in coronary risk factors, health behaviours, and HRQOL were noted at 1 year. Several of these improvements (i.e. systolic blood pressure, health behaviours, HRQOL) were related to social support group attendance, favoring those who attended more sessions. The associations between support group attendance to systolic blood pressure and to four HRQOL subscales (bodily pain, social functioning, mental health, and the mental health summary score) remained significant when controlling for changes in health behaviours, but dropped to a non-significant level for the HRQOL subscales 'physical functioning', 'general health' and 'role-emotional'. These results suggest an independent relationship of social support group attendance to systolic blood pressure while improvements in quality of life may be in part due to improved health behaviours facilitated by increased social support group attendance.

  10. Happiness and health behaviours in Chilean college students: a cross-sectional survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Piqueras, J.A.; Kuhne, W.; Vera-Villarroel, P.; van Straten, A.; Cuijpers, P.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Happiness has been associated with a range of favourable health outcomes through two pathways: its relationship with favourable biological responses to stress and with healthy lifestyles and prudent health behaviours. There are a substantial number of cross-cultural studies about happiness, but none of them has studied the association of happiness with perceived stress and health behaviours in Latin American samples. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the asso...

  11. The need for a behavioural science focus in research on mental health and mental disorders.

    OpenAIRE

    Wittchen Hans-Ulrich; Knappe Susanne; Andersson Gerhard; Araya Ricardo; Banos Rivera Rosa M; Barkham Michael; Bech Per; Beckers Tom; Berger Thomas; Berking Matthias; Berrocal Carmen; Botella Christina; Carlbring Per; Chouinard Guy; Colom Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Psychology as a science offers an enormous diversity of theories principles and methodological approaches to understand mental health abnormal functions and behaviours and mental disorders. A selected overview of the scope current topics as well as strength and gaps in Psychological Science may help to depict the advances needed to inform future research agendas specifically on mental health and mental disorders. From an integrative psychological perspective most maladaptive health behaviours...

  12. Facilitators and Barriers to Health-Seeking Behaviours among Filipino Migrants: Inductive Analysis to Inform Health Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Maneze, D.; DiGiacomo, M.; Salamonson, Y.; Descallar, J.; Davidson, P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of migrants is necessary to intervene for behaviour change. This paper explores Filipino migrants’ perceptions of facilitators and barriers to maintaining health in Australia. Open-ended survey item responses reflecting factors that assisted and hindered health following migration to Australia were inductively analysed. Three hundred and thirty-seven of the 552 survey respondents (61%) provided open-ended responses. Responses were ...

  13. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  14. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagoe, Henry A; Dake, Fidelia Aa

    2011-04-07

    Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana) and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey) to arrive at the results. While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0%) exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0%) exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  15. Cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (7-16).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, H; Gardner, F E M; Montgomery, P

    2008-04-16

    Many studies document a robust and consistent relationship between gang membership and elevated delinquency, with gang members disproportionately involved in crime compared to non-gang peers. Research also indicates that both delinquent youth and youth who join gangs often show a wide range of deficient or distorted social-cognitive processes compared to non-delinquent peers. Cognitive-behavioural interventions are designed to address cognitive deficits in order to reduce maladaptive or dysfunctional behaviour, and studies have documented their positive impact on a number of behavioural and psychological disorders among children and youth. To determine the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural interventions for preventing youth gang involvement for children and young people (ages 7-16). Electronic searches of ASSIA, CINAHL, CJA, Cochrane Library, Dissertations Abstracts A, EMBASE, ERIC, IBSS, LILACs, LexisNexis Butterworths, MEDLINE, NCJR Service Abstracts Database, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts, to April 2007. Reviewers contacted relevant organisations, individuals, and list-servs and searched pertinent websites and reference lists. All randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions with a cognitive-behavioural intervention as the majority component, delivered to youth and children aged 7-16 not involved in a gang. Searching yielded 2,284 unduplicated citations, 2,271 of which were excluded as irrelevant based on title and abstract. One was excluded following personal communication with investigators. One citation, of a large randomised prevention trial, awaits assessment; personal communication with study authors yielded unpublished reports addressing gang outcomes, but insufficient detail precluded determining inclusion status. Seven remaining reports were excluded as irrelevant because they were narrative reviews or descriptions of programs without evaluations, did not address a gang prevention programme, or did not

  16. A survey of self-reported oral health practices, behaviour and oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To assess the self-reported oral health practices, behaviour and oral health status of pregnant women attending traditional birth attendant (TBA) clinics in a rural community. Methods: A cross sectional survey of the oral health practices and oral health status of sixty-two pregnant women attending traditional birth ...

  17. To prevent, react, and rebuild: health research and the prevention of genocide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Reva N; Smith, James; Fishman, Paul; Larson, Eric B

    2004-12-01

    To develop an approach to the primary prevention of genocide, based on established public health-based violence prevention methods derived from a variety of high-risk settings. (1) Peer-reviewed literature in the fields of public health, violence/injury prevention, medicine, economics, sociology, psychology, history, and genocide studies, (2) demographic and health data bases made available by governments and international organizations, (3) reports on recent episodes of genocide published by international and nongovernmental organizations, (4) newspaper and journalistic accounts of recent and past genocides, (5) archival testimonies of genocide victims and perpetrators, and (6) court transcripts of international genocide prosecutions. The research was conducted as a medical-historical policy analysis synthesizing data within the following framework: (1) Assessment of current violence and injury prevention models for suitability in the prevention of extreme, population-wide violence, (2) analysis of morbidity and mortality data to quantify the impact of genocide on the health of populations, (3) making an inventory of the known societal risk factors for genocidal violence, (4) identification of the theorized, modifiable attitudinal risk factors for genocidal behavior within a population health model, and (5) assessment of existing projects targeting primary violence and injury prevention in high risk jurisdictions, for future adaptation within a structured, public health approach. Mortality rates due to genocidal violence are far in excess of other public health emergencies including malaria and HIV/AIDS. The immediate and long-range health consequences of genocide include the sequelae of infectious diseases, organ system failure, and psychiatric disorders, conferring an increased burden of disease on affected populations for multiple subsequent generations. The impact of genocide on local health economies is catastrophic, and the opportunity costs of diverting

  18. Application of preventive medicine resources in the health insurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Karla Regina Dias de; Liberal, Márcia Mello Costa de; Zucchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    To identify the financial resources and investments provided for preventive medicine programs by health insurance companies of all kinds. Data were collected from 30 large health insurance companies, with over 100 thousand individuals recorded, and registered at the Agência Nacional de Saúde Suplementar. It was possible to identify the percentage of participants of the programs in relation to the total number of beneficiaries of the health insurance companies, the prevention and promotion actions held in preventive medicine programs, the inclusion criteria for the programs, as well as the evaluation of human resources and organizational structure of the preventive medicine programs. Most of the respondents (46.7%) invested more than US$ 50,000.00 in preventive medicine program, while 26.7% invested more than US$ 500,000.00. The remaining, about 20%, invested less than US$ 50,000.00, and 3.3% did not report the value applied.

  19. Pressure ulcer prevention: making a difference across a health authority?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Heidi; Downie, Fiona; McIntyre, Lyn; Peters, Jeremy

    Pressure ulcers (PUs), their cause and prevention have been discussed in the literature for many decades. Their prevention and management has been the core of a tissue viability nurse's daily clinical and strategic workload. The important point to acknowledge is that not all PUs can be prevented but it is believed most of them can and all preventative measures must be implemented and evaluated. Initial efforts focused on establishing a baseline of incidence and prevalence. More recently, the Department of Health has proposed that PUs could be eliminated in 95% of all NHS patients and incentivised the measurement of PUs and other harms by use of the NHS Safety Thermometer through the introduction of a new initiative. A research company was commissioned to explore which communications interventions would be effective in helping health professionals to prevent and treat PUs. A campaign was subsequently set in motion to educate and inform clinical staff on the cause and prevention of PUs.

  20. [Geriatric health promotion and prevention for independently living senior citizens: programmes and target groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapp, U; Anders, J; Meier-Baumgartner, H P; v Renteln-Kruse, W

    2007-08-01

    Nearly all diseases in old age that are epidemiologically important can be reduced or prevented successfully through consequent changes in individual lifestyle, a systematic provision of measures in primary prevention (i.e. vaccination programmes) and the creation of health promoting settings. However, at the moment the amount of potential for preventative interventions is neither systematically nor sufficiently utilised in Germany. Two different preventative approaches: a) multidimensional advice session in small groups through an interdisciplinary team at a geriatric centre (seniors come to seek advice offered at a centre) or b) multidimensional advice at the seniors home through one member of the interdisciplinary team from the geriatric centre (expert takes advice to seniors home) were tested simultaneously with a well-described study sample of 804 independent community-dwelling senior citizens aged 60 years or over, without need of care and cognitive impairments recruited from general practices. Information about target group specific approaches in health promotion and prevention for senior citizens were retrieved from analyses of sociodemographic, medical, psychological and spacial characteristics of this study sample. The majority of the study sample (580 out of 804 or 72.1%) decided to participate: a) 86.7% (503 out of 580) attended at the geriatric centre and sought advice in group sessions and b) 13.3% (77 out of 580) decided to receive advice in a preventive home visit. A total of 224 seniors (224 out of 804 or 27.9%) refused to participate at all. These three target groups were characterised on the basis of their age, gender, education, social background, health status, health behaviour, use of preventive care, self perceived health, functional disabilities, social net and social participation and distance or accessibility of preventative approaches. The 503 senior citizens who participated in small group sessions at the geriatric centre were

  1. Attitudes and behaviours of maternal health care providers in interactions with clients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannava, P; Durrant, K; Fisher, J; Chersich, M; Luchters, S

    2015-08-15

    High maternal mortality and morbidity persist, in large part due to inadequate access to timely and quality health care. Attitudes and behaviours of maternal health care providers (MHCPs) influence health care seeking and quality of care. Five electronic databases were searched for studies from January 1990 to December 2014. Included studies report on types or impacts of MHCP attitudes and behaviours towards their clients, or the factors influencing these attitudes and behaviours. Attitudes and behaviours mentioned in relation to HIV infection, and studies of health providers outside the formal health system, such as traditional birth attendants, were excluded. Of 967 titles and 412 abstracts screened, 125 full-text papers were reviewed and 81 included. Around two-thirds used qualitative methods and over half studied public-sector facilities. Most studies were in Africa (n = 55), followed by Asia and the Pacific (n = 17). Fifty-eight studies covered only negative attitudes or behaviours, with a minority describing positive provider behaviours, such as being caring, respectful, sympathetic and helpful. Negative attitudes and behaviours commonly entailed verbal abuse (n = 45), rudeness such as ignoring or ridiculing patients (n = 35), or neglect (n = 32). Studies also documented physical abuse towards women, absenteeism or unavailability of providers, corruption, lack of regard for privacy, poor communication, unwillingness to accommodate traditional practices, and authoritarian or frightening attitudes. These behaviours were influenced by provider workload, patients' attitudes and behaviours, provider beliefs and prejudices, and feelings of superiority among MHCPs. Overall, negative attitudes and behaviours undermined health care seeking and affected patient well-being. The review documented a broad range of negative MHCP attitudes and behaviours affecting patient well-being, satisfaction with care and care seeking. Reported negative patient

  2. Problematic gaming behaviour and health-related outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Männikkö, Niko; Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Miettunen, Jouko; Pontes, Halley M; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2017-11-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the interplay between problematic gaming behaviour and health-related outcomes at different developmental stages. A total of 50 empirical studies met the specified inclusion criteria, and a meta-analysis using correlation coefficients was used for the studies that reported adverse health implications regarding the impact of problematic gaming behaviour on depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder and somatisation. Overall, the results suggested that problematic gaming behaviour is significantly associated with a wide range of detrimental health-related outcomes. Finally, the limitations of this review alongside its implications were discussed and considered for future research.

