WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention publications winter

  1. CAN WINTER DEPRESSION BE PREVENTED BY LIGHT TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEESTERS, Y; LAMBERS, PA; JANSEN, JHC; BOUHUYS, AL; BEERSMA, DGM; VANDENHOOFDAKKER, RH

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  2. Can winter depression be prevented by light treatment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Lambers, Petrus A.; Jansen, Jacob; Bouhuys, Antoinette L.; Beersma, Domien G.M.; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1991-01-01

    The administration of light at the development of the first signs of a winter depression appears to prevent it from developing into a full-blown depression. No patient from a group of 10 treated in this way developed any signs of depression during the rest of the winter season, while five of seven

  3. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2017 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volume 8, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases gut permeability and calcium supplementation, potential chemopreventive effects of dietary DHM for lung tumorigenesis, and the role of the MCP-1 chemokine on adiposity and inflammation. Learn about our spotlight investigator, Dr. Gregory Lesinski, and his research on dietary interventions to

  4. Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2018 | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear Colleague, The winter issue of Nutrition Frontiers showcases the chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane, how a high fat, high cholesterol diet may impact hepatocellular carcinoma, and p53 activation from benzyl isothiocyanate. Meet our spotlight investigator, Dr. John Groopman, and his research on detoxication of air pollutants with a broccoli supplement. Learn about

  5. Winter: Public Enemy #1 for Accessibility EXPLORING NEW SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Morales

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Winter is expensive. For countries situated in the northern hemisphere, closer to the north pole, such as Canada, Russia and Scandinavia, winter requires the acquisition of special clothing, car tires, and sports equipment, snow removal or plowing from the streets, and is associated with the presence of ice patches, along with accidents and illnesses associated with cold weather. Fall-related injuries due to winter conditions have been estimated to cost the Canadian health care system $ 2.8 billion a year. However, the greatest cost snow entails every year is the social isolation of seniors as well as wheelchair and walker users. This results from the lack of accessibility, as it is difficult to circulate on snow-covered streets even for the able-bodied. Social isolation has been associated with other negative consequences such as depression and even suicide. This exploratory pilot study aimed at finding possible and feasible design solutions for improving the accessibility of sidewalks during winter conditions. For this project we used a Co-Design methodology. Stakeholders (City of Quebec representatives, designers, urban planners, occupational therapists, and adults with motor, visual and aural disabilities were invited to participate in the design process. In order to meet the objectives, two main steps were carried out: 1. Conception of the design solutions (through Co-design sessions in a Focus-group format with seniors, designers and researchers; and 2. Validation of the design solutions (consultation with experts and stakeholders. The results are a wide variety of possible and feasible solutions, including the reorganisation of the snow-removal procedure and the development of heated curb cuts. This project was funded by the City of Quebec in partnership with the Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en réadaptation et intégration sociale (CIRRIS. Ultimately, the project sought to explore possible solutions to be implemented

  6. Injury prevention and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Sleet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Injuries are one of the most under-recognized public health problems facing the world today. With more than 5 million deaths every year, violence and injuries account for 9% of global mortality, as many deaths as from HIV, Malaria and Tuberculosis combined. Eight of the 15 leading causes of death for people ages 15 to 29 years are injury-related: road traffic injuries, suicides, homicides, drowning, burns, war injuries, poisonings and falls. For every death due to war, there are three deaths due to homicide and five deaths due to suicide. However, most violence happens to people behind closed doors and results not in death, but often in years of physical and emotional suffering [1]. Injuries can be classified by intent: unintentional or intentional. Traffic injuries, fire-related injuries, falls, drowning, and poisonings are most often classified as unintentional injuries; injuries due to assault, selfinflicted violence such as suicide, and war are classified as intentional injuries, or violence. Worldwide, governments and public and private partners are increasingly aware of the strains that unintentional injuries and violence place on societies. In response they are strengthening data collection systems, improving services for victims and survivors, and increasing prevention efforts [1].

  7. Public education in cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Parijs, L G

    1986-01-01

    Life-style is now recognized as a main determinant of cancer risk. Public education is an important component of cancer control programmes and has been shown to be effective in leading to life-style changes. Four basic types of education programmes are reviewed: for increasing the public's awareness of cancer, for changing specific risk behaviour (such as stopping smoking), for learning self-examination skills (such as breast self-examination), and for promoting early cancer detection in the community.To change human behaviour it is best to approach the risk habit through the same forces that develop and sustain the habit. Simply giving information of an association between specific habits and cancer, even if repeated several times, will lead to increased public awareness and encourage some to make a minimal effort to change their behaviour, but in general the new habit does not persist and continuing and intensifying this approach are ineffective. An alternative strategy utilizes socially active forces to support the prevention practice and remove possible barriers to action. For example, an antismoking programme should create a favourable social image of the non-smoker. Although a culturally and socially relevant mass media campaign can influence knowledge and beliefs and induce people to participate in a screening activity, this needs to be supplemented over a period of time by personal contact methods, such as group discussions, telephone conversations and home visits, in order to promote a regular screening habit. Contrary to popular opinion, mass communication methods can be expensive on a per person cost-effectiveness basis because of low participation rates and weakness in sustaining healthy behaviour.

  8. [Improving prevention activities of infectious diseases during preparation and holding of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G; Bragina, I V; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Grechanaia, T V; Nikolaevich, P N; Balaeva, M I; Tesheva, S Ch; Biriukov, V A; Kulichenko, A N; Vasilenko, N F; Maletskaia, O V; Manin, E A; Orobeĭ, V G

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on the implementation of a set of preventive activities to ensure sanitation and epidemiological welfare during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi. The importance of monitoring and evaluation of epidemiological risk, as the basis of formation of preventive measures is noticed. The questions of specific, and nonspecific prevention of infectious diseases, especially the work done during the pre-Olympic period are considered. The importance of specifically developed regulatory basis, and health education are emphasized. The conclusion about the effectiveness of the measures taken, which led to a significant reduction of infectious diseases in the region is made.

  9. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  10. Bullying Prevention for the Public

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This is the first podcast of a series to discuss the severity of bullying and provide resources for prevention efforts. CDC shares the most recent statistics and trends, provides valuable tips to implement in communities, and teaches individuals how to take action against bullying.

  11. Bullying Prevention for Public Health Practitioners

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-19

    This podcast discusses bullying as a public health problem, and provides information and resources for public health practitioners.  Created: 1/19/2012 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 1/19/2012.

  12. Public attitudes towards prevention of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sikorski

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate obesity prevention support in the German general public and to assess determinants of general prevention support as well as support of specific prevention measures. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional analysis of a telephone based representative German study (3,003 subjects (52.8% women, mean age 51.9, s.d.  = 18.0, range 18-97 years. Likert scale-based questions on general prevention support and support of specific measures were used. Furthermore willingness to take part in preventive programs and willingness to pay were assessed. Stigmatizing attitudes were assessed with the Fat Phobia Scale (FPS. Causation of obesity was differentiated in three dimensions (internal, e.g. lack of exercise; external, e.g. social surroundings; and genetic factors. RESULTS: Obesity prevention was perceived as possible (98.2%, however, almost exclusively lifestyle changes were named. Participants with higher stigmatizing attitudes were less likely to believe obesity prevention is possible. The majority of participants would take part in preventive programs (59.6% and pay at least partially themselves (86.9%. Factor analysis revealed three dimensions of preventive measures: promoting healthy eating, restrictive and financial, governmental prevention efforts. In regard to these, promoting healthy eating was the most supported measure. Higher age, female gender and external causation were associated with higher support for all three dimensions of preventive measures. Only for governmental regulation, higher age was associated with lower support. CONCLUSION: Obesity prevention support in Germany is high. Structural prevention efforts are supported by the majority of the general public in Germany. The vast majority proclaims willingness to pay themselves for programs of weight gain prevention. This could be an indication of higher perceived self-responsibility in the German system but also for risen "fear of fat" in the population due

  13. Sepsis is a preventable public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempker, Jordan A; Wang, Henry E; Martin, Greg S

    2018-05-06

    There is a paradigm shift happening for sepsis. Sepsis is no longer solely conceptualized as problem of individual patients treated in emergency departments and intensive care units but also as one that is addressed as public health issue with population- and systems-based solutions. We offer a conceptual framework for sepsis as a public health problem by adapting the traditional model of primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention.

  14. Design and management of public health outreach using interoperable mobile multimedia: an analysis of a national winter weather preparedness campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Bandera

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts outreach for public preparedness for natural and manmade incidents. In 2011, OPHPR conducted a nationwide mobile public health (m-Health campaign that pushed brief videos on preparing for severe winter weather onto cell phones, with the objective of evaluating the interoperability of multimedia m-Health outreach with diverse cell phones (including handsets without Internet capability, carriers, and user preferences. Methods Existing OPHPR outreach material on winter weather preparedness was converted into mobile-ready multimedia using mobile marketing best practices to improve audiovisual quality and relevance. Middleware complying with opt-in requirements was developed to push nine bi-weekly multimedia broadcasts onto subscribers’ cell phones, and OPHPR promoted the campaign on its web site and to subscribers on its govdelivery.com notification platform. Multimedia, text, and voice messaging activity to/from the middleware was logged and analyzed. Results Adapting existing media into mobile video was straightforward using open source and commercial software, including web pages, PDF documents, and public service announcements. The middleware successfully delivered all outreach videos to all participants (a total of 504 videos regardless of the participant’s device. 54 % of videos were viewed on cell phones, 32 % on computers, and 14 % were retrieved by search engine web crawlers. 21 % of participating cell phones did not have Internet access, yet still received and displayed all videos. The time from media push to media viewing on cell phones was half that of push to viewing on computers. Conclusions Video delivered through multimedia messaging can be as interoperable as text messages, while providing much richer information. This may be the only multimedia mechanism available to outreach campaigns

  15. Design and management of public health outreach using interoperable mobile multimedia: an analysis of a national winter weather preparedness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Cesar

    2016-05-25

    The Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR) in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts outreach for public preparedness for natural and manmade incidents. In 2011, OPHPR conducted a nationwide mobile public health (m-Health) campaign that pushed brief videos on preparing for severe winter weather onto cell phones, with the objective of evaluating the interoperability of multimedia m-Health outreach with diverse cell phones (including handsets without Internet capability), carriers, and user preferences. Existing OPHPR outreach material on winter weather preparedness was converted into mobile-ready multimedia using mobile marketing best practices to improve audiovisual quality and relevance. Middleware complying with opt-in requirements was developed to push nine bi-weekly multimedia broadcasts onto subscribers' cell phones, and OPHPR promoted the campaign on its web site and to subscribers on its govdelivery.com notification platform. Multimedia, text, and voice messaging activity to/from the middleware was logged and analyzed. Adapting existing media into mobile video was straightforward using open source and commercial software, including web pages, PDF documents, and public service announcements. The middleware successfully delivered all outreach videos to all participants (a total of 504 videos) regardless of the participant's device. 54 % of videos were viewed on cell phones, 32 % on computers, and 14 % were retrieved by search engine web crawlers. 21 % of participating cell phones did not have Internet access, yet still received and displayed all videos. The time from media push to media viewing on cell phones was half that of push to viewing on computers. Video delivered through multimedia messaging can be as interoperable as text messages, while providing much richer information. This may be the only multimedia mechanism available to outreach campaigns targeting vulnerable populations impacted by the digital divide

  16. Winter-catastrophies in the reindeer husbandry of Finland: Losses and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Helle

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurreance of disastrous winters to the reindeer industry in Finland with special attention on the winter catastrophies and tje condition of the pastures, the influence of the disasters upon the population dynamic of the reindeer and the methods used to prevent catastrophies. A reindeer catastrophy has been defined as a situation where the number of reindeer stays 20% below the mean of the reindeer numbers during the two preceeding years. During the winter-catastrophies from 1970/71 to 1980/81 4.5% of the total reindeer number was lost. The highest losses were found in the northwesternmost part of Lappland, where there is no alternative to the reindeer lichen as it is in the middle and southern part of the reindeer industry area (arboreal lichens and supplemental feeding. In Kaldoaivi reindeer association (district, which has been studied in detail, the calf percentage is depending upon how the reindeer is able to manage the winter (r=0.62, n=ll, p«0.05. There is also a positive correlation between the slaughterweight of the calves in the early winter and the calf rate (r=0.79, n=7, p«0.05.During severe winters the mortality rate of males exceeds that of the females. Winter-catastrophies may be prevented by deminishing the numer of reindeer and by guiding the harvest to the most risky cohorts of the population. It has been proved that supplementary and emergency feeding are the most effective methods. In a normal year during the 1970s the total use of dry hay was 0.5—1.5 mill, kg., being up to 5.9—12.5 kg. per reindeer/year. In normal winters 10—16% of the total reindeer stock was intensively fed in enclosures. Supplementary feeding in enclosures is most common in the middle and southern parts of the reindeer industry area, where the essential feed is grown on own land.Katotalvet suomen poronhoidossa: menetykset ja Niiden Torjunta.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Artikkeli käsittelee katastrofitalvien

  17. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J.; Lacoursiere, D.

    2009-01-01

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  18. D-fence Against the Canadian Winter: Making Insufficient Vitamin D Levels a Higher Priority for Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer D. Zwicker

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With most of the country situated above the latitude of the 42nd parallel north, there is a significant portion of the Canadian population that is not getting enough of the sunshine vitamin during the winter. Vitamin D is naturally produced when skin is exposed to sunlight, however during the winter months in Canada the sun is too low in the sky for this to occur. A full quarter of the Canadian population is estimated to have vitamin D levels so low as to be considered insufficient or deficient by Health Canada guidelines. Increasing vitamin D intake should be considered a public health priority. Vitamin D deficiency is known to be linked to rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults (bone softening and malformation as well as osteoporosis (loss of bone density, increasing susceptibility to fractures. However a growing body of evidence also suggests that vitamin D may have a role in the prevention of chronic diseases such as heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes, cancer, cognitive decline, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis and arthritis. There is, of course, no way to change Canada’s proximity to the equator. But there are ways to help Canadians get more vitamin D through dietary intake. Improving the vitamin D status of the Canadian population through food fortification and dietary supplements represents an inexpensive intervention that can improve the health of the population, but debate remains over how much vitamin D the Canadian population needs and how to ensure the population adheres to whatever recommendations are made. Food fortification has already demonstrated its effectiveness in improving vitamin D levels (as it has for other public health priorities, such as with iodized salt. Decades ago, the prevalence of rickets in Canadian children led health professionals to lobby for, and win, legislation making vitamin D fortification mandatory for milk. Other foods, such as orange juice, milk of plant origin and

  19. Violence defied? : A review of prevention of violence in public and semi-public domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaap, L.M. van der; Nijssen, L.T.J.; Bogaerts, S.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of 48 studies of the effects of the prevention of violence in the public and semi-public domain. The following research questions were states for this study:What measures for the prevention of violence in the public and semi-public domain are known and have been

  20. GIS, Pollution Prevention and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using examples of preventing pollution and reducing risk of exposure to communities, this guide answers basic interest and start-up questions, addresses benefits and limitations and illustrates the value of GIS for local health departments.

  1. Giardia Prevention and Control: General Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness While Traveling. Prevent contact and contamination with feces (poop) during sex. Use a barrier during oral-anal ... tables, trash cans, etc.) Cleaning Wear gloves. Remove feces and discard in a plastic bag. Clean and ...

  2. Comparison of subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Ryoichi; Kurokawa, Junichi; Mirbod, Seyed Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    To help making comfortable workplaces and to prevent health disorders induced by the exposure to moderate cold in two different groups of out-door workers, we conducted a survey to compare subjective symptoms and cold prevention measures in winter between traffic control workers and construction workers. The subjects of this study were 98 male traffic control workers and 149 male workers engaged in building construction. Work loads of traffic control workers and construction workers were estimated at RMR1-2 and RMR2-4, respectively. All subjects were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire covering age, occupational career, working figure, present illness, past history of diseases, individual preventive measures to the cold, subjective symptoms in the winter (43 items) and subjective symptoms occurred during daytime working in the winter (6 items). In two parts of the construction workplaces (the place where a morning assembly was held and on the 7th floor of the construction site) dry bulb, wet bulb and globe temperatures were measured in January. Windchill Index (kcal/cm,(2) x h) was calculated by the measured dry bulb temperature and wind velocity. Mean values of dry bulb temperature between 9:00 and 16:30 in the place where a morning assembly was held for three days were between 4.8 +/- 1.2 degrees C at 9:00 am and 9.3 +/- 1.1 degrees C at noon. Mean values of Windchill Index in the place where a morning assembly was held were between 490.8+/-23.9 kcal/cm(2) x h at 9:30 am and 608.2+/-47.3 kcal/cm(2) x h at 2:30 pm. Occupational career, monthly working days, daily working hours, one way commuting hours, and daily smoking numbers of the traffic control workers were significantly shorter than the construction workers (pconstruction workers (0.7%). Prevalence of wearing a warm underwear, body warmer, warm trousers, underpants, warm socks, shoe warmer and muffler in the traffic control workers were significantly higher than the construction workers. The

  3. [The ski camp doctor's role in the the prevention of winter sport accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai, Péter

    2007-08-26

    Skiing is a risky sport for many, even for children and beginners. When the ski-group is escorted by doctors who are able to provide advanced life support on the scene and are trained either in the field of emergency medicine or in travel medicine, a good possibility is given for the prevention of ski-accidents and for decreasing the number of travel related illnesses. This fact has led to the basic idea of training ski-camp doctors in Hungary. There is no similar initiative in the Hungarian literature. Therefore the article tries to summarise the medical knowledge and requirements of a ski-camp doctor, and analyses the prevention tasks of the doctor as well. The camp doctor must be well informed and highly trained in the field of emergency and travel medicine. The main tasks are: pre-travel advice, treatment of the common (travel-related) diseases, providing basic and advanced life-support on the scene, and to organise the hospitalisation and repatriation of patient, in cooperation with the hospital and insurance doctor. Moreover, the prevention should start before departure: the estimation of the physical and health condition of the skiers, a continuous care of the chronic people, and supervision of the place (hygienic circumstances, rescue forces available, the condition of the ski slopes, etc.) are vital--as for the primary prevention. The secondary level of the prevention is the treatment of the injured/sick persons, and assistance in the medical evacuation. During the training, not only postgraduate medical, mountain and alpine medicine lessons have been provided, but basic legal and insurance information as well. Moreover, the doctors received ski-course from professional ski-trainers in order to improve their ski-technique and skills on different slopes and off-piste places. In the future the local mountain rescue and air-rescue forces have to be involved in postgraduate training. Hopefully different travel-insurance companies and travel offices will use

  4. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  5. Public good provision and public bad prevention: The effect of framing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.; Schram, A.; Offermans, T.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods/bads is presented. Alternatively, the situation is presented as the provision of a public good or the prevention of a public bad. From a strategic point of view, these presentations are equivalent. In early

  6. Attitudes to publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Bøker; Sandøe, Peter; Lassen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the Danish public’s support for publicly funded obesity treatment and prevention. It was also examined whether levels of support could be explained by dislike of obese people and / or the belief that those who are obese are personally responsible......, the perceived controllability of obesity, self-reported BMI, and additional attitudinal and sociodemographic characteristics. Public funding of some obesity treatments, such as weight-loss surgery, attracted only limited public support. A majority of the Danish public did support ‘softer’ treatment...... interventions and preventive initiatives. Attitudes to the treatment of obesity were clearly best predicted by the belief that individuals are personally responsible for their own obesity. Dislike of obese persons had no direct effect on the preference for collective treatment initiatives and only a small...

  7. Financing Child Care. A Public Policy Report from the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Winter 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    This public policy report focuses on financing child care in the United States. The report contains brief articles on the following topics: (1) child care wages in comparison to other positions; (2) benefits to businesses when employees have high-quality child care; (3) resources for funding early education systems; (4) comparison of the cost of…

  8. Forecasting Winter Storms in the Sierra: A Social Science Perspective in Keeping the Public Safe without Negatively Impacting the Local Tourism Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, R.; Wallmann, J.; Myrick, D. T.

    2010-12-01

    The National Weather Service Office in Reno is responsible for issuing Blizzard Warnings, Winter Storm Warnings, and Winter Weather Advisories for the Sierra, including the Lake Tahoe Basin and heavily traveled routes such as Interstate 80, Highway 395 and Highway 50. These forecast products prepare motorists for harsh travel conditions as well as those venturing into the backcountry, which are essential to the NWS mission of saving lives and property. During the winter season, millions of people from around the world visit the numerous world class ski resorts in the Sierra and the Lake Tahoe Basin, which is vital to the local economy. This situation creates a challenging decision for the forecasters to provide appropriate wording in winter statements to keep the public safe, without significantly impacting the local tourism-based economy. Numerous text and graphical products, including online weather briefings, are utilized by NWS Reno to highlight hazards in ensuring the public, businesses, and other government agencies are prepared for winter storms and take appropriate safety measures. The effectiveness of these product types will be explored, with past snowstorms used as examples to show how forecasters determine which type of text or graphical product is most appropriate to convey the hazardous weather threats.

  9. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008; Campagne de prevention des intoxications au monoxyde de carbone : automne-hiver 2007-2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J. [Direction de sante publique de Montreal, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Lacoursiere, D. [Quebec Ministere de la Sante et des Services sociaux du Quebec, Quebec, PQ (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  10. Primary prevention in public health: an analysis of basic assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, J; Wallack, L

    1985-01-01

    The common definition of primary prevention is straightforward; but how it is transformed into a framework to guide action is based on personal and societal feelings and beliefs about the basis for social organization. This article focuses on the two contending primary prevention strategies of health promotion and health protection. The contention between the two strategies stems from a basic disagreement about disease causality in modern society. Health promotion is based on the "lifestyle" theory of disease causality, which sees individual health status linked ultimately to personal decisions about diet, stress, and drug habits. Primary prevention, from this perspective, entails persuading individuals to forgo their risk-taking, self-destructive behavior. Health protection, on the other hand, is based on the "social-structural" theory of disease causality. This theory sees the health status of populations linked ultimately to the unequal distribution of social resources, industrial pollution, occupational stress, and "anti-health promotion" marketing practices. Primary prevention, from this perspective, requires changing existing social and, particularly, economic policies and structures. In order to provide a basis for choosing between these contending strategies, the demonstrated (i.e., past) impact of each strategy on the health of the public is examined. Two conclusions are drawn. First, the health promotion strategy shows little potential for improving the public health, because it systematically ignores the risk-imposing, other-destructive behavior of influential actors (policy-makers and institutions) in society. And second, effective primary prevention efforts entail an "upstream" approach that results in far-reaching sociopolitical and economic change.

  11. Understanding public confidence in government to prevent terrorist attacks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, T. E.; Ramaprasad, A,; Samsa, M. E.; Decision and Information Sciences; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2008-04-02

    A primary goal of terrorism is to instill a sense of fear and vulnerability in a population and to erode its confidence in government and law enforcement agencies to protect citizens against future attacks. In recognition of its importance, the Department of Homeland Security includes public confidence as one of the principal metrics used to assess the consequences of terrorist attacks. Hence, a detailed understanding of the variations in public confidence among individuals, terrorist event types, and as a function of time is critical to developing this metric. In this exploratory study, a questionnaire was designed, tested, and administered to small groups of individuals to measure public confidence in the ability of federal, state, and local governments and their public safety agencies to prevent acts of terrorism. Data was collected from three groups before and after they watched mock television news broadcasts portraying a smallpox attack, a series of suicide bomber attacks, a refinery explosion attack, and cyber intrusions on financial institutions, resulting in identity theft. Our findings are: (a) although the aggregate confidence level is low, there are optimists and pessimists; (b) the subjects are discriminating in interpreting the nature of a terrorist attack, the time horizon, and its impact; (c) confidence recovery after a terrorist event has an incubation period; and (d) the patterns of recovery of confidence of the optimists and the pessimists are different. These findings can affect the strategy and policies to manage public confidence after a terrorist event.

  12. Public Health Models for Preventing Child Maltreatment: Applications From the Field of Injury Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Debbie; Lonne, Bob; Higgins, Daryl

    2016-10-01

    Contemporary approaches to child protection are dominated by individualized forensically focused interventions that provide limited scope for more holistic preventative responses to children at risk and the provision of support to struggling families and communities. However, in many jurisdictions, it is frequently shown, often through public inquiries and program reviews, that investigatory and removal approaches are failing in critically important ways, particularly regarding reducing the inequities that underpin neglect and abuse. Consequently, there have been increasing calls for a public health model for the protection of children, although there is often a lack of clarity as to what exactly this should entail. Yet, there are opportunities to learn from public health approaches successfully used in the field of injury prevention. Specifically, we advocate for the use of Haddon's Matrix, which provides a detailed theoretical and practical framework for the application of a comprehensive and integrated public health model to guide intervention program design and responses to child protection risk factors. A broad overview of the application of Haddon's Matrix's principles and methods is provided with examples of program and intervention design. It is argued that this framework provides the range of interventions necessary to address the complex social and structural factors contributing to inequity and the maltreatment of children. It also provides the foundation for a holistic and integrated system of prevention and intervention to contribute to system-level change and address child maltreatment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Can the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia be prevented by bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul J

    2014-12-01

    The season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia exerts a pervasive effect on the global population, particularly at northerly latitudes. The winter infection hypothesis and the low vitamin D hypothesis are both compelling but lack conclusive clinical data. The present work develops a maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis for this season of birth risk factor and its prevention by maternal bright light treatment. Around the winter solstice, due to decreased sunlight, the chronobiological apparatus of the at-risk second trimester mother is characterized by a reduced amplitude circadian pacemaker, and a reduced maximum of her nocturnal plasma melatonin concentrations (MTmax) and an increased minimum of her nocturnal core body temperatures (Tmin)--both of which exert adverse effects on the fetal hippocampus and dorsal striatum. The consequences for the fetus include reduced volume and increased excitability of the hippocampus, ventral striatal dysfunction, increased presynaptic nigrostriatal dopamine transmission, and increased propensity for pathological nigrostriatal neuronal phasic firing. Thus, the maternal-fetal chronobiological hypothesis fully accounts for the fetal precursors of the major pathognomonic abnormalities in adults with schizophrenia. Bright light treatment for the second trimester mother around the winter solstice, by increasing maternal circadian amplitude, could possibly prevent the fetal hippocampal and striatal abnormalities and eliminate the season of birth risk factor for schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. PPACA and public health: creating a framework to focus on prevention and wellness and improve the public's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majette, Gwendolyn Roberts

    2011-01-01

    PPACA epitomizes comprehensive health care reform legislation. Public health, disease prevention, and wellness were integral considerations in its development. This article reveals the author's personal experiences while working on the framework for health care reform in the United States Senate and reviews activity in the United States House of Representatives. This insider's perspective delineates PPACA's positive effect on public health by examining the infrastructure Congress designed to focus on prevention, wellness, and public health, with a particular focus on the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health Council; the National Prevention, Health Promotion, Public Health, and Integrative Health Care Strategy; and the Prevention and Public Health Fund. The Council, strategy, and fund are especially important because they reflect compliance with some of the Institute of Medicine's recommendations to improve public health in the United States, as well as international health and human rights norms that protect the right to health. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  15. Clinical research of acupoint application for "treatment of winter disease in summer" used to prevent and treat bronchial asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Bi-Ling; Liu, Bao-Yan; Jin, Peng; Wang, Xue-Feng; Xiang, Xi-Xiong; Liu, Xiao-Fan; Hu, Jing-Qing; Lu, Fang; He, Li-Yun; Zhu, Wen-Zeng; Fang, Yi-Gong; Wang, Yu

    2012-03-01

    To preliminarily analyze key factors influencing curative effect through clinical observations of acupoint application for "treatment of winter disease in summer" used to prevent and treat bronchial asthma in children. In an observational study and prospective cohort study, we observed children in remission of asthma at three class III grade A TCM hospitals in Liaoning, Hubei, and Chengdu. A total of 609 children conformed to diagnostic and inclusive standards for remission of bronchial asthma. Through follow-up visits, we observed their skin reactions and the time and chance of treatment with different therapies in the three hospitals; we also compared and analyzed different drugs, acupoints, and preparations. We found that the key Chinese drugs were Bai Jie Zi (Semen Sinapis Albae) and Yian Hu Suo (Rhizoma Corydalis); the key acupoints were Feishu (BL 13), Gaohuang (BL 43), Dingchuan (EX-B1), Tiantu (CV 22), and Shanzhong (CV 17); and the best preparation was a mixture of drugs, ginger juice, and musk. Acupoint application was practiced on the hottest days of summer and the coldest days of winter for 0.5 to 2 h with the lowest rate of asthma relapse. The present data analysis shows that the curative effect of acupoint application for "treatment of winter disease in summer" may be influenced by recipes of Chinese drugs, preparations, prescriptions of acupoints, chance, time, and skin reactions. A curative effect is the result of the comprehensive action of these factors.

  16. The Prevention of Adolescent Smoking: A Public Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harken, Laurel S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses ways to prevent adolescents from smoking by preparing them to deal with problematic situations. Focuses on problem-solving and decision-making skills. Prevention strategies are also discussed. (RB)

  17. PREVENTING CORRUPTION IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION: OLD MEANS, NEW APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela CĂRĂUȘAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify corruption prevention tools and new ways of approaching them. The research question is how society coped with corruption in an era heavily marked by the media and the internet. The hypothesis that led us to the study was that new strategies of communication are necessary and based on them the civil society capacity to monitor and evaluate can be improved. The new approaches highlighted new entities, such as education, NGOs, media and internet, or new concepts, such as prevention, local strategies, audit, image and identity. Among these new entities involved in prevention, education should act as a real inner actor to change.

  18. The experience of public participation in the prevention of corruption in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Андрій Володимирович Білецький

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of empirical research experience of public participation in efforts to prevent corruption. The survey was conducted among ordinary citizens and members of the public anti-corruption organizations. It is stated that citizens are willing to passively or indirectly contribute to the preventive activity of other anti-corruption  subjects. At the same time, corruption prevention measures provided for anti-corruption legislation are fully executed by public organizations. Resistance and lack of understanding with the government, distrust of law enforcement officials and the imperfection of the legislation are the obstacles that hinder the public to effectively counter corruption in the state.

  19. Preventive care delivered within Public Dental Service after caries risk assessment of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hänsel Petersson, G; Ericson, E; Twetman, S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study preventive care provided to young adults in relation to their estimated risk category over a 3-year period. METHODS: The amount and type of preventive treatment during 3 years was extracted from the digital dental records of 982 patients attending eight public dental clinics...... adults attending public dental service. Further research is needed how to reach those with the greatest need of primary and secondary prevention....

  20. Preventing School Shootings: A Public Health Approach to Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

  1. Can we prevent OA? Epidemiology and public health insights and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runhaar, Jos; Zhang, Yuqing

    2018-05-01

    This narrative review discusses the potential of prevention of OA in different stages of the disease. The theoretical background for primary prevention (i.e. prevention of occurrence of definite structural or clinical OA in subjects free of the disease) and secondary prevention (i.e. prevention of progression of the disease in subjects with pre-clinical pathological changes to the joint) is provided and evidence for effective strategies is discussed. Since direct evidence for the prevention of OA development and progression is scarce, indirect evidence enhancing our current knowledge on the potential of OA prevention is additionally discussed. Also, implications of preventive strategies for study design and public health are considered. Prevention of OA has great potential, but as deliberated in the current review, there are still large gaps in our current knowledge and the implications of preventive strategies for the development and progression of OA require consideration.

  2. Winter Wonderlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Listening to people complain about the hardships of winter and the dreariness of the nearly constant gray sky prompted the author to help her sixth graders recognize and appreciate the beauty that surrounds them for nearly five months of the year in western New York. The author opines that if students could see things more artistically, the winter…

  3. Supporting the diffusion of healthy public policy in Canada: the Prevention Policies Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politis, Christopher E; Halligan, Michelle H; Keen, Deb; Kerner, Jon F

    2014-01-01

    Healthy public policy plays an essential role in a comprehensive public health approach to preventing cancer and chronic disease. Public policies spread through the 'policy diffusion' process, enabling governments to learn from another's enacted policy solutions. The Prevention Policies Directory (the Directory), an online database of municipal, provincial/territorial, and federal cancer and chronic disease prevention policies from across Canada, was developed to facilitate the diffusion of healthy public policies and support the work of prevention researchers, practitioners, and policy specialists. This information technology solution was implemented, through a participatory engagement approach, as a communication channel or policy knowledge transfer tool. It also addressed the intrinsic shortcomings of environmental scanning for policy surveillance and monitoring. A combination of quantitative web metrics and qualitative anecdotal evidence have illustrated that the Directory is becoming an important tool for healthy public policy surveillance and policy diffusion in Canada.

  4. Obstacles to HIV prevention, treatment and care in selected public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa, like the rest of Southern Africa, is ravaged by AIDS. Higher education in South Africa has a significant role to play in the fight against the spread of HIV and AIDS. This article reports the factors contributing to the spread of HIV and AIDS in three selected public universities in South Africa. To achieve the stated ...

  5. Public attitudes towards preventive genomics and personal interest in genetic testing to prevent disease: a survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, E.; Henneman, L.; van El, C.G.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Genetic testing and family history assessment can be used as an aid in the prevention of common chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to determine public attitudes and interests towards offering genetic testing and family history-based risk assessment for common chronic disease

  6. Integrated prevention: new perspectives for public safety policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to identify the elements that are establishing a new perspective in the handling contemporary social conflicts. It is based on the recognition of the limits of the reactive paradigm, characteristic of modernity in relation to criminal issues, which is based on the formal and dogmatic logic of government normativity. On one hand the crisis in this paradigm has led to the reappearance of a punitive approach, and proposals to increase punishments that are no longer seen as a retribution for a crime or a way to reinsert the individual into society. Punishments have often become mechanisms of pure and simple contention and suppression of rights in name of efficiency and combating crime. On the other hand, many experiences are appearing in public safety administration based on citizen participation, and on the engagement of civil society in policies for social inclusion and public control of police activity and of the penal system.

  7. Public good provision and public bad prevention: the effect of framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, J.H.; Schram, A.J.H.C.; Offerman, T.J.S.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental analysis of voluntary, binary contributions for step-level public goods (bads) is presented. In the public good presentation of the dilemma the subjects choose between contributing or not. The public good is provided for all group-members if and only if the number of contributors

  8. Prevention of Youth Violence: A Public Health Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Aradhana Bela; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    The causes of youth violence are multifactorial and include biological, individual, familial, social, and economic factors. The influence of parents, family members, and important adults can shape the beliefs of the child toward violence in a significant manner. However, the influence of school and the neighborhood also have an important role in attitudes and behaviors of children toward violence. The complexity of factors related to violence requires a comprehensive public health approach. This article focuses on evidence-based models of intervention to reduce violence while emphasizing collective impact as a guiding principle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental Epigenetics: Crossroad between Public Health, Lifestyle, and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Massimo; Pistillo, Maria Pia; Banelli, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics provides the key to transform the genetic information into phenotype and because of its reversibility it is considered an ideal target for therapeutic interventions. This paper reviews the basic mechanisms of epigenetic control: DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling, and ncRNA expression and their role in disease development. We describe also the influence of the environment, lifestyle, nutritional habits, and the psychological influence on epigenetic marks and how these factors are related to cancer and other diseases development. Finally we discuss the potential use of natural epigenetic modifiers in the chemoprevention of cancer to link together public health, environment, and lifestyle. PMID:26339624

  10. Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…

  11. 78 FR 4295 - Engaging in Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a... violence and the successful efforts in place for preventing the misuse of firearms. Taking these steps will...

  12. Public opinion on food-related obesity prevention policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Belinda; Martin, Jane; Niven, Philippa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-08-01

    The study was designed to determine public acceptability of various forms of regulation to support a healthy eating environment. Telephone interviews were undertaken in June-July 2010 with a random sample of adults in Australia who were the main grocery buyer for their household. Data were analysed for 1,511 adults. A clear majority of participants (80% or more) were in favour of traffic light and kilojoule menu labelling, reformulation to reduce the fat, salt and sugar content of processed foods, and regulation of broadcast and non-broadcast avenues used to market unhealthy food and drinks to children. Relatively less support (two-thirds or more), particularly among lower socioeconomic status participants, was shown for taxation policies and controls on food company sponsorship of sports and education programs. Despite the survey's focus on food marketing avenues and methods directed at children, for the most part non-parents were just as likely as parents to support restrictions. Overall, these findings indicate that there is strong public support for the introduction of policy initiatives aimed at creating a healthier food environment.

  13. Association between Organizational Capacity and Involvement in Chronic Disease Prevention Programming among Canadian Public Health Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; Sabiston, Catherine M.; Kishchuk, Natalie; Maximova, Katerina; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the emerging field of public health services and systems research, this study (i) tested a model of the relationships between public health organizational capacity (OC) for chronic disease prevention, its determinants (organizational supports for evaluation, partnership effectiveness) and one possible outcome of OC (involvement…

  14. Educating Masters of Public Health Students on Tobacco Control and Prevention: An Integrated Curriculum Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, John; Aquilino, Mary; Abramsohn, Erin

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Comprehensive training in the area of tobacco control and prevention has not been available to public health students receiving professional degrees. This study describes findings of a project designed to develop and evaluate an integrated approach to the education of Masters of Public Health (MPH) students at the University of Iowa…

  15. Public transportation development and traffic accident prevention in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanto Soehodho

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic accidents have long been known as an iceberg for comprehending the discrepancies of traffic management and entire transportation systems. Figures detailing traffic accidents in Indonesia, as is the case in many other countries, show significantly high numbers and severity levels; these types of totals are also evident in Jakarta, the highest-populated city in the country. While the common consensus recognizes that traffic accidents are the results of three different factor types, namely, human factors, vehicle factors, and external factors (including road conditions, human factors have the strongest influence—and figures on a worldwide scale corroborate that assertion. We, however, try to pinpoint the issues of non-human factors in light of increasing traffic accidents in Indonesia, where motorbike accidents account for the majority of incidents. We then consider three important pillars of action: the development of public transportation, improvement of the road ratio, and traffic management measures.

  16. The Law on Precautionary Radiation Protection prevents public health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, A.

    1986-01-01

    On the occasion of the discussion by the German Bundesrat of the bill on Precautionary Radiation Protection, the Hessian Minister of Social Affairs denied his approval of the bill on the grounds that there are serious and numerous flaws. He considered the bill to be a more dummy put up for election propaganda, as he could not find any substantive provisions in it. The Minister in his speech explained this opinion, saying that the bill does not provide for the protection of public health, nor create the necessary conditions for an effective and coordinated emergency control in case of a radiation accident. He declared the bill to be just an instrument of warding off danger that in essence curtails important rights of participation of the Laender. (HSCH) [de

  17. The role of public health in the prevention of war: rationale and competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiist, William H; Barker, Kathy; Arya, Neil; Rohde, Jon; Donohoe, Martin; White, Shelley; Lubens, Pauline; Gorman, Geraldine; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-06-01

    In 2009 the American Public Health Association approved the policy statement, "The Role of Public Health Practitioners, Academics, and Advocates in Relation to Armed Conflict and War." Despite the known health effects of war, the development of competencies to prevent war has received little attention. Public health's ethical principles of practice prioritize addressing the fundamental causes of disease and adverse health outcomes. A working group grew out of the American Public Health Association's Peace Caucus to build upon the 2009 policy by proposing competencies to understand and prevent the political, economic, social, and cultural determinants of war, particularly militarism. The working group recommends that schools of public health and public health organizations incorporate these competencies into professional preparation programs, research, and advocacy.

  18. The Role of Public Health in the Prevention of War: Rationale and Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Kathy; Arya, Neil; Rohde, Jon; Donohoe, Martin; White, Shelley; Lubens, Pauline; Gorman, Geraldine; Hagopian, Amy

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the American Public Health Association approved the policy statement, “The Role of Public Health Practitioners, Academics, and Advocates in Relation to Armed Conflict and War.” Despite the known health effects of war, the development of competencies to prevent war has received little attention. Public health’s ethical principles of practice prioritize addressing the fundamental causes of disease and adverse health outcomes. A working group grew out of the American Public Health Association’s Peace Caucus to build upon the 2009 policy by proposing competencies to understand and prevent the political, economic, social, and cultural determinants of war, particularly militarism. The working group recommends that schools of public health and public health organizations incorporate these competencies into professional preparation programs, research, and advocacy. PMID:24825229

  19. Factors affecting dengue prevention practices: nationwide survey of the Malaysian public.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    Full Text Available Efforts to stamp dengue in many dengue endemic countries has met little success. There is a need to re-examine and understand how the public at large view the dengue prevention efforts. This study aimed to examine the demographic factors, theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model and knowledge about dengue and how these influence the practice of dengue prevention.A national telephone survey was carried out with 2,512 individuals of the Malaysian public aged 18-60 years.The majority (73% of the Malaysian public had a total dengue prevention score of 51-100 (of a possible score of 1-100. Multivariate analysis suggests significant correlates of higher dengue prevention practices with demographic background, perception of susceptibility to dengue, perceived density of mosquitoes in the neighbourhood and knowledge about dengue. Households of lower income of which the majority (40.7% were from the rural areas, were associated with the highest odds [OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.09-1.67; p = 0.004] of dengue prevention. Dengue prevention practices were also less likely to be undertaken in neighbourhoods where the responders perceived there is no and/or low density of mosquitoes. Dengue prevention practices are also less likely to be practiced by skilled workers [OR = 0.78; 95%CI = 0.63-0.95; p = 0.029] compared to those unemployed. Higher perceived susceptibility to dengue was associated with higher dengue prevention practices and participants with higher dengue knowledge were found to have a higher level of involvement in dengue prevention practices.Results from the study suggest that in formulating approaches to contain dengue, strategies should be developed to cultivate dengue prevention practices among urban population and target areas with low density of mosquitoes where public perceived a less likely chance of getting dengue. Dengue prevention campaigns should focus on messages highlighting the risk of contracting dengue and education to increase

  20. Effectively engaging stakeholders and the public in developing violence prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Jennifer A; Wathen, C Nadine; Kothari, Anita

    2017-05-11

    Preventing family violence requires that stakeholders and the broader public be involved in developing evidence-based violence prevention strategies. However, gaps exist in between what we know (knowledge), what we do (action), and the structures supporting practice (policy). We discuss the broad challenge of mobilizing knowledge-for-action in family violence, with a primary focus on the issue of how stakeholders and the public can be effectively engaged when developing and communicating evidence-based violence prevention messages. We suggest that a comprehensive approach to stakeholder and public engagement in developing violence prevention messages includes: 1) clear and consistent messaging; 2) identifying and using, as appropriate, lessons from campaigns that show evidence of reducing specific types of violence; and 3) evidence-informed approaches for communicating to specific groups. Components of a comprehensive approach must take into account the available research evidence, implementation feasibility, and the context-specific nature of family violence. While strategies exist for engaging stakeholders and the public in messaging about family violence prevention, knowledge mobilization must be informed by evidence, dialogue with stakeholders, and proactive media strategies. This paper will be of interest to public health practitioners or others involved in planning and implementing violence prevention programs because it highlights what is known about the issue, potential solutions, and implementation considerations.

  1. The Forensic Accountants' Skills and Ethics on Fraud Prevention in the Nigerian Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lateef Saheed Ademola

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the required skills and ethics of the forensic accountant in preventing fraudulent practices in the Nigerian public sector. The primary source of data was utilized for data collection. Using the simple random sampling (SRS, a total of 300 questionnaires were administered; 163 were retrieved. The data obtained was analyzed using SmartPLS - for measurement and structural model. One of the major findings revealed that skills requirement was significant predator of fraud prevention as well as ethics requirement. This means that the higher the skills and ethics of the forensic accountant, the better is the fraud prevention. It is thus, recommended that forensic accounting services should be made statutory in the Nigerian public sector to help in preventing fraudulent practices. Hence the need to create awareness and expand the application of forensic accounting services in Nigerian public sector.

  2. Public enemy number one: the US Advertising Council's first drug abuse prevention campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesen, Molly

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the Advertising Council's first national drug abuse prevention campaign in the 1970s. Scholarship thus far has demonstrated the ways in which the issue of drug abuse represented a chief political strategy for President Nixon. Evidence from major trade press publications, congressional hearings, and an array of archival sources suggest that this campaign was also part of a public relations crusade on behalf of the advertising industry in response to public criticism of its role in abetting a culture of drug dependence. These institutional and political pressures helped shape drug abuse prevention in the 1970 s and for the decades that followed. Copyright © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

  3. Evolution in obesity and chronic disease prevention practice in California public health departments, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, Liz; Ngo, Samantha; Banthia, Rajni; Flores, George; Prentice, Bob; Boyle, Maria; Samuels, Sarah E

    2014-11-13

    Local health departments (LHDs) are dedicating resources and attention to preventing obesity and associated chronic diseases, thus expanding their work beyond traditional public health activities such as surveillance. This study investigated practices of local health departments in California to prevent obesity and chronic disease. We conducted a web-based survey in 2010 with leaders in California's LHDs to obtain diverse perspectives on LHDs' practices to prevent obesity and chronic disease. The departmental response rate for the 2010 survey was 87% (53 of California's 61 LHDs). Although staff for preventing obesity and chronic disease decreased at 59% of LHDs and stayed the same at 26% of LHDs since 2006, LHDs still contributed the same (12%) or a higher (62%) level of effort in these areas. Factors contributing to internal changes to address obesity and chronic disease prevention included momentum in the field of obesity prevention, opportunities to learn from other health departments, participation in obesity and chronic disease prevention initiatives, and flexible funding streams for chronic disease prevention. LHDs that received foundation funding or had a lead person or organizational unit coordinating or taking the lead on activities related to obesity and chronic disease prevention were more likely than other LHDs to engage in some activities related to obesity prevention. California LHDs are increasing the intensity and breadth of obesity and chronic disease prevention. Findings provide a benchmark from which further changes in the activities and funding sources of LHD chronic disease prevention practice may be measured.

