Nichols, Melanie S; Reynolds, Rebecca C; Waters, Elizabeth; Gill, Timothy; King, Lesley; Swinburn, Boyd A; Allender, Steven
Community-based programs that affect healthy environments and policies have emerged as an effective response to high obesity levels in populations. Apart from limited individual reports, little is currently known about these programs, limiting the potential to provide effective support, to promote effective practice, prevent adverse outcomes and disseminate intervention results and experience. The aim of the present study was to identify the size and reach of current community-based obesity prevention projects in Australia and to examine their characteristics, program features (e.g. intervention setting), capacity and approach to obesity prevention. Detailed survey completed by representatives from community-based obesity prevention initiatives in Australia. There was wide variation in funding, capacity and approach to obesity prevention among the 78 participating projects. Median annual funding was Au$94900 (range Au$2500-$4.46 million). The most common intervention settings were schools (39%). Forty per cent of programs focused on a population group of ≥50000 people. A large proportion of respondents felt that they did not have sufficient resources or staff training to achieve project objectives. Community-based projects currently represent a very large investment by both government and non-government sectors for the prevention of obesity. Existing projects are diverse in size and scope, and reach large segments of the population. Further work is needed to identify the full extent of existing community actions and to monitor their reach and future 'scale up' to ensure that future activities aim for effective integration into systems, policies and environments. SO WHAT? Community-based programs make a substantial contribution to the prevention of obesity and promotion of healthy lifestyles in Australia. A risk of the current intervention landscape is that effective approaches may go unrecognised due to lack of effective evaluations or limitations in program
Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…
Lachance, Laurie; Kelly, R Patrick; Wilkin, Margaret; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra
Social determinants of health likely play a significant role in the development of type 2 diabetes for women in vulnerable communities. Adult African American women diagnosed with or at-risk for diabetes in Inkster, Michigan (n = 113) and a group of demographically similar women in Flint, Michigan (n = 48) participated in programs aimed at increasing diabetes-related self-management behaviors through peer coaching, health literacy training, and social support. Participants completed surveys to measure changes in health, health behaviors, health literacy, and social support. We found that these diabetes programs with a focus on increasing women's capacity to practice health management behaviors, navigate the health care system, and connect with social support, led to an increase in healthy behaviors and a reported increase in both overall and diabetes-specific health over an 18 month period. Overall health, general diet and specific diet improved significantly (p change was not statistically significant. Women who participated in the intervention changed health behaviors, and increased their sense of health literacy and social support. Improvement in women's access to and use of community preventive services, and the provision of outreach support using community health workers (CHWs) and peer mentorship was an integral part of creating these changes. Although this study found that a variety of diabetes prevention and management programs provided opportunities for positive health changes, findings also suggest that it is critical to address the burdens women from vulnerable communities face in order to participate in these programs.
Full Text Available Alan Hanley1, Carmel Silke2, John Murphy31Department of Medicine, Letterkenny General Hospital, Letterkenny, Co Donegal, Ireland; 2Department of Rheumatology, Our Lady's Hospital Manorhamilton, Manorhamilton, Co Leitrim, Ireland; 3Department of Medicine, Castlebar, Co Mayo, IrelandAbstract: Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.Keywords: fall, fracture, prevention, public health
Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen
Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...
Matthew Lee Smith
Full Text Available Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”. Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions.
Smith, Matthew Lee; Schneider, Ellen C.; Byers, Imani N.; Shubert, Tiffany E.; Wilson, Ashley D.; Towne, Samuel D.; Ory, Marcia G.
Although the concepts of systems change and sustainability are not new, little is known about the factors associated with systems change sustaining multi-state, multi-level fall prevention efforts. This exploratory study focuses on three State Departments of Health (DOH) that were awarded 5-year funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to simultaneously implement four separate yet related evidence-based fall prevention initiatives at the clinical, community, and policy level. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in partnerships and collaborative activities that occurred to accomplish project goals (examining changes in the context of “before funding” and “after funding was received”). Additionally, this study explored changes in State DOH perceptions about action related to sustainability indicators in the context of “during funding” and “after funding ends.” Findings from this study document the partnership and activity changes necessary to achieve defined fall prevention goals after funding is received, and that the importance of sustainability indicator documentation is seen as relevant during funding, but less so after the funding ends. Findings from this study have practice and research implications that can inform future funded efforts in terms of sector and stakeholder engagement necessary for initiating, implementing, and sustaining community- and clinical-based fall prevention interventions. PMID:28642861
Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin
populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...... employed to manage marine fisheries to capture the advantages of both approaches. In hybrid systems, catch or effort RBM dominates and controls on the other supplements. RBM using either catch or effort by itself addresses only the target species stock externality and not the remaining externalities......Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...
Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven
Despite a growing recognition of songs as a useful HIV/AIDS campaign strategy, little research has investigated their potential and/or actual impact. In this study, through a theory-based content analysis, we have assessed the prevention domains covered and the health-relevant constructs promoted by 23 AIDS songs widely used to aid prevention efforts in Ethiopia. To identify the health-relevant constructs and reveal their potential to facilitate or inhibit positive changes, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has been used. The findings revealed that the songs cover most of the prevention domains that constitute the current agenda of behavior change communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, although all the EPPM variables have been found in almost every song, there were significantly more efficacy messages than threat messages. This suggests that although the songs may lead to positive changes in HIV/AIDS-related outcomes among audiences who have already perceived the threat posed by HIV/AIDS, they are less likely to motivate and thereby generate responses from audiences who have less or no threat perceptions. It is argued that given their potential as a culturally appropriate strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa where oral channels of communication play significant roles, songs could be harnessed for better outcomes through a theory-based design.
Phillips-Guzman, Christina M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Rovniak, Liza S; Kelley, Norma J
Participation of different community sectors, including the private business sector, is necessary to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local businesses may be reluctant to participate in HIV prevention because of fear of negative customer reactions and loss of revenue. This study examines the extent to which residents of two communities in San Diego, California, would support HIV prevention initiatives in local businesses. A population-based household survey (N = 200) is conducted in two communities with higher versus lower risk for HIV. The survey includes questions regarding the acceptability of HIV prevention activities, such as condom and brochure distribution in businesses, and history of exposure to HIV prevention activities in local businesses. Most residents agree that (a) business involvement in prevention activities would reduce HIV (92%), (b) free or low-cost condoms available in businesses could prevent the spread of HIV (90.9%) and increase condom accessibility (87%), and (c) they would prefer to shop at businesses that supported HIV prevention versus those that did not (87.4%). These findings suggest that HIV prevention in local businesses would be supported by residents and would be unlikely to adversely affect business profits. This information could be used to design interventions to engage local businesses in HIV-prevention efforts.
Bauer, K. W.; Neumark-Sztainer, D.; Hannan, P. J.; Fulkerson, J. A.; Story, M.
Identifying factors that contribute to students' behavior and weight improvements during school-based obesity prevention interventions is critical for the development of effective programs. The current study aims to determine whether the support and resources that adolescent girls received from their families were associated with improvements in…
Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ranjit, Nalini; Pérez, Adriana
To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Our recommendations include adding environmental and policy measures to surveillance efforts with a focus on addressing underserved populations, harmonizing existing surveillance systems, including more sensitive measures of obesity outcomes, and developing a knowledgeable workforce. In addition, the widespread use of electronic health records and new technologies that allow self-quantification of behaviors offers opportunities for innovative surveillance methods.
JHON J. SANABRIA
Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.
Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K
Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark
Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Espelage, Dorothy L; Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents' use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying- cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided.
Hong, Jun Sung
Bullying is a serious public health concern that is associated with significant negative mental, social, and physical outcomes. Technological advances have increased adolescents’ use of social media, and online communication platforms have exposed adolescents to another mode of bullying—cyberbullying. Prevention and intervention materials, from websites and tip sheets to classroom curriculum, have been developed to help youth, parents, and teachers address cyberbullying. While youth and parents are willing to disclose their experiences with bullying to their health care providers, these disclosures need to be taken seriously and handled in a caring manner. Health care providers need to include questions about bullying on intake forms to encourage these disclosures. The aim of this article is to examine the current status of cyberbullying prevention and intervention. Research support for several school-based intervention programs is summarised. Recommendations for future research are provided. PMID:28562094
McCartan, Kieran F; Merdian, Hannah L; Perkins, Derek E; Kettleborough, Danielle
This article discusses the ethical, practical, and moral issues surrounding secondary prevention efforts of child sexual abuse from a professional and practice-based perspective. Transcripts of a semistructured consultation event with n = 15 international experts on the secondary prevention of child sexual abuse were analysed using thematic qualitative analysis. The research identified four main critical areas linked to secondary prevention efforts, including, the psychology of self-reporting and disclosure; the interaction with and within existing legal, social, and professional frameworks; the scale and type of an appropriate response; and potential hurdles (i.e., within media, public, politics). The article outlines these areas, highlighting participant perspectives on risk-enhancing and mitigating factors for each domain.
Mathiesen, Anne Sofie Mølbak; Nørgaard, Kamilla; Andersen, Marie Frederikke Bruun; Møller, Klaus Meyer; Ehlers, Lars Holger
Pressure ulcers are a major problem in Danish healthcare with a prevalence of 13-43% among hospitalized patients. The associated costs to the Danish Health Care Sector are estimated to be €174.5 million annually. In 2010, The Danish Society for Patient Safety introduced the Pressure Ulcer Bundle (PUB) in order to reduce hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by a minimum of 50% in five hospitals. The PUB consists of evidence-based preventive initiatives implemented by ward staff using the Model for Improvement. To investigate the cost-effectiveness of labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers in the Danish Health Care Sector, comparing the PUB with standard care. A decision analytic model was constructed to assess the costs and consequences of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers during an average hospital admission in Denmark. The model inputs were based on a systematic review of clinical efficacy data combined with local cost and effectiveness data from the Thy-Mors Hospital, Denmark. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was conducted to assess the uncertainty. Prevention of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers by implementing labour-intensive effects according to the PUB was cost-saving and resulted in an improved effect compared to standard care. The incremental cost of the PUB was -€38.62. The incremental effects were a reduction of 9.3% prevented pressure ulcers and 0.47% prevented deaths. The PSAs confirmed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)'s dominance for both prevented pressure ulcers and saved lives with the PUB. This study shows that labour-intensive efforts to reduce pressure ulcers on hospital wards can be cost-effective and lead to savings in total costs of hospital and social care. The data included in the study regarding costs and effects of the PUB in Denmark were based on preliminary findings from a pilot study at Thy-Mors Hospital and literature.
Full Text Available Effective prevention of risky alcohol use in pregnancy involves much more than providing information about the risk of potential birth defects and developmental disabilities in children. To categorize the breadth of possible initiatives, Canadian experts have identified a four-part framework for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD prevention: Level 1, public awareness and broad health promotion; Level 2, conversations about alcohol with women of childbearing age and their partners; Level 3, specialized support for pregnant women; and Level 4, postpartum support for new mothers. In order to describe the level of services across Canada, 50 Canadian service providers, civil servants, and researchers working in the area of FASD prevention were involved in an online Delphi survey process to create a snapshot of current FASD prevention efforts, identify gaps, and provide ideas on how to close these gaps to improve FASD prevention. Promising Canadian practices and key areas for future action are described. Overall, Canadian FASD prevention programming reflects evidence-based practices; however, there are many opportunities to improve scope and availability of these initiatives.
Dill, Karen E; Redding, Richard E; Smith, Peter K; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G
Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a deterrent effect. This article presents the thoughts and recommendations of a group of experts on these topics summarizing the current knowledge base. In brief, bullying reduction programs may be a useful early prevention effort. Television and video games with violent themes can encourage aggressive behavior, but these media can be used to teach more prosocial behavior as well. The potential copycat effects of highly publicized crimes might be diminished with more restrained reporting, although more research is needed. Finally, there is substantial evidence that increased criminal sanctions for youthful offenders have not had a deterrent effect. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Adams, Alexandra K; Christens, Brian; Meinen, Amy; Korth, Amy; Remington, Patrick L; Lindberg, Sara; Schoeller, Dale
Obesity rates have increased dramatically, especially among children and disadvantaged populations. Obesity is a complex issue, creating a compelling need for prevention efforts in communities to move from single isolated programs to comprehensive multisystem interventions. To address these issues, we have established a childhood Obesity Prevention Initiative (Initiative) for Wisconsin. This Initiative seeks to test community change frameworks that can support multisystem interventions and provide data for local action as a means for influencing policies, systems, and environments that support individuals’ healthy eating and physical activity. The Initiative is comprised of three components: (1) infrastructure to support a statewide obesity prevention and health promotion network with state- and local-level public messaging and dissemination of evidence-based solutions (healthTIDE); (2) piloting a local, multisetting community-led intervention study in 2 Wisconsin counties; and (3) developing a geocoded statewide childhood obesity and fitness surveillance system. This Initiative is using a new model that involves both coalition action and community organizing to align resources to achieve health improvement at local and state levels. We expect that it will help lead to the implementation of cohesive and sustainable policy, system, and environment health promotion and obesity prevention strategies in communities statewide, and it has the potential to help Wisconsin become a national model for multisetting community interventions to address obesity. Addressing individual-level health through population-level changes ultimately will result in reductions in the prevalence of childhood obesity, current and future health care costs, and chronic disease mortality.
Lewis, Jacquelyne L.
Identity theft is quite expensive and devastating for victims; unfortunately, it is also a rapidly growing crime. Much of the prior research on identity theft has focused on legislative efforts that may prevent the crime. However, limited research exists on what consumers perceive as identity prevention and the measures they take to prevent…
Oloo, Stella Anne
The World Health Organization recently released guidelines recommending 36-month use of isoniazid preventive therapy in adults and adolescents living with HIV in resource-limited settings. Namibia continues to grapple with one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide. Implementation of these guidelines requires considerations of TB epidemiology, health infrastructure, programmatic priorities and patient adherence. This article explores the challenges Namibia currently faces in its fight against TB and the implications of the new guidelines on Namibian TB prevention efforts.
Dielman, T. E.; And Others
Questionnaires were administered to 4,157 junior high school students to determine levels of alcohol misuse, exposure to peer use and misuse of alcohol, susceptibility to peer pressure, internal health locus of control, and self-esteem. Conceptual model of antecendents of adolescent alcohol misuse and effectiveness of a prevention effort was…
Levitt, Alan; Denniston, Bob
This article describes and reflects upon efforts to generate greater support for media literacy and critical thinking within the strategies and programs of the Federal government in the early 1990s to about 2005 primarily among agencies with an interest in youth substance abuse prevention. Beginning with their personal reflections on discovering…
The Ukrainian efforts in preventing illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources are described. Attention is paid for Ukrainian Government's Decree intended, in particular, to facilitate in establishing well-coordinated activities of the Ukrainian law enforcement bodies and other agencies involved, assigning the status of the main expert organization on illicit trafficking in nuclear materials to the Scientific Center 'Institute for Nuclear Research', in developing the three-years Program on prevention illicit trafficking in nuclear materials and other radioactive sources on the Ukrainian territory as well as measures at the State and customs borders. The main directions provided by the draft Program mentioned are presented as well. (author)
Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, John; Jacobsen, Finn
Sound equalization in closed spaces can be significantly improved by generating propagating waves that are naturally associated with the geometry, as, for example, plane waves in rectangular enclosures. This paper presents a control approach termed effort variation regularization based on this idea....... Effort variation equalization involves modifying the conventional cost function in sound equalization, which is based on minimizing least-squares reproduction errors, by adding a term that is proportional to the squared deviations between complex source strengths, calculated independently for the sources...... at each of the two walls perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Simulation results in a two-dimensional room of irregular shape and in a rectangular room with sources randomly distributed on two opposite walls demonstrate that the proposed technique leads to smaller global reproduction errors...
Faulkner Charles T.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts
Charles T. Faulkner
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increased knowledge and use of public health measures promoted for cholera prevention is reflected in lower prevalence of parasitic infection in households in a community in the state of Tamaulipas, Mexico, that is close to the border with the United States of America. METHODS: Between 1994 and 1997, fecal samples from 438 children were collected through convenience sampling and then examined for helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts as biologic indicators of household compliance with recommended cholera prevention measures. The suggested measures were to wash hands before meals and after defecation, to drink purified water, to wash fruits and vegetables, and to eat well-cooked food. In addition, information on the knowledge of and the use of cholera preventive measures was collected by interviews with adult informants in 252 households (186 of those households also provided a fecal sample for analysis. RESULTS: Parasitic infections occurred in 131 of the 438 children (30%, who resided in 79 of the 186 households (42% that provided fecal samples. Giardia lamblia accounted for 12.5% of all infections. Infections with Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, Ancylostoma/Necator, Strongyloides stercoralis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba hartmanni, Entamoeba histolytica, Endolimax nana, and Iodamoeba bütschlii were also noted. Infected children were older and more often had an infected sibling. Households with three or more children were also more likely to have an infected child. The primary caregivers in the households where at least one child had a parasitic infection were distinguished by their inability to list at least three cholera prevention measures from memory. CONCLUSIONS: The 42% household prevalence of parasitic infection was relatively high and indicates that some residents of this community may not have fully embraced the public health education efforts
Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Fraguela-Rios, Cathlyn; Kimball, Ericka; Neugut, Tova B.; Tolman, Richard M.; Edleson, Jeffrey L.
As gender-based violence prevention programs around the world increasingly include efforts to engage men and boys as antiviolence allies, both the profound benefits and the inherent complexities of these efforts are emerging. Acknowledging and exploring tensions associated with engaging men is an important element of thoughtfully fostering men’s antiviolence ally movements so as to both respectfully invite men into anti-violence work and create effective, gender-equitable prevention programming. To this end, this study presents descriptive findings regarding challenges associated with men’s engagement programming from in-depth interviews with twenty-nine representatives of organizations that engage men and boys in preventing violence against women and girls in Africa, Asia, Europe, Oceania, and North and South America. Programs reported negotiating complex issues related to gender, the intersectional nature of men’s identities, and establishing legitimacy and sustainability within communities while maintaining ideological focus and consistency. Additionally, programs reported that these tensions manifest across ecological layers of analysis, and impact both the participation of individual men and the programs’ experiences in community and national contexts. PMID:25568612
Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S. F.
Background The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and thoughts about such reporting. Aims To understand Hong Kong media professionals’ experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. Method We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Results We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers’ interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. Conclusion We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion. PMID:24322824
Hokkaido Electric Power Company, Inc. (HEPCO) supplies electricity to almost all area of Hokkaido. Its service area accounts for about one-fifth of Japan's area, on the other hand, the population of the service area only accounts for 4.4% of the nation. This means Hokkaido's nature is precious, and one of HEPCO's missions is to protect such environment, with providing stable electricity. Therefore, nuclear power, which does not emit greenhouse effect gas for generation, is becoming more important. HEPCO's operating nuclear power stations are Tomari No.1 unit and No.2 unit. Their generation capacity is 579 MW respectively. Now, No.3 unit is under construction. Its generation capacity is 912 MW and it will be operational in December 2009. In Hokkaido, about one fourth of electricity is now produced by nuclear power, however, after Tomari No.3 is completed, about 40% of electricity will be produced by nuclear. So, Tomari No.3 unit will contribute stable supply of electricity in the first half of 21st century and prevent global warming in Hokkaido. This paper describes the present status of Tomari No.3 unit construction with major specifications and our efforts to prevent global warming. (author)
Kliestik, Tomas; Misankova, Maria; Valaskova, Katarina; Svabova, Lucia
Every corporation has an economic and moral responsibility to its stockholders to perform well financially. However, the number of bankruptcies in Slovakia has been growing for several years without an apparent macroeconomic cause. To prevent a rapid denigration and to prevent the outflow of foreign capital, various efforts are being zealously implemented. Robust analysis using conventional bankruptcy prediction tools revealed that the existing models are adaptable to local conditions, particularly local legislation. Furthermore, it was confirmed that most of these outdated tools have sufficient capability to warn of impending financial problems several years in advance. A novel bankruptcy prediction tool that outperforms the conventional models was developed. However, it is increasingly challenging to predict bankruptcy risk as corporations have become more global and more complex and as they have developed sophisticated schemes to hide their actual situations under the guise of "optimization" for tax authorities. Nevertheless, scepticism remains because economic engineers have established bankruptcy as a strategy to limit the liability resulting from court-imposed penalties.
Full Text Available Exotic pathogens, within the center of genetic diversity for the species, compromise European chestnut populations in Turkey. In Turkey today, the species is of tremendous economic, ecological and cultural importance. At this time of severe exotic pathogenic pressure on a highly-valued forest species, we ask, how does awareness of diseases and treatments as well as value for chestnut trees affect the efforts of households to manage pests and diseases of chestnut trees in Turkey? We conducted 96 surveys in 34 villages in 10 provinces across Turkey to investigate awareness of diseases and other challenges to the chestnut population, chestnut harvesting habits, family value for chestnuts and efforts to mitigate pest and disease pressure. We analyze our results using cluster and regression analysis. Our results show that based on analysis of all observed characteristics, our research sites in Turkey break cleanly into groups based on production level. Further, results demonstrate significant correlation between amount of chestnut-derived income and awareness of pests and diseases as well as the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures. These results also demonstrate correlation between observed awareness of diseases and pests and the likelihood of households enacting disease mitigation measures.
Grieco, A; Occhipinti, E; Colombini, D; Menoni, O; Bulgheroni, M; Frigo, C; Boccardi, S
An investigation was made on the relationship between music practice and musculo-skeletal disorders among piano students, with the main aim of developing health education programmes that would improve the performance and health of the students. The investigation covered three areas: (a) Analysis of study organization and main musculo-skeletal complaints achieved by a questionnaire distributed to all piano students at the Milan Conservatory. (b) Vocational electromyographic analysis of the effort exerted by the various muscle groups of the trunk, of the shoulder and shoulder blade girdle, and of the arm during performance of a standard set of piano exercises, an unseen passage and a passage of maximum difficulty. This analysis was made on a sample of six subjects. (c) A series of preventive measures was developed on the basis of a critical assessment of the results (38% of the students practised for excessively long periods without breaks; 62% had from 1 to 5 complaints, the most affected sites being the spine and the trapezius muscles). These consisted largely of a health education programme aimed at helping the students to suitably organize practice and rest periods and in instructing them in appropriate exercises for relaxation and stretching of overused muscle groups and strengthening the supporting muscle groups. Changes in lifestyle were also suggested.
Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris
We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…
Bhuiya, Nazmim; House, L Duane; Desmarais, Jeffrey; Fletcher, Erica; Conlin, Maeve; Perez-McAdoo, Sarah; Waggett, Jessica; Tendulkar, Shalini A
This paper describes an assessment of community readiness to implement a community-wide teen pregnancy prevention initiative, Youth First, and presents strategies used to enhance this readiness as informed by the assessment. Twenty-five community stakeholder interviews were conducted to assess four domains of readiness: (1) attitudes, perception, and knowledge of teen pregnancy; (2) perceived level of readiness; (3) resources, existing and current efforts; and (4) leadership. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Stakeholders acknowledged teen pregnancy as an issue but lacked contextual information. They also perceived the community as ready to address the issue and recognized some organizations already championing efforts. However, many key players were not involved, and ongoing data collection to assess teen pregnancy and prevention efforts was limited. Though many stakeholders were ready to engage in teen pregnancy prevention efforts, they required additional information and training to appropriately address the issue. In response to the assessment findings, several strategies were applied to address readiness and build Youth First partners' capacity to implement the community-wide initiative. Thus, to successfully implement community-wide prevention efforts, it is valuable to assess the level of community readiness to address health issues. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen
Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…
Rogers, Elizabeth A; Fine, Sarah C; Handley, Margaret A; Davis, Hodari B; Kass, James; Schillinger, Dean
To examine the reach, efficacy, and adoption of The Bigger Picture, a type 2 diabetes (T2DM) social marketing campaign that uses spoken-word public service announcements (PSAs) to teach youth about socioenvironmental conditions influencing T2DM risk. A nonexperimental pilot dissemination evaluation through high school assemblies and a Web-based platform were used. The study took place in San Francisco Bay Area high schools during 2013. In the study, 885 students were sampled from 13 high schools. A 1-hour assembly provided data, poet performances, video PSAs, and Web-based platform information. A Web-based platform featured the campaign Web site and social media. Student surveys preassembly and postassembly (knowledge, attitudes), assembly observations, school demographics, counts of Web-based utilization, and adoption were measured. Descriptive statistics, McNemar's χ 2 test, and mixed modeling accounting for clustering were used to analyze data. The campaign included 23 youth poet-created PSAs. It reached >2400 students (93% self-identified non-white) through school assemblies and has garnered >1,000,000 views of Web-based video PSAs. School participants demonstrated increased short-term knowledge of T2DM as preventable, with risk driven by socioenvironmental factors (34% preassembly identified environmental causes as influencing T2DM risk compared to 83% postassembly), and perceived greater personal salience of T2DM risk reduction (p < .001 for all). The campaign has been adopted by regional public health departments. The Bigger Picture campaign showed its potential for reaching and engaging diverse youth. Campaign messaging is being adopted by stakeholders.
Kub, Joan; Feldman, Marissa A.
Bullying among children and adolescents is recognized as a significant global public health problem, as it has serious health consequences. Schools are important sites in which to address violence prevention, specifically bullying prevention, and to promote positive youth development. The Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion outlines five action…
Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.
Andika, Fauziah; Syahputra, Muhammad Yusrizal; Marniati
Pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the infectious diseases that has been known and is still the leading cause of death in the world. It is an old disease which is a global problem in the world and estimated that a third of the world's population has been infected by this bacterium. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors related with the infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in the local goverment clinic of Kuta Baro Aceh Besar. This research is descriptive analytic survey using cross sectional design. It used univariate analysis to see the frequency distribution and the percentage of each variable. Meanwhile, the bivariate analysis used chi square test with CI (Confident Interval) of 95%. The samples in this study are 34 people. The research results obtained with good infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis is 41.2%, 5.9% for teenagers, 47.1% for knowledgeable people, 17.6% for people who do not work and 44.1% for those who have a positive behavior. The results of the bivariate obtained there is correlation between the prevention of pulmonary tuberculosis infection with age (p = 0.087), Occupation (p = 0.364), knowledge (p = 0.006) and behavior (p = 0.020). To conclude, there is a correlation between knowledge and behaviors with the infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients and there is no correlation between age and occupation with infection prevention efforts of pulmonary tuberculosis patients. It is expected that the respondents to hold consultations to health officials about a mechanism of prevention to avoid the disease.
Student and team performance in 17 sections of an introductory microeconomic theory course taught using team-based learning are analyzed to determine what measurable characteristics of teams influence team and individual outcomes. Results suggest that team performance is positively influenced by the grade point average of the top individual on the…
Zhu, Yongli; Wang, Dewen [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China); Song, Shaoqun [Fuzhou Electric Power Industry Bureau, Fujian Province (China)
Abstract - Multi-trips of circuit breakers often occur within a short period in a severe blackout, and the tripping usually relates to relays' mal-operations. In fact, when two ore more electric primary devices are isolated by circuit breakers, the settings of most relays to protect their power system are getting infeasible and uncoordinated. Adaptive settings are needed to prevent them from wrong operation. This paper presents an adaptive protection scheme based on wide area information with best-effort protection strategy, and the outline of multiagents and WAN Based Adaptive Protection System (MAWAPS). In the scheme, the best-effort adaptive strategy is used to guarantee the adaptive settings to operate safely and effectively in most situations. The IP/SDH-based wide area network (WAN) is used to realize real-time wide area information exchange in the proposed protection scheme. Adaptive setting algorithms for the second stage zero-sequence current and phase overcurrent relays are proposed, which can provide larger line coverage than traditional relays. Moreover, multiagent techniques and IEC 61850 are employed to realize the fast communication between different agents, and MMS plays a prominent role in real-time remote communication. A simulating system has been developed according to the above ideas and approaches, and the experimental results show that the proposed adaptive protection scheme is feasible from the view of protective performance including the executing time. (author)
Holloway, Ian W.; Cederbaum, Julie A.; Ajayi, Antonette; Shoptaw, Steven
Despite increasing rates of HIV infection among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), only a minority participate in formal HIV prevention efforts. Semi-structured mixed-methods interviews were conducted with a diverse sample of YMSM (N = 100, M[subscript age] = 25.0 years) in Los Angeles, California, to identify facilitators and barriers to…
Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks
In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…
Dill, Karen E.; Redding, Richard E.; Smith, Peter K.; Surette, Ray; Cornell, Dewey G.
Developmental research on social influences on adolescents can guide practices aimed to prevent homicidal youth violence. School shootings have repeatedly raised questions about the contributory role of bullying and entertainment violence, how news media publicity might produce copycat crimes, and whether stiffer criminal sanctions might have a…
Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata
Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. A cross-sectional study design was employed to collect quantitative data to examine knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola. Structured questionnaire was administered by trained data collectors who were supervised by doctors and epidemiologists from WHO and Africa Union. Data were collected from 358 individuals (93% response rate) and analyzed in STATA 13 while tables and graphs are used to display results. Over 96% of the respondents have ever heard about Ebola while only 76.2% believed the disease existed in Kouroussa. Avoiding physical contacts including hand shaking and contacts with body fluids, and early treatment of persons sick from Ebola were the two important prevention methods frequently mentioned (96.8% and 93.9%). Only 35.7% of respondents were found to have comprehensive knowledge about Ebola (composite of correctly accepting three methods of prevention (85%) and rejecting misconceptions (55.7%)). The high level of knowledge about modes of transmission and prevention methods has not positively affected the level of comprehensive knowledge about Ebola. In contrast, the prevailing high level of misconceptions surrounding Ebola was found to be responsible for a low comprehensive knowledge.
Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Yang, Jen-Hau; Rotolo, Renee; Presby, Rose
Operant behavior is not only regulated by factors related to the quality or quantity of reinforcement, but also by the work requirements inherent in performing instrumental actions. Moreover, organisms often make effort-related decisions involving economic choices such as cost/benefit analyses. Effort-based decision making is studied using behavioral procedures that offer choices between high-effort options leading to relatively preferred reinforcers vs. low effort/low reward choices. Several neural systems, including the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and other brain circuits, are involved in regulating effort-related aspects of motivation. Considerable evidence indicates that mesolimbic DA transmission exerts a bi-directional control over exertion of effort on instrumental behavior tasks. Interference with DA transmission produces a low-effort bias in animals tested on effort-based choice tasks, while increasing DA transmission with drugs such as DA transport blockers tends to enhance selection of high-effort options. The results from these pharmacology studies are corroborated by the findings from recent articles using optogenetic, chemogenetic and physiological techniques. In addition to providing important information about the neural regulation of motivated behavior, effort-based choice tasks are useful for developing animal models of some of the motivational symptoms that are seen in people with various psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., depression, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease). Studies of effort-based decision making may ultimately contribute to the development of novel drug treatments for motivational dysfunction.
Buli, Benti Geleta; Mayigane, Landry Ndriko; Oketta, Julius Facki; Soumouk, Aguide; Sandouno, Tamba Emile; Camara, Bole; Toure, Mory Saidou; Conde, Aissata
Introduction Guinea is the third hardest hit country in the region with 2,806 cases and 1,814 deaths as of January 11, 2015 after Sierra Leone and Liberia respectively. This KAP study was conducted in three sub-prefectures of Kouroussa in the Kankan region of Guinea from 15 December 2014 to 15 January 2015. It was conducted with the general objective of examining the knowledge, attitude and practice related to Ebola prevention and care among the public of Kouroussa Prefecture. Methods A cross...
Nehmy, Thomas J.
Depression and anxiety constitute an enormous public health burden in Australia, and as such primary prevention is an important focus for school-based prevention efforts. The focus of the current literature review is school-based prevention programmes for depression and anxiety in Australia. Most prevention studies to date would be better…
Full Text Available Introduction. Cholera has accompanied mankind since time immemorial with historical records from China, India and ancient Greece. However, registers are available only since 1817, when the first documented pandemic emerged in Asia and spread to Turkey and Arab countries. Since then, eight episodes of cholera pandemic have occurred in the world. Objective. To inform the scientific community about the epidemiological situation in the province of Granma, Cuba, at the cross-sectional period of July 2012 and the prevention and health promotion measures that were introduced in the first level of care for cases of diarrhea caused by Vibrio cholerae. These measures were implemented in the territory with an intersectoral approach, resulting in the adoption of healthy lifestyles by the general population. Conclusion. Basic sanitation activities were undertaken to slow the spread of the disease, complemented by suggestions to the medical community about the importance of epidemiological surveillance to detect reemergence.
Underwood, Barbara A
Visual symptoms (night blindness) of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) were among the earliest diet-related deficiencies documented. Knowledge of vitamin A chemistry, metabolism and deficiency consequences accrued rapidly during the first eight decades of the 20th century. A series of disorders were described in animals, including impaired growth, reproduction, epithelial integrity, and disease resistance that were relieved by consumption of both animal and plant sources of the vitamin. Identification of the intestinal beta-carotene cleavage enzyme in the laboratory of James Allen Olson was seminal to understanding the mechanism for formation of vitamin A from ingested carotenoids. WHO's 1990 estimate of about 40 million children annually with clinical eye signs of VAD was revised upward to 140-250 million at risk of vitamin A deficiency disorders (VADD) when epidemiological and clinical trials demonstrated morbidity and mortality risk even in the absence of ocular signs. Alternative methods for VAD status assessment and more reliable analytical techniques were developed, several in Dr. Olson's laboratory. The last decade has seen global progress in VADD control by expanding distribution of medicinal supplements, fortification of foods and dietary diversification through horticulture and education programs. Experience shows that achievements gained through narrowly focused interventions are fragile and vulnerable to national political and economic instability. Contextually relevant, community-centered strategies that improve household food and nutrition security and self-reliance are critical to sustaining international efforts to control the VADD "pox."
Kass, Andrea E; Jones, Megan; Kolko, Rachel P; Altman, Myra; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Eichen, Dawn M; Balantekin, Katherine N; Trockel, Mickey; Taylor, C Barr; Wilfley, Denise E
Given shared risk and maintaining factors between eating disorders and obesity, it may be important to include both eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management within a universal eating disorder care delivery program. This study evaluated differential eating disorder screening responses by initial weight status among university students, to assess eating disorder risk and pathology among individuals with overweight/obesity versus normal weight or underweight. 1529 individuals were screened and analyzed. Screening was conducted via pilot implementation of the Internet-based Healthy Body Image program on two university campuses. Fifteen percent of the sample had overweight/obesity. Over half (58%) of individuals with overweight/obesity screened as high risk for an eating disorder or warranting clinical referral, and 58% of individuals with overweight/obesity endorsed a ≥10-pound weight change over the past year. Compared to individuals with normal weight or underweight, individuals with overweight/obesity were more likely to identify as Black, endorse objective binge eating and fasting, endorse that eating disorder-related concerns impaired their relationships/social life and made them feel badly, and endorse higher weight/shape concerns. Results suggest rates of eating disorder pathology and clinical impairment are highest among students with overweight/obesity, and targeted intervention across weight categories and diverse races/ethnicities is warranted within universal eating disorder intervention efforts. Integrating eating disorder intervention and healthy weight management into universal prevention programs could reduce the incidence and prevalence of eating disorders, unhealthy weight control practices, and obesity among university students. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pray, Leslie A; Pillsbury, Laura
...) than they are expending. During the last 10-20 years, behavioral scientists have made significant progress toward building an evidence base for understanding what drives energy imbalance in overweight and obese individuals...
Rohde, Paul; Stice, Eric; Marti, C Nathan
Although several prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating disorders, little is known about when these risk factors emerge and escalate, or when they begin to predict future eating disorder onset. The objective of this report was to address these key research gaps. Data were examined from a prospective study of 496 community female adolescents (M = 13.5, SD = 0.7 at baseline) who completed eight annual assessments of potential risk factors and eating disorders from preadolescence to young adulthood. Three variables exhibited positive linear increases: Perceived pressure to be thin, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction; three were best characterized as quadratic effects: dieting (essentially little change); negative affectivity (overall decrease), and BMI (overall increase). Elevated body dissatisfaction at ages 13, 14, 15, and 16 predicted DSM-5 eating disorders onset in the 4-year period after each assessment, but the predictive effects of other risk factors were largely confined to age 14; BMI did not predict eating disorders at any age. The results imply that these risk factors are present by early adolescence, although eating disorders tend to emerge in late adolescence and early adulthood. These findings emphasize the need for efficacious eating disorder prevention programs for early adolescent girls, perhaps targeting 14-year olds, when risk factors seem to be most predictive. In early adolescence, it might be fruitful to target girls with body dissatisfaction, as this was the most consistent predictor of early eating disorder onset in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hallgren, Kevin A; McCrady, Barbara S; Caudell, Thomas P; Witkiewitz, Katie; Tonigan, J Scott
Adolescent drinking influences, and is influenced by, peer alcohol use. Several efficacious adolescent alcohol interventions include elements aimed at reducing susceptibility to peer influence. Modeling these interventions within dynamically changing social networks may improve our understanding of how such interventions work and for whom they work best. We used stochastic actor-based models to simulate longitudinal drinking and friendship formation within social networks using parameters obtained from a meta-analysis of real-world 10th grade adolescent social networks. Levels of social influence (i.e., friends affecting changes in one's drinking) and social selection (i.e., drinking affecting changes in one's friendships) were manipulated at several levels, which directly impacted the degree of clustering in friendships based on similarity in drinking behavior. Midway through each simulation, one randomly selected heavy-drinking actor from each network received an "intervention" that either (a) reduced their susceptibility to social influence, (b) reduced their susceptibility to social selection, (c) eliminated a friendship with a heavy drinker, or (d) initiated a friendship with a nondrinker. Only the intervention that eliminated targeted actors' susceptibility to social influence consistently reduced that actor's drinking. Moreover, this was only effective in networks with social influence and social selection that were at higher levels than what was found in the real-world reference study. Social influence and social selection are dynamic processes that can lead to complex systems that may moderate the effectiveness of network-based interventions. Interventions that reduce susceptibility to social influence may be most effective among adolescents with high susceptibility to social influence and heavier-drinking friends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma
Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.
Parker, Richard G; Perez-Brumer, Amaya; Garcia, Jonathan; Gavigan, Kelly; Ramirez, Ana; Milnor, Jack; Terto, Veriano
efforts are limited and unsustainable. Success of prevention efforts depends on equity of access, community-based ownership, and multilevel support structures to enable usage and sustainability. For existing HIV prevention efforts to be effective in "real-world" settings, with limited resources, reflection on historical lessons and contextual realities (i.e. policies, financial constraints, and biomedical patents) indicated the need to extend principles developed for treatment access and treatment literacy, to support prevention literacy and prevention access as an integral part of the global response to HIV.
The government of Botswana has been spending a lot of money in the prevention, treatment, care and support for HIV/AIDS patient for decades. This paper uses data from the third Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS III) to explore high-risk behaviors of adults and how they affect government efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS. The objective of this paper is to fill in the gap on the assessment of high-risk behaviors associated with HIV/AIDS and their implications on HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. A nationally representative sample of 10,159 men and women aged 20-64 years who had successfully completed the BAIS III individual questionnaire were used in the study. Both descriptive and binary logistic regression analyses were used for analysis. Crude odds ratios were obtained from gross effects model while adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were obtained from the net effects model. Statistically significant association was observed between multiple current partners and alcohol consumption (AOR = 1.5), drug abuse (AOR = 1.7), transactional sex (AOR = 2.6) and intergenerational sex (AOR = 1.07). Furthermore, statistically significant association was seen for inconsistent condom use and having tested for HIV (AOR = 1.5). These results show a worrying tendency that despite government's efforts to stop the spread of HIV/AIDS, adults in Botswana continue to indulge in high-risk behaviors. Therefore, any programs and policies on HIV/AIDS should first target these high-risk behaviors.
van Dijken, M.W.; Stams, Geert-Jan; de Winter, M.
Despite the many efforts taken to prevent child maltreatment, this continues to be a significant worldwide problem. Interventions predominantly focus on ‘at risk’ populations and individual characteristics of the victim or abuser, but is that enough? The present review was designed to examine the
Garnett, Bernice R; Wendel, Josefine; Banks, Chandra; Goodridge, Ardeene; Harding, Richard; Harris, Robin; Hacker, Karen; Chomitz, Virginia R
Despite universal environmental and policy-focused initiatives that resulted in declines in obesity among children in Cambridge, Massachusetts, disparities persist among racial/ethnic groups. In response, a community coalition formed the Healthy Eating and Living Project (HELP), to investigate and disseminate findings regarding disparities in excess weight among Cambridge Black youth (ages 6-14), with the aim of facilitating reciprocal learning and community mobilization to ultimately increase community engagement and inform prevention efforts. This paper details the theoretical framework, methods, and results of disseminating HELP findings to various sectors of the Cambridge Black/African American (Black) community. First, using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, the HELP coalition analyzed existing data and conducted qualitative studies with Cambridge Black families to better understand the sociocultural and familial determinants of excess weight. We then developed presentation and print materials and used different dissemination approaches. We solicited feedback to inform the dissemination process and mobilization of obesity prevention efforts. We disseminated information through six community groups (parents, students, pastors, men's health group, community leaders, and a health coalition), email lists, and websites. Reciprocal learning among and between HELP and community members yielded data presentation challenges, as well as prevention effort ideas and barriers. Dissemination of local health data should be considered both as a strategy to increase community engagement and as an intervention to promote collective efficacy and community change. Careful attention should be dedicated to the language used when communicating racial disparities in excess weight to various community groups.
Tucker, C.; Arandi, C. Galindo; Bolaños, J. Herbert; Paz-Bailey, G.; Barrington, C.
Sexual minority men and transgender women are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala. Innovative prevention strategies are urgently needed to address these disparities. While social network approaches are frequently used to reach sexual minorities, little is known about the unique network characteristics among sub-groups. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 13 gay-identifying men, eight non-gay-identifying men who have sex with men (MSM) and eight transgender women in Guatemala City. Using narrative and thematic coding procedures, we identified distinct patterns in the size, composition, and overlap between social and sexual networks across groups. Gay-identifying men had the largest, most supportive social networks, predominantly comprising family. For both non-gay-identifying MSM and transgender women, friends and sex clients provided more support. Transgender women reported the smallest social networks, least social support, and the most discrimination. HIV prevention efforts should be tailored to the specific sexual minority population and engage with strong ties. PMID:25418236
Cheng, Qijin; Fu, King-wa; Caine, Eric; Yip, Paul S F
The Hong Kong news media report suicide-related events more frequently and sensationally than Western countries. Little is known about Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and thoughts about such reporting. To understand Hong Kong media professionals' experiences and perceptions of suicide reporting and whether the news media can be better engaged into suicide prevention. We conducted three focus groups of journalists from both the Cantonese and English language news media. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. We discerned three rationales from participants regarding their intense coverage of suicide-related events: (1) satisfying commercial competitiveness, (2) addressing social problems, and (3) responding to readers' interests. The first rationale was a dominant and vigorous motivating factor, and often influenced suicide reporting among local Cantonese media. Media professionals recommended engagement strategies targeted at frontline journalists, media managers, and general media consumers. We see potential to involve news media professionals in Hong Kong as working partners in suicide prevention. To succeed, this effort requires engagement in a proactive, consistent, and sustained fashion.
Gencel, Cigdem; Buglione, Luigi
Software effort estimation is still a significant challenge for software management. Although Functional Size Measurement (FSM) methods have been standardized and have become widely used by the software organizations, the relationship between functional size and development effort still needs further investigation. Most of the studies focus on the project cost drivers and consider total software functional size as the primary input to estimation models. In this study, we investigate whether u...
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Hsu, Pi-Shan; Chang, Te-Jeng
The objective of this research is to validate the algorithm of learning effort which is an indicator of a new real-time and non-interfering based diagnostic technique. IC3 Mentor, the adaptive e-learning platform fulfilling the requirements of intelligent tutor system, was applied to 165 university students. The learning records of the subjects…
Timmers, C.F.; Braber-van den Broek, J.; van den Berg, Stéphanie Martine
Feedback can only be effective when students seek feedback and process it. This study examines the relations between students' motivational beliefs, effort invested in a computer-based formative assessment, and feedback behaviour. Feedback behaviour is represented by whether a student seeks feedback
Höhne, N.; Elzen, den M.G.J.; Escalante, D.