  3. Prevalence and Determinants of Appropriate Health Seeking Behaviour among Known Diabetics: Results from a Community-Based Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheleaswani Inche Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Living with diabetes requires patients to have good self-monitoring of their disease and treatment. Appropriate health seeking behavior is important to minimize complications and improve quality of life. Methodology. A community-based, cross-sectional study of disease events and experiences from diagnosis to the time of study was conducted among 460 known diabetics in Tanjong Karang district. The aim of this study was to describe the current pattern of health seeking behavior and its determinants among rural communities. Appropriate diabetic health services utilization was defined as using modern treatment either through oral hypoglycemics or insulin injections, obtained from either a public or private health facility. Result. 85.9% of respondents reported having appropriate health seeking behaviour at the time of the house-to-house community survey. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that appropriate health seeking behaviour was significantly associated with age of respondent, presence of comorbidity, family history of diabetes, distance from health facilities, perceived family support, and history of early treatment seeking at diagnosis and duration of disease. Conclusion. The present population has better appropriate health seeking behavior and provision of knowledge with strong family support in diabetic care which are important in control and prevention of diabetic complication that need to be emphasized.

  4. Behaviour Change Techniques embedded in health and lifestyle apps: coding and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Antezana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background There is evidence showing that commercially available health and lifestyle apps can be used as co-adjuvants to clinical interventions and for the prevention of chronic and non-communicable diseases. This can be particularly significant to support and improve wellbeing of young people given their familiarity with these resources. However it is important to understand the content and consistency of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT’s embedded in the apps to maximise their potential benefits. Objectives This study explores the BCT content of a selected list of health and lifestyle tracking apps in three behavioural dimensions: physical activity, sleep and diet. We identified BCT commonalities within and between categories to detect the most frequently used and arguably more effective techniques in the context of wellbeing and promotion of health behaviours. Methods Apps were selected by using keywords and by reviewing the “health and fitness” category of GooglePlay (477 apps. The selection criteria included free apps (even if they also offered paid versions and being common to GooglePlay and AppStore. A background review of each app was also completed. Selected apps were classified according to user ratings in GooglePlay (apps with less that 4+ star ratings were disregarded. The top ten apps in each category were selected, making it a total of 30 for the analysis. Three coders used the apps for two months and were trained to use a comprehensive 93 items taxonomy (BCTv1 to complete the analysis. Results Strong BCT similarities were found across all three categories, suggesting a consistent basic content composition. Out of all 93 BCTS’s 8 were identified as being present in at least 50% of the apps. 6 of these BCT’s are concentrated in categories “1. Goals and Planning” and “2. Feedback and Monitoring”. BCT “Social support (unspecified” was coded for in 63% of the apps, as it was present through different features in

  5. The effectiveness of education using the health belief model in preventing osteoporosis among female students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaeinasab, H; Tavakoli, R; Karimizarchi, A; Amini, Z Haji; Farokhian, A; Najarkolaei, F Rahmati

    2014-01-09

    This study was conducted to determine the impact of education using the Health Belief Model on preventing osteoporosis among female students. This interventional study (quasi-experimental) was performed on 45 female students aged 15-16 years old who resided in a town near Tehran. The females participated in a threeweek educational programme based on the Health Belief Model. The data collection instrument was a validated and reliable questionnaire in five sections: demographics, knowledge, Health Belief Model constructs, physical activity and consumption of foods containing calcium. The mean scores of students' knowledge were significantly different before and after the educational intervention (P Health Belief Model structures changed significantly after the intervention (P health beliefs and may positively impact physical activity-related behaviour.

  6. Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    child transmission of HIV. This study assessed health workers' knowledge of the national guidelines on preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria Methodology: The study design was a descriptive ...

  7. O agir econômico como motor da política de saúde na Alemanha: consequências para a prevenção e promoção da saúde Economic behaviour as leitmotiv in health policy in Germany and its consequences for prevention and health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Stegmüller

    2009-06-01

    expenditure in health sector. The transformation process is marked by normative principle of taking stakeholders as economic subjects acting rationally. The article aims at evaluating the desired/undesired impacts of this paradigm shift, where solidarity is surpassed by competition, co-payment and privatisation. It shows where this paradigm change can be observed and which instruments have been used for its realisation. It is also given an analysis on the reaction of important stakeholders to this change. Finally, it is demonstrated ,by using examples of prevention and health promotion that the only focus on economic models doesn´t allow health policy to adequately meet the challenges set upon it.

  8. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Iva; Pérez-Gregorio, Rosa; Soares, Susana; Mateus, Nuno; de Freitas, Victor

    2017-02-14

    Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water) that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids bioavailability and their health

  9. Mothers' health-seeking behaviour in acute diarrhoea in Tlaxcala, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Cuevas, R; Guiscafré, H; Romero, G; Rodríguez, L; Gutiérrez, G

    1996-12-01

    This study, a cross-sectional survey, was conducted to assess how mothers take care of their children with diarrhoea and to develop a model of health-care seeking behaviour. Multistage sampling was used. Mothers whose children aged less than five years had suffered from diarrhoea in the last fortnight were included. Nurses interviewed the mothers to collect data. Variables included in the interview were: mothers' characteristics, children's characteristics, clinical data, treatment given by the mother, maternal health-seeking behaviour and mothers' information about diarrhoea and dehydration. Variables corresponding to the clinical data were grouped to identify dehydration signs and the need for medical care. Dehydration was defined as the presence of two or more of the following reported signs: thirst, sunken eyes, sunken fontanelle, or scanty urine. The need for medical care was defined as the presence of one or more of the following characteristics: illness lasting more than three days, vomiting, fever, bloody diarrhoea or dehydration. A sample of 747 mothers was obtained. Household treatments consisted of herbal teas to stop diarrhoea (52.3%), liquids to prevent dehydration (92.2%), symptomatic drugs (35.2%) and changes in feeding patterns (36.3%), which consisted in suppressing milk and dairy products and interrupting breast feeding (12.2%). Mothers sought medical assistance when they perceived a worsening of clinical conditions. Clinical signs statistically associated with their decision were: bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, illness longer than three days, weight loss, and fever. The signs of dehydration were not associated with health care-seeking because the mother did not recognise them. It is concluded that maternal educational programmes should emphasise, besides the proper use of oral rehydration therapy, teaching mothers to identify signs of dehydration as an indication to seek timely medical care.

  10. Using the Health Belief Model for Bulimia Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodner, Michele

    1991-01-01

    Discusses application of the Health Belief Model to the prevention of bulimia, describing each model component. The article considers the individual's beliefs about bulimia and bulimic-like behaviors as a means of predicting the likelihood of behavior change to prevent clinically diagnosable bulimia. (SM)

  11. tanzania danida dental health programme progress in prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The third sector we need to examine ~ garding progress in prevention is the activities of the dental profeSSionals themselves. As part of the continuing education programme, all dental assistants have attended a workshop' on epidemiology, health education and planning of preventive programmes. They accepted this new.

  12. Impact of health education on home treatment and prevention

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ameh

    Impact of health education on home treatment and prevention of malaria. Chirdan O. O. et al. Page | 115 taken at home and dangers of self treatment. Part 3: Treatment of uncomplicated malaria and prevention of malaria. Posters and chloroquine drug charts were used as teaching aids. Post intervention impact assessment.

  13. Influence of Health Education on Prevention of Drug Abuse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing scourge of drug abuse among adolescents is a major challenge facing mankind. As the importance of health education in disease prevention is enormous, drug misuse prevention programme requires introducing innovations, flexibility and reinforcement which will be effective in shortest possible time among ...

  14. Health-related knowledge of primary prevention of cancer in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rute; Silva, Susana; Moura-Ferreira, Pedro; Villaverde-Cabral, Manuel; Santos, Osvaldo; do Carmo, Isabel; Barros, Henrique; Lunet, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    The increasing number of new cases of cancer highlights the relevance of primary prevention for cancer control, which is influenced, among other factors, by the population's health-related knowledge. Therefore, we aimed to describe cancer-related knowledge in Portugal, including perception of risk, awareness of cancer causes and preventive behaviours. We evaluated 1624 Portuguese-speaking dwellers, aged between 16 and 79 years, through face-to-face interviews conducted using a structured questionnaire. We computed adjusted (sex, age, education) regression coefficients and prevalence ratios, using linear and Poisson regression, respectively, to quantify associations with cancer-specific knowledge. The proportions of nonresponse ranged from 13.4 to 63.5% for the most frequent cancer in Portugal and the leading cause of cancer, respectively. The mean of the estimated lifetime risk of cancer in the Portuguese population was 37.0%. A total of 47.5% of the respondents identified breast cancer as the most frequent in Portugal, 72.0% named lifestyles as the leading cause of cancer and 40.2% selected not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. Lower levels of education were associated with higher proportions of nonresponse, but not consistently with inaccurate knowledge. Men provided lower estimates of the lifetime risk of cancer, indicated breast cancer less frequently and more often lung cancer as the most frequent, and were more likely to select not smoking as the most important preventive behaviour. The present study provides relevant data on knowledge of cancer prevention, which may be used for the planning and evaluation of awareness-raising and primary prevention interventions in Portugal.