  4. Public opinion about condoms for HIV and STD prevention: a Midwestern state telephone survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarber, William L; Milhausen, Robin R; Crosby, Richard A; Torabi, Mohammad R

    2005-09-01

    Public opinion is important in determining condom and condom education policies in public high schools. A random telephone survey of 517 Indiana residents was conducted from July through October 2003 to assess public opinion about education on correct condom use for HIV and STD prevention; condom availability in Indiana public high schools; and issues related to condom use, effectiveness and promotion. Data were analyzed using bivariate and linear regression techniques. A majority of respondents strongly or somewhat agreed that instruction on correct condom use for HIV and STD prevention should be provided in public high schools (77%), classroom instruction should include condoms (71%), only medically accurate information about condoms should being given (94%) and the federal government should promote condoms (70%). Fewer than half (48%) strongly or somewhat agreed that condoms should be made available to teenagers in public high schools without parental permission. Nearly all (92%) considered condoms at least somewhat effective in preventing HIV and other STDs. Non-Republican party affiliation, younger age and condom use within the previous five years were each significantly associated with having positive opinions on many of the condom-related statements. Public opinion appears to support the provision of correct condom use information in Indiana public schools. Schools should consider providing only medically accurate information about condoms and including condoms in instruction so students can see and touch them.

  5. What evidence and support do state-level public health practitioners need to address obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, Jennifer; Teal, Randall; Jernigan, Jan; Reed, Jenica Huddleston; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Public health practitioners are distinctly positioned to promote the environmental changes essential to addressing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and other entities provide evidence and technical assistance to support this work, yet little is known about how practitioners use evidence and support as they intervene to prevent obesity. The study's purpose was to describe how practitioners and CDC project officers characterized the obesity prevention task, where practitioners accessed support and evidence, and what approaches to support and evidence they found most useful. APPROACH OR DESIGN: Mixed-methods, cross-sectional interviews, and survey. State-level public health obesity prevention programs. Public health practitioners and CDC project officers. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews with public health practitioners (n = 7) and project officers (n = 3) followed by an online survey completed by 62 practitioners (50% response rate). We applied content analysis to interview data and descriptive statistics to survey data. Practitioners characterized obesity prevention as uncertain and complex, involving interdependence among actors, multiple levels of activity, an excess of information, and a paucity of evidence. Survey findings provide further detail on the types of evidence and support practitioners used and valued. We recommend approaches to tailoring evidence and support to the needs of practitioners working on obesity prevention and other complex health problems.

  6. Organizational capacity for chronic disease prevention: a survey of Canadian public health organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanusaik, Nancy; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Kishchuk, Natalie; Paradis, Gilles; Cameron, Roy

    2010-04-01

    There are no national data on levels of organizational capacity within the Canadian public health system to reduce the burden of chronic disease. Cross-sectional data were collected in a national survey (October 2004 to April 2005) of all 216 national, provincial and regional-level organizations engaged in chronic disease prevention through primary prevention or healthy lifestyle promotion. Levels of organizational capacity (defined as skills and resources to implement chronic disease prevention programmes), potential determinants of organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming were compared in western, central and eastern Canada and across three types of organizations (formal public health organizations, non-governmental organizations and grouped organizations). Forty percent of organizations were located in Central Canada. Approximately 50% were formal public health organizations. Levels of skill and involvement were highest for activities that addressed tobacco control and healthy eating; lowest for stress management, social determinants of health and programme evaluation. The few notable differences in skill levels by provincial grouping favoured Central Canada. Resource adequacy was rated low across the country; but was lowest in eastern Canada and among formal public health organizations. Determinants of organizational capacity (organizational supports and partnerships) were highest in central Canada and among grouped organizations. These data provide an evidence base to identify strengths and gaps in organizational capacity and involvement in chronic disease prevention programming in the organizations that comprise the Canadian public health system.

  7. Comparing Dental and Pharmacy Students’ Perceptions on Public Health and Preventive Health Care Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandiracioglu, Aliye; Dogan, Fethi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: A Public health course has an important role in the undergraduate education of pharmacy and dentistry in terms of emphasizing preventive care. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the views of pharmacy and dentistry students on a public health course and preventive health care. Methods: 173 students enrolled at Ege University, Faculties of Pharmacy and Dentistry completed a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis and replied to 18 Likert type question to determine their perceptions on a public health course and preventive health care. The comments of the students were reviewed and categorized into key themes. Results: SWOT analysis and the results of quantitative Likert type questions supported each other. According to the quantitative results, there was no significant difference between the scores of students from both schools in terms of their statements about the public health course and preventive care. Both groups of students mentioned the contribution of the public health course to their professions in the future. They also appreciated the importance of preventive care in the health services. PMID:22347604

  8. A public health approach to eating disorders prevention: It’s time for public health professionals to take a seat at the table

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, S Bryn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, secon...

  9. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 3

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  10. Merging public relations with health communication in the context of university alcohol prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummette, John

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this study is to determine whether social norms marketing should be further evaluated according to its ability to serve as a public relations tactic for universities. Based on a framework of social norms theory and strategic issues management, this study uses a web-based survey with university parents (N = 173) to identify relationships among exaggerated parental misperceptions of student binge drinking, parental awareness of alcohol prevention programs, and parental perceptions of organizational legitimacy. Findings from this study are used to make the argument that health communication and public relations should be viewed as interrelated concepts in the context of university alcohol prevention.

  11. Factors associated with local public health agency participation in obesity prevention in southern States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Jeffrey J; Fields, Tina T

    2015-05-01

    Obesity rates in the southern US states are higher than in other states. Historically, large-scale community-based interventions in the United States have not proven successful. With local public health agencies (LPHAs) tasked with prevention, their role in obesity prevention is important, yet little research exists regarding what predicts the participation of LPHAs. Cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Association of City and County Health Officials profile study and two public health conceptual frameworks were used to assess structural and environmental predictors of LPHA participation in obesity prevention. The predictors were compared between southern and nonsouthern states. Univariate and weighted logistic regressions were performed. Analysis revealed that more LPHAs in southern states were engaged in nearly all of the 10 essential public health functions related to obesity prevention compared with nonsouthern states. Presence of community-based organizations and staffing levels were the only significant variables in two of the six logistic regression models. This study provides insights into the success rates of the obesity prevention efforts of LPHAs in southern and nonsouthern states. Future research is needed to understand why and how certain structural elements and any additional factors influence LPHA participation in obesity prevention.

  12. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  13. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the first of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about the history of public health partnerships with the for profit sector.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  14. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 5

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the fifth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how the economic downturn will increase the demands on public heath.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  15. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 6

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the sixth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and Georgia State University's Michael Eriksen discuss whether the tobacco industry has forfeited its opportunity to participate in traditional public-private partnerships.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  16. Public health economics of chlamydia and other STIs : aspects of risk, prevention and resources

    OpenAIRE

    Deogan, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to increase the knowledge of the public health economic aspects of chlamydia and other STIs, in terms of risk, prevention and resources. In Study I, we examined the association between demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the risk of self-reported chlamydial infection among young adults in the Stockholm public health cohort. We found that the risk of self-reported chlamydia infection among young adults in Sweden was associated with lowe...

  17. State practitioner insights into local public health challenges and opportunities in obesity prevention: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Katherine A; Lewis, Moira; Khoong, Elaine C; Lasee, Claire

    2014-03-13

    The extent of obesity prevention activities conducted by local health departments (LHDs) varies widely. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize how state obesity prevention program directors perceived the role of LHDs in obesity prevention and factors that impact LHDs' success in obesity prevention. From June 2011 through August 2011, we conducted 28 semistructured interviews with directors of federally funded obesity prevention programs at 22 state and regional health departments. Interviews were transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed to identify recurring themes and key quotations. Main themes focused on the roles of LHDs in local policy and environmental change and on the barriers and facilitators to LHD success. The role LHDs play in obesity prevention varied across states but generally reflected governance structure (decentralized vs centralized). Barriers to local prevention efforts included competing priorities, lack of local capacity, siloed public health structures, and a lack of local engagement in policy and environmental change. Structures and processes that facilitated prevention were having state support (eg, resources, technical assistance), dedicated staff, strong communication networks, and a robust community health assessment and planning process. These findings provide insight into successful strategies state and local practitioners are using to implement innovative (and evidence-informed) community-based interventions. The change in the nature of obesity prevention requires a rethinking of the state-local relationship, especially in centralized states.

  18. Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders: The Catalan public policy initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Carretero, Cristina; Conesa, Alfons

    2017-04-01

    The field of prevention of body image problems and eating disorders has made major advances in recent years, particularly in the development and evaluation of prevention programmes. However, few programmes achieve good long-term results because, among other reasons, the sociocultural influences affecting the development of these problems do not stop. Moreover, accelerating progress in this field is required, transferring their impact onto a larger scale. These reasons justify the need to progress in the development of public policy interventions. This paper describes a recent Catalan initiative in this sphere: the Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders, made up of different public and private sectors of Catalan society. It specifically details the main actions carried out, such as: media campaigns to reduce weight-related teasing and encouraging self-esteem, encouraging family meals and promoting help-seeking among those affected; the creation of a new informative website about these matters in the Department of Health; the production of a Decalogue of Best Practices for the promotion of self-esteem and positive body image in social media and advertising; and actions to prevent the promotion of eating disorders on the Internet. The Roundtable is the most comprehensive Catalan (and Spanish) public policy activity undertaken until now for the prevention of eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Parental Support for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programmes in South Carolina Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents' perceptions…

  20. Violence Prevention at Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School. Summary Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Jocelyn; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Downey, P. Mitchell; Lowry, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    This summary brief is based on research conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center on the violence prevention activities taking place at the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School during the 2008-2009 school year. Researchers from the Justice Policy Center conducted an assessment of the school's violence prevention…

  1. National Strategy for Violence Prevention in the Austrian Public School System: Development and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, Christiane; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a quick succession of several spectacular events in schools, and the ensuing public discussion on the high rates of bullying in Austria, a national strategy for violence prevention in schools and preschools has been developed. In formulating the strategy, a systematic procedure involving international experts and a number of local…

  2. Youth Gambling Prevention: Can Public Service Announcements Featuring Celebrity Spokespersons Be Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, N. Will; Walsh, Kelly; Taylor, Amy; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2011-01-01

    Children and adolescents are at increased risk of developing gambling problems compared to adults. A review of successful prevention campaigns targeting drinking and driving, smoking, unprotected sex, and drug use suggests that public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrity spokespersons have strong potential for raising awareness of the…

  3. Fraud Prevention and Employee Rationalization in New York State Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Prompted by frequent media reports of school fraud and a lack of relevant K-12 literature, this research study was designed to investigate current fraud prevention practices in public school districts in New York State. Using a "fraud triangle" model, an analysis of existing legislation and professional practice guidelines reveals that…

  4. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 3

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is the third of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how building credibility on preparedness issues can help develop support for initiatives around chronic disease prevention.

  5. Determinants of successful public-private partnerships in the context of overweight prevention in Dutch youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, K.; Jacobs-van der bruggen, M.; Renders, C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A public-private partnership (PPP) is an essential component of the Dutch community-based approach toward overweight prevention, Youth on Healthy Weight (JOGG). Beginning in 2010, 25 Dutch municipalities have implemented JOGG, but little is known about determinants of successful

  6. 75 FR 33983 - Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... integrative health-care strategy that incorporates the most effective and achievable means of improving the... smoking cessation, proper nutrition, appropriate exercise, mental health, behavioral health, substance-use... 13544 of June 10, 2010 Establishing the National Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health Council...

  7. Youth Suicide Prevention: Mental Health and Public Health Perspectives. A Presentation and Training Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Univ., Los Angeles. Center for Mental Health in Schools.

    This presentation and training aid provides a brief overview and discussion of the nature and scope of youth suicide, what prevention programs try to do, a framework for a public health approach, guides to programs and more. This material can be used for both handouts and as overheads for use with presentations. (GCP)

  8. Clothing Flammability and Burn Injuries: Public Opinion Concerning an Overlooked, Preventable Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattaroli, Shannon; Spivak, Steven M; Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Salomon, Michele; Damant, Gordon H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe knowledge of clothing flammability risk, public support for clothing flammability warning labels, and stronger regulation to reduce the risk. As part of a national survey of homeowners about residential sprinkler systems, the authors included questions about clothing flammability. The authors used an online web panel to sample homeowners and descriptive methods to analyze the resulting data. The sample included 2333 homeowners. Knowledge of clothing flammability and government oversight of clothing flammability risk was low. Homeowners were evenly split about the effectiveness of current standards; however, when presented with clothing-related burn injury and death data, a majority (53%) supported stricter standards. Most homeowners (64%) supported warning labels and indicated that such labels would either have no effect on their purchasing decisions (64%) or be an incentive (24%) to purchase an item. Owners of sprinkler-equipped homes were more likely to support these interventions than owners of homes without sprinkler systems. Public knowledge about clothing flammability risks is low. Most homeowners supported clothing labels to inform consumers of this risk and increased government intervention to reduce the risk.

  9. Sports celebrities and public health: Diego Maradona's influence on drug use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, William J; de Matviuk, Marcela Alejandra Chavan

    2010-06-01

    Exposure to a sports celebrity through media and sporting events can have important influences on a public health issue associated with that celebrity. The battle against drug use by Argentinean soccer icon Diego Maradona has provoked concerns about drug abuse and prevention in Argentina, particularly among young people. The present study analyzes how two forms of involvement with Maradona affected the public's concern and perceptions of drug use after Maradona's drug-related health crisis in 2004. Results indicate that those who had a greater degree of parasocial interaction with Maradona were more likely to have an increased awareness of drug abuse, a greater personal concern about drug abuse, abstained from drug use, and more strongly support drug abuse prevention programs. In contrast, identification with Maradona had a mitigating effect on drug use prevention. Implications of these findings regarding the influence of sports celebrities on substance abuse are discussed.

  10. Rural-Urban Differences in Access to Preventive Health Care Among Publicly Insured Minnesotans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, John; Allen, Elizabeth M; Call, Kathleen Thiede; Everson-Rose, Susan A

    2018-02-01

    Reduced access to care and barriers have been shown in rural populations and in publicly insured populations. Barriers limiting health care access in publicly insured populations living in rural areas are not understood. This study investigates rural-urban differences in system-, provider-, and individual-level barriers and access to preventive care among adults and children enrolled in a public insurance program in Minnesota. This was a secondary analysis of a 2008 statewide, cross-sectional survey of publicly insured adults and children (n = 4,388) investigating barriers associated with low utilization of preventive care. Sampling was stratified with oversampling of racial/ethnic minorities. Rural enrollees were more likely to report no past year preventive care compared to urban enrollees. However, this difference was no longer statistically significant after controlling for demographic and socioeconomic factors (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.00-1.88). Provider- and system-level barriers associated with low use of preventive care among rural enrollees included discrimination based on public insurance status (OR: 2.26, 95% CI: 1.34-2.38), cost of care concerns (OR: 1.72, 95% CI: 1.03-2.89) and uncertainty about care being covered by insurance (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.01-2.85). These and additional provider-level barriers were also identified among urban enrollees. Discrimination, cost of care, and uncertainty about insurance coverage inhibit access in both the rural and urban samples. These barriers are worthy targets of interventions for publicly insured populations regardless of residence. Future studies should investigate additional factors associated with access disparities based on rural-urban residence. © 2017 National Rural Health Association.

  11. A public health approach to eating disorders prevention: It’s time for public health professionals to take a seat at the table

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. Discussion The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a research plan of action is offered that plays to the unique strengths of public health, drawing on a triggers-to-action framework from public health law. Minimal participation was found from public health professionals in eating disorders prevention research, and the vast majority of prevention research to date was found to be concentrated within the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry. Extreme disciplinary concentration of the research has led to a preponderance of individually targeted prevention strategies with little research focused on environmental targets, particularly at the macro level. New environmental initiatives are now emerging, such as a government-sponsored mass media anti-dieting campaign, and legal bans on extremely thin models in advertising, but for the most part, they have yet to be evaluated. A triggers-to-action framework, which focuses on evidentiary base, practical considerations, and political will, developed in public health law provides a basis for a strategic research plan for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. Summary There is enormous potential for growth in the scope and diversity of eating disorder prevention research strategies, particularly those targeting the macro environment. A public health approach will require a strategic plan for research that leverages the macro environment for prevention. The full engagement of public health professionals will bring to the field the much broader

  12. A public health approach to eating disorders prevention: it's time for public health professionals to take a seat at the table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn

    2012-10-09

    The societal burden of eating disorders is clear, and though there is a compelling need for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention, public health professionals have yet to take up the challenge. The article lays out an argument for what steps need to be taken to bring a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. First, stock is taken of what the field has achieved so far, using tools from the prevention science literature, and, second, a research plan of action is offered that plays to the unique strengths of public health, drawing on a triggers-to-action framework from public health law. Minimal participation was found from public health professionals in eating disorders prevention research, and the vast majority of prevention research to date was found to be concentrated within the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry. Extreme disciplinary concentration of the research has led to a preponderance of individually targeted prevention strategies with little research focused on environmental targets, particularly at the macro level. New environmental initiatives are now emerging, such as a government-sponsored mass media anti-dieting campaign, and legal bans on extremely thin models in advertising, but for the most part, they have yet to be evaluated. A triggers-to-action framework, which focuses on evidentiary base, practical considerations, and political will, developed in public health law provides a basis for a strategic research plan for a public health approach to eating disorders prevention. There is enormous potential for growth in the scope and diversity of eating disorder prevention research strategies, particularly those targeting the macro environment. A public health approach will require a strategic plan for research that leverages the macro environment for prevention. The full engagement of public health professionals will bring to the field the much broader range of preventive strategies and perspectives needed to

  13. Knowledge of Rabies Prevention in Vietnamese Public Health and Animal Health Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, K A T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Van, K D; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2016-11-01

    Rabies is an invariably fatal, but preventable zoonotic disease. Despite a national programme for its prevention and control, the number of rabies associated deaths in Vietnam has increased in recent years. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in 2012 to assess and compare the knowledge, awareness and practices of 189 public health workers (PHW) and animal health workers (AHW) attending a joint training course for professionals from provinces in northern Vietnam with the highest number of deaths from rabies. Questionnaires facilitating self-evaluation were provided, and total knowledge scores were calculated (maximum 38 points) and categorized into: 'high' (>30 points), 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (animal health and public health professionals attending joint training activities aimed at strengthening rabies prevention and control. To ensure effective prevention and control of rabies requires that AHW and PHW not only coordinate and collaborate, but have a common knowledge and understanding of rabies prevention and control measures. This study provides important baseline data in a relatively unexplored area of research that can focus future interventions and research. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Is violence a disease? Situating violence prevention in public health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J; Donnelly, P D

    2014-11-01

    The paper provides a review of some of the thoughts, ideas, and opinions that pervade the public health literature concerning how to classify or conceptualise violence. It is argued that violence transcends classic distinctions between communicable and non-communicable diseases, distinguishes itself from the discipline of injury control, and is influenced by wider, social determinants. Through a discussion of these varied perspectives it is concluded that a fourth revolution in public health is needed - a 'change in scope' revolution - that recognizes the influence of social justice, economics, and globalization in the aetiology of premature death and ill health, into which violence fits. However, rather than be shackled by debates of definition or classification, it is important that public health acknowledges the role it can play in preventing violence through policy and practice, and takes unified action. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 7

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the last installment of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and Georgia State University's Michael Eriksen discuss how some lessons learned in the tobacco control experience might be relevant for the obesity epidemic.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  16. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 4

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the fourth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about strategies that should serve as the cornerstone for partnership development.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  17. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 2

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-06

    This podcast is the second of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about sharing resources and forming relationships that address chronic diseases, as well as urgent health threats, such as terrorism.  Created: 4/6/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2009.

  18. Fraud Prevention A Study In Regional Public Service Agency BLUD For Hospital In Malang Regency Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koenta Adji Koerniawan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the effect of management perceptions in Regional Public Service Agency BLUD for Hospital in Malang regency Indonesia on the role of the Independent Auditor and their understanding towards Good Governance the General Audit Engagement and its implications for the prevention of corruption. This research is quantitative which placed latent variables General Audit Engagements as intervening variables. Partial Least Square PLS is used to confirm the model created in order to explain the relationship between variables. The results show that the perception of BLUD hospital management on the role of independent auditors and their understanding of good governance to give effect to the implementation of the audit engagement and the implications for the prevention of fraud in BLUDs hospital. This is consistent with the theory of auditing and fraud prevention concepts. JEL Classification M420 K420

  19. 76 FR 16776 - Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and... a meeting is scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and... advice to the National Prevention, Health Promotion and Public Health (the ``Council''). The Advisory...

  20. [Public health, prevention and federalism: insights from the implementation of the federal law on health insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüefli, Christian; Sager, Fritz

    2004-01-01

    In 1996, the new Swiss law on health care insurance (KVG) introduced the coverage of certain preventive measures. This provided an opportunity to include research-based public health issues in federal health policy. The present article examines the problems with which the realization of those goals in a Federalist health care system with strong cantonal autonomy as it is found in Switzerland was confronted. Comparative qualitative case studies design (vaccination of school age children and screening-mammography). Switzerland's federalist health care system strongly hinders the realisation of the Confederation's public health goals. Prevention falls into the cantons' autonomy and the federal KVG (Krankenversicherungsgesetz; Health insurance law) only regulates the coverage of the services provided, but does not contain any instruments to assure implementation in consistency with the policy goals. Under those circumstances, conflicts of interest between the implementing actors, varying cantonal preferences, and scarce resources block the implementation of public health goals. The results imply stronger leadership of the Confederation in prevention policy and an improved consideration of implementation aspects in approving new measures to obligatory insurance coverage.

  1. Public Health Investment in Team Care: Increasing Access to Clinical Preventive Services in Los Angeles County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Kuo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of federal and local efforts to increase access to high quality, clinical preventive services (CPS in underserved populations, the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health (DPH partnered with six local health system and community organization partners to promote the use of team care for CPS delivery. Although these partners were at different stages of organizational capacity, post-program review suggests that each organization advanced team care in their clinical or community environments, potentially affecting >250,000 client visits per year. Despite existing infrastructure and DPH’s funding support of CPS integration, partner efforts faced several challenges. They included lack of sustainable funding for prevention services; limited access to community resources that support disease prevention; and difficulties in changing health-care provider behavior. Although team care can serve as a catalyst or vehicle for delivering CPS, downstream sustainability of this model of practice requires further state and national policy changes that prioritize prevention. Public health is well positioned to facilitate these policy discussions and to assist health system and community organizations in strengthening CPS integration.

  2. Public health genomics and personalized prevention: lessons from the COGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Hall, A; Chowdhury, S; Dent, T; Pharoah, P D P; Burton, H

    2013-11-01

    Using the principles of public health genomics, we examined the opportunities and challenges of implementing personalized prevention programmes for cancer at the population level. Our model-based estimates indicate that polygenic risk stratification can potentially improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. However, compared with 'one-size-fits-all' screening programmes, personalized screening adds further layers of complexity to the organization of screening services and raises ethical, legal and social challenges. Before polygenic inheritance is translated into population screening strategy, evidence from empirical research and engagement with and education of the public and the health professionals are needed. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  3. Promotion of Preventive Measures in Public Nursery Schools: Lessons From the H1N1 Pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, Koralia A; Ioannidou, Christina; Galanis, Petros; Tsoumakas, Kostantinos; Pavlopoulou, Ioanna D

    2017-09-01

    Nursery schools serve as reservoirs of transmission of infectious diseases, and teachers should be able to implement and monitor hygiene measures to prevent them. The aim of the present study was to assess the compliance of nursery school teachers on promoting preventive interventions and to identify associated factors, during the novel H1N1 influenza pandemic. A secondary objective was to evaluate their knowledge and vaccination status regarding the novel virus. A cross-sectional study was performed, with the use of a predesigned anonymous, questionnaire, and distributed to all public nursery teachers of Athens, Greece. General etiquette practices were highly acceptable to over 92% of teachers. Those with longer teaching experience promoted simple preventive measures, such as hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, more often while older children were more likely to familiarize with them. However, teachers presented inadequate knowledge concerning the novel virus and their vaccination rates with the pandemic vaccine were unacceptably low (1.1%). Our study showed that promotion of simple preventive measures is feasible and may contribute to the prevention of outbreaks in nursery schools, although knowledge gaps and fear concerning the pandemic vaccine highlight communication issues.

  4. Getting sports injury prevention on to public health agendas - addressing the shortfalls in current information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2012-01-01

    Public health policy is a successful population-level strategy for injury prevention but it is yet to be widely applied to the sports sector. Such policy is generally coordinated by government health departments concerned with the allocation of limited resources to health service delivery and preventive programs for addressing large community health issues. Prioritisation of sports injury prevention (SIP) requires high-quality evidence about the size of the problem and its public health burden; identification of at-risk vulnerable groups; confirmed effective prevention solutions; evidence of intervention cost-effectiveness; and quantification of both financial and policy implications of inaction. This paper argues that the major reason for a lack of sports injury policy by government departments for health or sport to date is a lack of relevant information available for policy makers to make their decisions. Key information gaps evident in Australia are used to highlight this problem. SIP policy does not yet rank highly because, relative to other health/injury issues, there is very little hard evidence to support: claims for its priority ranking, the existence of solutions that can be implemented and which will work, and potential cost-savings to government agencies. Moreover, policy action needs to be integrated across government portfolios, including sport, health and others. Until sports medicine research generates high-quality population-level information of direct relevance and importance to policy makers, especially intervention costing and implementation cost-benefit estimates, and fully engage in policy-informing partnerships, SIP will continue to be left off the public health agenda.

  5. Harnessing and blending the power of two research networks to improve prevention science and public health practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpool, Robin C.; Brownson, Ross C.; Mays, Glen P.; Crosby, Richard A.; Wyatt, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    Strategic collaborations are essential in moving public health research and practice forward1, particularly in light of escalating fiscal and environmental challenges facing the public health community. This commentary provides background and context for an emerging partnership between two national networks, Prevention Research Centers (PRCs) and Public Health Practice-Based Research Networks (PBRNs), to impact public health practice. Supported by CDC, PRCs are celebrating over 25 years of transdisciplinary applied prevention research grounded in community and stakeholder engagement. Public Health PBRNs, funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, conduct innovative public health services and systems research with public health agencies and community partners to improve public health decision-making. By utilizing each of the networks’ respective strengths and resources, collaborative ventures between PRCs and Public Health PBRNs can enhance the translation of applied prevention research to evidence-based practice and empirically investigate novel public health practices developed in the field. Three current PRC-Public Health PBRNs projects are highlighted and future research directions are discussed. Improving the interconnectedness of prevention research and public health practice is essential to improve the health of the Nation. PMID:24237918

  6. 76 FR 67731 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  7. 76 FR 26300 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  8. 76 FR 58007 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  9. 77 FR 15372 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... scheduled to be held for the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public...

  10. Skin cancer has a large impact on our public hospitals but prevention programs continue to demonstrate strong economic credentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Sophy T F; Carter, Rob; Heward, Sue; Sinclair, Craig

    2017-08-01

    While skin cancer is still the most common cancer in Australia, important information gaps remain. This paper addresses two gaps: i) the cost impact on public hospitals; and ii) an up-to-date assessment of economic credentials for prevention. A prevalence-based cost approach was undertaken in public hospitals in Victoria. Costs were estimated for inpatient admissions, using State service statistics, and outpatient services based on attendance at three hospitals in 2012-13. Cost-effectiveness for prevention was estimated from 'observed vs expected' analysis, together with program expenditure data. Combining inpatient and outpatient costs, total annual costs for Victoria were $48 million to $56 million. The SunSmart program is estimated to have prevented more than 43,000 skin cancers between 1988 and 2010, a net cost saving of $92 million. Skin cancer treatment in public hospitals ($9.20∼$10.39 per head/year) was 30-times current public funding in skin cancer prevention ($0.37 per head/year). At about $50 million per year for hospitals in Victoria alone, the cost burden of a largely preventable disease is substantial. Skin cancer prevention remains highly cost-effective, yet underfunded. Implications for public health: Increased funding for skin cancer prevention must be kept high on the public health agenda. Hospitals would also benefit from being able to redirect resources to non-preventable conditions. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  12. Winter maintenance performance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Winter Performance Index is a method of quantifying winter storm events and the DOTs response to them. : It is a valuable tool for evaluating the States maintenance practices, performing post-storm analysis, training : maintenance personnel...

  13. Winter weather demand considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Winter weather has varied effects on travel behavior. Using 418 survey responses from the Northern Virginia : commuting area of Washington, D.C. and binary logit models, this study examines travel related changes under : different types of winter wea...

  14. Combining Footwear with Public Health Iconography to Prevent Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Sarah B; Friant, Sagan; Clech, Lucie; Malavé, Carly; Kemigabo, Catherine; Obeti, Richard; Goldberg, Tony L

    2017-01-11

    Shoes are effective for blocking soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) that penetrate the skin. Unfortunately, shoe-wearing is uncommon in many areas where STHs are prevalent, in part because local populations are unaware of the health benefits of wearing shoes. This is especially true in low-literacy populations, where information dissemination through written messages is not possible. We launched a public health intervention that combines a public health image with sandals. The image is a "lenticular image" that combines two alternating pictures to depict the efficacy of shoes for preventing STH infection. This image is adhered to the shoe, such that the message is linked directly to the primary means of prevention. To create a culturally appropriate image, we conducted five focus group discussions, each with a different gender and age combination. Results of focus group discussions reinforced the importance of refining public health messages well in advance of distribution so that cultural acceptability is strong. After the image was finalized, we deployed shoes with the image in communities in western Uganda where hookworm is prevalent. We found that the frequency of shoe-wearing was 25% higher in communities receiving the shoes than in control communities. Microscopic analyses of fecal samples for parasites showed a sustained reduction in infection intensity for parasites transmitted directly through the feet when people received shoes with a public health image. Our results show that combining culturally appropriate images with public health interventions can be effective in low-literacy populations. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. Viral Diseases of Public Health Importance in India: Current Priorities with Special Emphasis on Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mageshbabu Ramamurthy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available India faces problems with both communicable and non communicable diseases. The major non communicable diseases are cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. This article focuses on communicable diseases (infectious diseases especially viral infections of public health importance. The infections include bacterial, parasitic and viruses. It could be said that fungal infections by the nature of the spread are not of public health concern. The viral infections are transmitted by the respiratory route, water and food borne route, vectors and blood and blood products, sexual route and are of major concern. Efforts are aimed at early detection, prevention by use of vaccines and sentinel surveillance. For the success of public health programmes sentinel surveillance of diseases is mandatory. India has got several programme initiatives addressing the problem. The programs include IDSP, VBDCP and NACO. The approximate cumulative annual prevalence of infectious disease in India ranges from 100 to 200 million individuals affected in one year. India should aim to improve case detection by strengthening laboratory services with manpower training and nationwide quality control scheme, sentinel surveillance activity and prevention by improving the efficiency and scope of UIP. Also, creation of a single portal of infectious disease data handling hub to collect information from different sources will help avoid overlap and duplication of reporting.

  16. Preventing disasters: public health vulnerability reduction as a sustainable adaptation to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Mark E

    2011-06-01

    Global warming could increase the number and severity of extreme weather events. These events are often known to result in public health disasters, but we can lessen the effects of these disasters. By addressing the factors that cause changes in climate, we can mitigate the effects of climate change. By addressing the factors that make society vulnerable to the effects of climate, we can adapt to climate change. To adapt to climate change, a comprehensive approach to disaster risk reduction has been proposed. By reducing human vulnerability to disasters, we can lessen--and at times even prevent--their impact. Human vulnerability is a complex phenomenon that comprises social, economic, health, and cultural factors. Because public health is uniquely placed at the community level, it has the opportunity to lessen human vulnerability to climate-related disasters. At the national and international level, a supportive policy environment can enable local adaptation to disaster events. The purpose of this article is to introduce the basic concept of disaster risk reduction so that it can be applied to preventing and mitigating the negative effects of climate change and to examine the role of community-focused public health as a means for lessening human vulnerability and, as a result, the overall risk of climate-related disasters.

  17. Preventing cancer: a community-based program for youths in public housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunin, Lee; Wulach, Laura; Yang, Grace J; Evans, Tegan C; Hamdan, Sami U; Davis, Gregory L; Bowen, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a feasibility study of a program that mentors boys aged 14-18 living in inner city public housing, engages them in a basketball league, and provides educational sessions on life skills and ways to resolve conflicts without violence. Such programs have the potential to engage adolescent males living in public housing in activities that reduce cancer-related behaviors and increase protective behaviors. We conducted a feasibility evaluation of the program, which included a survey of participants, interviews with coaches, and observations of games and practices. Lifetime and previous-30-day substance use was common among participants, and many were exposed to and had experienced various forms of violence. Keeping youths active helps prevent their joining gangs and using drugs. Youths from disadvantaged backgrounds are at a high risk for cancer because they are at greater risk for obesity and other adverse health-related conditions than are more affluent youths. Implementing and sustaining community programs for youths in public housing can reduce the effects of exposure to factors that put them at risk for cancer during adulthood: chronic poverty, lack of safe areas for recreation, easy access to alcohol and drugs, and exposure to violence. In addition, workshops to prevent substance use and violence and to teach leadership, sportsmanship, conflict resolution, and healthy youth development are needed for youths, coaches, and parents or guardians. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements (PSAs): Examples from Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftanou, Maria; Cox, Georgina; Nicholas, Angela; Spittal, Matthew J; Machlin, Anna; Robinson, Jo; Pirkis, Jane

    2017-04-01

    Media campaigns have received increased attention as an intervention for combating suicide. Suicide prevention campaigns involving public service announcements (PSAs) have not been well described and have been subject to minimal evaluation. This study aimed to identify suicide prevention PSAs from around the world and analyze and describe their content. We searched the Internet for short, English-language PSAs that had been screened as part of suicide prevention campaigns and identified 35. Most commonly, these PSAs focused on the general population and/or people who might be at risk of suicide, and had a particular emphasis on young people. Almost 60% promoted open discussion about suicide, around 50% indicated that the life of a suicidal person was important, about 40% acknowledged the suffering associated with suicidal thoughts and feelings, about 25% stressed that suicide is preventable, and about 20% focused on the devastating impact of suicide for those left behind. Most PSAs promoted some sort of support for people at risk of suicide, usually a helpline or website. Although these messages appeared appropriate and practical there is a lack of research on the impact that they may have on people with varying degrees of suicide risk. Further work is needed to ensure that they are consistent with theories of behavior change, and that they are having their desired impacts.

  19. Evaluation of a Public Awareness Campaign to Prevent High School Dropout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Leslie M; Corra, Ashley J; Gifford, Elizabeth J

    2016-08-01

    Many advocacy organizations devote time and resources to increasing community awareness and educating the public in an effort to gain support for their issue. One such effort, the Dropout Prevention Campaign by America's Promise Alliance, aimed to increase the visibility of the high school dropout problem and mobilize the community to take action. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the framing of the Dropout Prevention Campaign in television news media. To evaluate this campaign, television news coverage about high school dropout in 12 U.S. communities (N = 982) was examined. A content analysis of news transcripts was conducted and coded to determine the definition of the problem, the reasons for dropout and the possible solutions. Findings indicated that the high school dropout problem was most often framed (30 % of news segments) in terms of the economic and societal implications for the community. Individual student factors as well as broader societal influences were frequently discussed as possible reasons for dropout. The most commonly mentioned solutions were school-based interventions. News segments that mentioned America's Promise Alliance were more likely to frame the issue as a crisis and to use statistics to illustrate that point. Solutions that were more likely to appear in America's Promise segments promoted community and cross-sector involvement, consistent with the messages promoted by the Dropout Prevention Campaign. The findings suggest that a media content analysis can be an effective framework for analyzing a prevention campaign.

  20. Constructing publics, preventing diseases and medicalizing bodies: HIV, AIDS, and its visual cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizzio Mc Manus

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper we analyze the visual cultures surrounding HIV and AIDS; we are especially interested in tracking the actors, discourses and visual cultures involved in AIDS prevention in Mexico for a period of twenty years: from 1985 to 2005. We use media studies to better comprehend how HIV and AIDS further medicalized human bodies by mobilizing specific discourses, metaphors and visual resources that, though promoting a better understanding of how HIV could be acquired and how it could be prevented, also generated new representations of sexuality, bodies and persons living with HIV or AIDS often biased in favor of different systems of value. Moreover, we try to offer a general characterization of the different publics that were targeted and preconceptions involving ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, geography and membership in different sociocultural groups.

  1. Achievement of public health recommendations for physical activity and prevention of gains in adiposity in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, A.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is considered a cornerstone in weight control and public health guidelines recommend regular participation to prevent gains in adiposity. It may therefore come as a surprise that the cumulative evidence from observational studies to support this is not strong. A weakness...... of many published observational studies on this topic has been a reliance on a single baseline assessment of PA. Using only the baseline information on PA in a prospective study cause misclassification because of participants often change activity level during follow-up. In turn this causes regression...

  2. Winter-to-winter variations in indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mose, D.G.; Mushrush, G.W.; Kline, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Indoor radon concentrations in northern Virginia and central Maryland show a strong dependence on weather. Winter tends to be associated with higher than average indoor radon, and summer with lower than average. However, compared to the winter of 1986-1987, the winter of 1987-1988 was warmer and drier. Consequently, winter-to-winter indoor radon decreased by about 25%. This winter-to-winter decrease is unexpectedly large, and simulates winter-to-summer variations that have been reported

  3. Conflict of interest in public health: should there be a law to prevent it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Holla, Radha; Suri, Shoba

    2015-01-01

    "Conflict of interest", now being commonly cited, is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. Conflict of interest situations can be institutional or personal, and can stem from financial or other interests including post-employment opportunities or during public -private partnerships. Conflicts of interest in the creation of public policy, especially health or nutrition related policies such as the vaccine policy, tobacco control, and research related to health, can have negative impact on the lives of millions of people. While the UN Convention Against Corruption, to which India is a signatory, identifies conflict of interest as often being a precursor to corruption, there is no serious action being taken in this direction by the Indian government, in spite of the fact there are instances of serious nature coming to light that affect our peoples lives. If conflict of interest situations are allowed to continue especially in health policy it could be detrimental to millions of people; therefore, it would be in public interest that India enacts a law to prevent conflict of interest in the making of public policies, comprehensive enough to include financial and institutional conflicts of interest.

  4. Designing Health Information Technology Tools to Prevent Gaps in Public Health Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer D; Harding, Rose L; DeVoe, Jennifer E; Gold, Rachel; Angier, Heather; Sumic, Aleksandra; Nelson, Christine A; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Cohen, Deborah J

    2017-06-23

    Changes in health insurance policies have increased coverage opportunities, but enrollees are required to annually reapply for benefits which, if not managed appropriately, can lead to insurance gaps. Electronic health records (EHRs) can automate processes for assisting patients with health insurance enrollment and re-enrollment. We describe community health centers' (CHC) workflow, documentation, and tracking needs for assisting families with insurance application processes, and the health information technology (IT) tool components that were developed to meet those needs. We conducted a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews and observation of clinic operations and insurance application assistance processes. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. We diagramed workflows and shared information with a team of developers who built the EHR-based tools. Four steps to the insurance assistance workflow were common among CHCs: 1) Identifying patients for public health insurance application assistance; 2) Completing and submitting the public health insurance application when clinic staff met with patients to collect requisite information and helped them apply for benefits; 3) Tracking public health insurance approval to monitor for decisions; and 4) assisting with annual health insurance reapplication. We developed EHR-based tools to support clinical staff with each of these steps. CHCs are uniquely positioned to help patients and families with public health insurance applications. CHCs have invested in staff to assist patients with insurance applications and help prevent coverage gaps. To best assist patients and to foster efficiency, EHR based insurance tools need comprehensive, timely, and accurate health insurance information.

  5. Congenital Anomalies: Public Health Interventions to Ensure its Prevention and Expansion of Care to the Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anomalies can be defined as structural or functional anomalies, including metabolic / biochemical disorders, which are present at the time of birth. Congenital anomalies has been recognized as a major public health concern, owing to its universal distribution, associated long-term disability; social stigma; emotional / psychological stress for the family members; increased medical expenditure; and burden on the health care delivery system and societies. To prevent the occurrence of congenital anomalies, due attention should be given to establishment of appropriate surveillance systems to record cases from both community and hospital settings; strengthening of public health system; promoting research to explore the etiological factors and diagnosis/prevention strategies; fostering international cooperation; and discouraging the practice of consanguineous marriage / conception at an advanced age / further reproduction after birth of a malformed child. To conclude, there is an indispensable need to formulate a comprehensive policy, that should be well-supported by an efficient surveillance system, dedicated health care professionals and involvement of all stakeholders. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 135-137

  6. Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridgely Fisk Green

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an “identify, inform, and integrate” model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

  7. Genomics in Public Health: Perspective from the Office of Public Health Genomics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ridgely Fisk; Dotson, W David; Bowen, Scott; Kolor, Katherine; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-01-01

    The national effort to use genomic knowledge to save lives is gaining momentum, as illustrated by the inclusion of genomics in key public health initiatives, including Healthy People 2020, and the recent launch of the precision medicine initiative. The Office of Public Health Genomics (OPHG) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) partners with state public health departments and others to advance the translation of genome-based discoveries into disease prevention and population health. To do this, OPHG has adopted an "identify, inform, and integrate" model: identify evidence-based genomic applications ready for implementation, inform stakeholders about these applications, and integrate these applications into public health at the local, state, and national level. This paper addresses current and future work at OPHG for integrating genomics into public health programs.

  8. Violence Prevention in Schools: A Case Study of the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Jocelyn; Debus-Sherrill, Sara; Downey, P. Mitchell; Lowry, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    This report is based on research conducted by the Urban Institute's Justice Policy Center on the violence prevention activities taking place at the Thurgood Marshall Academy Public Charter High School during the 2008-2009 school year. Based on an assessment of the school's violence prevention approach using qualitative and quantitative data from…

  9. Canaries in the coal mine: Interpersonal violence, gang violence, and violent extremism through a public health prevention lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenman, David P; Flavahan, Louise

    2017-08-01

    This paper asks what programmes and policies for preventing violent extremism (also called 'countering violent extremism', or CVE) can learn from the public health violence prevention field. The general answer is that addressing violent extremism within the wider domain of public health violence prevention connects the effort to a relevant field of research, evidence-based policy and programming, and a broader population reach. This answer is reached by examining conceptual alignments between the two fields at both the case-level and the theoretical level. To address extremist violence within the wider reach of violence prevention, having a shared model is seen as a first step. The World Health Organization uses the social-ecological framework for assessing the risk and protective factors for violence and developing effective public-health based programmes. This study illustrates how this model has been used for gang violence prevention and explores overlaps between gang violence prevention and preventing violent extremism. Finally, it provides policy and programme recommendations to align CVE with public health violence prevention.

  10. Understanding key influencers' attitudes and beliefs about healthy public policy change for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Vu-Nguyen, Karen; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; VanSpronsen, Eric; Reed, Shandy; Wild, T Cameron

    2014-11-01

    As overweight and obesity is a risk factor for chronic diseases, the development of environmental and healthy public policy interventions across multiple sectors has been identified as a key strategy to address this issue. In 2009, a survey was developed to assess the attitudes and beliefs regarding health promotion principles, and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent obesity and chronic diseases, among key policy influencers in Alberta and Manitoba, Canada. Surveys were mailed to 1,765 key influencers from five settings: provincial government, municipal government, school boards, print media companies, and workplaces with greater than 500 employees. A total of 236 surveys were completed with a response rate of 15.0%. Findings indicate nearly unanimous influencer support for individual-focused policy approaches and high support for some environmental policies. Restrictive environmental and economic policies received weakest support. Obesity was comparable to smoking with respect to perceptions as a societal responsibility versus a personal responsibility, boding well for the potential of environmental policy interventions for obesity prevention. This level of influencer support provides a platform for more evidence to be brokered to policy influencers about the effectiveness of environmental policy approaches to obesity prevention. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Public health program planning logic model for community engaged type 2 diabetes management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Joseph F

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes remains a growing epidemic with widening health inequity gaps in disease management, self-management knowledge, access to care and outcomes. Yet there is a paucity of evaluation tools for community engaged interventions aimed at closing the gaps and improving health. The Guide to Community Preventive Services (the Community Guide) developed by the Task Force on Community Preventive Services (the Task Force) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends two healthcare system level interventions, case management interventions and disease management programs, to improve glycemic control. However, as a public health resource guide for diabetes interventions a model for community engagement is a glaringly absent component of the Community Guide recommendations. In large part there are few evidence-based interventions featuring community engagement as a practice and system-level focus of chronic disease and Type 2 diabetes management. The central argument presented in this paper is that the absence of these types of interventions is due to the lack of tools for modeling and evaluating such interventions, especially among disparate and poor populations. A conceptual model emphasizing action-oriented micro-level community engagement is needed to complement the Community Guide and serve as the basis for testing and evaluation of these kinds of interventions. A unique logic model advancing the Community Guide diabetes recommendations toward measureable and sustainable community engagement for improved Type 2 diabetes outcomes is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Obesity Prevention Interventions in US Public Schools: Are Schools Using Programs That Promote Weight Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Wintner, Suzanne; Lee, Rebekka M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-12-28

    Despite substantial research on school-based obesity prevention programs, it is unclear how widely they are disseminated. It is also unknown whether schools use obesity programs that inadvertently promote weight stigma or disordered weight-control behaviors. In spring 2016, we distributed an online survey about school wellness programming to a simple random sample of US public school administrators (N = 247 respondents; 10.3% response rate). We analyzed survey responses and conducted immersion/crystallization analysis of written open-ended responses. Slightly less than half (n = 117, 47.4%) of schools offered any obesity prevention program. Only 17 (6.9%) reported using a predeveloped program, and 7 (2.8%) reported using a program with evidence for effectiveness. Thirty-seven schools (15.0%) reported developing intervention programs that focused primarily on individual students' or staff members' weight rather than nutrition or physical activity; 28 schools (11.3% of overall) used staff weight-loss competitions. School administrators who reported implementing a program were more likely to describe having a program champion and adequate buy-in from staff, families, and students. Lack of funding, training, and time were widely reported as barriers to implementation. Few administrators used educational (n = 12, 10.3%) or scientific (n = 6, 5.1%) literature for wellness program decision making. Evidence-based obesity prevention programs appear to be rarely implemented in US schools. Schools may be implementing programs lacking evidence and programs that may unintentionally exacerbate student weight stigma by focusing on student weight rather than healthy habits. Public health practitioners and researchers should focus on improving support for schools to implement evidence-based programs.