Over 40 studies that analyse future GHG emissions allowances or reduction targets for different regions based on a wide range of effort-sharing approaches and long-term concentration stabilization levels are compared. This updates previous work undertaken for the Fourth Assessment Report of the
Chong, T T-J; Bonnelle, V; Husain, M
Motivation can be characterized as a series of cost-benefit valuations, in which we weigh the amount of effort we are willing to expend (the cost of an action) in return for particular rewards (its benefits). Human motivation has traditionally been measured with self-report and questionnaire-based tools, but an inherent limitation of these methods is that they are unable to provide a mechanistic explanation of the processes underlying motivated behavior. A major goal of current research is to quantify motivation objectively with effort-based decision-making paradigms, by drawing on a rich literature from nonhuman animals. Here, we review this approach by considering the development of these paradigms in the laboratory setting over the last three decades, and their more recent translation to understanding choice behavior in humans. A strength of this effort-based approach to motivation is that it is capable of capturing the wide range of individual differences, and offers the potential to dissect motivation into its component elements, thus providing the basis for more accurate taxonomic classifications. Clinically, modeling approaches might provide greater sensitivity and specificity to diagnosing disorders of motivation, for example, in being able to detect subclinical disorders of motivation, or distinguish a disorder of motivation from related but separate syndromes, such as depression. Despite the great potential in applying effort-based paradigms to index human motivation, we discuss several caveats to interpreting current and future studies, and the challenges in translating these approaches to the clinical setting. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yannick Le Moullec
Full Text Available This paper presents a metric-based approach for estimating the hardware implementation effort (in terms of time for an application in relation to the number of linear-independent paths of its algorithms. We exploit the relation between the number of edges and linear-independent paths in an algorithm and the corresponding implementation effort. We propose an adaptation of the concept of cyclomatic complexity, complemented with a correction function to take designers' learning curve and experience into account. Our experimental results, composed of a training and a validation phase, show that with the proposed approach it is possible to estimate the hardware implementation effort. This approach, part of our light design space exploration concept, is implemented in our framework Ã¢Â€Â˜Ã¢Â€Â˜Design-TrotterÃ¢Â€Â™Ã¢Â€Â™ and offers a new type of tool that can help designers and managers to reduce the time-to-market factor by better estimating the required implementation effort.
Sadr, Nadi; Jayawardhana, Madhuka; de Chazal, Philip
A measure of the respiratory effort during a sleep study is an important contributor to the diagnosis of sleep apnoea. A common way of measuring respiratory effort is with bands with stretch sensors placed around the chest and/or abdomen. An alternative, and more convenient method from the patient's perspective, is via the ECG derived respiration (EDR) signal which provides an estimate of the respiratory effort at each heartbeat. In this study we performed a side-by-side comparison of the discrimination information for identifying epochs of sleep apnoea contained in the chest respiratory effort signal and three methods of calculating the EDR signal. Using simultaneously recorded chest band and ECG signals extracted from overnight polysomnogram (PSG) data from 8 subjects (4 controls, 4 apnoeas. MIT PhysioNet Apnea-ECG database), we extracted identical features from the two sensors and used the features to train a linear discriminant classifier to classify one-minute epochs as being apneic or normal. Ground truth labelling of each epoch was achieved with an expert using the full PSG as a reference. Our cross validation results revealed that the full respiratory effort signal resulted in an accuracy of 87% in correctly identifying the epoch label. When the respiratory signal was resampled at each heartbeat (as occurs with the EDR signal) the accuracy was 86%, suggesting that the sampling process inherent to the EDR signal does not materially affect its discrimination ability. The best EDR method was based on the calculating the QRS area for every heart and achieved an accuracy of 81%. Our results suggest that, while there is some information loss in the EDR estimation process, the EDR signal is a convenient and useful signal for sleep apnoea diagnosis.
Zammouri, A.; Chraa-Mesbahi, S.; Ait Moussa, A.; Zerouali, S.; Sahnoun, M.; Tairi, H.; Mahraz, A. M.
The advent of the communication systems and considering the complexity that some impose in their use, it is necessary to incorporate and equip these systems with a certain intelligence which takes into account the cognitive and mental capacities of the human operator. In this work, we address the issue of estimating the mental effort of an operator according to the cognitive tasks difficulty levels. Based on the Electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements, the proposed approach analyzes the user’s brain activity from different brain regions while performing cognitive tasks with several levels of difficulty. At a first time, we propose a variances comparison-based classifier (VCC) that makes use of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) of the EEG signal. The aim of using such a classifier is to highlight the brain regions that enter into interaction according to the cognitive task difficulty. In a second time, we present and describe a new EEG-based index for the estimation of mental efforts. The designed index is based on information recorded from two EEG channels. Results from the VCC demonstrate that powers of the Theta [4-7 Hz] (θ) and Alpha [8-12 Hz] (α) oscillations decrease while increasing the cognitive task difficulty. These decreases are mainly located in parietal and temporal brain regions. Based on the Kappa coefficients, decisions of the introduced index are compared to those obtained from an existing index. This performance assessment method revealed strong agreements. Hence the efficiency of the introduced index.
Williams, Terrinieka T; Griffith, Derek M; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina; Allen, Julie Ober; Sanchez, Jennifer C
The rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs; including HIV/AIDS) among African Americans in Flint, Michigan, are among the highest in the state. In Genesee County, where Flint is located, the incidence of HIV/AIDS cases increased at an average rate of 24% each year from 2003 to 2007 for adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19. YOUR Blessed Health (YBH) is a multilevel, faith-based HIV prevention program designed to increase HIV awareness and knowledge and reduce HIV risk behaviors among African American congregations. This article describes one of the five components of the intervention--training of faith leaders to implement a sexual health curriculum for adolescents in their congregations. Staff from YOUR Center, a community-based HIV service organization, and researchers from the University of Michigan, School of Public Health, partnered with faith-based organizations (FBOs) to address HIV/AIDS in Flint, Michigan. Participating FBOs selected faith leaders to be trained by YOUR Center staff to implement the YBH program in their congregations. Using the HIV Outreach, Prevention and Education (HOPE) curriculum, faith leaders from 20 FBOs provided HIV education to 212 adolescents in Flint, Michigan. Study findings demonstrate that faith leaders who participate in specific and ongoing HIV prevention education training can be useful sexual health resources for youth in faith-based settings. Implications for research and practice highlight the advantages of continued partnerships between FBOs and public health professionals in future HIV prevention efforts for adolescents.
Community Based Crime Prevention in Guatemala. Guatemala is one of the most violent countries in the world. Guatemalans of every age, class and ethnicity confront violence daily in every part of the national territory. According to statistics kept by the police and the human rights ombudsman, Guatemala registered 3 366 ...
Dell'Aquila, C. R.; Cañadas, G. E.; Correa, L. S.; Laciar, E.
This work describes the design of an algorithm for detecting apnea episodes, based on analysis of thorax respiratory effort signal. Inspiration and expiration time, and range amplitude of respiratory cycle were evaluated. For range analysis the standard deviation statistical tool was used over respiratory signal temporal windows. The validity of its performance was carried out in 8 records of Apnea-ECG database that has annotations of apnea episodes. The results are: sensitivity (Se) 73%, specificity (Sp) 83%. These values can be improving eliminating artifact of signal records.
Reilly, John J
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.
Reilly, John J.
Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005
Hiemstra, Djoerd; Van Yperen, Nico W.
In two randomized experiments, one conducted online (n = 174) and one in the classroom (n = 267), we tested the effects of two types of self-regulated learning (SRL) strategies on students’ intentions to put effort into professional development activities: strength-based SRL strategies (i.e.,
Full Text Available Background: Several grip strength tests are commonly used for detecting sincerity of effort. However, there is still no widely accepted standardized sincerity of effort test. Therefore, this study aimed to examine whether grip strength test in three wrist positions could distinguish between maximal and submaximal efforts. Methods: Twenty healthy individuals (10 men and 10 women with a mean age of 26.7 ± 3.92 years participated in this study. All participants completed two test conditions (maximal and submaximal efforts in three wrist positions (neutral, flexion, and extension using both hands. Each participant exerted 100% effort in the maximal effort condition and 50% effort in the submaximal effort condition. The participants performed three repetitions of the grip strength test for each session. Results: The results showed that there is a significant main effect of the type of effort (p < 0.001, wrist position (p < 0.001, and hand (p = 0.028. There were also significant types of effort and wrist position interactions (p < 0.001 and effort and hand interactions (p < 0.028. The results also showed that grip strength was highest at the wrist in neutral position in both the maximal and the submaximal effort condition. Grip strength values of the three wrist positions in the maximal effort condition were noticeably greater than those in the submaximal effort condition. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that grip strength test in three wrist positions can differentiate a maximal effort from a submaximal effort. Thus, this test could potentially be used to detect sincerity of effort in clinical setting. Keywords: grip strength, maximal effort, sincerity of effort, submaximal effort, wrist position
Mytton, J; DiGuiseppi, C; Gough, D; Taylor, R; Logan, S
Early aggressive behaviour is a risk factor for later violence and criminal behaviour. Despite over 20 years of violence prevention interventions being delivered in the school setting, questions remain regarding the effectiveness of different interventions for children exhibiting aggressive behaviour. To examine the effect of school based violence prevention programmes for children identified as aggressive or at risk of being aggressive. We searched CENTRAL, Cochrane Injuries Group specialised register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, other specialised databases and reference lists of articles. We also contacted authors and organisations to identify any further studies. We included trials meeting the following criteria; 1) participants were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups; 2) outcome data were collected concurrently; 3) participants comprised children in mandatory education identified as exhibiting, or at risk of, aggressive behaviour; 4) interventions designed to reduce aggression, violence, bullying, conflict or anger; 5) school based interventions; 6) outcomes included aggressive behaviour, school and agency responses to acts of aggression, or violent injuries. Data were collected on design, participants, interventions, outcomes and indicators of study quality. Results of any intervention to no intervention were compared immediately post-intervention and at 12 months using meta-analysis where appropriate. Of 56 trials identified, none reported data on violent injuries. Aggressive behaviour was significantly reduced in intervention groups compared to no intervention groups immediately post intervention in 34 trials with data, (Standardised Mean Difference (SMD) = -0.41; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.56 to -0.26). This effect was maintained in the seven studies reporting 12 month follow-up (SMD = -0.40, (95% CI -0.73 to -0.06)). School or agency disciplinary actions in response to aggressive behaviour were reduced in intervention groups for nine trials
damage and dental ), suicide (counseling and nurse stress and fatigue), TBI and psychological health (PTSD), injury prevention, wound infection and...neural controlled lower limb prosthesis , powered and regenerative kinetics prostheses, advanced socket design, comfortable and dynamic sensing
Full Text Available The paper concerns effort estimation of software development projects, in particular, at the level of product delivery stages. It proposes a new approach to model project data to support expert-supervised analogy-based effort estimation. The data is modeled using Semantic Web technologies, such as Resource Description Framework (RDF and Ontology Language for the Web (OWL. Moreover, in the paper, we define a method of supervised case-based reasoning. The method enables to search for similar projects’ tasks at different levels of abstraction. For instance, instead of searching for a task performed by a specific person, one could look for tasks performed by people with similar capabilities. The proposed method relies on ontology that defines the core concepts and relationships. However, it is possible to introduce new classes and relationships, without the need of altering the search mechanisms. Finally, we implemented a prototype tool that was used to preliminary validate the proposed approach. We observed that the proposed approach could potentially help experts in estimating non-trivial tasks that are often underestimated.
Li, Huijuan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong
Resource-based cities in China have made momentous contributions to the development of the national economy for decades. However, with the depletion of natural resources, their sustainable development is challenging and transition is important. The Chinese government has made great efforts to help resource-based cities. The purpose of this study is to investigate transition policies and their implementation. Firstly, we reviewed previous studies and summarized the essential elements of some successful resource-based cities, which are useful experiences for Chinese resource-based cities. Secondly, we studied the development of resource-based cities over the past 10 years with a focus on economic development, industrial structure, government revenue and environmental conditions. We found that resource-based cities were less developed compared to other cities. The main reasons are the after-effects of a planned economy, an unreasonable tax system, planning mistakes and misguided resources exploitation policies. Thirdly, we analyzed several aspects of the policy responses after the introduction of transition policies, including designating 69 resource-exhausted cities, supporting cities with funds and projects, formulating transition plans and evaluating transition performance. However, there are some deficiencies in the process of policy implementation. Finally, some recommendations were provided to improve transition performance and sustainable development for resource-based cities. - Highlights: ► Analyze the development of Chinese resource-based cities from four aspects. ► Analyze the causes of less development in resource-based cities. ► Investigate policies and their responses to transformation. ► Provide recommendations to improve transformation performance and sustainable development
Donohoe, M.J.; Russell, B.A.; Clark, P.
Following the passage of the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 (OPA 90) and increased public demands for action in the wake of the Exxon Valdez oil spill, many states are now aggressively redefining and expanding their marine safety and marine environmental protection programs. The US Coast Guard is developing a program to coordinate these efforts with the aim toward minimizing duplicative requirements, leveraging resources, and eliminating barriers to marine transportation due to widely differing federal and state regulations
Heilbron, Nicole; Goldston, David; Walrath, Christine; Rodi, Michael; McKeon, Richard
Several agencies have emphasized the importance of establishing clear protocols or procedures to address the needs of youths who are identified as suicidal through suicide prevention programs or in emergency department settings. What constitutes optimal guidelines for developing and implementing such protocols, however, is unclear. At the request…
Boon Chin Oh
Full Text Available Abstracts Educational-based problem gambling prevention programs are important avenues in targeting at-risk behaviors among adolescents to prevent an escalation of problematic behaviors into adulthood. The aim of this review is to examine features pertinent to effective educational-based programs in the area of adolescent problem gambling prevention in hopes of providing a foundation and future suggestions for preventive efforts. A stronger understanding of this research area will be essential in ensuring that past practical and theoretical advancements are integrated into the development of future programs.
Long, Xi; Fonseca, Pedro; Aarts, Ronald M; Yang, Jie; Weysen, Tim; Haakma, Reinder; Foussier, Jérôme
Polysomnography (PSG) has been extensively studied for sleep staging, where sleep stages are usually classified as wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, or non-REM (NREM) sleep (including light and deep sleep). Respiratory information has been proven to correlate with autonomic nervous activity that is related to sleep stages. For example, it is known that the breathing rate and amplitude during NREM sleep, in particular during deep sleep, are steadier and more regular compared to periods of wakefulness that can be influenced by body movements, conscious control, or other external factors. However, the respiratory morphology has not been well investigated across sleep stages. We thus explore the dissimilarity of respiratory effort with respect to its signal waveform or morphology. The dissimilarity measure is computed between two respiratory effort signal segments with the same number of consecutive breaths using a uniform scaling distance. To capture the property of signal morphological dissimilarity, we propose a novel window-based feature in a framework of sleep staging. Experiments were conducted with a data set of 48 healthy subjects using a linear discriminant classifier and a ten-fold cross validation. It is revealed that this feature can help discriminate between sleep stages, but with an exception of separating wake and REM sleep. When combining the new feature with 26 existing respiratory features, we achieved a Cohen’s Kappa coefficient of 0.48 for 3-stage classification (wake, REM sleep and NREM sleep) and of 0.41 for 4-stage classification (wake, REM sleep, light sleep and deep sleep), which outperform the results obtained without using this new feature. (paper)
Pospichal, Bernhard; Löhnert, Ulrich; Küchler, Nils; Czekala, Harald
Ground-based microwave radiometers (MWR) are already widely used by national weather services and research institutions all around the world. Most of the instruments operate continuously and are beginning to be implemented into data assimilation for atmospheric models. Especially their potential for continuously observing boundary-layer temperature profiles as well as integrated water vapor and cloud liquid water path makes them valuable for improving short-term weather forecasts. However until now, most MWR have been operated as stand-alone instruments. In order to benefit from a network of these instruments, standardization of calibration, operation and data format is necessary. In the frame of TOPROF (COST Action ES1303) several efforts have been undertaken, such as uncertainty and bias assessment, or calibration intercomparison campaigns. The goal was to establish protocols for providing quality controlled (QC) MWR data and their uncertainties. To this end, standardized calibration procedures for MWR have been developed and recommendations for radiometer users compiled. Based on the results of the TOPROF campaigns, a new, high-accuracy liquid-nitrogen calibration load has been introduced for MWR manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG). The new load improves the accuracy of the measurements considerably and will lead to even more reliable atmospheric observations. Next to the recommendations for set-up, calibration and operation of ground-based MWR within a future network, we will present homogenized methods to determine the accuracy of a running calibration as well as means for automatic data quality control. This sets the stage for the planned microwave calibration center at JOYCE (Jülich Observatory for Cloud Evolution), which will be shortly introduced.
This study of the American space based laser weapon (SBLW) research and development (R and D) effort is an attempt to learn how such a weapon system comes into being, how many pursues and justifies such an arm. Particularly interesting is whether the driving force behind the SBLW program is political military as opposed to economic, bureaucratic, or technological. The dissertation consists of two successive chronological parts: both the ancient history of the SBLW, the weapon of light, and then the American SBLW R and D program, are examined to discover how the arm evolved, what its attractive features are and how it has been justified. Throughout, the historical evolution of the SBLW is presented, together with the justification statements embedded in it. The authors feels this study shows that the above political-military justification for the SBLW, as a counter to the Soviet threat, is the real, primary reason for, and the perceived threat the basis of, the American program. Economic, bureaucratic, or technological factors, although possibly contributory, do not well explain the developing SBLW. Instead, its current evolution and development can fundamentally be understood in political-military terms.
Enni Suwarsi Rahayu
Full Text Available Feronia limonia (L. Swingle better known as wood apple is an identity plant of Rembang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. However, the population is very limited. In order to identify the conservation efforts, this ethnobotany study was aimed to determine traditional knowledge on the existence, economic value, utility, breeding technique and conservation of wood apple. The survey was conducted on a total of 102 local people from 10 sub-districts which were determined by proportionally stratified random sampling. Data were collected by questionnaires and individual interviews and then were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that all of respondents knew the figure of wood apple, but only 79.50% understood its status as an identity plant. Most of respondents (96% stated that the fruits have low economic value, 80.39% respondents have utilized ripe fruit as ingredients of beverages and stems as firewood. This utilization was only equal to 29.72% compared to the potential usability based on research results. It was concluded that the traditional knowledge about the existence, economic value, and breeding technique were good and on the contrary, the knowledge about the plant’s usability was bad. The results will form a basic knowledge for in-depth studies to provide a government policy of Rembang Regency in order to develop an efficient strategy of management and conservation of wood apple as plant identity.
Tanning: Does a base tan prevent sunburn? Should I go to a tanning salon before a sunny vacation to help prevent sunburn? Answers ... little evidence to support the idea that a base tan protects you against sunburn. A few sessions ...
Elves, R G; Sweeney, L M; Tomljanovic, C
Effective management of human health and ecological hazards in the manufacturing and maintenance environment can be achieved by focusing on the risks associated with these operations. The NDCEE Industrial Health Risk Assessment (IHRA) Program is developing a comprehensive approach to risk analysis applied to existing processes and used to evaluate alternatives. The IHRA Risk-Based Tiered Approach (RBTASM) builds on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) effort to remediate underground storage tanks. Using readily available information, a semi-quantitative ranking of alternatives based on environmental, safety, and occupational health criteria was produced. A Rapid Screening Assessment of alternative corrosion protection products was performed on behalf of the Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention (JG-APP). Using the RBTASM in pollution prevention alternative selection required higher tiered analysis and more detailed assessment of human health risks under site-specific conditions. This example illustrates the RBTASM for a organic finishing line using three different products (one conventional spray and two alternative powder coats). The human health risk information developed using the RBTASM is considered along with product performance, regulatory, and cost information by risk managers downselecting alternatives for implementation or further analysis.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To determine policy implications, this analysis tracks the evolution of HIV/AIDS infection across China to understand current trends and potential risk factors. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study with spatial analytical model and multilevel spatial models was conducted among 326,157 HIV/AIDS cases reported from 1989-2009. The results indicate that the distribution of HIV/AIDS was clustered at the county level with different directional distributions across China from 2003 to 2009. Compared to 2003, by 2009 there was a 122% increase in HIV cases among rural residents, 294% increase among urban residents, 211% increase among migrants, and 237% increase among permanent residents. The overall proportion of HIV by different routes of transmission showed dramatic changes with a 504% increase in sexual transmission of HIV, 90% decrease in blood/plasma transmission, and 35% decrease in injecting drug user transmission. Sexual transmission was the major transmission route among women (44% and the elderly (59% in men, 44% in women as well as among permanent (36% and urban residents (33%. Among those <65 years old, women increased more than men, but among those ≥ 65 years, men increased more than women. Migrants contributed to the variance of HIV infection between counties but not within counties. The length of highway and urbanization combined with illiteracy were risk factors for HIV/AIDS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Rates of HIV/AIDS among permanent urban residents, particularly women and elderly men, have increased significantly in recent years. To prevent HIV from spreading further among the general population, additional attention should be paid to these populations as well as to migrants.
Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul
Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n=20) to those who did not (n=216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.08), negative affect (η2=0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η2=0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η2=0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre–post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η2=0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating. PMID:25342026
Horney, Audra C; Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul
Numerous trials provide support for the Body Project, an eating disorder prevention program wherein young women with body image concerns critique the thin ideal. Despite medium to large effects, some participants subsequently develop an eating disorder, suggesting that intervention or recruitment procedures could be improved. This study investigated baseline and acute intervention predictors of DSM-5 eating disorder development during a 3-year follow-up among Body Project participants. Combined data from two trials compare participants who experienced eating disorder onset during follow-up (n = 20) to those who did not (n = 216). Participants who did versus did not develop an eating disorder started the intervention with higher eating disorder symptoms (η (2) = 0.08), negative affect (η (2) = 0.06), thin-ideal internalization (η (2) = 0.02), and body dissatisfaction (η (2) = 0.02); the same baseline predictors of eating disorder onset emerged in controls. Attenuated pre-post reductions in eating disorder symptoms (η (2) = 0.01) predicted eating disorder onset but not after controlling for baseline levels. Given that Body Project and control participants who later developed an eating disorder started with initial elevations in risk factors and eating disorder symptoms, it might be useful to develop a more intensive variant of this program for those exhibiting greater risk at baseline and to deliver the prevention program earlier to prevent initial escalation of risk. The fact that nonresponders also showed greater negative affect and eating disorder symptoms suggests that it might be useful to add activities to improve affect and increase dissonance about disordered eating.
Krause, Andreas; Pugh, Thomas A M; Bayer, Anita D; Li, Wei; Leung, Felix; Bondeau, Alberte; Doelman, Jonathan C; Humpenöder, Florian; Anthoni, Peter; Bodirsky, Benjamin L; Ciais, Philippe; Müller, Christoph; Murray-Tortarolo, Guillermo; Olin, Stefan; Popp, Alexander; Sitch, Stephen; Stehfest, Elke; Arneth, Almut
Most climate mitigation scenarios involve negative emissions, especially those that aim to limit global temperature increase to 2°C or less. However, the carbon uptake potential in land-based climate change mitigation efforts is highly uncertain. Here, we address this uncertainty by using two land-based mitigation scenarios from two land-use models (IMAGE and MAgPIE) as input to four dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs; LPJ-GUESS, ORCHIDEE, JULES, LPJmL). Each of the four combinations of land-use models and mitigation scenarios aimed for a cumulative carbon uptake of ~130 GtC by the end of the century, achieved either via the cultivation of bioenergy crops combined with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) or avoided deforestation and afforestation (ADAFF). Results suggest large uncertainty in simulated future land demand and carbon uptake rates, depending on the assumptions related to land use and land management in the models. Total cumulative carbon uptake in the DGVMs is highly variable across mitigation scenarios, ranging between 19 and 130 GtC by year 2099. Only one out of the 16 combinations of mitigation scenarios and DGVMs achieves an equivalent or higher carbon uptake than achieved in the land-use models. The large differences in carbon uptake between the DGVMs and their discrepancy against the carbon uptake in IMAGE and MAgPIE are mainly due to different model assumptions regarding bioenergy crop yields, and due to the simulation of soil carbon response to land-use change. Differences between land-use models and DGVMs regarding forest biomass and the rate of forest regrowth also have an impact, albeit smaller, on the results. Given the low confidence in simulated carbon uptake for a given land-based mitigation scenario, and that negative emissions simulated by the DGVMs are typically lower than assumed in scenarios consistent with the 2°C target, relying on negative emissions to mitigate climate change is a highly uncertain strategy. This article is
Mallett, Kimberly A; Turrisi, Rob; Ray, Anne E; Stapleton, Jerod; Abar, Caitlin; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Tollison, Sean; Grossbard, Joel; Larimer, Mary E
The study examined parent profiles among high school athletes transitioning to college and their association with high-risk drinking in a multi-site, randomized trial. Students ( n = 587) were randomized to a control or combined parent-based and brief motivational intervention condition and completed measures at baseline and at 5- and 10-month follow-ups. Four parent profiles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, indifferent) were observed among participants. Findings indicated control participants with authoritarian parenting were at the greatest risk for heavy drinking. Alternately, students exposed to permissive or authoritarian parenting reported lower peak drinking when administered the combined intervention, compared to controls. Findings suggest the combined intervention was efficacious in reducing peak alcohol consumption among high-risk students based on athlete status and parenting profiles.
Pharris, Anastasia; Nguyen, Thi Kim Chuc; Tishelman, Carol; Brugha, Ruairí; Nguyen, Phuong Hoa; Thorson, Anna
To improve HIV prevention and care programs, it is important to understand the uptake of HIV testing and to identify population segments in need of increased HIV testing. This is particularly crucial in countries with concentrated HIV epidemics, where HIV prevalence continues to rise in the general population. This study analyzes determinants of HIV testing in a rural Vietnamese population in order to identify potential access barriers and areas for promoting HIV testing services. A population-based cross-sectional survey of 1874 randomly sampled adults was linked to pregnancy, migration and economic cohort data from a demographic surveillance site (DSS). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were associated with having tested for HIV. The age-adjusted prevalence of ever-testing for HIV was 7.6%; however 79% of those who reported feeling at-risk of contracting HIV had never tested. In multivariate analysis, younger age (aOR 1.85, 95% CI 1.14-3.01), higher economic status (aOR 3.4, 95% CI 2.21-5.22), and semi-urban residence (aOR 2.37, 95% CI 1.53-3.66) were associated with having been tested for HIV. HIV testing rates did not differ between women of reproductive age who had recently been pregnant and those who had not. We found low testing uptake (6%) among pregnant women despite an existing prevention of mother-to-child HIV testing policy, and lower-than-expected testing among persons who felt that they were at-risk of HIV. Poverty and residence in a more geographically remote location were associated with less HIV testing. In addition to current HIV testing strategies focusing on high-risk groups, we recommend targeting HIV testing in concentrated HIV epidemic settings to focus on a scaled-up provision of antenatal testing. Additional recommendations include removing financial and geographic access barriers to client-initiated testing, and encouraging provider-initiated testing of those who believe that they are at-risk of
Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Bertram, Heike; Naumann, Sebastian
Abstract Background Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Methods Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were ra...
Falls are a major public health problem in the elderly population. The associated health care cost is great. It has therefore become an important public health matter to evaluate those interventions that might be effective in reducing the risk of falls. Risk factors that predict an increased risk of falling are described. We discuss interventions that can be employed in the community to reduce the risk of falls and associated injuries by discipline, including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, and physician-led interventions. We also discuss the cost-effectiveness of such interventions.
Baudron, Alan; Ulrich, Clara; Nielsen, J. Rasmus
-specific measures may not be appropriate for such fisheries. A management strategy evaluation model was developed to compare an effort-management system based on the Faroese example with a TAC system as currently applied in EU fisheries. Results show that when stocks are considered in isolation, a total allowable...... effort system does not necessarily perform better than a TAC one. It depends on stock status and dynamics, the level of uncertainty, and the reactivity of the system to changes in scientific advice. When the stocks are considered together in mixed fisheries, effort management seems, however...
Dean, J; Forsberg, R C; Mendlovitz, S
At the end of history's bloodiest century and the outset of a new millennium, we have an opportunity to fulfil one of humanity's oldest dreams: making the world largely free of war. Global changes make this goal achievable. Nuclear weapons have shown the folly of war. For the first time, there is no war and no immediate prospect of war among the main military powers. For the first time, many proven measures to prevent armed conflict, distilled in the crucible of this century's wars, are available. If systematically applied, these measures can sharply decrease the frequency and violence of war, genocide, and other forms of deadly conflict. To seize the opportunity, nations should adopt a comprehensive programme to reduce conventional armaments and armed conflict. This programme will complement and strengthen efforts to eliminate nuclear arms. To assure its ongoing worldwide implementation, the conventional reduction programme should be placed in a treaty framework. We propose a four-phased process, with three treaties, each lasting five to ten years, to lay the groundwork for the fourth treaty, which will establish a permanent international security system. The main objectives of the treaties are to achieve: 1. A verified commitment to provide full transparency on conventional armed forces and military spending, not to increase forces during negotiations on arms reductions, and to increase the resources allocated to multilateral conflict prevention and peacekeeping. 2. Substantial worldwide cuts in national armed forces and military spending and further strengthening of United Nations and regional peacekeeping and peace-enforcement capabilities. 3. A trial of a watershed commitment by participating nations, including the major powers, not to deploy their armed forces beyond national borders except in a multilateral action under UN or regional auspices. 4. A permanent transfer to the UN and regional security organizations of the authority and capability for armed
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We analyzed HIV testing rates, prevalence of undiagnosed HIV, and predictors of testing in the Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey (KAIS 2007. METHODS: KAIS was a nationally representative sero-survey that included demographic and behavioral indicators and testing for HIV, HSV-2, syphilis, and CD4 cell counts in the population aged 15-64 years. We used gender-specific multivariable regression models to identify factors independently associated with HIV testing in sexually active persons. RESULTS: Of 19,840 eligible persons, 80% consented to interviews and blood specimen collection. National HIV prevalence was 7.1% (95% CI 6.5-7.7. Among ever sexually active persons, 27.4% (95% CI 25.6-29.2 of men and 44.2% (95% CI 42.5-46.0 of women reported previous HIV testing. Among HIV-infected persons, 83.6% (95% CI 76.2-91.0 were unaware of their HIV infection. Among sexually active women aged 15-49 years, 48.7% (95% CI 46.8-50.6 had their last HIV test during antenatal care (ANC. In multivariable analyses, the adjusted odds ratio (AOR for ever HIV testing in women ≥35 versus 15-19 years was 0.2 (95% CI: 0.1-0.3; p<0.0001. Other independent associations with ever HIV testing included urban residence (AOR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.0; p = 0.0005, women only, highest wealth index versus the four lower quintiles combined (AOR 1.8, 95% CI: 1.3-2.5; p = 0.0006, men only, and an increasing testing trend with higher levels of education. Missed opportunities for testing were identified during general or pregnancy-specific contacts with health facilities; 89% of adults said they would participate in home-based HIV testing. CONCLUSIONS: The vast majority of HIV-infected persons in Kenya are unaware of their HIV status, posing a major barrier to HIV prevention, care and treatment efforts. New approaches to HIV testing provision and education, including home-based testing, may increase coverage. Targeted interventions should involve sexually active men, sexually
Zhang, Cuihua; Xing, Peng; Wang, Jianwei
Service quality preference behaviors of both members are considered in service supply chain (SSC) including a service integrator and a service provider with stochastic demand. Through analysis of service quality cost and revenue, the utility functions are established on service quality effort degree and service quality preference level in integrated and decentralized SSC. Nash equilibrium and quantum game are used to optimize the models. By comparing the different solutions, the optimal strategies are obtained in SSC with quality preference. Then some numerical examples are studied and the changing trend of service quality effort is further analyzed by the influence of the entanglement operator and quality preferences.
Thomas, Roger E; McLellan, Julie; Perera, Rafael
Helping young people to avoid starting smoking is a widely endorsed public health goal, and schools provide a route to communicate with nearly all young people. School-based interventions have been delivered for close to 40 years. The primary aim of this review was to determine whether school smoking interventions prevent youth from starting smoking. Our secondary objective was to determine which interventions were most effective. This included evaluating the effects of theoretical approaches; additional booster sessions; programme deliverers; gender effects; and multifocal interventions versus those focused solely on smoking. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, ERIC, CINAHL, Health Star, and Dissertation Abstracts for terms relating to school-based smoking cessation programmes. In addition, we screened the bibliographies of articles and ran individual MEDLINE searches for 133 authors who had undertaken randomised controlled trials in this area. The most recent searches were conducted in October 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) where students, classes, schools, or school districts were randomised to intervention arm(s) versus a control group, and followed for at least six months. Participants had to be youth (aged 5 to 18). Interventions could be any curricula used in a school setting to deter tobacco use, and outcome measures could be never smoking, frequency of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked, or smoking indices. Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Based on the type of outcome, we placed studies into three groups for analysis: Pure Prevention cohorts (Group 1), Change in Smoking Behaviour over time (Group 2) and Point Prevalence of Smoking (Group 3). One hundred and thirty-four studies involving 428,293 participants met the inclusion criteria. Some
Anindya Sekhar Bose
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011 are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. METHODS: Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. RESULTS: Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1. CONCLUSION: Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination.
Bose, Anindya Sekhar; Jafari, Hamid; Sosler, Stephen; Narula, Arvinder Pal Singh; Kulkarni, V. M.; Ramamurty, Nalini; Oommen, John; Jadi, Ramesh S.; Banpel, R. V.; Henao-Restrepo, Ana Maria
Background According to WHO estimates, 35% of global measles deaths in 2011 occurred in India. In 2013, India committed to a goal of measles elimination by 2020. Laboratory supported case based measles surveillance is an essential component of measles elimination strategies. Results from a case-based measles surveillance system in Pune district (November 2009 through December 2011) are reported here with wider implications for measles elimination efforts in India. Methods Standard protocols were followed for case identification, investigation and classification. Suspected measles cases were confirmed through serology (IgM) or epidemiological linkage or clinical presentation. Data regarding age, sex, vaccination status were collected and annualized incidence rates for measles and rubella cases calculated. Results Of the 1011 suspected measles cases reported to the surveillance system, 76% were confirmed measles, 6% were confirmed rubella, and 17% were non-measles, non-rubella cases. Of the confirmed measles cases, 95% were less than 15 years of age. Annual measles incidence rate was more than 250 per million persons and nearly half were associated with outbreaks. Thirty-nine per cent of the confirmed measles cases were vaccinated with one dose of measles vaccine (MCV1). Conclusion Surveillance demonstrated high measles incidence and frequent outbreaks in Pune where MCV1 coverage in infants was above 90%. Results indicate that even high coverage with a single dose of measles vaccine was insufficient to provide population protection and prevent measles outbreaks. An effective measles and rubella surveillance system provides essential information to plan, implement and evaluate measles immunization strategies and monitor progress towards measles elimination. PMID:25290339
Abildgren, Rasmus; Diguet, Jean-Philippe; Bomel, Pierre
that with the proposed approach it is possible to estimate the hardware implementation effort. This approach, part of our light design space exploration concept, is implemented in our framework ‘‘Design-Trotter'' and offers a new type of tool that can help designers and managers to reduce the time-to-market factor...
Scientists produce research resources that are useful to future research and innovative efforts. In a typical scientific scenario, the results created by a collaborative team often include numerous artifacts, observations and relationships relevant to research findings, such as programs that generate data, parameters that impact outputs, workflows…
Bryan, Craig J.; Dhillon-Davis, Luther E.; Dhillon-Davis, Kieran K.
In light of continuing concerns about iatrogenic effects associated with suicide prevention efforts utilizing video-based media, the impact of emotionally-charged videos on two vulnerable subgroups--suicidal viewers and suicide survivors--was explored. Following participation in routine suicide education as a part of the U.S. Air Force Suicide…
Slater, Michael D.; Kelly, Kathleen J.; Edwards, Ruth W.; Thurman, Pamela J.; Plested, Barbara A.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Henry, Kimberly L.
This study tests the impact of an in-school mediated communication campaign based on social marketing principles, in combination with a participatory, community-based media effort, on marijuana, alcohol and tobacco uptake among middle-school students. Eight media treatment and eight control communities throughout the US were randomly assigned to…
Weiss, S; Sawa, G H; Abdeen, Z; Yanai, J
This paper is the result of a collaborative project of Israeli, Jordanian and Palestinian scientists gathered to reveal the current extent of substance abuse and efforts at prevention among Arabs in Israel, Jordan and the Palestinian Authority territories, in order to identify needs and suggest future collaborative activities and directions for regional cooperation. The article provides data and covers the current state of substance abuse prevention and research among Moslems, Christians and Druze in the trilateral region in the 1990s by reviewing prevention materials and studies published in the professional literature, as well as in reports and Doctoral and Master's theses in Arabic, which have been located in academic libraries and other institutions, in the framework of a comprehensive search. This manuscript is the first to summarize Jordanian and Palestinian findings in the substance abuse domain. The review shows that most of the Israeli research in the Arab sector deals with alcohol use among youth, that the majority of Jordanian studies focus on illicit drug use, that the research among Palestinians is in its infancy, and that comprehensive prevention programs are lacking in the trilateral region. It describes the key results of most of the 12 Israeli studies among Arabs, 11 Jordanian studies and four Palestinian studies. It reveals that drug abuse among Israeli Arab students is probably more prevalent than among Jewish adolescents, that the typical Jordanian drug addict has a higher level of education than the typical Palestinian drug addict, and that the Palestinian is more likely to be a multiple drug user. Recommendations for future activities include organization of a regional collaborative workshop in order to establish data collection systems for basic statistics relevant to drug abuse and development of comprehensive prevention programs, as well as studies in the substance abuse domain concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior among the general
Boltaev, Azizbek A; El-Bassel, Nabila; Deryabina, Anna P; Terlikbaeva, Assel; Gilbert, Louisa; Hunt, Timothy; Primbetova, Sholpan; Strathdee, Steffanie A
In Central Asia, between 33% and 72% of cumulative HIV infections has been attributed to unsafe injection practices among people who inject drugs (PWID). We reviewed the current status and trends of national efforts in Central Asian countries to control HIV among PWID, and also reviewed the key structural and health-systems-related challenges that facilitate drug-use-related HIV risk in Central Asia. The spectrum and scale of HIV prevention services targeting PWID vary considerably among Central Asian countries. In all countries, the potential impact of these interventions is hindered by several key features: a restrictive legal environment, poor performance of service providers, widespread opposition to harm reduction, deficient human resources and funding mechanisms, poor services integration, insufficient community involvement, and other structural factors. Scaling up HIV prevention interventions in Central Asia will demand greater attention to the structural, health-care-related and social factors that facilitate HIV risk and impede service utilization among PWID. Multi-level combination prevention interventions should be developed with a focus on the sexual partners and risk networks of PWID, aiming at early detection of HIV, timely enrollment in HIV care, and retention in HIV care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of selective harvesting in a chemostat model. Here, we have taken the purifying effort as a dynamic variable and tax as a control instrument. The existence of the possible steady states along with their globally stable equilibrium is discussed. The optimal tax policy is also discussed with the help of Pontryagin's maximum principle. Finally, numerical examples are taken to illustrate some of the key results.
Saunders, Thomas E; Ward, Darren F
Parasitoid wasps are a mega-diverse, ecologically dominant, but poorly studied component of global biodiversity. In order to maximise the efficiency and reduce the cost of their collection, the application of optimal sampling techniques is necessary. Two sites in Auckland, New Zealand were sampled intensively to determine the relationship between sampling effort and observed species richness of parasitoid wasps from the family Ichneumonidae. Twenty traps were deployed at each site at three different times over the austral summer period, resulting in a total sampling effort of 840 Malaise-trap-days. Rarefaction techniques and non-parametric estimators were used to predict species richness and to evaluate the variation and completeness of sampling. Despite an intensive Malaise-trapping regime over the summer period, no asymptote of species richness was reached. At best, sampling captured two-thirds of parasitoid wasp species present. The estimated total number of species present depended on the month of sampling and the statistical estimator used. Consequently, the use of fewer traps would have caught only a small proportion of all species (one trap 7-21%; two traps 13-32%), and many traps contributed little to the overall number of individuals caught. However, variation in the catch of individual Malaise traps was not explained by seasonal turnover of species, vegetation or environmental conditions surrounding the trap, or distance of traps to one another. Overall the results demonstrate that even with an intense sampling effort the community is incompletely sampled. The use of only a few traps and/or for very short periods severely limits the estimates of richness because (i) fewer individuals are caught leading to a greater number of singletons; and (ii) the considerable variation of individual traps means some traps will contribute few or no individuals. Understanding how sampling effort affects the richness and diversity of parasitoid wasps is a useful
Park, Il Ho; Lee, Boung Chul; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Joong Il; Koo, Min-Seung
Amotivation is a common phenotype of major depressive disorder and schizophrenia, which are clinically distinct disorders. Effective treatment targets and strategies can be discovered by examining the dopaminergic reward network function underlying amotivation between these disorders. We conducted an fMRI study in healthy human participants and medicated patients with depression and schizophrenia using an effort-based reinforcement task. We examined regional activations related to reward type (positive and negative reinforcement), effort level, and their composite value, as well as resting-state functional connectivities within the meso-striatal-prefrontal pathway. We found that integrated reward and effort values of low effort-positive reinforcement and high effort-negative reinforcement were behaviorally anticipated and represented in the putamen and medial orbitofrontal cortex activities. Patients with schizophrenia and depression did not show anticipation-related and work-related reaction time reductions, respectively. Greater amotivation severity correlated with smaller work-related putamen activity changes according to reward type in schizophrenia and effort level in depression. Patients with schizophrenia showed feedback-related putamen hyperactivity of low effort compared with healthy controls and depressed patients. The strength of medial orbitofrontal-striatal functional connectivity predicted work-related reaction time reduction of high effort negative reinforcement in healthy controls and amotivation severity in both patients with schizophrenia and those with depression. Patients with depression showed deficient medial orbitofrontal-striatal functional connectivity compared with healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia. These results indicate that amotivation in depression and schizophrenia involves different pathophysiology in the prefrontal-striatal circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Amotivation is present in both depression and schizophrenia
Bauer, Robert; Fels, Meike; Royter, Vladislav; Raco, Valerio; Gharabaghi, Alireza
Considering self-rated mental effort during neurofeedback may improve training of brain self-regulation. Twenty-one healthy, right-handed subjects performed kinesthetic motor imagery of opening their left hand, while threshold-based classification of beta-band desynchronization resulted in proprioceptive robotic feedback. The experiment consisted of two blocks in a cross-over design. The participants rated their perceived mental effort nine times per block. In the adaptive block, the threshold was adjusted on the basis of these ratings whereas adjustments were carried out at random in the other block. Electroencephalography was used to examine the cortical activation patterns during the training sessions. The perceived mental effort was correlated with the difficulty threshold of neurofeedback training. Adaptive threshold-setting reduced mental effort and increased the classification accuracy and positive predictive value. This was paralleled by an inter-hemispheric cortical activation pattern in low frequency bands connecting the right frontal and left parietal areas. Optimal balance of mental effort was achieved at thresholds significantly higher than maximum classification accuracy. Rating of mental effort is a feasible approach for effective threshold-adaptation during neurofeedback training. Closed-loop adaptation of the neurofeedback difficulty level facilitates reinforcement learning of brain self-regulation. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kornbluh, Mariah; Neal, Jennifer Watling; Ozer, Emily J
The exploration of social networking sites (SNS) in promoting social change efforts offers great potential within the field of community psychology. Online communities on SNS provide opportunities for bridging across groups, thus fostering the exchange of novel ideas and practices. Currently, there have only been limited efforts to examine SNS within the context of youth-led efforts. To explore the potential of SNS to facilitate the diffusion of social justice efforts between distinct youth groups, we linked three school-based youth-led participatory action research projects involving 54 high school students through a SNS. This study offers an innovative methodological approach and framework, utilizing social network analysis and strategic sampling of key student informants to investigate what individual behaviors and online network features predict student adoption of social change efforts. Findings highlight prospective facilitators and barriers to diffusion processes within a youth-led online network, as well as key constructs that may inform future research. We conclude by providing suggestions for scholars and practitioners interested in examining how SNS can be used to enhance the diffusion of social justice strategies, youth-led engagement efforts, and large-scale civic organizing. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.
Workman, Lauren M.; Flynn, Shannon; Kenison, Kelli; Prince, Mary
Continued efforts are needed to reduce teenage pregnancy in the United States. Implementation of evidence-based curricula in schools is one strategy toward meeting this goal. In 2010, the South Carolina Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy (SC Campaign) received funding to implement a teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) curriculum. Congruent with South…
Adongo, Philip Baba; Tabong, Philip Teg-Nefaah; Asampong, Emmanuel; Ansong, Joana; Robalo, Magda; Adanu, Richard M.