  15. Health seeking behaviour and health awareness among rural and urban adolescents in Dehradun District, Uttarakhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Tuhin; Pal, Piyalee; Kaur, Prabhdeep

    2017-04-01

    Adolescents constituted 19% population of India in 2011. Adolescents have health seeking behaviour different from that of adults. We estimated the utilisation of available health care services by adolescents and awareness regarding various health issues in the urban and rural Dehradun District, Uttarakhand, India. We also described knowledge and practices of public sector health care providers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among adolescents 10-19 years in the urban Dehradun and rural Chakrata block of the Dehradun District. We used cluster sampling with sample size 680 each in urban and rural areas. We collected data from adolescents using semi structured questionnaire on health awareness and utilisation of health care services. Public sector health care providers were surveyed about their knowledge and practices regarding adolescents health. We surveyed 1463 adolescents. The overall mean age was 14.4 (2.6) years, about half being females. Half of the adolescents who had any illness used the public sector. Awareness about anaemia was 48% in urban and 12% in rural areas. A higher proportion of females (Rural: 89%, Urban: 76%) were aware of condoms as contraceptives than males (Rural: 68%, Urban: 12%). Only 62% of doctors and 49% of paramedical staff had knowledge regarding services under Adolescents Reproductive and Sexual Health (ARSH). Awareness regarding various health issues was low among males as compared to females, especially in rural areas. School based health promotion programs should be carried out to increase awareness among adolescents. Health facilities should be strengthened to provide adolescent friendly health services to enhance utilisation.

  16. Health beliefs affect the correct replacement of daily disposable contact lenses: Predicting compliance with the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Planned Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livi, Stefano; Zeri, Fabrizio; Baroni, Rossella

    2017-02-01

    To assess the compliance of Daily Disposable Contact Lenses (DDCLs) wearers with replacing lenses at a manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency. To evaluate the ability of two different Health Behavioural Theories (HBT), The Health Belief Model (HBM) and The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), in predicting compliance. A multi-centre survey was conducted using a questionnaire completed anonymously by contact lens wearers during the purchase of DDCLs. Three hundred and fifty-four questionnaires were returned. The survey comprised 58.5% females and 41.5% males (mean age 34±12years). Twenty-three percent of respondents were non-compliant with manufacturer-recommended replacement frequency (re-using DDCLs at least once). The main reason for re-using DDCLs was "to save money" (35%). Predictions of compliance behaviour (past behaviour or future intentions) on the basis of the two HBT was investigated through logistic regression analysis: both TPB factors (subjective norms and perceived behavioural control) were significant (preplacement is widespread, affecting 1 out of 4 Italian wearers. Results from the TPB model show that the involvement of persons socially close to the wearers (subjective norms) and the improvement of the procedure of behavioural control of daily replacement (behavioural control) are of paramount importance in improving compliance. With reference to the HBM, it is important to warn DDCLs wearers of the severity of a contact-lens-related eye infection, and to underline the possibility of its prevention. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clustering and Correlates of Multiple Health Behaviours in 9-10 Year Old Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Atkin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency

  18. The vocational education setting for health promotion: a survey of students' health risk behaviours and preferences for help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, Billie; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Paul, Christine; Walsh, Raoul

    2013-12-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood is a time of risky health behaviour initiation and experimentation. Smoking, risky drinking, poor nutrition and physical activity, and a lack of sun protection behaviour, often become established in early adulthood. Levels of health risk behaviours occurring amongst tertiary education and training students and their preferences for types of on-campus health promotion programs were examined. A cross-sectional pen-and-paper classroom survey was conducted at one Sydney-based TAFE New South Wales Institute campus in May 2010. The survey assessed demographics, smoking, alcohol use, sun protection, nutrition, physical activity and health promotion program preferences. Two hundred and twenty-four students participated (97% consent); the majority were aged 16-24 years (59%) and female (51%). Current smoking (35%), risky drinking (49%) and inadequate physical activity (88%) rates were high. Adequate vegetable intake (3.6%) and sun protection behaviours (5.4%) were low and 33% of students were overweight or obese. Popular health promotion programs included food and activity subsidies, practical skills classes and social outings. Participation in health risk behaviours among this sample was high. The setting of tertiary education and workplace training represents an opportunity for early intervention into risky health behaviours among young people. SO WHAT?: This study is the first to provide information on the prevalence of health risk behaviours and preferences for types of health promoting programs among students of an Australian community college. The results show that young adults regularly participate in multiple health risk behaviours, such as smoking, drinking, poor nutrition, physical activity and lack of sun protection.

  19. Clustering and correlates of multiple health behaviours in 9-10 year old children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie K Elsenburg

    Full Text Available Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency questionnaires for the assessment of diet.To assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours and examine the socio-demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines.Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY study. Participants (n = 1472, 42.9% male were dichotomized based on whether or not they met public health guidelines for accelerometer-assessed physical activity, diet-diary assessed fruit/vegetable intake and fat/non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES intake, and self-reported screen time and sleep duration. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E. Socio-demographic characteristics of participants that failed to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Data were analysed in 2013.83.3% of children failed to meet guidelines for two or more health behaviours. The O/E ratio for two behavioural combinations significantly exceeded 1, both of which featured high screen time, insufficient fruit/vegetable consumption and excessive fat/NMES intake. Children who were older (Proportional odds ratio (95% confidence interval: 1.69 (1.21,2.37 and those that attended a school with a physical activity or diet-related policy (1.28 (1.01,1.62 were more likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Girls (0.80 (0.64,0.99, participants with siblings (0.76 (0.61,0.94 and those with more highly educated parents (0.73 (0.56,0.94 were less likely to have a poor health behaviour profile.A substantial proportion of children failed to meet guidelines for multiple health behaviours

  20. Clustering and Correlates of Multiple Health Behaviours in 9–10 Year Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Atkin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency questionnaires for the assessment of diet. Purpose To assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours and examine the socio-demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines. Methods Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study. Participants (n = 1472, 42.9% male) were dichotomized based on whether or not they met public health guidelines for accelerometer-assessed physical activity, diet-diary assessed fruit/vegetable intake and fat/non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES) intake, and self-reported screen time and sleep duration. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E). Socio-demographic characteristics of participants that failed to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Data were analysed in 2013. Results 83.3% of children failed to meet guidelines for two or more health behaviours. The O/E ratio for two behavioural combinations significantly exceeded 1, both of which featured high screen time, insufficient fruit/vegetable consumption and excessive fat/NMES intake. Children who were older (Proportional odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.69 (1.21,2.37)) and those that attended a school with a physical activity or diet-related policy (1.28 (1.01,1.62)) were more likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Girls (0.80 (0.64,0.99)), participants with siblings (0.76 (0.61,0.94)) and those with more highly educated parents (0.73 (0.56,0.94)) were less likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Conclusions A substantial proportion of children failed to

  1. Clustering and correlates of multiple health behaviours in 9-10 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenburg, Leonie K; Corpeleijn, Eva; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Atkin, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Sleep, physical activity, screen time and dietary behaviours influence health during childhood, but few studies have looked at all of these behaviours simultaneously and previous research has relied predominantly on self- or proxy-reports of physical activity and food frequency questionnaires for the assessment of diet. To assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours and examine the socio-demographic characteristics of children that fail to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines. Data are from the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behaviour: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) study. Participants (n = 1472, 42.9% male) were dichotomized based on whether or not they met public health guidelines for accelerometer-assessed physical activity, diet-diary assessed fruit/vegetable intake and fat/non-milk extrinsic sugar (NMES) intake, and self-reported screen time and sleep duration. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E). Socio-demographic characteristics of participants that failed to meet multiple health behaviour guidelines were examined using ordinal logistic regression. Data were analysed in 2013. 83.3% of children failed to meet guidelines for two or more health behaviours. The O/E ratio for two behavioural combinations significantly exceeded 1, both of which featured high screen time, insufficient fruit/vegetable consumption and excessive fat/NMES intake. Children who were older (Proportional odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.69 (1.21,2.37)) and those that attended a school with a physical activity or diet-related policy (1.28 (1.01,1.62)) were more likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. Girls (0.80 (0.64,0.99)), participants with siblings (0.76 (0.61,0.94)) and those with more highly educated parents (0.73 (0.56,0.94)) were less likely to have a poor health behaviour profile. A substantial proportion of children failed to meet guidelines for multiple health behaviours

  2. Stressors and resources mediate the association of socioeconomic position with health behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ameijden Erik JC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variability in health behaviours is an important cause of socioeconomic health disparities. Socioeconomic differences in health behaviours are poorly understood. Previous studies have examined whether (single stressors or psychosocial resources mediate the relationship between socioeconomic position and health or mortality. This study examined: 1 whether the presence of stressors and the absence of resources can be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occur among those with lower education, 2 whether stressors and resources mediated the relation between education and health behaviours, and 3 addressed the question whether an aggregate measure of stressors and resources has an added effect over the use of individual measures. Methods Questionnaire data on sociodemographic variables, stressors, resources, and health behaviours were collected cross-sectionally among inhabitants (n = 3050 of a medium-sized Dutch city (Utrecht. Descriptive statistics and bootstrap analyses for multiple-mediator effects were used to examine the role of stressors and resources in mediating educational associations with health behaviours. Results Higher levels of stressors and lower levels of resources could be represented by a single underlying factor, and co-occurred among those with lower educational levels. Stressors and resources partially mediated the relationship between education and four health- behaviours (exercise, breakfast frequency, vegetable consumption and smoking. Financial stress and poor perceived health status were mediating stressors, and social support a strong mediating resource. An aggregate measure of the stressors and resources showed similar associations with health behaviours compared to the summed individual measures. Conclusions Lower educated groups are simultaneously affected by the presence of various stressors and absence of multiple resources, which partially explain socioeconomic differences in health

  3. Contributions of Physical Therapists to Primary Preventive Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    The limitations of what physical therapists can differ from country to country. In Japan, physical therapists are national licensed health care professionals who can help patients improve or restore their mobility. Most Japanese physical therapists provide care for people in health care facilities, medical-welfare transitional facilities, and welfare facilities for the elderly. Currently, physical therapists are unable to sufficiently contribute to primary preventive health care in Japan. However, there are many health problems that physical therapists could help alleviate. For example, low back pain (LBP) more likely than any other condition prevents people from working; thus, making the establishment of effective measures to prevent and reduce LBP vital. An estimated 20,500,000 Japanese individuals have diabetes mellitus (DM) or are at a high risk of developing the disease. DM commonly accompanies stroke and/or heart disease, and is characterized by complications that result from chronic hyperglycemia. Evidence-based physical therapy is effective for the prevention and treatment of LBP and DM. The Japanese Physical Therapy Association established the Japanese Society of Physical Therapy (JSPT) in June 2013. The JSPT has 12 departmental societies and 10 sections. We believe that the JSPT will advance the study of the potential role of physical therapists in primary preventive health care. In the future, it is expected that Japanese physical therapists will contribute to primary preventive health care.