  13. Searching for sustainability within public health policy: insights from an injury prevention perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errington, Gail; Evans, Catrin; Watson, Michael C

    2017-04-01

    Sustaining public health programmes in the long-term is key to ensuring full manifestation of their intended benefits. Although an increasing interest in sustainability is apparent within the global literature, empirical studies from within the European setting are few. The factors that influence sustainability are generally conceptualized at three levels: programme level, the immediate context and the wider environment. To-date attention has focused primarily on the former two. Using a community-based child injury prevention programme in England as an exemplar, this paper explores the concept of sustainability within the wider policy environment, and considers the impact of this on local programmes. A content review of global and UK national public health policies (1981-2014) relevant to child safety was undertaken. Interviews were held with senior representatives of global and UK agencies involved in developing child safety policy. Forty-nine policies were reviewed. The term 'sustain', or its derivatives, featured in 36 (73%) of these. Its' use however, related primarily to conservation of resources rather than continued programme operation. Potential mechanisms for supporting programme sustainability featured within some documents; however, the approach to sustainability was inconsistent between policies and over time. Policy stakeholders identified programme sustainability as relevant to their core business, but its' conceptualization varied according to individual interpretation. Programme sustainability is poorly addressed within global and UK-based public health policy. Strengthening a national and international policy focus on sustainability and incorporating sustainability into public health planning frameworks may create a more supportive environment for local programmes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Preetinder S; Gill, Tejkaran S; Kamath, Ashwini; Whisnant, Billy

    2012-01-01

    Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms) are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving health care-related literature and, in turn, promoting health literacy. Based on the comprehensive literature review and assessment of the 40 documents associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury, recommendations have been made for improving the readability, suitability, and usability of health care-related documents. The recommendations are

  15. HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention education in public secondary schools -- 45 states, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    In the United States, 46% of high school students have had sexual intercourse and potentially are at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy. The National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States recommends educating young persons about HIV before they begin engaging in behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection. The Community Preventive Services Task Force (CPSTF) also recommends risk reduction interventions to prevent HIV, other STDs, and pregnancy among adolescents. To estimate changes in the percentage of secondary schools that teach specific HIV, other STD, and pregnancy risk reduction topics, a key intervention consistent with those supported by the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and CPSTF, CDC analyzed 2008 and 2010 School Health Profiles data for public secondary schools in 45 states. This report summarizes the results of those analyses, which indicated that in 2010, compared with 2008, the percentage of secondary schools teaching 11 topics on HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention in a required course in grades 6, 7, or 8 was significantly lower in 11 states and significantly higher in none; the percentage of secondary schools teaching eight topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in one state and significantly higher in two states; and the percentage of secondary schools teaching three condom-related topics in a required course in grades 9, 10, 11, or 12 was significantly lower in eight states and significantly higher in three states. Secondary schools can increase efforts to teach all age-appropriate HIV, other STD, and pregnancy prevention topics to help reduce risk behaviors among students.

  16. Value of Public Health Funding in Preventing Hospital Bloodstream Infections in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Melanie D; Bradley, Cathy J; Atherly, Adam J; Campbell, Jonathan D; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2017-11-01

    To estimate the association of 1 activity of the Prevention and Public Health Fund with hospital bloodstream infections and calculate the return on investment (ROI). The activity was funded for 1 year (2013). A difference-in-differences specification evaluated hospital standardized infection ratios (SIRs) before funding allocation (years 2011 and 2012) and after funding allocation (years 2013 and 2014) in the 15 US states that received the funding compared with hospital SIRs in states that did not receive the funding. We estimated the association of the funded public health activity with SIRs for bloodstream infections. We calculated the ROI by dividing cost offsets from infections averted by the amount invested. The funding was associated with a 33% (P < .05) reduction in SIRs and an ROI of $1.10 to $11.20 per $1 invested in the year of funding allocation (2013). In 2014, after the funding stopped, significant reductions were no longer evident. This activity was associated with a reduction in bloodstream infections large enough to recoup the investment. Public health funding of carefully targeted areas may improve health and reduce health care costs.

  17. Reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese enriched with vitamin D3 effectively prevents vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; van den Heuvel, Eghm; Singh-Povel, Cécile M; Kiely, Mairead; Cashman, Kevin D

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of daily consumption of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration in postmenopausal women. Health-related quality of life (HRQL) indices were examined as secondary outcomes. This is a single-blinded (i.e., to study participants), randomized, controlled food-based dietary intervention study. A sample of 79 postmenopausal women (55-75 years old) was randomized either to a control group (CG: n = 39) or an intervention group (IG: n = 40) that consumed, as part of their usual diet, 60 g of either non-enriched or vitamin D 3 enriched Gouda-type cheese, respectively, for eight consecutive weeks (i.e., from January to March 2015). Sixty grams of enriched cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of vitamin D 3 . There was a differential response of mean (95 % CI) serum 25(OH)D levels in the IG and CG, with the former increasing and the latter decreasing significantly over the eight weeks of the trial [i.e., by 5.1 (3.4, 6.9) nmol/L vs. -4.6 (-6.4, -2.8) nmol/L, P D levels  0.1). Consumption of 60 g of vitamin D 3 -enriched, reduced-fat Gouda-type cheese provided a daily dose of 5.7 μg of additional vitamin D 3 and was effective in increasing mean serum 25(OH)D concentration and in counteracting vitamin D deficiency during winter months in postmenopausal women in Greece.

  18. [Development of an instrument for the surveillance of quality indicators in specialized training in Preventive Medicine and Public Health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Borrelli, Christian Carlo; Latasa, Pello; Reques, Laura; Alemán, Guadalupe

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the process of developing an instrument intended for use in assessing satisfaction with the quality of training in preventive medicine and public health for resident physicians. To develop this instrument, the National Survey of Satisfaction with Medical Residency was adapted by an expert panel consisting of 23 resident physicians in preventive medicine and public health belonging to 9 autonomous communities in Spain. The adaptation of the survey to the specialty rotations included new dimensions and items and was evaluated with a 5-point Likert scale. The most important dimensions were planning and the achievement of specific objectives, supervision, delegation of responsibilities, resources and work environment, personal assessment, encouragement, support, and whether the rotation resulted in a publication or research project, etc. The development and utilization of this tool will enable future trainees in preventive medicine and public health to make an informed choice about their training itineraries. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Awareness of rabies prevention and control measures among public health workers in Northern Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, A K T; Nguyen, H T T; Pham, T N; Hoang, T V; Olowokure, B

    2015-12-01

    To assess and compare rabies related knowledge and awareness of public health workers at provincial and district levels in the seven provinces with the highest number of deaths from human rabies in northern Vietnam. A cross-sectional study. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of public health workers attending four workshops on rabies disease, control and prevention between 16 October and 21 November, 2012. Total knowledge scores (maximum 38 points) were categorized into: 'high' (>30 points) 'moderate' (21-30) and 'low' (workers attending the workshops: 57% were male; 76% worked at the district level compared with 24% who worked at provincial level; and 45% had worked in rabies control for control for >5 years. Overall knowledge was patchy and ranked as 'moderate'. Important gaps in knowledge were identified particularly in relation to indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin, and routes of exposure to rabies virus. One in ten respondents did not know that rabies virus could be transmitted by the bite of an infected animal. When examining the overall mean knowledge scores, marginally significant differences were identified. The average scores for district level health workers (DLHW) and provincial level health workers (PLHW) were 28 ± 3 and 29 ± 3 points respectively (p = 0.098), which fell within the study definition of 'moderate' knowledge. In contrast, when 'high' knowledge scores were compared, a significantly greater proportion of PLHW achieved >30 points compared to DLHW (44.0% vs 22.5%, p = 0.044). Important gaps in knowledge and awareness of public health workers were identified particularly in relation to routes of exposure to rabies virus and indications for rabies vaccine and rabies immunoglobulin. Overall, comparison of knowledge scores revealed significant differences between district and provincial public health workers. The results obtained suggest that in order for rabies control programmes to succeed public health

  20. Factors that influence the preventive care offered to adolescents accessing Public Oral Health Services, NSW, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoe AV

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW, Australia; 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Westmead, NSW, Australia Background: Many adolescents are at risk of dental caries and periodontal disease, which may be controlled through health education and clinical preventive interventions provided by oral health and dental therapists (therapists. Senior clinicians (SCs can influence the focus of dental care in the New South Wales (NSW Public Oral Health Services as their role is to provide clinical support and advice to therapists, advocate for their communities, and inform Local Health District (LHD managers of areas for clinical quality improvement. The objective of this study was to record facilitating factors and strategies that are used by SCs to encourage therapists to provide preventive care and advice to adolescent patients. Methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 16 SCs from all of the 15 NSW LHDs (nine rural and six metropolitan. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: All SCs from the 15 NSW Health LHDs participated in the study. Factors influencing SCs' ability to integrate preventive care into clinical practice were: 1 clinical leadership and administrative support, 2 professional support network, 3 clinical and educational resources, 4 the clinician's patient management aptitude, and 5 clinical governance processes. Clinical quality improvement and continuing professional development strategies equipped clinicians to manage and enhance adolescents' confidence toward self-care. Conclusion: This study shows that SCs have a clear understanding of strategies to enhance the therapist's offer of scientific-based preventive care to adolescents. The problem

  1. Aboriginal youth suicide in Quebec: the contribution of public policy for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousignant, Michel; Vitenti, Livia; Morin, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The high rate of youth suicide in some First Nations villages of Northern Quebec is an important public health problem. Based on a six-year field study in three villages belonging to the Atikamekw and Anishinabe groups, this paper proposes changes in three areas of social policy that could contribute to prevention of youth suicide. These three areas are: youth protection, administration of justice, and housing. An argument is made first to adapt the youth protection law of Quebec and to give greater responsibility to communities in individual cases in order to prevent child placement outside the villages. Regarding the administration of justice, we suggest initiatives to encourage rapid prosecution of crimes on reserves and the adoption of an approach based on reconciliation between perpetrator and victim. Finally, we indicate how housing measures could help safeguard children's wellbeing given that overcrowding can contribute to suicide. The discussion also proposes that these three key changes in social policy could be relevant in other Aboriginal communities both within and outside of Quebec. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Delivering prostate cancer prevention messages to the public: how the National Cancer Institute (NCI) effectively spread the word about the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Kara Smigel; Ryan, Anne; Morzenti, Thuy; Cave, Lynn; Maze-Gallman, Tamara; Ford, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial was the first clinical trial to show that a direct intervention (5 mg of finasteride daily for 7 years) could reduce a man's risk of developing prostate cancer. Initial results also suggested that men taking finasteride had an increased risk of developing what appeared to be higher-grade disease (Gleason score 7-10). The National Cancer Institute has a congressional mandate to communicate health information to the public and has established methods to reach the public directly and to reach information intermediaries in the media, professional societies, and advocacy groups. The groundbreaking yet complicated results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were widely disseminated by National Cancer Institute using the social marketing and public-relations strategies and tactics detailed here. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dougan and Lee (1)]. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one's life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785) were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping, and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  4. Does a TV Public Service Advertisement Campaign for Suicide Prevention Really Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, In Han; You, Jung-Won; Kim, Ji Eun; Kim, Jung-Soo; Kwon, Se Won; Park, Jong-Ik

    2017-05-01

    One of the critical measures in suicide prevention is promoting public awareness of crisis hotline numbers so that individuals can more readily seek help in a time of crisis. Although public service advertisements (PSA) may be effective in raising the rates of both awareness and use of a suicide hotline, few investigations have been performed regarding their effectiveness in South Korea, where the suicide rate is the highest among OECD countries. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a television PSA campaign. We analyzed a database of crisis phone calls compiled by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare to track changes in call volume to a crisis hotline that was promoted in a TV campaign. We compared daily call counts for three periods of equal length: before, during, and after the campaign. The number of crisis calls during the campaign was about 1.6 times greater than the number before or after the campaign. Relative to the number of suicide-related calls in the previous year, the number of calls during the campaign period surged, displaying a noticeable increase. The findings confirmed that this campaign had a positive impact on call volume to the suicide hotline.

  5. Inadequate ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis prevention in public hospitals in Central Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiamjarasrangsi, W; Bualert, S; Chongthaleong, A; Chaindamporn, A; Udomsantisuk, N; Euasamarnjit, W

    2009-04-01

    Forty-two community and general hospitals in central Thailand. To examine the adequacy of indoor ventilation for nosocomial tuberculosis (TB) prevention in public hospitals in central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 323 patient care and ancillary areas in the target hospitals. Data on indoor ventilation rate were collected by the tracer gas method and reported as air changes per hour (ACH). The adequacy of the measured ventilation rates were then determined by comparison with the international recommended standard values. Indoor ventilation rates were inadequate in almost half of the studied areas (144/323, 44.6%). The inadequacy was particularly serious in the emergency rooms (ERs) and radiological areas, where 73.8% (31/42 each) of the rooms had ACH below the recommended standards. Detailed analysis showed that most of the rooms with natural ventilation had air exchange rates that exceeded the recommended standards, while the opposite was the case for rooms with air-conditioning, particularly the window or wall-mount type. Indoor ventilation in high-risk nosocomial TB areas in public hospitals in Thailand was inadequate due to the installation of air-conditioning systems in modern buildings.

  6. GIS in Public Health: applications in the Legionnaires' disease prevention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Aránguez Ruiz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This experience has been developed by the Public Health Institute of the Community of Madrid in order to use the GIS tools in the Legionnaires’ disease prevention programme and specifically in three work areas: epidemiologic surveillance, cooling towers environmental control and plans of intervention in case of an outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease.After having considered different strategies with their advantages the selected model have been the use of map viewers in the intranet with a different configuration format depending on its goals: images map viewers for systematic non-outbreak cases and cooling towers surveillance, viewers that allow an easier and usual consultation and, in the other hand, layers map viewers, better adapted to more complex users’ necessities and so designed to work in emergency situations. Both models are implemented to decentralise the use of these indispensable tools and make them closer of the public health professionals.Some methodological proposals to study spatial association of Legionaires’disease outbreaks are also presented and discussed in this paper.

  7. Emotion in obesity discourse: understanding public attitudes towards regulations for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lucy C; Warin, Megan J; Moore, Vivienne M; Street, Jackie M

    2016-05-01

    Intense concern about obesity in the public imagination and in political, academic and media discourses has catalysed advocacy efforts to implement regulatory measures to reduce the occurrence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. This article explores public attitudes towards the possible implementation of regulations to address obesity by analysing emotions within popular discourses. Drawing on reader comments attached to obesity-relevant news articles published on Australian news and current affairs websites, we examine how popular anxieties about the 'obesity crisis' and vitriol directed at obese individuals circulate alongside understandings of the appropriate role of government to legitimise regulatory reform to address obesity. Employing Ahmed's theorisation of 'affective economies' and broader literature on emotional cultures, we argue that obesity regulations achieve popular support within affective economies oriented to neoliberal and individualist constructions of obesity. These economies preclude constructions of obesity as a structural problem in popular discourse; instead positioning anti-obesity regulations as a government-endorsed vehicle for discrimination directed at obese people. Findings implicate a new set of ethical challenges for those championing regulatory reform for obesity prevention. © 2015 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  8. Readability assessment of concussion and traumatic brain injury publications by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill PS

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Preetinder S Gill,1 Tejkaran S Gill,2 Ashwini Kamath,3 Billy Whisnant41College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI; 2College of Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; 3School of Information, University of Texas, Austin, TX; 4College of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USAAbstract: Health literacy is associated with a person’s capacity to find, access, contextualize, and understand information needed for health care-related decisions. The level of health literacy thus has an influence on an individual’s health status. It can be argued that low health literacy is associated with poor health status. Health care literature (eg, pamphlets, brochures, postcards, posters, forms are published by public and private organizations worldwide to provide information to the general public. The ability to read, use, and understand is critical to the successful application of knowledge disseminated by this literature. This study assessed the readability, suitability, and usability of health care literature associated with concussion and traumatic brain injury published by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Flesch–Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, Gunning Fog, Simple Measure of Gobbledygook, and Suitability Assessment of Materials indices were used to assess 40 documents obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. The documents analyzed were targeted towards the general public. It was found that in order to be read properly, on average, these documents needed more than an eleventh grade/high school level education. This was consistent with the findings of other similar studies. However, the qualitative Suitability Assessment of Materials index showed that, on average, usability and suitability of these documents was superior. Hence, it was concluded that formatting, illustrations, layout, and graphics play a pivotal role in improving

  9. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  10. Investigation for integration of the German Public Health Service in catastrophe and disaster prevention programs in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfenninger, E.; Koenig, S.; Himmelseher, S.

    2004-01-01

    This research project aimed at investigating the integration of the GPHS into the plans for civil defence and protection as well as catastrophe prevention of the Federal Republic of Germany. Following a comprehensive analysis of the current situation, potential proposals for an improved integrative approach will be presented. In view of the lack of topics relevant for medical care in disaster medicine in educational curricula and training programs for medical students and postgraduate board programs for public health physicians, a working group of the Civil Protection Board of the German Federal Ministry of the Interior already complained in their 'Report on execution of legal rules for protection and rescue of human life as well as restitution of public health after disaster' in 1999, that the integration of the GPHS into catastrophe and disaster prevention programs has insufficiently been solved. On a point-by-point approach, our project analysed the following issues: - Legislative acts for integration of the German Public Health Service into medical care in catastrophes and disasters to protect the civilian population of Germany and their implementation and execution. - Administrative rules and directives on state and district levels that show relationship to integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management and their implementation and execution. - Education and postgraduate training options for physicians and non-physician employees of the German Public health Service to prepare for medical care in catastrophes and disasters. - State of knowledge and experience of the German Public Health Service personnel in emergency and disaster medicine. - Evaluation of the German administrative catastrophe prevention authorities with regard to their integration of the German Public Health Service into preparedness programs for catastrophe prevention and management. - Development of a concept to remedy the

  11. Winters fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter's pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter's, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year's STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories

  12. Value-Based Health Care Delivery, Preventive Medicine and the Medicalization of Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a ‘value-based health care delivery’. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges. In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of a better healthcare for all, with real benefits for the individual patient provided a tailored and optimized treatment plan suitable for his or her genetic makeup. And maybe, therefore, the assumptions underpinning personalized medicine have largely escaped questioning. The use of personalized medicine and the use of digital technologies is reshaping our health care system and how we think of health interventions and our individual responsibility. However, encouraging individuals to engage in preventive health activities possibly avoids one form of medicalization (clinical), but on the other hand, it takes up another form (preventive medicine and ‘self-care’) that moves medical and health concerns into every corner of everyday life. This ought to be of little value to the individual patient and public health. We ought to instead demand proof of these value ideas and the lacking research. Before this is in place critical appraisal and cynicism are requisite skills for the future. Otherwise, we are just listening to visionaries when we put our future health into their hands and let personalized solutions reach into people's everyday life regardless of patient safety and integrity. PMID:28409064

  13. Value-Based Health Care Delivery, Preventive Medicine and the Medicalization of Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhelmsson, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The real paradigm shift for healthcare is often stated to include a transition from accentuating health care production and instead emphasize patient value by moving to a 'value-based health care delivery'. In this transition, personalized medicine is sometimes referred to as almost a panacea in solving the current and future health challenges. In theory, the progress of precision medicine sounds uncontroversial and most welcomed with its promise of a better healthcare for all, with real benefits for the individual patient provided a tailored and optimized treatment plan suitable for his or her genetic makeup. And maybe, therefore, the assumptions underpinning personalized medicine have largely escaped questioning. The use of personalized medicine and the use of digital technologies is reshaping our health care system and how we think of health interventions and our individual responsibility. However, encouraging individuals to engage in preventive health activities possibly avoids one form of medicalization (clinical), but on the other hand, it takes up another form (preventive medicine and 'self-care') that moves medical and health concerns into every corner of everyday life. This ought to be of little value to the individual patient and public health. We ought to instead demand proof of these value ideas and the lacking research. Before this is in place critical appraisal and cynicism are requisite skills for the future. Otherwise, we are just listening to visionaries when we put our future health into their hands and let personalized solutions reach into people's everyday life regardless of patient safety and integrity.

  14. What public school teachers teach about preventing pregnancy, AIDS and sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, J D; Silverman, J

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-three percent of public school teachers in five specialties-biology, health education, home economics, physical education and school nursing--who teach grades 7-12 report that their schools offer sex education or AIDS education in some form. Almost all the teachers believe that a wide range of topics related to the prevention of pregnancy, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) should be taught in the public schools, and most believe these topics should be covered by grades 7-8 at the latest. In practice, however, sex education tends not to occur until the ninth or 10th grades. Moreover, there is often a gap between what teachers think should be taught and what actually is taught. For example, virtually all the teachers say that school sex education should cover sexual decision-making, abstinence and birth control methods, but only 82-84 percent of the teachers are in schools that provide instruction in those topics. The largest gap occurs in connection with sources of birth control methods: Ninety-seven percent of teachers say that sex education classes should address where students can go to obtain a method, but only 48 percent are in schools where this is done. Forty-five percent of teachers in the five specialties currently provide sex education in some form. The messages they most want to give to their students are responsibility regarding sexual relationships and parenthood, the importance of abstinence and ways of resisting pressures to become sexually active, and information about AIDS and other STDs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Thalassemia treatment and prevention in Uva Province, Sri Lanka: a public opinion survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudiyanse, Rasnayaka M

    2006-01-01

    -free marriages advocates promotion of marriages where at least one partner is a non-carrier. Success of such a project could be monitored at the time of marriage. This opinion survey indicates that the public is motivated to promote carrier screening and the prevention of thalassemia.

  16. Caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol for public health nurses in mother and child health centers, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natapov, Lena; Dekel-Markovich, Dan; Granit-Palmon, Hadas; Aflalo, Efrat; Zusman, Shlomo Paul

    2018-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic disease in children. Caries risk assessment tools enable the dentists, physicians, and nondental health care providers to assess the individual's risk. Intervention by nurses in primary care settings can contribute to the establishment of oral health habits and prevention of dental disease. In Israel, Mother and Child Health Centers provide free preventive services for pregnant women and children by public health nurses. A caries prevention program in health centers started in 2015. Nurses underwent special training regarding caries prevention. A customized Caries Risk Assessment tool and Prevention Protocol for nurses, based on the AAPD tool, was introduced. A two-step evaluation was conducted which included a questionnaire and in-depth phone interviews. Twenty-eight (out of 46) health centers returned a completed questionnaire. Most nurses believed that oral health preventive services should be incorporated into their daily work. In the in-depth phone interviews, nurses stated that the integration of the program into their busy daily schedule was realistic and appropriate. The lack of specific dental module for computer program was mentioned as an implementation difficulty. The wide use of our tool by nurses supports its simplicity and feasibility which enables quick calculation and informed decision making. The nurses readily embraced the tool and it became an integral part of their toolkit. We provide public health nurses with a caries risk assessment tool and prevention protocol thus integrating oral health into general health of infants and toddlers. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Assessment of the management factors that influence the development of preventive care in the New South Wales public dental service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoe, Angela V; Blinkhorn, Anthony S; Taylor, Jane; Blinkhorn, Fiona A

    2015-01-01

    Oral diseases, particularly dental caries, remain one of the most common chronic health problems for adolescents, and are a major public health concern. Public dental services in New South Wales, Australia offer free clinical care and preventive advice to all adolescents under 18 years of age, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This care is provided by dental therapists and oral health therapists (therapists). It is incumbent upon clinical directors (CDs) and health service managers (HSMs) to ensure that the appropriate clinical preventive care is offered by clinicians to all their patients. The aims of this study were to 1) explore CDs' and HSMs' perceptions of the factors that could support the delivery of preventive care to adolescents, and to 2) record the strategies they have utilized to help therapists provide preventive care to adolescents. In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 19 CDs and HSMs from across NSW local health districts. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. The 19 CDs and HSMs reported that fiscal accountability and meeting performance targets impacted on the levels and types of preventive care provided by therapists. Participants suggested that professional clinical structures for continuous quality improvement should be implemented and monitored, and that an adequate workforce mix and more resources for preventive dental care activities would enhance therapists' ability to provide appropriate levels of preventive care. CDs and HSMs stated that capitalizing on the strengths of visiting pediatric dental specialists and working with local health district clinical leaders would be a practical way to improve models of preventive oral health care for adolescents. The main issue raised in this study is that preventive dentistry per se lacks strong support from the central funding agency, and that increasing prevention activities is not a simple

  18. CDC Grand Rounds: a public health approach to prevention of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Howard R; Jenkins, Lynn; VanAudenhove, Kristi; Lee, Debbie; Kelly, Mim; Iskander, John

    2014-01-17

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, and preventable, public health problem in the United States. IPV can involve physical and sexual violence, threats of physical or sexual violence, and psychological abuse, including stalking. It can occur within opposite-sex or same-sex couples and can range from one incident to an ongoing pattern of violence. On average, 24 persons per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States. These numbers underestimate the problem because many victims do not report IPV to police, friends, or families. In 2010, IPV contributed to 1,295 deaths, accounting for 10% of all homicides for that year. The combined medical, mental health, and lost productivity costs of IPV against women are estimated to exceed $8.3 billion per year. In addition to the economic burden of IPV, victims are more likely to experience adverse health outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, suicidal behavior, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy.

  19. Management characteristics of successful public health programs: "Avahan" HIV prevention program in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Shunsuke; Singh, Suneeta; Bishnu, Rituparna; Bennett, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes Avahan, an HIV prevention program in India, that achieved very rapid scale-up. The paper aims to (i) define the distinctive features of the management of Avahan, (ii) examine how the distinctive features relate to key constructs in management frameworks and (iii) investigate how the management approaches of Avahan contributed to the program's ability to scale-up rapidly while maintaining service quality. The Delphi method was used to identify the distinctive features of Avahan. Through three rounds of questions, 38 participants closely associated with Avahan were asked to identify and develop consensus on its distinctive features. These features were then mapped against the Baldrige Health Care Criteria for Performance Excellence to investigate how they related to important dimensions of management. A total of 17 distinctive features of Avahan were identified. These distinctive features emphasized the importance of data use and performance monitoring at all levels, especially combined with a flexible management style that facilitated local responsiveness to community, innovation and learning. The distinctive features comprehensively addressed the criteria for management excellence in the Baldridge framework. In the case of Avahan, the rigorous application of known management techniques to public health programs appears to have been an important factor in the successful scale-up of the program. Also, the Baldrige criteria seem applicable to health programs in low-income and middle-income countries; further applications would help test their robustness and utility in such contexts. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Preventing behavioural and emotional problems in children who have a developmental disability: a public health approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucchelli, Trevor G; Sanders, Matthew R

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental disabilities are at substantially greater risk of developing emotional and behavioural problems compared to their typically developing peers. While the quality of parenting that children receive has a major effect on their development, empirically supported parenting programs reach relatively few parents. A recent trend in parenting intervention research has been the adoption of a public health approach to improve the quality of parenting at a population level. This has involved delivering parenting interventions on a large scale and in a cost-effective manner. Such trials have been demonstrated to reduce negative parenting practices, prevent child maltreatment, and reduce child behavioural and emotional problems. However, these trials have been restricted to parents of children who are developing typically. This paper explores the rational for the extension of a population health approach to parenting interventions for children with developmental disabilities. It is argued that a population-based implementation and evaluation trial of an empirically supported system of interventions is needed to determine whether this approach is viable and can have a positive impact on parents and their children in a disability context. The Stepping Stones Triple P--Positive Parenting Program is presented as an example of a parenting intervention that satisfies the requirements for such a trial. Tasks and challenges of such a trial are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  2. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  3. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Meet Integrative Health: Applications of Competency Mapping to Curriculum Education at the University of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Eden V; Benn, Rita K; Warber, Sara L

    2015-11-01

    The University of Michigan School of Public Health Preventive Medicine Residency (UMSPH PMR) Integrative Medicine Program (IMP) was developed to incorporate integrative medicine (IM), public health, and preventive medicine principles into a comprehensive curriculum for preventive medicine residents and faculty. The objectives of this project were to (1) increase the preventive medicine workforce skill sets based in complementary and alternative medicine and IM that would address individual and population health issues; (2) address the increasing demand for evidence-based IM by training physicians to implement cost-effective primary and secondary prevention services and programs; and (3) share lessons learned, curriculum evaluations, and best practices with the larger cohort of funded IM PMR programs. The UMSPH PMR collaborated with University of Michigan IM faculty to incorporate existing IM competencies with those already established for preventive medicine and public health residency training as the first critical step for IMP curriculum integration. Essential teaching strategies incorporated didactic and practicum methods, and made use of seasoned IM faculty, along with newly minted preventive medicine integrative teaching faculty, and PMR resident learners as IM teachers. The major components of the IMP curriculum included resident participation in IMP Orientation Sessions, resident leadership in epidemiology graduate IM seminars, resident rotations in IM month-long clinical practicums, resident participation in interprofessional health system-wide IM clinical case conferences, and PMR faculty enrollment in the renowned Faculty Scholars Program in Integrative Healthcare. This paper describes the novel interdisciplinary collaborations and key curriculum components that resulted in the IMP, as well as evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and lessons learned. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. What are the Evidence Based Public Health Interventions for Prevention and Control of NCDs in Relation to India?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The accelerating epidemics of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs in India call for a comprehensive public health response which can effectively combat and control them before they peak and inflict severe damage in terms of unaffordable health, economic, and social costs. To synthesize and present recent evidences regarding the effectiveness of several types of public health interventions to reduce NCD burden. Interventions influencing behavioral risk factors (like unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco and alcohol consumption through policy, public education, or a combination of both have been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the NCD risk in populations as well as in individuals. Policy interventions are also effective in reducing the levels of several major biological risk factors linked to NCDs (high blood pressure; overweight and obesity; diabetes and abnormal blood cholesterol. Secondary prevention along the lines of combination pills and ensuring evidenced based clinical care are also critical. Though the evidence for health promotion and primary prevention are weaker, policy interventions and secondary prevention when combined with these are likely to have a greater impact on reducing national NCD burden. A comprehensive and integrated response to NCDs control and prevention needs a "life course approach." Proven cost-effective interventions need to be integrated in a NCD prevention and control policy framework and implemented through coordinated mechanisms of regulation, environment modification, education, and health care responses.

  5. Lessons in Suicide Prevention from the Golden Gate Bridge: Means Restriction, Public Health, and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Youth suicide is a global public health problem and some lessons for more effectively preventing it can be found in a perhaps unlikely source: the Golden Gate Bridge. Issues discussed include means restriction and method substitution, the stigma associated with suicide and the consequences of it, myths and misconceptions regarding suicide, and…

  6. A Better Start: Child Maltreatment Prevention as a Public Health Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Francie; Mercy, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse prevention programs have historically focused on individual and family dynamics rather than community-based or societal strategies to prevent child maltreatment. Recently, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of communitywide efforts to prevent child maltreatment before abuse or neglect occurs by offering a continuum…

  7. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  8. Public opinion on motor vehicle-related injury prevention policies: a systematic review of a decade of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debinski, Beata; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Legislation is an effective strategy for reducing road-related fatalities and injuries. Public opinion can be an impetus for passing new laws and can affect the success of their implementation, but little is known about the current state of public opinion toward existing and proposed road-related policies in the United States. This review describes the scope and results of research on public support for state- and local-level evidence-based motor vehicle- and bicycle-related policies. We identify gaps in our understanding of public support for these policies. Published U.S. literature and all reports from the NHTSA from the past decade (2003-2012) were searched for data on opinions about existing or proposed policies related to motor vehicle or bicycle injury prevention. Twenty-six studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In all, studies reported public opinion about 7 injury prevention topic areas: all-terrain vehicles (n = 1), automated enforcement with red light and speed cameras (n = 5), distracted driving (n = 4), drinking and driving (n = 5), graduated driver licensing (n = 7), helmets (n = 7), and seat belts (n = 4). Twenty-three studies focused only on one topic, and 3 sought public opinion about multiple topic areas. The studies revealed generally high levels of support for injury prevention policies in all topic areas. Fifteen studies collected information from national samples, and only 7 studies reported data from the state (n = 5) or local (n = 2) level. There is a relatively small evidence base on public opinion related to motor vehicle- and bicycle-related evidence-based policies; even less is less known for state- or county-specific policies. The findings of this review suggest that the public's opinion toward injury prevention legislation is generally favorable. This information can be used to communicate with the media and policy makers to reinforce the need for effective policy solutions to continuing motor vehicle injury problems. More research

  9. A scoping review of the public health impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, Mickael; Neuprez, Audrey; Buckinx, Fanny; Locquet, Médéa; Reginster, Jean-Yves

    2017-12-01

    Dairy products are rich in nutrients that positively influence bone health and hence fracture risk, and have therefore been recommended and used for fracture prevention. To help decision makers to efficiently allocate scare resources, it is further important to assess the public health and economic impact of any health intervention. In recent years, several studies have been conducted to estimate the public health and/or economic impact of dairy products but no overview is currently available. This article aims therefore to summarize evidence and review articles that estimated the public health and/or economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention. A literature review was conducted using PubMed to identify original studies that assessed the public health and/or economic impact of dairy products (or of calcium/vitamin D supplementation) for fracture prevention up to January 15, 2017. Seven articles were identified. Different strategies were used by the authors to model the economic/public health impact of dairy products. The four studies assessing the public health impact of dairy products revealed a substantial benefit in terms of fracture prevented, life years, disability-adjusted life years and/or quality-adjusted life years gained. Studies assessing the cost-effectiveness revealed that the use of dairy products is generally cost-effective in the general population aged above 70 years, and from the age of 60 years in populations at high risk of fractures. This systematic review suggests that the use of dairy products could substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seem to be an economically beneficial strategy.

  10. Assessment of the management factors that influence the development of preventive care in the New South Wales public dental service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoe AV

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Angela V Masoe,1 Anthony S Blinkhorn,2 Jane Taylor,1 Fiona A Blinkhorn1 1Faculty of Health and Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Oral Health, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, 2Department of Population Oral Health, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Oral diseases, particularly dental caries, remain one of the most common chronic health problems for adolescents, and are a major public health concern. Public dental services in New South Wales, Australia offer free clinical care and preventive advice to all adolescents under 18 years of age, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds. This care is provided by dental therapists and oral health therapists (therapists. It is incumbent upon clinical directors (CDs and health service managers (HSMs to ensure that the appropriate clinical preventive care is offered by clinicians to all their patients. The aims of this study were to 1 explore CDs’ and HSMs’ perceptions of the factors that could support the delivery of preventive care to adolescents, and to 2 record the strategies they have utilized to help therapists provide preventive care to adolescents. Subjects and methods: In-depth, semistructured interviews were undertaken with 19 CDs and HSMs from across NSW local health districts. A framework matrix was used to systematically code data and enable key themes to be identified for analysis. Results: The 19 CDs and HSMs reported that fiscal accountability and meeting performance targets impacted on the levels and types of preventive care provided by therapists. Participants suggested that professional clinical structures for continuous quality improvement should be implemented and monitored, and that an adequate workforce mix and more resources for preventive dental care activities would enhance therapists’ ability to provide appropriate levels of preventive care. CDs and HSMs stated that capitalizing on the strengths of visiting pediatric

  11. Application of legal measures as part of the policy for prevention of corruption in public sphere: Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilard Bytyqi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the application of legal measures as part of the policy of corruption prevention in the public sphere. At present, corruption offenses have become a very dangerous phenomenon for the stability and security of societies, undermining the institutions and values of democracy, ethical values and justice, and jeopardizing the essential development and the rule of law. Knowing that these criminal offenses carry a high social risk and are conducted with high professionalism from people who have the state power, a greater focus should be placed on its prevention. Naturally, the criminal sanctions against criminal acts of corruption have their positive effect, punitive and preventive, but these are the last measures that the state should use. The state of Kosovo in an effort to prevent corruption, has established in legal terms an advanced legislation in accordance with international laws and comparable to developed countries.

  12. [Winter sport injuries in childhood (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausbrandt, D; Höllwarth, M; Ritter, G

    1979-01-01

    3374 accidents occurring on the field of sport during the years 1975--1977 accounted for 19% of all accidents dealt with at the Institute of Kinderchirurgie in Graz. 51% of the accidents were caused by the typical winter sports: skiing, tobogganing, ice-skating and ski-jumping with skiing accounting for 75% of the accidents. The fracture localization typical of the different kinds of winter sport is dealt with in detail. The correct size and safety of the equipment were found to be particularly important in the prevention of such accidents in childhood.

  13. The role of community, state, territorial, and tribal public health in obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Janice K; Heiser, Claire

    2013-01-01

    This article explores how governmental public health authorities can contribute to public health efforts to address obesity by monitoring the prevalence of obesity and associated risk factors, investigating the contributing factors, informing the public, and working with the citizens in their jurisdiction to develop solutions that fit the needs and sensibilities of the people. © 2013 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  14. The nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhow, Y.P.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear winter is an example of possible secondary effects, and if we speak of secondary we are thinking of small-scale second-order effects, but a nuclear winter is not a second-order effect. If you calculate the amount of heat produced by a nuclear explosion, it is a very small amount which does not have any chance of changing the Earth's climate, but a nuclear explosion drives or stars some new mechanism - the mechanism of nuclear winter - after 100 megatons of dust are transferred to the upper atmosphere. Another example of such amplification is radioactive fall-out, especially long-life radioactive fall-out after the possible elimination of the nuclear power industry, nuclear storage and distribution of storage waste around the globe. This is a very powerful amplification mechanism

  15. Achieving public health impact in youth violence prevention through community-research partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massetti, Greta M; Vivolo, Alana M

    2010-01-01

    Violence is a leading cause of death and disability for U.S. youth. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) is committed to developing communities' capacity to engage in evidence-based youth violence (YV) prevention. We discuss the characteristics of communities that exert influence on the development and epidemiology of YV, and discuss opportunities for how community-research partnerships can enhance efforts to prevent violence in communities. The needs for YV prevention are unique; the nature and phenomenology of violence are community specific. Communities also vary widely in infrastructure and systems to support coordinated, evidence-based YV prevention strategies. These conditions highlight the need for community-research partnerships to enhance community capacity, employ local resources, and engage community members in the research process. DVP is committed to working towards creating communities in which youth are safe from violence. Approaches to YV prevention that emphasize community-research partnerships to build capacity and implement evidence-based prevention strategies can provide a supportive context for achieving that goal.

  16. Plagiarism in Scientific Research and Publications and How to Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Izet

    2014-01-01

    Quality is assessed on the basis of adequate evidence, while best results of the research are accomplished through scientific knowledge. Information contained in a scientific work must always be based on scientific evidence. Guidelines for genuine scientific research should be designed based on real results. Dynamic research and use correct methods of scientific work must originate from everyday practice and the fundamentals of the research. The original work should have the proper data sources with clearly defined research goals, methods of operation which are acceptable for questions included in the study. When selecting the methods it is necessary to obtain the consent of the patients/respondents to provide data for execution of the project or so called informed consent. Only by the own efforts can be reached true results, from which can be drawn conclusions and which finally can give a valid scholarly commentary. Text may be copied from other sources, either in whole or in part and marked as a result of the other studies. For high-quality scientific work necessary are expertise and relevant scientific literature, mostly taken from publications that are stored in biomedical databases. These are scientific, professional and review articles, case reports of disease in physician practices, but the knowledge can also be acquired on scientific and expert lectures by renowned scientists. Form of text publications must meet standards on writing a paper. If the article has already been published in a scientific journal, the same article cannot be published in any other journal with a few minor adjustments, or without specifying the parts of the first article which is used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article, with or without mentioning the author, uses a substantial portion of previously published articles, including past contributions in the first article. With the permission of the publisher and the author, another journal

  17. Cybersecurity in radiology: Access of public hot spots and public Wi-Fi and prevention of cybercrimes and HIPAA violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, Perry; Kapadia, Neil; Acharya, Jay; Chang, Patricia T; Lefkovitz, Zvi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the steps that can be taken to ensure secure transfer of information over public and home networks, given the increasing utilization of mobile devices in radiology. With the rapid technologic developments in radiology, knowledge of various technical aspects is crucial for any practicing radiologist. Utilization of mobile devices, such as laptops, tablets, and even cellular phones, for reading radiologic studies has become increasingly prevalent. With such usage comes a need to ensure that both the user's and the patient's private information is protected. There are several steps that can be taken to protect sensitive information while using public networks. These steps include being diligent in reviewing the networks to which one connects, ensuring encrypted connections to web-sites, using strong passwords, and using a virtual private network and a firewall. As the role of information technology in modern radiology practice becomes more critical, these safety mechanisms must be addressed when viewing studies on any mobile device.

  18. Framing HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for the General Public: How Inclusive Messaging May Prevent Prejudice from Diminishing Public Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Underhill, Kristen; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Hansen, Nathan B; Kershaw, Trace S; Magnus, Manya; Krakower, Douglas S; Mayer, Kenneth H; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2016-07-01

    Strategic framing of public messages about HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) may influence public support for policies and programs affecting access. This survey study examined how public attitudes toward PrEP differed based on the social group PrEP was described as benefiting ("beneficiary") and the moderating effect of prejudice. Members of the general public (n = 154) recruited online were randomly assigned to three beneficiary conditions: general population, gay men, or Black gay men. All participants received identical PrEP background information before completing measures of PrEP attitudes (specifying beneficiary), racism, and heterosexism. Despite anticipating greater PrEP adherence among gay men and Black gay men and perceiving PrEP as especially beneficial to the latter, participants expressed lower support for policies/programs making PrEP affordable for these groups vs. the general population. This disparity in support was stronger among participants reporting greater prejudice. Inclusive framing of PrEP in public discourse may prevent prejudice from undermining implementation efforts.

  19. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, M.; Burlet, N.; Fardellone, P.; Al-Daghri, N.; Reginster, J.-Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60?years. Introduction This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60?years. Methods We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life...

  20. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...... of contracts for workers is more likely to explain differences in seasonal activity than climatic or technological factors....

  1. Titan's Emergence from Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Achterberg, Richard; Jennings, Donald; Schinder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We summarize the changes in Titans thermal structure derived from Cassini CIRS and radio-occultation data during the transition from winter to early spring. Titan's surface, and middle atmosphere show noticeable seasonal change, whereas that in most of the troposphere is mated. This can be understood in terms of the relatively small radiative relaxation time in the middle atmosphere and much larger time scale in the troposphere. The surface exhibits seasonal change because the heat capacity in an annual skin depth is much smaller than that in the lowest scale height of the troposphere. Surface temperatures rise 1 K at raid and high latitudes in the winter northern hemisphere and cool in the southern hemisphere. Changes in in the middle atmosphere are more complicated. Temperatures in the middle stratosphere (approximately 1 mbar) increase by a few kelvin at mid northern latitudes, but those at high latitudes first increase as that region moves out of winter shadow, and then decrease. This probably results from the combined effect of increased solar heating as the suit moves higher in the sky and the decreased adiabatic warming as the sinking motions associated with the cross-equatorial meridional cell weaken. Consistent with this interpretation, the warm temperatures observed higher up at the winter polar stratopause cool significantly.

  2. [The role of the public health personnel in the Prevention Department (in the Hygiene Services and Public Health Care and Hygiene of Food and Nutrition): proposal for the future of public health care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusaferro, Silvio; Marcolongo, Adriano; Schiava, Flavio; Bggio, Luca; Betta, Alberto; Buzzo, Armando; Cinquetti, Sandro; Coin, Paulo; Dal Fior, Tina; De Battisti, Fabio; De Marchi, Chiara; De Noni, Lucia; Donatoni, Luigi; Ferraresso, Anna; Gallo, Giovanni; Gallo, Lorenza; Gallo, Tolinda; Gottardello, Lorena; Menegon, Tiziana; Minuzzo, Michele; Paussi, Gianna; Pinna, Clara; Poli, Albino; Rossato, Luigi; Sbrogliò, Luca; Simeoni, Josef; Speccini, Manuela; Stoppato, Ugo; Superbi, Piero; Tardivo, Stefano; Urdich, Alessandro; Valsecchi, Massimo; Zamparo, Manuela

    2008-01-01

    A global and local discussion on Public Health relevance is taking place, including the future role and organization of its services. Noteworthy becomes the role played by Public Health Specialists. This work presents the results of a workshop, carried out following the Guilbert methodology, whose aim was to define Public Health Doctors functions and their related activities. The programme involved 30 professionals from Triveneto area (North Eastern Italy), working in Prevention Departments at National Health Service and Universities. The key-functions identified were: 1) Health status assessment and identification of community risk factors, 2) Health Promotion, 3) Prevention, 4) Protection, 5) Planning, 6) Communication, 7) Professional Training, 8) Alliances and resources for complex Public Health programs, 9) Crisis management in Public Health, 10) Research. For each function activities were identified, meaning concerning areas and contents that must be warranted by professionals. This experience allowed to share existing attitudes and experiences present in Triveneto area, and it can stand as a feasible instrument for different settings. Nevertheless, it appears mandatory explaining at each level in the society role and functions of Prevention Departments.

  3. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 1

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is the first of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about the history of public health partnerships with the for profit sector.

  4. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 5

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is the fifth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about how the economic downturn will increase the demands on public heath.

  5. Balancing between feasibility and relationship : Interventions to prevent dysfunctionality of conflict in public private partnership projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, L.H.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that there are many bottle-necks in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in Dutch spatial development. Due to the specific properties of Public Private Partnerships, these bottle-necks can lead to dysfunctional conflicts which are damaging the project. Hence the question is: how

  6. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 6

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is the sixth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and Georgia State University's Michael Eriksen discuss whether the tobacco industry has forfeited its opportunity to participate in traditional public-private partnerships.