Background Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a condition with high fatality. Though the disease is deadly, taking precautions to reduce contact with infected people and their secretions can prevent cross- infection. In the 2014 EVD outbreak, socio-cultural factors were identified to be responsible for the spread of the disease in the three most affected countries in West Africa. In this light, we undertook this study to identify socio-cultural factors that may influence the prevention and containment of EVD in Ghana and ways to address such practices. Methods We conducted a descriptive qualitative study in five regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (5 in each region) with community members (4 in each region) and nurses (1 in each region) were conducted. In addition, forty (40) in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders and opinion leaders; eight in each region. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and transcribed. With the aid of Nvivo 10 for windows, we analyzed the data using framework analysis. Results We found that socio-cultural practices, such as care of the body of dead and burial practices, widowhood rites and anointing children with water used to rinse the dead, were common. These practices require individuals coming into direct contact with either the dead or items used to take care of the dead. Social norms also require frequent handshakes in all social gatherings such as funeral, and religious congregations. We also found that self-medication (using herbs and orthodox medications) was a common practice. People use both biomedical and non-orthodox health outlets either simultaneously or in sequence in times of ill-health. Conclusion The study concludes that high risk socio-cultural practices were common among Ghanaians and generally perceived as indispensable. These high risk practices may hinder containment efforts in the event of an outbreak. Community leaders should be engaged in any social
M. T. Kiefer; S. Zhong; W. E. Heilman; J. J. Charney; X. Bian
Efforts to develop a canopy flow modeling system based on the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) model are discussed. The standard version of ARPS is modified to account for the effect of drag forces on mean and turbulent flow through a vegetation canopy, via production and sink terms in the momentum and subgrid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) equations....
This study aims to develop the core mechanism for realizing the development of personalized adaptive e-learning platform, which is based on the previous learning effort curve research and takes into account the learner characteristics of learning style and self-efficacy. 125 university students from Taiwan are classified into 16 groups according…
Vinther, Morten; Eero, Margit
GAM analyses to predict local cod densities and combine this with spatio-temporal data of fishing effort based on VMS (Vessel Monitoring System). To quantify local fishing impact on the stock, retention probability of the gears is taken into account. The results indicate a substantial decline...
Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.
Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…
Hernández, Noelia; Ocaña, Manuel; Alonso, Jose M.; Kim, Euntai
Although much research has taken place in WiFi indoor localization systems, their accuracy can still be improved. When designing this kind of system, fingerprint-based methods are a common choice. The problem with fingerprint-based methods comes with the need of site surveying the environment, which is effort consuming. In this work, we propose an approach, based on support vector regression, to estimate the received signal strength at non-site-surveyed positions of the environment. Experiments, performed in a real environment, show that the proposed method could be used to improve the resolution of fingerprint-based indoor WiFi localization systems without increasing the site survey effort. PMID:28098773
Hernández, Noelia; Ocaña, Manuel; Alonso, Jose M; Kim, Euntai
Although much research has taken place in WiFi indoor localization systems, their accuracy can still be improved. When designing this kind of system, fingerprint-based methods are a common choice. The problem with fingerprint-based methods comes with the need of site surveying the environment, which is effort consuming. In this work, we propose an approach, based on support vector regression, to estimate the received signal strength at non-site-surveyed positions of the environment. Experiments, performed in a real environment, show that the proposed method could be used to improve the resolution of fingerprint-based indoor WiFi localization systems without increasing the site survey effort.
Holm, Anders; Wang, Camilla; Kousholt, Dorte
Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) can enhance the life chances of all children, and especially socially disadvantaged children. In the Nordic daycare systems, however, it is not clear if ECEC provides equal social and intellectual opportunities for socially disadvantaged children. The VIDA...... in daycare. The objective is to improve our knowledge about effective means and methods when implementing a new innovative type of early childhood educational efforts aimed at socially disadvantaged children. This is done by a systematic approach on the basis of methods developed in the VIDA programs......: presentation of theoretical and empirical knowledge of children’s learning and wellbeing; education, including giving staff the opportunity to refl ect on their own experiences when working with socially disadvantaged children at their center; and, fi nally, training on how to renew practices at local level...
Christine M.W. Totura
Conclusion: Obesity prevention strategy implementation relies on the supportiveness and structure of school climates. Barriers to prevention can impede efforts despite school commitment toward prevention, while stakeholder collaboration can enhance the likelihood that practices are in place.
Perez, A. M. C.; De La Cruz, R. M.; Olfindo, N. T.; Borlongan, N. J. B.; Felicen, M. M.; Blanco, A. C.
Considering that the Philippines is archipelagic in nature and is exposed to disasters accentuated by climate change, water resource monitoring and management has been an important concern in the country. The design and implementation of an effective management scheme relies heavily on accurate, complete, and updated water resource inventories, usually in the form of maps and geodatabases. With the aim of developing a detailed and comprehensive database of all water resources in the Philippines, a 3-year project entitled "Development of the Philippine Hydrologic Dataset (PHD) for Watersheds from LiDAR Surveys", has been initiated by the University of the Philippines Diliman (UPD) and the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). Various workflows has been developed to extract inland hydrologic features in the Philippines using accurate Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) and LiDAR point cloud data obtained through other government-funded programs, supplemented with other remotely-sensed imageries and ancillary information. Since the project covers national-scale mapping and inventory, the implementation was structured to be a collaborative effort between fifteen (15) State Universities/Colleges (SUCs) and Higher Education Institutes (HEIs), along with multiple National Government Agencies (NGAs) and Local Government Units (LGUs). This paper presents the project's general structure, focusing mainly on its attempts and accomplishments in strengthening individual capacities of all involved SUCs, HEIs, and stakeholders utilizing hydrologic data for different applications.
Park, Eunhee; Drake, Emily
To review the characteristics and effects Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs. Systematic review of published articles in peer-reviewed journals in the past 10 years, focused on Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs. Twelve articles were selected based on the following criteria: studies reporting the outcomes of Internet-based smoking cessation or prevention intervention programs for adolescents who are younger than 24 years. The components of youth Internet-based smoking intervention programs are analyzed based on study features (i.e., sample, design, theoretical basis, analysis, outcome measures) and program characteristics (i.e., focus, setting, frequency, duration, intensity, and different components) that make the programs effective. The most common components of effective Internet-based programs are identified as the following: the use of multimedia, tailored approaches, personalized feedback, and interactive features. The characteristics and effects of the programs vary, but most programs show positive results in youth smoking prevention and cessation in spite of the studies' limitations. The evidence from this review provides useful information of recent efforts related to Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs, which can have significant clinical implications in developing future innovative youth smoking prevention and intervention programs. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Steel, Chad M S
Our study is the first to look at mobile device use for child sexual exploitation material (CSEM) consumption, and at the global impact of deterrence efforts by search providers. We used data from Google, Bing, and Yandex to assess how web searches for CSEM are being conducted, both at present and historically. Our findings show that the blocking efforts by Google and Microsoft have resulted in a 67% drop in the past year in web-based searches for CSEM. Additionally, our findings show that mobile devices are a substantial platform for web-based consumption of CSEM, with tablets and smartphones representing 32% of all queries associated with CSEM conducted on Bing. Further, our findings show that a major search engine not located in the United States, Yandex, did not undertake blocking efforts similar to those implemented by Google and Microsoft and has seen no commensurate drop in CSEM searches and continues to profit from ad revenue on these queries. While the efforts by Google and Microsoft have had a deterrence effect in the United States, searchers from Russia and other locations where child pornography possession is not criminalized have continued to use these services. Additionally, the same lax enforcement environment has allowed searchers from the United States to utilize Yandex with little fear of detection or referral to United States law enforcement from the Russian authorities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pérez-Gómez, Augusto; Mejía-Trujillo, Juliana; Brown, Eric C.; Eisenberg, Nicole
During the last 2 years, the Colombian government and the Nuevos Rumbos Corporation have been implementing an adapted version of the Communities That Care (CTC) prevention system, called Comunidades Que se Cuidan (CQC) in Spanish, for use in Colombia. This brief report presents the process of implementing CQC and identifies some of the main challenges and achievements of implementing the system in eight communities in Colombia. Preliminary results of a pilot study of CQC implementation in Colombia show that prevention system development, including a focus on measuring community risk and protection, can be established successfully in Latin American communities despite a lack of rigorously tested prevention programs and strategies. Moreover, mobilizing community coalitions toward science-based prevention, with a focus on examining local risk and protective factor data, can spur development and evaluation of prevention efforts in Latin America. PMID:28154437
Tucker, Sharon; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M.
School-based childhood obesity prevention programs have grown in response to reductions in child physical activity (PA), increased sedentariness, poor diet, and soaring child obesity rates. Multiple systematic reviews indicate school-based obesity prevention/treatment interventions are effective, yet few studies have examined the school nurse role…
Sep 3, 2017 ... Keywords: Faith-based organisations, HIV prevention strategies, systematic review. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v17i3.18. Cite as: Ochillo MA, Teijlingen EV, Hind M. Influence of faith-based organisations on HIV prevention strategies in Africa: a systematic review. .... Business Source Complete. 3. 12.
Vogel, Patrick; Klooster, Thijs; Andrikopoulos, Vasilios OR Vasileios; Lungu, Micea-Filip
Tens of thousands of web applications are written in Flask, a Python-based web framework. Despite a rich ecosystem of extensions, there is none that supports the developer in gaining insight into the evolving performance of their service. In this paper, we introduce Flask Dashboard, a library that
Gomollón, Fernando; García-López, Santiago; Sicilia, Beatriz; Gisbert, Javier P; Hinojosa, Joaquín
Evidence-based clinical guidelines on Ulcerative colitis (UC) have been developed through a consensus, while GRADE methodology is the current standard for guideline development. This is the first one based on GRADE methodology on UC. Following GRADE methodology, the Spanish Group of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's disease (GETECCU) have developed a guideline on UC treatment. After selection of relevant clinical scenarios, 32 clinical questions were chosen and recommendations were established. In 2 questions no recommendation was possible. Twenty-two actions were recommended for, 14 strongly and 8 weakly. However, in 8 questions a recommendation against doing something was obtained, weak in 5 and strong in 3. The majority of recommendations were based on moderate quality evidence, and only 5 on high-quality evidence. With GRADE methodology we find a clear recommendation on possible actions in most clinical decisions in UC treatment, but much more clinical high-quality research is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Non-human primates have emerged as an important resource for the study of human disease and evolution. The characterization of genomic variation between and within non-human primate species could advance the development of genetically defined non-human primate disease models. However, non-human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger-based resequencing validated 85.4% of 41 randomly selected SNPs. Among the short indels identified, a majority (54.6%-77.3% of the variants resulted in a change of 3 base pairs, consistent with expectations for a selection against frame shift mutations. Taken together, these findings indicate that use of a human design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery.
Barfield, Wanda D; Warner, Lee; Kappeler, Evelyn
Teen pregnancy and childbearing have declined over the past two decades to historic lows. The most recent declines have occurred during a time of coordinated national efforts focused on teen pregnancy. This article highlights a federal partnership to reduce teen pregnancy through the implementation of innovative, evidence-based approaches in affected communities, with a focus on reaching African-American and Latino/Hispanic youth. This initiative has the potential to transform the design and implementation of future teen pregnancy prevention efforts and provide a model that can be replicated in communities across the nation. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martin, Luc J; Balderson, Danny; Hawkins, Michael; Wilson, Kathleen; Bruner, Mark W
The current study examined the influence of social identity for individual perceptions of self-worth, commitment, and effort in school-based youth athletes. Using a prospective research design, 303 athletes (M age = 14.89, SD = 1.77; 133 female) from 27 sport teams completed questionnaires at 2 time points (T1 - demographics, social identity; T2 - self-worth, commitment, effort) during an athletic season. Multilevel analyses indicated that at the individual level, the social identity dimension of in-group ties (IGT) predicted commitment (b = 0.12, P = .006) and perceived effort (b = 0.14, P = .008), whereas in-group affect (IGA) predicted commitment (b = 0.25, P = .001) and self-worth (b = 2.62, P = .006). At the team level, means for IGT predicted commitment (b = 0.31, P < .001) and self-worth (b = 4.76, P = .024). Overall, social identity accounted for variance at both levels, ranging from 4% (self-worth) to 15% (commitment). Identifying with a group to a greater extent was found to predict athlete perceptions of self-worth, commitment, and effort. More specifically, at the individual level, IGT predicted commitment and effort, and IGA predicted commitment and self-worth. At the team level, IGT predicted commitment and self-worth.
Nemeth, Noel N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan; Arnold, Steven; Mital, Subodh; Murthy, Pappu; Walton, Owen
Reported here is a coupling of two NASA developed codes: CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) with the MACGMC composite material analysis code. The resulting code is called FEAMACCARES and is constructed as an Abaqus finite element analysis UMAT (user defined material). Here we describe the FEAMACCARES code and an example problem (taken from the open literature) of a laminated CMC in off-axis loading is shown. FEAMACCARES performs stochastic-strength-based damage simulation response of a CMC under multiaxial loading using elastic stiffness reduction of the failed elements.
Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Bertram, Heike; Naumann, Sebastian
Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Methods Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. Results At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. Conclusions The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers.
Hilosky, Alexandra; Sutman, Frank; Schmuckler, Joseph
The authors report on one of a series of studies related to seeking a more effective role for laboratory experience in science instruction. This particular study addresses the status of laboratory based instruction in chemistry at the beginning college level for majors and nonmajors. The study is of interest to those who seek effective means of reforming beginning college level chemistry instruction in ways that give greater emphasis to laboratory based experiences. The study sample consists of 24 college chemistry instructors, and 3000 students from 24 laboratory sessions in 16 institutions of higher education (IHE) located throughout 5 states in the Northeast region of the U.S. An additional IHE in Germany was included for purposes of comparison because of the knowledge that the approach to chemistry instruction in Germany differed substantially from those practiced in the U.S. Pre-, post and actual laboratory sessions were videotaped. Teaching behaviors were analyzed and categorized using the validated MR-STBI (Modified-Revised Science Teacher Behavior Inventory). The fit between instructors' expectations and students' cognitive levels were also examined. This study describes 15 behaviors most and least frequently practiced; a comparison between U.S. and german instruction; and recommendations for instructional reform in the U.S.
Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca
. The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations...... exploit interdisciplinary expertise encompassing drugs, diet, lifestyles, maternal health status, and the environment. The recommendations include evidence-based actions aimed at reducing risk factors and at increasing protective factors and behaviors at both individual and population level. Moreover...
Jin, Xin; He, Mingze; Ferguson, Betsy
-human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab......-eating macaques and eight Japanese macaques. Over 91% of the target regions were captured in the non-human primate samples, although the specificity of the capture decreased as evolutionary divergence from humans increased. Both intra-specific and inter-specific DNA variants were identified; Sanger...... design exon-capture array can provide efficient enrichment of non-human primate gene regions. Accordingly, use of the human exon-capture methods provides an attractive, cost-effective approach for the comparative analysis of non-human primate genomes, including gene-based DNA variant discovery....
Son, L.T.; Schiøler, Henrik; Madsen, Ole Brun
The end-to-end Quality of Service delivered in Bluetooth networks depends on a large number of parameters at different levels, e.g. link capacity, packet delays, etc, which are requested in certain patterns and controlled by various algorithms. In this paper, a method of adaptive distributed...... admission with end-to-end Quality of Service (QoS) provisions based marking information for real time and non real time traffics in Bluetooth networks is highlighted, its mathematical background is analyzed and a simulation with bursty traffic sources, Interrupted Bernoulli Process (IBP), is carried out....... The simulation results show that the performance of Bluetooth network is improved when applying the distributed admission method....
Thielen, J.; Pappenberger, F.; Bartholmes, J.; Kalas, M.; Bogner, K.; de Roo, A.
The hydrological community is looking increasingly at the use of ensemble prediction systems instead of single (deterministic) forecasts to increase flood warning times. International initiatives and research projects such as THORPEX, HEPEX, PREVIEW, or MAP-DPHASE foster successfully the interdisciplinary dialogue between the meteorological and hydrological communities. The European Flood Alert System (EFAS) is a pre-operational example of an early flood warning system based on multiple EPS and poor-man's ensembles weather inputs. EFAS research focuses on the exploration of the EPS stream flow information, their visualisation for different end user communities and their application in risk-based decision-making. EFAS further provides a platform for further research on flash floods, droughts and climate change. Here results from a 2 year statistical skill score analysis from EFAS are presented and complemented with a case study on flooding that took place in Romania in 2007. The research focuses on the benefit of using multiple EPS. Data from eight global medium-range EPS have been extracted from the Thorpex Interactive Global Grand Ensemble (TIGGE) archive to compare the performance of single EPS versus multiple EPS. The case study showed clearly the potential benefit of using multiple EPS instead of relying on single EPS that might entirely miss an event. The study is completed by running additional EPS with different resolutions and leadtimes. Monthly forecasts are explored as first indicators for potential floods while the limited area model EPS (COSMO-LEPS) with much higher spatial resolution but only 5 days lead time are explored for better quantitative forecasts. As first assessment an outlook contrasting the computational demands with the apparent benefit is given together with a few thoughts on developments that should be addressed in the near future.
Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Andersen, Bo Sølgaard
Global concerns about CO2 emissions, national CO2 quotas, and rising fuel prices are incentives for the commercial fishing fleet industry to change their fishing practices and reduce fuel consumption, which constitutes a significant part of fishing costs. Vessel-based fuel consumption, energy...... against three alternative effort allocation scenarios for the assumed fishermen's adaptation to these factors: (A) preferring nearby fishing grounds rather than distant grounds with potentially larger catches and higher values, (B) shifting to other fisheries targeting resources located closer...... engine specifications, and fish and fuel prices. The outcomes of scenarios A and B indicate a trade-off between fuel savings and energy efficiency improvements when effort is displaced closer to the harbour compared to reductions in total landing amounts and profit. Scenario C indicates that historic...
Lencse-Mucha, Judit; Molik, Bartosz; Marszałek, Jolanta; Kaźmierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Ogonowska-Słodownik, Anna
Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4). Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity. PMID:26834874
Full Text Available Results of previous studies have not indicated clearly which tests should be used to assess short-term efforts of people with intellectual disabilities. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate laboratory and field-based tests of short-term effort with maximal intensity of subjects with intellectual disabilities. Twenty four people with intellectual disability, who trained soccer, participated in this study. The 30 s Wingate test and additionally an 8 s test with maximum intensity were performed on a bicycle ergometer. The fatigue index, maximal and mean power, relative maximal and relative mean power were measured. Overall, nine field-based tests were conducted: 5, 10 and 20 m sprints, a 20 m shuttle run, a seated medicine ball throw, a bent arm hang test, a standing broad jump, sit-ups and a hand grip test. The reliability of the 30 s and 8 s Wingate tests for subjects with intellectual disability was confirmed. Significant correlation was observed for mean power between the 30 s and 8 s tests on the bicycle ergometer at a moderate level (r >0.4. Moreover, significant correlations were indicated between the results of laboratory tests and field tests, such as the 20 m sprint, the 20 m shuttle run, the standing long jump and the medicine ball throw. The strongest correlation was in the medicine ball throw. The 30 s Wingate test is a reliable test assessing maximal effort in subjects with intellectual disability. The results of this research confirmed that the 8 s test on a bicycle ergometer had a moderate correlation with the 30 s Wingate test in this population, thus, this comparison needs further investigation to examine alternativeness of the 8 s to 30 s Wingate tests. The non-laboratory tests could be used to indirectly assess performance in short-term efforts with maximal intensity.
Che-Alota, V.; Atekwana, E. A.; Sauck, W. A.; Nolan, J. T.; Slater, L. D.
Previous geophysical investigations (1996, 1997, 2003, and 2004) conducted at the decommissioned Wurtsmith Air Force Base former Fire Training Cell (FT-02) showed a clearly defined high conductivity anomaly associated with hydrocarbon contaminants in the vadose zone and ground water near the source area. The source of the geophysical anomalies was attributed to biogeochemical modifications of the contaminated zone resulting from intrinsic bioremediation. During these previous surveys, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data showed a zone of attenuated GPR reflections extending from the vadose zone to below the water table. Self potential data (SP) data defined a positive anomaly coincident with the hydrochemically defined plume, while electrical resistivity data showed anomalously high conductivity within the zone of impact. In 2007, another integrated geophysical study of the site was conducted. GPR, SP, electrical resistivity, and induced polarization surveys were conducted with expectations of achieving similar results as the past surveys. However, preliminary assessment of the data shows a marked decrease in electrical conductivity and SP response over the plume. GPR data still showed the attenuated signals, but the zone of attenuation was only observed below the water table. We attribute the attenuation of the observed geophysical anomalies to ongoing soil vapor extraction initiated in 2003. Significant removal of the contaminant mass by the vapor extraction system has altered the subsurface biogeochemical conditions and these changes were documented by the 2007 geophysical and geochemical data. The results of this study show that the attenuation of the contaminant plume is detectable with geophysical methods.
Meyer, U.; Siemon, B.; Noell, U.; Gutzmer, J.; Spitzer, K.; Becken, M.
Throughout the last decades mineral resources, especially rare earth elements, gained a steadily growing importance in industry and therefore as well in exploration. New targets for mineral investigations came into focus and known sources have been and will be revisited. Since most of the mining for mineral resources in the past took place in the upper hundred metres below surface new techniques made deeper mining economically feasible. Consequently, mining engineers need the best possible knowledge about the full spatial extent of prospective geological structures, including their maximum depths. Especially in Germany and Europe, politics changed in terms not to rely only on the global mineral trade market but on national resources, if available. BGR and partners therefore started research programs on different levels to evaluate and develop new technologies on environmental friendly, non-invasive spatial exploration using airborne and partly ground-based electromagnetic methods. Mining waste heaps have been explored for valuable residual minerals (research project ROBEHA), a promising tin bearing ore body is being explored by airborne electromagnetics (research project E3) and a new airborne technology is aimed at to be able to reach investigation depths of about 1 km (research project DESMEX). First results of the projects ROBEHA and E3 will be presented and the project layout of DESMEX will be discussed.
Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Embry, Dennis; Poduska, Jeanne M.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
School-based prevention programs can positively impact a range of social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. Yet the current climate of accountability pressures schools to restrict activities that are not perceived as part of the core curriculum. Building on models from public health and prevention science, we describe an integrated approach to…
Preventing Gender-based Violence in Senegal. Laws to protect women in Senegal against violence seem to have little effect in punishing the perpetrators, let alone in preventing the crimes. Senegal's constitution guarantees equality between women and men. The country has signed on to international agreements that ...
Rail base corrosion combined with fatigue or damage can significantly reduce rail life. Studies were done to examine the relative contribution of damage, corrosion, and fatigue on rail life. The combined effects can be separated into constituent fact...
M Ali Jalali
Full Text Available Assessing patterns of fisheries activity at a scale related to resource exploitation has received particular attention in recent times. However, acquiring data about the distribution and spatiotemporal allocation of catch and fishing effort in small scale benthic fisheries remains challenging. Here, we used GIS-based spatio-statistical models to investigate the footprint of commercial diving events on blacklip abalone (Haliotis rubra stocks along the south-west coast of Victoria, Australia from 2008 to 2011. Using abalone catch data matched with GPS location we found catch per unit of fishing effort (CPUE was not uniformly spatially and temporally distributed across the study area. Spatial autocorrelation and hotspot analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal clusters of CPUE (with distance thresholds of 100's of meters among years, indicating the presence of CPUE hotspots focused on specific reefs. Cumulative hotspot maps indicated that certain reef complexes were consistently targeted across years but with varying intensity, however often a relatively small proportion of the full reef extent was targeted. Integrating CPUE with remotely-sensed light detection and ranging (LiDAR derived bathymetry data using generalized additive mixed model corroborated that fishing pressure primarily coincided with shallow, rugose and complex components of reef structures. This study demonstrates that a geospatial approach is efficient in detecting patterns and trends in commercial fishing effort and its association with seafloor characteristics.
Gámez, J M; Ripoll, T; Barrios, V; Anguita, M; Pedreira, M; Madariaga, I
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death for women, especially ischaemic heart disease, which is still considered a man's disease. In Spain, there are various registries on ischaemic heart disease, although none are exclusively for women. The objectives of the SIRENA study were to describe the clinical profile of women with ischaemic heart disease treated in cardiology consultations, to estimate its prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and understand its clinical management. A multicentre observational study was conducted with a sample of 631 women with stable ischaemic heart disease, consecutively included during cardiology consultations. Forty-one researchers from all over Spain participated in the study. The mean age was 68.5 years. The clinical presentation was in the form of acute coronary syndrome in up to 67.2% of the patients. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors was high (77.7% of the patients had hypertension, 40.7% had diabetes and 68% had dyslipidaemia), with 30.7% having uncontrolled hypertension, 78.4% having LDL-cholesterol levels higher than 70mg/dL and 49.2% having HbA1c levels greater than 7%. The considerable majority of the patients underwent optimal medical treatment with antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers and hypolipidaemic agents. Coronary angiography was performed for 88.3% of the patients, and 63.4% underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Women with stable ischaemic heart disease in Spain initially present some form of acute coronary syndrome and a high prevalence of inadequately controlled cardiovascular risk factors, despite undergoing optimal medical therapy. A high percentage of these women undergo coronary revascularisation. Increased efforts are required for secondary prevention in women with stable ischaemic heart disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.
Lemieux, Anthony F; Fisher, Jeffrey D; Pratto, Felicia
This research examines the process of conducting and evaluating a music-based HIV prevention intervention among urban adolescents, and is informed by the information, motivation, behavioral skills (IMB) model. Musically talented opinion leaders were recruited to write, record, and distribute HIV prevention themed music to their peers to increase HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors. In this 3-month field experiment, participants were 306 students enrolled in health classes at each of three large multiracial urban high schools (one treatment school; two control schools). Measures of HIV prevention information, motivation, behavioral skills, and behaviors, both pre- and postintervention. Results indicate that the intervention influenced several aspects of HIV prevention motivation, behavioral skills, and condom use and HIV testing behaviors. This research demonstrates that the incorporation of music into HIV prevention interventions for adolescents has the potential to be effective.
EWI was engaged by the Federal Railroad Administration to research rail treatments to prevent rail base corrosion in corrosive environments. A coating system was selected in Phase 1 and recommended for field trials. In Phase 2, four railroads sponsor...
Botvin, Gilbert J; Griffin, Kenneth W; Nichols, Tracy Diaz
Violence is an important public health problem among adolescents in the United States. Substance use and violence tend to co-occur among adolescents and appear to have similar etiologies. The present study examined the extent to which a comprehensive prevention approach targeting an array of individual-level risk and protective factors and previously found effective in preventing tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use is capable of decreasing violence and delinquency. Schools (N=41) were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Participants in the 20 intervention schools received the Life Skills Training prevention program including material focusing on violence and the media, anger management, and conflict resolution skills. Survey data were collected from 4,858 sixth grade students prior to the intervention and three months later after the intervention. Findings showed significant reductions in violence and delinquency for intervention participants relative to controls. Stronger prevention effects were found for students who received at least half of the preventive intervention. These effects include less verbal and physical aggression, fighting, and delinquency. The results of this study indicate that a school-based prevention approach previously found to prevent tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drug use can also prevent violence and delinquency.
Sperlich, Stefanie; Peter, Richard; Geyer, Siegfried
This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in unpaid household and family work. Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129) the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren)'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper reports on results of a newly developed questionnaire for the assessment of effort-reward imbalance (ERI in unpaid household and family work. Methods: Using a cross-sectional population-based survey of German mothers (n = 3129 the dimensional structure of the theoretical ERI model was validated by means of Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA. Analyses of Variance were computed to examine relationships between ERI and social factors and health outcomes. Results CFA revealed good psychometric properties indicating that the subscale 'effort' is based on one latent factor and the subscale 'reward' is composed of four dimensions: 'intrinsic value of family and household work', 'societal esteem', 'recognition from the partner', and 'affection from the child(ren'. About 19.3% of mothers perceived lack of reciprocity and 23.8% showed high rates of overcommitment in terms of inability to withdraw from household and family obligations. Socially disadvantaged mothers were at higher risk of ERI, in particular with respect to the perception of low societal esteem. Gender inequality in the division of household and family work and work-family conflict accounted most for ERI in household and family work. Analogous to ERI in paid work we could demonstrate that ERI affects self-rated health, somatic complaints, mental health and, to some extent, hypertension. Conclusions The newly developed questionnaire demonstrates satisfied validity and promising results for extending the ERI model to household and family work.
Bastardie, Francois; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Miethe, Tanja
or to the alteration of individual fishing patterns. We demonstrate that integrating the spatial activity of vessels and local fish stock abundance dynamics allow for interactions and more realistic predictions of fishermen behaviour, revenues and stock abundance......We previously developed a spatially explicit, individual-based model (IBM) evaluating the bio-economic efficiency of fishing vessel movements between regions according to the catching and targeting of different species based on the most recent high resolution spatial fishery data. The main purpose...... was to test the effects of alternative fishing effort allocation scenarios related to fuel consumption, energy efficiency (value per litre of fuel), sustainable fish stock harvesting, and profitability of the fisheries. The assumption here was constant underlying resource availability. Now, an advanced...
Volpe, Massimo; Battistoni, Allegra; Gallo, Giovanna; Coluccia, Roberta; De Caterina, Raffaele
While the use of aspirin in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CVD) is well established, aspirin in primary prevention is not systematically recommended because the absolute CV event reduction is similar to the absolute excess in major bleedings. Recently, emerging evidence suggests the possibility that the assumption of aspirin, may also be effective in the prevention of cancer. By adding to the CV prevention benefits the potential beneficial effect of aspirin in reducing the incidence of mortality and cancer could tip the balance between risks and benefits of aspirin therapy in the primary prevention in favour of the latter and broaden the indication for treatment with in populations at average risk. While prospective and randomized study are currently investigating the effect of aspirin in prevention of both cancer and CVD, clinical efforts at the individual level to promote the use of aspirin in global (or total) primary prevention could be already based on a balanced evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio.
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Full Text Available Context: Around 2.5 million people become infected with HIV each year and its impact on human life and public health can only be tackled and reversed only by sound prevention strategies. Aim: This paper aims to provide the reader about different types of prevention strategies that are effective and practiced in various countries with special emphasis on evidence for success. It also highlights the importance of to the evidence based medicine& strategies. It describes about the importance of combination prevention, which encompasses complementary behavioral, biomedical and structural prevention strategies. Methods & Materials: Searches for peer reviewed journal articles was conducted using the search engines to gather the information from databases of medicine, health sciences and social sciences. Information for each strategy is organized & presented systematically with detailed discussion. Results: For a successful reduction in HIV transmission, there is a great need for combined effects of radical & sustainable behavioral changes among individuals who are potentially at risk. Second, combination prevention is essential for HIV prevention is neither simple nor simplistic. Reductions in HIV transmission need widespread and sustained efforts. A mix of communication channels are essential to disseminate messages to motivate people to engage in various methods of risk reduction. Conclusions: The effect of behavioral strategies could be increased by aiming for many goals that are achieved by use of multilevel approaches with populations both uninfected and infected with HIV. Combination prevention programs operate on different levels to address the specific, but diverse needs of the populations at risk of HIV infection.
Full Text Available In this paper, we comparatively assess the sustainability of rural electrification efforts based on off-grid solutions in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Our assessment considers four dimensions of sustainability (institutional, economic, environmental, and socio-cultural. We found that Ecuador and Chile have consistently failed to ensure mechanisms for the operation and maintenance of the deployed off-grid systems, which has made these solutions in poor Chilean and Ecuadorian communities inevitably unsustainable. Although Peru has adopted a cross-tariff scheme, the Peruvian case shows that ensuring the funding of off-grid PV solutions is not enough. Peruvian officials appear to be unaware of the importance of local participation (local values and lifestyles are constantly disregarded and most of the projects have been designed without the participation and engagement of the communities, which has often led to project failures and payment defaults. However, although each country has its particular challenges, we found that the three Andean countries have consistently neglected the importance of strong formal institutions with a flexible and decentralized structure, which in turn significantly compromised the rural electrification effort in these countries.
Hastuti, Apriyani Puji; Nursalam, Nursalam; Triharini, Mira
Introductions: Medication error is one of many types of errors that could decrease the quality and safety of healthcare. Increasing number of adverse events (AE) reflects the number of medication errors. This study aimed to develop a model of medication error prevention based on knowledge management. This model is expected to improve knowledge and skill of nurses to prevent medication error which is characterized by the decrease of adverse events (AE). Methods: This study consisted of two sta...
Padula, William V; Mishra, Manish K; Makic, Mary Beth F; Valuck, Robert J
To enhance the learner's competence with knowledge about a framework of quality improvement (QI) interventions to implement evidence-based practices for pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Summarize the process of creating and initiating the best-practice framework of QI for PrU prevention.2. Identify the domains and QI interventions for the best-practice framework of QI for PrU prevention. Pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention is a priority issue in US hospitals. The National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel endorses an evidence-based practice (EBP) protocol to help prevent PrUs. Effective implementation of EBPs requires systematic change of existing care units. Quality improvement interventions offer a mechanism of change to existing structures in order to effectively implement EBPs for PrU prevention. The best-practice framework developed by Nelson et al is a useful model of quality improvement interventions that targets process improvement in 4 domains: leadership, staff, information and information technology, and performance and improvement. At 2 academic medical centers, the best-practice framework was shown to physicians, nurses, and health services researchers. Their insight was used to modify the best-practice framework as a reference tool for quality improvement interventions in PrU prevention. The revised framework includes 25 elements across 4 domains. Many of these elements support EBPs for PrU prevention, such as updates in PrU staging and risk assessment. The best-practice framework offers a reference point to initiating a bundle of quality improvement interventions in support of EBPs. Hospitals and clinicians tasked with quality improvement efforts can use this framework to problem-solve PrU prevention and other critical issues.
Sandra J. Gonzalez
Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a common cancer that affects one in three men and one in four women worldwide. Late-stage detection is associated with significantly lower 5-year survival rates. Although it is well established that CRC mortality rates have decreased in the past several decades, adoption of routine screening continues to lag behind screening for other common cancers such as cervical and breast cancer. The decrease in overall rates has been attributed, in part, to improved primary and secondary prevention efforts, including smoking prevention and cessation programs, nutritional counseling, and the use of evidence-based screening protocols, as well as access to better treatment. Despite the increased screening rates, it is estimated that at least one-third of eligible people do not receive appropriate screening. The objective of this review is to describe the current epidemiology of CRC and to demonstrate effective primary and secondary prevention strategies for the primary care provider.
Stellefson, Michael; Barry, Adam; Chaney, Beth H; Chaney, J Don; Hanik, Bruce
What exactly is health education? Professionals with advanced degrees in health education have most likely encountered questions such as these either during introductory coursework or from those inquiring about the field. These queries can prove quite perplexing when asked by individuals who are unaware of the health education profession. Because the act of marketing health education is crucial to the sustainability of the field, the purpose of this article is to (a) explore the issue of describing and promoting health education, (b) establish ideas that can facilitate the provision of coordinated marketing efforts, and (c) offer marketing management and implementation principles that can assist in marketing both health education and health educators. Based on this discussion, the authors suggest building mainstream consensus in regards to marketing message development and implementation to better position health education.
Stanford, Fatima Cody; Taveras, Elsie M
In 2009, Massachusetts (MA) Department of Public Health (DPH) implemented new regulations that required public schools in the state to measure height and weight, determine body mass index (BMI), and notify parents of children in grades 1, 4, 7, and 10 of their child's weight status. After 3 years of implementation, MA DPH recently abandoned parental notification of school-based BMI screening results citing several concerns including flaws in the ability to monitor the way that the BMI screening results were communicated from the schools to parents/guardians and some reports of breaches in confidentiality of students' measurements. In this article, we review implementation issues that could have impacted the success of the MA DPH regulation as well as lessons to be learned and potentially applied to future childhood obesity efforts. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.
Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Paddock, Susan; Chiesa, James
School-based drug prevention programs target not only the use of illicit drugs such as marijuana but also licit substances such as alcohol and tobacco. These programs thus have the potential of benefiting society not only by reducing the violence and criminal justice costs associated with abuse of alcohol and cigarettes. This opportunity for…
Minnis, A M; Moore, J G; Doherty, I A; Rodas, C; Auerswald, C; Shiboski, S; Padian, N S
Among a cohort of 237 sexually active females aged 14-19 years recruited from community venues in a predominantly Latino neighborhood in San Francisco, California, the authors examined the relation between gang exposure and pregnancy incidence over 2 years of follow-up between 2001 and 2004. Using discrete-time survival analysis, they investigated whether gang membership by individuals and partners was associated with pregnancy incidence and determined whether partnership characteristics, contraceptive behaviors, and pregnancy intentions mediated the relation between gang membership and pregnancy. Pregnancy incidence was determined by urine-based testing and self-report. Latinas represented 77% of participants, with one in five born outside the United States. One quarter (27.4%) became pregnant over follow-up. Participants' gang membership had no significant effect on pregnancy incidence (hazard ratio = 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 3.45); however, having partners who were in gangs was associated with pregnancy (hazard ratio = 1.90, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 3.32). The male partner's perceived pregnancy intentions and having a partner in detention each mediated the effect of partner's gang membership on pregnancy risk. Increased pregnancy incidence among young women with gang-involved partners highlights the importance of integrating reproductive health prevention into programs for gang-involved youth. In addition, high pregnancy rates indicate a heightened risk for sexually transmitted infections.
Background Since the beginning of 2007, the National Health Research Institutes has been promoting the dissemination of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The current study examined longitudinal trends of behaviors in how hospital-based physicians and nurses have searched for medical information during the spread of EBM. Methods Cross-sectional postal questionnaire surveys were conducted in nationally representative regional hospitals of Taiwan thrice in 2007, 2009, and 2011. Demographic data were gathered concerning gender, age, working experience, teaching appointment, academic degree, and administrative position. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors and changes over time. Results Data from physicians and nurses were collected in 2007 (n = 1156), 2009 (n = 2975), and 2011 (n = 3999). There were significant increases in the use of four Internet-based resources – Web portals, online databases, electronic journals, and electronic books – across the three survey years among physicians and nurses (p < 0.001). Access to textbooks and printed journals, however, did not change over the 4-year study period. In addition, there were significant relationships between the usage of Internet-based resources and users’ characteristics. Age and faculty position were important predictors in relation to the usage among physicians and nurses, while academic degree served as a critical factor among nurses only. Conclusions Physicians and nurses used a variety of sources to look for medical information. There was a steady increase in use of Internet-based resources during the diffusion period of EBM. The findings highlight the importance of the Internet as a prominent source of medical information for main healthcare professionals. PMID:23289500
Weng, Yi-Hao; Kuo, Ken N; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Lo, Heng-Lien; Shih, Ya-Hui; Chen, Chiehfeng; Chiu, Ya-Wen
Since the beginning of 2007, the National Health Research Institutes has been promoting the dissemination of evidence-based medicine (EBM). The current study examined longitudinal trends of behaviors in how hospital-based physicians and nurses have searched for medical information during the spread of EBM. Cross-sectional postal questionnaire surveys were conducted in nationally representative regional hospitals of Taiwan thrice in 2007, 2009, and 2011. Demographic data were gathered concerning gender, age, working experience, teaching appointment, academic degree, and administrative position. Linear and logistic regression models were used to examine predictors and changes over time. Data from physicians and nurses were collected in 2007 (n = 1156), 2009 (n = 2975), and 2011 (n = 3999). There were significant increases in the use of four Internet-based resources - Web portals, online databases, electronic journals, and electronic books - across the three survey years among physicians and nurses (p < 0.001). Access to textbooks and printed journals, however, did not change over the 4-year study period. In addition, there were significant relationships between the usage of Internet-based resources and users' characteristics. Age and faculty position were important predictors in relation to the usage among physicians and nurses, while academic degree served as a critical factor among nurses only. Physicians and nurses used a variety of sources to look for medical information. There was a steady increase in use of Internet-based resources during the diffusion period of EBM. The findings highlight the importance of the Internet as a prominent source of medical information for main healthcare professionals.
Full Text Available Software defect prevention is an important way to reduce the defect introduction rate. As the primary cause of software defects, human error can be the key to understanding and preventing software defects. This paper proposes a defect prevention approach based on human error mechanisms: DPeHE. The approach includes both knowledge and regulation training in human error prevention. Knowledge training provides programmers with explicit knowledge on why programmers commit errors, what kinds of errors tend to be committed under different circumstances, and how these errors can be prevented. Regulation training further helps programmers to promote the awareness and ability to prevent human errors through practice. The practice is facilitated by a problem solving checklist and a root cause identification checklist. This paper provides a systematic framework that integrates knowledge across disciplines, e.g., cognitive science, software psychology and software engineering to defend against human errors in software development. Furthermore, we applied this approach in an international company at CMM Level 5 and a software development institution at CMM Level 1 in the Chinese Aviation Industry. The application cases show that the approach is feasible and effective in promoting developers’ ability to prevent software defects, independent of process maturity levels.
Espelage, Dorothy L
School-based bullying and other forms of school violence have been the topic of over 40 years of research in the U.S. and internationally. Within the last 2 decades, research has increasingly informed bullying prevention, policy, and legislative efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight several critical research areas on bullying and other forms of school violence that have shaped prevention efforts and policy over the last 2 decades. As the recipient of the 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy , the discussion here will focus largely on research findings from The Espelage Lab and collaborators, but these studies and findings will be situated in the larger literature. Topics covered include conceptualization of bullying from a social-ecological framework, developmental considerations of bullying and associated forms of aggression, identification of populations at heightened risk for bullying, and efficacy of bullying prevention programs. Recommendations are provided for the next generation of scholars, practitioners, and policymakers focused on bullying prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Thiele, Ines; Hyduke, Daniel R.; Steeb, Benjamin; Fankam, Guy; Allen, Douglas K.; Bazzani, Susanna; Charusanti, Pep; Chen, Feng-Chi; Fleming, Ronan MT; Hsiung, Chao A.; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid CJ; Liao, Yu-Chieh; Marchal, Kathleen; Mo, Monica L.; Özdemir, Emre; Raghunathan, Anu; Reed, Jennifer L.; Shin, Sook-Il; Sigurbjörnsdóttir, Sara; Steinmann, Jonas; Sudarsan, Suresh; Swainston, Neil; Thijs, Inge M.; Zengler, Karsten; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Bumann, Dirk
Metabolic reconstructions (MRs) are common denominators in systems biology and represent biochemical, genetic, and genomic (BiGG) knowledge-bases for target organisms by capturing currently available information in a consistent, structured manner. Salmonella enterica subspecies I serovar Typhimurium is a human pathogen, causes various diseases and its increasing antibiotic resistance poses a public health problem. Here, we describe a community-driven effort, in which more than 20 experts in S. Typhimurium biology and systems biology collaborated to reconcile and expand the S. Typhimurium BiGG knowledge-base. The consensus MR was obtained starting from two independently developed MRs for S. Typhimurium. Key results of this reconstruction jamboree include i) development and implementation of a community-based workflow for MR annotation and reconciliation; ii) incorporation of thermodynamic information; and iii) use of the consensus MR to identify potential multi-target drug therapy approaches. Finally, taken together, with the growing number of parallel MRs a structured, community-driven approach will be necessary to maximize quality while increasing adoption of MRs in experimental design and interpretation.
Kim, Kyuwon; Kim, Boemjun; Go, Youngil; Park, Jaeyong; Park, Joonhong; Suh, Insoo; Yi, Kyongsu
This paper describes a lateral disturbance compensation algorithm for an application to a motor-driven power steering (MDPS)-based driver assistant system. The lateral disturbance including wind force and lateral load transfer by bank angle reduces the driver's steering refinement and at the same time increases the possibility of an accident. A lateral disturbance compensation algorithm is designed to determine the motor overlay torque of an MDPS system for reducing the manoeuvreing effort of a human driver under lateral disturbance. Motor overlay torque for the compensation of driver's steering torque induced by the lateral disturbance consists of human torque feedback and feedforward torque. Vehicle-driver system dynamics have been investigated using a combined dynamic model which consists of a vehicle dynamic model, driver steering dynamic model and lateral disturbance model. The human torque feedback input has been designed via the investigation of the vehicle-driver system dynamics. Feedforward input torque is calculated to compensate additional tyre self-aligning torque from an estimated lateral disturbance. The proposed compensation algorithm has been implemented on a developed driver model which represents the driver's manoeuvreing characteristics under the lateral disturbance. The developed driver model has been validated with test data via a driving simulator in a crosswind condition. Human-in-the-loop simulations with a full-scale driving simulator on a virtual test track have been conducted to investigate the real-time performance of the proposed lateral disturbance compensation algorithm. It has been shown from simulation studies and human-in-the-loop simulation results that the driver's manoeuvreing effort and a lateral deviation of the vehicle under the lateral disturbance can be significantly reduced via the lateral disturbance compensation algorithm.
Olson Beal, Heather K.; Beal, Brent D.