  4. The economic effect of Planet Health on preventing bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li Yan; Nichols, Lauren P; Austin, S Bryn

    2011-08-01

    To assess the economic effect of the school-based obesity prevention program Planet Health on preventing disordered weight control behaviors and to determine the cost-effectiveness of the intervention in terms of its combined effect on prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors. On the basis of the intervention's short-term effect on disordered weight control behaviors prevention, we projected the number of girls who were prevented from developing bulimia nervosa by age 17 years. We further estimated medical costs saved and quality-adjusted life years gained by the intervention over 10 years. As a final step, we compared the intervention costs with the combined intervention benefits from both obesity prevention (reported previously) and prevention of disordered weight control behaviors to determine the overall cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Middle schools. A sample of 254 intervention girls aged 10 to 14 years. The Planet Health program was implemented during the school years from 1995 to 1997 and was designed to promote healthful nutrition and physical activity among youth. Intervention costs, medical costs saved, quality-adjusted life years gained, and cost-effectiveness ratio. An estimated 1 case of bulimia nervosa would have been prevented. As a result, an estimated $33 999 in medical costs and 0.7 quality-adjusted life years would be saved. At an intervention cost of $46 803, the combined prevention of obesity and disordered weight control behaviors would yield a net savings of $14 238 and a gain of 4.8 quality-adjusted life years. Primary prevention programs, such as Planet Health, warrant careful consideration by policy makers and program planners. The findings of this study provide additional argument for integrated prevention of obesity and eating disorders.

  5. Long term effects of preventive activities of youth health care in The Netherlands: results of a four-part study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter A. Wiegersma

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background. In this article the results are presented of a four part study on the effect of screening for scoliosis and (repeated well-care visits and freely accessible consultation hours at secondary schools, on the incidence and prevalence of (parasuicide, mental health, adolescent health compromising behaviour and lastly obesity.

    Methods. An ecologic case-referent study design was used with data from the Netherlands Bureau of Statistics, the Ministry of Defence, the 1992 High-School Student Study, all of the youth health care departments in The Netherlands and relevant censuses.

    Results. Attention to mental and physical health and health compromising behaviour, either during screening, open consultation hours or during well-care visits seems to be ineffective and in some instances even detrimental to youth health.

    Of the 18 different outcome measurements, 5 were significantly negative and none were significantly positive.

    Conclusions. This four part study does not support the hypothesis that on a population level, the preventive activities of youth health care departments such as screening for scoliosis, (more frequent well-care visits or offering open consultation hours at secondary schools, have a beneficial effect on prevention of (parasuicide, poor mental health, health compromising behaviour or obesity.

  6. Wine Flavonoids in Health and Disease Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Fernandes

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wine, and particularly red wine, is a beverage with a great chemical complexity that is in continuous evolution. Chemically, wine is a hydroalcoholic solution (~78% water that comprises a wide variety of chemical components, including aldehydes, esters, ketones, lipids, minerals, organic acids, phenolics, soluble proteins, sugars and vitamins. Flavonoids constitute a major group of polyphenolic compounds which are directly associated with the organoleptic and health-promoting properties of red wine. However, due to the insufficient epidemiological and in vivo evidences on this subject, the presence of a high number of variables such as human age, metabolism, the presence of alcohol, the complex wine chemistry, and the wide array of in vivo biological effects of these compounds suggest that only cautious conclusions may be drawn from studies focusing on the direct effect of wine and any specific health issue. Nevertheless, there are several reports on the health protective properties of wine phenolics for several diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, obesity, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, allergies and osteoporosis. The different interactions that wine flavonoids may have with key biological targets are crucial for some of these health-promoting effects. The interaction between some wine flavonoids and some specific enzymes are one example. The way wine flavonoids may be absorbed and metabolized could interfere with their bioavailability and therefore in their health-promoting effect. Hence, some reports have focused on flavonoids absorption, metabolism, microbiota effect and overall on flavonoids bioavailability. This review summarizes some of these major issues which are directly related to the potential health-promoting effects of wine flavonoids. Reports related to flavonoids and health highlight some relevant scientific information. However, there is still a gap between the knowledge of wine flavonoids

  7. Suicide Prevention: An Emerging Priority For Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Michael F; Grumet, Julie Goldstein

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is a significant public health problem. It is the tenth leading cause of death in the United States, and the rate has risen in recent years. Many suicide deaths are among people recently seen or currently under care in clinical settings, but suicide prevention has not been a core priority in health care. In recent years, new treatment and management strategies have been developed, tested, and implemented in some organizations, but they are not yet widely used. This article examines the feasibility of improving suicide prevention in health care settings. In particular, we consider Zero Suicide, a model for better identification and treatment of patients at risk for suicide. The approach incorporates new tools for screening, treatment, and support; it has been deployed with promising results in behavioral health programs and primary care settings. Broader adoption of improved suicide prevention care may be an effective strategy for reducing deaths by suicide. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Peer acceptance and the development of emotional and behavioural problems: Results from a preventive intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, B.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Koot, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Difficulties in peer acceptance during elementary school have been associated with emotional and behavioural problems. This study used a randomized controlled intervention design to test whether improvements in peer acceptance mediated reduced rates of emotional and behavioural problems in

  9. Facilitators and Barriers to Health-Seeking Behaviours among Filipino Migrants: Inductive Analysis to Inform Health Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maneze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of migrants is necessary to intervene for behaviour change. This paper explores Filipino migrants’ perceptions of facilitators and barriers to maintaining health in Australia. Open-ended survey item responses reflecting factors that assisted and hindered health following migration to Australia were inductively analysed. Three hundred and thirty-seven of the 552 survey respondents (61% provided open-ended responses. Responses were grouped into two major categories: individual factors, including personal resources and cultural influences, and environmental factors encompassing both the physical conditions in the host country and health service access. Awareness of practices that enhance health was a major personal facilitator of health-seeking behaviour; however, competing priorities of daily living were perceived as barriers. Cultural beliefs and practices influenced health-seeking behaviour. Despite high self-rated English language skills in this population, new migrants and the elderly cited communication difficulties as barriers to accessing health services. Insight into facilitators and barriers to health-seeking behaviour in this less researched migrant population revealed tools for enhancing engagement in health promotion programs addressing healthy lifestyle.

  10. Facilitators and Barriers to Health-Seeking Behaviours among Filipino Migrants: Inductive Analysis to Inform Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneze, D; DiGiacomo, M; Salamonson, Y; Descallar, J; Davidson, P M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding factors that influence health-seeking behaviour of migrants is necessary to intervene for behaviour change. This paper explores Filipino migrants' perceptions of facilitators and barriers to maintaining health in Australia. Open-ended survey item responses reflecting factors that assisted and hindered health following migration to Australia were inductively analysed. Three hundred and thirty-seven of the 552 survey respondents (61%) provided open-ended responses. Responses were grouped into two major categories: individual factors, including personal resources and cultural influences, and environmental factors encompassing both the physical conditions in the host country and health service access. Awareness of practices that enhance health was a major personal facilitator of health-seeking behaviour; however, competing priorities of daily living were perceived as barriers. Cultural beliefs and practices influenced health-seeking behaviour. Despite high self-rated English language skills in this population, new migrants and the elderly cited communication difficulties as barriers to accessing health services. Insight into facilitators and barriers to health-seeking behaviour in this less researched migrant population revealed tools for enhancing engagement in health promotion programs addressing healthy lifestyle.

  11. World Health Organization approaches for surveys of health behaviour among schoolchildren and for health-promoting schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sisko

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents make up about one-sixth of the world's population. Most of the healthy and detrimental habits are adopted during childhood and adolescence. In the mid 1980s, a cross-national Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey was created to increase information about the well-being, health behaviours and social context of young people by using standard school-based questionnaires adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) European office. The European Network of Health-Promoting Schools (HPS) was commenced in 1992, followed by the establishment of the WHO Global School Health Initiative in 1995. The initiative aims to improve the health of students, school personnel, families and other members of the community through schools by mobilizing and strengthening health promotion and educational activities at local, national, regional and global levels. The HBSC and HPS programmes have been accepted as activity areas for the WHO Collaborating Centre for Primary Oral Health Care in Kuwait. This article describes the HBSC and the HPS programmes and discusses the importance of establishing these programmes in Kuwait. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Fate and the clinic: a multidisciplinary consideration of fatalism in health behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Angela Ross

    2018-03-01

    The role of fatalism in health behaviour has stirred significant controversy in literature across several disciplines. Some researchers have demonstrated a negative correlation between fatalistic beliefs and healthy behaviours such as cancer screening, arguing that fatalism is a barrier to health-seeking behaviours. Other studies have painted a more complicated picture of fatalistic beliefs and health behaviours that ultimately questions fatalism's causality as a distinct factor. Unpacking this debate raises thought-provoking questions about how epistemological and methodological frameworks present particular pictures about the connections between belief, race, class and behaviour. The discussion surrounding fatalism illuminates larger tensions between structural and cultural determinants of health behaviour. This article argues for a more rigorous delineation of culture and structure and suggests that future theory-informed and ethnographic research may more precisely parse the role of fatalism in health attitudes, beliefs and behaviours. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Health professional perspectives on lifestyle behaviour change in the paediatric hospital setting: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwell, Laura; Powell, Jane; Wordsworth, Sharon; Cummins, Carole

    2014-03-13

    Research exists examining the challenges of delivering lifestyle behaviour change initiatives in practice. However, at present much of this research has been conducted with primary care health professionals, or in acute adult hospital settings. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators associated with implementing routine lifestyle behaviour change brief advice into practice in an acute children's hospital. Thirty-three health professionals (nurses, junior doctors, allied health professionals and clinical support staff) from inpatient and outpatient departments at a UK children's hospital were interviewed about their attitudes and beliefs towards supporting lifestyle behaviour change in hospital patients and their families. Responses were analysed using thematic framework analysis. Health professionals identified a range of barriers and facilitators to supporting lifestyle behaviour change in a children's hospital. These included (1) personal experience of effectiveness, (2) constraints associated with the hospital environment, (3) appropriateness of advice delivery given the patient's condition and care pathway and (4) job role priorities, and (5) perceived benefits of the advice given. Delivery of lifestyle behaviour change advice was often seen as an educational activity, rather than a behaviour change activity. Factors underpinning the successful delivery of routine lifestyle behaviour change support must be understood if this is to be implemented effectively in paediatric acute settings. This study reveals key areas where paediatric health professionals may need further support and training to achieve successful implementation.

  14. Health Issues for Gay Men: Prevention First

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as condom use every time you have sex. Gay men and men who have sex with men might be at higher risk of ... long-term health. Makadon HJ. Primary care of gay men and men who have sex with men. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. ...