  7. Public Library Summer Reading Programs Contribute to Reading Progress and Proficiency. A Review of: Roman, S., & Fiore, C. (2010. Do public library summer reading programs close the achievement gap? Children and Libraries, (Winter, 27-31.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle Bogel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives – To explore summer reading partnerships between public libraries and school libraries, and the impact on student achievement in reading.Design – The design is mixed methods: tests, interviews and surveys.Setting – Eleven US sites involving school and public library partners.Subjects – A total of 357 elementary school students entering fourth grade that met specific criteria. Parents, teachers, school librarians and public librarians were also included.Methods – This study occurred over a three year period from 2006-2009. It was developed as a partnership between Dominican University, the Colorado State Library Agency and the Texas Library and Archives Commission. Additionally, the Center for Summer Learning at Johns Hopkins University was contracted to conduct the research. It was designed to explore the research question central to a 1978 study by Barbara Heyns.An advisory committee, with representatives from each partner agency, developed evaluation questions and established the objective selection criteria for participants in the study. The criteria included: at least 50% of students qualifying for free and reduced price meals; at least 85 percent of school population would take the reading proficiency test in English; public library summer reading programs with a minimum of six weeks of programming; a history of collaboration between the paired school and public library applicants; both school and public library would sign a partnership agreement and participate in conference calls.In spring of 2008, students at participating sites were given a pre-test using the Scholastic Reading Inventory, and also provided with special summer reading logs developed for the study, to be used during their subsequent participation in the public library summer reading programs.In fall of 2008, the same children were tested on the Scholastic Reading Inventory. In addition, surveys of students, parents, teachers and library staff were

  8. Economic appraisal of the public control and prevention strategy against the 2010 West Nile Virus outbreak in Central Macedonia, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolimenakis, A; Bithas, K; Richardson, C; Latinopoulos, D; Baka, A; Vakali, A; Hadjichristodoulou, C; Mourelatos, S; Kalaitzopoulou, S; Gewehr, S; Michaelakis, A; Koliopoulos, G

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the economic efficiency of the public control and prevention strategies to tackle the 2010 West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. Efficiency is examined on the basis of the public prevention costs incurred and their potential in justifying the costs arising from health and nuisance impacts in the succeeding years. Economic appraisal of public health management interventions. Prevention and control cost categories including control programmes, contingency planning and blood safety testing, are analyzed based on market prices. A separate cost of illness approach is conducted for the estimation of medical costs and productivity losses from 2010 to 2013 and for the calculation of averted health impacts. The averted mosquito nuisance costs to households are estimated on the basis of a contingent valuation study. Based on these findings, a limited cost-benefit analysis is employed in order to evaluate the economic efficiency of these strategies in 2010-2013. Results indicate that cost of illness and prevention costs fell significantly in the years following the 2010 outbreak, also as a result of the epidemic coming under control. According to the contingent valuation survey, the annual average willingness to pay to eliminate the mosquito problem in the study area ranged between 22 and 27 € per household. Cost-benefit analysis indicates that the aggregate benefit of implementing the previous 3-year strategy creates a net socio-economic benefit in 2013. However the spread of the WNV epidemic and the overall socio-economic consequences, had the various costs not been employed, remain unpredictable and extremely difficult to calculate. The application of a post epidemic strategy appears to be of utmost importance for public health safety. An updated well designed survey is needed for a more precise definition of the optimum prevention policies and levels and for the establishment of the various

  9. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), I inserted a paragraph pointing out that volcanic eruptions serve as an analog that supports new work on nuclear winter. This is the first time that nuclear winter has been in the IPCC report. I will tell the story of the discussions within our chapter, with review editors, and with the IPCC leadership that resulted in a box in Chapter 8 that discusses nuclear winter. We gave a briefing to John Holdren, the President's Science Advisor, about the work. Daniel Ellsberg, Fidel Castro, and Mikhail Gorbachev found out about our work, and used the results to appeal for nuclear abolition. In 2013 the work was featured at the Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons in Oslo, Norway attended by 132 nations, and I gave a TEDx talk, I published an opinion piece on the CNN website, and I gave an invited public lecture in Nagasaki, Japan, all about the climatic consequences of nuclear war. I am now using Twitter and Facebook to communicate about nuclear winter. The threat that nuclear weapons pose to the planet is a much easier problem to solve than global warming. We need to eliminate nuclear weapons so we have the luxury of working on the global warming problem without the possibility of the existential global threat still posed by the global nuclear arsenal.

  10. Navigating the evidentiary turn in public health: Sensemaking strategies to integrate genomics into state-level chronic disease prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senier, Laura; Smollin, Leandra; Lee, Rachael; Nicoll, Lauren; Shields, Michael; Tan, Catherine

    2018-06-23

    In the past decade, healthcare delivery has faced two major disruptions: the mapping of the human genome and the rise of evidence-based practice. Sociologists have documented the paradigmatic shift towards evidence-based practice in medicine, but have yet to examine its effect on other health professions or the broader healthcare arena. This article shows how evidence-based practice is transforming public health in the United States. We present an in-depth qualitative analysis of interview, ethnographic, and archival data to show how Michigan's state public health agency has navigated the turn to evidence-based practice, as they have integrated scientific advances in genomics into their chronic disease prevention programming. Drawing on organizational theory, we demonstrate how they managed ambiguity through a combination of sensegiving and sensemaking activities. Specifically, they linked novel developments in genomics to a long-accepted public health planning model, the Core Public Health Functions. This made cutting edge advances in genomics more familiar to their peers in the state health agency. They also marshaled state-specific surveillance data to illustrate the public health burden of hereditary cancers in Michigan, and to make expert panel recommendations for genetic screening more locally relevant. Finally, they mobilized expertise to help their internal colleagues and external partners modernize conventional public health activities in chronic disease prevention. Our findings show that tools and concepts from organizational sociology can help medical sociologists understand how evidence-based practice is shaping institutions and interprofessional relations in the healthcare arena. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of the State Audit Institution in prevention of white-collar crime in the public sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author points out to the important role of the Serbian State Audit Institution in prevention of corruptive practices, felonies and white-collar crime in the public sector in the Republic of Serbia. Although the activity of supreme state auditors is not primarily aimed at detecting criminal offences in the public sector, their efforts and results in this area are by no means insignificant. This is due to the fact that state auditors are well-trained to interpret and apply the legal provisions from the area of public finance, public procurements and accountancy, regulating the budget system of revenues and expenditures whose violation may constitute a criminal offence within the scope of white-collar crime. Considering the fact that it is an independent and autonomous state authority, the Serbian Supreme Audit Institution should play a very important role in reducing 'the dark figures of white-collar crime'. In many cases, the fear of crime detection as well as the fear of being punished are sufficient to exert the preventive effect on the potential perpetrators of white-collar crimes. However, we have to bear in mind that the prevention of corruption and other felonies which are qualified as white-collar crime calls for a joint effort of all state institutions and citizens alike. Another fact which is very important for improving the operative quality of the Supreme Audit Institution is its membership in the International Organisation of Supreme Audit Institutions and cooperation with the Supreme Audit Institutions in other countries.

  12. A bibliometric analysis in the fields of preventive medicine, occupational and environmental medicine, epidemiology, and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soteriades Elpidoforos S

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health play an important role in the advancement of knowledge. In order to map the research production around the world we performed a bibliometric analysis in the above fields. Methods All articles published by different world regions in the above mentioned scientific fields and cited in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR database of the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI during the period 1995 and 2003, were evaluated. The research production of different world regions was adjusted for: a the gross domestic product in 1995 US dollars, and b the population size of each region. Results A total of 48,861 articles were retrieved and categorized. The USA led the research production in all three subcategories. The percentage of articles published by USA researchers was 43%, 44% and 61% in the Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health subcategories, respectively. Canada and Western Europe shared the second position in the first two subcategories, while Oceania researchers ranked second in the field of Public Health. Conclusion USA researchers maintain a leadership position in the production of scientific articles in the fields of Preventive Medicine, Occupational/Environmental Medicine and Epidemiology, at a level similar to other scientific disciplines, while USA contribution to science in the field of Public Health is by all means outstanding. Less developed regions would need to support their researchers in the above fields in order to improve scientific production and advancement of knowledge in their countries.

  13. Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements Impact Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Wright, Nathan; Klingbeil, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements (PSAs) are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad [e.g., Klimes-Dou...

  14. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  15. Winter is losing its cool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, S.

    2017-12-01

    Winter seasons have significant societal impacts across all sectors ranging from direct human health to ecosystems, transportation, and recreation. This study quantifies the severity of winter and its spatial-temporal variations using a newly developed winter severity index and daily temperature, snowfall and snow depth. The winter severity and the number of extreme winter days are decreasing across the global terrestrial areas during 1901-2015 except the southeast United States and isolated regions in the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are dominated by winter warming, while the changes in daily snowfall and snow depth played a secondary role. The simulations of multiple CMIP5 climate models can well capture the spatial and temporal variations of the observed changes in winter severity and extremes during 1951-2005. The models are consistent in projecting a future milder winter under various scenarios. The winter severity is projected to decrease 60-80% in the middle-latitude Northern Hemisphere under the business-as-usual scenario. The winter arrives later, ends earlier and the length of winter season will be notably shorter. The changes in harsh winter in the polar regions are weak, mainly because the warming leads to more snowfall in the high latitudes.

  16. Perceptions of and willingness to engage in public health precautions to prevent 2009 H1N1 influenza transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlowski Lynn T

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recommendations about precautionary behaviors are a key part of public health responses to infectious disease threats such as the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Individuals' interpretation of recommendations, willingness to comply, and factors predicting willingness were examined. Methods A telephone survey of adult residents of New York State was conducted (N = 807. Respondents reported how they interpreted recommendations, willingness to engage in recommended actions, risk perceptions for H1N1 infection, and perceived efficacy of recommendations. Demographic characteristics were used to calculate sampling weights to obtain population-representative estimates. Results There was substantial variability in interpretation of preventive actions. Willingness to engage in preventive actions also varied substantially; vaccination willingness was substantially lower than other preventive actions. No pattern of demographic characteristics consistently predicted willingness. Perceived efficacy was associated with willingness for all recommendations, and perceived severity was associated with willingness for some recommendations. Conclusions Results suggest that individual interpretation of actions differ widely. The results suggest that current recommendations are not clear to laypeople and are open to different interpretations. These varying interpretations should be considered in crafting public health messages about precautionary behaviors.

  17. Public perceptions of the causes and prevention of obesity among primary school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardus, P.M.; Vuuren, van C.L.; Crawford, D.; Worsley, A.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate lay perceptions of the causes and prevention of obesity among primary school children. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected sample of adults in a shopping centre. SUBJECTS: 315 adults in Melbourne, Australia. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects completed a

  18. Prevention and rehabilitation in Swedish public sector workplaces: Effects on co-workers' and leaders' health and psychosocial working conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig; Romild, Ulla; Landstad, Bodil J

    2015-01-01

    Leaders and co-workers in Swedish public sector organizations are exposed to demanding psychosocial working conditions; more knowledge about workplace-based interventions in this sector of working life is needed. To compare co-workers' and leaders' self-ratings of health and psychosocial working conditions, and investigate how prevention and rehabilitation in Swedish public sector workplaces affects these ratings. The longitudinal panel data consisted of 311 individuals (20 leaders, 291 co-workers) at 19 workplaces. Based on questionnaire data, statistical analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney U-Test, pair-wise Spearman correlations, a mixed between-within subjects ANOVA and Friedman's test. Results indicate differences in how the leaders and the co-workers judge their health and psychosocial working conditions. Leaders report work content that is more varied and interesting as well as more possibilities for personal development through work, yet they also report more tiredness, concern over managing their work situation and time pressure at work. Comparisons of mean values for used indicators show some improvements after one year, but also several non-significant or negative time trends two years after the interventions were initiated. The study provides some support for experienced differences between co-workers' and leaders' health and psychosocial working conditions in public sector workplaces, indicating the importance of different workplace-oriented prevention and rehabilitation interventions for these two categories of employees.

  19. Management Strategies Required for Preventing and Combating Corruption in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Adrian Ciupitu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corruption level is symptomatic of the economic, political and general social development and its manifestation is harmful to ethics and morals and undermines public confidence in the rule of law. In Romania we are witnessing a penetration of corruption in areas that should support the country’s economic development. Companies from more and more zones of activity are pushed into gear economy. The immediate effect of this situation is reflected in a vicious circle in which endemic corruption is leading to lower revenues and public investment and weakens the credibility of the rule of law. It also generates negative changes in the economic development through inefficient transactions, sometimes lacking rationality, altering capital accumulation and its productivity, government revenues and the quality of public infrastructure.

  20. Nutritional Rickets and Osteomalacia in the Twenty-first Century: Revised Concepts, Public Health, and Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uday, Suma; Högler, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    Nutritional rickets and osteomalacia are common in dark-skinned and migrant populations. Their global incidence is rising due to changing population demographics, failing prevention policies and missing implementation strategies. The calcium deprivation spectrum has hypocalcaemic (seizures, tetany and dilated cardiomyopathy) and late hypophosphataemic (rickets, osteomalacia and muscle weakness) complications. This article reviews sustainable prevention strategies and identifies areas for future research. The global rickets consensus recognises the equal contribution of vitamin D and dietary calcium in the causation of calcium deprivation and provides a three stage categorisation for sufficiency, insufficiency and deficiency. For rickets prevention, 400 IU daily is recommended for all infants from birth and 600 IU in pregnancy, alongside monitoring in antenatal and child health surveillance programmes. High-risk populations require lifelong supplementation and food fortification with vitamin D or calcium. Future research should identify the true prevalence of rickets and osteomalacia, their role in bone fragility and infant mortality, and best screening and public health prevention tools.

  1. Publicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Joan

    Publicity for preschool cooperatives is described. Publicity helps produce financial support for preschool cooperatives. It may take the form of posters, brochures, newsletters, open house, newspaper coverage, and radio and television. Word of mouth and general good will in the community are the best avenues of publicity that a cooperative nursery…

  2. Oral preexposure prophylaxis to prevent HIV infection: clinical and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Jonathan; OʼHara, Kevin Michael

    2014-12-01

    This article reviews the use of combination emtricitabine (FTC)/tenofovir as preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-negative patients at high risk of acquiring HIV, including heterosexual men and women, men who have sex with men, and IV drug users. When used with classic prevention strategies such as condoms, PrEP has been found effective in reducing the risk of HIV transmission.

  3. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 7

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is the last installment of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and Georgia State University's Michael Eriksen discuss how some lessons learned in the tobacco control experience might be relevant for the obesity epidemic.

  4. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 2

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is the second of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about sharing resources and forming relationships that address chronic diseases, as well as urgent health threats, such as terrorism.

  5. Public-Private Partnerships in Chronic Disease Prevention-Part 4

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is the fourth of a seven part series discussing public health partnerships with the private sector. In this segment, CDC's Elizabeth Majestic and University of North Carolina's Gene Matthews talk about strategies that should serve as the cornerstone for partnership development.

  6. 76 FR 71348 - Role of Naloxone in Opioid Overdose Fatality Prevention; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... discussion about the potential value of making naloxone more widely available outside of conventional medical... registration on the day of the public workshop will be based on space availability. If registration reaches..., is an injectable medicine that can rapidly reverse the overdose of either prescription (e.g., Oxy...

  7. The US Air Force suicide prevention program: implications for public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Kerry L; Pflanz, Steven; Talcott, Gerald W; Campise, Rick L; Lavigne, Jill E; Bajorska, Alina; Tu, Xin; Caine, Eric D

    2010-12-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the US Air Force Suicide Prevention Program (AFSPP) in reducing suicide, and we measured the extent to which air force installations implemented the program. We determined the AFSPP's impact on suicide rates in the air force by applying an intervention regression model to data from 1981 through 2008, providing 16 years of data before the program's 1997 launch and 11 years of data after launch. Also, we measured implementation of program components at 2 points in time: during a 2004 increase in suicide rates, and 2 years afterward. Suicide rates in the air force were significantly lower after the AFSPP was launched than before, except during 2004. We also determined that the program was being implemented less rigorously in 2004. The AFSPP effectively prevented suicides in the US Air Force. The long-term effectiveness of this program depends upon extensive implementation and effective monitoring of implementation. Suicides can be reduced through a multilayered, overlapping approach that encompasses key prevention domains and tracks implementation of program activities.

  8. The physician's role in suicide prevention: lessons learned from a public awareness campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Melissa; Griffin, Tom; Reidenberg, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    The suicide rate in Minnesota has increased every year since 2000, making suicide a serious public health problem. In the spring and summer of 2009, the nonprofit organization Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE) launched a public awareness campaign targeting four populations at high risk of suicidal behavior and suicide: adult men, seniors, teens, and American Indians. The goals of the campaign were to increase awareness about suicide in general and to let people know how they could help someone who may be at risk. In their evaluation of the campaign, researchers found a need to provide physicians and other health care professionals with appropriate information about suicide and resources that are available for those who may need help.They also learned the importance of engaging physicians in planning future campaigns.

  9. Winter Frost and Fog

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    This somewhat oblique blue wide angle Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the 174 km (108 mi) diameter crater, Terby, and its vicinity in December 2004. Located north of Hellas, this region can be covered with seasonal frost and ground-hugging fog, even in the afternoon, despite being north of 30oS. The subtle, wavy pattern is a manifestation of fog. Location near: 28oS, 286oW Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  10. Contribution of public Geological Survey to prevention and mitigation of geohazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Komac

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available From the early history of civilisation societies have been exposed to external factors. Probably no other factorshave influenced the development of societies and cultures more than geologically driven hazards or geohazards.With the evolvement of societies also the approaches to solving problems, related to geohazard, have developed.The complexity of mitigation and response measurements that tackle the contemporary geohazard problems demandsa long-term strategic approach that has to incorporate all segments of the society, from stake-holders andend-user groups to the experts. The management of geohazards is a public good and as such needs to be governedby a non-profit public body. The common mission of almost all geological surveys is to gather, manage and interpretgeologically related data for a wider public welfare. Geological surveys as public institutions represent a key rolein almost all components of the geohazard management process, from education and research, to data acquisition,processing, interpretation and decision support issues. With its knowledge regarding natural processes gatheredthrough decades GSO offers reliable and independent support in assessing and describing the phenomena (seismicactivities, mass wasting, water and soil pollution, excess or lack of trace elements in the soil, ground subsidence orheave, gaseous emanations and more, understanding the processes of activation, dynamics, transport, interactionwith media and living organisms, and predicting the possible scenarios in the future with emphasis on human exposureto given phenomena. Despite the fact that the value of the knowledge of the dynamic environment we live in isbeing tested literally on daily basis in Slovenia, its inclusion in everyday practice is still relatively negligible.

  11. CDC's Prevention Status Reports: Monitoring the Status of Public Health Policies and Practices for Improved Performance and Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Andrea C; Lowry, Garry; Mumford, Karen; Graaf, Christine

    Increasing the adoption and implementation of evidence-based policies and practices is a key strategy for improving public health. Although there is widespread agreement about the importance of implementing evidence-based public health policies and practices, there are gaps between what has been shown to be effective and what is implemented at the state level. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the Prevention Status Reports (PSRs), a performance measurement system, to highlight evidence-based public health policies and practices and catalyze state performance and quality improvement efforts across the nation. CDC selected a set of 10 topics representing some of the most important public health challenges in the nation. Stakeholders, including state health departments and other partners, helped conceptualize the PSRs and informed the development of the PSR framework, which provides an organizational structure for the system. CDC subject matter experts developed criteria for selecting policies and practices, indicators for each policy and practice, and a criteria-based rating system for each indicator. The PSRs were developed for all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The PSRs were developed and serve as a performance measurement system for monitoring the adoption, reach, and implementation fidelity of evidence-based public health policies and practices nationwide. The PSRs include 33 policy and practice indicators across the 10 health topics. They use a simple 3-level rating system-green, yellow, and red-to report the extent to which each state (and the District of Columbia) has implemented the policy or practice in accordance with supporting evidence or expert recommendations. Results from aggregate analyses show positive change or improvement. The PSRs are a unique part of CDC's work to improve the performance and accountability of the public health system, serving as both a monitoring tool and a call to action to improve health

  12. [Human ecology and interdisciplinary cooperation for primary prevention of environmental risk factors for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, Jan W

    2007-01-01

    Human ecology makes a scientific base for more effective prevention against contamination of the air, water and food, and other environmental factors making common risk factors for human health. It integrates interdisciplinary cooperation of experts from natural, technological, socio-economical and other sciences. Complex study is necessary for better estimation of real risk factors for an individual person. This risk is connected with the exposure of people to pollutants in working places, housing environment, areas for recreation and by food (including synergistic effects). Such study implicates real tasks for representatives of different sciences (technological and agricultural in particular) as well as for teachers and journalists. Especially dangerous are environmental risk factors when principles of human ecology are not taking into consideration at the intensification of food production, processing and conservation, as well as at designing of housing environment (where the exposure to harmful physical, chemical and biological factors is the longest) and also while selecting of the main directions of development of technical infrastructure for motorization (e.g. designing of cars, roads and their surrounding). EU recognize study of the human ecology as basis for sustainable development (sponsoring e.g. diploma and doctoral studies in this field at the Free University of Brussels). Author's experiences connected with the participation as a visiting professor taking part in related training activity at this University as well as during study visits in several countries were useful for the introduction of human ecology in linkage with ecotoxicology and environmental biotechnology as the subject of study at environmental engineering at the Faculty of Mining Surveying and Environmental Engineering at AGH-UST. Methodological experience of 40 years of interdisciplinary case studies and problem-oriented education in this field may be useful for modernization of

  13. Characteristic Features and Contributory Factors in Fatal Ciguatera Fish Poisoning—Implications for Prevention and Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2016-01-01

    In this review, the main objective was to describe the characteristic features of fatal ciguatera fish poisoning and identify contributory factors, with a view to promote prevention and public education. Ciguatera-related deaths, although rare, have been reported from the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean regions. The clinical features were generally dominated by convulsions and coma, with various focal neurological signs. Several contributory factors could be identified, including consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-rich fish parts (viscera and head) in larger amounts, the most ciguatoxic fish species (e.g., Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) and reef fish collected after storms and individuals' susceptibility. Mass ciguatera fish poisoning with mortalities also occurred when G. flavimarginatus and other ciguatoxic fish species were shared in gatherings and parties. The characteristic features of fatal ciguatera fish poisoning must be recognized early. The public should be repeatedly reminded to avoid eating the most ciguatoxic fish species and the CTX-rich parts of reef fish. To prevent mass poisoning in gatherings and parties, the most ciguatoxic fish species and potentially toxic fish species must be avoided. Particularly after hits by disastrous storms, it is important to monitor the toxicity of reef fish and the incidence rates of ciguatera. PMID:26787145

  14. Characteristic Features and Contributory Factors in Fatal Ciguatera Fish Poisoning--Implications for Prevention and Public Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2016-04-01

    In this review, the main objective was to describe the characteristic features of fatal ciguatera fish poisoning and identify contributory factors, with a view to promote prevention and public education. Ciguatera-related deaths, although rare, have been reported from the Pacific, Caribbean, and Indian Ocean regions. The clinical features were generally dominated by convulsions and coma, with various focal neurological signs. Several contributory factors could be identified, including consumption of ciguatoxin (CTX)-rich fish parts (viscera and head) in larger amounts, the most ciguatoxic fish species (e.g.,Gymnothorax flavimarginatus) and reef fish collected after storms and individuals' susceptibility. Mass ciguatera fish poisoning with mortalities also occurred when G. flavimarginatus and other ciguatoxic fish species were shared in gatherings and parties. The characteristic features of fatal ciguatera fish poisoning must be recognized early. The public should be repeatedly reminded to avoid eating the most ciguatoxic fish species and the CTX-rich parts of reef fish. To prevent mass poisoning in gatherings and parties, the most ciguatoxic fish species and potentially toxic fish species must be avoided. Particularly after hits by disastrous storms, it is important to monitor the toxicity of reef fish and the incidence rates of ciguatera. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. [Impact of the Core Training Law on preventive medicine and public health training and other common medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latasa, Pello; Gil-Borrelli, Christian; Aguilera, José Antonio; Reques, Laura; Barreales, Saúl; Ojeda, Elena; Alemán, Guadalupe; Iniesta, Carlos; Gullón, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the Core Training Law (CTL) is to amend specialised medical training to include 24 months of common training. The aim of this study is to assess its potential impact on the Preventive Medicine and Public Health (PM&PH) training programme and other medical specialties. The programmes of the 21 common medical specialties were analysed and the recommended training periods for each specialty collected, before the information was agreed upon by three observers. The training impact was calculated as the percentage of months that should be amended per specialty to adapt to the common training schedule. The Preventive Medicine and Public Health training programme is the specialty most affected by the Core Training Law (100%, 24 months). Intensive medicine (0%, 0 months) and medical oncology (17%, 4 months) is the least affected. The CTL affects the common medical specialties in different ways and requires a complete reorganisation of the activities and competencies of PM&PH professionals. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwalajtys, Tina; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.

  17. Advances and Challenges in Public Policies and Programs to Prevent Discrimination in the Governmental Sphere. The Paped's Case, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Treviño Ronzón

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the challenges implied in the task of implementing and evaluating actions to prevent and eradicate discrimination in the government sector. It is to recognize that in Mexico the task is in the making and follows patterns of unequal development, although it is widely legislated. For this discussion, we introduce contextual references about the implementation of reforms in favor of human rights in Mexico, and we articulate them with the notion of public policies. Then, we take as reference the case of the “Program to Prevent and Eliminate Discrimination” in the Mexico City (PAPED. We argue that, in contexts such as the Mexican, marked by multidimensional violence, corruption, and a poor performance of public institutions, it is necessary to increase the reflexivity of the instances that must implement actions of non-discrimination, as well as to increase this reflexivity in the transparency and visibility of evaluation exercises of their anti-discrimination actions, so as to reach more people and produce progressive movements of appropriation.

  18. Decontamination and winter conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenild, C.; Tveten, U.

    1984-12-01

    The report deals with two decontamonation experiments under winter conditions. A snow-covered parking lot was contaminated, and the snow was subsequently removed using standard snow-moving equipment. The snow left behind was collected and the content of contaminant was determined. A non-radioactive contaminant was used. A decontamination factor exceeding 100 was obtained. Although the eksperimental conditions were close to ideal, it is reason to believe that extremely efficient removal of deposited materials on a snow surface is achivable. In another investigation, run-off from agricultural surface, contaminated while covered with snow, was measured A lycimeter was used in this experiment. A stable layer of ice and snow was allowed to form before contamination. The run-off water was collected at each thaw period until all snow and ice was gone. Cs-134 was used as contaminant. Roughly 30% of the Cs-134 with which the area was contaminated ran off with the melt water. Following a reactor accident situation, this would have given a corresponding reduction in the long term doses. Both of these experiments show that consequence calculation assumptions, as they are currently applied to large accident assessment, tend to overestimate the consequences resulting from accidents taking place under winter conditions

  19. Spirit's Winter Work Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version This portion of an image acquired by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment camera shows the Spirit rover's winter campaign site. Spirit was parked on a slope tilted 11 degrees to the north to maximize sunlight during the southern winter season. 'Tyrone' is an area where the rover's wheels disturbed light-toned soils. Remote sensing and in-situ analyses found the light-toned soil at Tyrone to be sulfate rich and hydrated. The original picture is catalogued as PSP_001513_1655_red and was taken on Sept. 29, 2006. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is operated by the University of Arizona, Tucson, and the instrument was built by Ball Aerospace and Technology Corp., Boulder, Colo.

  20. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  1. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Joop T V M

    2010-01-01

    Political violence, armed conflicts and human rights violations are produced by a variety of political, economic and socio-cultural factors. Conflicts can be analyzed with an interdisciplinary approach to obtain a global understanding of the relative contribution of risk and protective factors. A public health framework was designed to address these risk factors and protective factors. The framework resulted in a matrix that combined primary, secondary and tertiary interventions with their implementation on the levels of the society-at-large, the community, and the family and individual. Subsequently, the risk and protective factors were translated into multi-sectoral, multi-modal and multi-level preventive interventions involving the economy, governance, diplomacy, the military, human rights, agriculture, health, and education. Then the interventions were slotted in their appropriate place in the matrix. The interventions can be applied in an integrative form by international agencies, governments and non-governmental organizations, and molded to meet the requirements of the historic, political-economic and socio-cultural context. The framework maps the complementary fit among the different actors while engaging themselves in preventive, rehabilitative and reconstructive interventions. The framework shows how the economic, diplomatic, political, criminal justice, human rights, military, health and rural development sectors can collaborate to promote peace or prevent the aggravation or continuation of violence. A deeper understanding of the association between risk and protective factors and the developmental pathways of generic, country-specific and culture-specific factors leading to political violence is needed.

  2. Municipalities Collaborating in Public Health: The Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernille Tanggaard Andersen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP’s stakeholders and an analysis of the partnership documents and reports. The findings suggested that the main potentials of the partnership were the personal relations between the members and stakeholders with the possibilities of the creation of new connections with other actors. Barriers to successful partnership building were the implementation of the new Local Government Reform as a competing task, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four factors remain critical for partnerships. The first is the clarity of the collaborative effort. Second, partnerships need to take into account the structural circumstances and culture/value systems of all stakeholders. Third is the impact of contextual factors on the development of the partnership; and the fourth factor is the bearing of personal/individual factors on the partnership e.g., personal engagement in the project. Early attention to these four factors could contribute to more effective partnership working.

  3. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  4. Toward optimal implementation of cancer prevention and control programs in public health: a study protocol on mis-implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padek, Margaret; Allen, Peg; Erwin, Paul C; Franco, Melissa; Hammond, Ross A; Heuberger, Benjamin; Kasman, Matt; Luke, Doug A; Mazzucca, Stephanie; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Brownson, Ross C

    2018-03-23

    Much of the cancer burden in the USA is preventable, through application of existing knowledge. State-level funders and public health practitioners are in ideal positions to affect programs and policies related to cancer control. Mis-implementation refers to ending effective programs and policies prematurely or continuing ineffective ones. Greater attention to mis-implementation should lead to use of effective interventions and more efficient expenditure of resources, which in the long term, will lead to more positive cancer outcomes. This is a three-phase study that takes a comprehensive approach, leading to the elucidation of tactics for addressing mis-implementation. Phase 1: We assess the extent to which mis-implementation is occurring among state cancer control programs in public health. This initial phase will involve a survey of 800 practitioners representing all states. The programs represented will span the full continuum of cancer control, from primary prevention to survivorship. Phase 2: Using data from phase 1 to identify organizations in which mis-implementation is particularly high or low, the team will conduct eight comparative case studies to get a richer understanding of mis-implementation and to understand contextual differences. These case studies will highlight lessons learned about mis-implementation and identify hypothesized drivers. Phase 3: Agent-based modeling will be used to identify dynamic interactions between individual capacity, organizational capacity, use of evidence, funding, and external factors driving mis-implementation. The team will then translate and disseminate findings from phases 1 to 3 to practitioners and practice-related stakeholders to support the reduction of mis-implementation. This study is innovative and significant because it will (1) be the first to refine and further develop reliable and valid measures of mis-implementation of public health programs; (2) bring together a strong, transdisciplinary team with

  5. Public Support for Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act Point-of-Sale Provisions: Results of a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; McNaughton Reyes, Heath Luz; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-10-01

    We assessed public and smoker support for enacted and potential point-of-sale (POS) tobacco-control policies under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. We surveyed a US nationally representative sample of 17, 507 respondents (6595 smokers) in January through February 2013, and used linear regression to calculate weighted point estimates and identify factors associated with support for POS policies among adults and smokers. Overall, nonsmokers were more supportive than were smokers. Regardless of smoking status, African Americans, Hispanics, women, and those of older ages were more supportive than White, male, and younger respondents, respectively. Policy support varied by provision. More than 80% of respondents supported minors' access restrictions and more than 45% supported graphic warnings. Support was lowest for plain packaging (23%), black-and-white advertising (26%), and a ban on menthol cigarettes (36%). Public support for marketing and POS provisions is low relative to other areas of tobacco control. Tobacco-control advocates and the Food and Drug Administration should build on existing levels of public support to promote and maintain evidence-based, but controversial, policy changes in the retail environment.

  6. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  7. Spirit Scans Winter Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand. This view is an approximately true-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  8. Winter fuels report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD's I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD's, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city

  9. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  10. Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sinčak

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives.

  11. Artificial intelligence in public health prevention of legionelosis in drinking water systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinčak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Virčikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-08-21

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives.

  12. Modeling the Movement of Homicide by Type to Inform Public Health Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeoli, April M; Grady, Sue; Pizarro, Jesenia M; Melde, Chris

    2015-10-01

    We modeled the spatiotemporal movement of hotspot clusters of homicide by motive in Newark, New Jersey, to investigate whether different homicide types have different patterns of clustering and movement. We obtained homicide data from the Newark Police Department Homicide Unit's investigative files from 1997 through 2007 (n = 560). We geocoded the address at which each homicide victim was found and recorded the date of and the motive for the homicide. We used cluster detection software to model the spatiotemporal movement of statistically significant homicide clusters by motive, using census tract and month of occurrence as the spatial and temporal units of analysis. Gang-motivated homicides showed evidence of clustering and diffusion through Newark. Additionally, gang-motivated homicide clusters overlapped to a degree with revenge and drug-motivated homicide clusters. Escalating dispute and nonintimate familial homicides clustered; however, there was no evidence of diffusion. Intimate partner and robbery homicides did not cluster. By tracking how homicide types diffuse through communities and determining which places have ongoing or emerging homicide problems by type, we can better inform the deployment of prevention and intervention efforts.

  13. Artificial Intelligence in Public Health Prevention of Legionelosis in Drinking Water Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinčak, Peter; Ondo, Jaroslav; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Virčikova, Maria; Vranayova, Zuzana; Sabol, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Good quality water supplies and safe sanitation in urban areas are a big challenge for governments throughout the world. Providing adequate water quality is a basic requirement for our lives. The colony forming units of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila in potable water represent a big problem which cannot be overlooked for health protection reasons. We analysed several methods to program a virtual hot water tank with AI (artificial intelligence) tools including neuro-fuzzy systems as a precaution against legionelosis. The main goal of this paper is to present research which simulates the temperature profile in the water tank. This research presents a tool for a water management system to simulate conditions which are able to prevent legionelosis outbreaks in a water system. The challenge is to create a virtual water tank simulator including the water environment which can simulate a situation which is common in building water distribution systems. The key feature of the presented system is its adaptation to any hot water tank. While respecting the basic parameters of hot water, a water supplier and building maintainer are required to ensure the predefined quality and water temperature at each sampling site and avoid the growth of Legionella. The presented system is one small contribution how to overcome a situation when legionelosis could find good conditions to spread and jeopardize human lives. PMID:25153475

  14. OCRWM Bulletin, Winter 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication describes activities associated with the United States Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Program. Activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project are described

  15. Successful prevention of the transmission of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in a Brazilian public teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Alves Ferreira Rossini

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE can colonize or cause infections in high-risk patients and contaminate the environment. Our objective was to describe theepidemiological investigation of an outbreak of VRE, the interventions made, and their impact on its control. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, descriptive, non-comparative study by reviewing the charts of patients with a VRE-positive culture in the University Hospital of Campinas State University, comprising 380 beds, 40 of which were in intensive care units (ICUs, who were admitted from February 2008-January 2009. Interventions were divided into educational activity, reviewing the workflow processes, engineering measures, and administrative procedures. RESULTS: There were 150 patients, 139 (92.7% colonized and 11 (7.3% infected. Seventy-three percent were cared for in non-ICUs (p = 0.028. Infection was more frequent in patients with a central-line (p = 0.043, mechanical ventilation (p = 0.013, urinary catheter (p = 0.049, or surgical drain (p = 0.049. Vancomycin, metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, and third-generation cephalosporin were previously used by 47 (31.3%, 31 (20.7%, 24 (16%, and 24 (16% patients, respectively. Death was more frequent in infected (73% than in colonized (17% patients (p < 0.001. After the interventions, the attack rate fell from 1.49 to 0.33 (p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Classical risk factors for VRE colonization or infection, e.g., being cared for in an ICU and previous use of vancomycin, were not found in this study. The conjunction of an educational program, strict adhesion to contact precautions, and reinforcement of environmental cleaning were able to prevent the dissemination of VRE.

  16. Factors related to main preventable perinatal injuries of public hospital in the Brazilian Federal District.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Padilha BRITO

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The quality of prenatal care, childbirth and newborn are determinants of perinatal morbidity and mortality. The realization of a adequate prenatal care and skilled birth assistance would reduce the incidence of injuries and perinatal deaths that are largely preventable. Method: Descriptive and exploratory study of quantitative and qualitative nature.  Interview and review of medical records of thirty mothers and newborns were made. The results were chart using the SPSS software, version 20.0, for processing and statistical analysis. We performed thematic analysis of interviews, and tabulated according to their frequencies, identifying the differences and similarities between data. Results: The most frequent perinatal injuries were prematurity (74.2%, Respiratory Distress (71%, Underweight (51.6%, Infection or Sepsis (41.9%, Perinatal Asphyxia (19.4%  and Oligohydramnio (19.4%. These injuries were related to several factors such as inadequate prenatal care, with fewer than six prenatal consultations (70% and late onset (50%, and presence of maternal health problems such as: changes in amniotic fluid (50% and preterm labor (50%. The interviewees added other factors such as failures in the care professional (43%, failures in care and service (33%, difficulty of access (19% and breast self-care failures (16.6%. Conclusion: Stood out in this study the occurrence of perinatal injuries in children of mothers with stable socio-demographic profile and in term newborns as also the percentage of deaths (16.1%. The perinatal injuries and deaths could have been avoided with qualified prenatal care, childbirth and newborn care.

  17. Information to the public on risk prevention arising from energy production in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannangeli, C.A.; Bermudez, L.A.; Sanchez, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The lack of knowledge about ionizing radiation and the fear connected with their pacific applications, is a matchless fact, which is relevant in our society, promoting and important controversy. Several origin lines meet in this point: non pacific uses of nuclear energy, Chernobyl accident, final disposal of radioactive wastes, and manipulation of information against nuclear power. They are based on emotional strategies, producing a detriment in the value of impartial information, which lays in a secondary place. The aim of this paper is to analyze the conditions of a communication process, to transmit objective information about radiation, in different levels of reception, and present guide lines to socially relevant institutions, including physicians and health stations as well as public in general, in terms of training and contacts with groups closely related with radiation knowledge. To do this, a survey in a radius of 50 km around the nuclear stations to determine the factors affecting the perception of radiation risks was carried out. The results showed three outstanding factors: 'fear', 'ignorance' and 'exposed population' with different points of view related to the social context and individual characteristics of surveyed people. Within this framework, a health system for radiological events in three level of organization, as well as training programs and evaluation of the systems to face such events, is published. (author) [es

  18. Alcohol and public health in Africa: can we prevent alcohol-related harm from increasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Borges, Carina; Dias, Sonia; Babor, Thomas; Esser, Marissa B; Parry, Charles D H

    2015-09-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the total amount of alcohol consumed in the African region is expected to increase due to the growth of new alcohol consumers, especially young people and women. With the changing alcohol environment, increases in the alcohol-attributable burden of disease are inevitable. To our knowledge, there has not been a comprehensive analysis of the factors that could be driving those increases. The objective of this study was to examine the evidence from peer reviewed literature regarding the factors that could be instrumental in this process, in order to inform strategic policy-related decisions. A narrative review was conducted using a thematic analysis approach. We searched papers published between January 2000 and July 2014 in PubMed, the WHO's Global Health Library and African Journals Online. Our analysis identified seven factors (demographics, rapid urbanization, economic development, increased availability, corporate targeting, weak policy infrastructure and trade agreements) which are potentially tied to changes in alcohol consumption in Africa. Driven largely by globalization, a potential convergence of these various factors is likely to be associated with continued growth in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. To address the emerging risk factors associated with increased alcohol consumption, African governments need to take a more active role in protecting the public's health. In particular, important strategic shifts are needed to increase implementation of intersectoral strategies, community involvement in the policy dialogue, health services re-orientation and better regulation of the alcohol beverage industry. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Home Improvements Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Falls and Older Adults Home Improvements Prevent Falls Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table ... and ensure your safety. "Safe-ty-fy" Your Home Some Questions for Your Provider Will my medicines ...

  20. Dementia Prevention: optimizing the use of observational data for personal, clinical, and public health decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacks, Penny A; Andrieu, Sandrine; Blacker, Deborah; Carman, Aaron J; Green, Allan M; Grodstein, Francine; Henderson, Victor W; James, Bryan D; Lane, Rachel F; Lau, Joseph; Lin, Pei-Jung; Reeves, Barnaby C; Shah, Raj C; Vellas, Bruno; Yaffe, Kristine; Yurko-Mauro, Karin; Shineman, Diana W; Bennett, David A; Fillit, Howard M

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide, over 35 million people suffer from Alzheimer's disease and related dementias. This number is expected to triple over the next 40 years. How can we improve the evidence supporting strategies to reduce the rate of dementia in future generations? The risk of dementia is likely influenced by modifiable factors such as exercise, cognitive activity, and the clinical management of diabetes and hypertension. However, the quality of evidence is limited and it remains unclear whether specific interventions to reduce these modifiable risk factors can, in turn, reduce the risk of dementia. Although randomized controlled trials are the gold-standard for causality, the majority of evidence for long-term dementia prevention derives from, and will likely continue to derive from, observational studies. Although observational research has some unavoidable limitations, its utility for dementia prevention might be improved by, for example, better distinction between confirmatory and exploratory research, higher reporting standards, investment in effectiveness research enabled by increased data-pooling, and standardized exposure and outcome measures. Informed decision-making by the general public on low-risk health choices that could have broad potential benefits could be enabled by internet-based tools and decision-aids to communicate the evidence, its quality, and the estimated magnitude of effect.

  1. Vested interests in addiction research and policy. Alcohol industry use of social aspect public relations organizations against preventative health measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter G; de Groot, Florentine; McKenzie, Stephen; Droste, Nicolas

    2011-09-01

    It has been proposed that alcohol industry 'social aspects/public relations' organizations (SAPROs) serve the agenda of lending credibility to industry claims of corporate responsibility while promoting ineffective industry-friendly interventions (such as school-based education or TV advertising campaigns) and creating doubt about interventions which have a strong evidence base (such as higher taxes on alcoholic beverages). This paper investigated whether submissions to Australia's National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) from alcohol industry bodies regarding the Australian SAPRO, Drinkwise, have used this organization to demonstrate corporate responsibility while promoting industry-friendly interventions. Submissions to the Australian National Preventative Health Taskforce (NPHT) discussion paper Australia, the healthiest country by 2020 (n = 375) were examined to identify those with primary alcohol content. A thematic analysis of the resulting 33 submissions was conducted to determine which organization, institution or individual discussed Drinkwise. Australia. Nine of the 33 submissions discussed Drinkwise; all were submitted by the alcohol industry or its affiliates. Every industry submission referred to Drinkwise either as providing evidence of social responsibility or by suggesting the industry-friendly actions of Drinkwise as alternatives to those recommended by the NPHT report. Drinkwise has been used by the alcohol industry to create an impression of social responsibility while promoting interventions that maintain profits and campaigning against effective interventions such as higher taxes on alcohol. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Trends in news coverage about skin cancer prevention, 1993-2006: increasingly mixed messages for the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie; Dixon, Helen

    2008-10-01

    To provide a comprehensive overview of trends in news coverage about sun protection issues in an Australian setting over a 14-year period. A content analysis was performed on all relevant articles (N=547) published in two major daily newspapers, The Age and the Herald Sun, from 1993 to 2006. Articles were coded for article type, prominence, theme, spokesperson, topic slant and opinion slant. The most frequent themes were the health effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure (24% of articles), education/prevention (14%) and product issues (12%). Themes that became more dominant over time were vitamin D issues, solaria issues and fake tans. Sixty per cent of articles included a pro-sun protection spokesperson and 12% an anti-sun protection spokesperson, with the profile of anti-sun protection spokespeople increasing over time. Half the articles reported on topics positive for sun protection, whereas 18% reported on negative topics; however, this difference narrowed considerably from 2001 onwards. In opinionated articles, the opinions expressed by authors were mainly positive (57%) rather than negative (7%) for sun protection. The findings suggest that the mix of sun protection issues covered and views of sun protection have changed over time, resulting in greater coverage of controversies and issues not necessarily positive for sun protection objectives. These findings imply that evaluation of paid skin cancer prevention public education campaigns may need to take account of the changing news media environment in which they take place.

  3. Vaginal progesterone to prevent preterm birth in pregnant women with a sonographic short cervix: clinical and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a sonographic short cervix is an efficacious and safe intervention used to prevent preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The clinical and public health implications of this approach in the United States have been critically appraised and compared to other therapeutic interventions in obstetrics. Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a transvaginal sonographic cervical length (CL) ≤25 mm before 25 weeks of gestation is associated with a significant and substantial reduction of the risk for preterm birth from effects have been achieved in women with a singleton gestation, with or without a history of spontaneous preterm birth, and did not differ significantly as a function of CL (effectiveness and decision analyses have shown that the combination of universal transvaginal CL screening and vaginal progesterone administration to women with a short cervix is a cost-effective intervention that prevents preterm birth and associated perinatal morbidity and mortality. Universal assessment of CL and treatment with vaginal progesterone for singleton gestations in the United States would result in an annual reduction of approximately 30,000 preterm births before 34 weeks of gestation and of 17,500 cases of major neonatal morbidity or neonatal mortality. In summary, there is compelling evidence to recommend universal transvaginal CL screening at 18-24 weeks of gestation in women with a singleton gestation and to offer vaginal progesterone to those with a CL ≤25 mm, regardless of the history of spontaneous preterm birth, with the goal of preventing preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Interventions to prevent misconduct and promote integrity in research and publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Ana; Wager, Elizabeth; Utrobicic, Ana; Rothstein, Hannah R; Sambunjak, Dario

    2016-04-04

    Improper practices and unprofessional conduct in clinical research have been shown to waste a significant portion of healthcare funds and harm public health. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of educational or policy interventions in research integrity or responsible conduct of research on the behaviour and attitudes of researchers in health and other research areas. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, LILACS and CINAHL health research bibliographical databases, as well as the Academic Search Complete, AGRICOLA, GeoRef, PsycINFO, ERIC, SCOPUS and Web of Science databases. We performed the last search on 15 April 2015 and the search was limited to articles published between 1990 and 2014, inclusive. We also searched conference proceedings and abstracts from research integrity conferences and specialized websites. We handsearched 14 journals that regularly publish research integrity research. We included studies that measured the effects of one or more interventions, i.e. any direct or indirect procedure that may have an impact on research integrity and responsible conduct of research in its broadest sense, where participants were any stakeholders in research and publication processes, from students to policy makers. We included randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, such as controlled before-and-after studies, with comparisons of outcomes in the intervention versus non-intervention group or before versus after the intervention. Studies without a control group were not included in the review. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. To assess the risk of bias in non-randomized studies, we used a modified Cochrane tool, in which we used four out of six original domains (blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, other sources of bias) and two additional domains (comparability of groups and confounding factors). We categorized our primary outcome into the following levels: 1) organizational change

  5. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-Dougan & Lee, 2010. The purpose of this study was to extend these findings to test critical aspects of suicide prevention billboard messaging. Although both simulated billboard messages presented had identical supporting messages, we predicted that the more personal billboard message, focused on saving one’s life, would cause more favorable help-seeking attitudes than the message focused on suicide. Young adult university students (N = 785 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions; one of two billboard simulations or a TV ad simulation. Help-seeking attitudes, maladaptive coping and reports of concern and distress were evaluated. The results of this study suggest some relative benefits in endorsement of favorable help-seeking attitudes for one of the billboard conditions - Stop depression from taking another life. Although further research is needed to determine what methods will alter the risk for suicide in the population, the results of this study provide a useful first step showing that some billboard messaging may favorably influence help-seeking attitudes.