The marketization of K-12 education has led to an increase in school-based marketing efforts. Relatively little research, however, has examined how public schools market themselves, who is involved in marketing, and how these marketing efforts impact key stakeholders, including school administrators, teachers, students, and parents.We explore…
Morgan, Rosemary; Green, Andrew; Boesten, Jelke
Faith-based organizations (FBOs) have a long tradition of providing HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation services in Africa. The overall response of FBOs, however, has been controversial, particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention and FBO's rejection of condom use and promotion, which can conflict with and negatively influence national HIV/AIDS prevention response efforts. This article reports the findings from a study that explored the factors influencing the HIV/AIDS prevention policy process within faith-based non-governmental organizations (NGOs) of different faiths. These factors were examined within three faith-based NGOs in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania-a Catholic, Anglican and Muslim organization. The research used an exploratory, qualitative case-study approach, and employed a health policy analysis framework, examining the context, actor and process factors and how they interact to form content in terms of policy and its implementation within each organization. Three key factors were found to influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention response in terms of both policy and its implementation: (1) the faith structure in which the organizations are a part, (2) the presence or absence of organizational policy and (3) the professional nature of the organizations and its actors. The interaction between these factors, and how actors negotiate between them, was found to shape the organizations' HIV/AIDS prevention response. This article reports on these factors and analyses the different HIV/AIDS prevention responses found within each organization. By understanding the factors that influence faith-based NGOs' HIV/AIDS prevention policy process, the overall faith-based response to HIV/AIDS, and how it corresponds to national response efforts, is better understood. It is hoped that by doing so the government will be better able to identify how to best work with FBOs to meet national HIV/AIDS prevention targets, improving the overall role of FBOs in the fight against
Andrea L. Wirtz
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against children (VAC remains a global problem. The health sector has an opportunity and responsibility to be part of the multi-sector collaboration to prevent and respond to VAC. This review aimed to assess the health sector’s response to VAC among Latin American & Caribbean (LAC countries, particularly as it relates to physical violence, sexual violence, and neglect. Method National protocols for the identification and provision of health care to child survivors of violence, abuse and neglect were solicited in partnership with UNICEF and PAHO/WHO country offices within the LAC region. A parallel systematic review was undertaken in January 2015 to review studies published in the last 10 years that describe the regional health sector response to VAC. Results We obtained health sectors guidelines/protocols related to VAC from 22 of 43 (51 % countries and reviewed 97 published articles/reports that met the review inclusion criteria. Country protocols were presented in Spanish (n = 12, Portuguese (n = 1, and English (n = 9. Thematic areas of country protocols included: 1 identifying signs and symptoms of VAC, 2 providing patient-centered care to the victim, and 3 immediate treatment of injuries related to VAC. The systematic review revealed that health professionals are often unaware of national protocols and lack training, resources, and support to respond to cases of VAC. Further, there is limited coordination between health and social protection services. Conclusions VAC remains an international, public health priority. Health professionals are well-positioned to identify, treat and refer cases of VAC to appropriate institutions and community-based partners. However, poor protocol dissemination and training, limited infrastructure, and inadequate human resources challenge adherence to VAC guidelines.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.
Teenage pregnancy and parenthood have unfortunate consequences for society, teenage mothers, and the children born to them. This report to the Senate is intended to provide information on (1) state strategies to reduce teen pregnancy and how states fund these efforts; (2) how welfare reform affected states' strategies; (3) the extent to which…
Zhu, H.; Ou, Carol; Davison, R.M.; Pavlou, P.A.; Liu, H.W.
With the increasing prosperity of online marketplaces, millions of items are available on a single plat-form. Due to the limited cognitive capacity of human beings, consumers make purchase decisions in a way that balances both effort and accuracy, as contended by the effort-accuracy trade-off (EATO)
The main objective of this review is to provide a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of community-based organizations (CBOs) to contribute to HIV/AIDS prevention, care/support and control programs in Ethiopia. In order to put CBOs and programs in the context of HIV transmission and spread, the role of the Multisectoral ...
Ilakkuvan, Vinu; Snyder, Melanie G.; Wiggins, Jane
Students on a college campus are involved in each other's lives in ways that are pervasive and consequential, including during times of distress. A comprehensive campus based suicide prevention plan includes strategies to promote peer involvement that are both safe and effective. Careful program planning, careful training and careful messaging are…
Seed, Mary St. John; Higgins, Sally
Recent research on temperament and attachment theory highlights the importance of early intervention to helping children develop secure attachments and prevent mental illnesses. A mental illness curriculum for nursing students should integrate concepts from psychiatry and public health to prepare community-based for participation in intervention.…
Typically, genotype-based personalised nutrition involves genotyping for a number of susceptibility SNPs associated with the prevention, or management, of a particular disease. Dietary advice is then ... in this area can be guaranteed. Keywords: nutrigenetics, obesity, genotype, personalised nutrition, weight management ...
Harding, Tucker B.; Whitlock, Mark A.
A growing literature exploring large-scale, identity-based political violence, including mass killing and genocide, debates the plausibility of, and prospects for, early warning and prevention. An extension of the debate involves the prospects for creating educational experiences that result in more sophisticated analytical products that enhance…
Thakore, Rachel V.; Apfeld, Jordan C.; Johnson, Ronald K.; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A. Alex; Sethi, Manish K.
Abstract: Background: Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Methods: Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussi...
Suzuki, T; Makizako, H; Doi, T; Park, H; Lee, S; Tsutsumimoto, K; Umemura, K; Maki, Y; Shimada, H
Population aging is accelerating, with prolonged life expectancy and a decrease in birth rate. As age is a significant risk factor for dementia, we are confronted with an ever-increasing prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/dementia. Thus, the Japanese National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology launched a project to promote community-based research, including the development of an effective screening system for high-risk groups and intervention for dementia prevention. This review introduces the project, the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly, with the following strategic triad: 1) Identification of the target population by population screening; we regarded patients with MCI as the target population, and developed a screening test battery to identify MCI in a population screening setting. 2) Scientific evaluation of community-based intervention; we developed an interventional method combining exercise and cognitive training ("cognicise"). In practical settings, "cognicise" is programmed into multicomponent exercise intervention, which was reported to have benefits of cognitive improvement and reduction of brain atrophy based on randomized controlled trials. 3) Standardization of the methods of population screening and community-based intervention for evidence-based policy making and widespread implementation. Dementia prevention, or at least delaying the onset of dementia and/or stopping/slowing the progression of dementia, should benefit the whole society as well as individuals. It is our continuing challenge to improve the screening system and community-based intervention for dementia prevention through accumulation of evidence.
Doyle, E.K.; Jardine, A.K.S.
The use of various maintenance optimization techniques at Bruce has lead to cost effective preventive maintenance applications for complex systems. As previously reported at ICONE 6 in New Orleans, 1996, several innovative practices reduced Reliability Centered Maintenance costs while maintaining the accuracy of the analysis. The optimization strategy has undergone further evolution and at the present an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) is in place where an Expert Panel consisting of all players/experts proceed through each system in a disciplined fashion and reach agreement on all items under a rigorous time frame. It is well known that there are essentially 3 maintenance based actions that can flow from a Maintenance Optimization Analysis: condition based maintenance, time based maintenance and time based discard. The present effort deals with time based discard decisions. Maintenance data from the Remote On-Power Fuel Changing System was used. (author)
Beth S. Brodsky
Full Text Available Suicide is reaching epidemic proportions, with over 44,000 deaths by suicide in the US, and 800,000 worldwide in 2015. This, despite research and development of evidence-based interventions that target suicidal behavior directly. Suicide prevention efforts need a comprehensive approach, and research must lead to effective implementation across public and mental health systems. A 10-year systematic review of evidence-based findings in suicide prevention summarized the areas necessary for translating research into practice. These include risk assessment, means restriction, evidence-based treatments, population screening combined with chain of care, monitoring, and follow-up. In this article, we review how suicide prevention research informs implementation in clinical settings where those most at risk present for care. Evidence-based and best practices address the fluctuating nature of suicide risk, which requires ongoing risk assessment, direct intervention and monitoring. In the US, the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention has put forth the Zero Suicide (ZS Model, a framework to coordinate a multilevel approach to implementing evidence-based practices. We present the Assess, Intervene and Monitor for Suicide Prevention model (AIM-SP as a guide for implementation of ZS evidence-based and best practices in clinical settings. Ten basic steps for clinical management model will be described and illustrated through case vignette. These steps are designed to be easily incorporated into standard clinical practice to enhance suicide risk assessment, brief interventions to increase safety and teach coping strategies and to improve ongoing contact and monitoring of high-risk individuals during transitions in care and high risk periods.
Sommers, Mitchell S; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Barcroft, Joe; Spehar, Brent P
There has been considerable interest in measuring the perceptual effort required to understand speech, as well as to identify factors that might reduce such effort. In the current study, we investigated whether, in addition to improving speech intelligibility, auditory training also could reduce perceptual or listening effort. Perceptual effort was assessed using a modified version of the n-back memory task in which participants heard lists of words presented without background noise and were asked to continually update their memory of the three most recently presented words. Perceptual effort was indexed by memory for items in the three-back position immediately before, immediately after, and 3 months after participants completed the Computerized Learning Exercises for Aural Rehabilitation (clEAR), a 12-session computerized auditory training program. Immediate posttraining measures of perceptual effort indicated that participants could remember approximately one additional word compared to pretraining. Moreover, some training gains were retained at the 3-month follow-up, as indicated by significantly greater recall for the three-back item at the 3-month measurement than at pretest. There was a small but significant correlation between gains in intelligibility and gains in perceptual effort. The findings are discussed within the framework of a limited-capacity speech perception system.
Full Text Available When venture capital has been invested into venture companies, venture capitalists and venture entrepreneurs form a principal-agent relationship. Take into account the fact that the venture entrepreneur’s effort is a long process, because the effort is not the same at different stage. Therefore, efforts variables are seen as the multistage dynamic variable, and venture investment principal-agent model with venture entrepreneurs having multistage efforts is constructed on the basis of the classic principal-agent theory in the paper. Further, in the later stage effort of venture entrepreneurs is affected by the size of prestage benefit with venture capitalists and venture entrepreneurs; thus the fairness preference model is improved, and venture investment principal-agent model with venture entrepreneurs having multistage efforts is constructed on the basis of fairness preference theory. Both theoretical derivation and simulation have demonstrated that, under the condition of information asymmetry, if the fairness preference of venture entrepreneurs holds, then (1 venture capitalists provide venture entrepreneurs with level higher than that without fairness preference, (2 in every single stage venture entrepreneurs make efforts higher than those without fairness preference, and (3 in two periods both venture investors and venture entrepreneurs gain total real gains higher than those in two periods without fair preference.
Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender
Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
University of West Florida, Pensacola.
This revised curriculum, developed for use in Florida middle schools, is a comprehensive family life education course. The content of the course was determined (1) through a "Needs Assessment Inventory for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention," which was sent to more than 1,200 home economics teachers in Florida (and returned by the majority of…
Wang, Xicheng; Wu, Yasong; Mao, Lin; Xia, Wei; Zhang, Weiwei; Dai, Lili; Mehta, Sanjay R; Wertheim, Joel O; Dong, Xingqi; Zhang, Tong; Wu, Hao; Smith, Davey M
Molecular epidemiology can be useful in identifying clusters of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission that can be targeted for prevention. Regular screening of 2000 men who have sex with men (MSM) in Beijing, China, for HIV infection every 2 months identified 179 primary infections (2007-2010). HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained and used to infer the transmission network and identify transmitted drug resistance (TDR) among these individuals. We evaluated the use of clinical and network information to target prevention efforts. Prevention efficiency was calculated as the number of infections saved per number of interventions. This cohort was infected with HIV-1 subtype B (28%), circulating recombinant form (CRF)_01 AE (53%), and CRF_07 BC (16%). The overall rate of TDR was low (5%), but the rate of clustering was high (64%), suggesting deep sampling of the subnetwork. Provision of a theoretically high-efficacy intervention like antiretroviral therapy to all participants had a prevention efficiency of 23%. The efficiency of targeting prevention based on lower CD4 counts (100 000 copies/mL and >50 000 copies/mL) was between 10% and 18%. The efficiency of targeting prevention based on number of network connections was much higher (30%-42%). For example, treating the 33 participants with ≥5 connections in 2009 would have theoretically prevented 14 infections in 2010 (42% prevention efficiency). Regular HIV testing of MSM in Beijing can deeply sample the local transmission subnetwork, and targeting prevention efforts based on network connectivity may be an efficient way to deliver prevention interventions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Verma, Ravi
Gender-based violence, which includes sexual and intimate partner violence against women, is prevalent worldwide, prompting calls for primary prevention programs which engage men and boys in changing social norms that condone violence against women. Bystander intervention efforts which encourage males to say something to stop peers from enacting disrespectful and abusive behaviors toward females are a promising strategy for promoting non-violent, gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors. An evaluation of "Parivartan"--a U.S. program called "Coaching Boys Into Men" adapted for urban India cricket teams--was conducted in Mumbai, India. Baseline and 12 month follow-up surveys were administered to 309 male cricket athletes aged 10 to 16 years in 46 urban middle schools in Mumbai, India (27 intervention, 19 control). Athletes whose coaches were trained in the program demonstrated greater improvements in gender-equitable attitudes compared to athletes whose coaches provided standard coaching only. Marginally significant improvements were seen in reduction of negative bystander behavior. Violence prevention programs which utilize coaches as positive messengers for respect and non-violence may be a useful addition to global prevention efforts to reduce violence against women.
McLeigh, Jill D; Katz, Carmit; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Ben-Arieh, Asher
A unique primary prevention effort, Strong Communities for Children (Strong Communities), focuses on changing attitudes and expectations regarding communities' collective responsibilities for the safety of children. Findings from a 6-year pilot of the initiative in South Carolina have shown promise in reducing child maltreatment, but efforts to adapt the initiative to different cultural contexts have been lacking. No models exist for adapting an initiative that takes a community-level approach to ensuring children's safety. Thus, this article addresses the gap by providing an overview of the original initiative, how the initiative was adapted to the Israeli context, and lessons learned from the experience. Building on conceptualizations of cultural adaptation by Castro et al. (Prevention Science, 5, 2004, 41) and Resnicow et al. (Ethnicity and Disease, 9, 1999, 11), sources of nonfit (i.e., sociodemographic traits, political conflict, government services, and the presence and role of community organizations) were identified and deep and surface structure modifications were made to the content and delivery. Ultimately, this article describes the adaption and dissemination of a community-based child maltreatment prevention initiative in Tel Aviv, Israel, and addresses researchers' calls for more publications describing the adaptation of interventions and the procedures that need to be implemented to achieve cultural relevance. © 2015 Family Process Institute.
Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann
Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…
Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B
A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.
... Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...
Corrieri, Sandro; Heider, Dirk; Conrad, Ines; Blume, Anne; König, Hans-Helmut; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G
School-based interventions are considered a promising effort to prevent the occurrence of mental disorders in adolescents. This systematic review focuses on school-based prevention interventions on depression and anxiety disorders utilizing an RCT design, starting from the year 2000. Based on an online search (PubMed, Scirus, OVID, ISI) and bibliographic findings in the eligible articles, 28 studies providing information were reviewed. The search process ended on 2 May 2011. The majority of interventions turn out to be effective, both for depression (65%) and anxiety (73%). However, the obtained overall mean effect sizes calculated from the most utilized questionnaires can be considered rather small (CDI: -0.12; RCMAS: -0.29). The majority of the reviewed school-based interventions shows effectiveness in reducing or preventing mental disorders in adolescents. However, effect size computation revealed only small-scale effectiveness. Future studies have to consider the impact of program implementation variations. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Powell, Terrinieka W.; Herbert, Ann; Ritchwood, Tiarney D.; Latkin, Carl A.
The goal of this study was to identify strategies that could yield more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) living in Baltimore, Maryland. The sample had an equal number of regular and infrequent church attendees. Nearly one-fourth of the sample was HIV-positive. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed inductively using a qualitative content analytic approach. Two main recommendations emerged for churches to offer more inclusive HIV prevention efforts: (1) reduce homosexuality stigma by increasing interpersonal and institutional acceptance, and (2) address the sexual health needs of all congregants by offering universal and targeted sexual health promotion. Thus, results support a tiered approached to providing more inclusive church-based HIV prevention efforts. We conclude that Black churches can be a critical access point for HIV prevention among YBMSM and represent an important setting to intervene. PMID:27244189
Arshad, Ahmed; Salam, Rehana A; Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Naqvi, Imama; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A
In 2012, an estimated 8.6 million people developed tuberculosis (TB) and 1.3 million died from the disease. With its recent resurgence with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); TB prevention and management has become further challenging. We systematically evaluated the effectiveness of community based interventions (CBI) for the prevention and treatment of TB and a total of 41 studies were identified for inclusion. Findings suggest that CBI for TB prevention and case detection showed significant increase in TB detection rates (RR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.92, 3.28) with non-significant impact on TB incidence. CBI for treating patients with active TB showed an overall improvement in treatment success rates (RR: 1.09, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.11) and evidence from a single study suggests significant reduction in relapse rate (RR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.18, 0.39). The results were consistent for various study design and delivery mechanism. Qualitative synthesis suggests that community based TB treatment delivery through community health workers (CHW) not only improved access and service utilization but also contributed to capacity building and improving the routine TB recording and reporting systems. CBI coupled with the DOTS strategy seem to be an effective approach, however there is a need to evaluate various community-based integrated delivery models for relative effectiveness.
Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Price, Sarah N; Gonzalez-Suarez, Elizabeth; Gillman, Matthew W; Mitchell, Kathleen; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horan, Christine M; Gortmaker, Steven L; Taveras, Elsie M
Motivational interviewing (MI) shows promise for pediatric obesity prevention, but few studies address parental perceptions of MI. The aim of this study was to identify correlates of parental perceptions of helpfulness of and satisfaction with a MI-based pediatric obesity prevention intervention. We studied 253 children 2 to 6 years of age in the intervention arm of High Five for Kids, a primary care-based randomized controlled trial. In multivariable models, parents born outside the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 8.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44, 31.8), with lower household income (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.03, 12.55), and with higher BMI (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.65) were more likely to perceive MI-based visits as helpful in improving children's obesity-related behaviors after the first year of the intervention. Parents of female (vs male), black (vs white), and Latino (vs white) children had lower intervention satisfaction. Our findings underscore the importance of tailoring pediatric obesity prevention efforts to target populations.
Finch, Caroline F; Mitchell, Rebecca; Boufous, Soufiane
Sport/leisure injuries are a population health issue in Australia. Over 2003-2004 to 2007-2008, the rate of sport/leisure injury NSW hospitalisations was 195.5/100,000 residents. Males and children/young people had consistently highest rates of hospitalisation. There was no significant decline in rates over this period and no change in the profiles of the types of sport/leisure injuries. The extent to which effective preventive programs have been developed and implemented needs to be determined as current programs do not seem to be impacting on hospitalisation rates. Medical/health promotion agencies and sports bodies need to jointly formulate and implement policies to reduce sport/leisure injuries. This is one of the most significant challenges facing sports medicine professionals today. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kruschke, Cheryl; Butcher, Howard K
Falls are a major cause of injury and death annually for millions of individuals 65 and older. Older adults are at risk for falls for a variety of reasons regardless of where they live. Falls are defined as any sudden drop from one surface to a lower surface. The purpose of this fall prevention evidence-based practice guideline is to describe strategies that can identify individuals at risk for falls. A 10-step protocol including screening for falls, comprehensive fall assessment, gait and balance screening when necessary, and an individualized fall intervention program addressing specific fall risks is presented. Reassessing fall risk and fall prevention programs will ensure a proactive approach to reducing falls in the aging population. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 43(11), 15-21.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Bast, Lotus Sofie; Due, Pernille; Bendtsen, Pernille
into account the complexity of the concept nor the intervention. The objective of the present study was to develop an overall quantitative measure of implementation fidelity, to examine the degree of implementation fidelity and the association of implementation and effect of a randomized school-based smoking...... prevention trial-the X:IT study. METHODS: A cluster-randomized trial testing is a multi-component intervention to prevent smoking among adolescents in 94 Danish elementary schools (51 intervention, 43 control schools). Participants were grade 7 pupils (mean age 12.5 years). Data was collected by electronic...... questionnaires among pupils at baseline (n = 4161), the first follow-up (n = 3764), and the second follow-up (n = 3269) and among school coordinators at intervention schools at the first and second follow-up (50 and 39 coordinators). INTERVENTION: The intervention included three components: (1) smoke-free school...
Jensen, Olaf Chresten
It is estimated that about one third of the compensated occupational injuries and half of the most serious occupational injuries in merchant seafaring are related to slips, trips and falls (STF)-events. Among the elderly, STF is the risk factor that causes the largest number of inpatient days...... at hospitals. It is the argued that prevention of STF is insufficient and that the reason is insufficient evidence on incidence rates, the causes and the health impact of STF related injuries. Practical knowledge of the best practice and what works is also needed. Here the issue is evidence based...... on epidemiological data. STF in the injury model is considered not as an injury, but as a pre-event of an injury and in most cases a near miss without injury. The registration of whether a STF-event preceded an injury or not is important near miss information for prevention in injury registers. The quality...
Ian W Holloway
Full Text Available The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526, which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18-24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037 and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, p<0.001; psychological distress is an internalized response to environmental and cognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population.
Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Schrager, Sheree M.; Tan, Diane; Dunlap, Shannon; Kipke, Michele D.
The present study addresses gaps in the literature related to theory development for young men who have sex with men (YMSM) sexual practices through the application and modification of Social Action Theory. Data come from the Healthy Young Men study (N = 526), which longitudinally tracked a diverse cohort of YMSM ages 18–24 to characterize risk and protective factors associated with drug use and sexual practices. Structural equation modeling examined the applicability of, and any necessary modifications to a YMSM-focused version of Social Action Theory. The final model displayed excellent fit (CFI = 0.955, TLI = 0.947, RMSEA = 0.037) and suggested concordance between social support and personal capacity for sexual health promotion. For YMSM, practicing health promotion and avoiding practices that may put them at risk for HIV was associated with both social isolation and psychological distress (β = -0.372, t = -4.601, pcognitive factors and sexual practices are an externalized response. Results point to the utility of Social Action Theory as a useful model for understanding sexual practices among YMSM, the application of which shows health protective sexual practices are a function of sociocognitive factors that are influenced by environmental contexts. Social Action Theory can help prevention scientists better address the needs of this vulnerable population. PMID:28886128
Liddy, Clare E; Cullen-Arseneau, Pamela; Merizzi, Shannon; Blazhko, Valeriya
Given the existing and projected number of individuals with diabetes mellitus, there is an urgent need to implement effective prevention programs. Research trials have demonstrated reductions in risk through programs targeted at adopting a healthier lifestyle however translating this research evidence into primary care can be challenging. We examined the feasibility of implementing a pre-diabetes program into a primary care clinic in Ottawa, Canada. "An Ounce of Prevention" Healthy Lifestyle and Diabetes Program was adapted from best evidence clinical trials and uses educational tools developed by the Diabetes Prevention Program for long-term behavior change, relies on principles of self-management, is group based and includes an integrated exercise component. We used a multimethod evaluation approach and examined feasibility and practical implementation aspects such as space, staffing, recruitment and retention issues. We have implemented the program and have offered 10 courses from June 2010 through to August 2012 with 74 participants in total. Results of the evaluation surveys show that participants are highly satisfied with the content as well as the format of the program and think that the content is relevant to them. Recruitment of patients is time- intensive and requires dedicated resources. Evaluation of effectiveness with follow-up surveys and clinical measures has been challenging due to limited resources and is ongoing. The translation and implementation of research evidence into clinical practice is complex and requires consideration of real-life practicalities such as time demands on participants, staffing costs, effective recruiting and ongoing evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem associated with a broad range of negative outcomes in children and adolescents that can extend into adulthood. This review summarizes information about programs aimed at the prevention of child maltreatment evaluated by controlled trials, with a focus on home visitation programs. It does not include programs aimed at prevention of child sexual abuse, the subject of a separate review in this series. We discuss those programs that include one or more measures of child maltreatment and related outcomes (reports of abuse and neglect, injuries, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Most programs targeting at-risk families have not shown evidence of effectiveness in preventing abuse or neglect. An important exception is the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP, a program provided by nurses to first-time socially disadvantaged mothers beginning prenatally that has undergone rigorous evaluation in three randomized controlled trials. It has shown consistent effects in reducing reports of maltreatment and associated outcomes as well as additional benefits in maternal and child health in high-risk families. A second exception is the promising Early Start program provided by nurses and social workers to at-risk families beginning postnatally. One randomized controlled trial of the program has shown reduced rates of parental reports of severe abuse and hospital attendance for injuries and poisonings, based on records. The characteristics of the NFP and Early Start programs are discussed with special emphasis on ways in which they differ from other home visitation programs.
Keller, Sarah N; Wilkinson, Tim
This study examined whether a community-based suicide prevention project could increase willingness to seek professional help for suicidal ideation among eastern Montana youth. Online surveys were administered at baseline (N = 224) and six months post-test (N = 217) consisting of the Risk Behavior Diagnosis Scale (RBD), self-report questions on suicidality, willingness to engage with suicide prevention resources, and willingness to communicate with peers, family members, teachers or counselors about suicide. A comparison of means within groups from pre- to post-test showed increases in self-efficacy for communicating about suicidal concerns with a teacher, school counselor or social worker; increases in self-efficacy for helping others; and increases in response-efficacy of interpersonal communication about suicide with a teacher, school counselor or social worker. Young adults need to be willing and able to intervene in life-threatening situations affecting their peers. In step with narrative empowerment education, personal experiences can be used to communicatively reduce peer resistance to behavior change. Health communicators tend to rely on overly didactic education and awareness-raising when addressing suicide prevention. This research shows the importance of direct and personal forms of influence advocated by social marketing professionals.
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Segal, Jodi; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee; Wang, Youfa
OBJECTIVE: This study systematically reviewed community-based childhood obesity prevention programs in the United States and high-income countries. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library for relevant English-language studies. Studies were eligible if the intervention was primarily implemented in the community setting; had at least 1 year of follow-up after baseline; and compared results from an intervention to a comparison group. Two independent reviewers conducted title scans and abstract reviews and reviewed the full articles to assess eligibility. Each article received a double review for data abstraction. The second reviewer confirmed the first reviewer’s data abstraction for completeness and accuracy. RESULTS: Nine community-based studies were included; 5 randomized controlled trials and 4 non–randomized controlled trials. One study was conducted only in the community setting, 3 were conducted in the community and school setting, and 5 were conducted in the community setting in combination with at least 1 other setting such as the home. Desirable changes in BMI or BMI z-score were found in 4 of the 9 studies. Two studies reported significant improvements in behavioral outcomes (1 in physical activity and 1 in vegetable intake). CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is moderate that a combined diet and physical activity intervention conducted in the community with a school component is more effective at preventing obesity or overweight. More research and consistent methods are needed to understand the comparative effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programs in the community setting. PMID:23753099
Herbst, Jeffrey H; Painter, Thomas M; Tomlinson, Hank L; Alvarez, Maria E
This report summarizes published findings of a community-based organization in New York City that evaluated and demonstrated the efficacy of the Many Men, Many Voices (3MV) human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention intervention in reducing sexual risk behaviors and increasing protective behaviors among black men who have sex with men (MSM). The intervention addressed social determinants of health (e.g., stigma, discrimination, and homophobia) that can influence the health and well-being of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection. This report also highlights efforts by CDC to disseminate this evidence-based behavioral intervention throughout the United States. CDC's Office of Minority Health and Health Equity selected the intervention analysis and discussion to provide an example of a program that might be effective for reducing HIV infection- and STD-related disparities in the United States. 3MV uses small group education and interaction to increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviors related to HIV/STD risk among black MSM. Since its dissemination by CDC in 2004, 3MV has been used in many settings, including health department- and community-based organization programs. The 3MV intervention is an important component of a comprehensive HIV and STD prevention portfolio for at-risk black MSM. As CDC continues to support HIV prevention programming consistent with the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and its high-impact HIV prevention approach, 3MV will remain an important tool for addressing the needs of black MSM at high risk for HIV infection and other STDs.
Stephens-Hernandez, Aileen B; Livingston, Jonathan N; Dacons-Brock, Karen; Craft, Howard L; Cameron, Amura; Franklin, Steven O; Howlett, Allyn C
The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing the play. It was found that the drama increased intent to
Full Text Available Abstract Background The substance abuse prevention goal of the theatre production "TUNNELS" was to provide community education on substance abuse to an audience in Durham, NC and surrounding communities. The education effort intended to increase awareness and understanding of the risk and protective factors associated with alcohol and other drug use, and to promote pro-active behaviors in substance abuse prevention within the adult community. It was hypothesized that community-based education via drama would change attitudes toward alcohol and substance abuse, and increase participation in family and community activities aimed at substance abuse prevention. Methods A focus group comprised of educators, substance abuse researchers and local substance abuse counselors developed "life stories" of users of alcohol and other drugs and a local playwright incorporated these and other experiences into a series of six vignettes. The production was publicized throughout the Durham area, and 700 adults attending the play signed a consent form and completed the pre-play survey. The participant pool was restricted to those adults who completed both the time-1 and time-2 surveys and resided within Durham and surrounding communities. Paired comparisons of mean responses were analyzed using a paired sample two-tailed t-test. A telephone survey three months after the play assessed attitudes toward substance abuse as a disease, and whether the respondents had increased their participation in prevention activities including discussions of the play with others. Results Viewing the play increased the knowledge base of participants regarding substance abuse as a disease, even though the audience demonstrated an appreciation of risk and protective factors prior to attending the performance. In the pre-play survey, participants indicated a strong opinion that parental involvement in teen life was important, and therefore this was not increased as a result of viewing
Kim, Kwang-Il; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Chang Oh; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Cho, Hyun-Ho; Kim, Dae Yul; Ha, Yong-Chan; Hwang, Sung-Hee; Won, Chang Won; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jae Gyu
Falls and fall-related injuries are common in older populations and have negative effects on quality of life and independence. Falling is also associated with increased morbidity, mortality, nursing home admission, and medical costs. Korea has experienced an extreme demographic shift with its population aging at the fastest pace among developed countries, so it is important to assess fall risks and develop interventions for high-risk populations. Guidelines for the prevention of falls were first developed by the Korean Association of Internal Medicine and the Korean Geriatrics Society. These guidelines were developed through an adaptation process as an evidence-based method; four guidelines were retrieved via systematic review and the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II process, and seven recommendations were developed based on the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation framework. Because falls are the result of various factors, the guidelines include a multidimensional assessment and multimodal strategy. The guidelines were developed for primary physicians as well as patients and the general population. They provide detailed recommendations and concrete measures to assess risk and prevent falls among older people. PMID:28049285
Full Text Available The widespread and pervasive use of smartphones for sending messages, calling, and entertainment purposes, mainly among young adults, is often accompanied by the concurrent execution of other tasks. Recent studies have analyzed how texting, reading or calling while walking-in some specific conditions-might significantly influence gait parameters. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of different smartphone activities on walking, evaluating the variations of several gait parameters. 10 young healthy students (all smartphone proficient users were instructed to text chat (with two different levels of cognitive load, call, surf on a social network or play with a math game while walking in a real-life outdoor setting. Each of these activities is characterized by a different cognitive load. Using an inertial measurement unit on the lower trunk, spatio-temporal gait parameters, together with regularity, symmetry and smoothness parameters, were extracted and grouped for comparison among normal walking and different dual task demands. An overall significant effect of task type on the aforementioned parameters group was observed. The alterations in gait parameters vary as a function of cognitive effort. In particular, stride frequency, step length and gait speed show a decrement, while step time increases as a function of cognitive effort. Smoothness, regularity and symmetry parameters are significantly altered for specific dual task conditions, mainly along the mediolateral direction. These results may lead to a better understanding of the possible risks related to walking and concurrent smartphone use.
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin
The negative impact of online gaming on adolescents has received much attention. The question of how to reduce their pathological use of online gaming is a critical issue. Based on the concept of external justification in dissonance theory, this experimental study aimed to examine whether severity of threat and justification of effort would impact…
Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Rydell, C. Peter; Everingham, Susan S.; Chiesa, James; Bushway, Shawn
This book describes an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of model school-based drug prevention programs at reducing cocaine consumption. It compares prevention's cost-effectiveness with that of several enforcement programs and with that of treating heavy cocaine users. It also assesses the cost of nationwide implementation of model prevention…
Gandhi, Gian; Lydon, Patrick
To achieve globally or regionally defined accelerated disease control, elimination and eradication (ADC/E/E) goals against vaccine-preventable diseases requires complementing national routine immunization programs with intensive, time-limited, and targeted Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs). Many global and country-level SIA costing efforts have historically relied on what are now outdated benchmark figures. Mobilizing adequate resources for successful implementation of SIAs requires updated estimates of non-vaccine costs per target population. This assessment updates the evidence base on the SIA operational costs through a review of literature between 1992 and 2012, and an analysis of actual expenditures from 142 SIAs conducted between 2004 and 2011 and documented in country immunization plans. These are complemented with an analysis of budgets from 31 SIAs conducted between 2006 and 2011 in order to assess the proportion of total SIA costs per person associated with various cost components. All results are presented in 2010 US dollars. Existing evidence indicate that average SIA operational costs were usually less than US$0.50 per person in 2010 dollars. However, the evidence is sparse, non-standardized, and largely out of date. Average operational costs per person generated from our analysis of country immunization plans are consistently higher than published estimates, approaching US$1.00 for injectable vaccines. The results illustrate that the benchmarks often used to project needs underestimate the true costs of SIAs and the analysis suggests that SIA operational costs have been increasing over time in real terms. Our assessment also illustrates that operational costs vary across several dimensions. Variations in the actual costs of SIAs likely to reflect the extents to which economies of scale associated with campaign-based delivery can be attained, the underlying strength of the immunization program, sensitivities to the relative ease of vaccine
Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Asiedu, Gladys B; Egginton, Jason; Sinicrope, Pamela; Opyrchal, Seung M L; Howell, Lisa A; Patten, Christi; Boardman, Lisa
Cancer is a shared family experience and may provide a "teachable moment" to motivate at-risk family members to adopt cancer prevention and health promotion behaviors. This study explored how a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) is experienced by family members and may be used to develop a family-based CRC prevention program. Preferences regarding content, timing, and modes of program delivery were examined. Social cognitive theory provided the conceptual framework for the study. This study employed mixed methodology (semi-structured interviews and self-report questionnaires). Participants included 73 adults (21 patients, 52 family members) from 23 families (two patients were deceased prior to being interviewed). Most patients (n = 14; 67 %) were interviewed 1-5 years post-diagnosis. Individual interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analyzed. For many, a CRC diagnosis was described as a shared family experience. Family members supported each other's efforts to prevent CRC through screening, exercising, and maintaining a healthy diet. Teachable moments for introducing a family-based program included the time of the patient's initial cancer surgery and post-chemotherapy. Reported willingness to participate in a family-based program was associated with risk perception, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, and the social/community context in which the program would be embedded. Program preferences included cancer screening, diet/nutrition, weight management, stress reduction, and exercise. Challenges included geographic dispersion, variation in education levels, generational differences, and scheduling. CRC patients and family members are receptive to family-based programs. Feasibility concerns, which may be mitigated but not eliminated with technological advances, must be addressed for successful family-based programs.
Larson, Nicole; Davey, Cynthia S; Caspi, Caitlin E; Kubik, Martha Y; Nanney, Marilyn S
. Results suggest obesity-prevention policies/practices do not have unintended consequences for student weight-control behaviors and support the importance of school-based health education as part of efforts to prevent unhealthy behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thomas, Karluss; Aguar, Pilar; Kawasaki, Hajime; Morris, Jeff; Nakanishi, Junko; Savage, Nora
The use of nanotechnology in consumer and industrial applications will likely have a profound impact on a number of products from a variety of industrial sectors. Nanomaterials exhibit unique physical/chemical properties and impart enhancements to engineered materials, including better magnetic properties, improved electrical activity, and increased optical properties. The United States, Europe, and Japan have each initiated comprehensive programs to promote and expand the utility of nanotechnology for commercial applications. An important component of these programs is the development of reliable risk and safety evaluations for these materials to ensure their safety for human health and the environment. The scope of each of these programs includes efforts to assess the hazards posed by nanomaterials in realistic exposure conditions.
Full Text Available Background: There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention initiatives. However, there has been insufficient attention to which types of suicide prevention interventions are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors for young males and females. In this review of the literature, we consider common examples of primarily universal suicide prevention programs from three implementation settings: school-based, community-based, and healthcare-based. Our purpose is to delineate how the potential gender bias in such strategies may translate into youth suicide prevention efforts. Methods: Research in which gender was found to moderate program success was retrieved through online databases. Results: The results that feature programming effects for both males and females are provocative, suggesting that when gender differences are evident, in almost all cases, females seem to be more likely than males to benefit from existing prevention programming. Conclusions: We conclude by considering recommendations that may benefit males more directly. Implications for adolescent suicide prevention in particular are discussed. Personalization of suicide intervention is presented as a promising solution to reduce suicide rates.
Hamilton, Emma; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie
There are well-documented gender differences in adolescent suicidal behavior; death by suicide is more common in males, while nonfatal suicide attempts are more common among females. Over the past three decades, researchers have documented the effectiveness of a myriad of suicide prevention initiatives. However, there has been insufficient attention to which types of suicide prevention interventions are effective in changing attitudes and behaviors for young males and females. In this review of the literature, we consider common examples of primarily universal suicide prevention programs from three implementation settings: school-based, community-based, and healthcare-based. Our purpose is to delineate how the potential gender bias in such strategies may translate into youth suicide prevention efforts. Research in which gender was found to moderate program success was retrieved through online databases. The results that feature programming effects for both males and females are provocative, suggesting that when gender differences are evident, in almost all cases, females seem to be more likely than males to benefit from existing prevention programming. We conclude by considering recommendations that may benefit males more directly. Implications for adolescent suicide prevention in particular are discussed. Personalization of suicide intervention is presented as a promising solution to reduce suicide rates.
Scott, Vicky; Gallagher, Elaine; Higginson, Anne; Metcalfe, Sarah; Rajabali, Fahra
A staged, mixed methods approach was applied to the development and evaluation of an evidence-based education program for health care professionals and community leaders on how to design, implement and evaluate a fall prevention program. Stages included pre-development, development, pilot testing and impact on practice. The goal of the evaluation was to determine if the Canadian Falls Prevention Curriculum met the needs of the target audience and had an impact on learning and practice. Methods included a needs assessment, systematic reviews, pre-post tests of learning, follow-up surveys and interviews, and descriptive reports of stakeholder involvement. The needs assessment and systematic review of existing programs indicated that there was a demand for a comprehensive, evidence-based curriculum on fall prevention and that no similar curricula existed. Pre-post test findings showed significant increases in learning and follow-up surveys showed a positive impact on practice. Evidence shows that the most effective fall prevention efforts are those that address the multifactorial nature of fall risk, with proven interventions provided by trained clinicians. The Canadian Falls Prevention Curriculum provides evidence-based training for clinicians and community leaders using a public health approach to fall prevention that includes instruction on how to define the problem, assess the risk, examine best practices, implement the program, and conduct evaluation of the program's effectiveness. Copyright © 2011 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Irawan, Vincentius Tjandra; Sutadji, Eddy; Widiyanti
The aims of this study were to determine: (1) the differences in learning outcome between Blended Learning based on Schoology and Problem-Based Learning, (2) the differences in learning outcome between students with prior knowledge of high, medium, and low, and (3) the interaction between Blended Learning based on Schoology and prior knowledge to…
Halken, S; Høst, A
, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....
Findings: therapy compliance, retention in treatment, decrease in somatic symptoms, anxiety, social dysfunction and increase in health was significantly in both combination of psychological intervention method than the Naltroxan group. Mindfulness-based on relapse prevention was more effective than CBT relapse prevention in decreasing of, social dysfunction, relapse prevention, increase of therapy compliance, and health. Results: Mindfulness based relapse prevention was superior to CBT and Naltroxan and considerably increased effectiveness of opioid relapse prevention therapy.
The purpose of this article was to review international (excluding the United States) school-based interventions for preventing obesity in children published between 1999 and 2005. A total of 21 such interventions were found from Australia (1), Austria (1), Canada (1), Chile (1), France (1), Germany (3), Greece (1), New Zealand (1), Norway (1), Singapore (1) and the United Kingdom (9). The grade range of these interventions was from pre-school to high school with the majority (17) from elementary schools. Nine of these interventions targeted nutrition behaviours followed by seven aiming to modify both physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Only five interventions in international settings were based on any explicit behavioural theory which is different than the interventions developed in the United States. Majority of the interventions (9) were one academic year long. It can be speculated that if the interventions are behavioural theory-based, then the intervention length can be shortened. All interventions that documented parental involvement successfully influenced obesity indices. Most interventions (16) focused on individual-level behaviour change approaches. Most published interventions (16) used experimental designs with at least 1-year follow-up. Recommendations from international settings for enhancing the effectiveness of school-based childhood obesity interventions are presented.
Fletcher, Barbara J; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison; Lira, Maria Teresa; Meininger, Janet C; Pradhan, Sala Ray; Sikkema, Joanna
Policy changes are necessary to promote cardiovascular disease prevention. These will involve community-based and public health initiatives for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In this article, we discuss such interventions, community-based participatory research that has been conducted in this area, and implications for capacity building in genetics research. Finally, areas for future research in this area will be identified.
Prevention (MBRP) was developed to increase the effectiveness of relapse prevention therapy by incorporating mindfulness -based meditation practices. The...Chawla, and Marlatt, 2010). It incorporates mindfulness -based meditation with relapse prevention techniques, with the goal of decreasing the risk and... mindfulness -based meditation approaches more generally suggest efficacy and safety for SUDs (Zgierska et al., 2009). However, no study has
Lynn, Sean R.; Bunker, Deborah; Hesbach, Thomas D., Jr.; Howerton, Everett B.; Hreinsson, G.; Mistr, E. Kirk; Palmer, Matthew E.; Rogers, Claiborne; Tischler, Dayna S.; Wrona, Daniel J.
Reduced quantities of ozone in the atmosphere allow greater levels of ultraviolet light (UV) radiation to reach the earth's surface. This is known to cause skin cancer and mutations. Chlorine liberated from Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) and natural sources initiate the destruction of stratospheric ozone through a free radical chain reaction. The project goals are to understand the processes which contribute to stratospheric ozone loss, examine ways to prevent ozone loss, and design a vehicle-based system to carry out the prevention scheme. The 1992/1993 design objectives were to accomplish the first two goals and define the requirements for an implementation vehicle to be designed in detail starting next year. Many different ozone intervention schemes have been proposed though few have been researched and none have been tested. A scheme proposed by R.J. Cicerone, Scott Elliot and R.P.Turco late in 1991 was selected because of its research support and economic feasibility. This scheme uses hydrocarbon injected into the Antarctic ozone hole to form stable compounds with free chlorine, thus reducing ozone depletion. Because most polar ozone depletion takes place during a 3-4 week period each year, the hydrocarbon must be injected during this time window. A study of the hydrocarbon injection requirements determined that 100 aircraft traveling Mach 2.4 at a maximum altitude of 66,000 ft. would provide the most economic approach to preventing ozone loss. Each aircraft would require an 8,000 nm. range and be able to carry 35,000 lbs. of propane. The propane would be stored in a three-tank high pressure system. Missions would be based from airport regions located in South America and Australia. To best provide the requirements of mission analysis, an aircraft with L/D(sub cruise) = 10.5, SFC = 0.65 (the faculty advisor suggested that this number is too low) and a 250,000 lb TOGW was selected as a baseline. Modularity and multi-role functionality were selected to be key
Moore, Sean D; Teter, Ken
Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's laboratory. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student-one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this article, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience. © 2014 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
Boutin-Foster, Carla; McLaughlin, Nadine; Gray, Angela; Ogedegbe, Anthony; Hageman, Ivan; Knowlton, Courtney; Rodriguez, Anna; Beeder, Ann
Using popular culture to engage students in discussions of HIV prevention is a nontraditional approach that may complement current prevention efforts and enhance the ability to reach youth who are at high risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Hip-hop or rap music is the dominant genre of music among adolescents, especially Black and Latino youth who are disproportionately impacted by HIV and AIDS. This paper describes the rationale and development of the Reducing HIV and AIDS through Prevention (RHAP) program, a school-based program that uses hip-hop/rap music as a vehicle for raising awareness among adolescents about HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory and the Sexual Script Theory were used in developing the program. It was piloted and evaluated among 26 middle school students in East Harlem, New York. The lessons learned from a formative evaluation of the program and the implications for developing other programs targeting public health problems are discussed. The RHAP program challenges the traditional pedagogue-student paradigm and provides an alternative approach to teaching about HIV prevention and awareness.
Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K
Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.
Pigeot, Iris; Baranowski, Tom; Lytle, Leslie; Ahrens, Wolfgang
Despite careful planning and implementation, overweight/obesity prevention interventions in children and adolescents typically show no, inconsistent or merely weak effects. Such programs usually aim at behavior changes, rarely also at environmental changes, that draw upon conventional wisdom regarding the commonly accepted determinants of childhood overweight/obesity. This paper evaluates the evidence base of the apparently overweight-/obesity-related determinants diet, physical activity and stress. The results of international intervention studies are discussed against this background. Based on the mediating-moderating variable model, we investigate the effect of theory specified mediating variables and how potential moderating variables may impact these relationships. Contrary to common beliefs, recent research has revealed inconsistent evidence regarding associations between potentially obesogenic behaviors and overweight/obesity in youth. Moreover, the evidence for strong and causal relationships between mediating variables and targeted behaviors seems to be inconsistent. In addition, inadequate attention is paid to moderating effects. The etiology of overweight/obesity in youth is likely the result of a complex interplay of multi-causal influences. Future prevention interventions would benefit from a more thorough understanding of the complex relationships that have been hypothesized and of the mechanisms of suspected behaviors for affecting overweight/obesity. Only if substantial change can be demonstrated in mediators with reasonable effort under real world circumstances, it will make sense to progress to community behavior change trials.
Samuels, Christina A.
The number of sports-related concussions reported by young athletes is on the rise, prompting awareness campaigns from athletic and medical groups, as well as proposed federal legislation to set minimum standards for concussion management in public schools. Concussions are caused by a jolt to the body or a blow to the head that causes the head to…
The Server and Agent-based Active Network Management (SAAM) architecture was initially designed to work with the next generation Internet where increasingly sophisticated applications will require QoS guarantees...
Hanson, H M; Salmoni, A W
Sustainability of health promotion and injury prevention programmes is a goal of practitioners and an increasingly common requirement of funding bodies. However, less is known about the views held by individual stakeholders involved in such programmes regarding their perceptions of facilitators and barriers to achieving sustainability. This paper aims to share the perceptions of programme sustainability held by key stakeholders involved in a community-based fall prevention programme in three Ontario demonstration communities in Canada. A qualitative case study research design. A holistic multiple case study method was employed. In total, 45 stakeholders involved in various aspects of the project participated from three demonstration sites. Stakeholders' perceptions were gathered on the individual actions they took in an effort to promote sustainability, and the barriers they perceived as preventing or limiting sustainability. Stakeholders reported taking a number of actions to aid programme sustainability, with some actions deemed to be more functional in aiding sustainability than others. Common actions reported by stakeholders included partnership formation, networking and increasing community capacity. Stakeholders also perceived a number of barriers to achieving sustainability, including insufficient human and financial resources, lack of co-ordination and buy-in, heavy reliance on volunteers and an inability to mobilize physicians. Stakeholders' perceptions of sustainability were used to develop recommendations for sustainability for both communities and funding bodies. The views and experiences shared by the stakeholders in this project can serve as lessons learnt to aid in the sustainability of other health promotion and injury prevention programmes in the future. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Arielle S. Levine
Full Text Available Much attention in global fisheries management has been directed toward increasing the involvement of local communities in managing marine resources. Although community-based fisheries comanagement has the potential to address resource conservation and societal needs, the success of these programs is by no means guaranteed, and many comanagement regimes have struggled. Although promising in theory, comanagement programs meet a variety of political, social, economic, ecological, and logistical challenges upon implementation. We have provided an analysis of two community-based fisheries comanagement initiatives: Hawai'i's Community-Based Subsistence Fishing Area (CBSFA legislation and American Samoa's Community-Based Fisheries Management Program (CFMP. Although Hawai'i's initiative has struggled with only two CBSFAs designated, neither of which has an approved management plan, American Samoa's program has successfully established a functioning network of 12 villages. We have explored the factors contributing to the divergent outcomes of these initiatives, including cultural and ethnic diversity, the intactness of traditional tenure systems and community organizing structures, local leadership, and government support. Differences in program design, including processes for program implementation and community involvement, supportive government institutions, adequate enforcement, and adaptive capacity, have also played important roles in the implementation of comanagement regimes on the two island groups. The different outcomes manifested in these case studies provide insight regarding the conditions necessary to enable successful community-based comanagement, particularly within U.S.-affiliated jurisdictions.
Yamori, Y; Horie, R
(1) To demonstrate the importance of nutrition, especially sodium restriction and increased potassium and protein intakes, in the prevention of hypertension and stroke in a pilot study involving senior citizens. (2) To design a population-based intervention in the Shimane Prefecture of Japan concerning dietary factors such as low sodium and high potassium, protein, magnesium, calcium and dietary fibre in the prevention of stroke. The intervention study was carried out at a senior citizens' residence and included general health education along with a reduction of dietary salt intake and increases in vegetable and protein, especially from seafood. Sixty-three healthy senior citizens (average age: 74.8 +/- 7.7 years) had their daily meals modified to a low sodium/potassium ratio for four weeks without their knowledge by the use of a potassium chloride substitute for salt, soy sauce and bean paste, which contains much less sodium and more potassium. Monosodium L-glutamate monohydrate used for cooking was changed to monopotassium L-glutamate monohydrate. Blood pressure was measured with the patient in the sitting position. Daily dietary sodium and potassium intakes were assessed by flame photometry from 24-hour urine specimens. Extensive intervention programs were introduced into the Shimane Prefecture, which has a population of 750,000, through health education classes for housewives, home visits by health nurses and an educational TV program for dietary improvement. The mortality from stroke was monitored for 10 years and compared with the average in Japan. The blood pressure lowering effect of reducing the dietary sodium/potassium ratio was confirmed through a pilot intervention study at the senior citizens' residence. The mortality rates for stroke in the middle-aged population from the Shimane Prefecture during the 10 years after the introduction of dietary improvement had a steeper decline in hemorrhagic, ischemic and all strokes than the average for Japan.
Gamelli, Liza; Mykychack, Iryna; Kushnir, Antin; Driscoll, Daniel N; Fuzaylov, Gennadiy
Burn prevention has been identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a topic in need of further investigation and education throughout the world, with an increased need in low-income countries. It has been noted that implementing educational programs for prevention in high income countries has aided in lowering the rate of burn injuries. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current education level of knowledge of prevention and first aid treatment of scald burns. A prevention campaign will target these educational needs as a part of an outreach program to improve burn care in Ukraine. The research team evaluated the current health structure in Ukraine and how it could benefit from the increased knowledge of burn prevention and first aid. A test was designed to assess the baseline level of knowledge with regard to first aid and scald prevention in parents, pregnant woman, and healthcare and daycare providers. A total of 14,456 tests were sent to pediatric clinics, obstetrician clinics, and daycare facilities to test respondents. A total of 6,120 completed tests were returned. Doctors presented with the highest level of knowledge averaging 77.0% on prevention and 67.5% on first aid while daycare workers presented the largest gap in knowledge at 65.0% in prevention and 54.3% in first aid. Interest in further educational materials was reported by 92% of respondents. The results of this study clearly show a lack of knowledge in first aid and prevention of scald burn injury in all the populations tested.
Full Text Available Diabetic vascular complications are the most common cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with numbers of affected individuals steadily increasing. Diabetic vascular complications can be divided into two categories: macrovascular and microvascular complications. Macrovascular complications include coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease, while microvascular complications include retinopathy and chronic kidney disease. These complications result from metabolic abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, elevated levels of free fatty acids, and insulin resistance. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to mediate the adverse effects of these metabolic disorders on vascular tissues, including stimulation of protein kinase C signaling and activation of the polyol pathway by oxidative stress and inflammation. Additionally, the loss of tissue-specific insulin signaling induced by hyperglycemia and toxic metabolites can induce cellular dysfunction and both macro- and microvascular complications characteristic of diabetes. Despite these insights, few therapeutic methods are available for the management of diabetic complications. Recently, incretin-based therapeutic agents, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, have been reported to elicit vasotropic actions, suggesting a potential for effecting an actual reduction in diabetic vascular complications. The present review will summarize the relationship between multiple adverse biological mechanisms in diabetes and putative incretin-based therapeutic interventions intended to prevent diabetic vascular complications.
In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers.Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series.PRESSURE ULCER PREVENTION: an evidence based analysisThe cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation)MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC PRESSURE ULCERS: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) PURPOSE: A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers()SettingCanadian Prevalence,% (95% CI)Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n)Acute care25 (23.8-26.3)23.9-29.7 (3418)Nonacute care30 (29.3-31.4)30.0-53.3 (1165)Community care15 (13.4-16.8)13.2 (91)Mixed health care22 (20.9-23.4)13.1-25.7 (3100)All health care settings26 (25
Sack, Brandon; Kappe, Stefan H I; Sather, D Noah
An effective malaria vaccine would be considered a milestone of modern medicine, yet has so far eluded research and development efforts. This can be attributed to the extreme complexity of the malaria parasites, presenting with a multi-stage life cycle, high genome complexity and the parasite's sophisticated immune evasion measures, particularly antigenic variation during pathogenic blood stage infection. However, the pre-erythrocytic (PE) early infection forms of the parasite exhibit relatively invariant proteomes, and are attractive vaccine targets as they offer multiple points of immune system attack. Areas covered: We cover the current state of and roadblocks to the development of an effective, antibody-based PE vaccine, including current vaccine candidates, limited biological knowledge, genetic heterogeneity, parasite complexity, and suboptimal preclinical models as well as the power of early stage clinical models. Expert commentary: PE vaccines will need to elicit broad and durable immunity to prevent infection. This could be achievable if recent innovations in studying the parasites' infection biology, rational vaccine selection and design as well as adjuvant formulation are combined in a synergistic and multipronged approach. Improved preclinical assays as well as the iterative testing of vaccine candidates in controlled human malaria infection trials will further accelerate this effort.
Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.; Rohrbach, Louise A.
School-based cigarette smoking prevention was initiated shortly after the first Surgeon General's Report in 1964. This article highlights a sequence of events by which school-based tobacco use prevention research developed as a science, and illustrates a pendulum effect, with confidence in tobacco use prevention increasing and decreasing at…
Ash, Tayla; Agaronov, Alen; Young, Ta'Loria; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Davison, Kirsten K
A wide range of interventions has been implemented and tested to prevent obesity in children. Given parents' influence and control over children's energy-balance behaviors, including diet, physical activity, media use, and sleep, family interventions are a key strategy in this effort. The objective of this study was to profile the field of recent family-based childhood obesity prevention interventions by employing systematic review and quantitative content analysis methods to identify gaps in the knowledge base. Using a comprehensive search strategy, we searched the PubMed, PsycIFO, and CINAHL databases to identify eligible interventions aimed at preventing childhood obesity with an active family component published between 2008 and 2015. Characteristics of study design, behavioral domains targeted, and sample demographics were extracted from eligible articles using a comprehensive codebook. More than 90% of the 119 eligible interventions were based in the United States, Europe, or Australia. Most interventions targeted children 2-5 years of age (43%) or 6-10 years of age (35%), with few studies targeting the prenatal period (8%) or children 14-17 years of age (7%). The home (28%), primary health care (27%), and community (33%) were the most common intervention settings. Diet (90%) and physical activity (82%) were more frequently targeted in interventions than media use (55%) and sleep (20%). Only 16% of interventions targeted all four behavioral domains. In addition to studies in developing countries, racial minorities and non-traditional families were also underrepresented. Hispanic/Latino and families of low socioeconomic status were highly represented. The limited number of interventions targeting diverse populations and obesity risk behaviors beyond diet and physical activity inhibit the development of comprehensive, tailored interventions. To ensure a broad evidence base, more interventions implemented in developing countries and targeting racial
Kelly G Lambert
Full Text Available Emotional resilience enhances an animal’s ability to maintain physiological allostasis and adaptive responses in the midst of challenges ranging from cognitive uncertainty to chronic stress. In the current study, neurobiological factors related to strategic responses to uncertainty produced by prediction errors were investigated by initially profiling male rats as passive, active or flexible copers (n=12 each group and assigning to either a contingency-trained or non-contingency trained group. Animals were subsequently trained in a spatial learning task so that problem solving strategies in the final probe task, as well various biomarkers of brain activation and plasticity in brain areas associated with cognition and emotional regulation, could be assessed. Additionally, fecal samples were collected to further determine markers of stress responsivity and emotional resilience. Results indicated that contingency-trained rats exhibited more adaptive responses in the probe trial (e.g., fewer interrupted grooming sequences and more targeted search strategies than the noncontingent-trained rats; additionally, increased DHEA/CORT ratios were observed in the contingent-trained animals. Diminished activation of the habenula (i.e., fos-immunoreactivity was correlated with resilience factors such as increased levels of DHEA metabolites during cognitive training. Of the three coping profiles, flexible copers exhibited enhanced neuroplasticity (i.e., increased dentate gyrus doublecortin-immunoreactivity compared to the more consistently responding active and passive copers. Thus, in the current study, contingency training via effort-based reward training, enhanced by a flexible coping style, provided neurobiological resilience and adaptive responses to prediction errors in the final probe trial. These findings have implications for psychiatric illnesses that are influenced by altered stress responses and decision-making abilities (e.g., depression.
RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.
Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infan...
Addison, Paul S
The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Nabors, Laura; Iobst, Emily A.; McGrady, Meghan E.
The majority of individuals who will become "smokers" begin smoking during their teenage years. Schools are optimal settings for relaying messages about health risks associated with smoking and for implementing smoking prevention programs. This article presents successful components of smoking prevention programs, describes the evaluation process,…
Bersamin, Melina; Garbers, Samantha; Gaarde, Jenna; Santelli, John
This study examines the association between school-based health center (SBHC) presence and school-wide measures of academic achievement and college preparation efforts. Publicly available educational and demographic data from 810 California public high schools were linked to a list of schools with an SBHC. Propensity score matching, a method to reduce bias inherent in nonrandomized control studies, was used to select comparison schools. Regression analyses, controlling for proportion of English-language learners, were conducted for each outcome including proportion of students participating in three College Board exams, graduation rates, and meeting university graduation requirements. Findings suggest that SBHC presence is positively associated with college preparation outcomes but not with academic achievement outcomes (graduation rates or meeting state graduation requirements). Future research must examine underlying mechanisms supporting this association, such as school connectedness. Additional research should explore the role that SBHC staff could have in supporting college preparation efforts. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kurnia Widianti, An-nisaa; Bambang Studyanto, Anung
Kertha Gosa Klungkung Court Hall in Bali is one of the relics of the cultural heritage of The Kingdom of Bali which is a part of the Klungkung Castle. The existence of Kertha Gosa Architecture Hall as one of the relics of cultural heritage holds historical values, especially Bali traditional values. Indonesia is a country which has the rich culture heritage history, especially on historical buildings. This research seeks for a redenomination to solve problems being faced recently, namely the lack of activities to conserve a historic building as an asset of the country and source of knowledge in education. Listed in Law Number 11 of 2010 the conservation has some criteria, such as : 1.it has 50 years or more; represents the period of a certain style lat least 50 years; has special meaning for the history, science, education, religion, and culture or cultural value as a nation’s personality. The procedure to conduct this research uses a descriptive method by doing observation, interviews, taking some pictures, official documents or personal and other data that have a relevance to the research related to object to describing the condition of the building systematically, factual and actual. Consideration of the selection of objects is based on research by looking at the criteria of architectural, historical and symbolic criteria. Kertha Gosa Hall classic has been there for 395 years was built with zoning system called Sanga Mandala or similar to a chess board using natural materials such as eben wood, and padas rocks which make it authentic and possesses characteristic values of patriotism expression. During the kingdom of Kertha Gosa, Court Hall was like a court nowadays, but people still trust the constructive value of Hindu religion and culture as a product of thinking and live experience.
O'Riordan, Bernadette; Haseldine, Clair
Abstract Summary: There is consensus in the literature that early detection, treatment and prevention is imperative for the wellbeing of society and the health care system (1). There is strong evidence which shows that T2D is preventable (2-5). Early identification of people at risk of T2D and lifestyle interventions has been shown to reduce progression to T2D. This abstract describes a diabetes prevention programme that has been set up in the community by a clinical nurse specialist and ph...
Vladimir Anatolyevich Parfenov
Full Text Available Arterial hypertension is regarded as an independent and most important risk factor for stroke and its most effective prevention is to lower elevated blood pressure (BP. International guidelines on and the results of large randomized placebo-controlled trials of different antihypertensive drugs used to prevent stroke are given. How to optimize the outpatient prevention of stroke is discussed. The preliminary results of the POWER trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of eprosartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, in reducing BP are presented.
Knowles, Cynthia R.
This book helps educators produce assessments of their schools' drug and violence prevention programs. It contains over 30 separate resources that can be adapted to specific evaluations (e.g., sample youth and adult participant feedback sheets, sample classroom observation sheets and teacher implementation logs, sample en-route participant…
Scorzelli, J F
It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.
Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan
This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100-$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14-$28). Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites.
The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because
In the German healthcare system, general practitioners (GPs) play an important role with regard to individualised prevention, as they are often the first contact for patients seeking advice. Additionally, there is a great need for preventive counselling from the patient's perspective. However, there is no clear evidence for the effectiveness of the prevention programmes established in Germany. Future prevention models need to be developed according to evidence-based criteria. Narrative-based medicine is seen as a promising complementary approach to strengthen individualised prevention in primary care. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Full Text Available School violence can be prevented. Research shows that prevention efforts by teachers, administrators, parents, community members, and even students can reduce violence and improve the overall school environment. Prevention efforts should ultimately reduce risk factors and promote protective factors at these multiple levels of influence. This article reviews the experience preventing school violence, based on the school psychologists practical and theoretical findings. School SMURTO PREVENCIJOS GALIMYBĖS MOKYKLOJE. JAUNIMO PATIRTYS KNYGOJE 103 „AŠ ĮVEIKIAU, NEBIJOK KOVOTI“ Violence: Prevention tools and resources were reviewed in this article. Based on the real school experience, it was described Olweus, Selezian and other violence prevention, educational programs. Based on the book “I stopped the school violence. You can do the same” were reviewed youths real experiences reducing the risk for violence. Were reviewed implications for crisis intervention and given recommendations for brief treatment practices, how to stop the violence in the school settings, strengthening young people’s abilities effectively solve difficulties.
Vojta, Deneen; Koehler, Timothy B; Longjohn, Matt; Lever, Jonathan A; Caputo, Nadine F
Twenty-six million U.S. adults have diabetes, and 79 million have prediabetes. A 2002 Diabetes Prevention Program research study proved the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention that yielded a 58% reduction in conversion to type 2 diabetes. However, cost per participant was high, complicating efforts to scale up the program. UnitedHealth Group (UHG) and the YMCA of the USA, in collaboration with the CDC, sought to develop the infrastructure and business case to scale the congressionally authorized National Diabetes Prevention Program nationwide. Emphasis was placed on developing a model that maintained fidelity to the original 2002 Diabetes Prevention Program research study and could be deployed for a lower cost per participant while yielding similar outcomes. The UHG created the business case and technical and operational infrastructure necessary for nationwide dissemination of the YMCA's Diabetes Prevention Program (YMCA's DPP), as part of the National Diabetes Prevention Program. The YMCA's DPP is a group-based model of 16 core sessions with monthly follow-up delivered by trained lifestyle coaches. A variety of mechanisms were used to identify, screen, and encourage enrollment for people with prediabetes into the YMCA's DPP. Substantial investments were made in relationship building, business planning, technology, development, and operational design to deliver an effective and affordable 12-month program. The program intervention was conducted July 2010-December 2011. Data were collected on the participants over a 15-month period between September 2010 and December 2011. Data were analyzed in February 2012. The main outcome measures were infrastructure (communities involved and personnel trained); engagement (screening and enrollment of people with prediabetes); program outcomes (attendance and weight loss); and service delivery cost of the intervention. In less than 2 years, the YMCA's DPP was effectively scaled to 46 communities in 23 states. More than 500
Johansen, Mette-Louise; Mouritsen, Tina; Montgomery, Edith
basis. The book provides recommendations for organizing and implementing well-defined network meeting flows as well as methods for achieving systemic meeting management. The network-oriented approach emphasizes involvement of the parents, knowledge-sharing between specialist groups and dialogue......This book contains a method model for the prevention of youth crime in Danish municipalities. The method model consists of instructions for conducting processual network meetings between traumatized refugee parents and the professional specialists working with their children on an intermunicipal...... and division of responsibilities between specialists and parents. The book is based on a method development project carried out in Karlebo municipality involving refugee families and welfare staff representatives in the municipality, the health system, and the police. The project was carried out with financial...
May 5, 2014 ... Young people, ages 15 to 24, account for almost half of all new HIV ... HIV epidemic among youth by distributing books on HIV prevention to .... were run for each gender to determine correlates of the two sexual risk behaviours: (a) whether or not students had ever had vaginal sex and. (b) whether or not ...
and fissure sealants. The quality of evidence for fluoride gel, fluoride mouth rinse, xylitol gums and silver diamine fluoride (SDF) was rated as low. For secondary caries prevention and caries arrest, only fluoride interventions and SDF proved consistent benefits, although the quality of evidence was low...
Overweight and obesity are major health concerns for young people. Schools are particularly promising environments for preventing and treating obesity. The Institutes of Medicine recommends 60 minutes per day of physical activity for children and youth, including at least 30 minutes at school. Yet the amount of moderate to vigorous physical…
Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. In India, a large percentage of the people are physically inactive with fewer than 10% engaging in recreational physical activity. Physical activity has many beneficial effects on the risk factors for CVD. Apart from improving fitness level, it decreases myocardial oxygen demand and improves myocardial perfusion. There is an inverse association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. In primary prevention, physical inactivity is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk for coronary events. In secondary prevention, data confirm the existence of an inverse dose–response relationship between cardiovascular fitness and the all-cause mortality in large populations of cardiovascular patients. Guidelines from the American authorities as well as the European Society of Cardiology provide specific recommendations for exercise depending on the clinical setting (primary or secondary prevention of CVD and the patient-specific factors (the patient's physical activity level and the perceived CVD risk. The present review summarizes the clinical evidence regarding the role of exercise in CVD prevention and the exercise recommendations from the leading Cardiac societies.
Background: Primary School Action for Better Health (PSABH) became the national HIV prevention curriculum of Kenya in 2005. Objective: To examined implementation of PSABH and student risk behaviours. Setting: Muhuru, a rural division of Nyanza Province. Subjects: One thousand one hundred and forty six students ...
Atkinson, Melissa J; Wade, Tracey D
Successful prevention of eating disorders represents an important goal due to damaging long-term impacts on health and well-being, modest treatment outcomes, and low treatment seeking among individuals at risk. Mindfulness-based approaches have received early support in the treatment of eating disorders, but have not been evaluated as a prevention strategy. This study aimed to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of a novel mindfulness-based intervention for reducing the risk of eating disorders among adolescent females, under both optimal (trained facilitator) and task-shifted (non-expert facilitator) conditions. A school-based cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in which 19 classes of adolescent girls (N = 347) were allocated to a three-session mindfulness-based intervention, dissonance-based intervention, or classes as usual control. A subset of classes (N = 156) receiving expert facilitation were analyzed separately as a proxy for delivery under optimal conditions. Task-shifted facilitation showed no significant intervention effects across outcomes. Under optimal facilitation, students receiving mindfulness demonstrated significant reductions in weight and shape concern, dietary restraint, thin-ideal internalization, eating disorder symptoms, and psychosocial impairment relative to control by 6-month follow-up. Students receiving dissonance showed significant reductions in socio-cultural pressures. There were no statistically significant differences between the two interventions. Moderate intervention acceptability was reported by both students and teaching staff. Findings show promise for the application of mindfulness in the prevention of eating disorders; however, further work is required to increase both impact and acceptability, and to enable successful outcomes when delivered by less expert providers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jordanić, Mislav; Rojas-Martínez, Mónica; Mañanas, Miguel Angel; Francesc Alonso, Joan
Objective. The development of modern assistive and rehabilitation devices requires reliable and easy-to-use methods to extract neural information for control of devices. Group-specific pattern recognition identifiers are influenced by inter-subject variability. Based on high-density EMG (HD-EMG) maps, our research group has already shown that inter-subject muscle activation patterns exist in a population of healthy subjects. The aim of this paper is to analyze muscle activation patterns associated with four tasks (flexion/extension of the elbow, and supination/pronation of the forearm) at three different effort levels in a group of patients with incomplete Spinal Cord Injury (iSCI). Approach. Muscle activation patterns were evaluated by the automatic identification of these four isometric tasks along with the identification of levels of voluntary contractions. Two types of classifiers were considered in the identification: linear discriminant analysis and support vector machine. Main results. Results show that performance of classification increases when combining features extracted from intensity and spatial information of HD-EMG maps (accuracy = 97.5%). Moreover, when compared to a population with injuries at different levels, a lower variability between activation maps was obtained within a group of patients with similar injury suggesting stronger task-specific and effort-level-specific co-activation patterns, which enable better prediction results. Significance. Despite the challenge of identifying both the four tasks and the three effort levels in patients with iSCI, promising results were obtained which support the use of HD-EMG features for providing useful information regarding motion and force intention.
Flynn, Brian S.; Worden, John K.; Bunn, Janice Yanushka; Connolly, Scott W.; Dorwaldt, Anne L.
Progress in reducing youth smoking may depend on developing improved methods to communicate with higher risk youth. This study explored the potential of smoking prevention messages based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) to address these needs. Structured evaluations of 12 smoking prevention messages based on three strategies derived from…
Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben
In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…
Owczarzak, Jill; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Since 1999, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have trained over 10,000 service providers from more than 5,000 agencies to implement evidence-based HIV prevention interventions through its Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interventions DEBI) program. Based on in-depth, semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of 22 HIV…
Warschburger, Petra; Helfert, Susanne; Krentz, Eva Maria
Abstract Aim Disordered eating is a significant social and economic issue in Western societies. Weight and shape concerns are highly prevalent during adolescence and an alarming percentage of adolescents already show disturbed eating patterns. Sociocultural factors like the beauty ideal promoted by the media and social agents are among the main reasons for this trend. Prevention programmes which focus on established protective and risk factors are needed ...
Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil
In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kossaify, A; Hleihel, W; Lahoud, J-C
Highlight the importance of teamwork in health care institutions by performing a review and discussion of the relevant literature. Review paper. A MEDLINE/Pubmed search was performed starting from 1990, and the terms 'team, teamwork, managers, healthcare, and cooperation' were searched in titles, abstracts, keywords, and conclusions; other terms 'patient safety, ethics, audits and quality of care' were specifically searched in abstracts and were used as additional filters criteria to select relevant articles. Thirty-three papers were found relevant; factors affecting the quality of care in health care institutions are multiple and varied, including issues related to individual profile, to administrative structure and to team-based effort. Issues affecting teamwork include mainly self-awareness, work environment, leadership, ethics, cooperation, communication, and competition. Moreover, quality improvement plans aiming to enhance and expand teams are essential in this context. Team monitoring and management are vital to achieve efficient teamwork with all the required qualities for a safer health system. In all cases, health managers' responsibility plays a fundamental role in creating and sustaining a teamwork atmosphere. Teamwork is known to improve outcomes in medicine, whether at the clinical, organizational, or scientific level. Teamwork in health care institutions must increasingly be encouraged, given that individual effort is often insufficient for optimal clinical outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.
Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350
Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K
The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.
Storer, Heather L.; Casey, Erin A.; Carlson, Juliana; Edleson, Jeffrey L.; Tolman, Richard M.
Engaging men in addressing violence against women (VAW) has become a strategy in the global prevention of gender-based violence. Concurrently, Western public health frameworks have been utilized to guide prevention agendas worldwide. Using qualitative methods, this study describes how global anti-violence organizations that partner with men conceptualize primary prevention in their work. Findings suggest that ‘primary prevention’ is not a fixed term in the context of VAW and that front-line prevention work challenges rigidly delineated distinctions between levels of prevention. Much can be learned from global organizations’ unique and contextualized approaches to the prevention of VAW. PMID:26333283
Benjamin W. Van Voorhees
Full Text Available Efforts to prevent depression have become a key health system priority. Currently, there is a high prevalence of depression among adolescents, and treatment has become costly due to the recurrence patterns of the illness, impairment among patients, and the complex factors needed for a treatment to be effective. Primary care may be the optimal location to identify those at risk by offering an Internet-based preventive intervention to reduce costs and improve outcomes. Few practical interventions have been developed. The models for Internet intervention development that have been put forward focus primarily on the Internet component rather than how the program fits within a broader context. This paper describes the conceptualization for developing technology based preventive models for primary care by integrating the components within a behavioral vaccine framework. CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive-behavioral, Humanistic and Interpersonal Training has been developed and successfully implemented within various health systems over a period of 14 years among adolescents and young adults aged 13–24.
Colby, Margaret; Hecht, Michael L; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L; Syvertsen, Amy K; Graham, John W; Pettigrew, Jonathan
A central challenge facing twenty-first century community-based researchers and prevention scientists is curriculum adaptation processes. While early prevention efforts sought to develop effective programs, taking programs to scale implies that they will be adapted, especially as programs are implemented with populations other than those with whom they were developed or tested. The principle of cultural grounding, which argues that health message adaptation should be informed by knowledge of the target population and by cultural insiders, provides a theoretical rational for cultural regrounding and presents an illustrative case of methods used to reground the keepin' it REAL substance use prevention curriculum for a rural adolescent population. We argue that adaptation processes like those presented should be incorporated into the design and dissemination of prevention interventions.
Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Horst, N. van der; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.
The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. Objective To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training
Kelders, Saskia Marion; Oskam, Maarten-Jan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.
Web-based preventive interventions have shown to be effective for the prevention of depression, but high rates of non-use and drop-out, less than optimal implementation in the care organization and low acceptance rates cause interventions to be less effective in practice than in theory and research.
Richards, Zoe; Kostadinov, Iordan; Jones, Michelle; Richard, Lucie; Cargo, Margaret
Little research has assessed the fidelity, adaptation or integrity of activities implemented within community-based obesity prevention initiatives. To address this gap, a mixed-method process evaluation was undertaken in the context of the South Australian Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL) initiative. An ecological coding procedure assessed…
Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca
This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…
Their research looked at the root causes and impacts of violence against women and also assessed the effectiveness of existing strategies to prevent and combat gender-based violence. Their work has identified key strategies to strengthen civil society and public organizations engaged in preventing violence against ...
Shin, Hyucksun S.
Reviewed evaluation studies of school-based drug prevention programs published from 1993-99 to identify significant program features that could influence the success of drug prevention education. Results found that programs components varied significantly. Programs employing a social-influence model varied in their effectiveness depending on the…
Iverson, Susan V.
Among the numerous approaches that are employed to prevent sexual violence, the performance of scenarios has become one of the "promising practices" in U.S. postsecondary education. This article describes findings from a pilot study to analyze scripts used for theatre-based sexual violence prevention programs. Employing the method of…
Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.
School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…
Fujimoto, Kayo; Valente, Thomas W.; Pentz, Mary Ann
This study examined the impact of key variables in coalition communication networks, centralization and density, on the adoption of evidence-based substance abuse prevention. Data were drawn from a network survey and a corresponding community leader survey that measured leader attitudes and practices toward substance abuse prevention programs. Two…
Roman Isler, Malika; Eng, Eugenia; Maman, Susanne; Adimora, Adaora; Weiner, Bryan
The black church is influential in shaping health behaviors within African-American communities, yet few use evidence-based strategies for HIV prevention (abstinence, monogamy, condoms, voluntary counseling and testing, and prevention with positives). Using principles of grounded theory and interpretive description, we explored the social…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). Teachers can play a central role in violence prevention, and they can also help…
Moore, Susan Fordney
The purpose of this paper is to provide the beginning counselor with an overview of prevention concepts. Prevention is a relatively new emphasis in community efforts to stem the rising costs of substance abuse and other high-risk behaviors. The paper discusses agent, host, and environmental prevention models and how they relate to causal theories…
The preventive replacement method based on the experimental feedback was introduced. In this method, the initial preventive replacement cycle was acquired by expert votes. The preventive replacement cycle combined with the operation experience of the equipment was gained by means of Bayesian theorem. The Optimized preventive replacement cycle can be acquired by comparing the two probabilities that no fault occurs within the cycle. This method was tested on the switches which were used in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant and the results indicated its validity. (authors)
Green, Edward C; Ruark, Allison Herling
.... Arguing for a behavior-based approach, the authors make the case that the most effective programs are those that encourage fundamental behavioral changes such as faithfulness, avoidance of concurrent...
Maynard, Maria J
The aim of this current narrative review is to critique the scope and value of recent studies with a focus on obesity-related health promotion in faith organizations. Electronic database searches, scanning of the reference lists of identified articles, and hand searching of journals for articles written in English and published in 2013-2016 revealed 16 studies. Half of the studies involved African-Americans, in churches and with predominantly female participants. Research among other ethnic groups was more likely to be exploratory. All of the 11 studies reporting the impact of programmes on weight-related measures showed favourable outcomes. However, due to study limitations (small sample size, short duration, attrition), significant unbiased effects cannot yet be concluded for most of the interventions reviewed. Study strengths included application of theory in community engagement and detailed description of cultural tailoring. Faith organizations show promise as settings for obesity prevention among high-risk groups, particularly African-Americans. Support for progressing formative work to adequately powered, randomized controlled trials is vital. Wider involvement of diverse faith settings and targeting obesity in men and childhood would be valuable developments.
John D Salamone
Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Full Text Available BackgroundChildhood obesity is a major clinical and economic health concern. Alongside the clinical understanding of obesity, there is a growing interest in designing and implementing interventions that are worth their money given the scarce resources in the health care sector. This study is one of the first efforts to provide evidence by assessing the effects and costs of a population-based primary prevention intervention targeting pre-school children attending child health centers in Sweden.MethodsThe economic evaluation is based on the PRIMROSE cluster-randomized controlled trial aiming to establish healthy eating and physical activity among pre-school children (9–48 months of age through motivational interviewing applied by trained nurses at child health centers. The cost-effectiveness is assessed over the trial period from a societal perspective. The primary outcome was BMI at age 4. Cost data was prospectively collected alongside the trial. Scenario analyses were carried out to identify uncertainty.ResultsThe estimated additional mean total costs of the PRIMROSE intervention were 342 Euro (95% CI: 334; 348 per child. During pre-school years direct costs mainly consist of training costs and costs for the additional time used by nurses to implement the intervention compared to usual care. Early indirect costs mainly consist of parents’ absence from work due to their participation in the intervention. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the base case analysis was 3,109 Euro per 1 BMI unit prevented.ConclusionWe cannot provide evidence that the PRIMROSE intervention is cost-effective, given the uncertainty in the effect measure. Until further evidence is provided, we recommend resources to be spent elsewhere within the field of obesity prevention. Furthermore, to achieve valid and reliable cost-effectiveness results, the economic evaluation of obesity prevention programs in early childhood should incorporate the life time
Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David
When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to
Langford, Linda; DeJong, William
Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…
Vu H. Nguyen
Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious public health concern worldwide, and community-based public health programs that increase osteoporosis preventive behaviors are ideal to combat this major public health issue. A review of community-based public health programs for osteoporosis prevention show that programs vary in numerous ways and have mixed results in increasing osteoporosis preventive behaviors, although most programs have had success in significantly increasing calcium intake, only a few programs have had success in significantly increasing weight-bearing exercise. Regarding calcium intake, all community-based public health programs that implemented: 1 at least one theoretical behavior change model, such as the health belief model, or 2 bone mineral density (BMD testing for osteoporosis screening, have shown success in significantly increasing calcium intake. As community-based public health programs for osteoporosis prevention have shown limited success in increasing weight-bearing exercise, an additional review of community-based public health programs incorporating osteoporosis exercise showed that they have high compliance rates to increase weight-bearing exercise, but require high-intensity weight-bearing exercise of 80–85% 1-repetition maximum to significantly increase BMD to prevent osteoporosis. In the prevention of osteoporosis, for community-based public health programs to be most effective, they should implement theoretical behavior change models and/or BMD testing for osteoporosis screening, along with high-intensity resistance training. Recommendations for future research to further study effective community-based public health programs are also provided.
Pequegnat, Willo; Rosser, B R Simon; Bowen, Anne M; Bull, Sheana S; DiClemente, Ralph J; Bockting, Walter O; Elford, Jonathan; Fishbein, Martin; Gurak, Laura; Horvath, Keith; Konstan, Joseph; Noar, Seth M; Ross, Michael W; Sherr, Lorraine; Spiegel, David; Zimmerman, Rick
The aim of this paper is to advance rigorous Internet-based HIV/STD Prevention quantitative research by providing guidance to fellow researchers, faculty supervising graduates, human subjects' committees, and review groups about some of the most common and challenging questions about Internet-based HIV prevention quantitative research. The authors represent several research groups who have gained experience conducting some of the first Internet-based HIV/STD prevention quantitative surveys in the US and elsewhere. Sixteen questions specific to Internet-based HIV prevention survey research are identified. To aid rigorous development and review of applications, these questions are organized around six common criteria used in federal review groups in the US: significance, innovation, approach (broken down further by research design, formative development, procedures, sampling considerations, and data collection); investigator, environment and human subjects' issues. Strategies promoting minority participant recruitment, minimizing attrition, validating participants, and compensating participants are discussed. Throughout, the implications on budget and realistic timetabling are identified.
Joshi, Shashank V; Hartley, Samantha N; Kessler, Moira; Barstead, Maura
Suicide is a leading cause of preventable death in youth, and numerous curricula and other prevention and intervention programs have been developed in the last 15 years. Comprehensive suicide prevention planning should include the 4 components of health promotion, prevention/education, intervention, and postvention. School-based suicide prevention and mental health education programs have become more common as an efficient and cost-effective way to reach youth. Process considerations that are based on the principles of therapeutic engagement with patients and families can provide mental health professionals with strategies that can assist education professionals, students, and the larger school community simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article examines how the field of adolescent sexual health came to embrace evidence-based interventions (EBIs; whether or not this approach is effective in meeting the needs of adolescents, especially those at high risk for teen pregnancy; concerns related to the scaling up of EBIs; and identifies issues which must be resolved as we move forward.
Whaley, Shannon E.; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise
Objective: To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Design: Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.…
The purpose of this study was to evaluate a school-based pediatric obesity program for elementary children. Children (n = 782) were between the ages of 7 and 9 and in the 2nd grade. A total of 323 (189 males) children who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an integrated health...
Zhang, Yang-de; Lu, Xiao-lin; Li, Nian-feng
In order to control HIV pandemic, many vaccines are invented. Although none first verified its efficacy in clinic, we hypothesize that HIV vaccine based on poliovirus is potential to develop the promising one, because it can elicit the broad immune response including the main mucosal, humoral and cellular reaction. However, the viral neural virulence is one major concern. The attenuated Sabin strain is a better candidate. While partial poliovirus genes are replaced by HIV antigen genes, the defective interfering particle will fail to produce progeny virions, which may further ensure its security. Although the vaccinal immune efficacy was verified in some similar animal experiments based on poliovirus to express the exogenous genes, more animal and clinical immune trials about HIV-poliovirus chimeric minireplicons are to be carried out and the hypotheses are to be validated.
Kaufman, Z A; Welsch, R L; Erickson, J D; Craig, S; Adams, L V; Ross, D A
Previous observational and quasi-experimental studies in sub-Saharan Africa have suggested the effectiveness of youth-targeted HIV prevention interventions using sport as an educational tool. No studies have yet assessed the effect of similar programs in the Caribbean. A quasi-experimental trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of a sports-based intervention in six migrant settlements in the Puerto Plata Province of the Dominican Republic. A total of 397 structured interviews were conducted with 140 adolescents prior to, immediately following, and four months following 10-hour interventions using the Grassroot Soccer curriculum. Interview responses were coded, aggregated into composite scores, and analyzed using logistic regression, adjusting for baseline differences as well as age, sex, community, and descent. At post-intervention, significant differences were observed between groups in HIV-related knowledge (adjOR = 13.02, 95% CI = 8.26, 20.52), reported attitudes (adjOR = 12.01, 95% CI = 7.61, 18.94), and reported communication (adjOR = 3.13, 95% CI = 1.91, 5.12). These differences remained significant at four-month follow-up, though declines in post-intervention knowledge were observed in the Intervention group while gains in knowledge and reported attitudes were observed in the Control group. Results suggest that this sports-based intervention could play a valuable role in HIV prevention efforts in the Caribbean, particularly those targeting early adolescents. Further evaluation of sports-based interventions should include indicators assessing behavioral and biological outcomes, longer-term follow-up, a larger sample, randomization of study participants, and strenuous efforts to minimize loss-to-follow-up.
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.
This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613
St John, Julie A; Shubert, Tiffany E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Rosemond, Cherie A; Howell, Doris A; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Ory, Marcia G
This perspective paper describes processes in the development of an evidence-based fall prevention curriculum for community health workers/promotores (CHW/P) that highlights the development of the curriculum and addresses: (1) the need and rationale for involving CHW/P in fall prevention; (2) involvement of CHW/P and content experts in the curriculum development; (3) best practices utilized in the curriculum development and training implementation; and (4) next steps for dissemination and utilization of the CHW/P fall prevention curriculum. The project team of CHW/P and content experts developed, pilot tested, and revised bilingual in-person training modules about fall prevention among older adults. The curriculum incorporated the following major themes: (1) fall risk factors and strategies to reduce/prevent falls; (2) communication strategies to reduce risk of falling and strategies for developing fall prevention plans; and (3) health behavior change theories utilized to prevent and reduce falls. Three separate fall prevention modules were developed for CHW/P and CHW/P Instructors to be used during in-person trainings. Module development incorporated a five-step process: (1) conduct informal focus groups with CHW/P to inform content development; (2) develop three in-person modules in English and Spanish with input from content experts; (3) pilot-test the modules with CHW/P; (4) refine and finalize modules based on pilot-test feedback; and (5) submit modules for approval of continuing education units. This project contributes to the existing evidence-based literature by examining the role of CHW/P in fall prevention among older adults. By including evidence-based communication strategies such as message tailoring, the curriculum design allows CHW/P to personalize the information for individuals, which can result in an effective dissemination of a curriculum that is evidence-based and culturally appropriate.
Monica Seungah Choo
Full Text Available The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV has been rapidly spreading throughout Latin America, utilizing pre-existing vectors to infiltrate the immunologically naïve populations. With the current rise of the Zika Virus, there is an urgent need for more rigorous vector control efforts to prevent further Zika breakout. We designed a schoolbased education module on CHIKV and mosquito prevention and presented it to the local students of ages of 6-18 in a rural town called Sudzal in Yucatan, Mexico. We distributed questionnaires before and after education to test the students’ knowledge of CHIKV and mosquito prevention. Chisquared test was performed to determine the efficacy of the presentation in increasing their knowledge. The education presentation has proven to effectively educate the local residents in several critical methods of mosquito prevention, increasing the average test scores by 67% post-education. These include applying repellent, staying hydrated during recuperation, and cleaning indoor water containers to eliminate breeding sites (P<0.001. Furthermore, the questionnaire captured the residents’ behavioral patterns regarding CHIKV and mosquito prevention and identified cultural, ecological, and socioeconomic factors hindering effective implementation of vector control.
Wen, Min; Li, Rui; Salling, Kim Bang
for given railway tracks over a planning horizon. The objective is to minimize the Net Present Costs (NPC) considering the following technical and economic factors: 1) track quality (the standard deviation of the longitudinal level) degradation over time; 2) track quality thresholds based on train speed...... limits; 3) the impact of previous tamping operations on the track quality recovery; 4) track geometrical alignment; 5) tamping machine operation factors and finally 6) the discount rate. In this work, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model is formulated and tested on data from the railway...