  15. Preventing and Treating Child Mental Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Children's mental health covers a wide range of disorders. Some, such as ADHD and autism, tend to manifest themselves when children are young, while others, such as depression and addiction, are more likely to appear during the teenage years. Some respond readily to treatment or tend to improve as children grow older, while others, such as autism,…

  16. Oral health status and behaviour in Jordanian adolescents aged 12–18 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Smadi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background This survey was conducted to promote health issues and provide health care for the neediest communities throughout Jordan. It also provides reliable information for researchers and policy makers by collecting and interpreting the dental health status as an important indicator for general health. Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the oral health status and oral health behaviours of adolescents in the Tafelah governorate in south Jordan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 1194 public school children ages 12–18. All students were examined using a mirror and probe with a dental unit for decaymissing–fillings (DMFT of permanent teeth, gingival index (GI and plaque index (PI. Information about oral hygiene habits was also recorded. Results The prevalence of caries was 71.4 per cent for permanent teeth, with a significant caries index SCI 5.7 and a mean DMFT 2.6. A total of 41.7 per cent had healthy gingiva, 33.3 per cent had mild gingivitis, 24.1 per cent had moderate gingivitis, and 0.8 per cent had severe gingivitis. The average gingival index (GI and average plaque index (PI were 0.7 and 0.5, respectively. Some (44.6 per cent of the examined students never brushed their teeth, and 84 per cent had never received any previous dental treatment. Conclusion The results indicated that greater than 50 per cent of the examined students in this age group have caries in their teeth and gingivitis of mild to moderate severity. The oral hygiene measures were poor. It is important to enhance dental awareness and allow different preventive measures to be implemented. Furthermore, dental care should be more accessible for underprivileged school students.

  17. Health seeking behaviour among suspected cases of cholera in Cameroonian health districts in Lake Chad basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakum, Martin Ndinakie; Ateudjieu, Jerome; Guenou, Etienne; Walter, Ebile Akoh; Ram, Malathi; Debes, Amanda K; Njimbia, Anthony Chebe; Nafack, Sonia Sonkeng; Sack, David A

    2017-08-30

    Cholera outbreaks are recurrent in Cameroon and despite the efforts put together during epidemics, they are always associated with a high case fatality. Inadequate demand for health care is one of the major factors that might be responsible for the high case fatality. This study was conducted to describe the health seeking behaviour of suspected cases of cholera in four health districts of the Far North Cameroon. We conducted a health facility based descriptive study involving suspected cases of cholera received in health facilities. Data was collected from August 2013 to October 2015 with the help of a questionnaire and analysis done by running frequency and calculating confidence interval at 95% with Epi Info version 3.5.4. A total of 1849 cases were enrolled, with 997 (53.9%) being males. 534 (28.9%) were children under the age of 5 and 942 (50.9%) were above the age of 14. About 373 (20%) of diarrhoeal patients arrived in the health facility more than 2 days following the onset of diarrhoea, with 916 (50%) of them being seriously dehydrated. Also, about 624 (34%) of these patients had sought treatment elsewhere before coming to the health facility where they were enrolled, and about 86% of them did not received ORS. Taking 2 or more days after diarrhoea onset or taking more than 1 h to travel from home to health facility was associated with severe dehydration in patients. The delay between the onset of diarrhoea and seeking treatment from a health provider determines the seriousness of suspected cases of cholera in the Far North Cameroon. While conducting an anthropological study to understand reasons why a health provider is not the first option during diarrhoeal episodes, we recommend that a system of community case detection and reference to health facilities should be put in place during cholera outbreaks to minimize its case fatality rate.

  18. Costs of heart disease and risk behaviour: implications for expenditure on prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Davidsen, Michael; Madsen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    among individuals at risk of heart disease was about 11%-16% of the attributable cost of heart disease. CONCLUSIONS: Heart disease incurs significant additional costs to the healthcare sector, and more so if heart patients have a history of leading an unhealthy life. Consequently, strategies to prevent......AIMS: The objective of this paper is firstly to estimate the healthcare costs attributable to heart disease in Denmark using recently available data for 2002-05. Secondly, to estimate the attributable healthcare costs of lifestyle risk factors among heart patients, in order to inform decision...... making about prevention programmes specifically targeting patients with heart disease. METHODS: For a cohort consisting of participants in a national representative health interview survey, register-based information about hospital diagnosis was used to identify patients with heart disease. Healthcare...

  19. Health behaviour among adolescents in Denmark: influence of school class and individual risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anette; Rasmussen, Søren; Madsen, Mette

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the relative influence of school class on health behaviour among adolescents versus that of the family's socioeconomic status and individual factors among adolescents. METHODS: The material comprised 3,458 students in grades 8 and 9 in 244 school classes...... the mother's socioeconomic status and the included health behaviour measurements; however, adolescents from the lower socioeconomic groups had a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits and adolescents whose mothers were unemployed had a significantly lower risk of drinking alcohol weekly versus all other...... adolescents. Not living with both biological parents, focusing on friends, and not being very academically proficient were associated with an increased risk of harmful health behaviour. Health behaviour varied substantially between school classes, especially for daily smoking, weekly alcohol consumption...

  20. The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Behaviour in People with Diabetes: A Danish Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Karina; Vind, Benedicte Donslund; Simmons, Rebecca K; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2016-01-01

    Background . People with diabetes who have poor health behaviours are at greater risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and health behaviour (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet) in people with diabetes. Methods . The study was based on respondents aged 25 years or older from a population-based survey in 2013 who reported having diabetes ( n = 1685). Two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: "understand health information" and "actively engage with healthcare providers." We used logistic regression to examine the association between health literacy and health behaviour. Results . After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, individuals with diabetes who found it difficult to understand information about health had higher odds of being physically inactive (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 2.14-5.51) and having unhealthy dietary habits (OR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.63-5.58). Similar results were observed for individuals who found it difficult to actively engage with healthcare providers. No associations were found between the two dimensions of health literacy and smoking and alcohol consumption. Conclusion . When developing health services and interventions to improve health behaviour among people with diabetes, our results suggest that they may benefit by including focus on health literacy.

  1. The Relationship between Health Literacy and Health Behaviour in People with Diabetes: A Danish Population-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Friis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. People with diabetes who have poor health behaviours are at greater risk for a range of adverse health outcomes. We aimed to investigate the relationship between health literacy and health behaviour (smoking, alcohol, physical activity, and diet in people with diabetes. Methods. The study was based on respondents aged 25 years or older from a population-based survey in 2013 who reported having diabetes (n=1685. Two dimensions from the Health Literacy Questionnaire were used: “understand health information” and “actively engage with healthcare providers.” We used logistic regression to examine the association between health literacy and health behaviour. Results. After adjustment for sociodemographic factors, individuals with diabetes who found it difficult to understand information about health had higher odds of being physically inactive (OR: 3.43, 95% CI: 2.14–5.51 and having unhealthy dietary habits (OR: 3.01, 95% CI: 1.63–5.58. Similar results were observed for individuals who found it difficult to actively engage with healthcare providers. No associations were found between the two dimensions of health literacy and smoking and alcohol consumption. Conclusion. When developing health services and interventions to improve health behaviour among people with diabetes, our results suggest that they may benefit by including focus on health literacy.

  2. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Healthy Tweets: Use and Importance of Twitter for Health Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina M. Gomez Vasquez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media platforms have changed the way people stayinformed, communicate with others, and share ideas. These interactive social platforms are used for many purposes from being in contact with family and friends to promote products and services. However, little is known about the use and importance of social media for health prevention, especially for communication among Hispanic communities.The purpose of this paper is to analyze how social media platforms, especially Twitter, are used for health prevention and communication in Hispanic communities. In doing so, a quantitative content analysis was performed on 3000 tweets with the hashtag #prevención (prevention. Results indicate that most of the prevention messages shared among organizations and users on Twitter were informational messages and very few users promoted interactive communication and mobilization. Mass media and governmental institutions posted more messages to encourage health prevention, especially about publichealth and healthy cities. This study stresses the many social media platforms’ potentialities and functionalities, especially Twitter, that contribute to health prevention and communication. Findings are useful for organizations and users when planning prevention content or campaigns through these platforms.

  4. The transtheoretical model and strategies of European fitness professionals to support clients in changing health-related behaviour: A survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The transtheoretical model of behaviour change (TTM) is often used to understand and predict changes in health related behaviour, for example exercise behaviour and eating behaviour. Fitness professionals like personal trainers typically service and support clients in improving

  5. Health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas; Sheppard, James; de Wildt, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating parasitic disease acquired through contact with infested freshwater. An essential component of its control is passive case finding, which, in order to be effective, requires a detailed understanding of health-seeking behaviour. This study aimed to systematically review evidence on health-seeking behaviour for schistosomiasis, in order to determine factors influencing use or non-use of modern health services for the infection. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed method studies reporting on factors related to seeking treatment from modern health services for schistosomiasis were obtained, combining electronic and hand searching. Data extraction and quality assessment of the included articles were performed, with all studies qualitatively analysed using thematic synthesis. A total of 19 studies were included in the review. Six themes were identified from the analysis: biomedical knowledge on schistosomiasis, perceptions of modern treatment and health services, financial considerations of treatment, perceptions on the symptoms, stigma of the infection, and physical location and community. These findings were consistent across studies of different design, setting and quality. Many of the themes identified echo existing literature on health-seeking behaviour. The synthesis also highlighted the role of stigma, and aspects of the physical location and community that may affect treatment-seeking for schistosomiasis. Health education programmes that intend to improve the utilisation of modern health services for the infection need to acknowledge the multiple determinants influencing their use. Future research should move beyond describing health-seeking behaviour to identifying the factors that underlay such behaviour.

  6. Disposal of household pharmaceuticals in insular communities: social attitude, behaviour evaluation and prevention activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Dimitriou, Maria; Voukkali, Irene

    2017-06-25

    The increase in medicine and drug consumption have resulted in identifying these emerging pollutants in all aquatic compartments, ranging from surface water and groundwater resources to the marine environment. Pharmaceuticals are an indispensable part of life today. A large number of pharmaceuticals are used in a daily basis in the treatment, prevention, cure or diagnosis of diseases or to otherwise enhance people's physical or mental well-being. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the attitude of citizens in Cyprus regarding the disposal of pharmaceuticals as well as to identify the main reasons why pharmaceutical wastes are produced. The result indicted that in Cyprus, there is lack of data regarding the amount of pharmaceutical wastes that are discarded into household waste and sinks. The survey audit showed that 86.6% of men's and 83.3% of women's used pharmacy with or without doctor's recipe. Social behaviour is considered to be the most significant reason that pharmaceutical are produced. The results indicated that, citizens mainly keep unused medicines and drugs at home in case they are needed again as well as patients use to cut-off or to reduce their treatment in case that on the first 3-6 days they feel better. The survey indicated that the main disposal method of unused or expired medicines and drugs is in household waste followed from the sink and the toilet. Furthermore, the main disposal solution of unused or expired medicines and drugs remain the household bin as well as the sewage system (sink or toilet), while a percentage more than 55% of the participants indicated that they will follow a specific waste management program if existing in place. Moreover, in order to reduce the production of pharmaceutical wastes, specific prevention activities must be considered.