  6. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  7. OCRWM Bulletin, Winter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This publication describes activities associated with the United States Department of Energy`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Program. Activities at the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project are described.

  8. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  9. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  10. An Examination of the Perceived Importance and Skills Related to Policies and Policy Making Among State Public Health Injury Prevention Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liller, Karen D; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Castrucci, Brian; Wingate, Martha Slay; Hilson, Renata; Mendez, Dara; Cilenti, Dorothy; Raskind, Ilana

    The purpose of this research is to use the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey to assess in greater detail state injury prevention staff perceptions of policy development and related skills and their awareness and perception of "Health in All Policies" (HiAP). The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey gauged public health practitioners' perspectives on workplace environment, job satisfaction, national trends, and training needs, and gathered demographics on the workforce. This study utilizes data from the state health agency frame only, focusing solely on those permanently employed, central office staff in injury prevention. Respondents were sampled from 5 paired Health and Human Services regions. Approximately 25 000 invitations were sent to central office employees. The response rate was 46% (n = 10 246). The analysis in this article includes only injury prevention employees with programmatic roles, excluding clerical and custodial staff, providing us with a total of 97 respondents. When weighted, this resulted in a weighted population size of 365 injury prevention workers. The main outcome measures include demographics, responses to understanding of and skill levels related to policy development, and perceptions of HiAP public health trend. State injury prevention workers reported lower policy-making skill but had an overall appreciation of the importance of policies. In general, state injury prevention workers heard of HiAP, thought there should be more emphasis on it, but did not think that HiAP would have an impact on their day-to-day work. Efforts are needed for all state injury prevention workers to become better skilled in policy development, implementation, and evaluation in order to become stronger injury prevention advocates and role models.

  11. History of Injury and Violence as public health problems and emergence of the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleet, David A; Baldwin, Grant; Marr, Angela; Spivak, Howard; Patterson, Sara; Morrison, Christine; Holmes, Wendy; Peeples, Amy B; Degutis, Linda C

    2012-09-01

    Injuries and violence are among the oldest health problems facing humans. Only within the past 50 years, however, has the problem been addressed with scientific rigor using public health methods. The field of injury control began as early as 1913, but wasn't approached systematically or epidemiologically until the 1940s and 1950s. It accelerated rapidly between 1960 and 1985. Coupled with active federal and state interest in reducing injuries and violence, this period was marked by important medical, scientific, and public health advances. The National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) was an outgrowth of this progress and in 2012 celebrated its 20th anniversary. NCIPC was created in 1992 after a series of government reports identified injury as one of the most important public health problems facing the nation. Congressional action provided the impetus for the creation of NCIPC as the lead federal agency for non-occupational injury and violence prevention. In subsequent years, NCIPC and its partners fostered many advances and built strong capacity. Because of the tragically high burden and cost of injuries and violence in the United States and around the globe, researchers, practitioners, and decision makers will need to redouble prevention efforts in the next 20 years. This article traces the history of injury and violence prevention as a public health priority-- including the evolution and current structure of the CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. [New Scientific Evidence-based Public Health Guidelines and Practical Manual for Prevention of Sick House Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Araki, Atsuko; Saijo, Yasuaki; Azuma, Kenichi; Kawai, Toshio; Yamato, Hiroshi; Osawa, Haruki; Shibata, Eiji; Tanaka, Masatoshi; Masuchi, Ayumi; Minatoya, Machiko; Ait Bamai, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we have published a book containing evidence-based public health guidelines and a practical manual for the prevention of sick house syndrome. The manual is available through the homepage of the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (http://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-11130500-Shokuhinanzenbu/0000155147.pdf). It is an almost completely revised version of the 2009 version. The coauthors are 13 specialists in environmental epidemiology, exposure sciences, architecture, and risk communication. Since the 1970s, health problems caused by indoor chemicals, biological pollution, poor temperature control, humidity, and others in office buildings have been recognized as sick building syndrome (SBS) in Western countries, but in Japan it was not until the 1990s that people living in new or renovated homes started to describe a variety of nonspecific subjective symptoms such as eye, nose, and throat irritation, headache, and general fatigue. These symptoms resembled SBS and were designated "sick house syndrome (SHS)." To determine the strategy for prevention of SHS, we conducted a nationwide epidemiological study in six cities from 2003-2013 by randomly sampling 5,709 newly built houses. As a result 1,479 residents in 425 households agreed to environmental monitoring for indoor aldehydes and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). After adjustment for possible risk factors, some VOCs and formaldehyde were dose-dependently shown to be significant risk factors. We also studied the dampness of the houses, fungi, allergies, and others. This book is fully based on the scientific evidence collected through these studies and other newly obtained information, especially from the aspect of architectural engineering. In addition to SHS, we included chapters on recent information about "multi-chemical sensitivity."

  13. Public health impact and economic evaluation of vitamin D-fortified dairy products for fracture prevention in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiligsmann, M; Burlet, N; Fardellone, P; Al-Daghri, N; Reginster, J-Y

    2017-03-01

    The recommended intake of vitamin D-fortified dairy products can substantially decrease the burden of osteoporotic fractures and seems an economically beneficial strategy in the general French population aged over 60 years. This study aims to assess the public health and economic impact of vitamin D-fortified dairy products in the general French population aged over 60 years. We estimated the lifetime health impacts expressed in number of fractures prevented, life years gained, and quality-adjusted life years (QALY) gained of the recommended intake of dairy products in the general French population over 60 years for 1 year (2015). A validated microsimulation model was used to simulate three age cohorts for both women and men (60-69, 70-79, and >80 years). The incremental cost per QALY gained of vitamin D-fortified dairy products compared to the absence of appropriate intake was estimated in different populations, assuming the cost of two dairy products per day in base case. The total lifetime number of fractures decreased by 64,932 for the recommended intake of dairy products in the general population over 60 years, of which 46,472 and 18,460 occurred in women and men, respectively. In particular, 15,087 and 4413 hip fractures could be prevented in women and men. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products also resulted in 32,569 QALYs and 29,169 life years gained. The cost per QALY gained of appropriate dairy intake was estimated at €58,244 and fall below a threshold of €30,000 per QALY gained in women over 70 years and in men over 80 years. Vitamin D-fortified dairy products have the potential to substantially reduce the burden of osteoporotic fractures in France and seem an economically beneficial strategy, especially in the general population aged above 70 years.

  14. Bridging the gap between public health and primary care in prevention of cardiometabolic diseases: background of and experiences with the Prevention Consultation in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assendelft, W.J.J.; Nielen, M.M.J.; Hettinga, D.M.; Meer, V. van der; Vliet, M. van; Drenthen, A.J.M.; Schellevis, F.G.; Oosterhout, M.J.W. van

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is an increasing need for programmatic prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease). Therefore, in the Netherlands, a prevention programme linked to primary care has been developed. This initiative was supported by the

  15. Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Winter/Summer Monsoon Experiment (MONEX) was conducted during the First Global GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Experiment (FGGE). An international...

  16. Integrating weight bias awareness and mental health promotion into obesity prevention delivery: a public health pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Gail L; Walker, Kathryn S; Beyers, Joanne; Harrison, Heather L; Simkins, Sari W; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2013-04-04

    Promoting healthy weight is a top priority in Canada. Recent federal guidelines call for sustained, multisectoral partnerships that address childhood obesity on multiple levels. Current healthy weight messaging does not fully acknowledge the influence of social determinants of health on weight. An interactive workshop was developed and implemented by a team of academic researchers and health promoters from the psychology and public health disciplines to raise awareness about 1) weight bias and its negative effect on health, 2) ways to balance healthy weight messaging to prevent the triggering of weight and shape preoccupation, and 3) the incorporation of mental health promotion into healthy weight messaging. We conducted a full-day workshop with 342 Ontario public health promoters and administered a survey at preintervention, postintervention, and follow-up. Participation in the full-day workshop led to significant decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes and to significant increases in self-efficacy to address weight bias. Participants reported that the training heightened their awareness of their own personal weight biases and the need to broaden their scope of healthy weight promotion to include mental health promotion. There was consensus that additional sessions are warranted to help translate knowledge into action. Buy-in and resource support at the organizational level was also seen as pivotal. Professional development training in the area of weight bias awareness is associated with decreases in antifat attitudes and the internalization of media stereotypes around thinness. Health promoters' healthy weight messaging was improved by learning to avoid messages that trigger weight and shape preoccupation or unhealthful eating practices among children and youth. Participants also learned ways to integrate mental health promotion and resiliency-building into daily practice.

  17. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Xu, Xianglong; Shi, Zumin; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic d...

  18. The meaning of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the history and origins of the basic ideas underlying nuclear winter; and findings and predictions of several groups regarding this topic. The author reviews some of the further developments and scientific analyses regarding nuclear winter since the initial announcements of 1983, touching on some of the revisions and controversies and trying to indicate the current status of the field

  19. Weather Support for the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horel, J.; Potter, T.; Dunn, L.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Eubank, M.; Splitt, M.; Onton, D. J.

    2002-02-01

    The 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will be hosted by Salt Lake City, Utah, during February-March 2002. Adverse weather during this period may delay sporting events, while snow and ice-covered streets and highways may impede access by the athletes and spectators to the venues. While winter snowstorms and other large-scale weather systems typically have widespread impacts throughout northern Utah, hazardous winter weather is often related to local terrain features (the Wasatch Mountains and Great Salt Lake are the most prominent ones). Examples of such hazardous weather include lake-effect snowstorms, ice fog, gap winds, downslope windstorms, and low visibility over mountain passes.A weather support system has been developed to provide weather information to the athletes, games officials, spectators, and the interested public around the world. This system is managed by the Salt Lake Olympic Committee and relies upon meteorologists from the public, private, and academic sectors of the atmospheric science community. Weather forecasting duties will be led by National Weather Service forecasters and a team of private, weather forecasters organized by KSL, the Salt Lake City NBC television affiliate. Other government agencies, commercial firms, and the University of Utah are providing specialized forecasts and support services for the Olympics. The weather support system developed for the 2002 Winter Olympics is expected to provide long-term benefits to the public through improved understanding,monitoring, and prediction of winter weather in the Intermountain West.

  20. Minimizing casualties in biological and chemical threats (war and terrorism): the importance of information to the public in a prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noy, Shabtai

    2004-01-01

    The most effective means of defending against biological or chemical warfare, whether in war or as a result of terror, is the use of primary prevention. The main goal of such a prevention program is to minimize the human loss by reducing the number of casualties (fatalities, physical wounds, and psychological injury). A secondary objective is to prevent the widespread sense of helplessness in the general population. These two aims complement each other. The more the public is active in defending itself, rather than viewing itself as helpless, the lesser the expected number of casualties of any kind. In order to achieve these two goals, educating the civilian population about risk factors and pointing out appropriate defensive strategies is critical. In the absence of an effective prevention program and active participation by the public, there is a high risk for massive numbers of physical and psychological casualties. An essential ingredient of any preventive program, which ultimately may determine the success or failure of all other protective actions, is early, gradual dissemination of information and guidance to the public, so that citizens can become active participants in the program. The public needs to be given information concerning the nature of the threat and effective methods of coping with it, should an unconventional attack occur. Lack of such adaptive behavior (such as wearing protective gear) is likely to bring about vast numbers of physical and psychological casualties. These large numbers may burden the medical, political, and public safety systems beyond their ability to manage. Failure to provide reasonable prevention and effective interventions can lead to a destruction of the social and emotional fabric of individuals and the society. Furthermore, inadequate preparation, education, and communication can result in the development of damaging mistrust of the political and military leadership, disintegration of social and political structures

  1. The Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl and Its Use to Estimate the Health Impact of Public Health Policy Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scarborough

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Noncommunicable disease (NCD scenario models are an essential part of the public health toolkit, allowing for an estimate of the health impact of population-level interventions that are not amenable to assessment by standard epidemiological study designs (e.g., health-related food taxes and physical infrastructure projects and extrapolating results from small samples to the whole population. The PRIME (Preventable Risk Integrated ModEl is an openly available NCD scenario model that estimates the effect of population-level changes in diet, physical activity, and alcohol and tobacco consumption on NCD mortality. The structure and methods employed in the PRIME are described here in detail, including the development of open source code that will support a PRIME web application to be launched in 2015. This paper reviews scenario results from eleven papers that have used the PRIME, including estimates of the impact of achieving government recommendations for healthy diets, health-related food taxes and subsidies, and low-carbon diets. Future challenges for NCD scenario modelling, including the need for more comparisons between models and the improvement of future prediction of NCD rates, are also discussed.

  2. The lack of eye care preventive services in public health leads to an increase of progressive blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clecilene Gomes CARVALHO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a serious public health problem. In Brazil, it is estimated that there are 1 million 100 thousandblind and about four million visually impaired, 80% of blindness in the world are predictable causes and / or treatable.Considering the epidemiological importance of eye diseases and magnitude of blindness in Brazil, saw the need for aliterature review in order to understand the problem for future interventions. The survey results showed that: the maincauses of blindness are diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and an alarming number ofchildhood blindness due to various causes, the progressive increase of blindness is attributed to several factors, inparticular, the lack eye care, lack of infrastructure, organization, financial resources, which are aggravated by poverty,misinformation, inequality of the population and the absence / lack of educational efforts, despite the alarming statisticsand the gradual increase in blindness, has no effective measure to control it. The model of care in ophthalmologycurative until then, highlights the need for urgent action to ensure eye care in primary health care, thus allowing toensure the completeness, quality, equity in service of disease prevention, promotion, recovery and rehabilitation of eyehealth .

  3. Communication training improves sense of performance expectancy of public health nurses engaged in long-term elderly prevention care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Motoko; Suzukamo, Yoshimi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Izumi, Sin-Ichi

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a communication skill training based on a coaching theory for public health nurses (PHNs) who are engaged in Japan's long-term care prevention program. The participants in this study included 112 PHNs and 266 service users who met with these PHNs in order to create a customized care plan within one month after the PHNs' training. The participants were divided into three groups: a supervised group in which the PHNs attended the 1-day training seminar and the follow-up supervision; a seminar group attended only the 1-day training seminar; a control group. The PHNs' sense of performance expectancy, and user's satisfaction, user's spontaneous behavior were evaluated at the baseline (T1), at one month (T2), and at three months (T3) after the PHNs' training. At T3, the PHNs performed a recalled evaluation (RE) of their communication skills before the training. The PHNs' sense of performance expectancy increased significantly over time in the supervised group and the control group (F = 11.28, P < 0.001; F = 4.03, P < 0.05, resp.). The difference score between T3-RE was significantly higher in the supervised group than the control group (P < 0.01). No significant differences in the users' outcomes were found.

  4. Stay Warm in Winter (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-26

    Hypothermia occurs when the core body temperature is less than 95 degrees. This podcast discusses strategies to prevent hypothermia due to frigid winters temperatures.  Created: 2/26/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 2/26/2015.

  5. The impact of winter cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, João; Freire, Elisabete; Almendra, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Mortality due to cardiovascular diseases shows a seasonal trend that can be associated with cold weather. Portugal is the European country with the highest excess winter mortality, but nevertheless, the relationship between cold weather and health is yet to be assessed. The main aim of this study is to identify the contribution of cold weather to cardiovascular diseases within Portugal. Poisson regression analysis based on generalized additive models was applied to estimate the influence of a human-biometeorological index (PET) on daily hospitalizations for myocardial infarction. The main results revealed a negative effect of cold weather on acute myocardial infarctions in Portugal. For every degree fall in PET during winter, there was an increase of up to 2.2% (95% CI = 0.9%; 3.3%) in daily hospital admissions. This paper shows the need for public policies that will help minimize or, indeed, prevent exposure to cold. -- Highlights: ► We model the relationship between daily hospitalizations due to myocardial infarctions and cold weather in Portugal. ► We use Physiological Equivalent temperature (PET) as main explanatory variable. ► We adjust the models to confounding factors such as influenza and air pollution. ► Daily hospitalizations increased up to 2.2% per degree fall of PET during winter. ► Exposure to cold weather has a negative impact on human health in Portugal. -- There is an increase of up to 2.2% in daily hospitalizations due to acute myocardial infarctions per degree fall of thermal index during the winter months in Portugal

  6. Emerging Ecological Approaches to Prevention, Health Promotion, and Public Health in the School Context: Next Steps from a Community Psychology Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Edison J.; Rowe, Hillary L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, ecological perspectives have become more visible in prevention, health promotion, and public health within the school context. Individually based approaches to understanding and changing behavior have been increasingly challenged by these perspectives because of their appreciation for contextual influences on individual behavior.…

  7. Public Commitment, Resistance to Advertising, and Leisure Promotion in a School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Program: A Component Dismantling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W.; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Espada, Mireia; Orgilés José P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the…

  8. 78 FR 69853 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group''). The meeting will be open to the public. Information...

  9. 78 FR 48877 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group''). The meeting will be open to the public. Information...

  10. 77 FR 33220 - Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... Integrative and Public Health; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group''). The web meeting will be open to the public. The agenda...

  11. 78 FR 38345 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Surgeon General of the United States Public Health Service, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of the Secretary, Department... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group''). The meeting will be open to the public. [[Page 38346...

  12. 78 FR 14798 - Meeting of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the... Public Health Service. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with Section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory... and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group''). The meeting will be open to the public. Information about...

  13. Public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion in a school-based drug abuse prevention program: a component dismantling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Serrano, Olga; Griffin, Kenneth W; García-Fernández, José Manuel; Orgilés, Mireia; Espada, José P

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the contribution of three intervention components (public commitment, resistance to advertising, and leisure promotion) on alcohol and protective variables in a school-based substance use prevention program. Participants included 480 Spanish students aged from 14 to 16 who received the Saluda prevention program in one of the following five experimental conditions: complete program, program minus public commitment, program minus resistance to advertising, program minus leisure promotion, and a waiting-list control. The students completed self-report surveys at pretest, posttest, and 6-month follow-up assessments. When excluding the healthy leisure promotion component, the Saluda program showed no loss of efficacy neither on alcohol use nor on other substance-related variables, while public commitment and resistance to advertising improved the aforementioned program's efficacy.

  14. Prevention and surveillance of public health risks during extended mass gatherings in rural areas: the experience of the Tamworth Country Music Festival, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkinghorne, B G; Massey, P D; Durrheim, D N; Byrnes, T; MacIntyre, C R

    2013-01-01

    To describe and evaluate the public health response to the Tamworth Country Music Festival, an annual extended mass gathering in rural New South Wales, Australia; and to propose a framework for responding to similar rural mass gatherings. Process evaluation by direct observation, archival analysis and focus group discussion. The various components of the public health response to the 2011 Tamworth Country Music Festival were actively recorded. An archival review of documentation from 2007 to 2010 was performed to provide context. A focus group was also conducted to discuss the evolution of the public health response and the consequences of public health involvement. Public health risks increased with increasing duration of the rural mass gathering. Major events held within the rural mass gathering further strained resources. The prevention, preparedness, response and recovery principles provided a useful framework for public health actions. Particular risks included inadequately trained food preparation volunteers functioning in poorly equipped temporary facilities, heat-related ailments and arboviral disease. Extended mass gatherings in rural areas pose particular public health challenges; surge capacity is limited and local infrastructure may be overwhelmed in the event of an acute incident or outbreak. There is value in proactive public health surveillance and monitoring. Annual mass gatherings provide opportunities for continual systems improvement. Early multi-agency planning can identify key risks and identify opportunities for partnership. Special consideration is required for major events within mass gatherings. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent advances in sustainable winter road operations – a book proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    Investing in winter transportation operations is essential and beneficial to the public and the economy. The U.S. economy cannot afford the cost of shutting down highways, airports, etc., during winter weather. In the northern U.S. and other cold-cli...

  16. 77 FR 42313 - Recharter of the Advisory Group on Prevention, Health Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health, Office of... Promotion, and Integrative and Public Health. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Corinne Graffunder... Integrative and Public Health (the ``Advisory Group'') within the Department of Health and Human Services. To...

  17. Collaborative leadership and the implementation of community-based fall prevention initiatives: a multiple case study of public health practice within community groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Dykeman, Cathy; Ploeg, Jenny; Kelly Stradiotto, Caralyn; Andrews, Angela; Bonomo, Susan; Orr-Shaw, Sarah; Salker, Niyati

    2017-02-16

    Falls among community-dwelling older adults are a serious public health concern. While evidence-based fall prevention strategies are available, their effective implementation requires broad cross-sector coordination that is beyond the capacity of any single institution or organization. Community groups comprised of diverse stakeholders that include public health, care providers from the public and private sectors and citizen volunteers are working to deliver locally-based fall prevention. These groups are examples of collective impact and are important venues for public health professionals (PHPs) to deliver their mandate to work collaboratively towards achieving improved health outcomes. This study explores the process of community-based group work directed towards fall prevention, and it focuses particular attention on the collaborative leadership practices of PHPs, in order to advance understanding of the competencies required for collective impact. Four community groups, located in Ontario, Canada, were studied using an exploratory, retrospective, multiple case study design. The criteria for inclusion were presence of a PHP, a diverse membership and the completion of an initiative that fit within the scope of the World Health Organization Fall Prevention Model. Data were collected using interviews (n = 26), focus groups (n = 4), and documents. Cross-case synthesis was conducted by a collaborative team of researchers. The community groups differed by membership, the role of the PHP and the type of fall prevention initiatives. Seven practice themes emerged: (1) tailoring to address context; (2) making connections; (3) enabling communication; (4) shaping a vision; (5) skill-building to mobilize and take action; (6) orchestrating people and projects; and (7) contributing information and experience. The value of recognized leadership competencies was underscored and the vital role of institutional supports was highlighted. To align stakeholders working

  18. Identifying the public's concerns and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's reactions during a health crisis: An analysis of a Zika live Twitter chat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M; Lazard, Allison J; Wilcox, Gary B; Mackert, Michael; Bernhardt, Jay M

    2016-12-01

    The arrival of the Zika virus in the United States caused much concern among the public because of its ease of transmission and serious consequences for pregnant women and their newborns. We conducted a text analysis to examine original tweets from the public and responses from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during a live Twitter chat hosted by the CDC. Both the public and the CDC expressed concern about the spread of Zika virus, but the public showed more concern about the consequences it had for women and babies, whereas the CDC focused more on symptoms and education. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Act No. 87-565 of 22 July 1987 on the organization of public safety measures, forestry protection against fires and the prevention of major risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    As defined by this Act, the objective of the public safety measures is to prevent all types of major risks and to protect persons, property and the environment, including forests, against accidents, disasters and catastrophes. It deals with the conditions for preparing preventive measures and for implementing necessary measures in case of major risks or accidents. The preparation and organization of assistance are determined within the framework of ORSEC (ORganisation des SECours) plans and emergency plans; the first assess the possibilities for facing up to disasters while the latter provide for measures and means to overcome a particular risk [fr

  20. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this…

  1. Public health capacity building in southeastern Europe: a partnership between the Open Society Institute and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Noah; Brborovic, Ognjen; Fimka, Tozija; Robie, Brian D; Bull, David L; Spasovski, Mome; Baker, Edward L

    2005-01-01

    The political disintegration of former Yugoslavia inaugurated in 1991 resulted in the decentralization of health systems in the federation's successor nation-states. Efforts by the Open Society Institute improved public health planning and management needs consequent to health sector changes. Beginning in Croatia in 2001, the Institute developed ongoing collaborations between Andrija Stampar School of Public Health and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2003 and 2004, it expanded its project to include the republics of Macedonia and of Serbia and Montenegro.

  2. Detecting themes of public concern: a text mining analysis of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Ebola live Twitter chat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Allison J; Scheinfeld, Emily; Bernhardt, Jay M; Wilcox, Gary B; Suran, Melissa

    2015-10-01

    A diagnosis of Ebola on US soil triggered widespread panic. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention held a live Twitter chat to address public concerns. This study applied a textual analytics method to reveal insights from these tweets that can inform communication strategies. User-generated tweets were collected, sorted, and analyzed to reveal major themes. The public was concerned with symptoms and lifespan of the virus, disease transfer and contraction, safe travel, and protection of one's body. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Transfer Entails Communication: The Public Understanding of (Social) Science as a Stage and a Play for Implementing Evidence-Based Prevention Knowledge and Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromme, Rainer; Beelmann, Andreas

    2018-04-01

    Many social science-based interventions entail the transfer of evidence-based knowledge to the "target population," because the acquisition and the acceptance of that knowledge are necessary for the intended improvement of behavior or development. Furthermore, the application of a certain prevention program is often legitimated by a reference to science-based reasons such as an evaluation according to scientific standards. Hence, any implementation of evidence-based knowledge and programs is embedded in the public understanding of (social) science. Based on recent research on such public understanding of science, we shall discuss transfer as a process of science communication.

  4. Street Children Discourses in Russia and Cuba : A Comparative Study aimed at Developing Preventative Measures in Public Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toril Jenssen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My colleague and I came to a centre for rights protection of children and adolescents in a city in Northern Russia. It was a winter day with snow all over. In an open space between the houses, just before the entrance to the centre building, we met two eight or nine-year-old girls, skiing. They were smoking cigarettes. My colleague, who is a Russian, said as a joke: “Don’t you know when you smoke a second head will grow on your shoulders?” The answer came right-away: “I don’t care!” This little conversation in Russian was our introduction to a series of meetings with different spokespersons working at arenas with influence on child and adolescent welfare in the region.

  5. Contradictory discourses of health promotion and disease prevention in the educational curriculum of Norwegian public health nursing: a critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Berit Misund; Andrews, Therese; Clancy, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Health care is under constant change creating new and demanding tasks for public health nurses. The curriculum for public health nursing students is controlled by governmental directives that decide the structure and content of their education. This paper analyses manifest and latent discourses in the curriculum, in order to reveal underlying governmental principles for how public health nurses should promote health and prevent diseases. A critical discourse analysis of the Norwegian public health nursing curriculum was conducted. The study indicates i) 'a competing biomedical and social-scientific knowledge-discourse', with biomedical knowledge dominating the content of the curriculum; ii) 'a paternalistic meta-discourse', referring to an underlying paternalistic ideology despite a clear focus on user participation; and iii) 'a hegemonic individual discourse'. Even though the curriculum stipulates that public health nurses should work at both an individual and a societal level, there is very little population focus in the text. Recent political documents concerning public health nursing focus more on health promotion, however, this is not sufficiently explicit in the curriculum. The lack of emphasis on social scientific knowledge, and the blurred empowerment and population perspective in the curriculum, can lead to less emphasis on health promotion work in public health nursing education and practice. The curriculum should be revised in order to meet the recent governmental expectations.

  6. The analysis of the Romanian public health system. Case study: The importance of education in preventing cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ștefan Mădălina; HEGEDÜS István Szilárd

    2018-01-01

    Healthcare marketing is one of the modern tools that can analyse and provide medical information, as well as information on public health systems. The public health system must take into account the trends of the modern world, it needs to adapt and improve its policies and strategies, in order to meet the targeted market requirements. Statistics reveal the reality on the Romanian public health system and its main problems, compare...

  7. The impact of winter heating on air pollution in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qingyang; Ma, Zongwei; Li, Shenshen; Liu, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Fossil-fuel combustion related winter heating has become a major air quality and public health concern in northern China recently. We analyzed the impact of winter heating on aerosol loadings over China using the MODIS-Aqua Collection 6 aerosol product from 2004-2012. Absolute humidity (AH) and planetary boundary layer height (PBL) -adjusted aerosol optical depth (AOD*) was constructed to reflect ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. GIS analysis, standard statistical tests, and statistical modeling indicate that winter heating is an important factor causing increased PM2.5 levels in more than three-quarters of central and eastern China. The heating season AOD* was more than five times higher as the non-heating season AOD*, and the increase in AOD* in the heating areas was greater than in the non-heating areas. Finally, central heating tend to contribute less to air pollution relative to other means of household heating.

  8. Male circumcision for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea: a summary of research evidence and recommendations for public health following a national policy forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, A; MacLaren, D J; Kaleva, W; Millan, J; Tommbe, R; Marape, W; Manineng, C; Buchanan, H; Amos, A; Frank, R; Kelly, A; Kupul, M; Aeno, H; Trowalle, E; John, L N; Redman-Maclaren, M L; Ryan, C; Browne, K; Tynan, A; Hill, P S; Gray, R T; Murray, J; Wilson, D P; Law, G; Siba, P; McBride, W J H; Farley, T; Kaldor, J M

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, a clinical trial in South Africa found that circumcision of young men could reduce their risk of acquiring HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection by over 60%. In the following year, two more trials in Africa confirmed this finding, leading the World Health Organization to recommend male circumcision as a public health strategy for HIV prevention in high-incidence countries. In order to inform public health policy in Papua New Guinea (PNG), two major research projects were initiated with the goals of investigating the status of penile cutting practices and assessing understandings, acceptability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of male circumcision for HIV prevention. In addition, behavioural surveillance surveys systematically asked questions on penile cutting practices and an ethnographic literature review informed historical perspectives of penile cutting in PNG. Key findings from these research activities were presented at a National Policy Forum on Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention held in Port Moresby in November 2011. The Forum made three key recommendations: (1) the formation of a joint National Department of HealthlNational AIDS Council Secretariat Policy Committee on male circumcision; (2) the establishment of an integrated harm reduction program; and (3) that future policy on wide-scale roll-out of male circumcision for HIV prevention in PNG be informed by a combination of data from (a) male circumcision intervention pilot programs and (b) research on the potential protective effect of other forms of penile cutting.

  9. Preventing Maladministration in Indonesian Public Procurement : A Good Public Procurement Law Approach and Comparison with the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this book is to make recommendations concerning the improvement of public procurement law in Indonesia. The author identifies five fundamental problems commonly arising in the pre-contractual phase in Indonesia: the procurement document may be prepared in a way that favours certain

  10. Disease prevention as social change: the state, society, and public health in the United States, France, Great Britain, and Canada

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nathanson, Constance A

    2007-01-01

    .... While the Foundation endeavors to assure the accuracy and objectivity of each book it publishes, the conclusions and interpretations in Russell Sage Foundation publications are those of the authors and not of the Foundation, its Trustees, or its staff. Publication by Russell Sage, therefore, does not imply Foundation endorsement. Kenneth D....

  11. 36 CFR 1002.19 - Winter activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RECREATION § 1002.19 Winter activities. (a) Skiing, snowshoeing, ice skating, sledding, innertubing, tobogganing and similar winter sports are prohibited on Presidio Trust roads and in parking areas open to...

  12. Classification guide: Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games classification guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Federations (IFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the Sochi 2014 Paralympic Winter Games.

  13. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter Winter sports enthusiasts are ... skiing! Be Mindful of Time Spent in the Sun, Regardless of the Season If possible, ski early ...

  14. A public health approach to preventing child abuse in low- and middle-income countries: a call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, Sarah; Tomlinson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Violence against children is prevalent across all countries and cultures, with the burden of child injury and violence heaviest in low- and middle-income (LAMI) settings. There are several types of program to prevent child abuse, with family-based approaches to prevention being the most comprehensively researched and successful interventions in high-income settings. In LAMI countries, however, there is very little research evidence for the prevention of child abuse. We conducted a systematic search of relevant databases for studies published between 1995 and 2011 and the search revealed only one relevant study. There is thus a need for research into child maltreatment prevention in LAMI settings, taking account of local resources and contexts. In the light of the lack of evidence, we focus on two case studies that document the use of home visiting by community health workers perinatally to improve maternal and child outcomes. We propose four areas for action moving forward, including increased investment in early intervention and prevention programs, development of a research agenda that prioritizes prevention research, integration of implementation research into efforts to scale up interventions, and improving systematically collected information on child maltreatment.

  15. Public Health Genomics education in post-graduate schools of hygiene and preventive medicine: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuale, Carolina; Leoncini, Emanuele; Mazzucco, Walter; Marzuillo, Carolina; Villari, Paolo; Ricciardi, Walter; Boccia, Stefania

    2014-10-10

    The relevance of Public Health Genomics (PHG) education among public health specialists has been recently acknowledged by the Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region. The aim of this cross-sectional survey was to assess the prevalence of post-graduate public health schools for medical doctors which offer PHG training in Italy. The directors of the 33 Italian public health schools were interviewed for the presence of a PHG course in place. We stratified by geographical area (North, Centre and South) of the schools. We performed comparisons of categorical data using the chi-squared test. The response rate was 73% (24/33 schools). Among respondents, 15 schools (63%) reported to have at least one dedicated course in place, while nine (38%) did not, with a significant geographic difference. Results showed a good implementation of courses in PHG discipline in Italian post-graduate public health schools. However further harmonization of the training programs of schools in public health at EU level is needed.

  16. Leadership in American Indian Communities: Winter Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoyer, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    Winter lessons, or stories told in the winter, were one of the ways in which tribal elders instructed and directed young men and women in the proper ways to assume leadership responsibilities. Winter lessons stressed the appropriate relationship between the leader and the community. The intent was to remember the power and purpose of that…

  17. 46 CFR 45.73 - Winter freeboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Winter freeboard. 45.73 Section 45.73 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES GREAT LAKES LOAD LINES Freeboards § 45.73 Winter freeboard. The minimum winter freeboard (fw) in inches is obtained by the formula: fw=f(s)+T s...

  18. Is Swedish Public Procurement Ready for Sustainable Product Development? : An Investigation on Barriers in Public Procurement that Prevents the Diffusion of Sustainable Innovations

    OpenAIRE

    SOHLSTRÖM, ELIN

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on sustainability entails an extension of companies focus beyond economicobjectives to an approach that also take into account economic, ecological as well as societal performance (Hollos, Blome and Foerstl, 2012). In this context, purchasing and supply has been transformed to have a strategic role in sustainability (Meehan and Bryde, 2011). The European Union point to a rising interest for policies that aim at a reorientation of public procurement to achieve solutions that ...

  19. The analysis of the Romanian public health system. Case study: The importance of education in preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ștefan Mădălina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare marketing is one of the modern tools that can analyse and provide medical information, as well as information on public health systems. The public health system must take into account the trends of the modern world, it needs to adapt and improve its policies and strategies, in order to meet the targeted market requirements. Statistics reveal the reality on the Romanian public health system and its main problems, compared with countries from the European Union. Taking into consideration the importance of health education, many diseases can be detected in early stages, when treatments have visible effects.

  20. Insights in Public Health: In What Ways are Hawaii's HIV Prevention Services Engaging Gay Male Couples and Using Technology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophus, Amber I; Fujitani, Loren; Vallabhbhai, Samantha; Antonio, Jo Anna; Yang, Pua Lani; Elliott, Elyssa; Mitchell, Jason W

    2018-02-01

    Partner-oriented services and Health Information and Communication technology (HICT) in the forms of mHealth (eg, smartphone applications), eHealth (eg, interactive websites), telemedicine, and social media play an important and growing role in HIV prevention. Accordingly, the present study sought to describe: (1) the primary and secondary HIV prevention services available in Hawai'i, (2) the prevention services that are available for gay male couples and partners, and (3) the prevention services that use HICT. Information about prevention services and use of HICT were obtained from websites and phone calls made to 19 organizations in the state, including the Hawai'i Department of Health. Overall, partner-oriented services were limited and only 1 couples-based service was currently being offered. Technology, namely social media, was used by 14 organizations, primarily to increase HIV awareness and advertise events. These findings may inform how best to adapt and better leverage the use of innovative technological tools to help expand access to HIV testing and counseling, sexual health education, and case management services for gay male couples and other MSM populations in the state.

  1. GBS public awareness, advocacy, and prevention--what's working, what's not and why we need a maternal GBS vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gina; Plumb, Jane

    2013-08-28

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of severe early-onset (0-6 days) infection and a significant cause of serious late-onset (7-90 days) infection in infants. While most babies recover from their GBS infection, some are stillborn, more die in the first weeks of life and others suffer lifelong disability. Despite efforts in many developed countries to prevent these infections, the burden of GBS disease remains significant, particularly among the late onset infections, which are not preventable using current risk-based or screening strategies. Vaccination, once available, could prevent more cases of GBS infection than any other strategy, including preventing preterm labor and stillbirths caused by GBS infection, post-delivery GBS infection in the mother and late-onset GBS infection in the baby. Vaccination would also avoid allergic reactions to antibiotics and concern about the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. We consider the history of the two largest group B Strep parent organizations (Group B Strep Association USA and Group B Strep Support UK) and the history of GBS prevention in their respective countries. We look at what is needed before a vaccine can be introduced and consider how acceptable a GBS vaccine would be from families' perspective. We also summarize what a perfect GBS vaccine would look like and what we should all strive to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  3. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven van de Vijver

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. Objective: To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Study design: Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC, collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. Results: The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year. The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO, and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs. Conclusion: Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by

  4. Introducing a model of cardiovascular prevention in Nairobi's slums by integrating a public health and private-sector approach: the SCALE-UP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, Steven; Oti, Samuel; Tervaert, Thijs Cohen; Hankins, Catherine; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Gomez, Gabriela B; Brewster, Lizzy; Agyemang, Charles; Lange, Joep

    2013-10-21

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with annual deaths expected to increase to 2 million by 2030. Currently, most national health systems in SSA are not adequately prepared for this epidemic. This is especially so in slum settlements where access to formal healthcare and resources is limited. To develop and introduce a model of cardiovascular prevention in the slums of Nairobi by integrating public health and private sector approaches. Two non-profit organizations that conduct public health research, Amsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development (AIGHD) and African Population and Health Research Center (APHRC), collaborated with private-sector Boston Consulting Group (BCG) to develop a service delivery package for CVD prevention in slum settings. A theoretic model was designed based on the integration of public and private sector approaches with the focus on costs and feasibility. The final model includes components that aim to improve community awareness, a home-based screening service, patient and provider incentives to seek and deliver treatment specifically for hypertension, and adherence support. The expected outcomes projected by this model could prove potentially cost effective and affordable (1 USD/person/year). The model is currently being implemented in a Nairobi slum and is closely followed by key stakeholders in Kenya including the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization (WHO), and leading non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Through the collaboration of public health and private sectors, a theoretically cost-effective model was developed for the prevention of CVD and is currently being implemented in the slums of Nairobi. If results are in line with the theoretical projections and first impressions on the ground, scale-up of the service delivery package could be planned in other poor urban areas in Kenya by relevant policymakers and NGOs.

  5. Allowing for MSD prevention during facilities planning for a public service: an a posteriori analysis of 10 library design projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.

  6. The Impact of Suicide Prevention Public Service Announcements on Help-Seeking Attitudes: The Message Makes a Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnie Klimes-Dougan; Nathan Wright; David A Klingbeil

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Suicide continues to be one of the most serious public health challenges. Public service announcements are frequently used to address this challenge, but are rarely sufficiently evaluated to determine if they meet the intended goals, or are associated with potential iatrogenic effects. Although it is challenging to assess the relative impact of different PSA modalities, our group previously noted that one billboard message failed to show the same benefits as one TV ad (e.g., Klimes-D...

  7. Importance of Internet surveillance in public health emergency control and prevention: evidence from a digital epidemiologic study during avian influenza A H7N9 outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hua; Chen, Bin; Zhu, Honghong; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Xinyi; Chen, Lei; Jiang, Zhenggang; Zheng, Dawei; Jiang, Jianmin

    2014-01-17

    Outbreaks of human infection with a new avian influenza A H7N9 virus occurred in China in the spring of 2013. Control and prevention of a new human infectious disease outbreak can be strongly affected by public reaction and social impact through the Internet and social media. This study aimed to investigate the potential roles of Internet surveillance in control and prevention of the human H7N9 outbreaks. Official data for the human H7N9 outbreaks were collected via the China National Health and Family Planning Committee website from March 31 to April 24, 2013. We obtained daily posted and forwarded number of blogs for the keyword "H7N9" from Sina microblog website and a daily Baidu Attention Index (BAI) from Baidu website, which reflected public attention to the outbreak. Rumors identified and confirmed by the authorities were collected from Baidu search engine. Both daily posted and forwarded number and BAI for keyword H7N9 increased quickly during the first 3 days of the outbreaks and remained at a high level for 5 days. The total daily posted and forwarded number for H7N9 on Sina microblog peaked at 850,000 on April 3, from zero blogs before March 31, increasing to 97,726 on April 1 and to 370,607 on April 2, and remaining above 500,000 from April 5-8 before declining to 208,524 on April 12. The total daily BAI showed a similar pattern of change to the total daily posted and forwarded number over time from March 31 to April 12. When the outbreak locations spread, especially into other areas of the same province/city and the capital, Beijing, daily posted and forwarded number and BAI increased again to a peak at 368,500 and 116,911, respectively. The median daily BAI during the studied 25 days was significantly higher among the 7 provinces/cities with reported human H7N9 cases than the 2 provinces without any cases (Psocial media. The first 3 days of an epidemic is a critical period for the authorities to take appropriate action through Internet surveillance to

  8. [Hygiene and Infection Prevention in Medical Institutions, Kindergartens and Schools - Statutory Basis, Infection Control Practice and Experiences of the Public Health Services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heudorf, U

    2015-07-01

    Infection prevention is one of the main tasks of the public health services. The "Protection against infection act" places all medical institutions and facilities for children (kindergartens and schools) under the obligation to assume responsibility and to cooperate. Duties of the institutions are described, and public health services are obliged to perform hygiene control visits.Regarding medical institutions, the guidelines of the German Commission on Hospital Hygiene and Infection Control have to be observed, and the counties were obliged to publish hygiene enactments. Subsequently, good improvements in hygiene management in medical institutions were achieved. In schools, however, severe hygienic problems (i.e. sanitary hygiene, indoor air hygiene) are detected, without any improvement - obviously due to a missing sense of responsibility in the school community. Causes for poor behaviour prevention (hand hygiene, ventilation) and missing situational prevention (i.e. cleaning) are discussed. Without reversion to the obviously needed but nearly forgotten subject school hygiene, obligatory guidelines and the assuming of responsibility, permanent improvements cannot be achieved. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Perceptions of students and teachers about institutional actions to prevent school violence in public schools in Cúcuta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Santos Rincón-Ramírez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Violence in schools is a problem that has worried broad sectors of society, not only because of its immediate effects but also due to the repercussions it may have in the future. In many institutions the violence is not acknowledged, and no actions are taken to prevent it. In contrast other institutions confront the violence head on through preventive and corrective actions that uncomplicated daily coexistence. It is in this context that this paper relays the results of a study on student and teacher attitudes to violence manifestations in the schools of Cucuta, Colombia; and on institutional prevention strategies. The quantitative-type research, executed with a descriptive and exploratory approach, used a sample of 348 students from sixth to eleventh grade, their ranging in age from 10 to 16 years old; and 87 high school teachers. The results highlight the frequently occurring forms of aggression, as well as the preventive strategies and actions schools emplace to handle cases of violence.

  10. Public Sensitization as a Tool for Preventing Domestic Violence against Women in Nsukka Education Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeoku, E. K.; Meziobi, D.; Ezegbe, N. B.; Obikwelu, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evolve modalities for preventing domestic violence against women in Nsukka education zone. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The sample comprised 150 urban women and 450 rural women in Nsukka education zone. A 20-item questionnaire was developed, validated, and administered to…

  11. Healthy Ageing: prevention of loneliness among elderly people : evaluation of a complex intervention in public health practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honigh - de Vlaming, R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction
    Concerns about the ageing population and formal responsibilities of local governments to promote social cohesion and to enhance participation of vulnerable groups in society placed loneliness prevention high on the local policy agenda of Dutch municipalities in the past decade.

  12. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE: implications for public health and drug policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanche Jerôme

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons and psychiatric (26 French prisons units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST, HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence to 10 (maximum adherence and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66% of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5] but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions.

  13. Slip and fall risk on ice and snow:identification, evaluation and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chuansi

    2004-01-01

    Slip and fall accidents and associated injuries on ice and snow are prevalent among outdoor workers and the general public in winter in many regions of the world. To understand and tackle this multi-factorial problem, a multidisciplinary approach was used to identify and evaluate slip and fall risks, and to propose recommendations for prevention of slips and falls on icy and snowy surfaces. Objectives were to present a systems perspective of slip and fall accidents and related risk factors; t...

  14. Vancouver winters: Environmental influences on inpatient adult orthopaedic trauma demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, S.; Masri, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of adult inpatient orthopaedic injuries admitted at three Vancouver hospitals following one of the worst winter snowstorms in the region with the preceding control winter period. Methods: The surveillance study was conducted at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 2007 to 2010. Inpatient adult admissions for orthopaedic injuries at three hospitals were recorded, including age, gender, anatomic location of injury, type of fracture (open or closed), fixation method (internal versus external fixation), and length of acute care hospital stay. Comparisons between admissions during this weather pattern and admission during a previous winter with minimal snow were made. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 511 patients admitted under Orthopaedic trauma service during the significant winter snowstorms of December 2008 - January 2009, 100 (19.6%) (CI: 16.2%-23.2%) were due to ice and snow, whereas in the preceding mild winter only 18 of 415 (4.3%) (CI: 2.5%-6.8%) cases were related to snow (p<0.05). Ankle and wrist fractures were the most frequent injuries during the index snow storm period (p<0.05). At all the three institutions, 97 (96.5%) fractures were closed during the snowstorm as opposed to 17 (95%) during the control winter period. Internal fixation in 06 (89%) fractures as opposed to external fixation in 12 (11%) patients was the predominant mode of fixation across the board during both time periods. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a significantly higher inpatient orthopaedic trauma volume during the snowstorm more rigorous prospective studies need to be designed to gain further insight to solving these problems from a public health perspective. (author)

  15. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger E. HAMLIN

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and accountable and transparent practices aimed at verifying whether regulations and standards are met. The strategy also emphasizes the training of public officials, to provide them with appropriate skills and professional capacity to identify and manage corruption risks. The last part of the paper recommends future research to identify best practices among different communities and states attempting to control corruption practices when contracting out public services.