Diem, Günter; Brownson, Ross C; Grabauskas, Vilius; Shatchkute, Aushra; Stachenko, Sylvie
The control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) was addressed by the declaration of the 66th United Nations (UN) General Assembly followed by the World Health Organization's (WHO) NCD 2020 action plan. There is a clear need to better apply evidence in public health settings to tackle both behaviour-related factors and the underlying social and economic conditions. This article describes concepts of evidence-based public health (EBPH) and outlines a set of actions that are essential for successful global NCD prevention. The authors describe the importance of knowledge translation with the goal of increasing the effectiveness of public health services, relying on both quantitative and qualitative evidence. In particular, the role of capacity building is highlighted because it is fundamental to progress in controlling NCDs. Important challenges for capacity building include the need to bridge diverse disciplines, build the evidence base across countries and the lack of formal training in public health sciences. As brief case examples, several successful capacity-building efforts are highlighted to address challenges and further evidence-based decision making. The need for a more comprehensive public health approach, addressing social, environmental and cultural conditions, has led to government-wide and society-wide strategies that are now on the agenda due to efforts such as the WHO's NCD 2020 action plan and Health 2020: the European Policy for Health and Wellbeing. These efforts need research to generate evidence in new areas (e.g. equity and sustainability), training to build public health capacity and a continuous process of improvement and knowledge generation and translation. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Background: The Obesity Prevention and Lifestyle (OPAL intervention program targets families and communities to improve children’s eating and physical activity patterns. We outline the quantitative evaluation design and recruitment results for baseline data collection. Methods: A longitudinal quasi-experimental design, with baseline data collection and five-year follow-up. Participants targeted are children, parents, and school principals/directors from primary, secondary/R-12 schools, pre-schools, childcare and out-of-school-hours-care (OSHC centers in 20 selected communities across South Australia (SA, and one in the Northern Territory (NT. A total of 277 (262 SA, 15 NT schools participated; 4860 9-11 year olds and 1164 12-16 year olds completed a questionnaire. Anthropometric measures were taken from 5531 students; 6552 parents, 276 pre/school/childcare directors, 139 OSHC directors and 237 principals completed questionnaires. Data include measurements of child participants’ weight/height/waist circumference; paper-based/online surveys of informants in early childhood, primary/secondary school and community settings; and secondary growth check data for 4-5 year old children. Serial cross-sectional analyses will compare intervention to matched comparison communities. Results: Overall school response rate was 50%. Student response rates were 20-22% and 11-13% (questionnaires and measurements respectively; 14-21% of parents, 49-55% of directors, and 26-44% of principals completed and returned questionnaires. Changes to child weight status; eating practices; sleep, physical activity/sedentary behaviors; physical environments; community capacity; and economic evaluation (Quality Adjusted Life year gain will examine program effectiveness. Conclusions: As the most significant program of its kind in Australia, OPAL will contribute to obesity prevention efforts on an international scale.
Ruff, R R; Niederman, R
The school and community context can contribute to inequity in child oral health. Whether the school and community affect the effectiveness of school-based caries prevention is unknown. The association between the school and community environment and dental caries, as well as their moderating effects with school-based caries prevention, was assessed using multilevel mixed-effects regression. Data were derived from a 6-y prospective cohort study of children participating in a school-based caries prevention program. For the school and community, living in a dental-shortage area and the proportion of children receiving free or reduced lunch were significantly related to an increased risk of dental caries at baseline. Caries prevention was associated with a significant per-visit decrease in the risk of untreated caries, but the rate of total caries experience increased over time. Caries prevention was more effective in children who had prior dental care at baseline and in schools with a higher proportion of low socioeconomic status students. There was significant variation across schools in the baseline prevalence of dental caries and the effect of prevention over time, although effects were modest. The school and community environment have a direct impact on oral health and moderate the association between school-based caries prevention and dental caries. Knowledge Transfer Statement: School-based caries prevention can be an effective means to reduce oral health inequity by embedding dental care within schools. However, the socioeconomic makeup of schools and characteristics of the surrounding community can affect the impact of school-based care.
Pérez Solís, D; Díaz Martín, J J; Álvarez Caro, F; Suárez Tomás, I; Suárez Menéndez, E; Riaño Galán, I
Intervention for childhood obesity is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention against obesity in children. Non-randomised controlled trial was conducted on children from first to fifth grade from two public schools of Avilés (Spain). The intervention lasted for 2 school years comprising healthy diet workshops, educational chats, educational meetings, informative written material, and promotion of physical activities. Primary outcome measure was body mass index z-score. Secondary outcomes included: obesity and overweight prevalence, waist circumference, dietary habits, and physical activity. A total of 382 (177 girls, 205 boys) out of 526 pupils of both schools were included in the study. Complete anthropometric data were obtained in 340 of the 382 individuals. Compared to children in control group, those in intervention group decreased body mass index z-score from 1.14 to 1.02 (P=.017), and improved KIDMED score from 7.33 to 7.71 points (P=.045). The percentage of students who carried on an optimal diet increased from 42.6% to 52.3% (P=.021). There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, or in waist circumference between the intervention and control groups. This school-based program resulted in modest beneficial changes in body mass index and diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Padula, William V; Mishra, Manish K; Makic, Mary Beth F; Wald, Heidi L; Campbell, Jonathan D; Nair, Kavita V; Valuck, Robert J
In 2008, the U.S. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services enacted a nonpayment policy for stage III and IV hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs), which incentivized hospitals to improve prevention efforts. In response, hospitals looked for ways to support implementation of evidence-based practices for HAPU prevention, such as adoption of quality improvement (QI) interventions. The objective of this study was to quantify adoption patterns of QI interventions for supporting evidence-based practices for HAPU prevention. This study surveyed wound care specialists working at hospitals within the University HealthSystem Consortium. A questionnaire was used to retrospectively describe QI adoption patterns according to 25 HAPU-specific QI interventions into four domains: leadership, staff, information technology (IT), and performance and improvement. Respondents indicated QI interventions implemented between 2007 and 2012 to the nearest quarter and year. Descriptive statistics defined patterns of QI adoption. A t-test and statistical process control chart established statistically significant increase in adoption following nonpayment policy enactment in October 2008. Increase are described in terms of scope (number of QI domains employed) and scale (number of QI interventions within domains). Fifty-three of the 55 hospitals surveyed reported implementing QI interventions for HAPU prevention. Leadership interventions were most frequent, increasing in scope from 40% to 63% between 2008 and 2012; "annual programs to promote pressure ulcer prevention" showed the greatest increase in scale. Staff interventions increased in scope from 32% to 53%; "frequent consult driven huddles" showed the greatest increase in scale. IT interventions increased in scope from 31% to 55%. Performance and improvement interventions increased in scope from 18% to 40%, with "new skin care products . . ." increasing the most. Academic medical centers increased adoption of QI interventions
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Laying the Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Effort Aimed at Prevention of Pregnancy among Middle School Youth. Phase II: A Survey of Florida Vocational Home Economics Teachers. Final Report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980.
Morse, Betty R.; Dixon, Betty L.
Attitudes of Florida vocational home economics teachers were surveyed concerning a pregnancy-prevention education program for early adolescents during project phase 2. The Needs Assessment Inventory for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention developed in phase 1 was administered to 1274 teachers who approved the range of objectives cited in the Inventory…
Full Text Available Passive immunization using antibodies has been suggested to offer several benefits in comparison to other antiviral treatment options. The potential for seasonal protection arising from a single injection of antibodies is appealing and has been pursued for a number of infectious agents. However, until recently, antibody-based strategies to combat infectious agents has been hampered due to the fact that typical antibodies have been found to be strain-specific, with the virus evolving resistance in many cases. The discovery of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs in, for example, influenza, dengue virus, and HIV, which bind to multiple, structurally-diverse strains has provided renewed interest in this area. This review will focus on new technologies that enable the discovery of bNAbs, the challenges and opportunities of immunotherapies as an important addition to existing antiviral therapy, and the role of antibody discovery in informing rational vaccine discovery – with agents targeting influenza specifically addressed. Multiple agents have entered the clinic and raise the possibility that a single antibody or small combination of antibodies can effectively neutralize a wide variety of strains. However, challenges remain - including combating escape variants, pharmacodynamics of antibody distribution, and development of efficacy biomarkers beyond virologic endpoints.
Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian
The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.
Wang, Hanxi; Xu, Jianling; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Tian
The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development. PMID:25153474
Full Text Available The environmental impact of wind power plants over their life cycle is divided into three stages: construction period, operation period and retired period. The impact is mainly reflected in ecological destruction, noise pollution, water pollution and the effect on bird migration. In response to these environmental effects, suggesting reasonable locations, reducing plant footprint, optimizing construction programs, shielding noise, preventing pollution of terrestrial ecosystems, implementing combined optical and acoustical early warning signals, making synthesized use of power generation equipment in the post-retired period and using other specific measures, including methods involving governance and protection efforts to reduce environmental pollution, can be performed to achieve sustainable development.
, multidisciplinary effort to develop and test an evidence-based and theory-informed intervention program for obesity prevention among school-aged children.
Weine, Stevan M; Stone, Andrew; Saeed, Aliya; Shanfield, Stephen; Beahrs, John; Gutman, Alisa; Mihajlovic, Aida
New community-based initiatives being developed to address violent extremism in the United States are utilizing mental health services and leadership. This article reviews current approaches to preventing violent extremism, the contribution that mental illness and psychosocial problems can make to violent extremism, and the rationale for integrating mental health strategies into preventing violent extremism. The authors describe a community-based targeted violence prevention model and the potential roles of mental health professionals. This model consists of a multidisciplinary team that assesses at-risk individuals with comprehensive threat and behavioral evaluations, arranges for ongoing support and treatment, conducts follow-up evaluations, and offers outreach, education, and resources for communities. This model would enable mental health professionals in local communities to play key roles in preventing violent extremism through their practice and leadership.
Kutcher, Stan; Wei, Yifeng; Behzadi, Pegah
Suicide in young people is a significant health concern, with numerous community- and school-based interventions promising to prevent suicide currently being applied across Canada. Before widespread application of any one of these, it is essential to determine its effectiveness and safety. We systematically reviewed the global literature on one of the most common community suicide prevention interventions in Canada and summarized data on 2 commonly applied school-based suicide prevention programmes. None of these has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing youth suicide or safety in application. Concurrently with their widespread distribution in Canada, the suicide rate in young women has increased-the first time in over 3 decades. Policy and regulatory implications of these findings are discussed.
Daley, Alison Moriarty
This article examines school-based health centers (SBHCs) as complex adaptive systems, the current gaps that exist in contraceptive access, and the potential to maximize this community resource in teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention efforts. Adolescent pregnancy is a major public health challenge for the United States. Existing community resources need to be considered for their potential to impact teen pregnancy and STI prevention efforts. SBHCs are one such community resource to be leveraged in these efforts. They offer adolescent-friendly primary care services and are responsive to the diverse needs of the adolescents utilizing them. However, current restrictions on contraceptive availability limit the ability of SBHCs to maximize opportunities for comprehensive reproductive care and create missed opportunities for pregnancy and STI prevention. A clinical case explores the current models of health care services related to contraceptive care provided in SBHCs and the ability to meet or miss the needs of an adolescent seeking reproductive care in a SBHC.
Ronalds, Lisa; Allen-Craig, Sandy
In an effort to address the issue of youth homelessness in Australia, Regional Extended Family Services (REFS) have developed a wilderness-based therapeutic intervention. REFS aim to provide early intervention services for young people at risk of homelessness, and their families. This study examined the outcomes of the REFS wilderness program by…
Flynn, Anna B; Falco, Mathea; Hocini, Sophia
Lack of robust program evaluation has hindered the effectiveness of school-based drug abuse prevention curricula overall. Independently evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of universal, middle school-based drug abuse prevention curricula are the most useful indicators of whether such programs are effective or ineffective. To conduct a systematic review identifying independently evaluated RCTs of universal, middle school-based drug abuse prevention curricula; extract data on study quality and substance use outcomes; and assess evidence of program effectiveness. PsycInfo, Educational Resources Information Center, Science Citation Index, Social Science Citation Index, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched between January 1, 1984, and March 15, 2015. Search terms included variations of drug, alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use, as well as school, prevention, and effectiveness. Studies included in the review were RCTs carried out by independent evaluators of universal school-based drug prevention curricula available for dissemination in the United States that reported alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or other drug use outcomes. Two researchers extracted data on study quality and outcomes independently using a data extraction form and met to resolve disagreements. A total of 5071 publications were reviewed, with 13 articles meeting final inclusion criteria. Of the 13 articles, 6 RCTs of 4 distinct school-based curricula were identified for inclusion. Outcomes were reported for 42 single-drug measures in the independent RCTs, with just 3 presenting statistically significant (P drug prevention curricula. Independent evaluations show little evidence of effectiveness for widely used programs. New methods may be necessary to approach school-based adolescent drug prevention.
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary preventio...
Mauriello, Leanne M.; Driskell, Mary Margaret H.; Sherman, Karen J.; Johnson, Sara S.; Prochaska, Janice M.; Prochaska, James O.
This article describes the development and pilot testing of a computer-based, multiple-behavior obesity prevention program for adolescents. Using the Transtheoretical Model as a framework, this intervention offers individualized feedback based on readiness to engage in physical activity, to consume fruits and vegetables, and to limit television…
Merry, Sally; McDowell, Heather; Wild, Chris J.; Bir, Julliet; Cunliffe, Rachel
Objective: To conduct a placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program. Method: Three hundred ninety-two students age 13 to 15 from two schools were randomized to intervention (RAP-Kiwi) and placebo programs run by teachers. RAP-Kiwi was an 11-session manual-based program derived from…
Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B.; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J. Carel; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Bakker, Fred C.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Olff, Miranda
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine
Mouthaan, J.; Sijbrandij, M.; de Vries, G.J.; Reitsma, J.B.; van de Schoot, R.; Goslings, J.C.; Luitse, J.S.K.; Bakker, F.C.; Gersons, B.P.R.; Olff, M.
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. Objective: To determine
Wegner, L.; Flisher, A. J.; Caldwell, L. L.; Vergnani, T.; Smith, E. A.
There is a need for effective prevention programmes aimed at reducing risk behaviour among South African adolescents. HealthWise South Africa is a school-based programme designed to reduce sexual and substance use risk behaviour, and promote positive use of leisure time among high-school learners (students). Based on successful programmes in the…
Kapungu, Chisina T.; Nappi, Carla N.; Thakral, Charu; Miller, Steven A.; Devlin, Catharine; McBride, Cami; Hasselquist, Emily; Coleman, Gloria; Drozd, Derek; Barve, Chinmayee; Donenberg, Geri; DiClemente, Ralph; Brown, Larry
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of evidence-based recruitment and retention strategies for a longitudinal, family-based HIV prevention intervention study targeting adolescents in psychiatric care by (1) determining consent rate (recruitment), rate of participation at the first intervention session (retention), and…
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). "Doorways I: Student Training Manual on School-Related Gender-Based Violence…
Daivadanam, Meena; Absetz, Pilvikki; Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Thankappan, K R; Fisher, Edwin B; Philip, Neena Elezebeth; Mathews, Elezebeth; Oldenburg, Brian
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has become a major public health challenge in India. Factors relevant to the development and implementation of diabetes prevention programmes in resource-constrained countries, such as India, have been under-studied. The purpose of this study is to describe the findings from research aimed at informing the development and evaluation of a Diabetes Prevention Programme in Kerala, India (K-DPP). Data were collected from three main sources: (1) a systematic review of key research literature; (2) a review of relevant policy documents; and (3) focus groups conducted among individuals with a high risk of progressing to diabetes. The key findings were then triangulated and synthesised. Prevalence of risk factors for diabetes is very high and increasing in Kerala. This situation is largely attributable to rapid changes in the lifestyle of people living in this state of India. The findings from the systematic review and focus groups identified many environmental and personal determinants of these unhealthy lifestyle changes, including: less than ideal accessibility to and availability of health services; cultural values and norms; optimistic bias and other misconceptions related to risk; and low expectations regarding one's ability to make lifestyle changes in order to influence health and disease outcomes. On the other hand, there are existing intervention trials conducted in India which suggests that risk reduction is possible. These programmes utilize multi-level strategies including mass media, as well as strategies to enhance community and individual empowerment. India's national programme for the prevention and control of major non-communicable diseases (NCD) also provide a supportive environment for further community-based efforts to prevent diabetes. These findings provide strong support for undertaking more research into the conduct of community-based diabetes prevention in the rural areas of Kerala. We aim to develop, implement and
Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.
... Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Food for Animals; Public Meeting on Proposed Rule AGENCY: Food and... requirements for current good manufacturing practice and hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls for... regulations requiring preventive controls for human food and animal food, set standards for produce safety...
Mizuno, Yuko; Smith, Dawn K.; Grabbe, Kristina; Courtenay-Quirk, Cari; Tomlinson, Hank; Mermin, Jonathan
Thirty years after the beginning of the HIV epidemic, gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (collectively called MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of HIV in the United States and continue to acquire a distressingly high number and proportion of new infections. Historically, HIV prevention for MSM has been focused on individual-level behavior change, rarely intervening with MSM as part of a couple. Yet, an estimated 33–67% of HIV infections among MSM are acquired from primary sexual partners, suggesting that work with MSM as couples could be an important contributor to prevention. Given the emergence of high impact combination HIV prevention, it is timely to consider how work with the broad variety of male couples can improve both personal and community health. Couples HIV testing and counseling for MSM is an important advance for identifying men who are unaware that they are HIV-positive, identifying HIV-discordant couples, and supporting men who want to learn their HIV status with their partner. Once men know their HIV status, new advances in biomedical prevention, which can dramatically reduce risk of HIV transmission or acquisition, allow men to make prevention decisions that can protect themselves and their partners. This paper highlights the present-day challenges and benefits of using a couples-based approach with MSM in the era of combination prevention to increase knowledge of HIV status, increase identification of HIV discordant couples to improve targeting prevention services, and support mutual disclosure of HIV status. PMID:24233328
INTRODUCTION: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury, also referred to as contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is a potentially serious renal complication associated with the use of iodinated contrast media (CM) in patients at risk. With the dramatic growth in contrast-enhanced imaging services worldwide, including procedures involving exposure to iodinated CM, efforts to reduce the occurrence of CIN have received considerable attention in recent years. To date, these efforts have met with little success since the 12% prevalence of CIN today remains unchanged from 2 decades ago. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of the most recent evidence available from published reports of contemporary (2000-2008) prospective, randomized, controlled trials that have investigated CIN either by comparing CM or by comparing preventive strategies. The objective was to critically review the findings in light of several aspects of study design and then to establish a set of parameters for consideration in the planning of future CIN trials so as to optimize the strength of evidence obtained. RESULTS: Whether future CIN trials are investigating comparative CM nephrotoxicity or dealing with prophylactic strategies for risk reduction, the complexities that must be addressed include a standardized definition of CIN, appropriate timing of SCr measurements with timing standardized for all subjects in a given study population, awareness of study population risk profile, hydration protocols, and pharmacological prophylactic strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Large, well-designed trials (ideally with hard clinical outcome measures) that consider all the complexities involved in CIN and its prevention are needed before the clinical community has the evidence-based direction required for optimized patient care.
Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto
The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI's preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women's risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto
Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132
DeHay, Tamara; Ross, Sarah; McFaul, Mimi
Suicide is a significant issue in the United States and worldwide, and its prevention is a public health imperative. Primary care practices are an important setting for suicide prevention, as primary care providers have more frequent contact with patients at risk for suicide than any other type of health-care provider. The Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, in partnership with the Suicide Prevention Resource Center, has developed a Suicide Prevention Toolkit and an associated training curriculum. These resources support the education of primary care providers in evidence-based strategies for identifying and treating patients at risk for suicide. The application of this curriculum to post-graduate medical training is presented here. © The Author(s) 2015.
Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Keagy, Carolyn D
Youth in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at risk for poor health outcomes. Characteristics of these neighborhoods may translate into intensified risk due to barriers utilizing preventive care such as substance use prevention programs. While family-level risks affect recruitment into prevention programs, few studies have addressed the influence of neighborhood risks. This study consists of 744 families with an 11- to 12-year-old child recruited for a family-based substance use prevention program. Using US Census data, logistic regressions showed neighborhoods were related to recruitment, beyond individual characteristics. Greater neighborhood unemployment was related to decreased agreement to participate in the study and lower rates of high school graduation were related to lower levels of actual enrolment. Conversely, higher rates of single-female-headed households were related to increased agreement. Recruitment procedures may need to recognize the variety of barriers and enabling forces within the neighborhood in developing different strategies for the recruitment of youth and their families.
Lu, Shi-chao; Zhang, Jun-ping
Translational medicine is inevitable in the development of modern medicine, and the uprising concept of translational medicine provides an opportunity for the development of Chinese medicine (CM). Their ideas are well communicated. There are two patterns of researching on CM based on translational medicine: 'literature to bench to bedside' and 'bench to bedside to bench'. CM has her advantages in preventing and treating cardiovascular disease. Effective methods for preventing and treating cardiovascular disease by CM should be further studied based on translational medicine concepts.
Schuckit, Marc A; Smith, Tom L; Clausen, Peyton; Fromme, Kim; Skidmore, Jessica; Shafir, Alexandra; Kalmijn, Jelger
Heavy drinking is common on college campuses, with a marked increase from high school to freshman year. Programs addressing heavy campus drinking often personalize prevention protocols to fit a student's demography and prior drinking characteristics. Few efforts have individualized approaches to address a person's vulnerability through his or her low level of response (low LR) to alcohol. This article describes the recently completed 55-week outcome in drinking quantities and problems for the >90% of 500 participants in a prevention program at a U.S. university (62% female, mean age = 18 years) who completed a 4-week series of 50-minute videos delivered via the Internet. We evaluated whether, for low LRs, participation in an educational approach that focused on a low LR (the LR-based [LRB] condition) was associated with better outcomes than a state-of-the-art (SOTA) general education or with a no-intervention control condition. Using a mixed-design analysis of variance and focusing on the most closely ethnically matched high and low LR pairs, students with low LRs in the LRB condition demonstrated the greatest decreases in usual and maximum drinks over the 55 weeks, especially when compared with closely ethnically matched students with high LRs. Low LR controls showed the highest drinking values over time. This study underscores the potential importance of targeting a person's specific preexisting vulnerability toward heavy drinking when he or she enters college. The approach can be used in a relatively inexpensive protocol of video education sessions delivered via the Internet.
Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole
The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC
Omaki, Elise; Rizzutti, Nicholas; Shields, Wendy; Zhu, Jeffrey; McDonald, Eileen; Stevens, Martha W; Gielen, Andrea
The aims of this literature review are to (1) summarise how computer and mobile technology-based health behaviour change applications have been evaluated in unintentional injury prevention, (2) describe how these successes can be applied to injury-prevention programmes in the future and (3) identify research gaps. Studies included in this systematic review were education and behaviour change intervention trials and programme evaluations in which the intervention was delivered by either a computer or mobile technology and addressed an unintentional injury prevention topic. Articles were limited to those published in English and after 1990. Among the 44 technology-based injury-prevention studies included in this review, 16 studies evaluated locally hosted software programmes, 4 studies offered kiosk-based programmes, 11 evaluated remotely hosted internet programmes, 2 studies used mobile technology or portable devices and 11 studies evaluated virtual-reality interventions. Locally hosted software programmes and remotely hosted internet programmes consistently increased knowledge and behaviours. Kiosk programmes showed evidence of modest knowledge and behaviour gains. Both programmes using mobile technology improved behaviours. Virtual-reality programmes consistently improved behaviours, but there were little gains in knowledge. No studies evaluated text-messaging programmes dedicated to injury prevention. There is much potential for computer-based programmes to be used for injury-prevention behaviour change. The reviewed studies provide evidence that computer-based communication is effective in conveying information and influencing how participants think about an injury topic and adopt safety behaviours. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Analisis Pemahaman Makroskopik, Mikroskopik, dan Simbolik Titrasi Asam-Basa Siswa Kelas XI IPA SMA serta Upaya Perbaikannya dengan Pendekatan Mikroskopik Abstract: This study aims to determine: (1 the level of understanding of the macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic students; (2 the error understanding of macroscopic, microscopic and symbolic students; (3 the effectiveness of the microscopic approach in an effort to improve students' ability to solve the problems macroscopic, symbolic and microscopic material acid-base titration. This research uses descriptive research design and quasi-experimental research design. Data research is the understanding of macroscopic, symbolic and microscopic students on the material acid-base titration. Student comprehension test measured with instruments that include: (1 macroscopic comprehension tests, (2 test the understanding of symbolic, and (3 understanding of the microscopic tests. Content validity was tested by a team of experts and the reliability of test questions macroscopic and microscopic calculated using the Spearman-Brown while reliability symbolic test item was calculated using Cronbach's Alpha. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis and statistical tests using Anacova. Results of the study are as follows. (1 The level of understanding of the macroscopic students is high, while the symbolic and microscopic levels of understanding of students is very low. (2 Errors identified macroscopic understanding is that students do not understand that the color shown by indicators related to the nature of the solution. Symbolic understanding of the identified errors are: (i the student can not write ionization reaction; and (ii students can not choose the formula used to calculate the pH of the solution. Errors identified microscopic understanding is that students can not provide a microscopic picture of a solution of a strong acid, strong base, weak acid, weak base, and salt solutions because they do
Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.
The SAATELLITE and EVADE Clinical Studies Within the COMBACTE Consortium : A Public-Private Collaborative Effort in Designing and Performing Clinical Trials for Novel Antibacterial Drugs to Prevent Nosocomial Pneumonia
François, Bruno; Chastre, Jean; Eggiman, Philippe; Laterre, Pierre-François; Torres, Antoni; Sanchez, Miguel; Esser, Mark T; Bishop, Brian; Bonten, Marc; Goosens, Herman; Jafri, Hasan S
The Innovative Medicines Initiative-funded COMBACTE consortium fosters academic-industry partnership in pioneering studies to combat serious bacterial infections. We describe how this partnership is advancing the development of 2 monoclonal antibodies, MEDI4893 and MEDI3902, for the prevention of
Lai, Mee Huong; Maniam, Thambu; Ravindran, Arun V
Background Suicide is a serious and increasing problem worldwide. The emergence of the digital world has had a tremendous impact on people’s lives, both negative and positive, including an impact on suicidal behaviors. Objective Our aim was to perform a review of the published literature on Web-based suicide prevention strategies, focusing on their efficacy, benefits, and challenges. Methods The EBSCOhost (Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL), OvidSP, the Cochrane Library, and ScienceDirect databases were searched for literature regarding Web-based suicide prevention strategies from 1997 to 2013 according to the modified PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. The selected articles were subjected to quality rating and data extraction. Results Good quality literature was surprisingly sparse, with only 15 fulfilling criteria for inclusion in the review, and most were rated as being medium to low quality. Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) reduced suicidal ideation in the general population in two randomized controlled trial (effect sizes, d=0.04-0.45) and in a clinical audit of depressed primary care patients. Descriptive studies reported improved accessibility and reduced barriers to treatment with Internet among students. Besides automated iCBT, preventive strategies were mainly interactive (email communication, online individual or supervised group support) or information-based (website postings). The benefits and potential challenges of accessibility, anonymity, and text-based communication as key components for Web-based suicide prevention strategies were emphasized. Conclusions There is preliminary evidence that suggests the probable benefit of Web-based strategies in suicide prevention. Future larger systematic research is needed to confirm the effectiveness and risk benefit ratio of such strategies. PMID:24472876
Full Text Available The purpose of preventive home visits is to promote overall health and wellbeing in old age. The aim of this paper was to describe the process of the development of evidence-based preventive home visits, targeting independent community-living older persons. The evidence base was generated from published studies and practical experiences. The results demonstrate that preventive home visits should be directed to persons 80 years old and older and involve various professional competences. The visits should be personalized, lead to concrete interventions, and be followed up. The health areas assessed should derive from a broad perspective and include social, psychological, and medical aspects. Core components in the protocol developed in this study captured physical, medical, psychosocial, and environmental aspects. Results of a pilot study showed that the protocol validly identified health risks among older people with different levels of ADL dependence.
Richard C. Cervantes
Full Text Available Behavioral health is defined as the absence of mental illness or substance use problems and the presence of positive emotional well being. Although many U.S. Hispanic youth are at increased risk for substance abuse, suicidality, teen pregnancy, unsafe sexual practices and HIV, there exists a lack of available evidence-based practices for Hispanic youth which promotes behavioral health and HIV prevention. The objective of the current research was to adapt and revise the Familia Adelante (FA Program, a behavioral health, drug intervention and prevention program to incorporate an HIV prevention component. Through qualitative community based participatory methods, including an expert panel and members of the target population, the curriculum was redesigned to integrate effective HIV risk reduction strategies. The process of adapting the intervention is described in this paper, as well as recommendations for future research in program adaptation.
Habes, D; Mahzia, R; Nakhleh, K; Joury, E
No study has investigated the availability and adherence of preventive oral care products on the Syrian market to evidence-based international recommendations. Data were collected in 2012, and updated in 2016, in terms of availability, characteristics and adherence to evidence-based international recommendations. Few preventive products adhered to the recommendations. Despite the large decrease in the number of oral care products on the Syrian market, due to the Syrian crisis, nonadherence of some of the available products is still present. A multisectorial approach at a policy level is needed to address such important limitations. The Syrian Ministry of Health should reform regulations for fluoride products to become subject to drug monitoring systems; the Syrian Arab Committee for Measurements and Standards needs to update its standards; and the Syrian General Dental Association should distribute a preventive booklet to dental practitioners.
After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.
St-Pierre, Renée A; Temcheff, Caroline E; Derevensky, Jeffrey L; Gupta, Rina
Given its serious implications for psychological and socio-emotional health, the prevention of problem gambling among adolescents is increasingly acknowledged as an area requiring attention. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a well-established model of behavior change that has been studied in the development and evaluation of primary preventive interventions aimed at modifying cognitions and behavior. However, the utility of the TPB has yet to be explored as a framework for the development of adolescent problem gambling prevention initiatives. This paper first examines the existing empirical literature addressing the effectiveness of school-based primary prevention programs for adolescent gambling. Given the limitations of existing programs, we then present a conceptual framework for the integration of the TPB in the development of effective problem gambling preventive interventions. The paper describes the TPB, demonstrates how the framework has been applied to gambling behavior, and reviews the strengths and limitations of the model for the design of primary prevention initiatives targeting adolescent risk and addictive behaviors, including adolescent gambling.
Tinanoff, N; Coll, J A; Dhar, V; Maas, W R; Chhibber, S; Zokaei, L
There has been significant advances in the understanding of preventive restorative procedures regarding the advantages and disadvantages for restorative procedures; the evidence for conservative techniques for deep carious lesions; the effectiveness of pit and fissure sealants; and the evidence for use of resin infiltration techniques. The intent of this review is to help practitioners use evidence to make decisions regarding preventive restorative dentistry in children and young adolescents. This evidence-based review appraises the literature, primarily between the years 1995-2013, on preventive restorative strategies. The evidence was graded as to strong evidence, evidence in favor, or expert opinion by consensus of authors Results: The preventive strategy for dental caries includes individualized assessment of disease progression and management with appropriate preventive and restorative therapy. There is strong evidence that restoration of teeth with incomplete caries excavation results in fewer signs and symptoms of pulpal disease than complete excavation. There is strong evidence that sealants should be placed on pit and fissure surfaces judged to be at risk for dental caries, and surfaces that already exhibit incipient, non-cavitated carious lesions. There is evidence in favor for resin infiltration to improve the clinical appearance of white spot lesions. Substantial evidence exists in the literature regarding the value of preventive dental restorative procedures.
Middlestadt, S E; Bhattacharyya, K; Rosenbaum, J; Fishbein, M; Shepherd, M
Through one of its many HIV prevention programs, the Prevention Marketing Initiative, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention promotes a multifaceted strategy for preventing the sexual transmission of HIV/AIDS among people less than 25 years of age. The Prevention Marketing Initiative is an application of marketing and consumer-oriented technologies that rely heavily on behavioral research and behavior change theories to bring the behavioral and social sciences to bear on practical program planning decisions. One objective of the Prevention Marketing Initiative is to encourage consistent and correct condom use among sexually active young adults. Qualitative formative research is being conducted in several segments of the population of heterosexually active, unmarried young adults between 18 and 25 using a semistructured elicitation procedure to identify and understand underlying behavioral determinants of consistent condom use. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the use of this type of qualitative research methodology in designing effective theory-based behavior change interventions. Issues of research design and data collection and analysis are discussed. To illustrate the methodology, results of content analyses of selected responses to open-ended questions on consistent condom use are presented by gender (male, female), ethnic group (white, African American), and consistency of condom use (always, sometimes). This type of formative research can be applied immediately to designing programs and is invaluable for valid and relevant larger-scale quantitative research.
Molero, Yasmina; Gripenberg, Johanna; Bakshi, Ann-Sofie
During the past decades, concerns about increased anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use among recreational sportspeople have been raised, yet there is a paucity of AAS prevention efforts targeting this group. Accordingly, doping prevention efforts aimed at gyms have been recommended. The overall objective of the present project is to examine a prevention programme named 100% Pure Hard Training (100% PHT), which targets AAS use among recreational sportspeople training in gyms. Specifically, the project aims to: 1) assess the prevalence of AAS, and its associations with alcohol, illicit drugs, and nutritional supplements use; 2) examine whether 100% PHT can decrease AAS use in gyms, and 3) provide insights into which factors facilitate and/or impede implementation of the programme. The intervention group consists of 27 gyms, and 27 gyms serve as controls. Intervention gyms take part in 100% PHT, a community-based programme involving several components: (a) training of key stakeholders (i.e., gym staff, gym owners, local police, and municipal prevention coordinators) regarding AAS use; (b) developing an action plan for AAS prevention for each gym; (c) certification of gyms that follow 100% PHT; (d) cooperative relationship between stakeholders; (e) annual follow-up of gyms. The project consists of two studies: Study A will examine the prevalence of AAS use and the effectiveness of 100% PHT (aims 1 and 2), and data for Study A will be collected using questionnaires distributed to gym attendees at two assessment points: baseline (pre-intervention) and follow-up (post-intervention). Study B will evaluate the implementation of 100% PHT (aim 3), and semi-structured interviews with participating stakeholders will be carried out post-intervention. Knowledge gained from the present project can be used to develop community-based doping prevention efforts aimed at recreational sportspeople training in gyms. Furthermore, it can provide insights into which factors are important
Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel
In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.
Full Text Available Background: Women’s beliefs are one of the main reasons for not undergoing Pap-test for cervical cancer prevention. Health education programs could help change these beliefs and motivate women to adopt a preventive health behavior.Objectives: This study aims to assess the modification in women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention after the implementation of a health education intervention.Methodology: A health education intervention for cervical cancer prevention was implemented to 300 women in two prefectures of southern Greece. The experimental group received a 120-minute health education intervention, based on the Health Beliefs Model (HBM including a lecture, discussion and leaflets. The hypotheses were a will this brief intervention change women’s beliefs (perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer, benefits and barriers ofundergoing the Pap-test? b will this change in beliefs sustain in six months follow-up period? and c will women undergo pap-test in six months period? The women filled in an anonymous questionnaire, based on the Health Belief Model (HBM, before, immediately after and six months after the program.Results: The health education intervention significantly modified women’s beliefs and behaviors towards pap-test. The greater changes in women’s beliefs were observed in their sense of susceptibility towards the disease and the benefits of prevention which were sustained or improved after six months. Perceived barriers to undergo the Paptest, pain, embarrassment, and worry for the results decreased immediately after the program but started relapsingin the six month follow up period. Moreover, 88.1% of the women answered that they had underwent a Pap-test during the following six months.Conclusions: This health education intervention modified women’s beliefs and behavior about cervical cancer prevention. Short, low cost, health education interventions for breast cancer prevention to women can be
Full Text Available Introduction: Nosocomial infection is one indicator of the quality of health services in the community, which also determines the image of health care institutions becauseit was a major cause of morbidityand death rate (mortality in hospital. Nursing care based on knowledge management is established from identification knowledge which is required, prevention performance of nosocomial infections post section caesarea. Nosocomial infections component consists of wound culture result. Method: This study was an observational study with a quasi experimental design. The population was all of nursing staff who working in obstetrics installation in hospitals A and B as much as 46 people. Sample was the total population. Data was collected through questionnaire, observation sheets and examination of the wound culture. Data was analyzed using t test B 1.274 dan p=0.028 Result: The result showed that 1 there was difference in knowledge management implementation before and after training; 2 there was difference in nurse’s performance in preventing nosocomial infection before and after training; 3 there is significant relationship between nurse’s performance in preventing nosocomial infection and infection incidence; 4 there is no significant difference of nursing care impementation on nosocomial incidence. Discussion: In conclusion, the development of nursing care based on knowledge management as a synthesis or induction of findings directed at 1 nurses’ knowledge does not affect the performance of the prevention of nosocomial infections; 2 knowledge management has a positive effect on the performance of the prevention of nosocomial infections; 3 implementation of infection prevention is integrated capabilities between knowledge, skills and attitudes of nurses in implementing performance in care. Keywords: model prevention, nosocomial infections, nursing care, knowledge management, sectio Caesarea
Porath-Waller, Amy J.; Beasley, Erin; Beirness, Douglas J.
This investigation used meta-analytic techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of school-based prevention programming in reducing cannabis use among youth aged 12 to 19. It summarized the results from 15 studies published in peer-reviewed journals since 1999 and identified features that influenced program effectiveness. The results from the set of…
Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.
This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…
G. Tormans; P. van Damme (Damme); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)
textabstractBackground. Hepatitis A viral infection poses a substantial risk for travelers from low-endemic countries visiting high-endemic destinations. In this study, the general indications for the optimal prevention of hepatitis A are derived using a cost-effectiveness analysis based on the risk
G. Tormans; P. van Damme (Damme); E.K.A. van Doorslaer (Eddy)
textabstractBackground. Hepatitis A viral infection poses a substantial risk for travelers from low‐endemic countries visiting high‐endemic destinations. In this study, the general indications for the optimal prevention of hepatitis A are derived using a cost‐effectiveness analysis based on the risk
Bier, Melinda C.; Schmidt, Spring J.; Shields, David; Zwarun, Lara; Sherblom, Stephen; Pulley, Cynthia; Rucker, Billy
School-based tobacco prevention programs have had limited success reducing smoking rates in the long term. Media literacy programs offer an innovative vehicle for delivery of potentially more efficacious anti-tobacco education. However, these programs have been neither widely implemented nor well evaluated. We conducted a pre-post evaluation of a…
Tingle, Lynne R.; DeSimone, Marie; Covington, Benjamin
Conducted a meta-evaluation of 11 school-based smoking prevention programs. Criteria included: adequacy of research design; evidence of reliability and validity; appropriate statistical analyses and interpretations; reporting of effect sizes or practical significance; accounting for attrition; and tracking fidelity to the program. Criteria with…
Eisenhower, Abbey; Taylor, Heather; Baker, Bruce L.
Starting Strong in Kindergarten (Starting Strong) is a school-based indicated prevention targeting behavior problems, student-teacher relationships, and parent-school connectedness for children with or at risk for disruptive behavior problems during the transition to kindergarten. By use of a block-randomized, controlled trial to test program…
Vendrig, A A; Castro, W H; Scholten-Peeters, G G; van Akkerveeken, P F
Recently, systematic reviews and evidence-based guidelines on whiplash have appeared, from which preventive recommendations can be derived. Fear of moving, catastrophic thoughts and avoidance of activity seem to play an important role in the transition from acute to chronic symptoms. Early
Bruzzese, Jean-Marie; Gallagher, Richard; McCann-Doyle, Sharon; Reiss, Philip T.; Wijetunga, Neil A.
Background: Poor recruitment and high attrition may invalidate results of research studies. This paper describes successful recruitment and retention strategies in a school-based substance use prevention trial and explores factors associated with intervention attendance and retention. Methods: A total of 384 parent-child dyads from 15 schools in…
Kindle, Silverlene J.
Since the 1960s long-term studies have documented nation-wide patterns of adolescent smoking, drinking and illicit drug use. The federal government responded by passing the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, which funded school-based prevention programs. The problem for school counselors in a Georgia Public School District was…
Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul
Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…
Sharma, Manoj; Branscum, Paul
Drug abuse, or substance abuse, is a substantial public health problem in the United States, particularly among high school students. The purpose of this article was to review school-based programs implemented in high schools for substance abuse prevention and to suggest recommendations for future interventions. Included were English language…
Mares, S.H.W.; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Schulten, I.G.H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based alcohol prevention program to delay initiation of alcohol use in children. Methods: In 2011, a total of 1349 sixth-grade children (M = 12.15, SD = 0.47) and their mothers who could read and write Dutch were recruited from primary schools in
Fellmeth, Gracia; Heffernan, Catherine; Nurse, Joanna; Habibula, Shakiba; Sethi, Dinesh
Objectives: To assess the efficacy of educational and skills-based interventions to prevent relationship and dating violence in adolescents and young adults. Methods: We searched Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and other databases for randomized, cluster-randomized, and quasi-randomized…
Garmy, Pernilla; Jakobsson, Ulf; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Berg, Agneta; Clausson, Eva K.
The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the implementation of a universal school-based cognitive behavioral program whose target is to prevent depressive symptoms in adolescents. The study had a quasi-experimental design with pretest, posttest, and a 1-year follow-up and provides an illustrative calculation for the implementation costs of the…
Crone, M; Reijneveld, S; Willemsen, M; van Leerdam, F J M; Spruijt, R; Sing, R
Objective: To assess the effect of an antismoking intervention focusing on adolescents in lower education. Students with lower education smoke more often and perceive more positive norms, and social pressure to smoke, than higher educated students. An intervention based on peer group pressure and social influence may therefore be useful to prevent smoking among these students.
Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Bera, Victoria; Elsemore, Johanna; Snelling, Anastasia
Background: Latinos in the United States are at heightened risk for obesity and health disparities, yet community-based interventions to promote health are limited. Purpose: This research examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally relevant obesity prevention program (Vivir Sano), which included stress reduction and behavioral lifestyle…
Gudding, R.; Muiswinkel, van W.B.
Disease prevention and control are crucial in order to maintain a sustainable aquaculture, both economically and environmentally. Prophylactic measures based on stimulation of the immune system of the fish have been an effective measure for achieving this goal. Immunoprophylaxis has become an
Sponsored by the Ounce of Prevention Fund, this report presents a comprehensive look at three Toward Teen Health high school-based, adolescent health centers in Chicago, Illinois. Following a brief introduction, the report provides the rationale for opening adolescent health centers and outlines the principles that guide the centers. Next, a…
Mayberry, Robert M.; Daniels, Pamela; Yancey, Elleen M.; Akintobi, Tabia Henry; Berry, Jamillah; Clark, Nicole; Dawaghreh, Ahmad
The catalytic potential of community-based organizations to promote health, prevent disease, and address racial, ethnic, and socio-economic disparities in local communities is well recognized. However, many CBOs, particularly, small- to medium-size organizations, lack the capacity to plan, implement, and evaluate their successes. Moreover, little…
Wolmer, Leo; Hamiel, Daniel; Laor, Nathaniel
Objective: The psychological outcomes that the exposure to mass trauma has on children have been amply documented in the past decades. The objective of this study is to describe the effects of a universal, teacher-based preventive intervention implemented with Israeli students before the rocket attacks that occurred during Operation Cast Lead,…
Dunlap, Glen; Iovannone, Rose; Kincaid, Donald; Wilson, Kelly; Christiansen, Kathy; Strain, Phillip; English, Carie
Solve serious behavior challenges in K-8 classrooms with this easy-to-use book, the first practical guide to the research-proven Prevent-Teach-Reinforce (PTR) model. Developed by some of the most respected authorities on positive behavior support, this innovative model gives school-based teams a five-step plan for reducing problems unresolved by…
Leidy, Melinda S.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Toro, Rosa I.
At present, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of family-based intervention programs to prevent violence or related behavior problems with Latino youth and families. Although progress has been made, a number of important issues remain. In this article, the authors review several of the more prominent interventions for Latino…
Atwood, Katharine A.; Kennedy, Stephen B.; Shamblen, Steve; Tegli, Jemee; Garber, Salome; Fahnbulleh, Pearl W.; Korvah, Prince M.; Kolubah, Moses; Mulbah-Kamara, Comfort; Fulton, Shannon
This paper presents findings of a feasibility study to adapt and evaluate the impact of an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention on sexual risk behaviors of in-school 6th grade youth in post-conflict Liberia (n = 812). The study used an attention-matched, group randomized controlled trial. Four matched pairs of elementary/middle schools in…
Collard, D.C.M.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Knol, D.L.; van Mechelen, W.
Objective: To study the effects of a school-based injury prevention program on physical activity injury incidence and severity. Design: Cluster randomized controlled trial performed from January 1, 2006, through July 31, 2007. Setting: Forty Dutch primary schools. Participants: Atotal of 2210
US Agency for International Development, 2009
The Doorways training program was designed by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded Safe Schools Program (Safe Schools) to enable teachers, community members and students to prevent and respond to school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV). This booklet, "Doorways III: Teacher Reference Materials on School-Related…
Sutherland, Kevin S; Conroy, Maureen A; McLeod, Bryce D; Algina, James; Kunemund, Rachel L
Teachers sometimes struggle to deliver evidence based programs designed to prevent and ameliorate chronic problem behaviors of young children with integrity. Identifying factors associated with variations in the quantity and quality of delivery is thus an important goal for the field. This study investigated factors associated with teacher…
Hermans, R.C.J.; Bruin, H. de; Larsen, J.K.; Mensink, F.; Hoek, A.C.