  7. E-health interventions for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Helen; Batterham, Philip J; O'Dea, Bridianne

    2014-08-12

    Many people at risk of suicide do not seek help before an attempt, and do not remain connected to health services following an attempt. E-health interventions are now being considered as a means to identify at-risk individuals, offer self-help through web interventions or to deliver proactive interventions in response to individuals' posts on social media. In this article, we examine research studies which focus on these three aspects of suicide and the internet: the use of online screening for suicide, the effectiveness of e-health interventions aimed to manage suicidal thoughts, and newer studies which aim to proactively intervene when individuals at risk of suicide are identified by their social media postings. We conclude that online screening may have a role, although there is a need for additional robust controlled research to establish whether suicide screening can effectively reduce suicide-related outcomes, and in what settings online screening might be most effective. The effectiveness of Internet interventions may be increased if these interventions are designed to specifically target suicidal thoughts, rather than associated conditions such as depression. The evidence for the use of intervention practices using social media is possible, although validity, feasibility and implementation remains highly uncertain.

  8. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-05-01

    The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.

  9. Health Workers' Knowledge of Preventing Mother-To-Child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the monk

    received training on the national guidelines on preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The proportion of health workers with poor, fair, .... collection techniques. The purpose of the training was to ensure uniformity in techniques of data ..... HIV/AIDS Division- Federal. Ministry of Health, 2011:1-3. Available. a t : h t t p ...

  10. Oral Health Status and Behaviour of Mauritians Visiting Private Dental Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsam, P. Pugo; Banka, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to assess the oral health status and behaviour of a sample of the Mauritian population visiting private dental clinics. Design/methodology/approach: Oral health status was determined using the World Health Organization (Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index indicating the prevalence of caries, and factors associated…

  11. Parental Characteristics Have a Larger Effect on Children's Health Behaviour than Their Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Drenowatz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Parents take an important role in a child's development, but there is currently limited information on parental correlates with children's health behaviour. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to examine whether parental characteristics, such as body weight, TV consumption and sport participation, affect children's body weight and health behaviour. Methods: To examine the effects of parental characteristics on children's body weight and health behaviour, baseline data of 1,118 elementary school children (7.6 ± 0.4 years participating in a school-based intervention in southwest Germany was used. Children's height and weight were measured and parent as well as child behaviour was assessed via questionnaire. Results: BMI percentiles of children were positively associated with parental BMI (r = 0.2, p mother = 2.2, ORfather = 2.3 and parental club sport participation increased the odds for club sport participation in children (ORmother = 1.9, ORfather = 1.7. The relationship between parental and child behaviour was stronger than the relationship between parental BMI and BMI percentiles of the child. Conclusion: These results suggest that parental behaviour and role modelling provide an important contribution to childrens' health behaviour, especially at younger ages.

  12. Health goal priming as a situated intervention tool: how to benefit from nonconscious motivational routes to health behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papies, Esther K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent research has shown the limited effects of intentions on behaviour, so that novel methods to facilitate behaviour change are needed that do not rely on conscious intentions. Here, it is argued that nonintentional effects on health behaviour, such as the effects of habits, impulses, and nonconscious goals, occur through the activation of cognitive structures by specific situations. Interventions should therefore be situated to change these effects, either by changing the critical cognitive structures (training interventions), or by changing which cognitive structures get activated (cueing interventions). The current article presents this framework for situated interventions, as well as examples of interventions of each type. Then, it introduces goal priming as a cueing intervention tool to activate health goals and thus facilitate healthier behaviour, even in tempting situations that typically activate short-term hedonic goals. Following a review of empirical evidence, five principles for the effective application of health goal primes are proposed, namely (1) to target individuals who value the primed goals, (2) by activating their specific motivation, (3) through effective cues (4) that attract attention at the right time. Finally, (5) an effective goal-directed behaviour needs to be known and accessible to the primed individual. These principles are illustrated with examples of different health behaviours in order to facilitate their application for successful behaviour change. PMID:27144729

  13. This Much Water: a qualitative study using behavioural theory to develop a community service video to prevent child drowning in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Mel; Leavy, Justine E; Jancey, Jonine; Nimmo, Lauren; Crawford, Gemma

    2017-07-31

    Drowning in children under the age of 5 is a frequently occurring, yet preventable event. This research used behavioural theory to test the suitability and appropriateness of a drowning prevention message in a community service video. This qualitative study used content analysis of focus groups. Constructs from the Health Belief Model guided the data analysis. Community organisations and playgrounds in Perth, Western Australia. Participants were parents or carers of at least one child under 5 years residing in Western Australia. Seven focus groups (n=57) were conducted with eight participants in each group. Most participants were parents (96%), female (95%), aged between 25 and 34 years (63%) and were born in Australia (68%). Participants indicated the community service video was credible in communicating the message that young children were susceptible to drowning in shallow water and that various water hazards existed in and around the home. However, a range of external factors, such as the child's age, type of water hazard, presence of siblings and other environmental factors, influenced risk perceptions. Child drowning was seen as a serious issue. Controlling access to water and the role of supervision were understood to be important factors in preventing drowning. The lack of published drowning prevention interventions shaped by behavioural theory limits the understanding of best practice. Using constructs from the Health Belief Model, this research confirmed the perceived seriousness, devastating and unforgettable consequence of drowning; however, findings were mixed regarding cues to action. Future development of drowning prevention media messages should test strategies to increase susceptibility and self-efficacy among the target group and explore the impact of different message senders. The findings provide a valuable understanding of possible messages and their execution for use in media campaigns, as one component of an effective public health

  14. Health and Behavioural Problems Of Children Orphaned By AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion AIDS orphans in Nigeria are vulnerable to mental disorder. Implementing a psychosocial-based paediatric-centred intervention to address these behavioural problems may help to increase the psychological adjustment required when a parent is lost. Nigerian Journal of Psychiatry Vol. 6 (2) 2008: pp. 70-75 ...

  15. Religion, religiosity and adolescent risky sexual health behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This contradiction prompted the question: what is the prevailing relationship between religion, religiosity, and adolescents' sexual behaviour in the country? This relationship was examined through survey data collected between December 2009 and February 2010 in the Lagos metropolis. A multistage sampling procedure ...

  16. Religion, religiosity and adolescent risky sexual health behaviour in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rate of premarital sexual intercourse among adolescents in Nigeria is alarming, despite its prohibition by several religious groups. This contradiction prompted the question: what is the prevailing relationship between religion, religiosity, and adolescents' sexual behaviour in the country? This relationship was examined ...

  17. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  18. Do behavioural health intentions engender health behaviour change? A study on the moderating role of self-affirmation on actual fruit intake versus vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersma, Suzanne; Dijkstra, Arie

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of this persuasion research was to show that self-affirmation (SA) increases intentions in the advocated direction and that these intentions predict actual health behaviour change. That is, these intentions not only serve the function of short-term relief of the threat caused

  19. Health behaviours and their facilitation under depletion conditions: the case of snacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellahewa, Dilan A; Mullan, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Previous research suggests that depletion (the state ensuing from self-control exertion) engenders lapses in health behaviours. The present study tested for that effect in relation to the health behaviour of limiting snacking, and investigated whether health goal-priming might facilitate such health behaviours even under depletion conditions. A laboratory study was conducted involving an analytic sample of 85 undergraduates (mean age = 20.08, SD = 3.96; female: n= 63). Depletion was manipulated by having participants watch a humorous video while suppressing their responses (depletion condition) or remaining natural (non-depletion condition). The activation of participants' health goals was then manipulated by subtly exposing (goal-priming condition) or not exposing (non-priming condition) participants to health-related words in a Scrambled Sentence Task. Finally, snacking was measured using a bogus taste-test. Controlling for initial hunger, snacking was higher among depleted compared to non-depleted participants. Snacking was lower among primed compared to non-primed participants. The interaction between depletion and goal-priming was not significant. These findings suggest that depletion should be recognised as a risk factor for lapses in health behaviours, and that health goal-priming may be a useful technique for facilitating such behaviours even when individuals are depleted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Migrant's access to preventive health services in five EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosano, Aldo; Dauvrin, Marie; Buttigieg, Sandra C; Ronda, Elena; Tafforeau, Jean; Dias, Sonia

    2017-08-23

    Preventive health services (PHSs) form part of primary healthcare with the aim of screening to prevent disease. Migrants show significant differences in lifestyle, health beliefs and risk factors compared with the native populations. This can have a significant impact on migrants' access to health systems and participation in prevention programmes. Even in countries with widely accessible healthcare systems, migrants' access to PHSs may be difficult. The aim of the study was to compare access to preventive health services between migrants and native populations in five European Union (EU) countries. Information from Health Interview Surveys of Belgium, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain were used to analyse access to mammography, Pap smear tests, colorectal cancer screening and flu vaccination among migrants. The comparative risk of not accessing PHSs was calculated using a mixed-effects multilevel model, adjusting for potential confounding factors (sex, education and the presence of disability). Migrant status was defined according to citizenship, with a distinction made between EU and non-EU countries. Migrants, in particular those from non-EU countries, were found to have poorer access to PHSs. The overall risk of not reporting a screening test or a flu vaccination ranged from a minimum of 1.8 times (colorectal cancer screening), to a high of 4.4 times (flu vaccination) for migrants. The comparison among the five EU countries included in the study showed similarities, with particularly limited access recorded in Italy and in Belgium for non-EU migrants. The findings of this study are in accordance with evidence from the scientific literature. Poor organization of health services, in Italy, and lack of targeted health policies in Belgium may explain these findings. PHSs should be responsive to patient diversity, probably more so than other health services. There is a need for diversity-oriented, migrant-sensitive prevention. Policies oriented to removing

  1. Health status and health seeking behaviour of the elderly persons in Dagoretti division, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, L M; Kabiru, E W; Mbithi, J N; Some, E S

    2003-02-01

    To determine the health status and the health seeking behaviour of the elderly people aged 65 years and above. A descriptive cross sectional study of individuals interviewed through questionnaires and focus groups discussions. Dagoretti Division, Nairobi Province, Kenya. Four hundred non-institutionalised elderly persons. Four hundred people including 276(69%) women and 124(31%) males were interviewed; 44% had no independent source of livelihood and 51% were widowed. The majority 376(92.5%) of the respondents had been sick within the last three months, preceding the study with 111(27.8%) being sick all the time. The prevalent diseases included musculoskeletal (80%), respiratory (68%), sight (44%) and dental conditions(40%). Three hundred and sixteen (79%) of the respondents were functionally independent in activities of daily living. One hundred and sixty one (40.3%) were satisfied with their current way of life while (63%) perceived themselves as healthy, 24.8% of the respondents lived alone. The reported social problems included:- economic dependency (96%), poor housing (76%), loneliness (60%) and feeling not needed (42%) of the respondents. Only 26% were on treatment, lack of money hindered health care access to 73% of the respondents (pbuying over-the-counter drugs. Walking was under taken by 217(67%) as a physical exercise, and (26%) of the respondents consumed addictive drugs. The focus groups criticised the lack of health facilities for the elderly in the community. The effects of ageing, low economic status and inadequate access to health care contributed to the elderly poor health status. The use of over-the-counter drugs was indicative of the inefficient health facilities in meeting the health needs of the elderly. The study points out the need to formulate policies that will target on the health needs of the elderly.