  16. An analysis of US propane markets, winter 1996-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    In late summer 1996, in response to relatively low inventory levels and tight world oil markets, prices for crude oil, natural gas, and products derived from both began to increase rapidly ahead of the winter heating season. Various government and private sector forecasts indicated the potential for supply shortfalls and sharp price increases, especially in the event of unusually severe winter weather. Following a rapid runup in gasoline prices in the spring of 1996, public concerns were mounting about a possibly similar situation in heating fuels, with potentially more serious consequences. In response to these concerns, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) participated in numerous briefings and meetings with Executive Branch officials, Congressional committee members and staff, State Energy Offices, and consumers. EIA instituted a coordinated series of actions to closely monitor the situation and inform the public. This study constitutes one of those actions: an examination of propane supply, demand, and price developments and trends.

  17. Limited access to HIV prevention in French prisons (ANRS PRI2DE): implications for public health and drug policy

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Laurent; Jauffret-Roustide, Marie; Blanche, Jerôme; Maguet, Olivier; Calderon, Christine; Cohen, Julien; Carrieri, Patrizia M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons) and psychiatri...

  18. Gene by Environment Research to Prevent Externalizing Problem Behavior : Ethical Questions Raised from a Public Healthcare Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, Rabia R.; Weeland, Joyce; Matthys, Walter; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G x E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical

  19. Preventing evictions as a potential public health intervention: Characteristics and social medical risk factors of households at risk in Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laere, Igor; de Wit, Matty; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: The public health problems precipitating evictions are understudied and no systemic data have been collected. We aim to identify the magnitude of evictions and the characteristics and social medical risk factors of households at risk in Amsterdam. This will help inform policies designed to

  20. Gene by environment research to prevent externalizing problem behavior: Ethical questions raised from a public healthcare perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chhangur, R.R.; Weeland, J.; Matthys, W.; Overbeek, G.

    2015-01-01

    The main public health advantages of examining gene by environment interactions (i.e., G × E) in externalizing behavior lie in the realm of personalized interventions. Nevertheless, the incorporation of genetic data in randomized controlled trials is fraught with difficulties and raises ethical

  1. Prevention and public health approaches to trauma and traumatic stress: a rationale and a call to action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magruder, Kathryn M.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Thoresen, Siri; Olff, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Background: The field of trauma and traumatic stress is dominated by studies on treatments for those who experience adversity from traumatic experiences. While this is important, we should not neglect the opportunity to consider trauma in a public health perspective. Such a perspective will help to

  2. Optimising implementation of reforms to better prevent and respond to child sexual abuse in institutions: Insights from public health, regulatory theory, and Australia's Royal Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Ben

    2017-12-01

    The Australian Royal Commission Into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has identified multiple systemic failures to protect children in government and non-government organizations providing educational, religious, welfare, sporting, cultural, arts and recreational activities. Its recommendations for reform will aim to ensure organizations adopt more effective and ethical measures to prevent, identify and respond to child sexual abuse. However, apart from the question of what measures institutions should adopt, an under-explored question is how to implement and regulate those measures. Major challenges confronting reform include the diversity of organizations providing services to children; organizational resistance; and the need for effective oversight. Failure to adopt theoretically sound strategies to overcome implementation barriers will jeopardize reform and compromise reduction of institutional child sexual abuse. This article first explains the nature of the Royal Commission, and focuses on key findings from case studies and data analysis. It then analyzes public health theory and regulatory theory to present a novel analysis of theoretically justified approaches to the implementation of measures to prevent, identify and respond to CSA, while isolating challenges to implementation. The article reviews literature on challenges to reform and compliance, and on prevention of institutional CSA and situational crime prevention, to identify measures which have attracted emerging consensus as recommended practice. Finally, it applies its novel integration of regulatory theory and public health theory to the context of CSA in institutional contexts, to develop a theoretical basis for a model of implementation and regulation, and to indicate the nature and functions of a regulatory body for this context. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. OIT Times Newsletter: Volume 3, Number 1, Winter 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, L.

    1999-12-16

    The Winter 2000 edition of the OIT Times newsletter, a quarterly publication produced by the Office of Industrial Technologies, highlights the 1999 start-up projects, announces the OIT solicitation schedule for FY2000, and features the success of the Ohio diecasting showcase. One of the quarterly highlights was Secretary Richardson's presentation of a Certificate of Partnership to Malden Mills CEO Aaron Feuerstein at the dedication of the plant's new, advanced cogeneration system.

  4. Evaluation of community-based oral health promotion and oral disease prevention--WHO recommendations for improved evidence in public health practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Poul Erik; Kwan, Stella

    2004-01-01

    Systematic evaluation is an integral part of the organisation and delivery of community oral health care programmes, ensuring the effectiveness of these community-based interventions. As for general health promotion programmes the common problems from effectiveness reviews of oral health...... a challenge to oral health professionals to integrate community oral health programmes into a wider health agenda. Public health research focusing on the development of evaluation methodologies has identified a variety of issues including the importance of using pluralistic evaluation approaches (quantitative...... of the evaluation of oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programmes. The aims of the workshop were to: (1) identify common problems and challenges in evaluating community-based oral health interventions; (2) explore developments in the evaluation approaches in public health; (3) share experiences...

  5. Communicating public health preparedness information to pregnant and postpartum women: an assessment of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention web pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Brianna; Felter, Elizabeth; Downes, Amia; Trauth, Jeanette

    2015-04-01

    Pregnant and postpartum women have special needs during public health emergencies but often have inadequate levels of disaster preparedness. Thus, improving maternal emergency preparedness is a public health priority. More research is needed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to how preparedness information is communicated to these women. A sample of web pages from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention intended to address the preparedness needs of pregnant and postpartum populations was examined for suitability for this audience. Five of the 7 web pages examined were considered adequate. One web page was considered not suitable and one the raters split between not suitable and adequate. None of the resources examined were considered superior. If these resources are considered some of the best available to pregnant and postpartum women, more work is needed to improve the suitability of educational resources, especially for audiences with low literacy and low incomes.

  6. Implementation of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy policy for malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuhabwa AAR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa, Richard Gordian, Ritah F Mutagonda Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Background: In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed. Aim: To assess the implementation of malaria-preventive therapy policy among HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology: The study was conducted in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from January 2015 to July 2015. Three hundred and fifty-three HIV-infected pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics (ANCs and using co-trimoxazole for prevention of malaria were interviewed. Twenty-six health care workers working at the ANCs were also interviewed regarding provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to pregnant women. A knowledge scale was used to grade the level of knowledge of health care providers. Focus group discussions were also conducted with 18 health care workers to assess the level of implementation of the policy and the challenges encountered. Results: Twenty-three (6.5% pregnant women with known HIV serostatus were using co-trimoxazole for prevention of opportunistic infections even before they became pregnant. Out of the 353 HIV-infected pregnant women, eight (2.5% were coadministered with both SP and co-trimoxazole. Sixty (16.7% pregnant women had poor adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Out of the 26 interviewed health care providers, 20 had high

  7. Implementation of co-trimoxazole preventive therapy policy for malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuhabwa, Appolinary Ar; Gordian, Richard; Mutagonda, Ritah F

    2016-01-01

    In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed. To assess the implementation of malaria-preventive therapy policy among HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from January 2015 to July 2015. Three hundred and fifty-three HIV-infected pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) and using co-trimoxazole for prevention of malaria were interviewed. Twenty-six health care workers working at the ANCs were also interviewed regarding provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to pregnant women. A knowledge scale was used to grade the level of knowledge of health care providers. Focus group discussions were also conducted with 18 health care workers to assess the level of implementation of the policy and the challenges encountered. Twenty-three (6.5%) pregnant women with known HIV serostatus were using co-trimoxazole for prevention of opportunistic infections even before they became pregnant. Out of the 353 HIV-infected pregnant women, eight (2.5%) were coadministered with both SP and co-trimoxazole. Sixty (16.7%) pregnant women had poor adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Out of the 26 interviewed health care providers, 20 had high level of knowledge regarding malaria-preventive therapy in HIV-infected pregnant women. Lack of adequate supply of co-trimoxazole in health facilities and inadequate training of health care providers were among the factors causing poor implementation of co

  8. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23), but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6%) was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5%) (p = 0.046). The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health. PMID:29206192

  9. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23, but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6% was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5% (p = 0.046. The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health.

  10. Evaluation of Chronic Disease Prevention and Control Public Service Advertisement on the Awareness and Attitude Change among Urban Population in Chongqing, China: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Hu, Ping; Huang, Hao; Wu, Chengbin; Fu, Zhirong; Du, Lei; Xu, Xianglong; Shi, Zumin; Zhao, Yong

    2017-12-05

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of public service advertising on the awareness and attitude of Chongqing urban citizens. The theme of the public service advertisement launched in Chongqing was chronic disease prevention and control. A self-designed questionnaire was used in an outdoor intercept survey to collect information about the perception of citizens toward the effect of the advertisement on awareness and attitude situation. Respondents had good knowledge of chronic disease (17.11 ± 3.23, total score: 23), but only 58.4% of participants thought cancer is one type of chronic disease. The awareness of cancer as a chronic disease among the group who had seen this advertisement (63.6%) was higher than that of the group who had not seen the advertisement (56.5%) ( p = 0.046). The attitude of respondents was good after watching the advertisement, approximately 77.4% of respondents attempted to remind their family and friends to prevent chronic diseases, roughly. 78.2% tried to persuade their family and friends to change their unhealthy lifestyle habits, and 84.7% of participants reported that the advertising increased the possibility of their own future lifestyle change. There was minimal change of awareness of the participants who saw the advertisement. This study did not show significant differences on chronic disease related knowledge between the participants who have seen the advertisement and who have not seen the advertisement. The public service advertisement may help participants improve the attitude of future behavior change. Further researches combining the sustained intervention and support through clinical and community health programs media campaigns are needed to support public health.

  11. Use of the Health Belief Model for the Assessment of Public Knowledge and Household Preventive Practices in Karachi, Pakistan, a Dengue-Endemic City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taranum Ruba Siddiqui

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevention is most effective in reducing dengue infection risk, especially in endemic countries like Pakistan. Evaluation of public awareness and health beliefs regarding dengue fever (DF is important for devising disease control strategies. This study assessed dengue knowledge, health beliefs, and preventive practices against DF in different socioeconomic groups of Karachi, Pakistan.In this community-based cross-sectional study, 6 randomly selected towns were visited, 2 persons (man and woman per household were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, and household practices were observed. Information regarding DF was shared through a printed pamphlet. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of variables associated with dengue knowledge and practices was conducted.We interviewed 608 Karachi residents (mean age: 33.2 ± 13.35 years; 7.7%, 71.9%, and 20.4% had a high, middle, and low socioeconomic status, respectively. The mean knowledge score was 6.4 ± 2.10 out of 14. The mean preventive practices score was 9 ± 1.8 out of 17. Predictors of dengue knowledge were perceived threat (odds ratio [OR] = 1.802; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19-2.71; p = 0.005, self-efficacy (OR = 2.910; 95% CI = 1.77-4.76; p = 0.000, and television as an information source (OR = 3.202; 95% CI = 1.97-5.17; p = 0.000. Predictors of dengue preventive practices were perceived threat (OR = 1.502; 95% CI = 1.02-2.19; p = 0.036, self-efficacy (OR = 1.982; 95% CI = 1.34-2.91; p = 0.000, and dengue knowledge (OR = 1.581; 95% CI = 1.05-2.37; p = 0.028.Public knowledge about DF is low in Karachi. Knowledge, threat perception, and self-efficacy are significant predictors of adequate dengue preventive practices. Prevention and control strategies should focus on raising awareness about dengue contraction risk and severity through television. Health messages should be designed to increase individual self-efficacy.

  12. [Co-author and keyword networks and their clustering appearance in preventive medicine fields in Korea: analysis of papers in the Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 1991~2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo; Chung, Dongjun

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated knowledge structure and its effect factor by analysis of co-author and keyword networks in Korea's preventive medicine sector. The data was extracted from 873 papers listed in the Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, and was transformed into a co-author and keyword matrix where the existence of a 'link' was judged by impact factors calculated by the weight value of the role and rate of author participation. Research achievement was dependent upon the author's status and networking index, as analyzed by neighborhood degree, multidimensional scaling, correspondence analysis, and multiple regression. Co-author networks developed as randomness network in the center of a few high-productivity researchers. In particular, closeness centrality was more developed than degree centrality. Also, power law distribution was discovered in impact factor and research productivity by college affiliation. In multiple regression, the effect of the author's role was significant in both the impact factor calculated by the participatory rate and the number of listed articles. However, the number of listed articles varied by sex. This study shows that the small world phenomenon exists in co-author and keyword networks in a journal, as in citation networks. However, the differentiation of knowledge structure in the field of preventive medicine was relatively restricted by specialization.

  13. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  14. [Evaluating health effects--a preventive medicine responsibility of public health offices. Summary of a workshop presentation by the public health services at the Travemünde federal congress 1989].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarg, W

    1989-11-01

    It appears that Federal Public Health services are getting increasingly engaged in curative activities both in individual medicine and in medicine concerned with the general population. Public Health services are expected to draw attention to this fact and to demand that suitable methods be employed to ensure that all the people live in healthy conditions. Such environmental health protection should not be just a safety valve to "let off steam" if planning had been based on miscalculations and false appraisals--it should function in advance to prevent such social and political mishaps. A method is presented utilising the systematic scrutiny of the effects of projects on healthy as an interactive process. Since Public Health offices possess multidisciplinary competence, they are likely to cope with the multifarious problems of environmental medicine. They should act as though they were the attorneys of the population in respect of popular health demands, and must enlist competent staff capable of handling the pertinent problems. It has become apparent that the average citizen is most inclined to comply with the demands made on him by the environment if he becomes aware of the ecological linkups via his own experience. This is precisely where Public Health offices have important educational chances to accomplish their mission.

  15. How to Prevent Corruption Without Affecting Efficiency? An Overview of Safeguard Measures for Contracting Out Public Services

    OpenAIRE

    Roger E. HAMLIN; Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2006-01-01

    The paper addresses the issue of finding the right balance between regulatory oversight, decision-making flexibility and reliance on market forces to safeguard the contracting-out process from corruption. The paper analyses the corrupt practices associated with contracting out local public services and the causes and consequences of this behavior. Taking into consideration new anticorruption strategies, we make recommendations for attaining equilibrium between flexible safeguard measures and ...

  16. Implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions by New York City public schools to prevent 2009 influenza A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon G Agolory

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs, including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1 by New York City (NYC public schools. METHODS: From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. RESULTS: Of 1,633 schools, 376(23% accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99% implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72% than those without (53% (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing an NPI program in a large school system to mitigate the effects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs.

  17. Implementation of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions by New York City Public Schools to Prevent 2009 Influenza A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolory, Simon G.; Barbot, Oxiris; Averhoff, Francisco; Weiss, Don; Wilson, Elisha; Egger, Joseph; Miller, Jeffery; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu; Walton, Sabrina; Kahn, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1) by New York City (NYC) public schools. Methods From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. Results Of 1,633 schools, 376(23%) accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99%) implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT) as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72%) than those without (53%) (peffects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs. PMID:23341877

  18. Implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions by New York City public schools to prevent 2009 influenza A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agolory, Simon G; Barbot, Oxiris; Averhoff, Francisco; Weiss, Don; Wilson, Elisha; Egger, Joseph; Miller, Jeffery; Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu; Walton, Sabrina; Kahn, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Children are important transmitters of influenza in the community and a number of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), including hand washing and use of hand sanitizer, have been recommended to mitigate the transmission of influenza, but limited information is available regarding schools' ability to implement these NPIs during an influenza outbreak. We evaluated implementation of NPIs during fall 2009 in response to H1N1 pandemic influenza (pH1N1) by New York City (NYC) public schools. From January 25 through February 9, 2010, an online survey was sent to all the 1,632 NYC public schools and principals were asked to participate in the survey or to designate a school nurse or other school official with knowledge of school policies and characteristics to do so. Of 1,633 schools, 376(23%) accessed and completed the survey. Nearly all respondents (99%) implemented at least two NPIs. Schools that had a Flu Response Team (FRT) as a part of school emergency preparedness plan were more likely to implement the NPI guidelines recommended by NYC public health officials than schools that did not have a FRT. Designation of a room for isolating ill students, for example, was more common in schools with a FRT (72%) than those without (53%) (pschool system to mitigate the effects of an influenza outbreak is feasible, but there is potential need for additional resources in some schools to increase capacity and adherence to all recommendations. Public health influenza-preparedness plans should include school preparedness planning and FRTs.

  19. Integrating Weight Bias Awareness and Mental Health Promotion Into Obesity Prevention Delivery: A Public Health Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    McVey, Gail L.; Walker, Kathryn S.; Beyers, Joanne; Harrison, Heather L.; Simkins, Sari W.; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Promoting healthy weight is a top priority in Canada. Recent federal guidelines call for sustained, multisectoral partnerships that address childhood obesity on multiple levels. Current healthy weight messaging does not fully acknowledge the influence of social determinants of health on weight. Methods An interactive workshop was developed and implemented by a team of academic researchers and health promoters from the psychology and public health disciplines to raise awareness ab...

  20. Winter warming from large volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, Alan; Mao, Jianping

    1992-01-01

    An examination of the Northern Hemisphere winter surface temperature patterns after the 12 largest volcanic eruptions from 1883-1992 shows warming over Eurasia and North America and cooling over the Middle East which are significant at the 95-percent level. This pattern is found in the first winter after tropical eruptions, in the first or second winter after midlatitude eruptions, and in the second winter after high latitude eruptions. The effects are independent of the hemisphere of the volcanoes. An enhanced zonal wind driven by heating of the tropical stratosphere by the volcanic aerosols is responsible for the regions of warming, while the cooling is caused by blocking of incoming sunlight.

  1. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: implications for public health policies for HIV prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, William K; Kim, Andrea A; Rutherford, George W; Harper, Malayah; K'Oyugi, Boniface O; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Kichamu, George; Muraguri, Nicholas M; Akhwale, Willis; De Cock, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012-2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, sociodemographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice.

  2. Outcomes and impact of HIV prevention, ART and TB programs in Swaziland--early evidence from public health triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Swaziland's severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future household surveys, and improved routine (program, surveillance, and hospital) data at district level.

  3. A Climatic Classification for Citrus Winter Survival in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Bo Huang

    1991-05-01

    The citrus tree is susceptible to frost damage. Winter injury to citrus from freezing weather is the major meteorological problem in the northern pail of citrus growing regions in China. Based on meteorological data collected at 120 stations in southern China and on the extent of citrus freezing injury, five climatic regions for citrus winter survival in China were developed. They were: 1) no citrus tree injury. 2) light injury to mandarins (citrus reticulate) or moderate injury to oranges (citrus sinensis), 3) moderate injury to mandarins or heavy injury to oranges, 4) heavy injury to mandarins, and 5) impossible citrus tree growth. This citrus climatic classification was an attempt to provide guidelines for regulation of citrus production, to effectively utilize land and climatic resources, to chose suitable citrus varieties, and to develop methods to prevent injury by freezing.

  4. Public health service options for affordable and accessible noncommunicable disease and related chronic disease prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brownie S

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sharon Brownie,1,2 Andrew P Hills,3,4 Rachel Rossiter51Workforce and Health Services, Griffith Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 2Oxford PRAXIS Forum, Green Templeton College, Oxford University, Oxford, United Kingdom; 3Allied Health Research, Mater Research Institute – The University of Queensland and Mater Mothers' Hospital, South Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 4Griffith Health Institute, Griffith Health, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia; 5MMHN and Nurse Practitioner Programs, School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: Globally, nations are confronted with the challenge of providing affordable health services to populations with increasing levels of noncommunicable and chronic disease. Paradoxically, many nations can both celebrate increases in life expectancy and bemoan parallel increases in chronic disease prevalence. Simply put, despite living longer, not all of that time is spent in good health. Combined with factors such as rising levels of obesity and related noncommunicable disease, the demand for health services is requiring nations to consider new models of affordable health care. Given the level of disease burden, all staff, not just doctors, need to be part of the solution and encouraged to innovate and deliver better and more affordable health care, particularly preventative primary health care services. This paper draws attention to a range of exemplars to encourage and stimulate readers to think beyond traditional models of primary health service delivery. Examples include nurse-led, allied health-led, and student-led clinics; student-assisted services; and community empowerment models. These are reported for the interest of policy makers and health service managers involved in preventative and primary health service redesign initiatives.Keywords: primary health care planning, community health care, nurse-led clinics, allied health personnel

  5. Towards prevention of vitamin D deficiency and beyond: knowledge gaps and research needs in vitamin D nutrition and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, Kevin D; Kiely, Mairead

    2011-12-01

    The North American Institute of Medicine (IOM) recently published their report on dietary reference intakes (DRI) for Ca and vitamin D. The DRI committee's deliberations underpinning this most comprehensive report on vitamin D nutrition to date benefited hugely from a much expanded knowledge base in vitamin D over the last decade or more. However, since their release, the vitamin D DRI have been the subject of intense controversy, which is largely due to the persistence of fundamental knowledge gaps in vitamin D. These can be identified at the levels of exposure, metabolism, storage, status, dose-response, function and beneficial or adverse health effects, as well as safe and effective application of intake recommendations at the population level through sustainable food-based approaches. The present review provides a brief overview of the approach used by the IOM committee to revise the DRI for vitamin D and to collate from a number of authoritative sources key knowledge gaps in vitamin D nutrition from the public health perspective. A number of research topics are outlined and data requirements within these are identified and mapped to the risk assessment framework used by the DRI committee. While not intended as an exhaustive list, it provides a basis for organising and prioritising research efforts in the area of vitamin D, which may offer a perspective on the major areas in need of attention. It is intended to be of use to researchers, national policy makers, the public health community, industry groups and other relevant stakeholders including funding institutions.

  6. Nexus between preventive policy inadequacies, workplace bullying, and mental health: Qualitative findings from the experiences of Australian public sector employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, John; Hutchinson, Marie; Bradbury, Joanne; Browne, Graeme

    2016-02-01

    Public sector organizations have been shown to have high levels of workplace bullying, despite widespread adoption of zero-tolerance policy. Given the level of harm that stems from bullying, it has been suggested that it might be one of the most serious problems facing modern organizations. The qualitative findings from a large cross sectional study of public servants in Australia are reported in the present study. The results highlight palpable mental distress and illness stemming from exposure to workplace bullying. This distress was exacerbated by failures in prohibitive workplace procedures. Reporting bullying through formal organization processes did not lead to resolution of the problem; it instead highlighted feelings of powerlessness and mistrust. In light of the findings, we suggest that an alternative discourse is required, one that gives attention to enhancing employee resilience and self-healing behaviours to the emotional trauma of workplaces. Organizations might be better placed investing resources in fostering the resilience and emotional intelligence of their workforce, rather than continuing to invest resources in prohibitive policies that fail to address the problem. Employees should be supported to prioritize responsibility for their own mental health, rather than an overreliance on organizational responses. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Securing public transportation systems an integrated decision analysis framework for the prevention of terrorist attacks as example

    CERN Document Server

    Brauner, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Florian Brauner addresses the risk reduction effects of security measures (SecMe) as well as economic and social effects using terrorist threats in public transportation as use case. SecMe increase the level of security but cause interferences and restrictions for customers (e.g. privacy). This study identifies the interferences and analyzes the acceptance with an empirical survey of customers. A composite indicator for the acceptance of different SecMe is developed and integrated into a risk management framework for multi-criteria decision analysis achieving the right balance of risk reduction, costs, and social acceptance. Contents Assessment of Security Measures for Risk Management Measurement of Objective Effectiveness of Security Measures Against Terrorist Attacks Determination of Subjective Effects of Security Measures (Customer Acceptance Analysis) Cost Analysis of Security Measures Multi-Criteria Decision Support Systems Target Groups Scientists with Interest in Civil Security Research Providers and S...

  8. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.109 Winter Harbor...

  9. A systematic review of economic evaluations of local authority commissioned preventative public health interventions in overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Pam; Skirrow, Helen; George, Abraham; Memon, Anjum

    2018-02-16

    Since 2013, local authorities in England have been responsible for commissioning preventative public health interventions. The aim of this systematic review was to support commissioning by collating published data on economic evaluations and modelling of local authority commissioned public health preventative interventions in the UK. Following the PRISMA protocol, we searched for economic evaluations of preventative intervention studies in four different areas: overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol and illicit drugs use and smoking cessation. The systematic review identified studies between January 1994 and February 2015, using five databases. We synthesized the studies to identify the key methods and examined results of the economic evaluations. The majority of the evaluations related to cost-effectiveness, rather than cost-benefit analyses or cost-utility analyses. These analyses found preventative interventions to be cost effective, though the context of the interventions differed between the studies. Preventative public health interventions in general are cost-effective. There is a need for further studies to support justification of continued and/or increased funding for public health interventions. There is much variation between the types of economically evaluated preventative interventions in our review. Broader studies incorporating different contexts may help support funding for local authority-sponsored public health initiatives.

  10. Energy emergency planning guide: Winter 1977-78

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    This Energy Emergency Planning Guide for Winter, 1977-78 has been prepared in order to: identify and evaluate actions available to deal with energy emergencies this winter; provide an advance indication to the public of those actions considered most likely to be taken by the government, and provide industry, state, and local governments with suggestions about actions which they can take to deal with energy emergencies. The Guide contains specifications for over 50 standby programs and procedures, recommended implementation guidelines for using these programs keyed to a pre-emergency phase and three phases of shortfalls, and a design for an Energy Emergency Center. Flexible implementation guidelines are proposed for natural gas, petroleum, electricity/coal, and propane shortages. (MCW)

  11. Interim Report 'Winter smog and traffic'.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.; Blom, T.; Bogaard, van den C.; Boluyt, N.; Bree, van L.; Brunekreef, B.; Hoek, G.; Zee, van der S.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the

  12. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  13. How to Have a Healthy Winter | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Without a doubt, winter is here. Between the icy weather and the recent hustle and bustle of the holidays, everyone is at an increased risk of getting sick. With that in mind, Occupational Health Services has a few simple tips for staying healthy this winter.

  14. Chapter 7: Migration and winter ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Jeffrey F. Kelly; Jean-Luc E. Cartron

    2000-01-01

    The willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a Neotropical migrant that breeds in North America, but winters in Central and northern South America. Little specific information is known about migration and wintering ecology of the southwestern willow flycatcher (E. t. extimus) (Yong and Finch 1997). Our report applies principally...

  15. Outcomes and Impact of HIV Prevention, ART and TB Programs in Swaziland – Early Evidence from Public Health Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schalkwyk, Cari; Mndzebele, Sibongile; Hlophe, Thabo; Garcia Calleja, Jesus Maria; Korenromp, Eline L.; Stoneburner, Rand; Pervilhac, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Swaziland’s severe HIV epidemic inspired an early national response since the late 1980s, and regular reporting of program outcomes since the onset of a national antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in 2004. We assessed effectiveness outcomes and mortality trends in relation to ART, HIV testing and counseling (HTC), tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). Methods Data triangulated include intervention coverage and outcomes according to program registries (2001-2010), hospital admissions and deaths disaggregated by age and sex (2001-2010) and population mortality estimates from the 1997 and 2007 censuses and the 2007 demographic and health survey. Results By 2010, ART reached 70% of the estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS with CD4<350/mm3, with progressively improving patient retention and survival. As of 2010, 88% of health facilities providing antenatal care offered comprehensive PMTCT services. The HTC program recorded a halving in the proportion of adults tested who were HIV-infected; similarly HIV infection rates among HIV-exposed babies halved from 2007 to 2010. Case fatality rates among hospital patients diagnosed with HIV/AIDS started to decrease from 2005–6 in adults and especially in children, contrasting with stable case fatality for other causes including TB. All-cause child in-patient case fatality rates started to decrease from 2005–6. TB case notifications as well as rates of HIV/TB co-infection among notified TB patients continued a steady increase through 2010, while coverage of HIV testing and CPT for co-infected patients increased to above 80%. Conclusion Against a background of high, but stable HIV prevalence and decreasing HIV incidence, we documented early evidence of a mortality decline associated with the expanded national HIV response since 2004. Attribution of impact to specific interventions (versus natural epidemic dynamics) will require additional data from future

  16. Memories of the past contribute to prevention: photography as a direct means for public understanding of science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Piccione

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available There are thousands of ways to achieve a sustainable future for our Planet. Some of these follow high-value scientific research activities, while others simply aim to increase people’s awareness of what can and should be done to improve our, and our children’s, quality of life. The easiest way to develop this specific kind of ‘spread of culture’ consists of bringing back to life what was preserved of the history of a population and of a territory, by representing it in a renewed form, and by making it ‘food for thought’. The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV followed this approach and decided to publish two volumes where the objective was to make people more aware of the geological and volcanic risks in some specific areas of Italy. The immediacy of the photography is used to tell the stories of volcanoes and earthquakes, to represent past events that have become ‘memories’. and to use these as a basis to build a better future. Terremoto Calabro Messinese, 1908/2008 and Terre di Fuoco are the two photographic books that have been published by INGV in cooperation with Alinari, the oldest firm in the world in the field of photography and image communication. The photographs selected to be included in the two books had a double significance: on the one side, they had to convey to the reader the immediacy of the emotions that other people had felt and lived; and on the other side, they had to make people understand the importance of prevention. The fascination of history, the importance of memories of the past, and the extraordinary strength of images help the reader build a link between the past, the present and the future, where the lessons learnt from past centuries and from the study of the Earth and its energy help us to understand which steps should be taken to achieve a ‘sustainable’ future.

  17. Post-pandemic assessment of public knowledge, behavior, and skill on influenza prevention among the general population of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Seale, Holly; Wu, Shuangsheng; Yang, Peng; Zheng, Yang; Ma, Chunna; MacIntyre, Raina; Wang, Quanyi

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, behavioral, and skill responses toward influenza in the general population of Beijing after pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Beijing, China, in January 2011. A survey was conducted in which information was collected using a standardized questionnaire. A comprehensive evaluation index system of health literacy related to influenza was built to evaluate the level of health literacy regarding influenza prevention and control among residents in Beijing. Thirteen thousand and fifty-three valid questionnaires were received. The average score for the sum of knowledge, behavior, and skill was 14.12±3.22, and the mean scores for knowledge, behavior, and skill were 4.65±1.20, 7.25±1.94, and 2.21±1.31, respectively. The qualified proportions of these three sections were 23.7%, 11.9%, and 43.4%, respectively, and the total proportion with a qualified level was 6.7%. There were significant differences in health literacy level related to influenza among the different gender, age, educational level, occupational status, and location groups (ppopulation in Beijing and the extent of relativities in knowledge, behavior, and skill about influenza was found to be weak. Therefore, improvements are needed in terms of certain aspects, particularly for the elderly and the population of rural districts. Educational level, as a significant factor in reducing the spread of influenza, should be considered seriously when intervention strategies are implemented. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Limited dietary overlap amongst resident Arctic herbivores in winter: complementary insights from complementary methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Mosbacher, Jesper B; Vesterinen, Eero J; Roslin, Tomas; Michelsen, Anders

    2018-04-26

    Snow may prevent Arctic herbivores from accessing their forage in winter, forcing them to aggregate in the few patches with limited snow. In High Arctic Greenland, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan often forage in muskox feeding craters. We therefore hypothesized that due to limited availability of forage, the dietary niches of these resident herbivores overlap considerably, and that the overlap increases as winter progresses. To test this, we analyzed fecal samples collected in early and late winter. We used molecular analysis to identify the plant taxa consumed, and stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to quantify the dietary niche breadth and dietary overlap. The plant taxa found indicated only limited dietary differentiation between the herbivores. As expected, dietary niches exhibited a strong contraction from early to late winter, especially for rock ptarmigan. This may indicate increasing reliance on particular plant resources as winter progresses. In early winter, the diet of rock ptarmigan overlapped slightly with that of muskox and Arctic hare. Contrary to our expectations, no inter-specific dietary niche overlap was observed in late winter. This overall pattern was specifically revealed by combined analysis of molecular data and stable isotope contents. Hence, despite foraging in the same areas and generally feeding on the same plant taxa, the quantitative dietary overlap between the three herbivores was limited. This may be attributable to species-specific consumption rates of plant taxa. Yet, Arctic hare and rock ptarmigan may benefit from muskox opening up the snow pack, thereby allowing them to access the plants.

  19. Slip resistance of winter footwear on snow and ice measured using maximum achievable incline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jennifer; Shaw, Robert; Novak, Alison; Li, Yue; Ormerod, Marcus; Newton, Rita; Dutta, Tilak; Fernie, Geoff

    2016-05-01

    Protective footwear is necessary for preventing injurious slips and falls in winter conditions. Valid methods for assessing footwear slip resistance on winter surfaces are needed in order to evaluate footwear and outsole designs. The purpose of this study was to utilise a method of testing winter footwear that was ecologically valid in terms of involving actual human testers walking on realistic winter surfaces to produce objective measures of slip resistance. During the experiment, eight participants tested six styles of footwear on wet ice, on dry ice, and on dry ice after walking over soft snow. Slip resistance was measured by determining the maximum incline angles participants were able to walk up and down in each footwear-surface combination. The results indicated that testing on a variety of surfaces is necessary for establishing winter footwear performance and that standard mechanical bench tests for footwear slip resistance do not adequately reflect actual performance. Practitioner Summary: Existing standardised methods for measuring footwear slip resistance lack validation on winter surfaces. By determining the maximum inclines participants could walk up and down slopes of wet ice, dry ice, and ice with snow, in a range of footwear, an ecologically valid test for measuring winter footwear performance was established.

  20. Taking advantage of public reporting: An infection composite score to assist evaluating hospital performance for infection prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakih, Mohamad G; Skierczynski, Boguslow; Bufalino, Angelo; Groves, Clariecia; Roberts, Phillip; Heavens, Michelle; Hendrich, Ann; Haydar, Ziad

    2016-12-01

    The standardized infection ratio (SIR) evaluates individual publicly reported health care-associated infections, but it may not assess overall performance. We piloted an infection composite score (ICS) in 82 hospitals of a single health system. The ICS is a combined score for central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, colon and abdominal hysterectomy surgical site infections, and hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and Clostridium difficile infections. Individual facility ICSs were calculated by normalizing each of the 6 SIR events to the system SIR for baseline and performance periods (ICS ib and ICS ip , respectively). A hospital ICS ib reflected its baseline performance compared with system baseline, whereas a ICS ip provided information of its outcome changes compared with system baseline. Both the ICS ib (baseline 2013) and ICS ip (performance 2014) were calculated for 63 hospitals (reporting at least 4 of the 6 event types). The ICS ip improved in 36 of 63 (57.1%) hospitals in 2014 when compared with the ICS ib in 2013. The ICS ib 2013 median was 0.96 (range, 0.13-2.94) versus the 2014 ICS ip median of 0.92 (range, 0-6.55). Variation was more evident in hospitals with ≤100 beds. The system performance score (ICS sp ) in 2014 was 0.95, a 5% improvement compared with 2013. The proposed ICS may help large health systems and state hospital associations better evaluate key infectious outcomes, comparing them with historic and concurrent performance of peers. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  2. [Indigenous peoples, HIV and public policy in Latin America: an exploration of the current situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and timely treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Patricia; Muñoz, Rubén; Stival, Matías

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials - including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes - were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV) as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally. The few studies done in the region on epidemiological prevalence, morbidity and mortality that are disaggregated by ethnicity reveal alarming data highlighting the need for further information on the epidemic in this population so as to address its repercussions in terms of prevention, care and timely follow-up.

  3. Indigenous peoples, HIV and public policy in Latin America: an exploration of the current situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and timely treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ponce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials – including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes – were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally. The few studies done in the region on epidemiological prevalence, morbidity and mortality that are disaggregated by ethnicity reveal alarming data highlighting the need for further information on the epidemic in this population so as to address its repercussions in terms of prevention, care and timely follow-up.

  4. [Floods and public health: a review of the recent scientific literature on the causes, consequences and responses to prevention and mitigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli

    2012-06-01

    Floods are among the most frequent natural disasters and they affect the lives of approximately 102 million people each year, mainly in developing countries and in major urban areas with a tendency to grow further over the coming decades. The scope of this paper is to provide input for a clearer understanding of these events through the results and experiences to be gleaned from the recent scientific literature. From the Pubmed database, 70 articles were analyzed that fulfilled the criteria to address at least one of the items selected for analysis, namely: 1) causes; 2) consequences; 3) responses and actions: submission of proposals and solutions for the prevention and/or mitigation of the risks and impacts of flooding. Tables for each of the items selected were organized in order to systematize and synthesize the results for causes (attributed to natural and human activities); environmental, infrastructure and services, and health consequences (injuries and diseases classified according to chapters of ICD-10); prevention and mitigation responses and actions. It was concluded that given the scenarios of increased frequency and severity of these events, the challenges facing public health for disaster risk reduction require integrated responses with broad policies for sustainable development.

  5. Policy implications of the widespread practice of 'pre-drinking' or 'pre-gaming' before going to public drinking establishments: are current prevention strategies backfiring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Samantha; Graham, Kathryn; Purcell, John

    2009-01-01

    To describe the research, policy and prevention implications of pre-drinking or pre-gaming; that is, planned heavy drinking prior to going to a public drinking establishment. The authors describe the phenomenon of pre-drinking, motivations for pre-drinking and its associated risks using available research literature, media and popular internet vehicles. Heavy drinking prior to going out has emerged as a common and celebrated practice among young adults around the world. Apparent motivations are: (i) to avoid paying for high priced drinks at commercial drinking establishments; (ii) to achieve drunkenness and enhance and extend the night out; and (iii) to socialize with friends, reduce social anxiety or enhance male group bonding before going out. Limited existing research on pre-drinking suggests that it is associated with heavy drinking and harmful consequences. We argue that policies focused upon reducing drinking in licensed premises may have the unintended consequence of displacing drinking to pre-drinking environments, possibly resulting in greater harms. Effective policy and prevention for drinking in licensed premises requires a comprehensive approach that takes into account the entire drinking occasion (not just drinking that occurs in the licensed environment), as well as the 'determined drunkenness' goal of some young people.

  6. Aircraft measurements to characterize polluted winter boundary layers: Overview of twin otter flights during the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Matter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. S.; Baasandorj, M.; Franchin, A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Goldberger, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Dube, W. P.; McDuffie, E. E.; Womack, C.; Fibiger, D. L.; Moravek, A.; Clark, J. C.; Murphy, J. G.; Mitchell, R.

    2017-12-01

    Winter air pollution is a significant public health concern. In many regions of the U.S., Europe and Asia, wintertime particulate matter concentrations exceed national and / or international air quality standards. Winter air pollution also represents a scientific challenge because these events occur during stagnation events in shallow, vertically stratified boundary layers whose composition is difficult to probe from surface level measurements. Chemical processes responsible for the conversion of primary emissions to secondary pollutants such as ammonium nitrate aerosol vary with height above ground level. Sources of oxidants are poorly understood and may result from both local chemical production and mixing between shallow inversion layers and background air. During the Utah Winter Fine Particulate Study (UWFPS) in January - February 2017, the NOAA twin otter executed 23 research flights with a payload designed to characterize the formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol in three mountain valleys of northern Utah (Salt Lake, Cache, and Utah). These valleys are subject to periodic episodes of winter aerosol pollution well in excess of U.S. national ambient air quality standards. This presentation will describe the measurement strategy of the twin otter flights to address the specific features of aerosol pollution within winter boundary layer of this region. This strategy is relevant to understanding the broader issue of winter air pollution in other regions and potentially to the design of future studies. The presentation will summarize findings from UWFPS related to boundary layer structure, emissions and chemical processes responsible for ammonium nitrate aerosol in this region.

  7. What Do We Know About Preventing Alzheimer's?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs of Alzheimer's Disease? / Preventing Alzheimer's Disease / Quiz: Alzheimer's Disease / Treatment Winter 2015 Issue: Volume 9 Number 4 Page 11 MedlinePlus | Subscribe | Magazine Information | Contact Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  8. [Winter sports injuries of the urogenital tract (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakse, G; Madersbacher, H

    1977-11-01

    During 1964-1974 112 injuries of the urogenital tract caused by winter sports were treated at the University Hospital Innsbruck, Department of Urology. Eighty-eight patients suffered skiing injuries, 20 tobogganing injuries, and one injury each was caused by ski jumping and bobsleighing accidents, two traumas resulted from a fall from a chair lift. On the basis of typical case reports the most common types of trauma of the urogenital tract are demonstrated and the basic mechanisms of the accidents are discussed. Particular attention is paid to the obvious increase of lesions of the external genitalia and the urethra in the last few years caused by the so-called spinning ski, as well as the frequency of kidney traumas, especially in winters with little snow. Tobogganing accidents caused injuries to the kidneys as well as to bladder and urethra. In contrast to traumas caused by skiing, tobogganing injuries were mostly multiple. Analysis of patients records shows an increase of these injuries, which were really not typical for winter sports. The possible reasons as well as their prevention are discussed.

  9. Overweight and obesity among low-income Muslim Uyghur women in far western China: correlations of body mass index with blood lipids and implications in preventive public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Li; Zhan, Jin Qiong; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shu Gang; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hong Yan; Ma, Zhi Ping; Hao, Xiao Ling; Simayi, Dilixia; Tao, Lin; Zhao, Jin; Amanguli, A; Mohemaiti, Meiliguli; Jing, Ming Xia; Wang, Wei; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Zou, Xiao Guang; Gu, Yan; Li, Li; Wang, Ying Hong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic of obesity is a global public health concern. Most studies on obesity are skewed toward high-income and urban settings and few covers low-income populations. This study focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlations with blood lipids/metabolites/enzymes (bio-indicators) in a rural community typical of low-income in remote western China. This study was performed in a Muslim ethnic Uyghur rural community in Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, about 4,407 km (2,739 miles) away from Beijing. Body mass index (BMI) and major blood bio-indicators (25 total items) were measured and demographic information was collected from 1,733 eligible healthy women aged 21 to 71 yrs, of whom 1,452 had complete data for analysis. More than 92% of the women lived on US$1.00/day or less. According to the Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity were defined as BMI at 24 to public health policies in Uyghur communities. To prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in low-income settings, we therefore propose a cost-effective, two-step strategy first to screen for obesity and then to screen persons with obesity for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Where and how to search for information on the effectiveness of public health interventions--a case study for prevention of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Susan E; Davenport, Clare F; Pennant, Mary E

    2014-12-01

    This case study documents the experience of searching for information on the effectiveness of population-level multi-factor interventions for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) to inform guidance from NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence). To compare suitability of different databases for searches on a medical public health topic and performance of sensitive versus specific strategies. A sensitive search strategy identified 34 CVD programmes (reference standard) and sensitivity, precision and number needed to read (NNTR) were compared across seven databases. Two alternative strategies were developed to improve precision while minimising the impact on sensitivity. MEDLINE alone retrieved 91% (31/34) relevant programme citations. Four databases (MEDLINE, CENTRAL, ASSIA and PsycINFO) were required to identify all 34 programmes. In the alternative strategies, greater use of MeSH rather than text and focus on terms directed at population-level interventions resulted in a more precise search on MEDLINE. MEDLINE alone provided a better yield than anticipated. Additional databases improved sensitivity by 9% but to the detriment of precision. Retrospective searching would provide additional insight into the performance of both databases and strategies. How the medical nature of this public health topic affected yield across databases also requires further investigation. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  11. Roles and contributions of pharmacists in regulatory affairs at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for public health emergency preparedness and response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Tina R; Kim, Hye-Joo; Yu, Yon

    To provide a general description of the roles and contributions of three pharmacists from the Regulatory Affairs program (RA) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) who are involved in emergency preparedness and response activities, including the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) public health emergency. Atlanta, GA. RA consists of a staff of nine members, three of whom are pharmacists. The mission of RA is to support CDC's preparedness and emergency response activities and to ensure regulatory compliance for critical medical countermeasures against potential threats from natural, chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear events. RA was well involved in the response to the H1N1 outbreak through numerous activities, such as submitting multiple Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) requests to the Food and Drug Administration, including those for medical countermeasures to be deployed from the Strategic National Stockpile, and developing the CDC EUA website (www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/eua). RA will continue to support current and future preparedness and emergency response activities by ensuring that the appropriate regulatory mechanisms are in place for the deployment of critical medical countermeasures from the Strategic National Stockpile against threats to public health.

  12. Healthy Eating During Winter Gatherings

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-10-04

    This podcast delivers tips on how to eat healthfully – and avoid overeating – during the holidays.  Created: 10/4/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/22/2007.

  13. The injury experience at the 2010 winter paralympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webborn, Nick; Willick, Stuart; Emery, Carolyn A

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine incidence proportion and the characteristics of athlete injuries sustained during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. Descriptive epidemiological study. All medical venues at the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games, Canada. A total of 505 athletes from 44 National Paralympic Committees participating in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Paralympic Games. Baseline covariates included sport specificity (ie, ice sledge hockey, alpine skiing, Nordic skiing, wheelchair curling), gender, age, and disability classification. All injuries that occurred during the 2010 Vancouver Paralympic Games. "Injury" was defined as any sport-related musculoskeletal complaint that caused the athlete to seek medical attention during the study period, regardless of the athlete's ability to continue with training or competition. The Injury Surveillance System identified a total of 120 injuries among 505 athletes [incidence proportion = 23.8% (95% confidence interval, 20.11-27.7)] participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. There was a similar injury incidence proportion among male (22.8%) and female (26.6%) athletes [incidence rate ratio = 1.1 (95% confidence interval, 0.7-1.7)]. Medical encounters for musculoskeletal complaints were generated in 34% of all sledge hockey athletes, 22% of alpine ski racers, 19% of Nordic skiers, and 18% of wheelchair curling athletes. The Injury Surveillance System identified sport injuries in 24% of all athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Paralympic Games. The injury risk was significantly higher than during the 2002 (9.4%) and 2006 (8.4%) Winter Paralympic Games. This may reflect improved data collection systems but also highlights the high risk of acute injury in alpine skiing and ice sledge hockey at Paralympic Games. These data will assist future Organizing Committees with the delivery of medical care to athletes with a disability and guide future injury prevention research.