Background: To improve the effectiveness of school-based obesity prevention programs, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. The present study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents' food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a
Ding, Xiaojie; Zhao, Liping; Chu, Haiyan; Tong, Na; Ni, Chunhui; Hu, Zhibin; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin
Problem-based learning (PBL) is defined as a student-centered pedagogy which can provide learners more opportunities for application of knowledge acquired from basic science to the working situations than traditional lecture-based learning (LBL) method. In China, PBL is increasingly popular among preventive medicine educators, and multiple studies have investigated the effectiveness of PBL pedagogy in preventive medicine education. A pooled analysis based on 15 studies was performed to obtain an overall estimate of the effectiveness of PBL on learning outcomes of preventive medicine. Overall, PBL was associated with a significant increase in students' theoretical examination scores (SMD = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.41-0.83) than LBL. For the attitude- and skill-based outcomes, the pooled PBL effects were also significant among learning attitude (OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 2.40-5.16), problem solved skill (OR = 4.80, 95% CI = 2.01-11.46), self-directed learning skill (OR = 5.81, 95% CI = 3.11-10.85), and collaborative skill (OR = 4.21, 95% CI = 0.96-18.45). Sensitivity analysis showed that the exclusion of a single study did not influence the estimation. Our results suggest that PBL of preventive medicine education in China appears to be more effective than LBL in improving knowledge, attitude and skills.
Niederman, Richard; Huang, Shulamite S; Trescher, Anna-Lena; Listl, Stefan
Despite significant financial, training, and program investments, US children's caries experience and inequities continued to increase over the last 20 years. We posit that (1) dental insurance payment systems are not aligned with the current best evidence, exacerbating inequities, and (2) system redesign could meet health care's triple aim and reduce children's caries by 80%. On the basis of 2013 to 2016 Medicaid and private payment rates and the caries prevention literature, we find that effective preventive interventions are either (1) consistently compensated less than ineffective interventions or (2) not compensated at all. This economic and clinical misalignment may account for underuse of effective caries prevention and subsequent overuse of restorative care. We propose universal school-based comprehensive caries prevention to address this misalignment. Preliminary modeling suggests that universal caries prevention could eliminate 80% of children's caries and cost less than one fifth of current Medicaid children's oral health spending. If implemented with bundled payments based on cycle of care and measurable outcomes, there would be an alignment of incentives, best evidence, care, and outcomes. Such a program would meet the Healthy People Oral Health goals for children, as well as health care's triple aim.
Paiva, V.; Garcia, J.; Rios, L.F.; Santos, A.O.; Terto, V.; Munõz-Laboy, M.
Religious communities have been a challenge to HIV prevention globally. Focusing on the acceptability component of the right to health, this intervention study examined how local Catholic, Evangelical and Afro-Brazilian religious communities can collaborate to foster young people’s sexual health and ensure their access to comprehensive HIV prevention in their communities in Brazil. This article describes the process of a three-stage sexual health promotion and HIV prevention initiative that used a multicultural human rights approach to intervention. Methods included 27 in-depth interviews with religious authorities on sexuality, AIDS prevention and human rights, and training 18 young people as research-agents, who surveyed 177 youth on the same issues using self-administered questionnaires. The results, analysed using a rights-based perspective on health and the vulnerability framework, were discussed in daylong interfaith workshops. Emblematic of the collaborative process, workshops are the focus of the analysis. Our findings suggest that this human rights framework is effective in increasing inter-religious tolerance and in providing a collective understanding of the sexuality and prevention needs of youth from different religious communities, and also serves as a platform for the expansion of state AIDS programmes based on laical principles. PMID:20373192
Hishinuma, Earl S.; Chang, Janice Y.; Sy, Angela; Greaney, Malia F.; Morris, Katherine A.; Scronce, Ami C.; Rehuher, Davis; Nishimura, Stephanie T.
Evaluation of after-school programs that are culturally and place-based and promote positive youth development among minority and indigenous youths has not been widely published. The present evaluation is the first of its kind of an after-school, youth-risk prevention program called Hui Malama O Ke Kai (HMK), that emphasizes Native Hawaiian values…
Full Text Available For the last years, the impulse of new technologies has overcome the traditional pathways of face-to-face clinical intervention and web-based psychological methodologies for intervention have started to gain success. This study aims to review the state-of-art about the effectiveness studies on preventive web- based interventions accomplished in samples of subjects at high risk for depressive, anxiety, eating behavior, problematic substance use symptoms and promotion of psychological well-being. Results showed that web-based psychological interventions for the prevention of mental disorders seemed to be effective for at risk individuals. Online health promotion in the general population was also effective to avoid the onset of clinical psychological circumstances. Future research should focus on personalized online intervention and on the evaluation of web-based engagement.
The SAATELLITE and EVADE Clinical Studies Within the COMBACTE Consortium: A Public-Private Collaborative Effort in Designing and Performing Clinical Trials for Novel Antibacterial Drugs to Prevent Nosocomial Pneumonia.
François, Bruno; Chastre, Jean; Eggiman, Philippe; Laterre, Pierre-François; Torres, Antoni; Sanchez, Miguel; Esser, Mark T; Bishop, Brian; Bonten, Marc; Goosens, Herman; Jafri, Hasan S
The Innovative Medicines Initiative-funded COMBACTE consortium fosters academic-industry partnership in pioneering studies to combat serious bacterial infections. We describe how this partnership is advancing the development of 2 monoclonal antibodies, MEDI4893 and MEDI3902, for the prevention of nosocomial pneumonia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sherwood, Nancy E; JaKa, Meghan M; Crain, A Lauren; Martinson, Brian C; Hayes, Marcia G; Anderson, Julie D
The Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids Preschool (HHHK-Preschool) pilot program is an obesity prevention intervention integrating pediatric care provider counseling and a phone-based program to prevent unhealthy weight gain among 2- to 4-year-old children at risk for obesity (BMI percentile between the 50th and 85th percentile and at least one overweight parent) or currently overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI pediatric primary care clinics were randomized to: (1) the Busy Bodies/Better Bites Obesity Prevention Arm or the (2) Healthy Tots/Safe Spots safety/injury prevention Contact Control Arm. Baseline and 6-month data were collected, including measured height and weight, accelerometry, previous day dietary recalls, and parent surveys. Intervention process data (e.g., call completion) were also collected. High intervention completion and satisfaction rates were observed. Although a statistically significant time by treatment interaction was not observed for BMI percentile or BMI z-score, post-hoc examination of baseline weight status as a moderator of treatment outcome showed that the Busy Bodies/Better Bites obesity prevention intervention appeared to be effective among children who were in the overweight category at baseline relative to those who were categorized as at risk for obesity (p = 0.04). HHHK-Preschool pilot study results support the feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy in already overweight children of a pediatric primary care-based obesity prevention intervention integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching. What's New: Implementing pediatric primary care-based obesity interventions is challenging. Previous interventions have primarily involved in-person sessions, a barrier to sustained parent involvement. HHHK-preschool pilot study results suggest that integrating brief provider counseling and parent-targeted phone coaching is a promising approach.
Pistole, M. Carole
Efforts to prevent unintended teen pregnancy seem to have ignored emotional motivations in romantic relationships. Proposes a model that may provide mental-health counselors with a theoretical-research base for interventions and programming designed to enhance teens' romantic relationships while simultaneously preventing unwanted consequences such…
Lindholm, L A; Rosén, M E; Stenbeck, M E
Prevention can reduce the risk of disease, but has other consequences as well. Willingness-to-pay (WTP) is one method to analyse these multi-dimensional consequences, if the stated WTP is assumed to be a function of all the expected positive and negative effects perceived. An interview study of a community-based cardiovascular disease prevention programme in northern Sweden shows that expectations regarding reduced mortality in the community and future savings in public health care spending increase the perceived value of the programme. Among personal benefits, decreased disease risk was not positively associated with WTP, while a low level of anxiety was.
David A. Wolfe
Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.
Academic librarians and university instructors worldwide are grappling with an increasing incidence of student plagiarism. Recent publications urge educators to prevent plagiarism by teaching students about the issue, and some have advocated the value of a subject-specific approach to plagiarism prevention education. There is, however, a complete lack of resources and guidance for librarians and instructors who want to adopt this approach in their teaching. This book opens with a brief overview of plagiarism today, followed by arguments in favour of a subject-based approach. The rest of the bo
Koivumäki, Timo; Pekkarinen, Saara; Lappi, Minna; Väisänen, Jere; Juntunen, Jouni; Pikkarainen, Minna
Constantly increasing health care costs have led countries and health care providers to the point where health care systems must be reinvented. Consequently, electronic health (eHealth) has recently received a great deal of attention in social sciences in the domain of Internet studies. However, only a fraction of these studies focuses on the acceptability of eHealth, making consumers' subjective evaluation an understudied field. This study will address this gap by focusing on the acceptance of MyData-based preventive eHealth services from the consumer point of view. We are adopting the term "MyData", which according to a White Paper of the Finnish Ministry of Transport and Communication refers to "1) a new approach, a paradigm shift in personal data management and processing that seeks to transform the current organization centric system to a human centric system, 2) to personal data as a resource that the individual can access and control." The aim of this study was to investigate what factors influence consumers' intentions to use a MyData-based preventive eHealth service before use. We applied a new adoption model combining Venkatesh's unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2) in a consumer context and three constructs from health behavior theories, namely threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers. To test the research model, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) with Mplus software, version 7.4. A Web-based survey was administered. We collected 855 responses. We first applied traditional SEM for the research model, which was not statistically significant. We then tested for possible heterogeneity in the data by running a mixture analysis. We found that heterogeneity was not the cause for the poor performance of the research model. Thus, we moved on to model-generating SEM and ended up with a statistically significant empirical model (root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA] 0.051, Tucker-Lewis index [TLI] 0
Pekkarinen, Saara; Lappi, Minna; Väisänen, Jere; Juntunen, Jouni; Pikkarainen, Minna
Background Constantly increasing health care costs have led countries and health care providers to the point where health care systems must be reinvented. Consequently, electronic health (eHealth) has recently received a great deal of attention in social sciences in the domain of Internet studies. However, only a fraction of these studies focuses on the acceptability of eHealth, making consumers’ subjective evaluation an understudied field. This study will address this gap by focusing on the acceptance of MyData-based preventive eHealth services from the consumer point of view. We are adopting the term "MyData", which according to a White Paper of the Finnish Ministry of Transport and Communication refers to "1) a new approach, a paradigm shift in personal data management and processing that seeks to transform the current organization centric system to a human centric system, 2) to personal data as a resource that the individual can access and control." Objective The aim of this study was to investigate what factors influence consumers’ intentions to use a MyData-based preventive eHealth service before use. Methods We applied a new adoption model combining Venkatesh’s unified theory of acceptance and use of technology 2 (UTAUT2) in a consumer context and three constructs from health behavior theories, namely threat appraisals, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers. To test the research model, we applied structural equation modeling (SEM) with Mplus software, version 7.4. A Web-based survey was administered. We collected 855 responses. Results We first applied traditional SEM for the research model, which was not statistically significant. We then tested for possible heterogeneity in the data by running a mixture analysis. We found that heterogeneity was not the cause for the poor performance of the research model. Thus, we moved on to model-generating SEM and ended up with a statistically significant empirical model (root mean square error of approximation
Kjaerulf, Finn; Barahona, Rodrigo
This article explores the violence reduction potential in the intersection between health, criminal justice, and development. It emphasizes public health, rule of law, and equality-driven socioeconomic development as principal concerns in preventing violence. In parts of Latin America, violence has become a serious public health and security problem. Prior studies have explored the risk factors associated with violence as well as experiences in its prevention. These studies and existing approaches to violence prevention provide evidence on where to direct attention and build prevention efforts. This article argues for integrated community-driven and national interventions to create cooperative national- local linkages and embed international human rights law at the national and local levels. Nations struggling with violence should be encouraged to apply an integrated framework to prevent violence and reinforce human security.
Sudhir T Bagade
Full Text Available In Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANET, network layer attacks, for example wormhole attacks, disrupt the network routing operations and can be used for data theft. Wormhole attacks are of two types: hidden and exposed wormhole. There are various mechanisms in literature which are used to prevent and detect wormhole attacks. In this paper, we survey wormhole prevention and detection techniques and present our critical observations for each. These techniques are based on cryptographic mechanisms, monitoring of packet transmission delay and control packet forwarding behavior of neighbor nodes. We compare the techniques using the following criteria- extra resources needed applicability to different network topologies and routing protocols, prevention/detection capability, etc. We conclude the paper with potential research directions.
Rafaela Vivian Valcarenghi
Full Text Available This study aimed to propose institutional actions based on nursing diagnoses for the prevention of falls in the elderly. Qualitative, exploratory and descriptive research, with 30 institutionalized senior citizens from Rio Grande, RS, Brazil. During data collection five instruments were applied from March to July 2009. One presents the elderly’s profile; aspects that favored the falls; nursing diagnoses; proposals for institutional actions to prevent falls. The nursing diagnoses were identified: impaired physical mobility, decreased ability to transfer, shower self-care deficit, dressing self-care deficit, impaired environmental interpretation syndrome, chronic confusion, impaired memory; syndrome of stress due to changes; risk of falls, risk of trauma. Through the identification of nursing diagnoses it was possible to make a proposal for institutional actions aimed at preventing falls in the elderly who reside in long-stay institutions.
Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Zengkai; Wang, Fei; Tian, Xiaojie; Zhang, Yanzhen
An extremely reliable remote control system for subsea blowout preventer stack is developed based on the off-the-shelf triple modular redundancy system. To meet a high reliability requirement, various redundancy techniques such as controller redundancy, bus redundancy and network redundancy are used to design the system hardware architecture. The control logic, human-machine interface graphical design and redundant databases are developed by using the off-the-shelf software. A series of experiments were performed in laboratory to test the subsea blowout preventer stack control system. The results showed that the tested subsea blowout preventer functions could be executed successfully. For the faults of programmable logic controllers, discrete input groups and analog input groups, the control system could give correct alarms in the human-machine interface. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Significant complications still occur after abdominoplasty, the rate varies widely in different series. This variation suggests that there is a lot of scope for improvement. This paper reviews the various complications and also the technical improvements reported in the last 20 years. The root cause of each complication is analysed and preventive steps are suggested based on the literature and the author′s own personal series with very low complication rates. Proper case selection, risk stratified prophylaxis of thromboembolism, initial synchronous liposuction, flap elevation at the Scarpa fascia level, discontinuous incremental flap dissection, vascular preservation and obliteration of the sub-flap space by multiple sutures emerge as the strongest preventive factors. It is proposed that most of the complications of abdominoplasty are preventable and that it is possible to greatly enhance the aesthetic and safety profile of this surgery.
treatments that prevent ROS overproduction, scavenge ROS , or dissolve the cytoskeleton in mitochondria on preventing PTOA in a large animal IAF...Aim 1. Specific Aim 3: Determine the efficacy of treatments that prevent ROS overproduction, scavenge ROS , or dissolve the cytoskeleton in...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0583 TITLE: Mitochondrial-Based Treatments that Prevent Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis in a Translational Large
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effectiveness of a single checklist reminder form to improve the delivery of preventive health services at adult health check-ups in a family practice setting. Methods A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted at four urban family practice clinics among 38 primary care physicians affiliated with the University of Toronto. Preventive Care Checklist Forms© were created to be used by family physicians at adult health check-ups over a five-month period. The sex-specific forms incorporate evidence-based recommendations on preventive health services and documentation space for routine procedures such as physical examination. The forms were used in two intervention clinics and two control clinics. Rates and relative risks (RR of the performance of 13 preventive health maneuvers at baseline and post-intervention and the percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient were compared between the two groups. Results Randomly-selected charts were reviewed at baseline (n = 509 and post-intervention (n = 608. Baseline rates for provision of preventive health services ranged from 3% (fecal occult blood testing to 93% (blood pressure measurement, similar to other settings. The percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient at the end of the intervention was 48.9% in the control group and 71.7% in the intervention group. This is an overall 22.8% absolute increase (p = 0.0001, and 46.6% relative increase in the delivery of preventive health services per patient in the intervention group compared to controls. Eight of thirteen preventive health services showed a statistically significant change (p Conclusion This simple, low cost, clinically relevant intervention improves the delivery of preventive health services by prompting physicians of evidence-based recommendations in a checklist format that incorporates existing practice patterns. Periodic updates
Background Community-based interventions are a promising approach and an important component of a comprehensive response to obesity. In this paper we describe the Collaboration of COmmunity-based Obesity Prevention Sites (CO-OPS Collaboration) in Australia as an example of a collaborative network to enhance the quality and quantity of obesity prevention action at the community level. The core aims of the CO-OPS Collaboration are to: identify and analyse the lessons learned from a range of community-based initiatives aimed at tackling obesity, and; to identify the elements that make community-based obesity prevention initiatives successful and share the knowledge gained with other communities. Methods Key activities of the collaboration to date have included the development of a set of Best Practice Principles and knowledge translation and exchange activities to promote the application (or use) of evidence, evaluation and analysis in practice. Results The establishment of the CO-OPS Collaboration is a significant step toward strengthening action in this area, by bringing together research, practice and policy expertise to promote best practice, high quality evaluation and knowledge translation and exchange. Future development of the network should include facilitation of further evidence generation and translation drawing from process, impact and outcome evaluation of existing community-based interventions. Conclusions The lessons presented in this paper may help other networks like CO-OPS as they emerge around the globe. It is important that networks integrate with each other and share the experience of creating these networks. PMID:21349185
Santelli, J S; Celentano, D D; Rozsenich, C; Crump, A D; Davis, M V; Polacsek, M; Augustyn, M; Rolf, J; McAlister, A L; Burwell, L
The AIDS Prevention for Pediatric Life Enrichment (APPLE) project is a community-based program to prevent perinatal HIV infection by preventing infection in women. One project component tested a primary prevention model developed from principles of cognitive social learning theory which used street outreach and community-targeted small media materials to increase the use of condoms. Formative research was used to explore community perceptions about HIV/AIDS and to design media materials. Program evaluation employed a two-community, time series, quasi-experimental design. Annual street surveys samples individuals in areas where they were likely to encounter outreach workers. Baseline surveys found substantial pre-programmatic behavior change. After two years considerable APPLE name recognition (40%), contact with media materials (63%), and contact with outreach workers (36%) were found and norms reflecting social acceptability of condoms were more positive among women in the intervention community. Condom use at last sexual encounter rose in both communities but was significantly higher in the intervention community. Condom use also was higher among women who reported exposure to either small media or small media plus street outreach. Other self-reported HIV-prevention behaviors did not show change in the initial period.
Niakan, Sharareh; Mehraeen, Esmaeil; Noori, Tayebeh; Gozali, Elahe
With the increasing growth of HIV positive people the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can play an important role in controlling the spread of the AIDS. Web and Mobile are the new technologies that young people take advantage from them. In this study a review to investigate the web and mobile based HIV prevention and intervention programs was carried out. A scoping review was conducted including PubMed, Science direct, Web of Science and Proquest to find relevant sources that published in 2009 to 2016. To identify published, original research that reported the web and mobile-based HIV prevention and intervention programs, an organized search was conducted with the following search keywords in combination: HIV, AIDS, m-Health, Mobile phone, Cell phone, Smartphone, Mobile health, internet, and web. Using the employed strategies, 173 references retrieved. Searched articles were compared based on their titles and abstracts. To identify duplicated articles, the title and abstracts were considered and 101 duplicated references were excluded. By going through the full text of related papers, 35 articles were found to be more related to the questions of this paper from which 72 final included. The advantages of web and mobile-based interventions include the possibility to provide constancy in the delivery of an intervention, impending low cost, and the ability to spread the intervention to an extensive community. Online programs such as Chat room-based Education program, Web-based therapeutic education system, and Online seek information can use for HIV/AIDS prevention. To use of mobile for HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention, programs including in: Health system focused applications, Population health focused applications, and Health messaging can be used.
Fawole, Oluwakemi; Segal, Jodi; Wilson, Renee F.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Bleich, Sara N.; Wu, Yang; Lau, Brandyn; Wang, Youfa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood obesity is a global epidemic. Despite emerging research about the role of the family and home on obesity risk behaviors, the evidence base for the effectiveness of home-based interventions on obesity prevention remains uncertain. The objective was to systematically review the effectiveness of home-based interventions on weight, intermediate (eg, diet and physical activity [PA]), and clinical outcomes. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, PsychInfo, CINAHL, clinicaltrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library from inception through August 11, 2012. We included experimental and natural experimental studies with ≥1-year follow-up reporting weight-related outcomes and targeting children at home. Two independent reviewers screened studies and extracted data. We graded the strength of the evidence supporting interventions targeting diet, PA, or both for obesity prevention. RESULTS: We identified 6 studies; 3 tested combined interventions (diet and PA), 1 used diet intervention, 1 combined intervention with primary care and consumer health informatics components, and 1 combined intervention with school and community components. Select combined interventions had beneficial effects on fruit/vegetable intake and sedentary behaviors. However, none of the 6 studies reported a significant effect on weight outcomes. Overall, the strength of evidence is low that combined home-based interventions effectively prevent obesity. The evidence is insufficient for conclusions about home-based diet interventions or interventions implemented at home in association with other settings. CONCLUSIONS: The strength of evidence is low to support the effectiveness of home-based child obesity prevention programs. Additional research is needed to test interventions in the home setting, particularly those incorporating parenting strategies and addressing environmental influences. PMID:23753095
Kranz, Ashley M; Preisser, John S; Rozier, R Gary
Most Medicaid programs reimburse nondental providers for preventive dental services. We estimate the impact of comprehensive preventive oral health services (POHS) on dental caries among kindergarten students, hypothesizing improved oral health among students with medical visits with POHS. We conducted a retrospective study in 29,173 kindergarten students by linking Medicaid claims (1999-2006) with public health surveillance data (2005-2006). Zero-inflated regression models estimated the association between number of visits with POHS and (1) decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth (dmft) and (2) untreated decayed teeth while adjusting for confounding. Kindergarten students with ≥4 POHS visits averaged an adjusted 1.82 dmft (95% confidence interval: 1.55 to 2.09), which was significantly less than students with 0 visits (2.21 dmft; 95% confidence interval: 2.16 to 2.25). The mean number of untreated decayed teeth was not reduced for students with ≥4 POHS visits compared with those with 0 visits. POHS provided by nondental providers in medical settings were associated with a reduction in caries experience in young children but were not associated with improvement in subsequent use of treatment services in dental settings. Efforts to promote oral health in medical settings should continue. Strategies to promote physician-dentist collaborations are needed to improve continuity of care for children receiving dental services in medical settings. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander
Alcohol misuse in young people is cause of concern for health services, policy makers, prevention workers, criminal justice system, youth workers, teachers, parents. This is one of three reviews examining the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based, and (3) multi-component prevention programs. To review evidence on the effectiveness of universal school-based prevention programs in preventing alcohol misuse in school-aged children up to 18 years of age. Relevant evidence (up to 2002) was selected from the previous Cochrane review. Later studies, to July 2010, were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Project CORK, and PsycINFO. Randomized trials evaluating universal school-based prevention programs and reporting outcomes for alcohol use in students 18 years of age or younger were included. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full text of identified records. Two reviewers extracted relevant data independently using an a priori defined extraction form. Risk of bias was assessed. 53 trials were included, most of which were cluster-randomised. The reporting quality of trials was poor, only 3.8% of them reporting adequate method of randomisation and program allocation concealment. Incomplete data was adequately addressed in 23% of the trials. Due to extensive heterogeneity across interventions, populations, and outcomes, the results were summarized only qualitatively.Six of the 11 trials evaluating alcohol-specific interventions showed some evidence of effectiveness compared to a standard curriculum. In 14 of the 39 trials evaluating generic interventions, the program interventions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in alcohol use either through a main or subgroup effect. Gender, baseline alcohol use, and ethnicity modified the effects of interventions. Results from the remaining 3 trials with interventions targeting cannabis, alcohol, and/or tobacco were inconsistent. This review identified
Full Text Available Abstract Preventable trauma deaths are defined as deaths which could be avoided if optimal care has been delivered. Studies on preventable trauma deaths have been accomplished initially with panel reviews of pre-hospital and hospital charts. However, several investigators questioned the reliability and validity of this method because of low reproducibility of implicit judgments when they are made by different experts. Nevertheless, number of studies were published all around the world and ultimately gained some credibility, particularly in regions where comparisons were made before and after trauma system implementation with a resultant fall in mortality. During the last decade of century the method of comparing observed survival with probability of survival calculated from large trauma registries has obtained popularity. Preventable trauma deaths were identified as deaths occurred notwithstanding a high calculated probability of survival. In recent years, preventable trauma deaths studies have been replaced by population-based studies, which use databases representative of overall population, therefore with high epidemiologic value. These databases contain readily available information which carry out the advantage of objectivity and large numbers. Nowadays, population-based researches provide the strongest evidence regarding the effectiveness of trauma systems and trauma centers on patient outcomes.
Gabriele, Jeanne M; Stewart, Tiffany M; Sample, Alicia; Davis, Allison B; Allen, Ray; Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Williamson, Donald A
Childhood obesity is a growing problem, particularly in rural, Louisiana school children. Traditionally, school-based obesity prevention programs have used a primary prevention approach. Finding methods to deliver secondary prevention programs to large numbers of students without singling out overweight students has been a challenge. An innovative approach to achieving this goal is through use of an Internet intervention targeted toward a student's weight status. This article describes the Louisiana (LA) Health Internet intervention, including the student Web site, the Internet counselor Web site, and the Internet counseling process. The LA Health Internet intervention had separate interfaces for students and Internet counselors. The main features of the student site were behavioral weight loss lessons, lesson activities, chat with an Internet counselor, and email. The Internet counselor site contained these same features, plus a student directory and various means of obtaining student information to guide counseling. Based on their baseline weight status, students received lessons and counseling that promoted either weight loss or weight maintenance. Intervention was delivered during class time, and teachers scheduled Internet counseling sessions with intervention personnel. The LA Health Internet intervention was initially implemented within 14 schools; 773 students were granted access to the site. From Fall 2007 to Spring 2009, 1174 hours of Internet counselor coverage was needed to implement the Internet counseling component of this intervention The LA Health Internet intervention is an innovative and feasible method of delivering a secondary prevention program within a school setting to large numbers of students. (c) 2010 Diabetes Technology Society.
Xanthopoulos, A.S.; Koulouriotis, D.E.; Botsaris, P.N.
Despite the fact that the fields of pull type production control policies and condition-based preventive maintenance have much in common contextually, they have evolved independently up to now. In this investigation, an attempt is made to bridge the gap between these two branches of knowledge by introducing the single-stage Kanban system with deterioration failures and condition-based preventive maintenance. The formalism of continuous time Markov chains is used to model the system and expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. Two important, from a managerial perspective, constrained optimization problems for the proposed model are defined where the objective is the simultaneous optimization of the Kanban policy, the preventive maintenance policy and the inspection schedule under conflicting performance criteria. Multiple instances of each optimization problem are solved by means of the augmented Lagrangian genetic algorithm. The results from the optimization trials coupled by the results from extensive numerical examples facilitate the thorough investigation of the system’s behaviour. - Highlights: • Kanban system with deterioration failures and preventive maintenance is introduced. • The system is modeled as a continuous time Markov chain. • Expressions for eight performance metrics are derived. • The behavior of the system is studied through numerical examples. • Optimization results for selected performance metrics are presented
Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika
Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.
Ali Khani Jeihooni
Full Text Available Osteoporosis, as a disease, is characterized by low bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissue. The aim of this study was to survey the predictors of osteoporosis preventive behaviors based on health belief model. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 401 randomly selected women referring to health centers. Data collection was based on health belief model. The employed instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. Content validity ratio, content validity index, face validity, and exploratory factor analysis were used to determine the validity of the tool. Test-retest internal consistency was employed to determine the reliability. The mean age of women was 40.9±6.2 years. The variables of perceived susceptibility, motivation for walking behavior and variable of perceived sensitivity for nutrition behavior were predicted. The walking performance had a significant association with perceived susceptibility and motivation, the nutritional performance had a significant positive association with perceived susceptibility and self-efficacy and a negative correlation with perceived barriers. The variables under study explained 29.1% of the variance in walking behavior and 20.2% of the variance in nutrition behavior in osteoporosis prevention. This study indicated health belief model is capable to predict nutrition and walking behaviors for the prevention of osteoporosis. Hence, this model can be used as a framework for designing and implementing educational interventions for the prevention of osteoporosis in women.
Levinson, Kimberly L; Abuelo, Carolina; Chyung, Eunice; Salmeron, Jorge; Belinson, Suzanne E; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Ortiz, Carlos Santos; Vallejos, Maria Jose; Belinson, Jerome L
Cervical cancer is a preventable disease which causes significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in developing countries. Although technology for early detection continues to improve, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers. Community-based participatory research is an approach to research which focuses on collaboration with the community to surmount these barriers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of community-based participatory research techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for cervical cancer prevention in Manchay, Peru. Human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling and cryotherapy were used for the screen/treat intervention, and the Gardasil vaccine was used for the vaccine intervention. Community health workers from Manchay participated in a 3-day educational course, designed by the research team. The community health workers then decided how to implement the interventions in their community. The success of the program was measured by (1) the ability of the community health workers to determine an implementation plan, (2) the successful use of research forms provided, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) satisfaction of the participants. (1) The community health workers used a door-to-door approach through which participants were successfully registered and both interventions were successfully carried out; (2) registration forms, consent forms, and result forms were used correctly with minimal error; (3) screen/treat intervention: 97% of registered participants gave an HPV sample, 94% of HPV-positive women were treated, and 90% returned for 6-month follow-up; vaccine intervention: 95% of registered girls received the first vaccine, 97% of those received the second vaccine, and 93% the third; (4) 96% of participants in the screen/treat intervention reported high satisfaction. Community-based participatory research techniques successfully helped to implement a screen/treat and vaccinate
disease, cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, and other diseases in need of anticoagulants for secondary prevention of stroke. 4 Current evidence is limited for the regular usage of dabigatran for secondary prevention of stroke. Conclusions Critical findings have been demonstrated in the evidence-based evaluation on dabigatran in the secondary prevention of stroke. Decision making on the clinical application of dabigatran in the secondary prevention of stroke should be cautious. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.03.006
Monroe, Courtney M; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Larsen, Chelsea A; Magradey, Karen; Brandt, Heather M; Wilcox, Sara; Sundstrom, Beth; West, Delia Smith
College freshmen are highly vulnerable to experiencing weight gain, and this phenomenon is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases and mortality in older adulthood. Technology offers an attractive and scalable way to deliver behavioral weight gain prevention interventions for this population. Weight gain prevention programs that harness the appeal and widespread reach of Web-based technologies (electronic health or eHealth) are increasingly being evaluated in college students. Yet, few of these interventions are informed by college students' perspectives on weight gain prevention and related lifestyle behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess college freshmen students' concern about weight gain and associated topics, as well as their interest in and delivery medium preferences for eHealth programs focused on these topics. Web-based surveys that addressed college freshmen students' (convenience sample of N=50) perspectives on weight gain prevention were administered at the beginning and end of the fall 2015 semester as part of a longitudinal investigation of health-related issues and experiences in first semester college freshmen. Data on weight gain prevention-related concerns and corresponding interest in eHealth programs targeting topics of potential concern, as well as preferred program delivery medium and current technology use were gathered and analyzed using descriptive statistics. A considerable proportion of the freshmen sample expressed concern about weight gain (74%, 37/50) and both traditional (healthy diet: 86%, 43/50; physical activity: 64%, 32/50) and less frequently addressed (stress: 82%, 41/50; sleep: 74%, 37/50; anxiety and depression: 60%, 30/50) associated topics within the context of behavioral weight gain prevention. The proportion of students who reported interest in eHealth promotion programs targeting these topics was also generally high (ranging from 52% [26/50] for stress management to 70% [35/50] for eating a
Flay Brian R
Full Text Available Abstract I provide a systematic review of trials of school-based smoking prevention programs that had at least 15 sessions, preferably with some in high school, that reported significant short-term effects, and that included long-term follow-up. This is supplemented with a description of some other programs that produce short-term effects that portend large long-term effects. I conclude that school-based programs can have long-term effects of practical importance it they: include 15 or more sessions over multiple years, including some in high school; use the social influence model and interactive delivery methods; include components on norms, commitment not to use, intentions not to use, and training and practice in the use of refusal and other life skills; and use peer leaders in some role. School-based programs of this type can reduce smoking onset by 25–30%, and school plus community programs can reduce smoking onset by 35–40% by the end of high school. Some early childhood programs that do not have smoking prevention as their main aim, including home nursing, the Good Behavior Game, the Positive Action program and others, seem to change the developmental trajectories of children so that they are less likely to engage in multiple problem behaviors, including smoking, as adolescents. This review makes it clear that effective school-based smoking prevention programs exist and can be adopted, adapted and deployed with success – and should be.
Devlin, Dee; Henshaw, Michelle
The lack of access to preventive dental services, such as dental sealants, can be a major barrier to optimal dental health. School-based dental sealant programs can serve as programs to improve access to preventive dental services. This school-based dental sealant program managed by a Boston dental school with collaborating partners in the metro west area of Massachusetts provides free dental sealants to second grade children. The number of second grade children having dental sealants was tracked for 6 school years and compared with the Healthy People 2010 objective of 50% of all children aged 8 years to have at least 1 dental sealant. From school years 2003 to 2004 through 2008 to 2009, 1,609 dental screenings were provided for second grade children. Of those, 1,189 received dental sealants. To determine whether or not the Healthy People 2010 objective was met, the number of children who received dental sealants from the school-based program was added to the number of children who already had their permanent first molars sealed by their own dentist at the time of the dental screening, plus children with sealants per parent report. In total, the aggregate second grade enrollment having sealants during the designated school years was 54%. The specific Healthy People 2010 objective was achieved over the designated time period. School-based dental sealant programs can help to decrease or eliminate barriers for access to preventive dental services by increasing the number of children who receive dental sealants.
Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.
Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg
MacQueen, Kathleen M; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Owen, Derek H; Amico, K Rivet; Morrow, Kathleen M; Moench, Thomas; Friend, David R; Friedland, Barbara
Product adherence and its measurement have emerged as a critical challenge in the evaluation of new HIV prevention technologies. Long-acting ARV-based vaginal rings may simplify use instructions and require less user behaviour, thereby facilitating adherence. One ARV-based ring is in efficacy trials and others, including multipurpose rings, are in the pipeline. Participant motivations, counselling support and measurement challenges during ring trials must still be addressed. In previous HIV prevention trials, this has been done largely using descriptive and post-hoc methods that are highly variable and minimally evaluated. We outline an interdisciplinary framework for systematically investigating promising strategies to support product uptake and adherence, and to measure adherence in the context of randomized, blinded clinical trials. The interdisciplinary framework highlights the dual use of adherence measurement (i.e. to provide feedback during trial implementation and to inform interpretation of trial findings) and underscores the complex pathways that connect measurement, adherence support and enacted adherence behaviour. Three inter-related approaches are highlighted: 1) adherence support - sequential efforts to define motivators of study product adherence and to develop, test, refine and evaluate adherence support messages; 2) self-reported psychometric measures - creation of valid and generalizable measures based in easily administered scales that capture vaginal ring use with improved predictive ability at screening, baseline and follow-up that better engage participants in reporting adherence; and 3) more objective measurement of adherence - real-time adherence monitoring and cumulative measurement to correlate adherence with overall product effectiveness through innovative designs, models and prototypes using electronic and biometric technologies to detect ring insertion and/or removal or expulsion. Coordinating research along these three pathways will
The project cogeneration plant supplies electric power, process steam and treated boiler feedwater for use by the project plants. The plant consists of multiple turbine generators and steam generators connected to a common main steam header. The major plant systems which are required to produce steam, electrical power and treated feedwater are discussed individually. The systems are: steam, steam generator, steam generator fuel, condensate and feedwater deaeration, condensate and blowdown collection, cooling water, boiler feedwater treatment, coal handling, ash handling (fly ash and bottom ash), electrical, and control system. The plant description is based on the Phase Zero design basis established for Plant 31 in July of 1980 and the steam/condensate balance as presented on Drawing 31-E-B-1. Updating of steam requirements as more refined process information becomes available has generated some changes in the steam balance. Boiler operation with these updated requirements is reflected on Drawing 31-D-B-1A. The major impact of updating has been that less 600 psig steam generated within the process units requires more extraction steam from the turbine generators to close the 600 psig steam balance. Since the 900 psig steam generation from the boilers was fixed at 1,200,000 lb/hr, the additional extraction steam required to close the 600 psig steam balance decreased the quantity of electrical power available from the turbine generators. In the next phase of engineering work, the production of 600 psig steam will be augmented by increasing convection bank steam generation in the Plant 3 fired heaters by 140,000 to 150,000 lb/hr. This modification will allow full rated power generation from the turbine generators.
Miovský, Michal; Voňková, Hana; Gabrhelík, Roman; Šťastná, Lenka
This study aims to examine the effect of school-based preventive intervention on cannabis use in Czech adolescents with different levels of risk factors and provide evidence of its universality. A randomized controlled prevention trial with six waves was conducted over a period of 33 months. We used a two-level logistic random-intercept model for panel data; we first looked at the statistical significance of the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, controlling for the characteristics of the children and time dummies. Then we analyzed the effects of the interactions between the intervention and the characteristics of the children on cannabis use and related it to the definition of universal preventive interventions. The setting for the study was in basic schools in the Czech Republic in the years 2007-2010. A total of 1,874 sixth-graders (mean age 11.82 years) who completed the baseline testing. According to our results, the prevention intervention was effective. We found all the selected characteristics of the children to be relevant in relation to cannabis use, except their relationships with their friends. We showed empirically that the intervention is universal in two dimensions for the selected characteristics of the children. First, all adolescents who undergo the intervention are expected to benefit. Second, with respect to the effect of the intervention on cannabis use, the total level of individual risk of cannabis use is superior to the composition of the risk factors in the individual risk profile. We present indicative evidence that the drug prevention intervention may be considered a true universal preventive intervention.
Full Text Available Prevention of mental disorders offers opportunities for decreasing enormous health, economic, and social burden attributable to them. Substantial evidence exist showing effectiveness of prevention strategies in reducing risk factors, strengthening protective factors, and decreasing psychiatric symptoms and disability. The government and various stakeholders should work toward developing policies on national and regional levels for the prevention of mental disorders and integrate them with various public policies. Research should be focused on enhancing the evidence base for these interventions. It should also cover additional domains such as quantification of the burden of disease associated with particular risk factors, the interaction between lifestyle behaviors and mental health, and integrating mental health outcome measures in large community-based interventions for noncommunicable diseases. Special efforts should be made in devising alternative strategies to deliver these programs in low-resource settings. Integrating the research from the field of neurosciences with prevention strategies can augment the effort in this direction. One of the important challenges is to design programs that are either indigenously developed or culturally adapted. Mental health professionals have to play an important and multiple roles to make prevention of mental and behavioral disorders a reality.
Abstract Development and implementation of non-communicable disease (NCD) prevention polices in the developing countries is a multidimensional challenge. This article highlights the evolution of a strategic approach in Pakistan. The model is evidence-based and encompasses a concerted and integrated approach to NCDs. It has been modelled to impact a set of indicators through the combination of a range of actions capitalizing on the strengths of a public-private partnership. The paper highlight...
Introduction: Nosocomial infection is one indicator of the quality of health services in the community, which also determines the image of health care institutions becauseit was a major cause of morbidityand death rate (mortality) in hospital. Nursing care based on knowledge management is established from identification knowledge which is required, prevention performance of nosocomial infections post section caesarea. Nosocomial infections component consists of wound culture result. Method: T...
Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hanson, Carrie; Doty, Jennifer; Jagaraj, Kimberly; Braaten, Kent; Doherty, William J
To date there has been limited success with childhood obesity prevention interventions. This may be due in part, to the challenge of reaching and engaging parents in interventions. The current study used a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to engage parents in cocreating and pilot testing a childhood obesity prevention intervention. Because CBPR approaches to childhood obesity prevention are new, this study aims to detail the creation, including the formation of the citizen action group (CAG), and implementation of a childhood obesity prevention intervention using CBPR methods. A CBPR approach was used to recruit community members to partner with university researchers in the CAG (n = 12) to create and implement the Play It Forward! childhood obesity intervention. The intervention creation and implementation took 2 years. During Year 1 (2011-2012), the CAG carried out a community needs and resources assessment and designed a community-based and family focused childhood obesity prevention intervention. During Year 2 (2012-2013), the CAG implemented the intervention and conducted an evaluation. Families (n = 50; 25 experimental/25 control group) with children ages 6-12 years participated in Play It Forward! Feasibility and process evaluation data suggested that the intervention was highly feasible and participants in both the CAG and intervention were highly satisfied. Specifically, over half of the families attended 75% of the Play It Forward! events and 33% of families attended all the events. Equal collaboration between parents and academic researchers to address childhood obesity may be a promising approach that merits further testing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008, and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003. Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34. No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20 or death (P = 0.53 was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis.
Yang, Xin-hua; Huang, Jia; Lan, Yong; Zhu, Cui-ying; Liu, Xiao-qun; Wang, Ye-fei; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-rong; Chan, Raymond C K
Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in reward processing, is a hallmark feature of major depressive disorder (MDD), but its underlying neurobiological mechanism is largely unknown. The present study aimed to examine the underlying neural mechanism of reward-related decision-making in patients with MDD. We examined behavioral and neural responses to rewards in patients with first-episode MDD (N=25) and healthy controls (N=25) using the Effort-Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). The task involved choices about possible rewards of varying magnitude and probability. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with MDD would exhibit a reduced neural response in reward-related brain structures involved in cost-benefit decision-making. Compared with healthy controls, patients with MDD showed significantly weaker responses in the left caudate nucleus when contrasting the 'high reward'-'low reward' condition, and blunted responses in the left superior temporal gyrus and the right caudate nucleus when contrasting high and low probabilities. In addition, hard tasks chosen during high probability trials were negatively correlated with superior temporal gyrus activity in MDD patients, while the same choices were negatively correlated with caudate nucleus activity in healthy controls. These results indicate that reduced caudate nucleus and superior temporal gyrus activation may underpin abnormal cost-benefit decision-making in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The main focus of the present paper is to answer two different questions: From the perspective of Austrian education policy, which core areas of schooling are linked to the demand for equal opportunity? Can these reform efforts sustain the current state of research, and what are the consequences for schooling? The paper draws on an analysis by Hopmann, Geppert & Bauer (2010. Fifteen official self-presentations (political programmes of Austrian political parties were analysed for statements concerning the improvement of the education system. This resulted in about seventy different statements, which were aggregated into eight core areas.We conducted a systematic analysis of four of these core areas, dealing with the topics of equal opportunity: comprehensive school, all-day schooling, school autonomy and standardisation of students’ achievements. The aim was not to judge the legitimacy or the political content of the claims made. In line with evaluative discourse, we asked whether the combination of political demands and their associated expectations met the current state of research. In many policy programmes, it is assumed that comprehensive schooling, all-day schooling, education standards, standardised general certification for university attendance, school autonomy or language surveys go hand in hand with more equality of opportunity, justice andquality in education, but an analysis of the current state of research could not confirm this. The analysis showed that, with regard to education policy demands, statements having empirically little or nothing to do with each other are often linked.
Filiatrault, Johanne; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Robitaille, Yvonne; Laforest, Sophie; Fournier, Michel; Corriveau, Hélène
To assess the impact of a multifaceted falls prevention program including exercise and educational components on perceived balance and balance confidence among community-dwelling seniors. Quasi-experimental design. Community-based organizations. Two hundred community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and over recruited by community-based organizations. A 12-week multifaceted falls prevention program including 3 components (a 1-hour group exercise class held twice a week, a 30-minute home exercise module to be performed at least once a week, a 30-minute educational class held once a week). Perceived balance and balance confidence. Multivariate analysis showed that the program was successful in increasing perceived balance in experimental participants. However, balance confidence was not improved by program participation. A multifaceted community-based falls prevention program that was successful in improving balance performance among community-dwelling seniors also had a positive impact on perceived balance. However, the program did not improve participants' balance confidence. These results suggest that balance confidence has determinants other than balance and that new components and/or modifications of existing components of the program are required to achieve maximal benefits for seniors in terms of physical and psychologic outcomes.