  2. The Financial Costs, Behaviour and Psychology of Obesity: A One Health Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomberg, E; Birch, L; Endenburg, N; German, A J; Neilson, J; Seligman, H; Takashima, G; Day, M J

    2017-05-01

    components of interconnected systems that influence obesity-related behaviours) and internal factors (i.e. biological determinants of obesity) that may influence the development of both childhood and pet obesity, and poverty may intersect with these variables to exacerbate obesity in low-income environments. This review discusses the costs, behaviours and psychology related to obesity in people and pets, and also proposes potential techniques that can be considered for prevention and treatment of this disease in pets. A 'One Health' approach to obesity suggests that an understanding of human obesity may elucidate some of the factors driving the more recent rise in pet obesity. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Population health outcome models in suicide prevention policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L

    2014-09-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in the U.S. and results in immense suffering and significant cost. Effective suicide prevention interventions could reduce this burden, but policy makers need estimates of health outcomes achieved by alternative interventions to focus implementation efforts. To illustrate the utility of health outcome models to help in achieving goals defined by the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force. The approach is illustrated specifically with psychotherapeutic interventions to prevent suicide reattempt in emergency department settings. A health outcome model using decision analysis with secondary data was applied to estimate suicide attempts and deaths averted from evidence-based interventions. Under optimal conditions, the model estimated that over 1 year, implementing evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions in emergency departments could decrease the number of suicide attempts by 18,737, and if offered over 5 years, it could avert 109,306 attempts. Over 1 year, the model estimated 2,498 fewer deaths from suicide, and over 5 years, about 13,928 fewer suicide deaths. Health outcome models could aid in suicide prevention policy by helping focus implementation efforts. Further research developing more sophisticated models of the impact of suicide prevention interventions that include a more complex understanding of suicidal behavior, longer time frames, and inclusion of additional outcomes that capture the full benefits and costs of interventions would be helpful next steps. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Technologies for HIV prevention and care: challenges for health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksud, Ivia; Fernandes, Nilo Martinez; Filgueiras, Sandra Lucia

    2015-09-01

    This article aims to consider some relevant challenges to the provision of "new prevention technologies" in health services in a scenario where the "advances" in the global response to AIDS control are visible. We take as material for analysis the information currently available on the HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), treatment as prevention (TASP) and over the counter. The methodology consisted of the survey and analysis of the Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS: MEDLINE, LILACS, WHOLIS, PAHO, SciELO) articles that addressed the issue of HIV prevention and care in the context of so-called new prevention technologies. The results of the studies show that there is assistance on the ground of clinics for the treatment of disease responses, but there are several challenges related to the sphere of prevention. The articles list some challenges regarding to management, organization of services and the attention given by health professionals to users. The current context shows evidence of the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy in reducing the risk of HIV transmission, but the challenges for the provision of preventive technologies in health services permeate health professionals and users in their individual dimensions and health services in organizational and structural dimension. Interventions should be made available in a context of community mobilization; there should be no pressure on people to make HIV testing, antiretroviral treatment or for prevention. In the management is responsible for the training of health professionals to inform, clarify and make available to users, partners and family information about the new antiretroviral use strategies.

  5. A decision-support tool to inform Australian strategies for preventing suicide and suicidal behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Page

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic simulation modelling is increasingly being recognised as a valuable decision-support tool to help guide investments and actions to address complex public health issues such as suicide. In particular, participatory system dynamics (SD modelling provides a useful tool for asking high-level ‘what if’ questions, and testing the likely impacts of different combinations of policies and interventions at an aggregate level before they are implemented in the real world. We developed an SD model for suicide prevention in Australia, and investigated the hypothesised impacts over the next 10 years (2015–2025 of a combination of current intervention strategies proposed for population interventions in Australia: 1 general practitioner (GP training, 2 coordinated aftercare in those who have attempted suicide, 3 school-based mental health literacy programs, 4 brief-contact interventions in hospital settings, and 5 psychosocial treatment approaches. Findings suggest that the largest reductions in suicide were associated with GP training (6% and coordinated aftercare approaches (4%, with total reductions of 12% for all interventions combined. This paper highlights the value of dynamic modelling methods for managing complexity and uncertainty, and demonstrates their potential use as a decision-support tool for policy makers and program planners for community suicide prevention actions.

  6. Mediational effects of self-efficacy dimensions in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviour with respect to control of dengue outbreaks: a structural equation model of a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Affendi; Loke, Yoon K; Smith, Jane R; Papageorgiou, Alexia; Hunter, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour. We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ(2) = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963). Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy.

  7. Mediational effects of self-efficacy dimensions in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviour with respect to control of dengue outbreaks: a structural equation model of a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affendi Isa

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour.We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ(2 = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963. Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours.To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy.

  8. Mediational Effects of Self-Efficacy Dimensions in the Relationship between Knowledge of Dengue and Dengue Preventive Behaviour with Respect to Control of Dengue Outbreaks: A Structural Equation Model of a Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isa, Affendi; Loke, Yoon K.; Smith, Jane R.; Papageorgiou, Alexia; Hunter, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dengue fever is endemic in Malaysia, with frequent major outbreaks in urban areas. The major control strategy relies on health promotional campaigns aimed at encouraging people to reduce mosquito breeding sites close to people's homes. However, such campaigns have not always been 100% effective. The concept of self-efficacy is an area of increasing research interest in understanding how health promotion can be most effective. This paper reports on a study of the impact of self-efficacy on dengue knowledge and dengue preventive behaviour. Methods and Findings We recruited 280 adults from 27 post-outbreak villages in the state of Terengganu, east coast of Malaysia. Measures of health promotion and educational intervention activities and types of communication during outbreak, level of dengue knowledge, level and strength of self-efficacy and dengue preventive behaviour were obtained via face-to-face interviews and questionnaires. A structural equation model was tested and fitted the data well (χ2 = 71.659, df = 40, p = 0.002, RMSEA = 0.053, CFI = 0.973, TLI = 0.963). Mass media, local contact and direct information-giving sessions significantly predicted level of knowledge of dengue. Level and strength of self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Strength of self-efficacy acted as partial mediator in the relationship between knowledge of dengue and dengue preventive behaviours. Conclusions To control and prevent dengue outbreaks by behavioural measures, health promotion and educational interventions during outbreaks should now focus on those approaches that are most likely to increase the level and strength of self-efficacy. PMID:24086777

  9. Pro-health behaviours – a sense of coherence as the key to a healthy lifestyle in rural areas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Binkowska-Bury

    2016-06-01

    There is a strong association between sense of coherence and pro-health behaviours. Farmers have bad habits and pro-health attitudes to health and poorer self-assessment of their health. There is a great need to monitor health-related behaviour, increase the effectiveness of health promotion and health education in shaping a pro-health lifestyle among residents of rural areas, particularly among farmers.

  10. [Vaginal citology. Prevention and good health. Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez Gomez, M

    1995-06-01

    A 1993 survey of knowledge, attitudes and practices related to sexually transmitted diseases and other conditions included a series of questions for women on vaginal cytology. The survey was based on a subsample of the PROFAMILIA master sample. 15,080 persons were interviewed, including 6949 women 18-69 years old. The section on vaginal cytology began with a description of the procedure before the questions were asked. Among the total sample, 66.2% reported having undergone cervical cytology while 33.8% had not. 4.8% did not request the results. For the 61.4% of the sample that requested the results, 49.4% were normal, 11.1% were abnormal, and 0.9% did not know or were not given their results. Of those with abnormal results, 9.3% returned for another consultation and 1.8% did not. The proportion of women having cervical cytology exceeded 80% for women 30-49 years old. 69.9% of urban and 54.2% of rural women had been tested. 28.9% underwent the most recent test due to a personal decision, 24.7% on medical recommendation, 23.2% because of symptoms, 12.0% to prevent cancer, 3.2% for safety, 2.0% because a year had passed since the last test, 2.0% in response to a campaign, 1.6% because a friend suggested it, and 1.1% because they had never had it done. The symptoms that motivated the test were a discharge for 31.4%, pain for 30.0%, bleeding for 11.8%, itching for 5.5%, postpartum problems for 2.8%, burning for 2.5%, and cyst for 1.9%. Abnormal results were obtained in 40% of the women who had the test because of symptoms. The average number of times in the past 5 years that the test was done was 2.8. 9% of respondents had not had a test in the past 5 years, 26% had 1, 18% had 2, 12% had 3, 7% had 4, 16% had 5, and 11% had 6 or more. 64.4% of women under 25 and 39% over 60 had never had vaginal cytology. Rural women and the less educated were less likely to have had the procedure.

  11. Adapting pressure ulcer prevention for use in home health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra; Daley, Christine Makosky

    2011-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines on pressure ulcer (PU)prevention have been written primarily for inpatient settings,but we currently lack data as to how these guidelines have been adapted for use in home health care. The purpose of this study was to delineate interventions and activities used to prevent PU in home health care. Focus group study using text analysis. A focus group was conducted with 9 certified wound care nurses who practiced in home health care at least 50% of the time. Most of the participants had 10 or more years of home health experience and 5 or more years of wound care experience. The single 75-minute focus group was convened by teleconference and audiotaped. A semistructured moderator's guide was used to lead the discussion. Transcribed data were analyzed using standard text analysis. Preliminary results were distributed to focus group participants for review, comment, or clarification, and refined as needed. Certified wound care nurse participants used an array of interventions, including those recommended by clinical practice guidelines, to prevent PU in home health patients.However, specific activities differed from those performed in hospitals and nursing homes. Interventions unique to homehealth care included (1) assessment of patients' economic and insured status to determine implementation options, (2) assessment of caregiving resources and caregivers' ability to manage PU prevention, and (3) collaboration with community resources and health care vendors to obtain needed prevention materials and supplies. Findings provide insight into guideline adaptation in home health care and suggest that PU prevention in the homehealth care setting is more complex than that in hospitals and nursing homes and requires significant skills in communication and collaboration.