  14. Local Action Plans for Forest Fire Prevention in Greece: Existing situation and a Proposed Template based on the Collaboration of Academics and Public Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Arvanitakis, Spyridon; Papanikolaou, , Ioannis; Lozios, Stylianos; Diakakis, Michalis; Deligiannakis, Georgios; Dimitropoulou, Margarita; Georgiou, Konstantinos

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires are a major hazard in Greece suffering on average 1,509 wildfires and 36,151 burned hectares of forestlands every year. Since 1998 the Greek Fire Service is responsible for wildfires suppression and response, while prevention and mitigation yearly directives are also being released by the General Secretariat of Civil Protection. The 3013/2002 Act introduced a major transfer of responsibilities from the national to local municipal and regional authorities, which are accompanied by supplementary financial support. Significant new features were established such as the operation of local coordination councils, the foundation of municipality civil protection offices, the establishment of the annually prevention planning for forest fires and the development of local action plans. The University of Athens has developed a Local Action Plan template for municipality administrative levels, integrating scientific techniques and technologies to public government management. The Local Action Plan for Forest Fire Prevention is the main handbook and primary tool of every municipality for reducing the risk of wildfires. Fire prevention and risk analysis are the principal aims of this Plan, which also emphasizes on the important role of the volunteer organizations on forest fire prevention. The 7 chapters of the Action Plan include the legal framework, the risk analysis parameters, the risk analysis using GIS, the prevention planning, the manpower and available equipment of services involved, along with operational planning and evaluation of the previous year's forest fire prevention actions. Multiple information layers, such as vegetation types, road network, power lines and landfills are combined in GIS environment and transformed into qualitative multiparameter as well as quantitative combinational fire hazard maps. These maps are essential in wildfire risk analysis as they display the areas that need the highest attention during the fire season. Moreover, the separate

  15. Advanced decision support for winter road maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Federal Highway Administration's winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS is a decision support tool that has the ability to provide weather predictions focused toward the road surface. The...

  16. Overview of climatic effects of nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.M.; Malone, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A general description of the climatic effects of a nuclear war are presented. This paper offers a short history of the subject, a discussion of relevant parameters and physical processes, and a description of plausible nuclear winter scenario. 9 refs

  17. Unusial winter 2011/2012 in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faško, P.; Lapin, M.; Matejovič, P.; Pecho, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2012), s. 19-26 ISSN 1335-339X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : winter characteristics * climate variabilit * climate change * global warming Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology

  18. Protocol for the systematic review of the prevention, treatment and public health management of impetigo, scabies and fungal skin infections in resource-limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philippa; Bowen, Asha; Tong, Steven; Steer, Andrew; Prince, Sam; Andrews, Ross; Currie, Bart; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2016-09-23

    Impetigo, scabies, and fungal skin infections disproportionately affect populations in resource-limited settings. Evidence for standard treatment of skin infections predominantly stem from hospital-based studies in high-income countries. The evidence for treatment in resource-limited settings is less clear, as studies in these populations may lack randomisation and control groups for cultural, ethical or economic reasons. Likewise, a synthesis of the evidence for public health control within endemic populations is also lacking. We propose a systematic review of the evidence for the prevention, treatment and public health management of skin infections in resource-limited settings, to inform the development of guidelines for the standardised and streamlined clinical and public health management of skin infections in endemic populations. The protocol has been designed in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols statement. All trial designs and analytical observational study designs will be eligible for inclusion. A systematic search of the peer-reviewed literature will include PubMed, Excertpa Medica and Global Health. Grey literature databases will also be systematically searched, and clinical trials registries scanned for future relevant studies. The primary outcome of interest will be the clinical cure or decrease in prevalence of impetigo, scabies, crusted scabies, tinea capitis, tinea corporis or tinea unguium. Two independent reviewers will perform eligibility assessment and data extraction using standardised electronic forms. Risk of bias assessment will be undertaken by two independent reviewers according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Data will be tabulated and narratively synthesised. We expect there will be insufficient data to conduct meta-analysis. The final body of evidence will be reported against the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation grading system. The evidence

  19. Academic Publications

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H C Felix

    2017-01-01

    Alternative modes of academic publication. What it is: Page for the dissemination of academic papers in alternative formats. Aimed at the diffusion of the idea of open publication, or open access publication, a branch of open science, a multidisciplinary movement that seeks to modify the paradigm of knowledge production that centralizes it and prevents its spreading. Historically, Western tradition has become firmly rooted in the free dissemination of knowledge among peers. However, the c...

  20. A winter chronicle. The coldness of the winter in the Federal Republic of Germany between 1960/61 and 2007/2008; Eine Winterchronik. Die Kaelte der Winter in Deutschland von 1960/61 bis 2007/08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemann, Hans-Joachim

    2008-07-01

    Since the beginning of the nineteen-sixties a review of the past winter period was published each spring. These publications based on weather maps and measurements from different places across the Federal Republic of Germany. Since 1991 further locations from the new German states were added. With the aid of data such as the sum of negative daily mean air temperature from 1st November to 31st March and the amount of days with negative daily mean air temperature, the wintriness and the length of the winter for each season were calculated and compared with long-time statistical values. In addition, a no dimensional so called coldness value was generated to characterize the strength of each winter period with direct comparability between all locations in Germany. All essential information from these papers is presented chronologically.

  1. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  2. Coming to grips with nuclear winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherr, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This editorial examines the politics related to the concept of nuclear winter which is a term used to describe temperature changes brought on by the injection of smoke into the atmosphere by the massive fires set off by nuclear explosions. The climate change alone could cause crop failures and lead to massive starvation. The author suggests that the prospect of a nuclear winter should be a deterrent to any nuclear exchange

  3. Barriers to wheelchair use in the winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripat, Jacquie D; Brown, Cara L; Ethans, Karen D

    2015-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that challenges to community participation posed by winter weather are greater for individuals who use scooters, manual and power wheelchairs (wheeled mobility devices [WMDs]) than for the general ambulatory population, and to determine what WMD users identify as the most salient environmental barriers to community participation during the winter. Cross-sectional survey organized around 5 environmental domains: technological, natural, physical, social/attitudinal, and policy. Urban community in Canada. Convenience sample of WMD users or their proxy (N=99). Not applicable. Not applicable. Forty-two percent identified reduced outing frequency in winter months, associated with increased age (χ(3)=6.4, P=.04), lack of access to family/friends for transportation (χ(2)=8.1, P=.04), and primary type of WMD used in the winter (scooter χ(2)=8.8, P=.003). Most reported tires/casters becoming stuck in the snow (95%) or slipping on the ice (91%), difficulty ascending inclines/ramps (92%), and cold hands while using controls or pushing rims (85%); fewer identified frozen wheelchair/scooter batteries, seat cushions/backrests, or electronics. Sidewalks/roads were reported to be problematic by 99%. Eighty percent reported needing additional help in the winter. Limited community access in winter led to a sense of loneliness/isolation, and fear/anxiety related to safety. Respondents identified policies that limited participation during winter. People who use WMDs decrease their community participation in cold weather because of multiple environmental barriers. Clinicians, researchers, and policymakers can take a multidimensional approach to mitigate these barriers in order to enhance community participation by WMD users in winter. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toxoplasmosis FAQs Toxoplasmosis & Pregnancy FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Publications Printable Resources Additional ...

  5. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  6. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  7. Prevention and health promotion from theory to practice: The interprofessional MeMPE Summer University for students of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idler, Nadja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: During the 2015 summer semester of Munich’s Ludwig Maximilian University (LMU medical school, the pilot project “MeMPE Summer University – An Interprofessional Seminar on Prevention and Health Promotion” was implemented as a compulsory elective subject. In 90 teaching units of 45 minutes each, 20 students from the degree programs of Medicine, Master of Public Health and Master of Science Epidemiology (MeMPE completed modules in theoretical introduction, scientific project work as well as practical assignments and conference attendance.Methods: The project was evaluated by students using pre- and post-project questionnaires (26 and 57 items, evaluated on a Five-level Likert scale of 1=“fully agree” to 5=“fully disagree”. The evaluation interviews of the instruction participants were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to Mayring’s qualitative content analysis.Results: Questionnaire response rate was 100 %. In pre/post comparison, the students reported an improvement in factual knowledge (pre median=3.0; post median=2.0; p<0.0001, in scientific work (pre median=3.0; post median=1.0; p<0.0001 and in interprofessional work (pre median=2.0; post median=1.0; p=0.024. In 18 interviews, the instructors largely expressed their motivation to participate in the project again.Conclusion: The MeMPE Summer University can serve as an example of best practice for interprofessional communication of prevention and health-promotion topics in theory and practice. The evaluation results show that the project enjoyed a high level of acceptance among students and instructors, and that it should be conducted in a revised version again in 2016.

  8. Education About Dental Hygienists' Roles in Public Dental Prevention Programs: Dental and Dental Hygiene Students' and Faculty Members' and Dental Hygienists' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Anushey; Kinney, Janet S; Gwozdek, Anne; Farrell, Christine M; Inglehart, Marita R

    2016-09-01

    In 2005, Public Act No. 161 (PA 161) was passed in Michigan, allowing dental hygienists to practice in approved public dental prevention programs to provide services for underserved populations while utilizing a collaborative agreement with a supervising dentist. The aims of this study were to assess how well dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members and practicing dental hygienists have been educated about PA 161, what attitudes and knowledge about the act they have, and how interested they are in additional education about it. University of Michigan dental and dental hygiene students and faculty members, students in other Michigan dental hygiene programs, and dental hygienists in the state were surveyed. Respondents (response rate) were 160 dental students (50%), 63 dental hygiene students (82%), 30 dental faculty members (26%), and 12 dental hygiene faculty members (52%) at the University of Michigan; 143 dental hygiene students in other programs (20%); and 95 members of the Michigan Dental Hygienists' Association (10%). The results showed that the dental students were less educated about PA 161 than the dental hygiene students, and the dental faculty members were less informed than the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists. Responding dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists had more positive attitudes about PA 161 than did the students and dental faculty members. Most of the dental hygiene faculty members and dental hygienists knew a person providing services in a PA 161 program. Most dental hygiene students, faculty members, and dental hygienists wanted more education about PA 161. Overall, the better educated about the program the respondents were, the more positive their attitudes, and the more interested they were in learning more.

  9. A window into a public program for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV: Evidence from a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cotton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To evaluate efficacy of the antenatal, intra-partum and post-natal antiretroviral components of a public service Prevention of Mother to Child (MTCT program in infants. Design Analysis of prospectively collected screening data of demographic and MTCT-related interventions and HIV-infection status of infants identified through HIV-specific DNA polymerase chain reaction. Setting Tygerberg Children’s Hospital, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Subjects HIV-infected women and their infants identified through participation in a public service MTCT program were referred for possible participation in a prospective study of isoniazid prophylaxis. Interventions Key components of the Program include voluntary counselling and testing, zidovudine to the mother from between 28 and 34 weeks gestation and to the newborn infant for the first week, single dose nevirapine to the mother in labour and the newborn shortly after birth and free formula for 6 months. Main Outcome Measures Number and percentage of HIV-infected infants and extent of exposure to antenatal, intrapartum and post-natal antiretrovirals. Results Of 656 infants with a median age of 12.6 weeks, screened between April 1st 2005 through May 2006, 39 were HIV-infected giving a transmission rate of 5.9% (95% CI: 4.4% - 8.0%. Antenatal prophylaxis was significantly associated with reduced transmission (OR: 0.43 (95% CI: 0.21 - 0.94 as opposed to intrapartum and postpartum components (p=0.85 and p=0.84, respectively. In multivariable analysis the antenatal component remained significant (OR=0.40 (95% CI 0.19 - 0.90. Conclusions The antenatal phase is the most important antiretroviral component of the MTCT program, allowing most opportunity for intervention.

  10. Translational study of obesity management using the Diabetes Prevention Program "Group Lifestyle Balance" in primary care clinics and public hospitals from Mexico: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Giovanni Díaz-Zavala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is the main modifiable risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in Mexico. Several randomized controlled trials have shown that intensive lifestyle programs are efficacious for the management of obesity. These programs include frequent sessions (14 or more contacts in the first 6 months focused on diet and physical activity and use a behavior change protocol. However, most Mexican primary care clinics and public hospitals apply traditional treatments for obesity management with limited results on weight loss. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP “Group Lifestyle Balance” for weight loss among adults with overweight and obesity from baseline to 6 months and from baseline to 12 months in primary care clinics and public hospitals from Sonora, Mexico. Material and Methods: This is a translational, multi-center, non-controlled, 6 and 12-month follow-up clinical study with a pre-test and post-test design. Healthcare providers from two primary care clinics, two hospitals and one university clinic will be trained with the DPP protocol to implement on their patients with overweight and obesity. Body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, depression, quality of life and stress scales will be measured in participants receiving the program at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Biochemical parameters will be measured at baseline and 12 months. The primary outcome is the change in body weight at 6 and 12 months. Discussion: This study will provide scientific evidence of the effectiveness of the DPP protocol as a model for obesity management in real world clinical practice among the adult Mexican population.

  11. Increasing public support for food-industry related, obesity prevention policies: The role of a taste-engineering frame and contextualized values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Selena E; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Adler, Gary J

    2016-05-01

    Support for policies to combat obesity is often undermined by a public sense that obesity is largely a matter of personal responsibility. Industry rhetoric is a major contributor to this perception, as the soda/fast food/big food companies emphasize choice and individual agency in their efforts to neutralize policies that are burdensome. Yet obesity experts recognize that environmental forces play a major role in obesity. We investigate whether exposure to a taste-engineering frame increases support for food and beverage policies that address obesity. A taste-engineering frame details strategies used by the food industry to engineer preferences and increase the over-consumption of processed foods and sugary beverages. We also examine the effects of exposure to two contextualized values that have recently been promoted in expert discourse-consumer knowledge and consumer safety - on public support of policies. Our research shows how causal frames and contextualized values may effectively produce support for new obesity policies. We use an online survey experiment to test the effects of exposure to a taste-engineering frame (TEF), the value of consumer knowledge (CK), or the value of consumer safety (CS), on level of support for a range of policies. A random sample of adults, age 18 + living in the United States was included in the study (N = 2580). Ordered logistic regression was used to measure the effects of treatment exposure. The primary outcome was level-of-support for four (4) food-industry related, obesity prevention policies (aka food and beverage policies): 1) require food-manufacturers to disclose the amount of additives in food products on food packaging; 2) require food-manufacturers to advertise food products in accordance with their actual nutritional value; 3) prohibit all high-fat, high-sugar food advertising on television programming watched primarily by children; and 4) increase healthy food availability in work sites, schools, and hospitals

  12. Use of the Air Force Post-Deployment Health Reassessment for the identification of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder: public health implications for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Michael D; Thompson, Sanna J; Knox, Kerry L

    2012-03-01

    Military members are required to complete the Post-Deployment Health Assessment on return from deployment and the Post-Deployment Health Reassessment (PHDRA) 90 to 180 days later, and we assessed the PDHRA's sensitivity and specificity in identifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression after a military deployment among US Air Force personnel. We computed the PDHRA's sensitivity and specificity for depression and PTSD and developed a structural model to suggest possible improvements to it. For depression, sensitivity and specificity were 0.704 and 0.651, respectively; for PTSD, they were 0.774 and 0.650, respectively. Several variables produced significant direct effects on depression and trauma, suggesting that modifications could increase its sensitivity and specificity. The PDHRA was moderately effective in identifying airmen with depression and PTSD. It identified behavioral health concerns in many airmen who did not develop a diagnostic mental health condition. Its low level of specificity may result in reduced barriers to care and increased support services, key components of a public health approach to suicide prevention, for airmen experiencing subacute levels of distress after deployment, which may, in part, account for lower suicide rates among airmen after deployment.

  13. Attribution of UK Winter Floods to Anthropogenic Forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, N.; Alison, K.; Sparrow, S. N.; Otto, F. E. L.; Massey, N.; Vautard, R.; Yiou, P.; van Oldenborgh, G. J.; van Haren, R.; Lamb, R.; Huntingford, C.; Crooks, S.; Legg, T.; Weisheimer, A.; Bowery, A.; Miller, J.; Jones, R.; Stott, P.; Allen, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    Many regions of southern UK experienced severe flooding during the 2013/2014 winter. Simultaneously, large areas in the USA and Canada were struck by prolonged cold weather. At the time, the media and public asked whether the general rainy conditions over northern Europe and the cold weather over North America were caused by climate change. Providing an answer to this question is not trivial, but recent studies show that probabilistic event attribution is feasible. Using the citizen science project weather@home, we ran over 40'000 perturbed initial condition simulations of the 2013/2014 winter. These simulations fall into two categories: one set aims at simulating the world with climate change using observed sea surface temperatures while the second set is run with sea surface temperatures corresponding to a world that might have been without climate change. The relevant modelled variables are then downscaled by a hydrological model to obtain river flows. First results show that anthropogenic climate change led to a small but significant increase in the fractional attributable risk for 30-days peak flows for the river Thames. A single number can summarize the final result from probabilistic attribution studies indicating, for example, an increase, decrease or no change to the risk of the event occurring. However, communicating this to the public, media and other scientists remains challenging. The assumptions made in the chain of models used need to be explained. In addition, extreme events, like the UK floods of the 2013/2014 winter, are usually caused by a range of factors. While heavy precipitation events can be caused by dynamic and/or thermodynamic processes, floods occur only partly as a response to heavy precipitation. Depending on the catchment, they can be largely due to soil properties and conditions of the previous months. Probabilistic attribution studies are multidisciplinary and therefore all aspects need to be communicated properly.

  14. Winter barley mutants created in the Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayats, O.M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Increasing fodder and protein production is one of the objectives of the development of agriculture in Ukraine. Higher productivity of fodder crops, due to new highly productive varieties, is the means to meet this aim. Winter barley is an important crop for fodder purposes. The climate of the Ukraine is favourable for growing this crop. The areas used for the growth of winter barley are however, small (500,000-550,000 ha) and there is a shortage of good quality varieties. The main aim of the work was therefore to create new varieties of highly productive winter barley, of good quality. The new varieties and mutation lines of winter barley were created under the influence of water solutions of N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMH - 0,012, 0,005%), N-nitroso-N-ethylurea (NEH - 0,05; 0.025; 0,012%) ethyleneimine (EI - 0,02; 0,01; 0,005%) on winter barley seeds of the varieties of local and foreign selections. On the basis of many years of investigations (1984-94) the following mutations were described: hard-grained, winter-hardiness, earliness, middle-maturity, late-maturity, wide and large leaves, narrow leaves, multinodal, great number of leaves, great number of flowers, strong stem (lodging resistant), tallness, semi-dwarfness, dwarfness, and high productivity. Particularly valuable are mutants with high productivity of green bulk. Their potential yield is 70 t/ha. As a result of the work two varieties of winter barley 'Shyrokolysty' and 'Kormovy' were released into the State register of plant varieties of the Ukraine. The other valuable mutant genotypes are used in cross breeding programmes. (author)

  15. Estimating Winter Annual Biomass in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts with Satellite- and Ground-Based Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley C. Reed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Winter annual plants in southwestern North America influence fire regimes, provide forage, and help prevent erosion. Exotic annuals may also threaten native species. Monitoring winter annuals is difficult because of their ephemeral nature, making the development of a satellite monitoring tool valuable. We mapped winter annual aboveground biomass in the Desert Southwest from satellite observations, evaluating 18 algorithms using time-series vegetation indices (VI. Field-based biomass estimates were used to calibrate and evaluate each algorithm. Winter annual biomass was best estimated by calculating a base VI across the period of record and subtracting it from the peak VI for each winter season (R2 = 0.92. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI derived from 8-day reflectance data provided the best estimate of winter annual biomass. It is important to account for the timing of peak vegetation when relating field-based estimates to satellite VI data, since post-peak field estimates may indicate senescent biomass which is inaccurately represented by VI-based estimates. Images generated from the best-performing algorithm show both spatial and temporal variation in winter annual biomass. Efforts to manage this variable resource would be enhanced by a tool that allows the monitoring of changes in winter annual resources over time.

  16. Examining winter visitor use in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mae A. Davenport; Wayne A. Freimund; William T. Borrie; Robert E. Manning; William A. Valliere; Benjamin Wang

    2000-01-01

    This research was designed to assist the managers of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) in their decision making about winter visitation. The focus of this report is on winter use patterns and winter visitor preferences. It is the author’s hope that this information will benefit both the quality of winter experiences and the stewardship of the park resources. This report...

  17. Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents: A Synthesis of Research and Input from the Listening Session Held by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention and the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarjoura, G. Roger; DuBois, David L.; Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Haight, Konrad A.

    2013-01-01

    In September 2013, a Listening Session on Mentoring Children of Incarcerated Parents was held in Washington, DC. This session was organized by the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention in partnership with the White House Domestic Policy Council and Office of Public Engagement. It continues the…

  18. Estimating winter survival of winter wheat by simulations of plant frost tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergjord Olsen, A.K.; Persson, T.; Wit, de A.; Nkurunziza, L.; Sindhøj, E.; Eckersten, H.

    2018-01-01

    Based on soil temperature, snow depth and the grown cultivar's maximum attainable level of frost tolerance (LT50c), the FROSTOL model simulates development of frost tolerance (LT50) and winter damage, thereby enabling risk calculations for winter wheat survival. To explore the accuracy of this

  19. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.

    2015-01-01

    occurred. Quantitative data is missing on N leaching of a catch crop compared to a winter cereal in a conventional cereal-based cropping system. The aim of the study was to investigate whether fodder radish (Raphanus sativus L.) (FR) would be more efficient than winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (WW...

  20. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  1. Risk management model of winter navigation operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez Banda, Osiris A.; Goerlandt, Floris; Kuzmin, Vladimir; Kujala, Pentti; Montewka, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    The wintertime maritime traffic operations in the Gulf of Finland are managed through the Finnish–Swedish Winter Navigation System. This establishes the requirements and limitations for the vessels navigating when ice covers this area. During winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland, the largest risk stems from accidental ship collisions which may also trigger oil spills. In this article, a model for managing the risk of winter navigation operations is presented. The model analyses the probability of oil spills derived from collisions involving oil tanker vessels and other vessel types. The model structure is based on the steps provided in the Formal Safety Assessment (FSA) by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and adapted into a Bayesian Network model. The results indicate that ship independent navigation and convoys are the operations with higher probability of oil spills. Minor spills are most probable, while major oil spills found very unlikely but possible. - Highlights: •A model to assess and manage the risk of winter navigation operations is proposed. •The risks of oil spills in winter navigation in the Gulf of Finland are analysed. •The model assesses and prioritizes actions to control the risk of the operations. •The model suggests navigational training as the most efficient risk control option.

  2. National Bioenergy Center - Biochemical Platform Integration Project: Quarterly Update, Winter 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, D.

    2011-02-01

    Winter 2011 edition of the National Bioenergy Center's Biochemical Platform Integration Project quarterly newsletter. Issue topics: 33rd Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals program topic areas; results from reactive membrane extraction of inhibitors from dilute-acid pretreated corn stover; list of 2010 task publications.

  3. Mortality impact of extreme winter temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Julio; García, Ricardo; López, César; Linares, Cristina; Tobías, Aurelio; Prieto, Luis

    2005-01-01

    During the last few years great attention has been paid to the evaluation of the impact of extreme temperatures on human health. This paper examines the effect of extreme winter temperature on mortality in Madrid for people older than 65, using ARIMA and GAM models. Data correspond to 1,815 winter days over the period 1986 1997, during which time a total of 133,000 deaths occurred. The daily maximum temperature (Tmax) was shown to be the best thermal indicator of the impact of climate on mortality. When total mortality was considered, the maximum impact occured 7 8 days after a temperature extreme; for circulatory diseases the lag was between 7 and 14 days. When respiratory causes were considered, two mortality peaks were evident at 4 5 and 11 days. When the impact of winter extreme temperatures was compared with that associated with summer extremes, it was found to occur over a longer term, and appeared to be more indirect.

  4. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  5. Prevalence of operator fatigue in winter maintenance operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camden, Matthew C; Medina-Flintsch, Alejandra; Hickman, Jeffrey S; Bryce, James; Flintsch, Gerardo; Hanowski, Richard J

    2018-02-02

    Similar to commercial motor vehicle drivers, winter maintenance operators are likely to be at an increased risk of becoming fatigued while driving due to long, inconsistent shifts, environmental stressors, and limited opportunities for sleep. Despite this risk, there is little research concerning the prevalence of winter maintenance operator fatigue during winter emergencies. The purpose of this research was to investigate the prevalence, sources, and countermeasures of fatigue in winter maintenance operations. Questionnaires from 1043 winter maintenance operators and 453 managers were received from 29 Clear Road member states. Results confirmed that fatigue was prevalent in winter maintenance operations. Over 70% of the operators and managers believed that fatigue has a moderate to significant impact on winter maintenance operations. Approximately 75% of winter maintenance operators reported to at least sometimes drive while fatigued, and 96% of managers believed their winter maintenance operators drove while fatigued at least some of the time. Furthermore, winter maintenance operators and managers identified fatigue countermeasures and sources of fatigue related to winter maintenance equipment. However, the countermeasures believed to be the most effective at reducing fatigue during winter emergencies (i.e., naps) were underutilized. For example, winter maintenance operators reported to never use naps to eliminate fatigue. These results indicated winter maintenance operations are impacted by operator fatigue. These results support the increased need for research and effective countermeasures targeting winter maintenance operator fatigue. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  7. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Euro Pannacci; Francesco Tei; Marcello Guiducci

    2017-01-01

    Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08) in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l.) in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i) spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days) in t...

  8. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  9. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-[that] would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications

  10. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  11. "Winter of our anxiety" by J. Steinbeck in USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhdanova Liya Iskanderovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the features of the Soviet reception of the novel by John Steinbeck. «The winter of our anxiety» published in the USSR within the sunset of «thaw» in 1962. Despite the restrained assessment of the novel at its homeland and the general low opinion about the post-war work of Steinbeck, in the USSR «Winter of our anxiety» was accepted very warmly, after the Nobel committee of Soviet critics began to talk about the return of «old times of Steinbeck>s «Grapes of wrath». However, no doubt that the reason for the success of this book in the USSR was not much Steinbeck>s «critics of bourgeois reality», the «American Dream», which commonly was written by the domestic press as guessable Soviet readers parallels between the way the main character of the novel Ethan Allen Hawley, committed them to choose between good and evil, «money and humanity» - and his own life, ambiguous and unstable situation of the creative intelligentsia in the Soviet Union at the beginning of 1960. However, the inability to say publicly about his own doubts and problems that inevitably led to a repetition of the rhetoric of the 1930s reduced the value of the novel «Winter of our anxiety» in denouncing the American way of life. Documentary base article made reviews of the novel members of the editorial board of the magazine «Foreign Literature «, research works by R.D. Orlova «Money against humanity» («Foreign Literature», 1962, № 3 and I.M. Levidova «Postwar books of John Steinbeck» («Questions of Literature», 1962, № 8.

  12. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  13. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    forcing that leads to the observed high productivity during winter in the northern Arabian Sea. The weak northerly winds and increased solar insolation during the inter-monsoon period, led to the development of a highly stratified upper layer with warm sea...

  14. Winter mortality in relation to climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keatinge, W. R.; Donaldson, G. C.; Bucher, K.; Jendritzky, G.; Cordioli, E.; Martinelli, M.; Katsouyanni, K.; Kunst, A. E.; McDonald, C.; Näyhä, S.; Vuori, I.

    2000-01-01

    We report further details of the Eurowinter survey of cold related mortalities and protective measures against cold in seven regions of Europe, and review these with other evidence on the relationship of winter mortality to climate. Data for the oldest subject group studied, aged 65-74, showed that

  15. Come back on the french gas winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The document analyzes the french gas market behavior during the winter 2005/2006: the gas consumption, the imports decrease was offset by the the liquefied natural gas supply increase at Fos, the stocks levels and the transparency of the information. (A.L.B.)

  16. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...

  17. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  18. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  19. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  20. Winter Secrets: An Instant Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, Cam

    1997-01-01

    Outdoor lesson plan aims to stimulate student interest in animals' adaptations to winter and the various signs and clues to animal behavior. Includes questions for class discussion, tips for guiding the hike, and instructions for two games that illustrate the predator-prey relationship. Notes curriculum connections to the East York (Ontario) Board…

  1. Modeling winter moth Operophtera brumata egg phenology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salis, Lucia; Lof, Marjolein; Asch, van Margriet; Visser, Marcel E.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between an insect's developmental rate and temperature is crucial to forecast insect phenology under climate change. In the winter moth Operophtera brumata timing of egg-hatching has severe fitness consequences on growth and reproduction as egg-hatching has to match

  2. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  3. Nuclear Winter: The implications for civil defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to hypothesized cooling in the northern hemisphere following a nuclear war due to injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the original paper in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. The widespread use of 3-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling; 15 to 25 0 C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought are likely to be direct threats to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures; The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and could present problems to third parties without food reserves; and Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor unexpected threat from nuclear war to the US and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the US due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year. 6 refs

  4. Nuclear Winter: Implications for civil defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, C.V.; Perry, A.M.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1988-05-01

    ''Nuclear Winter'' is the term given to the cooling hypothesized to occur in the Northern Hemisphere following a nuclear war as the result of the injection of smoke from burning cities into the atmosphere. The voluminous literature on this subject produced since the paper was published in 1983 by Turco, Toon, Ackerman, Pollack, and Sagen (TTAPS) has been reviewed. Three-dimensional global circulation models have resulted in reduced estimates of cooling---15 to 25/degree/C for a summer war and a few degrees for a winter war. More serious may be the possibility of suppression of convective precipitation by the altered temperature profiles in the atmosphere. However, very large uncertainties remain in input parameters, the models, and the results of calculations. We believe the state of knowledge about nuclear winter is sufficiently developed to conclude: Neither cold nor drought is likely to be a direct threat to human survival for populations with the wherewithal to survive normal January temperatures. The principal threat from nuclear winter is to food production, and this could present problems to third parties who are without food reserves. Loss of a crop year is neither a new nor an unexpected threat from nuclear war to the United States and the Soviet Union. Both have at least a year's food reserve at all times. Both face formidable organizational problems in distributing their reserves in a war-damaged environment. The consequences of nuclear winter could be expected to fall more heavily on the Soviet Union than the United States due to its higher latitude and less productive agriculture. This may be especially true if disturbances of rainfall amounts and distribution persist for more than a year.

  5. Effects of imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments on wheat aphids and their natural enemies on winter wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Xuefeng; Zhao, Yunhe; Wei, Yan; Mu, Wei; Liu, Feng

    2016-06-01

    Wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is one of the major pests of winter wheat and has posed a significant threat to winter wheat production in China. Although neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments have been suggested to be a control method, the season-long efficacy on pests and the impact on their natural enemies are still uncertain. Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of imidacloprid and clothianidin on the control of aphids, the number of their natural enemies and the emergence rate and yield of wheat during 2011-2014. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no effect on the emergence rate of winter wheat and could prevent yield losses and wheat aphid infestations throughout the winter wheat growing season. Furthermore, their active ingredients were detected in winter wheat leaves up to 200 days after sowing. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments had no adverse effects on ladybirds, hoverflies or parasitoids, and instead increased the spider-aphid ratios. Wheat seeds treated with imidacloprid and clothianidin were effective against wheat aphids throughout the winter wheat growing season and reduced the yield loss under field conditions. Imidacloprid and clothianidin seed treatments may be an important component of the integrated management of wheat aphids on winter wheat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Satellite remote sensing of air quality in winter of Lanzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dawei; Han, Tao; Jiang, Youyan; Li, Lili; Ren, Shuyuan

    2018-03-01

    Fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5) air pollution has become one of the global environmental problem, endangering the existence of residents living, climate, and public health. Estimation Particulate Matter (aerodynamic diameters of less than 10 μm, PM10) concentration and aerosol absorption was the key point in air quality and climate studies. In this study, we retrieve the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the Earth Observing System (EOS) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and PM2.5, PM10 in winter on 2014 and 2015, using Extended Dense Dark Vegetation Algorithm and 6S radiation model to analysis the correlation. The result showed that at the condition of non-considering the influence of primary pollutants, the correlation of two Polynomials between aerosol optical depth and PM2.5 and PM10 was poor; taking the influence of the primary pollutants into consideration, the aerosol optical depth has a good correlation with PM2.5 and PM10. The version of PM10 by aerosol optical depth is higher than that of PM2.5, so the model can be used to realize the high precision inversion of winter PM10 in Lanzhou.

  7. 2010 winter games tracks energy in real time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-01-15

    An online energy tracker was developed by BC Hydro to publicly monitor the real-time energy consumption at the Vancouver 2010 Olympic winter game sites within Vancouver, Richmond, Whistler and Whistler Blackcomb. The venues and associated sites participating in the live energy tracking project were the Richmond Olympic Oval, Canada Hockey Place, Vancouver Olympic/Paralympic Centre, South East False Creek Community Centre, Whistler Blackcomb Roundhouse Lodge and snowmaking facilities, and the Olympic and Paralympic Villages. The system was developed to allow venue managers to optimize their use of electricity on an hourly and daily basis. An energy tracking display board developed by Pulse Energy enabled them to compare their performance to similar facilities in real time, and to determine the greenhouse gas savings achieved as result of building and operating practices. Some venues had the potential to save as much as 15 to 20 per cent in energy costs with corresponding reductions in carbon emissions. Efficiency and conservation was built into the design of many new venues. The retrofits made to several existing buildings will continue to contribute to British Columbia's conservation goals long after the 2010 winter games are over.

  8. Incorporating Yearly Derived Winter Wheat Maps Into Winter Wheat Yield Forecasting Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, S.; Franch, B.; Roger, J.-C.; Vermote, E.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C.; Santamaría-Artigas, A.

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important cereal crops in the world. Timely and accurate forecast of wheat yield and production at global scale is vital in implementing food security policy. Becker-Reshef et al. (2010) developed a generalized empirical model for forecasting winter wheat production using remote sensing data and official statistics. This model was implemented using static wheat maps. In this paper, we analyze the impact of incorporating yearly wheat masks into the forecasting model. We propose a new approach of producing in season winter wheat maps exploiting satellite data and official statistics on crop area only. Validation on independent data showed that the proposed approach reached 6% to 23% of omission error and 10% to 16% of commission error when mapping winter wheat 2-3 months before harvest. In general, we found a limited impact of using yearly winter wheat masks over a static mask for the study regions.

  9. Analysis on energy-saving path of rural buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Li, Jinheng

    2018-02-01

    Since the reform and opening policy, the construction of rural area in China has become more and more important. The idea of establishing green villages needs to be accepted and recognized by the public. The hot summer and cold winter zone combines two contradictory weather conditions that is cold winter and hot summer. So the living conditions are limited. In response to this climate, residents extensively use electric heaters or air conditioning to adjust the indoor temperature, resulting in energy waste and environmental pollution. In order to improve the living conditions of residents, rural area energy conservation has been put on the agenda. Based on the present situation and energy consumption analysis of the rural buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone, this article puts forward several energy saving paths from government, construction technology and so on

  10. Civilian health during WWI and the causes of German defeat: a reexamination of the winter hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, H J

    1995-01-01

    This paper is a reexamination of the Winter hypothesis, which holds that there was a marked difference in the development of civilian health during the First World War between the central powers and the Western allies. Ultimate success on the battlefield, according to Winter, required balancing the needs of the military with civilian demands; Germany lost because it failed to achieve such a balance. The resulting decline in health standards undermined the war effort and eventually led to defeat. This article proceeds in two steps. First, it demonstrates that Winter's data does not allow him to make a proper comparison between the two camps. Second, I argue that his hypothesis can be refuted once a truly comparable source is used--infant mortality rated. There is as yet no convincing evidence to suggest that the outcome of the First world War was determined by public health policy.

  11. Winter predation by insectivorous birds and consequences for arthropods and plants in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Nicholas A; Wouk, Jennifer

    2012-12-01

    Top-down effects of predators can have important consequences for ecosystems. Insectivorous birds frequently have strong predation effects on herbivores and other arthropods, as well as indirect effects on herbivores' host plants. Diet studies have shown that birds in temperate ecosystems consume arthropods in winter as well as in summer, but experimental studies of bird predation effects have not attempted to quantitatively separate winter predation impacts from those in summer. To understand if winter foraging by insectivorous birds has consequences for arthropods or plants, we performed a meta-analysis of published bird exclusion studies in temperate forest and shrubland habitats. We categorized 85 studies from 41 publications by whether birds were excluded year-round or only in summer, and analyzed arthropod and plant response variables. We also performed a manipulative field experiment in which we used a factorial design to exclude birds from Quercus velutina Lam. saplings in winter and summer, and censused arthropods and herbivore damage in the following growing season. In the meta-analysis, birds had stronger negative effects on herbivores in studies that included winter exclusion, and this effect was not due to study duration. However, this greater predation effect did not translate to a greater impact on plant damage or growth. In the field experiment, winter exclusion did not influence herbivore abundance or their impacts on plants. We have shown that winter feeding by temperate insectivorous birds can have important consequences for insect herbivore populations, but the strength of these effects may vary considerably among ecosystems. A full understanding of the ecological roles of insectivorous birds will require explicit consideration of their foraging in the non-growing season, and we make recommendations for how future studies can address this.

  12. Light Hygiene: Time to make preventive use of insights--old and new--into the nexus of the drug light, melatonin, clocks, chronodisruption and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C; Reiter, Russel J

    2009-10-01

    Light is, clearly, a key to life on Earth and light, equally clearly, determines biological rhythmicity in organisms. Light does the latter by setting internal or endogenous clocks which allow a multitude of species, including man, to adjust their lives to changing external or environmental conditions. Critical changes over time occur from day to night and throughout the year. In this paper, we sum up how visible light provides electromagnetic information about environmental "time" via the ocular interface of newly discovered photoreceptive cells to a master clock in our brain, viz the suprachiasmatic nuclei [SCN], and how the SCN translate this input, with melatonin as a key biologic intermediary, into endogenous or biological time. We summarize experimental and epidemiological evidence suggesting how chronodisruption, a relevant disturbance of the temporal organization or order of physiology, endocrinology, metabolism and behaviour, is probably detrimental for human beings. On the basis of our synthesis, and in line with suggestions by other researchers voiced decades ago, light must, functionally, be considered as a drug equivalent. In this vein, the very timing, quality (wavelength), quantity (dose) and side effects, including chronodisruption, of light exposures can be critically important for health and disease in man. As a promising means to foster public health, we advocate an appropriate balance of exposures to the key Zeitgeber light in terms of "light hygiene", implying strong and appropriate rather than weak and confusing temporal information. This focus on "light hygiene", and thus on the key Zeitgeber light, does not mean to ignore that there are multiple entrainment pathways for our circadian clocks. Indeed, when dealing with light, chronodisruption and a multitude of adverse health effects, we ultimately need to consider Zeitgeber cues, and their possible interplay, beyond light alone. Confusions of the temporal programmes in humans can also stem

  13. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century (according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyga, N. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article considered the activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory. This enterprise clearly shows peculiarities of social activity of citizens under the leadership of the Communist Party, which considered labor collective as a main link of communist self government. In Ukrainian and foreign historiography this problem is almost unconsidered. Source base is represented by the fund of State archive of Dnipropetrovsk region, acts of the CC KPSU (Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and puplications of local press. In the article made an attempt to show the process of functioning of voluntary public squads on the example of Dnipropetrovsk radio factory and show the results in field of crime prevention.

  15. Winter climate variability and classification in the Bulgarian Mountainous Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, Nadezhda; Koleva, Ekaterina

    2004-01-01

    The problems of snowiness and thermal conditions of winters are of high interest of investigations because of the more frequent droughts, occurred in the region. In the present study an attempt to reveal tendencies existing during the last 70 years of 20 th century in the course winter precipitation and,temperature as well as in some of the snow cover parameters. On the base of mean winter air temperature winters in the Bulgarian mountains were analyzed and classified. The main results of the study show that winter precipitation has decrease tendencies more significant in the highest parts of the mountains. On the other hand winter air temperature increases. It shows a relatively well-established maximum at the end of the studied period. In the Bulgarian mountains normal winters are about 35-40% of all winters. (Author)

  16. Sociodemographic variations in the amount, duration and cost of potentially preventable hospitalisation for chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians: a period prevalence study of linked public hospital data

    OpenAIRE

    Banham, David; Chen, Tenglong; Karnon, Jonathan; Brown, Alex; Lynch, John

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine disparities in rates, length of stay (LOS) and hospital costs of potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) for selected chronic conditions among Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians (SA), then examine associations with area-level socioeconomic disadvantage and remoteness. Setting Period prevalence study using linked, administrative public hospital records. Participants Participants included all SA residents in 2005–2006 to 2010–2011. Analysis focused on...

  17. AGA predicts winter jump in residential gas price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The American Gas Association predicts the average heating bill for residential gas consumers could increase by as much as 18% this winter. AGA Pres. Mike Baly said, Last year's winter was warmer than normal. If the 1992-93 winter is similar, AGA projects that residential natural gas heating bills will go up about 6%. If we see a return to normal winter weather, our projection show the average bill could rise by almost 18%

  18. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  19. School in nature from spring to winter

    OpenAIRE

    MLSOVÁ, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis "Outdoor school from spring to winter" deals with the influence of field teaching on the locomotor development of preschool children. Based on specialized literature its theoretical part summarizes the influence of the natural environment on the child's development. It describes the benefits of field teaching, it deals with the term "Outdoor school" nowadays and in the past and with the locomotor development of children. The practical part includes an elaborated yearlong...

  20. Postharvest tillage reduces Downy Brome infestations in winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Pacific Northwest, downy brome continues to infest winter wheat producing regions especially in low-rainfall areas where the winter wheat-summer fallow rotation is the dominate production system. In Washington, a study was conducted for 2 years at each of two locations in the winter wheat -su...

  1. "Small Steps, Big Rewards": You Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steps, Big Rewards": You Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents For ... million Americans are at risk for type 2 diabetes." "Fifty four million Americans are at risk for ...

  2. Utilization of preventive maternal and child public health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of individual and small-area socioeconomic disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Background: Uptake of programmatic maternal and childhood preventive interventions continue to be sub-optimal in sub-Saharan Africa with wide variations within and across the countries. There is evidence suggestive of socioeconomic inequities in access to and coverage of preventive health intervention. In the context of maternal and child health (MCH) in sub-Saharan Africa, women and children among the poor are more disadvantaged in terms of access to life saving preven...

  3. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  4. The influence of sowing period and seeding norm on autumn vegetation, winter hardiness and yield of winter cereal crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potapova G. N.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the winter wheat and triticale in the middle part of the Ural Mountains haven’t been seeded before. The technology of winter crop cultivation should be improved due to the production of new varieties of winter rye. Winter hardiness and yield of winter rye are higher in comparison with winter triticale and especially with winter wheat. The sowing period and the seeding rate influence the amount of yield and winter hardiness. The winter hardiness of winter cereals and the yield of the rye variety Iset sowed on August 25 and the yield of the triticale variety Bashkir short-stalked and wheat Kazanskaya 560 sowed on August 15 were higher. It is important to sow winter grain in local conditions in the second half of August. The sowing this period allows to provide plants with the necessary amount of positive temperatures (450–500 °C. This helps the plants to form 3–4 shoots of tillering and a mass of 10 dry plants reaching 3–5 grams. The winter grain crops in the middle part of the Ural Mountains should be sown with seeding rates of 6 and 7 million of sprouting grains per 1 ha, and the seeds must be cultivated with fungicidal preparation before seeding.

  5. 2012 Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy and Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Olivier, Dore [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Fox, Patrick [Aspen Center for Physics, CO (United States); Furic, Ivan [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Halkiadakis, Eva [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States); Schmidt, Fabian [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Smith, Kendrick M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Whiteson, Daniel [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Aspen Center for Physics Project Summary DE-SC0007313 Budget Period: 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012 The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 11 to February 17, 2012. Sixty-seven participants from nine countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies. There were 53 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The weeks events included a public lecture-Hunting the Dark Universe given by Neal Weiner from New York University) and attended by 237 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists conducted by Spencer Chang (University of Oregon), Matthew Reece (Harvard University) and Julia Shelton (Yale University) and attended by 67 locals and visitors. While there were no published proceedings, some of the talks are posted online and can be Googled. The workshop was organized by John Campbell (Fermilab), Patrick Fox (Fermilab), Ivan Furic (University of Florida), Eva Halkiadakis (Rutgers University) and Daniel Whiteson (University of California Irvine). Additional information is available at http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=143360. Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era. It was held from January 30 to February 4, 2012. The 62 participants came from 7 countries and attended 43 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists

  6. [Public health, damage containment and the prevention of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections: a review of the core concepts and their implementation in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Lucília de Almeida; Bastos, Francisco Inacio

    2011-12-01

    This article assesses the historical context and the conceptual frame of setting up damage containment programs in the field of public health, with special emphasis on the Brazilian experience. The survey seeks to assess the relevance of such programs in the ongoing efforts to curb the spread of blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections, especially AIDS and hepatitis C. Findings from both the Brazilian and the international literature demonstrate that practical damage containment initiatives tend to be more effective when integrated with other public health measures based on common goals. Damage containment initiatives, aligned with the basic principles of public health do not limit themselves to a priori models or health care per se. They encompass a variety of pragmatic measures based on public policies and should be in line with the demands of the communities since the moment of their inception and implemented in the context of full partnership with such communities.

  7. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of head lice: Avoid head-to- ...

  8. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Body lice ... that can be taken to help prevent and control the spread of body lice: Bathe regularly and ...

  9. Education of healthcare professionals and the public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Cliodna A M; Cookson, Barry D; Lewis, Michael A O

    2012-07-01

    In the winter of 2007-08 a new public-facing antimicrobial campaign was agreed by the Advisory Committee on Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infection (ARHAI) Education sub-Group (later divided into subgroups for professional and public education): it comprised posters with a positive message on how the public could help themselves when they had a cold. However, the poster campaign, used in isolation in England, did not improve antibiotic use; therefore, the Public Education sub-Group took forward educational approaches to change the behaviour of the public and health professionals. Professionals have been encouraged to give patients clear information about the likely duration of symptoms, self-care, and benefits and harms of antibiotics, reinforcing the public poster campaigns in surgeries, hospitals and pharmacies. Since 2008, campaigns have been launched in England to coincide with European Antibiotic Awareness Day (EAAD) on 18 November, using Department of Health and EAAD materials. Professional education has been facilitated by the 2008 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence respiratory tract infection delayed prescribing guidance for general practitioners. A toolkit of materials for medicines management teams, to facilitate good antimicrobial stewardship in primary care (ASPIC), is being taken forward by the Public Education sub-Group and professional societies. After advice from ARHAI, in 2009 the General Medical Council requested that all postgraduate deans and Royal Colleges ensure infection prevention and control and antimicrobial prescribing become standard practice implemented in all clinical settings, and that they are emphasized strongly in undergraduate and postgraduate medical training. ARHAI has also taken a keen interest in reviewing, advising and leading on a number of European Union initiatives dealing with professional education.

  10. Sports injuries and illnesses during the Winter Olympic Games 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Lars; Steffen, Kathrin; Alonso, Juan Manuel; Aubry, Mark; Dvorak, Jiri; Junge, Astrid; Meeuwisse, Willem; Mountjoy, Margo; Renström, Per; Wilkinson, Mike

    2010-09-01

    Identification of high-risk sports, including their most common and severe injuries and illnesses, will facilitate the identification of sports and athletes at risk at an early stage. To analyse the frequencies and characteristics of injuries and illnesses during the XXI Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010. All National Olympic Committees' (NOC) head physicians were asked to report daily the occurrence (or non-occurrence) of newly sustained injuries and illnesses on a standardised reporting form. In addition, the medical centres at the Vancouver and Whistler Olympic clinics reported daily on all athletes treated for injuries and illnesses. Physicians covering 2567 athletes (1045 females, 1522 males) from 82 NOCs participated in the study. The reported 287 injuries and 185 illnesses resulted in an incidence of 111.8 injuries and 72.1 illnesses per 1000 registered athletes. In relation to the number of registered athletes, the risk of sustaining an injury was highest for bobsleigh, ice hockey, short track, alpine freestyle and snowboard cross (15-35% of registered athletes were affected in each sport). The injury risk was lowest for the Nordic skiing events (biathlon, cross country skiing, ski jumping, Nordic combined), luge, curling, speed skating and freestyle moguls (less than 5% of registered athletes). Head/cervical spine and knee were the most common injury locations. Injuries were evenly distributed between training (54.0%) and competition (46.0%; p=0.18), and 22.6% of the injuries resulted in an absence from training or competition. In skeleton, figure and speed skating, curling, snowboard cross and biathlon, every 10th athlete suffered from at least one illness. In 113 illnesses (62.8%), the respiratory system was affected. At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games, and 7% of the athletes an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially between sports. Analyses of injury mechanisms in high-risk Olympic winter

  11. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Temporal Variability and Characterization of Aerosols across the Pakistan Region during the Winter Fog Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fahim Khokhar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a meteorological/environmental phenomenon which happens across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP and leads to significant social and economic problems, especially posing significant threats to public health and causing disruptions in air and road traffic. Meteorological stations in Pakistan provide limited information regarding fog episodes as these provide only point observations. Continuous monitoring, as well as a spatially coherent picture of fog distribution, is possible through the use of satellite observations. This study focuses on the 2012–2015 winter fog episodes over the Pakistan region using the Moderate Resolution Image Spectrometer (MODIS, the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO products. The main objective of the study was to map the spatial distribution of aerosols, their types, and to identify the aerosol origins during special weather conditions like fog in Pakistan. The study also included ground monitoring of particulate matter (PM concentrations, which were conducted during the 2014–2015 winter period only. Overall, this study is part of a multi-country project supported by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD, started in 2014–2015 winter period, whereby scientists from Bangladesh, India and Nepal have also conducted measurements at their respective sites. A significant correlation between MODIS (AOD and AERONET Station (AOD data from Lahore was identified. Mass concentration of PM10 at all sampling sites within Lahore city exceeded the National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS levels on most of the occasions. Smoke and absorbing aerosol were found to be major constituents of winter fog in Pakistan. Furthermore, an extended span of winter fog was also observed in Lahore city during the winter of 2014–2015. The Vertical Feature Mask (VFM provided by CALIPSO satellite confirmed the low-lying aerosol

  13. The U.S. Federal Highway Administration winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisano, P.A. [Federal Highway Administration, Road Weather Managment Program, Washington, D.C. (United States); Stern, A.D. [Mitretek Systems, Inc., Oceanic, Atmospheric and Space Systems, Falls Church, VA (United States); Mahoney, W.P. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Research Applications Program, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Managing a winter maintenance program today is an increasingly complex endeavor. Just making sure that a plow blade is at the ready when the first flake falls is only a small part of the task. With tight budgets and the high expectation of the public for keeping roads clear of snow and ice, today's maintenance manager has to be able to handle multiple tasks or risk getting behind the onslaught of winter weather. Good information leads to effective practices, however all of the regulations concerning chemical applications, environmental impacts and multiple, often contradictory weather forecasts can lead to information overload. The United States Department of Transportation (DOT), Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recognized this potential problem in the late 1990's as part of its Road Weather Management (RWM) program. Generally speaking, there were plenty of weather forecasts, along with a few companies that issued road-specific forecasts, but there was a lack of linkage between the information available and the decisions made by winter maintenance managers. It was this weak link that became the genesis for the winter Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS). The MDSS has since matured into a functional prototype. During the winter of 2002-2003, the prototype was deployed at several maintenance garages in central Iowa for a field demonstration. This paper will document the implementation of the demonstration, a summary of lessons learned, and technology transfer activities. It will also describe plans for a longer, more comprehensive demonstration during the winter of 2003-2004. (orig.)

  14. Exceptional influenza morbidity in summer season of 2017 in Israel may predict the vaccine efficiency in the coming winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pando, Rakefet; Sharabi, Sivan; Mandelboim, Michal

    2018-03-07

    Influenza infections are the leading cause of respiratory viral infections worldwide, and are mostly common in the winter season. The seasonal influenza vaccine is currently the most effective preventive modality against influenza infection. Immediately following each winter season the World Health Organization (WHO) announces the vaccine composition for the following winter. Unexpectedly, during the summer of 2017, in Israel, we observed in hospitalized patients, an exceptionally high numbers of Influenza positive cases. The majority of the influenza B infections were caused by influenza B/Yamagata lineage, which did not circulate in Israel in the previous winter, and most of the influenza A infections were caused by influenza A/H3N2, a strain similar to the strain that circulated in Israel in the previous winter. We therefore predict that these two viruses will circulate in the coming winter of 2017/18 and that the trivalent vaccine, which includes antigenically different viruses will be inefficient. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced...... by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  16. Spectrum of winter dermatoses in rural Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kamel, Mohamed A

    2016-05-01

    Surveys that have been carried out to determine the prevalence of skin diseases in rural Yemen are scarce or not available. To investigate the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community. A retrospective study was conducted at the dermatology outpatient clinic of the Al-Helal Specialized Hospital (Radaa' district of Al Bayda' Governorate) using data analysis of 700 selected records of patients managed during four months of the 2013-14 winter season. Seven hundred patients with 730 diseases were reported in this study; the major bulk of patients (46.57%) were in the >18-40-year age group, and females outnumbered males. By far, dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders (38.49%) topped the list of the most frequent skin disorders groups, followed by skin infections and infestations (20%) and the pigmentary disorders (13.70%) group. Contact dermatitis (10.68%) was the most prevalent skin disorder, followed by hyperpigmentations (8.77%), acne (8.08%), viral infections (5.75%), atopic dermatitis (5.62%), and parasitic infestations (5.34%). This survey has documented the spectrum of winter dermatoses in a rural Yemeni community but also reflects the pattern of common dermatoses in the whole country. Dermatitis, eczematous, and allergic disorders, skin infections, and pigmentary disorders are the commonest groups. Contact dermatitis is the most prevalent disorder, and leishmaniasis is the most prevalent skin infectious disease. Climate, occupational, social, and environmental factors are the main contributors. Such statistics can form an important basis for community-based health policies. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  18. Prevention of suicide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is a major public health problem in India, probably even bigger than in the West. Suicidal behavior is the best conceptualized as a multifaceted complex problem involving social factors and mental illnesses. Broadly, there are two approaches to suicide prevention; population preventive strategies and high-risk preventive strategies. Population preventive strategies include reducing availability of means for suicide, education of primary care physicians, influencing media portrayal of suicidal behavior, education of the public, telephone helplines, and addressing economic issues associated with suicidal behavior. High-risk preventive strategy includes identifying individuals with high risk of committing suicide, intensively treating mental illness if present, and providing psychosocial support. Thus, prevention requires a multipronged effort with collaboration from various sectors including mental health professionals, social justice department, and macroeconomic policy makers.

  19. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  20. Mechanical weed control in organic winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euro Pannacci

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments were carried out in organic winter wheat in three consecutive years (exp. 1, 2005-06; exp. 2, 2006- 07; exp. 3, 2007-08 in central Italy (42°57’ N - 12°22’ E, 165 m a.s.l. in order to evaluate the efficacy against weeds and the effects on winter wheat of two main mechanical weed control strategies: i spring tine harrowing used at three different application times (1 passage at T1, 2 passages at the time T1, 1 passage at T1 followed by 1 passage at T1 + 14 days in the crop sowed at narrow (traditional row spacing (0.15 m; and ii split-hoeing and finger-weeder, alone and combined at T1, in the crop sowed at wider row spacing (0.30 m. At the time T1 winter wheat was at tillering and weeds were at the cotyledons-2 true leaves growth stage. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Six weeks after mechanical treatments, weed ground cover (% was rated visually using the Braun-Blanquet coverabundance scale; weeds on three squares (0.6×0.5 m each one per plot were collected, counted, weighed, dried in oven at 105°C to determine weed density and weed above-ground dry biomass. At harvest, wheat ears density, grain yield, weight of 1000 seeds and hectolitre weight were recorded. Total weed flora was quite different in the three experiments. The main weed species were: Polygonum aviculare L. (exp. 1 and 2, Fallopia convolvulus (L. Á. Löve (exp. 1 and 3, Stachys annua (L. L. (exp. 1, Anagallis arvensis L. (exp. 2, Papaver rhoeas L. (exp.3, Veronica hederifolia L. (exp. 3. In the winter wheat sowed at narrow rows, 2 passages with spring-tine harrowing at the same time seems to be the best option in order to reconcile a good efficacy with the feasibility of treatment. In wider rows spacing the best weed control was obtained by split hoeing alone or combined with finger-weeder. The grain yield, on average 10% higher in narrow rows, the lower costs and the good selectivity of spring-tine harrowing

  1. Snow Based Winter Tourism and Kinds of Adaptations to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiling, M.

    2009-04-01

    Austria is the most intensive winter tourism country in the world with some 4% contribution in the national GNP. Snow based winter tourism became the lead economy of mountain areas, covering two thirds of the country and is by far economically more important than agriculture and forestry. While natural snow was the precondition for the establishment of winter tourism, artificial snow is nowadays the precondition to maintain winter tourism in the current economic intensity. Skiing originally low tech, is developing increasingly into high tech. While skiing was comparatively cheap in previous days due to natural snow, skiing is getting more expensive and exclusive for a higher income class due to the relative high production costs. Measures to adapt to a warmer climate can be divided into three principle types: physical adaptation, technical adaptation - where artificial snow production plays a major role - and social adaptation. It will be discussed under which conditions each adaptation type seems feasible in dependence of the level of warming. In particular physical and technical adaptations are related to major investments. Practically every ski resort has to decide about what is an appropriate, economically cost efficient level of adaptation. Adapting too much reduces profits. Adapting too little does not bring enough income. The optimal level is often not clear. In many cases public subsidies help to collect funds for adaptation and to keep skiing profitable. The possibility to adapt on local, regional or on national scales will depend on the degree of warming, the future price of artificial snow production and the public means foreseen to support the winter tourism industry.

  2. A qualitative study on barriers in the prevention of anaemia during pregnancy in public health centres: perceptions of Indonesian nurse-midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyawati, Widyawati; Jans, Suze; Utomo, Sutarti; van Dillen, Jeroen; Janssen, A L M Lagro

    2015-02-26

    Anemia in pregnancy remains a major problem in Indonesia over the past decade. Early detection of anaemia in pregnancy is one of the components which is unsuccessfully implemented by nurse-midwives. This study aims to explore nurse-midwives' experiences in managing pregnant women with anaemia in Public Health Centres. We conducted a qualitative study with semi-structured face to face interviews from November 2011 to February 2012 with 23 nurse-midwives in five districts in Yogyakarta Special Province. Data analysis was thematic, using the constant comparison method, making comparison between participants and supported by ATLAS.ti software. Twelve nurse-midwives included in the interviews had less than or equal to 10 years' working experience (junior nurse-midwives) and 11 nurse-midwives had more than 10 years' working experience (senior nurse-midwives) in Public Health Centres. The senior nurse-midwives mostly worked as coordinators in Public Health Centres. Three main themes emerged: 1) the lack of competence and clinical skill; 2) cultural beliefs and low participation of family in antenatal care programme; 3) insufficient facilities and skilled support staff in Public Health Centres. The nurse-midwives realized that they need to improve their communication and clinical skills to manage pregnant women with anaemia. The husband and family involvement in antenatal care was constrained by the strength of cultural beliefs and lack of health information. Moreover, unfavourable work environment of the Public Health Centres made it difficult to apply antenatal care the pregnant womens' need. The availability of facilities and skilled staffs in Public Health Centre as well as pregnant women's husbands or family members contribute to the success of managing anaemia in pregnancy. Nurse-midwives and pregnant women need to be empowered to achieve the optimum result of anaemia management. We recommend a more comprehensive approach in managing pregnant women with anaemia

  3. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J; Bergman, Harold L; Cherrington, Brian D

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows (Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters (Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  4. Warmed Winter Water Temperatures Alter Reproduction in Two Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firkus, Tyler; Rahel, Frank J.; Bergman, Harold L.; Cherrington, Brian D.

    2018-02-01

    We examined the spawning success of Fathead Minnows ( Pimephales promelas) and Johnny Darters ( Etheostoma nigrum) exposed to elevated winter water temperatures typical of streams characterized by anthropogenic thermal inputs. When Fathead Minnows were exposed to temperature treatments of 12, 16, or 20 °C during the winter, spawning occurred at 16 and 20 °C but not 12 °C. Eggs were deposited over 9 weeks before winter spawning ceased. Fathead Minnows from the three winter temperature treatments were then exposed to a simulated spring transition. Spawning occurred at all three temperature treatments during the spring, but fish from the 16° and 20 °C treatment had delayed egg production indicating a latent effect of warm winter temperatures on spring spawning. mRNA analysis of the egg yolk protein vitellogenin showed elevated expression in female Fathead Minnows at 16 and 20 °C during winter spawning that decreased after winter spawning ceased, whereas Fathead Minnows at 12 °C maintained comparatively low expression during winter. Johnny Darters were exposed to 4 °C to represent winter temperatures in the absence of thermal inputs, and 12, 16, and 20 °C to represent varying degrees of winter thermal pollution. Johnny Darters spawned during winter at 12, 16, and 20 °C but not at 4 °C. Johnny Darters at 4 °C subsequently spawned following a simulated spring period while those at 12, 16, and 20 °C did not. Our results indicate elevated winter water temperatures common in effluent-dominated streams can promote out-of-season spawning and that vitellogenin expression is a useful indicator of spawning readiness for fish exposed to elevated winter temperatures.

  5. Winter air pollution and infant bronchiolitis in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ségala, Claire; Poizeau, David; Mesbah, Mounir; Willems, Sylvie; Maidenberg, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the most common respiratory pathogens in infants and young children. It is not known why some previously healthy infants, when in contact with RSV, develop bronchiolitis whereas others have only mild symptoms. Our study aimed to evaluate the possible association between emergency hospital visits for bronchiolitis and air pollution in the Paris region during four winter seasons. We included children under the age of 3 years who attended emergency room services for bronchiolitis (following standardized definition) during the period 1997-2001. Two series of data from 34 hospitals, the daily number of emergency hospital consultations (n=50857) and the daily number of hospitalizations (n=16588) for bronchiolitis, were analyzed using alternative statistical methods; these were the generalized additive model (GAM) and case-crossover models. After adjustments for public holidays, holidays and meteorological variables the case-crossover model showed that PM10, BS, SO2 and NO2 were positively associated with both consultations and hospitalizations. GAM models, adjusting for long-term trend, seasonality, holiday, public holiday, weekday and meteorological variables, gave similar results for SO2 and PM10. This study shows that air pollution may act as a trigger for the occurrence of acute severe bronchiolitis cases.

  6. Monitoring water phase dynamics in winter clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Edwin F.; Ware, Randolph; Joe, Paul; Hudak, David

    2014-10-01

    This work presents observations of water phase dynamics that demonstrate the theoretical Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen concepts in mixed-phase winter storms. The work analyzes vertical profiles of air vapor pressure, and equilibrium vapor pressure over liquid water and ice. Based only on the magnitude ranking of these vapor pressures, we identified conditions where liquid droplets and ice particles grow or deplete simultaneously, as well as the conditions where droplets evaporate and ice particles grow by vapor diffusion. The method is applied to ground-based remote-sensing observations during two snowstorms, using two distinct microwave profiling radiometers operating in different climatic regions (North American Central High Plains and Great Lakes). The results are compared with independent microwave radiometer retrievals of vertically integrated liquid water, cloud-base estimates from a co-located ceilometer, reflectivity factor and Doppler velocity observations by nearby vertically pointing radars, and radiometer estimates of liquid water layers aloft. This work thus makes a positive contribution toward monitoring and nowcasting the evolution of supercooled droplets in winter clouds.

  7. Winter-APK voor bijen : Helpt u deze winter mee bij het praktijkonderzoek?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Som de Cerff, B.; Cornelissen, B.; Moens, F.

    2013-01-01

    Om de risico’s van een aanrijding bij sneeuw en gladheid te verminderen, laten steeds meer automobilisten bij het monteren van winterbanden ook een wintercontrole uitvoeren. Zou een dergelijke controle voor de winter ook schade aan onze volken in de vorm van wintersterfte kunnen verminderen? Dat zou

  8. Impacts of winter NPO on subsequent winter ENSO: sensitivity to the definition of NPO index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangfeng; Wu, Renguang

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the linkage between boreal winter North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) and subsequent winter El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) based on seven different NPO indices. Results show that the influence of winter NPO on the subsequent winter El Niño is sensitive to how the NPO is defined. A significant NPO-El Niño connection is obtained when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific extends to near-equatorial regions. The anomalous cyclone induces warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies through modulating surface heat fluxes. These warm SST anomalies are able to maintain into the following spring and summer through an air-sea coupled process and in turn induce significant westerly wind anomalies over the tropical western Pacific. In contrast, the NPO-El Niño relationship is unclear when the NPO-related anomalous cyclone over the subtropical North Pacific is confined to off-equatorial regions and cannot induce significant warm SST anomalies over the subtropical North Pacific. The present study suggests that definitions of NPO should be taken into account when using NPO to predict ENSO. In particular, we recommend defining the NPO index based on the empirical orthogonal function technique over appropriate region that does not extend too far north.

  9. Insights in public health: Building support for an evidence-based teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection prevention program adapted for foster youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tamara; Clark, Judith F; Nigg, Claudio R

    2015-01-01

    Hawai'i Youth Services Network (HYSN) was founded in 1980 and is incorporated as a 501(c) (3) organization. HYSN plays a key role in the planning, creation, and funding of local youth services. One of HYSN's focuses is teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention among foster youth. Foster youth are at a greater risk for teen pregnancy and STI due to a variety of complex factors including instability, trauma, and emancipation from the foster care system. This article highlights how HYSN is leveraging both federal and local funding, as well as other resources, in order to implement an evidence-based teen pregnancy and STI prevention program adapted for foster youth.

  10. [Employment opportunities and job satisfaction in the field of Public Health: a survey among recent graduates of the Hygiene and Preventive Medicine residency in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncini, Francesco; Odone, Anna; Lalic, Tijana; Miduri, Alessia; Paroni, Samuel; Vezzosi, Luigi; Privitera, Gaetano; Signorelli, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    We conducted an on-line survey among 255 specialists in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine in Italy who completed their training between October 2014 and July 2016, to assess their training experience, employment opportunities and current job satisfaction. Response rate was 49%. Mean age was 35 years. A high employment rate within two years from obtaining specialist qualification was reported by the 125 specialists who completed the questionnaire (76% are currently employed). The three main work settings of the participating specialists are hospital health directions (37%), universities (19%) and local Prevention Departments (16%). Two thirds (66%) have temporary positions and only 6% permanent positions. Job, pay, and training satisfaction are often below expectations with geographical differences that would need to be further investigated.

  11. The Development and Implementation of a Public Health Strategy:Cost and Health System Analysis of Intermittent Preventive Treatment in Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Manzi, Fatuma

    2010-01-01

    The achievements of the health Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality (MDG 4) depend on the massive scaling-up of new and available health interventions. Evidence shows that effective interventions to attain MDG 4 are available; however coverage rates are currently low. The health systems in developing countries lack the necessary capacity to deliver the interventions to those in need. These factors among others are the cause of millions of preventable child...

  12. Steam, solarization, and tons of prevention: the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission's fight to contain Phytophthoras in San Francisco Bay area restoration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greg Lyman; Jessica Appel; Mia Ingolia; Ellen Natesan; Joe Ortiz

    2017-01-01

    To compensate for unavoidable impacts associated with critical water infrastructure capital improvement projects, the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) restored over 2,050 acres of riparian, wetland, and upland habitat on watershed lands in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties. Despite strict bio-sanitation protocols, plant pathogens (...

  13. [Individual prevention of occupational contact dermatitis: protective gloves and skin protection recommendations as part of the patient management scheme by the public statutory employers' liability insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, A; Skudlik, C; Sonsmann, F K

    2018-05-02

    The dermatologist's procedure is a pivotal tool for early recognition of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), for reporting OCD cases to the statutory accident insurance and for treating the diseases. The employer is in charge of implementing skin protection measures at the workplace. However, in terms of an individual prevention approach it may be necessary to propose targeted skin protection recommendations in specific patient cases. The patient's own skin protection behavior significantly contributes to regenerating and maintaining healthy skin. This behavior includes the use of occupational skin products, and in particular the correct use of appropriately selected protective gloves. Protective gloves are the most important personal protective measure in the prevention of OCD. Prevention services, occupational health and safety specialists, occupational physicians and centers specialized in occupational dermatology can support the identification of suitable protective measures. Nowadays, suitable protective gloves exist for (almost) every occupational activity and exposure. However, improper use in practice can become a risk factor by itself for the skin (e. g., incorrectly used gloves). Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify application errors, to educate patients in terms of skin protection and to motivate them to perform an appropriate skin protection behavior. With particular focus on protective gloves, this article gives an overview of various types, materials and potentially glove-related allergens, presents strategies for reducing occlusion effects and discusses some typical application errors and solutions.

  14. Preparations for Severe Winter Conditions by Emergency Health Personnel in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calışkan, Cüneyt; Algan, Aysun; Koçak, Hüseyin; Biçer, Burcu Küçük; Sengelen, Meltem; Cakir, Banu

    2014-04-23

    Emergency and core ambulance personnel work under all environmental conditions, including severe weather condtions. We evaluated emergency medical personnel in Çanakkale, Turkey, for their degree of preparedness. A descriptive study was conducted in Çanakkale, Turkey, within 112 emergency service units and their 17 district stations. Surveys were developed to measure the level of preparedness for serious winter conditions that individual workers made for themselves, their homes, and their cars. Of the 167 survey participants, the mean age was 29.8 ± 7.9 years; 52.7% were women; more than half (54.75%) were emergency medical technicians; and 53.3% were married. Only 10.4% of those who heated their homes with natural gas had carbon monoxide detectors. Scores relating to household and individual preparation for severe winter conditions increased by participants' age (P tires (P winter conditions (P = .016). Many of the surveyed emergency health personel demonstrated insufficient preparations for serious winter conditions. To increase the safety and efficiency of emergency medical personnel, educational training programs should be rountinely conducted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).

  15. Pre-exposure and postexposure prophylaxes and the combination HIV prevention methods (The Combine! Study): protocol for a pragmatic clinical trial at public healthcare clinics in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeiro, Alexandre; Couto, Márcia Thereza; Peres, Maria Fernanda; Luiz, Olinda; Zucchi, Eliana Miura; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres; Estevam, Denize Lotufo; Alencar, Rosa; Wolffenbüttel, Karina; Escuder, Maria Mercedes; Calazans, Gabriela; Ferraz, Dulce; Arruda, Érico; Corrêa, Maria da Gloria; Amaral, Fabiana Rezende; Santos, Juliane Cardoso Villela; Alvarez, Vivian Salles; Kietzmann, Tiago

    2015-08-25

    Few results from programmes based on combination prevention methods are available. We propose to analyse the degree of protection provided by postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) for consensual sexual activity at healthcare clinics, its compensatory effects on sexual behaviour; and the effectiveness of combination prevention methods and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), compared with exclusively using traditional methods. A total of 3200 individuals aged 16 years or older presenting for PEP at 5 sexually transmitted disease (STD)/HIV clinics in 3 regions of Brazil will be allocated to one of two groups: the PEP group-individuals who come to the clinic within 72 h after a sexual exposure and start PEP; and the non-PEP group-individuals who come after 72 h but within 30 days of exposure and do not start PEP. Clinical follow-up will be conducted initially for 6 months and comprise educational interventions based on information and counselling for using prevention methods, including PrEP. In the second study phase, individuals who remain HIV negative will be regrouped according to the reported use of prevention methods and observed for 18 months: only traditional methods; combined methods; and PrEP. Effectiveness will be analysed according to the incidence of HIV, syphilis and hepatitis B and C and protected sexual behaviour. A structured questionnaire will be administered to participants at baseline and every 6 months thereafter. Qualitative methods will be employed to provide a comprehensive understanding of PEP-seeking behaviour, preventive choices and exposure to HIV. This study will be conducted in accordance with the resolution of the School of Medicine Research Ethics Commission of Universidade de São Paulo (protocol no. 251/14). The databases will be available for specific studies, after management committee approval. Findings will be presented to researchers, health managers and civil society members by means of newspapers, electronic media and scientific journals

  16. Going public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte; Sandøe, Peter

    2012-01-01

    conduct, contains a tacit maxim of openness which may naturally be extended to cover the public relations of science. Discussing openness as access, accountability, transparency and receptiveness, the argumentation concentrates on the possible prevention of misconduct with respect to, on the one hand......The paper addresses issues of scientific conduct regarding relations between science and the media, relations between scientists and journalists, and attitudes towards the public at large. In the large and increasing body of literature on scientific conduct and misconduct, these issues seem...... deal with ethical public relations issues, guided by a norm or maxim of openness. Drawing on and rethinking the CUDOS codification of the scientific ethos, as it was worked out by Robert K. Merton in 1942, we propose that this, which is echoed in current codifications of norms for good scientific...

  17. Wintering bald eagle trends in northern Arizona, 1975-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teryl G. Grubb

    2003-01-01

    Between 1975 and 2000, 4,525 sightings of wintering bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) were recorded at Mormon Lake in northern Arizona. Numbers of wintering eagles fluctuated little in the 20 years from 1975 through 1994 (5.5 ± 3.0 mean sightings per day). However, during the winters of 1995 through 1997 local record highs of 59 to 118 eagles...

  18. Exercise-associated hyponatremia during winter sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuempfle, Kristin J

    2010-04-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) is hyponatremia that occurs respiratory distress, seizures, coma, and death. Rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment with hypertonic saline is necessary to prevent severe complications or death. Prevention is based on educating athletes to avoid excessive drinking before, during, and after exercise.

  19. Publicity and public relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosha, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses approaches to using publicity and public relations to meet the goals of the NASA Space Grant College. Methods universities and colleges can use to publicize space activities are presented.

  20. Can GRACE detect winter snows in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heki, Kosuke

    2010-05-01

    Current spatial resolution of the GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) satellites is 300-400 km, and so its hydrological applications have been limited to continents and large islands. The Japanese Islands have width slightly smaller than this spatial resolution, but are known to show large amplitude seasonal changes in surface masses due mainly to winter snow. Such loads are responsible for seasonal crustal deformation observed with GEONET, a dense array of GPS (Global Positioning System) receivers in Japan (Heki, 2001). There is also a dense network of surface meteorological sensors for, e.g. snow depths, atmospheric pressures, etc. Heki (2004) showed that combined effects of surface loads, i.e. snow (predominant), atmosphere, soil moisture, dam impoundment, can explain seasonal crustal deformation observed by GPS to a large extent. The total weight of the winter snow in the Japanese Islands in its peak season may reach ~50 Gt. This is comparable to the annual loss of mountain glaciers in the Asian high mountains (Matsuo & Heki, 2010), and is above the detection level of GRACE. In this study, I use GRACE Level-2 Release-4 data from CSR, Univ. Texas, up to 2009 November, and evaluated seasonal changes in surface loads in and around the Japanese Islands. After applying a 350 km Gaussian filter and a de-striping filter, the peak-to-peak change of the water depth becomes ~4 cm in northern Japan. The maximum value is achieved in February-March. The region of large winter load spans from Hokkaido, Japan, to northeastern Honshu, which roughly coincides with the region of deep snow in Japan. Next I compiled snow depth data from surface meteorological observations, and converted them to loads using time-dependent snow density due to compaction. By applying the same spatial filter as the GRACE data, its spatial pattern becomes similar to the GRACE results. The present study suggests that GRACE is capable of detecting seasonal mass changes in an island arc not

  1. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  2. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansiime, Catherine; Atuyambe, Lynn M.; Asiimwe, Benon B.; Mugisha, Anthony; Mugisha, Samuel; Guma, Victor; Rwego, Innocent B.; Rutebemberwa, Elizeus

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda. Methods This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method. Results All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process. Conclusions The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such

  3. Community Perceptions on Integrating Animal Vaccination and Health Education by Veterinary and Public Health Workers in the Prevention of Brucellosis among Pastoral Communities of South Western Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Kansiime

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of veterinary, public health, and economic significance in most developing countries, yet there are few studies that show integrated human and veterinary health care intervention focusing on integration at both activity and actors levels. The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore community perceptions on integration of animal vaccination and health education by veterinary and public health workers in the management of brucellosis in Uganda.This study used a qualitative design where six Focus Group Discussions (FGDs that were homogenous in nature were conducted, two from each sub-county, one with the local leaders, and another with pastoralists and farmers. Five Key Informant Interviews (KIIs with two public health workers and three veterinary extension workers from three sub-counties in Kiruhura district, Uganda were conducted. All FGDs were conducted in the local language and tape recorded with consent from the participants. KIIs were in English and later transcribed and analyzed using latent content data analysis method.All the groups mentioned that they lacked awareness on brucellosis commonly known as Brucella and its vaccination in animals. Respondents perceived improvement in human resources in terms of training and recruiting more health personnel, facilitation of the necessary activities such as sensitization of the communities about brucellosis, and provision of vaccines and diagnostic tests as very important in the integration process in the communities. The FGD participants also believed that community participation was crucial for sustainability and ownership of the integration process.The respondents reported limited knowledge of brucellosis and its vaccination in animals. The community members believed that mass animal vaccination in combination with health education about the disease is important and possible if it involves government and all other stakeholders such as wildlife authorities

  4. [Implementation of preventive measures recommended by the federal public health office and acceptance of advice by managers of commercial solaria--studies by the public health office of the Ammerland district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmen, H G

    1990-06-01

    Commercial solaria are not always up to the standards that would be desirable from a Public Health point of view in respect of protection of users against health hazards of exposure to UV radiation, and also with regard to supervision, qualified personal advice given to users by the staff, and qualification of the staff members to give such advice. Hygiene is definitely also a problem, as is evident from bacteriological swabs made from tanning beds. However, the talks conducted by a local Public Health board in Lower Saxony (North Germany) revealed considerable open-mindedness on the part of the entrepreneurs who were quite willing to follow expert health advice and to display a poster with recommendations regarding protective measures. This was combined with a questioning procedure that has proved successful with the proprietors.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of High, Moderate and Low-Dose Statins in the Prevention of Vascular Events in the Brazilian Public Health System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ziegelmann, Patricia Klarmann; Stella, Steffan Frosi; Vieira, Jose Luiz da Costa; Restelatto, Luciane Maria Fabian; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2015-01-01

    Statins have proven efficacy in the reduction of cardiovascular events, but the financial impact of its widespread use can be substantial. To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of three statin dosing schemes in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) perspective. We developed a Markov model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of low, intermediate and high intensity dose regimens in secondary and four primary scenarios (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ten-year risk) of prevention of cardiovascular events. Regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below 30% (e.g. simvastatin 10mg) were considered as low dose; between 30-40%, (atorvastatin 10mg, simvastatin 40mg), intermediate dose; and above 40% (atorvastatin 20-80mg, rosuvastatin 20mg), high-dose statins. Effectiveness data were obtained from a systematic review with 136,000 patients. National data were used to estimate utilities and costs (expressed as International Dollars - Int$). A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold equal to the Brazilian gross domestic product per capita (circa Int$11,770) was applied. Low dose was dominated by extension in the primary prevention scenarios. In the five scenarios, the ICER of intermediate dose was below Int$10,000 per QALY. The ICER of the high versus intermediate dose comparison was above Int$27,000 per QALY in all scenarios. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, intermediate dose had a probability above 50% of being cost-effective with ICERs between Int$ 9,000-20,000 per QALY in all scenarios. Considering a reasonable WTP threshold, intermediate dose statin therapy is economically attractive, and should be a priority intervention in prevention of cardiovascular events in Brazil

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of High, Moderate and Low-Dose Statins in the Prevention of Vascular Events in the Brazilian Public Health System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Antonini Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Statins have proven efficacy in the reduction of cardiovascular events, but the financial impact of its widespread use can be substantial. Objective: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of three statin dosing schemes in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS perspective. Methods: We developed a Markov model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs of low, intermediate and high intensity dose regimens in secondary and four primary scenarios (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ten-year risk of prevention of cardiovascular events. Regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below 30% (e.g. simvastatin 10mg were considered as low dose; between 30-40%, (atorvastatin 10mg, simvastatin 40mg, intermediate dose; and above 40% (atorvastatin 20-80mg, rosuvastatin 20mg, high-dose statins. Effectiveness data were obtained from a systematic review with 136,000 patients. National data were used to estimate utilities and costs (expressed as International Dollars - Int$. A willingness-to-pay (WTP threshold equal to the Brazilian gross domestic product per capita (circa Int$11,770 was applied. Results: Low dose was dominated by extension in the primary prevention scenarios. In the five scenarios, the ICER of intermediate dose was below Int$10,000 per QALY. The ICER of the high versus intermediate dose comparison was above Int$27,000 per QALY in all scenarios. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, intermediate dose had a probability above 50% of being cost-effective with ICERs between Int$ 9,000-20,000 per QALY in all scenarios. Conclusions: Considering a reasonable WTP threshold, intermediate dose statin therapy is economically attractive, and should be a priority intervention in prevention of cardiovascular events in Brazil.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of High, Moderate and Low-Dose Statins in the Prevention of Vascular Events in the Brazilian Public Health System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini, E-mail: rodrigo.ribeiro@htanalyze.com [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Duncan, Bruce Bartholow [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cardiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Ziegelmann, Patricia Klarmann [Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Estatística da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Stella, Steffan Frosi [Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cardiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vieira, Jose Luiz da Costa [Instituto de Cardiologia / Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Restelatto, Luciane Maria Fabian [Serviço de Medicina Interna do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Polanczyk, Carisi Anne [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Epidemiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Avaliação de Tecnologia em Saúde, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-Graduação em Cardiologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Statins have proven efficacy in the reduction of cardiovascular events, but the financial impact of its widespread use can be substantial. To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of three statin dosing schemes in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) perspective. We developed a Markov model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of low, intermediate and high intensity dose regimens in secondary and four primary scenarios (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ten-year risk) of prevention of cardiovascular events. Regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below 30% (e.g. simvastatin 10mg) were considered as low dose; between 30-40%, (atorvastatin 10mg, simvastatin 40mg), intermediate dose; and above 40% (atorvastatin 20-80mg, rosuvastatin 20mg), high-dose statins. Effectiveness data were obtained from a systematic review with 136,000 patients. National data were used to estimate utilities and costs (expressed as International Dollars - Int$). A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold equal to the Brazilian gross domestic product per capita (circa Int$11,770) was applied. Low dose was dominated by extension in the primary prevention scenarios. In the five scenarios, the ICER of intermediate dose was below Int$10,000 per QALY. The ICER of the high versus intermediate dose comparison was above Int$27,000 per QALY in all scenarios. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, intermediate dose had a probability above 50% of being cost-effective with ICERs between Int$ 9,000-20,000 per QALY in all scenarios. Considering a reasonable WTP threshold, intermediate dose statin therapy is economically attractive, and should be a priority intervention in prevention of cardiovascular events in Brazil.

  8. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  9. Assessing Argentina's response to H1N1 in austral winter 2009: from presidential lethargy to local ingenuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alexandra Minna; Koreck, Maria Teresa; Markel, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Argentina experienced a heavy burden of novel H1N1 influenza in austral winter 2009. In early July 2009, Argentina reported more than 1,500 cases and was confronting the highest per capita H1N1 mortality rate in the world. By September 2009, more than 500 people had died of H1N1 in Argentina. Unlike sister countries Chile and Mexico, Argentina's national authorities did not respond by implementing mitigation measures such as public gathering bans and school closures or by issuing broad-based messages about personal hygiene and disease prevention. Around the globe, many observers expressed dismay at this inaction. For example, The Economist scolded the country's leadership for its halting response and seeming apathy to an escalating health crisis. Why did Argentina, a middle-income country with a developed and, in many respects, sophisticated system of health and education, fall short in enacting a national pandemic plan during the 2009 H1N1 outbreak? What can we learn from Argentina's experiences about obstacles and opportunities during a pandemic crisis? This article, based on extensive qualitative research, including document capture, media analysis, and oral history interviews, assesses Argentina's mixed response to H1N1 during austral winter 2009, and adds to a growing body of studies focused on how governments and health systems in the Americas performed during the 2009-2010 H1N1 pandemic. When the first cases of novel H1N1 influenza were identified by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in mid-April 2009, Argentina's national health ministry appeared to be prepared. Starting in 2002, primarily in response to the prospect of avian influenza, the health ministry had formulated a preparedness plan and, beginning in 2005, had conducted at least five pandemic simulation exercises. In April 2009, Argentina's health ministry activated its pandemic response plan, triggering the establishment of an executive-level situation room equipped with

  10. Energy market barometer report - Winter 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Cartel, Melodie; Shao, Evan; Vernay, Anne-Lorene

    2017-01-01

    This Winter 2016 edition of the Grenoble Ecole de Management (GEM) Energy Market Barometer explores the opinion of French energy experts about the decentralization of the electricity sector in France. French experts were also asked where the focus of French energy policy should be in the next five years. Key findings: - French energy experts sense a clear trend toward the decentralization of the French electricity system; - Technology innovation and self-sufficiency for corporations and municipalities are the two major promises of decentralization; - The major barriers to faster decentralization in France are the high price of energy storage systems and the lack of political will; - 74% of experts believe that energy efficiency should be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and facilitating the decentralization of the electricity sector should also be a top priority for French energy policy in the next five years; - Experts are divided over the future of nuclear energy

  11. Chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đapić Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is concerned with the chemical profile of Taxodium distichum winter cones. The extract obtained after maceration in absolute ethanol was subjected to qualitative analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantification was done by gas chromatography/ flame ionization detector. The chromatogram revealed the presence of 53 compounds, of which 33 compounds were identified. The extract contained oxygenated monoterpenes (12.42%, sesquiterpenes (5.18%, oxygenated sesquiterpenes (17.41%, diterpenes (1.15%, and oxygenated diterpenes (30.87%, while the amount of retinoic acid was 0.32%. Monoacylglycerols were detected in the amount of 4.32%. The most abundant compounds were: caryophyllene oxide (14.27%, 6,7-dehydro-ferruginol (12.49%, bornyl acetate (10.96%, 6- deoxy-taxodione (9.50% and trans-caryophyllene (4.20%.

  12. A time for dogma, a time for the Bible, a time for condoms: building a Catholic theology of prevention in the face of public health policies at Casa Fonte Colombo in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffner, Fernando; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Casa Fonte Colombo (CFC) is a religious organisation that assists people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The funding for its activities comes from public sources such as the Brazilian National STD/AIDS Program as well as the Catholic Church. Capuchin (Franciscan) priests run the CFC and it has an extensive group of volunteers made up mostly of women. Between 2006 and 2009, we observed daily life at the CFC and interviewed priests, volunteers, employees, service providers, and clients. We also attended meetings, group sessions, and celebrations. Everyday actions carried out by the CFC reveal the efforts to resolve the tension between the position of the Catholic Church and the Brazilian state in the politics of AIDS. These efforts affirm that the CFC presents itself as a space where the position of the Catholic Church, as much as the politics of public health, are re-worked, giving way to a progressive act of Catholic prevention and assistance for AIDS that we call 'theology of prevention'.

  13. A time for dogma, a time for the Bible, a time for condoms: Building a Catholic theology of prevention in the face of public health policies at Casa Fonte Colombo in Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffner, Fernando; Garcia, Jonathan; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Parker, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Casa Fonte Colombo (CFC) is a religious organisation that assists people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The funding for its activities comes from public sources such as the Brazilian National STD/AIDS Program as well as the Catholic Church. Capuchin (Franciscan) priests run the CFC, and it has an extensive group of volunteers made up mostly of women. Between 2006 and 2009, we observed daily life at the Casa Fonte Colombo and interviewed priests, volunteers, employees, service providers, and clients. We also attended meetings, group sessions, and celebrations. Everyday actions carried out by the CFC reveal the efforts to resolve the tension between the position of the Catholic Church and the Brazilian state in the politics of AIDS. These efforts affirm that the Casa Fonte Colombo presents itself as a space where the position of the Catholic Church, as much as the politics of public health, are re-worked, giving way to a progressive act of Catholic prevention and assistance for AIDS, that we call “theology of prevention.” PMID:21834734

  14. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumi, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of Γ, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O 2 - ions, is presented in the Appendix

  15. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumi, G.C. [Lecco, (Italy)

    2001-06-01

    There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere). It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth's polar atmosphere down to E-region, heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of {gamma}, the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O{sub 2} {sup -} ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  16. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Harsch

    Full Text Available Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5 with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C, dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm. Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  17. Winter Climate Limits Subantarctic Low Forest Growth and Establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A.; McGlone, Matt S.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52°S, 169°E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  = −5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6°C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally. PMID:24691026

  18. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  19. Prevention and assessment of infectious diseases among children and adult migrants arriving to the European Union/European Economic Association: a protocol for a suite of systematic reviews for public health and health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottie, Kevin; Mayhew, Alain D; Morton, Rachael L; Greenaway, Christina; Akl, Elie A; Rahman, Prinon; Zenner, Dominik; Pareek, Manish; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Meerpohl, Joerg; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Hui, Charles; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Requena-Méndez, Ana; Agbata, Eric; Noori, Teymur; Schünemann, Holger J

    2017-09-11

    The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control is developing evidence-based guidance for voluntary screening, treatment and vaccine prevention of infectious diseases for newly arriving migrants to the European Union/European Economic Area. The objective of this systematic review protocol is to guide the identification, appraisal and synthesis of the best available evidence on prevention and assessment of the following priority infectious diseases: tuberculosis, HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis (polio), Haemophilus influenza disease, strongyloidiasis and schistosomiasis. The search strategy will identify evidence from existing systematic reviews and then update the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness evidence using prospective trials, economic evaluations and/or recently published systematic reviews. Interdisciplinary teams have designed logic models to help define study inclusion and exclusion criteria, guiding the search strategy and identifying relevant outcomes. We will assess the certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. There are no ethical or safety issues. We anticipate disseminating the findings through open-access publications, conference abstracts and presentations. We plan to publish technical syntheses as GRADEpro evidence summaries and the systematic reviews as part of a special edition open-access publication on refugee health. We are following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols reporting guideline. This protocol is registered in PROSPERO: CRD42016045798. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PREVENTION AND IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM OF MALNUTRITION IN CHILDREN UNDER FIVE YEARS AT SIAK HULU III PUBLIC HEALTH CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    winda septiani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevention and tackling malnutrition is an effort to anticipate potential problem of malnutrition before incident malnutrition and combat cases of malnutrition has happebed. Puskesmas Siak Hulu III has happened malnutrished cases for three years successive. The aim of this research is aware of the problem of malnutrition program of prevention and tacking Puskesmas Siak Hulu III the program implementation so far, and wich has operated community health center. The reseach a qualitative method being used. This research executed in june until july 2015. An analysis of the data done is analysis before in the feald, during analysis in the field, and analysis of after in a fieldwork constisting of an analysis of the domain, taxonomic analysis, componencial analysis and the theme of it’s cultural analysis. Informants in this research is 8 of a person taken based in the principle of sufficiency (Adequasy. The research result obtained important themes of human resources, financing system, as well as advice remains a big problem in achieving the program. Most being considerate in the research is not stead a source of the national budget in the form of vehicle operational cost calculation in the program implementation. While the implementation of the program against the technical level is still experiencing a sumber of problems that could actualy be solved well namely coordination between health workers (midwives cadres parents with toddkers and of health worker was recommended to all community health center head, the program nutrition and holders the village midwives priority heath to be more effort to promote compared with the effort to curative is cases of malnutrition.