Shin, Sung Rae; Oh, Pok Ja; Youn, Hye Kyung; Shin, Sun Hwa
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program. Non-equivalent control group with a pre/post-test design was used. Students (n=174) in two boys' junior high schools located in D city, Korea participated with 85 being selected for the experimental group and 89 for the control group. Five sessions were given to the experimental group and a 50 minute lecture to the control group. Knowledge, attitude, non-smoking intention, and non-smoking efficacy were measured for the both experimental and control group at two weeks before the program and one month after the program was completed. Data were analyzed using χ²-test, Fisher's exact test, independent t-test and paired t-test with the SPSS 21.0 program. The experimental group showed higher overall knowledge, negative attitude toward smoking, and higher non-smoking intention and efficacy. After receiving the school based peer leader centered smoking prevention program scores for attitude toward smoking and non-smoking efficacy increased in the experimental group were higher than in the control group. The school-based peer leader centered smoking prevention program needs longitudinal evaluation, but from this study, there is an indication that this program can be used with junior high school students and effectively change students' attitude toward smoking and promote non-smoking efficacy.
Noar, Seth M; Black, Hulda G; Pierce, Larson B
To conduct a meta-analysis of computer technology-based HIV prevention behavioral interventions aimed at increasing condom use among a variety of at-risk populations. Systematic review and meta-analysis of existing published and unpublished studies testing computer-based interventions. Meta-analytic techniques were used to compute and aggregate effect sizes for 12 randomized controlled trials that met inclusion criteria. Variables that had the potential to moderate intervention efficacy were also tested. The overall mean weighted effect size for condom use was d = 0.259 (95% confidence interval = 0.201, 0.317; Z = 8.74, P partners, and incident sexually transmitted diseases. In addition, interventions were significantly more efficacious when they were directed at men or women (versus mixed sex groups), utilized individualized tailoring, used a Stages of Change model, and had more intervention sessions. Computer technology-based HIV prevention interventions have similar efficacy to more traditional human-delivered interventions. Given their low cost to deliver, ability to customize intervention content, and flexible dissemination channels, they hold much promise for the future of HIV prevention.
Fichter, Manfred M; Quadflieg, Norbert; Nisslmüller, Kerstin; Lindner, Susanne; Osen, Bernhard; Huber, Thomas; Wünsch-Leiteritz, Wally
Technological advancements allow new approaches to psychotherapy via electronic media. The eating disorder literature currently contains no studies on internet intervention in anorexia nervosa (AN). This study presents a RCT on an internet-based relapse prevention program (RP) over nine months after inpatient treatment for AN. The sample comprised 258 women, randomized to the RP or treatment as usual (TAU). Expert- and self-ratings were evaluated by intent-to-treat analyses. Concerning age, age at onset and comorbidity, both groups were comparable at randomization. During the RP, the intervention group gained weight while the TAU group had minimal weight loss. RP completers gained significantly more body weight than patients in the TAU condition. Group-by-time comparisons for eating-related cognitions and behaviors and general psychopathology showed a significantly more favorable course in the RP program for "sexual anxieties" and "bulimic symptoms" (interview), and "maturity fears" and "social insecurity" (EDI-2). General psychopathology showed no significant group-by-time interaction. Important factors for successful relapse prevention were adherence to the intervention protocol and increased spontaneity. Considering the unfavorable course and chronicity of anorexia nervosa (AN), internet-based relapse prevention in AN following inpatient treatment appears a promising approach. Future internet-based programs may be further improved and enhanced. Copyright Â© 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yang, Li; Ma, Xiaobing; Peng, Rui; Zhai, Qingqing; Zhao, Yu
This paper proposes a preventive maintenance policy for a single-unit system whose failure has two competing and dependent causes, i.e., internal deterioration and sudden shocks. The internal failure process is divided into two stages, i.e. normal and defective. Shocks arrive according to a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), leading to the failure of the system immediately. The occurrence rate of a shock is affected by the state of the system. Both an age-based replacement and finite number of periodic inspections are schemed simultaneously to deal with the competing failures. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal preventive replacement interval, inspection interval and number of inspections such that the expected cost per unit time is minimized. A case study on oil pipeline maintenance is presented to illustrate the maintenance policy. - Highlights: • A maintenance model based on two-stage deterioration and sudden shocks is developed. • The impact of internal system state on external shock process is studied. • A new preventive maintenance strategy combining age-based replacements and periodic inspections is proposed. • Postponed replacement of a defective system is provided by restricting the number of inspections.
Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang
Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Valenzuela, M; Esler, M; Ritchie, K; Brodaty, H
Age-related increases in prevalent dementia over the next 30-40 years risk collapsing medical resources or radically altering the way we treat patients. Better prevention of dementia therefore needs to be one of our highest medical priorities. We propose a perspective on the pathological basis of dementia based on a cerebrovascular-Alzheimer disease spectrum that provides a more powerful explanatory framework when considering the impact of possible public health interventions. With this in mind, a synthesis of evidence from basic, clinical and epidemiological studies indeed suggests that the enhanced treatment of hypertension could be effective for the primary prevention of dementia of either Alzheimer or vascular etiology. In particular, we focus on candidate preventative mechanisms, including reduced cerebrovascular disease, disruption of hypoxia-dependent amyloidogenesis and the potential neuroprotective properties of calcium channel blockers. Following the successful translation of large, long-term and resource-intense trials in cardiology into improved vascular health outcomes in many countries, new multinational prevention trials with dementia-related primary outcomes are now urgently required.
Cools, Ann M; Johansson, Fredrik R; Borms, Dorien; Maenhout, Annelies
The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1) risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2) established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3) these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4) preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD); rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.
Callender, Chishinga; Thompson, Deborah
African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are needed. The purpose of this study was to collect formative research from parents of 8-10-year old African American girls about perceptions, expectations, and content for a text messaging based program. Mothers ( n = 30) participated in surveys and interviews to inform message development and content. A professional expert panel ( n = 10) reviewed draft text messages via a survey. All the mothers reported owning a cellphone with an unlimited texting plan, and they used their cellphones for texting (90.0%) and accessing the Internet (100.0%). The majority were interested in receiving text messages about healthy eating and physical activity (86.7%). Interviews confirmed survey findings. One hundred and seven text messages promoting an obesity-preventive home environment were developed. The expert panel and parents reported positive reactions to draft text messages. This research provides evidence that mobile health (mHealth) interventions appeal to parents of African American girls and they have ready access to the technology with which to support this approach.
Full Text Available African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are needed. The purpose of this study was to collect formative research from parents of 8–10-year old African American girls about perceptions, expectations, and content for a text messaging based program. Mothers (n = 30 participated in surveys and interviews to inform message development and content. A professional expert panel (n = 10 reviewed draft text messages via a survey. All the mothers reported owning a cellphone with an unlimited texting plan, and they used their cellphones for texting (90.0% and accessing the Internet (100.0%. The majority were interested in receiving text messages about healthy eating and physical activity (86.7%. Interviews confirmed survey findings. One hundred and seven text messages promoting an obesity-preventive home environment were developed. The expert panel and parents reported positive reactions to draft text messages. This research provides evidence that mobile health (mHealth interventions appeal to parents of African American girls and they have ready access to the technology with which to support this approach.
Ann M. Cools
Full Text Available The shoulder is at high risk for injury during overhead sports, in particular in throwing or hitting activities, such as baseball, tennis, handball, and volleyball. In order to create a scientific basis for the prevention of recurrent injuries in overhead athletes, four steps need to be undertaken: (1 risk factors for injury and re-injury need to be defined; (2 established risk factors may be used as return-to-play criteria, with cut-off values based on normative databases; (3 these variables need to be measured using reliable, valid assessment tools and procedures; and (4 preventative training programs need to be designed and implemented into the training program of the athlete in order to prevent re-injury. In general, three risk factors have been defined that may form the basis for recommendations for the prevention of recurrent injury and return to play after injury: glenohumeral internal-rotation deficit (GIRD; rotator cuff strength, in particular the strength of the external rotators; and scapular dyskinesis, in particular scapular position and strength.
Williams, C L; Perry, C L; Dudovitz, B; Veblen-Mortenson, S; Anstine, P S; Komro, K A; Toomey, T L
Project Northland is designed to prevent alcohol use among young adolescents. The project is ongoing in 24 school districts, randomly assigned to intervention or reference conditions. Multiple interventions begin with sixth graders and continue through eighth grade. The reference districts offer their standard health curricula. Evaluation consists of school surveys with the cohort (N = 2201) and telephone surveys of half their parents. This article describes the sixth-grade home-based intervention, the Slick Tracy Home Team. Findings of broad-based participation across sex, race, and risk status were documented, as well as some increases in knowledge and family communication about alcohol use.
Bryant, Carol A; Courtney, Anita H; McDermott, Robert J; Alfonso, Moya L; Baldwin, Julie A; Nickelson, Jen; McCormack Brown, Kelli R; Debate, Rita D; Phillips, Leah M; Thompson, Zachary; Zhu, Yiliang
Community-based prevention marketing (CBPM) is a program planning framework that blends community-organizing principles with a social marketing mind-set to design, implement, and evaluate public health interventions. A community coalition used CBPM to create a physical activity promotion program for tweens (youth 9-13 years of age) called VERB Summer Scorecard. Based on the national VERB media campaign, the program offered opportunities for tweens to try new types of physical activity during the summer months. The VERB Summer Scorecard was implemented and monitored between 2004 and 2007 using the 9-step CBPM framework. Program performance was assessed through in-depth interviews and a school-based survey of youth. The CBPM process and principles used by school and community personnel to promote physical activity among tweens are presented. Observed declines may become less steep if school officials adopt a marketing mind-set to encourage youth physical activity: deemphasizing health benefits but promoting activity as something fun that fosters spending time with friends while trying and mastering new skills. Community-based programs can augment and provide continuity to school-based prevention programs to increase physical activity among tweens.
Herzog, Thaddeus A.; Black, David S.; Zaman, Adnin; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Sussman, Steve
Adolescence is marked by several key development-related changes, including neurocognitive changes. Cognitive abilities associated with self-regulation are not fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood whereas tendencies to take risks and seek thrilling and novel experience seem to increase significantly throughout this phase, resulting in a discrepancy between increased susceptibility to poor regulation and lower ability to exercise self-control. Increased vulnerability to drug use initiation, maintenance, and dependence during adolescence may be explained based on this imbalance in the self-regulation system. In this paper, we highlight the relevance of schools as a setting for delivering adolescent drug use prevention programs that are based on recent findings from neuroscience concerning adolescent brain development. We discuss evidence from school-based as well as laboratory research that suggests that suitable training may improve adolescents’ executive brain functions that underlie self-regulation abilities and, as a result, help prevent drug use and abuse. We note that considerable further research is needed in order (1) to determine that self-regulation training has effects at the neurocognitive level and (2) to effectively incorporate self-regulation training based on neuropsychological models into school-based programming. PMID:23408284
Paulweber, B; Valensi, P; Lindström, J; Lalic, N M; Greaves, C J; McKee, M; Kissimova-Skarbek, K; Liatis, S; Cosson, E; Szendroedi, J; Sheppard, K E; Charlesworth, K; Felton, A-M; Hall, M; Rissanen, A; Tuomilehto, J; Schwarz, P E; Roden, M; Paulweber, M; Stadlmayr, A; Kedenko, L; Katsilambros, N; Makrilakis, K; Kamenov, Z; Evans, P; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Lalic, K; Jotic, A; Djordevic, P; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, V; Hühmer, U; Kulzer, B; Puhl, S; Lee-Barkey, Y H; AlKerwi, A; Abraham, C; Hardeman, W; Acosta, T; Adler, M; AlKerwi, A; Barengo, N; Barengo, R; Boavida, J M; Charlesworth, K; Christov, V; Claussen, B; Cos, X; Cosson, E; Deceukelier, S; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, V; Djordjevic, P; Evans, P; Felton, A-M; Fischer, M; Gabriel-Sanchez, R; Gilis-Januszewska, A; Goldfracht, M; Gomez, J L; Greaves, C J; Hall, M; Handke, U; Hauner, H; Herbst, J; Hermanns, N; Herrebrugh, L; Huber, C; Hühmer, U; Huttunen, J; Jotic, A; Kamenov, Z; Karadeniz, S; Katsilambros, N; Khalangot, M; Kissimova-Skarbek, K; Köhler, D; Kopp, V; Kronsbein, P; Kulzer, B; Kyne-Grzebalski, D; Lalic, K; Lalic, N; Landgraf, R; Lee-Barkey, Y H; Liatis, S; Lindström, J; Makrilakis, K; McIntosh, C; McKee, M; Mesquita, A C; Misina, D; Muylle, F; Neumann, A; Paiva, A C; Pajunen, P; Paulweber, B; Peltonen, M; Perrenoud, L; Pfeiffer, A; Pölönen, A; Puhl, S; Raposo, F; Reinehr, T; Rissanen, A; Robinson, C; Roden, M; Rothe, U; Saaristo, T; Scholl, J; Schwarz, P E; Sheppard, K E; Spiers, S; Stemper, T; Stratmann, B; Szendroedi, J; Szybinski, Z; Tankova, T; Telle-Hjellset, V; Terry, G; Tolks, D; Toti, F; Tuomilehto, J; Undeutsch, A; Valadas, C; Valensi, P; Velickiene, D; Vermunt, P; Weiss, R; Wens, J; Yilmaz, T
The prevalence and socioeconomic burden of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and associated co-morbidities are rising worldwide. This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations for preventing T2DM. A European multidisciplinary consortium systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of screening and interventions for T2DM prevention using SIGN criteria. Obesity and sedentary lifestyle are the main modifiable risk factors. Age and ethnicity are non-modifiable risk factors. Case-finding should follow a step-wise procedure using risk questionnaires and oral glucose tolerance testing. Persons with impaired glucose tolerance and/or fasting glucose are at high-risk and should be prioritized for intensive intervention. Interventions supporting lifestyle changes delay the onset of T2DM in high-risk adults (number-needed-to-treat: 6.4 over 1.8-4.6 years). These should be supported by inter-sectoral strategies that create health promoting environments. Sustained body weight reduction by >or= 5 % lowers risk. Currently metformin, acarbose and orlistat can be considered as second-line prevention options. The population approach should use organized measures to raise awareness and change lifestyle with specific approaches for adolescents, minorities and disadvantaged people. Interventions promoting lifestyle changes are more effective if they target both diet and physical activity, mobilize social support, involve the planned use of established behaviour change techniques, and provide frequent contacts. Cost-effectiveness analysis should take a societal perspective. Prevention using lifestyle modifications in high-risk individuals is cost-effective and should be embedded in evaluated models of care. Effective prevention plans are predicated upon sustained government initiatives comprising advocacy, community support, fiscal and legislative changes, private sector engagement and continuous media communication. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart-New York.
Mashreky, S R; Rahman, A; Svanström, L; Linnan, M J; Shafinaz, S; Rahman, F
A comprehensive community-based burn prevention framework was developed for rural Bangladesh taking into consideration the magnitude, consequences of burns, risk factors of childhood burn, health seeking behaviour of parents after a burn injury of a child and the perception of community people. This paper explains the comprehensive framework of the childhood burn prevention programme and describes its acceptability, feasibility and sustainability. A number of methodologies were adopted in developing the framework, such as, (i) building up relevant information on childhood burn and prevention methods, (ii) arranging workshops and consultation meetings with experts and related stakeholders and (iii) piloting components of the framework on a small scale. Lack of supervision of the children, hazardous environment at home and the low level awareness about childhood burn and other injuries were identified as the major attributes of childhood burn in Bangladesh. To address these factors "Triple S" strategies were identified for the prevention framework. These strategies are: Safe environment. Supervision. Skill development. According to these strategies, home safety, community crèche, school safety, formation of community groups and general awareness activities were identified as the different components of the childhood burn prevention framework in rural Bangladesh. The framework was piloted in a small scale to explore its feasibility acceptability and sustainability. The framework was found to be acceptable by the community. It is also expected to be feasible and sustainable as very low cost and locally available technology and resources were utilized in the framework. Large scale piloting is necessary to explore its effectiveness and ability to scale up all over the whole country. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Health care-associated infections (HAI are a major public health problem with a significant impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life. They represent also an important economic burden to health systems worldwide. However, a large proportion of HAI are preventable through effective infection prevention and control (IPC measures. Improvements in IPC at the national and facility level are critical for the successful containment of antimicrobial resistance and the prevention of HAI, including outbreaks of highly transmissible diseases through high quality care within the context of universal health coverage. Given the limited availability of IPC evidence-based guidance and standards, the World Health Organization (WHO decided to prioritize the development of global recommendations on the core components of effective IPC programmes both at the national and acute health care facility level, based on systematic literature reviews and expert consensus. The aim of the guideline development process was to identify the evidence and evaluate its quality, consider patient values and preferences, resource implications, and the feasibility and acceptability of the recommendations. As a result, 11 recommendations and three good practice statements are presented here, including a summary of the supporting evidence, and form the substance of a new WHO IPC guideline.
Doane, Ashley N; Kelley, Michelle L; Pearson, Matthew R
Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of cyberbullying prevention/intervention programs. The goals of the present study were to develop a Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)-based video program to increase cyberbullying knowledge (1) and empathy toward cyberbullying victims (2), reduce favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying (3), decrease positive injunctive (4) and descriptive norms about cyberbullying (5), and reduce cyberbullying intentions (6) and cyberbullying behavior (7). One hundred sixty-seven college students were randomly assigned to an online video cyberbullying prevention program or an assessment-only control group. Immediately following the program, attitudes and injunctive norms for all four types of cyberbullying behavior (i.e., unwanted contact, malice, deception, and public humiliation), descriptive norms for malice and public humiliation, empathy toward victims of malice and deception, and cyberbullying knowledge significantly improved in the experimental group. At one-month follow-up, malice and public humiliation behavior, favorable attitudes toward unwanted contact, deception, and public humiliation, and injunctive norms for public humiliation were significantly lower in the experimental than the control group. Cyberbullying knowledge was significantly higher in the experimental than the control group. These findings demonstrate a brief cyberbullying video is capable of improving, at one-month follow-up, cyberbullying knowledge, cyberbullying perpetration behavior, and TRA constructs known to predict cyberbullying perpetration. Considering the low cost and ease with which a video-based prevention/intervention program can be delivered, this type of approach should be considered to reduce cyberbullying. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mauricio, Anne M.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Millsap, Roger E.; Meza, Connie M.; Dumka, Larry E.; Germán, Miguelina; Genalo, M. Toni
This study describes a culturally sensitive approach to engage Mexican origin families in a school-based, family-focused preventive intervention trial. The approach was evaluated via assessing study enrollment and intervention program participation, as well as examining predictors of engagement at each stage. Incorporating traditional cultural values into all aspects of engagement resulted in participation rates higher than reported rates of minority-focused trials not emphasizing cultural sensitivity. Family preferred language (English or Spanish) or acculturation status predicted engagement at all levels, with less acculturated families participating at higher rates. Spanish-language families with less acculturated adolescents participated at higher rates than Spanish-language families with more acculturated adolescents. Other findings included two-way interactions between family language and the target child’s familism values, family single- vs. dual-parent status, and number of hours the primary parent worked in predicting intervention participation. Editors’ Strategic Implications: The authors present a promising approach—which requires replication—to engaging and retaining Mexican American families in a school-based prevention program. The research also highlights the importance of considering acculturation status when implementing and studying culturally tailored aspects of prevention models. PMID:18004659
Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander
Alcohol misuse in young people is a cause of concern for health services, policy makers, prevention workers, and criminal justice system, youth workers, teachers, and parents. To systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of universal family-based prevention programs in preventing alcohol misuse in school-aged children up to 18 years of age. To update a part of a previously published Cochrane systematic review. Relevant evidence (up to 2002) was selected from the previous Cochrane review. Later studies, to July 2010, were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Project CORK, and PsycINFO. Randomized trials evaluating universal family-based prevention programs and reporting outcomes for alcohol use in students 18 years of age or younger were included. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full text of identified records. Two reviewers extracted relevant data independently using an a priori defined extraction form. Risk of bias was assessed. 12 parallel-group trials were included. The reporting quality of trials was poor, only 20% of them reporting adequate method of randomisation and program allocation concealment. Incomplete data was adequately addressed in about half of the trials and this information was unclear for about 30% of the trials. Due to extensive heterogeneity across interventions, populations, and outcomes, the results were summarized only qualitatively.9 of the 12 trials showed some evidence of effectiveness compared to a control or other intervention group, with persistence of effects over the medium and longer-term. Four of these effective interventions were gender-specific, focusing on young females. One study with a small sample size showed positive effects that were not statistically significant, and two studies with larger sample sizes reported no significant effects of the family-based intervention for reducing alcohol misuse. In conclusion, in this Cochrane systematic review we found
Maciak, B J; Guzman, R; Santiago, A; Villalobos, G; Israel, B A
LA VIDA--the Southwest Detroit Partnership to Prevent Intimate Violence Against Latina Women--evolved in response to community concern about the problem of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the lack of culturally competent preventive and support services for Latino women and men in southwest Detroit. Since 1997, diverse organizations have mobilized as a community-academic partnership to ensure the availability, accessibility, and utilization of IPV services. This article describes and analyzes the evolution of LA VIDA within a community-based participatory research framework using a case study approach that draws on multiple data sources including group and individual interviews and field notes. The challenges and lessons learned in addressing a complex multifaceted problem such as IPV in an ethnic minority community are highlighted in an examination of the process of mobilizing diverse organizations, conducting community diagnosis and needs assessment activities, establishing goals and objectives within a social ecological framework, and integrating evaluation during the development phase.
Liu, Yanfei; Wang, Jieling; Jiang, Ke; He, Yanhui; Wu, Zhilin
In view of the fact that China’s border is very long and the border prevention and control measures are single, we designed a regional intrusion prevention and control system which based on target-tracking. The system consists of four parts: solar panel, radar, electro-optical equipment, unmanned aerial vehicle and intelligent tracking platform. The solar panel provides independent power for the entire system. The radar detects the target in real time and realizes the high precision positioning of suspicious targets, then through the linkage of electro-optical equipment, it can achieve full-time automatic precise tracking of targets. When the target appears within the range of detection, the drone will be launched to continue the tracking. The system is mainly to realize the full time, full coverage, whole process integration and active realtime control of the border area.
Lucke-Wold, Brandon; Shawley, Samantha; Ingels, John Spencer; Stewart, Jonathan; Misra, Ranjita
The epidemic of obesity and diabetes in the United States poses major challenge to the prevention and management of chronic diseases. Furthermore, when this is viewed in other components of the metabolic syndrome (i.e., the burden of high cholesterol and hypertension), the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome continues to rise in the USA continued challenge is how to deal with this epidemic from a medical and public health standpoint. Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) is a unique approach and offers a novel perspective for answering this challenge. A critical set of goals for CBPR is to address health disparities and social inequalities while getting community members engaged in all aspects of the research process. Utilizing the West Virginia Diabetes Prevention and Management Program and trained Health Coaches as a model, we discuss topics of consideration related to CBPR, involving trained health coaches, optimizing early adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors, and enhancing participation. Through careful project planning and design, questions regarding disparities increasing susceptibility and preventive efforts within the community can be addressed successfully. These topics are part of a broader integration of theories such as participatory research, community engagement, and outcomes measurement. The understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of the metabolic syndrome can help frame an appropriate strategy for establishing long-term community-wide changes that promote health. In order to continue to improve investigations for preventing the metabolic syndrome, it will be necessary to have aggressive efforts at the individual and population level for developing culturally sensitive programs that start early and are sustainable in practical environments such as the workplace. In this comprehensive review, we will discuss practical considerations related to project design, implementation, and how to measure effectiveness in regards to
Bhise, Viraj; Sittig, Dean F; Vaghani, Viralkumar; Wei, Li; Baldwin, Jessica; Singh, Hardeep
Methods to identify preventable adverse events typically have low yield and efficiency. We refined the methods of Institute of Healthcare Improvement's Global Trigger Tool (GTT) application and leveraged electronic health record (EHR) data to improve detection of preventable adverse events, including diagnostic errors. We queried the EHR data repository of a large health system to identify an 'index hospitalization' associated with care escalation (defined as transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) or initiation of rapid response team (RRT) within 15 days of admission) between March 2010 and August 2015. To enrich the record review sample with unexpected events, we used EHR clinical data to modify the GTT algorithm and limited eligible patients to those at lower risk for care escalation based on younger age and presence of minimal comorbid conditions. We modified the GTT review methodology; two physicians independently reviewed eligible 'e-trigger' positive records to identify preventable diagnostic and care management events. Of 88 428 hospitalisations, 887 were associated with care escalation (712 ICU transfers and 175 RRTs), of which 92 were flagged as trigger-positive and reviewed. Preventable adverse events were detected in 41 cases, yielding a trigger positive predictive value of 44.6% (reviewer agreement 79.35%; Cohen's kappa 0.573). We identified 7 (7.6%) diagnostic errors and 34 (37.0%) care management-related events: 24 (26.1%) adverse drug events, 4 (4.3%) patient falls, 4 (4.3%) procedure-related complications and 2 (2.2%) hospital-associated infections. In most events (73.1%), there was potential for temporary harm. We developed an approach using an EHR data-based trigger and modified review process to efficiently identify hospitalised patients with preventable adverse events, including diagnostic errors. Such e-triggers can help overcome limitations of currently available methods to detect preventable harm in hospitalised patients. © Article
Problem based learning is a training strategy, students work together in groups, and take responsibility for solving problems in a professional manner. Instructional materials such as textbooks become the main reference of students in study of mushrooms, especially the material is considered less effective in responding to the information needs of…
Mortality Implications of Appropriate Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy in Secondary Prevention Patients: Contrasting Mortality in Primary Prevention Patients From a Prospective Population-Based Registry.
Almehmadi, Fahad; Porta-Sánchez, Andreu; Ha, Andrew C T; Fischer, Hadas D; Wang, Xuesong; Austin, Peter C; Lee, Douglas S; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy
We sought to examine the mortality impact of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy between patients who received ICD for primary versus secondary prevention purposes. From a prospective, population-based registry, we identified 7020 patients who underwent de novo ICD implantation between February 2007 and May 2012 in Ontario, Canada. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and analyzed the mortality impact of first appropriate ICD therapy (shock and antitachycardia pacing [ATP]) as a time-varying covariate. There were 1929 (27.5%) patients who received ICDs for secondary prevention purposes. The median follow-up period was 5.02 years. Compared with those with secondary prevention ICDs, patients with primary prevention ICDs had more medical comorbidities, and lower ejection fraction. Patients who experienced appropriate ICD shock or ATP had greater risk of death compared with those who did not, irrespective of implant indication. In the primary prevention group, the adjusted hazard ratios of death for appropriate shock and ATP were 2.00 (95% CI: 1.72-2.33) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.52-1.97), respectively. In the secondary prevention group, the adjusted hazard ratios of death for appropriate ICD shock and ATP were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.20-1.77) and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.16-1.64), respectively. Despite having a more favorable clinical profile, occurrence of appropriate ICD shock or ATP in patients with secondary prevention ICDs was associated with similar magnitudes of mortality risk as those with primary prevention ICDs. A heightened degree of care is warranted for all patients who experience appropriate ICD shock or ATP therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.
The aim of the research was to gain increased knowledge regarding the sexual risk behaviour of school-going young people in South Africa after two decades of HIV-education in schools, to contribute to the development of improved HIV prevention strategies. In collaboration with the Department of Education, a sample of 5305 learners (between 10 and 18 years in Grades 5-12) from high-risk communities were identified. They completed a survey that assessed self-reported sexual risk behaviour and variables that potentially underlie sexual risk, such as attitudes towards preventive behaviour, perceived social norms and self-efficacy (based on the theory of planned behaviour [TPB]) and social factors like caregiver relationships and gender norms (based on the social ecological theory). Lifetime sex was reported by 49.4% of boys and 30.5% of girls in Grades 8-12, while 56% of the sexually active young people reported consistent condom use. Accurate knowledge about HIV transmission was low (37.8%). Regression analysis showed that risk behaviour was more prominent among older male youths, who perceived social norms as encouraging sexual activity, who use alcohol excessively, and who have negative attitudes towards abstinence. Perceived traditional community gender norms and negative relationships with caregivers were also associated with sexual risk behaviour. This research showed that the TPB can be used in planning HIV prevention interventions for young people. It also revealed that HIV-prevention strategies should focus beyond educating the individual, to address community factors such as improving caregiver relationships, the culture of substance abuse, peer group norms and inequality in community gender norms. These community processes influence young people's behaviour and need to be addressed to allow the youth to make healthy behavioural choices.
Janssen, Meriam M; Mathijssen, Jolanda J P; van Bon-Martens, Marja J H; van Oers, Hans A M; Garretsen, Henk F L
Alcohol education aims to increase knowledge on the harm related to alcohol, and to change attitudes and drinking behaviour. However, little (lasting) evidence has been found for alcohol education, in changing alcohol-related attitudes and behaviour. Social marketing uses marketing techniques to achieve a social or healthy goal, and can be used in alcohol education. Social marketing consists of eight principles: customer orientation, insight, segmentation, behavioural goals, exchange, competition, methods mix, and is theory based. This review investigates the application of social marketing in alcohol prevention interventions, and whether application of social marketing influences alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, PsychInfo, Cochrane and Scopus. Inclusion criteria were that original papers had to describe the effects of an alcohol prevention intervention developed according to one or more principles of social marketing. No limits were set on the age of the participants or on the kind of alcohol prevention intervention. The abstracts of the 274 retrieved studies were reviewed and the full texts of potentially relevant studies were screened. Six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. These six studies showed associations for the application of social marketing techniques on alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour; one study relates to participation in a drinking event, four to alcohol drinking behaviour, two to driving a car while under the influence of alcohol, two to recognition of campaign messages or campaign logo, and one to awareness of the campaign. However, no associations were also found. In addition, the studies had several limitations related to a control group, response rate and study methodology. Based on this review, the effect of applying the principles of social marketing in alcohol prevention in changing alcohol-related attitudes or behaviour could not be assessed. More
Deogan, Charlotte; Zarabi, Natalie; Stenström, Nils; Högberg, Pi; Skärstrand, Eva; Manrique-Garcia, Edison; Neovius, Kristian; Månsdotter, Anna
Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug globally. Despite increasing evidence that cannabis use is associated with adverse health effects, the knowledge on preventative strategies is still limited. This study stemmed from a systematic review of effective prevention in which school-based programmes were identified as promising. The primary objective was to evaluate the cost effectiveness of Project ALERT (Adolescent, Learning, Experiences, Resistance, and Training), compared with ordinary ATOD (Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug) education, among Swedish students in the eighth grade of compulsory school. The cost-effectiveness analysis was performed from the societal perspective with quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) as an outcome (willingness-to-pay threshold €50,000) and follow-up periods from 1 year to a lifetime, considering a discounting rate of 3%, and with costs inflated to 2013 levels. A Markov model was constructed on the basis of the 'states' of single use, regular use, daily use and use of other illicit drugs, which were associated with 'complications' of psychosis, schizophrenia, traffic accidents, depression and amotivational syndrome. Health and cost consequences were linked to both states and complications. The programme was cost saving on the basis of evidence from the USA (ratio 1:1.1), and was cost effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio €22,384 per QALY) after reasonable adjustment for the Swedish context and with 20 years of follow-up. When the target group was restricted to boys who were neither studying nor working/doing work experience, the programme was cost effective after 9 years and cost saving (ratio 1:3.2) after 20 years. School-based prevention such as Project ALERT has the potential to be cost effective and to be cost saving if implemented in deprived areas. In the light of the shifting landscape regarding legalization of cannabis, it seems rational to continue the health economic analysis of prevention initiated
Kelsey, Meredith; Layzer, Jean
This article describes some of the early implementation challenges faced by nine grantees participating in the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study and their response to them. The article draws on information collected as part of a comprehensive implementation study. Sources include site and program documents; program officer reports; notes from site investigation, selection and negotiation; ongoing communications with grantees as part of putting the study into place; and semi-structured interviews with program staff. The issues faced by grantees in implementing evidence-based programs designed to prevent teen pregnancy varied by program model. Grantees implementing a classroom-based curriculum faced challenges in delivering the curriculum within the constraints of school schedules and calendars (program length and size of class). Grantees implementing a culturally tailored curriculum faced a series of challenges, including implementing the intervention as part of the regular school curriculum in schools with diverse populations; low attendance when delivered as an after-school program; and resistance on the part of schools to specific curriculum content. The third set of grantees, implementing a program in clinics, faced challenges in identifying and recruiting young women into the program and in retaining young women once they were in the program. The experiences of these grantees reflect some of the complexities that should be carefully considered when choosing to replicate evidence-based programs. The Teen Pregnancy Prevention replication study will provide important context for assessing the effectiveness of some of the more widely replicated evidence-based programs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Vogl, Laura E; Andrews, Gavin
To establish the long-term efficacy of a universal internet-based alcohol and cannabis prevention programme in schools. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, is facilitated by the internet and consists of 12 novel and curriculum consistent lessons delivered over 6 months. A total of 764 year 8 students (13 years) from 10 Australian secondary schools were allocated randomly to the internet-based prevention programme (n = 397, five schools), or to their usual health classes (n = 367, five schools). Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and 6 and 12 months following completion of the intervention, on measures of alcohol and cannabis knowledge, attitudes, use and related harms. This paper reports the final results of the intervention trial, 12 months following the completion of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The effectiveness of the course 6 months following the intervention has been reported previously. At the 12-month follow-up, compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge, a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and a reduction in frequency of drinking to excess. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes or alcohol- and cannabis-related harms. The course was found to be acceptable by teachers and students as a means of delivering drug education in schools. Internet-based prevention programs for school-age children can improve student's knowledge about alcohol and cannabis, and may also reduce alcohol use twelve months after completion.
Sarfati, Laura; Ranchon, Florence; Vantard, Nicolas; Schwiertz, Vérane; Larbre, Virginie; Parat, Stéphanie; Faudel, Amélie; Rioufol, Catherine
In the past 2 decades, there has been an increasing interest in simulation-based learning programs to prevent medication error (ME). To improve knowledge, skills, and attitudes in prescribers, nurses, and pharmaceutical staff, these methods enable training without directly involving patients. However, best practices for simulation for healthcare providers are as yet undefined. By analysing the current state of experience in the field, the present review aims to assess whether human simulation in healthcare helps to reduce ME. A systematic review was conducted on Medline from 2000 to June 2015, associating the terms "Patient Simulation," "Medication Errors," and "Simulation Healthcare." Reports of technology-based simulation were excluded, to focus exclusively on human simulation in nontechnical skills learning. Twenty-one studies assessing simulation-based learning programs were selected, focusing on pharmacy, medicine or nursing students, or concerning programs aimed at reducing administration or preparation errors, managing crises, or learning communication skills for healthcare professionals. The studies varied in design, methodology, and assessment criteria. Few demonstrated that simulation was more effective than didactic learning in reducing ME. This review highlights a lack of long-term assessment and real-life extrapolation, with limited scenarios and participant samples. These various experiences, however, help in identifying the key elements required for an effective human simulation-based learning program for ME prevention: ie, scenario design, debriefing, and perception assessment. The performance of these programs depends on their ability to reflect reality and on professional guidance. Properly regulated simulation is a good way to train staff in events that happen only exceptionally, as well as in standard daily activities. By integrating human factors, simulation seems to be effective in preventing iatrogenic risk related to ME, if the program is
Caria, Maria Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Bellocco, Rino; Galanti, Maria Rosaria
School-based substance abuse prevention programs are widespread but are rarely evaluated in Europe. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a new school-based prevention program against substance use on the frequency of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problem behaviors among European students. During the school year 2004-2005, a total of 7,079 students aged 12-14 years from 143 schools in seven European countries participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control (65 schools, 3,532 students) or to a 12-session standardized program based on the comprehensive social influence model (78 schools, 3,547 students). Alcohol use and frequency of alcohol-related problem behaviors were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. The association between intervention and changes in alcohol-related outcomes was expressed as odds ratio (OR), estimated by multilevel regression model. The preventive program was associated with a decreased risk of reporting alcohol-related problems (OR = .78, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = .63-.98), although this reduction was not statistically significant in the subgroup of 743 current drinkers at baseline. The risk for alcohol consumption was not modified by exposure to the program (OR = .93, 95% CI = .79-1.09). In the intervention group, nondrinkers and occasional drinkers at baseline progressed toward frequent drinking less often than in the control group. School curricula based on the comprehensive social-influence model can delay progression to frequent drinking and reduce occurrence of alcohol-related behavioral problems in European students. These results, albeit moderate, have potentially useful implications at the population level. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kahl-Nieke, Bärbel; Vonneilich, Nico
The Study of dentistry in Germany is in need of reform. The actual regulation on licensing dentists in Germany is from 1955, with the last changes made in 1993. Recently there have been different initiatives related to reform: a national catalogue of competency-based learning objectives in dental education (NKLZ), changes and stipulations in the respective rules relating to undergraduate curriculum in dental medicine, and an initiative of the Germany Ministry of Health to tackle and reorganize dental education in Germany.This article presents and reflects on these reform efforts in the context of actual teaching in Germany, Europe, and the United States.The reform process is an opportunity for dental education in German faculties of medicine. New dentistry programs are allowed at all faculties with model educational programs in medicine. Therefore, an example of actual reform efforts are presented based on the experiences of Hamburg. Research on dental educational programs revealed interesting approaches in dental education in other European faculties of medicine. Selected faculties were visited. These experiences led to the formulation of five main goals of reform: interdisciplinary study, problem- and symptom-based learning, early patient contact, science-based education, and communication training. The main goal is a dental education program designed along science-based, prevention-oriented, multidisciplinary, and individualized dental care that contributes to the life-long oral health of patients.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper proposes the implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ for teaching English as a foreign language in Indonesia. Compared to other language skills, reading is viewed to provide a relatively stable foundation for Indonesian students to develop their communicative competenceÂ in English. It is argued that reading-focused activities stimulate confidence for Indonesian learners to get involved in listening, speaking, and writing related-activities in ways that are similar to normal daily lifeÂ communication. The reasons for the proposed implementation of reading-based classroom activitiesÂ in TEFLINÂ and the role of reading and its relation with other language skills are presented.
Nielsen, Jens E; Gunner, M R; García-Moreno, Bertrand E
The pK(a) Cooperative (http://www.pkacoop.org) was organized to advance development of accurate and useful computational methods for structure-based calculation of pK(a) values and electrostatic energies in proteins. The Cooperative brings together laboratories with expertise and interest in theoretical, computational, and experimental studies of protein electrostatics. To improve structure-based energy calculations, it is necessary to better understand the physical character and molecular determinants of electrostatic effects. Thus, the Cooperative intends to foment experimental research into fundamental aspects of proteins that depend on electrostatic interactions. It will maintain a depository for experimental data useful for critical assessment of methods for structure-based electrostatics calculations. To help guide the development of computational methods, the Cooperative will organize blind prediction exercises. As a first step, computational laboratories were invited to reproduce an unpublished set of experimental pK(a) values of acidic and basic residues introduced in the interior of staphylococcal nuclease by site-directed mutagenesis. The pK(a) values of these groups are unique and challenging to simulate owing to the large magnitude of their shifts relative to normal pK(a) values in water. Many computational methods were tested in this first Blind Prediction Challenge and critical assessment exercise. A workshop was organized in the Telluride Science Research Center to objectively assess the performance of many computational methods tested on this one extensive data set. This volume of Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics introduces the pK(a) Cooperative, presents reports submitted by participants in the Blind Prediction Challenge, and highlights some of the problems in structure-based calculations identified during this exercise. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Witte, Susan S; Wu, Elwin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Hunt, Timothy; Gilbert, Louisa; Medina, Katie Potocnik; Chang, Mingway; Kelsey, Ryan; Rowe, Jessica; Remien, Robert
Despite great need, the number of HIV prevention implementation studies remains limited. The challenge for researchers, in this time of limited HIV services agency resources, is to conceptualize and test how to disseminate efficacious, practical, and sustainable prevention programs more rapidly, and to understand how to do so in the absence of additional agency resources. We tested whether training and technical assistance (TA) in a couple-based HIV prevention program using a Web-based modality would yield greater program adoption of the program compared to training and TA in the same program in a manual-based modality among facilitators who delivered the interventions at 80 agencies in New York State. This study used a cluster randomized controlled design. Participants were HIV services agencies (N = 80) and up to 6 staff members at each agency (N = 253). Agencies were recruited, matched on key variables, and randomly assigned to two conditions. Staff members participated in a four-day, face-to-face training session, followed by TA calls at two and four months, and follow-up assessments at 6, 12, and 18 months post- training and TA. The primary outcomes examined number of couples with whom staff implemented the program, mean number of sessions implemented, whether staff implemented at least one session or whether staff implemented a complete intervention (all six sessions) of the program. Outcomes were measured at both the agency and participant level. Over 18 months following training and TA, at least one participant from 13 (33%) Web-based assigned agencies and 19 (48%) traditional agencies reported program use. Longitudinal multilevel analysis found no differences between groups on any outcomes at the agency or participant level with one exception: Web-based agencies implemented the program with 35% fewer couples compared with staff at manual-based agencies (IRR 0.35, CI, 0.13-0.94). Greater implementation of a Web-based program may require more
Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…
Hu, Tony Y.
This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169
Susan Zief; Rachel Shapiro; Debra Strong
Congress created the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP), an initiative to fund evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs, in 2010 to help reduce teen pregnancies and their negative consequences. The evaluation will expand the knowledge base on teen pregnancy prevention programs and help to identify decisions, successes, and challenges involved in replicating, adapting, and scaling up evidence-based programs. This issue brief documents key decisions state grantees made ab...
van Galen, L. S.; Cooksley, T; Merten, H
Background: Policy makers struggle with unplanned readmissions as a quality indicator since integrating preventability in such indicators is difficult. Most studies on the preventability of readmissions questioned physicians whether they consider a given readmission to be preventable, from which ...
Nordgreen, Tine; Gjestad, Rolf; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per; Havik, Odd E
Panic disorder is a common mental disorder. Guided Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (Guided Internet-based cognitive behaviour therapy (ICBT)) is a promising approach to reach more people in need of help. In the present effectiveness study, we investigated the outcome of guided ICBT for panic disorder after implementation in routine care. A total of 124 patients were included in the study, of which 114 started the treatment. Large within-group effect sizes were observed on the primary panic disorder symptoms (post-treatment: d = 1.24; 6-month follow-up: d = 1.39) and moderate and large effects on secondary panic disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms at post-treatment and follow-up (d = .55-1.13). More than half (56.1%) of the patients who started treatment recovered or improved at post-treatment. Among treatment takers (completed at least five of the nine modules), 69.9% recovered or improved. The effectiveness reported in the present trial is in line with previous effectiveness and efficacy trials of guided ICBT for panic disorder. This provides additional support for guided ICBT as a treatment alternative in routine care.
Covington, Carolyn Frances; King, Joyce A; Fennell, Irnise; Jones, Chanel; Hutchinson, Charmaine; Evans, Annette
Despite advances in stroke treatment in the United States, stroke remains the third leading cause of death among Americans and the leading cause of serious, long-term disability in the United States. About 780,000 Americans will have a new or recurrent stroke this year. Each year, about 60,000 more women than men have a stroke. African Americans have almost twice the risk of first-ever strokes compared with Whites. Minority populations are less likely to know all stroke symptoms and far less likely to know all heart attack symptoms. There are many benefits of early treatment of stroke, yet most minorities do not get this treatment because they do not recognize the warning signs, risk factors, and prevention of stroke. The objective of this intervention course was to increase the students' knowledge and awareness of stroke, warning signs, risk factors, and prevention. Developing community-based stroke prevention intervention courses in minority communities is a good strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality and help to eliminate health disparities in minority communities.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary tract infections (UTIs, including upper and lower symptomatic are the most common infections in nursing homes and prevention may reduce patient suffering, antibiotic use and resistance. The spectre of agents used in preventing UTIs in nursing homes is scarcely documented and the aim of this study was to explore which agents are prescribed for this purpose. Methods We conducted a one-day, point-prevalence study in 44 Norwegian nursing homes during April-May 2006. Nursing home residents prescribed any agent for UTI prophylaxis were included. Information recorded was type of agent and dose, patient age and gender, together with nursing home characteristics. Appropriateness of prophylactic prescribing was evaluated with references to evidence in the literature and current national guidelines. Results The study included 1473 residents. 18% (n = 269 of the residents had at least one agent recorded as prophylaxis of UTI, varying between 0-50% among the nursing homes. Methenamine was used by 48% of residents prescribed prophylaxis, vitamin C by 32%, and cranberry products by 10%. Estrogens were used by 30% but only one third was for vaginal administration. Trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin were used as prophylaxis by 5% and 4%, respectively. Conclusions The agents frequently prescribed to prevent UTIs in Norwegian nursing homes lack documented efficacy including methenamine and vitamin C. Recommended agents like trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin and vaginal estrogens are infrequently used. We conclude that prescribing of prophylactic agents for UTIs in nursing homes is not evidence-based.