  12. Health investment behaviours and oral/gingival health condition, a cross-sectional study among Swedish 19-year olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Jessica S; Wennström, Jan L; Lindgren, Björn; Petzold, Max; Östberg, Anna-Lena; Abrahamsson, Kajsa H

    2016-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that certain individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are positively associated with beneficial health investment behaviours and oral/periodontal health among adolescents. Five hundred and six randomly selected 19-year old subjects living in two different areas (Fyrbodal and Skaraborg) in the county council of Västra Götaland, Sweden participated in a clinical examination and answered questionnaires covering psycho-social and health behavioural issues. Two oral-health models were estimated with gingivitis score as an objective and self-perceived oral health as a subjective indicator. Three health- investment behaviour models were designed with indicators directly related to oral health and two with indicators related to general health as well. The explanatory variables included gender, upper secondary education programme, native country, living area, general self-efficacy and parents' education level. In the objective oral-health model, theoretical studies and living in the Skaraborg area were both positively associated with a lower gingivitis score. For the subjective oral-health indicator, none of the explanatory variables showed statistical significance. In the investment-behaviour model with 'tooth-brushing ≥ 2 times daily' as a health indicator, female gender and theoretical studies showed statistically significant associations. With the indicators 'no/few missed dental appointments', 'no tobacco use' and 'weekly exercise', theoretical studies were statistically significant and positively associated. In the investment model with 'perceived oral health care attention' as an indicator, a high score of general self-efficacy was significantly associated with the feeling of taking good care of the teeth. Individual, environmental and lifestyle factors are associated with young individuals' oral health investment behaviours and gingival health conditions.

  13. Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Aging & Health A to Z Find a Geriatrics Healthcare Professional Medications & Older Adults Making Your Wishes ... Prevention Hearing Loss Heart Attack High Blood Pressure Nutrition Osteoporosis Shingles Skin Cancer Related News Quitting Smoking, ...

  14. Health-seeking behaviour in Pakistan: a narrative review of the existing literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M; Green, J; Norris, P

    2012-06-01

    This narrative review was carried out to collate the work of researchers on health-seeking behaviour in Pakistan, to discuss the methods used, highlight the emerging themes and identify areas that have yet to be studied. Review. An overview of studies on health-seeking behaviour in Pakistan, found via searches on scholarly databases intended to locate material of medical and anthropological relevance. In total, 29 articles were reviewed with a range of different methodologies. A retrospective approach was the most common. A variety of medical conditions have been studied in terms of health-seeking behaviour of people experiencing such conditions. However, a wide range of chronic illnesses have yet to be studied. Nevertheless, some studies highlighting unusual issues such as snake bites and health-seeking behaviour of street children were also found. In terms of geographical area, the majority of studies reviewed were performed in the provinces of Sind and Punjab, with little research targeting the people from the two other provinces (Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa) of Pakistan. Predominant utilization of private healthcare facilities, self-medication, involvement of traditional healers in the healthcare system, women's autonomy, and superstitions and fallacies associated with health-seeking behaviour were found to be the themes that repeatedly emerged in the literature reviewed. The sociocultural and religious background of Pakistan means that health-seeking behaviour resembles a mosaic. There is a need to improve the quality of service provided by the public healthcare sector and the recruitment of female staff. Traditional healers should be trained and integrated into the mainstream to provide adequate healthcare. Serious efforts are required to increase the awareness and educational level of the public, especially women in rural areas, in order to fight against myths and superstitions associated with health-seeking behaviour. Copyright © 2012 The Royal

  15. Educational inequalities associated with health-related behaviours in the adult population of Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, C W; Bhalla, V; Heng, D; Chua, A V; Chan, M L; Chew, S K

    2007-12-01

    Socioeconomic differences in health-related behaviours have been widely studied in the Western populations, but are seldom considered in Asian populations. We examined the effect of education attainment on health-related behaviours (physical activity, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption) among non-institutionalised Singaporeans aged 18-69 years. We used data from the Singapore National Health Survey 2004. Information on physical activity, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and sociodemographic characteristics was collected from 4,084 adults. Age-adjusted prevalence of the three health-related behaviours by educational attainment was calculated by the direct method. Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, gender, ethnic group and employment status, were used to estimate the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, in order to study the prevalence of health-related behaviours according to educational attainment. The prevalence of physical inactivity, daily smoking and regular alcohol consumption was found to be consistently highest among men and women with the least education. Prevalence of physical inactivity and smoking was inversely related to educational attainment for both genders. However, no clear gradient was found between education and alcohol consumption for men and women. Less-educated Singaporeans were more likely to smoke daily, drink alcohol regularly or not to exercise regularly. Health promotion policies or programmes aimed at encouraging healthy lifestyles in the Singapore population should take into account the educational inequalities in these health-related behaviours.

  16. Interaction of personality traits with social deprivation in determining mental wellbeing and health behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packard, Chris J; Cavanagh, Jonathan; McLean, Jennifer S; McConnachie, Alex; Messow, Claudia-Martina; Batty, G David; Burns, Harry; Deans, Kevin A; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Velupillai, Yoga N; Tannahill, Carol; Millar, Keith

    2012-12-01

    Associations between personality traits, mental wellbeing and good health behaviours were examined to understand further the social and psychological context of the health divide. In a cross-sectional study, 666 subjects recruited from areas of high and low socioeconomic deprivation had personality traits and mental wellbeing assessed, and lifestyle behaviours quantified. Regression models (using deprivation as a moderating variable) assessed the extent to which personality traits and mental wellbeing predicted health behaviour. Deprived (vs. affluent) subjects exhibited similar levels of extraversion but higher levels of neuroticism and psychoticism, more hopelessness, less sense of coherence, lower self-esteem and lower self-efficacy (all Paerobic exercise (all P< 0.001). In the deprived group, personality traits were significantly more important predictors of mental wellbeing than in the least deprived group (P< 0.01 for interaction), and mental wellbeing and extraversion appeared more strongly related to good health behaviours. Persistence of a social divide in health may be related to interactions between personality, mental wellbeing and the adoption of good health behaviours in deprived areas. Effectiveness of health messages may be enhanced by accommodating the variation in the levels of extraversion, neuroticism, hopelessness and sense of coherence.

  17. Sexual health and life experiences: Voices from behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Omar; Reece, Michael; Schnarrs, Philip; Rhodes, Scott; Goncalves, Gabriel; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Kelle, Guadalupe; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Research on behaviourally bisexual Latino men in the USA has not yet examined sexual health issues among men living in diverse areas of the nation, including the Midwest. A community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach was used to engage a diverse sample of 75 behaviourally bisexual men (25 White, 25 Black, and 25 Latino). Semi-structured interviews were conducted and, in this paper, standard qualitative analysis procedures were used to explore data from the 25 Latino participants. Men described their unique migration experiences as behaviourally bisexual men in this area of the USA, as well as related sexual risk behaviours and health concerns. Lack of culturally congruent public health and community resources for behaviourally bisexual men in the Midwestern USA were identified as significant barriers. As in other studies, familial and community relationships were significant for the participants, especially in terms of the decision to disclose or not disclose their bisexuality. Additionally, alcohol and other drugs were often used while engaging in sexual behaviours particularly with male and transgender, as well as female, partners. Behaviourally bisexual Latino men may benefit from receiving positive and affirmative individual- and structural-level support in regards to their unique experiences in this and other settings. PMID:21815839

  18. Up the garden path and over the edge: where might health-seeking behaviour take us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackian, Sara; Bedri, Nafisa; Lovel, Hermione

    2004-05-01

    The concept of health-seeking behaviour continues to permeate the development literature, and this paper reviews the main approaches. However, it also suggests that health-seeking behaviour is a somewhat over-utilized and under-theorized tool. Although it remains a valid tool for rapid appraisal of a particular issue at a particular time, it is of little use as it stands to explore the wider relationship between populations and health systems development. If we wish to move the debate into new and more fruitful arenas, we need to develop a tool for understanding how populations engage with health systems, rather than using health-seeking behaviour as a tool for describing how individuals engage with services. The paper suggests one way in which we might start to frame the debate, using reflexive communities and social capital as key theoretical and analytical concepts.

  19. How good is the Prevent model for estimating the health benefits of prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    Prevent is a public health model for estimating the effect on mortality of changes in exposure to risk factors. When the model is tested by simulating a development that has already taken place, the results may differ considerably from the actual situation. The purpose of this study is to test...... the Prevent model by applying it to a synthetic cohort in which the development is unaffected by concealed factors....

  20. Changes in cardiovascular disease risk and behavioural risk factors before the introduction of a health check programme in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alageel, Samah; Wright, Alison J; Gulliford, Martin C

    2016-10-01

    A population-based programme of health checks was introduced for adults in England in 2011 for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and risk factors management. The aim was to evaluate changes in cardiovascular risk and behavioural risk factors in a health check eligible population in England from 1994 to 2013, by using repeated cross-sectional design using seven surveys of the Health Survey for England. Measures included traditional CVD risk factors and behavioural risk factors. Linear trends were estimated allowing for sampling design. The surveys comprised 49,805 adults aged 45 to 74years; 30,639 were free from cardiovascular comorbidity; 16,041 (52%) had complete data for quantitative risk factors. Between 1994 and 2013, systolic blood pressure decreased by 3.1 (95% confidence interval 2.5 to 3.6) mmHg per decade in men and 5.0 (4.5 to 5.5) in women. Total cholesterol decreased by 0.20 (0.16 to 0.24) mmol/l per decade in men; 0.23 (0.19 to 0.26) in women. Smoking declined by 6% (5% to 8%) per decade in men; 7% (6% - 8%) in women. The proportion with CVD-risk ≥20% declined by 6.8% per decade in men; 2.4% in women. Multiple behavioural risk factors were strongly associated with estimated CVD-risk, but improving trends in traditional CVD risk factors were inconsistent with increasing indicators of adiposity. Long-term declines in traditional risk factors contributed to reductions in estimated CVD-risk prior to the introduction of a health check programme. Behaviour change interventions for multiple risk factor exposures remain a key area for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The effectiveness of interventions in the prevention and management of aggressive behaviours in patients admitted to an acute hospital setting: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynoch, Kate; Wu, Chiung-Jung Jo; Chang, Anne M

    2009-01-01

    Violence in healthcare has been widely reported and healthcare workers, particularly nurses in the acute care setting, are ill-equipped to manage patients who exhibit aggressive traits. An initial search of the Cochrane Library and the Joanna Briggs Institute did not reveal any published systematic reviews recommending strategies to manage aggressive and/or violent behaviours in patients admitted to an acute hospital setting. This systematic review aims to establish best practice in the prevention and management of aggressive behaviours in patients admitted to an acute hospital setting. A three-step search strategy was utilised during this review. Major databases searched included: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Health source, Web of science, EMBASE, the Cochrane library and Database of abstracts of reviews of effects (DARE) as well as PubMed. The search included published and unpublished studies and papers in English from 1990-2007. This review considered any randomised controlled trials (RCT) that evaluated the effectiveness of interventions in the prevention and management of patients who exhibit aggressive behaviours in an acute hospital setting. In the absence of RCT's, other research designs such as non-randomised controlled trials and before and after studies were considered for inclusion in the narrative summary to enable the identification of current approaches and possible future strategies for preventing and managing patient aggression in acute care areas. Each included study was assessed by two independent reviewers using the appropriate appraisal checklist developed by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Data was extracted from the papers included in this review using the standardised data extraction tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta