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Sample records for prevention project ip3

  1. IP3 3-kinase B controls hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis and prevents lethal hematopoietic failure in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegemund, Sabine; Rigaud, Stephanie; Conche, Claire; Broaten, Blake; Schaffer, Lana; Westernberg, Luise; Head, Steven Robert

    2015-01-01

    Tight regulation of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis ensures lifelong hematopoiesis and prevents blood cancers. The mechanisms balancing HSC quiescence with expansion and differentiation into hematopoietic progenitors are incompletely understood. Here, we identify Inositol-trisphosphate 3-kinase B (Itpkb) as an essential regulator of HSC homeostasis. Young Itpkb−/− mice accumulated phenotypic HSC, which were less quiescent and proliferated more than wild-type (WT) controls. Itpkb−/− HSC downregulated quiescence and stemness associated, but upregulated activation, oxidative metabolism, protein synthesis, and lineage associated messenger RNAs. Although they had normal-to-elevated viability and no significant homing defects, Itpkb−/− HSC had a severely reduced competitive long-term repopulating potential. Aging Itpkb−/− mice lost hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and died with severe anemia. WT HSC normally repopulated Itpkb−/− hosts, indicating an HSC-intrinsic Itpkb requirement. Itpkb−/− HSC showed reduced colony-forming activity and increased stem-cell-factor activation of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) effectors Akt/mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). This was reversed by treatment with the Itpkb product and PI3K/Akt antagonist IP4. Transcriptome changes and biochemistry support mTOR hyperactivity in Itpkb−/− HSC. Treatment with the mTOR-inhibitor rapamycin reversed the excessive mTOR signaling and hyperproliferation of Itpkb−/− HSC without rescuing colony forming activity. Thus, we propose that Itpkb ensures HSC quiescence and function through limiting cytokine-induced PI3K/mTOR signaling and other mechanisms. PMID:25788703

  2. IP3 levels and their modulation FY fusicoccin measured by a novel [3H] IP3 binding assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aducci, P.; Marra, M.

    1990-01-01

    A recently developed sensitive assay based on the binding reaction of IP3 to bovine adrenal preparations has been utilized for determining the level of endogenous inositol-1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) in maize roots and coleoptiles. The amount of IP3 found in these tissues ranges from 0.1 to 1.0 nmol g-1 fresh weight. Reproducible results were obtained with extracts of tissues from a same harvest, while they showed a 2-3 fold variation when different batches of plantlets were compared. The fungal phytotoxin fusicoccin (FC) known to affect several physiological processes in higher plants, increases the level of IP3 in coleoptiles. This observation suggests that IP3 might be involved in the transduction of the FC encoded signal from its receptors at the plasmalemma level to the cell machinery

  3. IP3 stimulates CA++ efflux from fusogenic carrot protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rincon, M.; Boss, W.F.

    1986-01-01

    Polyphosphoinositide breakdown plays an important role in signal transduction in animal cells (Berridge and Irvine, 1984, Nature, 312:315). Upon stimulation, phospholipase C hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) and diacylglycerol both of which act as cellular second messengers. IP 3 mobilizes Ca ++ from internal stores, hence the cytosolic free Ca ++ concentration increases and those physiological activities regulated by Ca ++ are stimulated. To test if plant cells also responded to IP 3 , Ca ++ efflux studies were done with fusogenic carrot protoplasts released in EGTA. The protoplasts were preloaded with 45 Ca ++ placed in a Ca ++ -free medium, and efflux determined as 45 Ca ++ loss from the protoplasts. IP 3 (10-20μM) caused enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux and the response was sustained for at least 15 min. In plants, as in animals, the observed IP 3 -enhanced 45 Ca ++ efflux suggested that IP 3 released Ca ++ from internal stores, and the increased free cytosolic Ca ++ activated Ca ++ pumping mechanisms which restored the Ca ++ concentration in the cytosol to the normal level

  4. Transition in complex calcium bursting induced by IP3 degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Lu Qishao; Su Jianzhong

    2009-01-01

    Complex intracellular Ca 2+ oscillations are systematically investigated in a mathematical model based on the mechanism of Ca 2+ -induced Ca 2+ release (CICR), taking account of the Ca 2+ -stimulated degradation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) by a 3-kinase. Periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic bursting oscillations exist in a wide range of parameter values and occur alternatively as the parameters change slightly. The transition among them can be observed by the evidence in their interspike interval and the Lyapunov exponent. These results reveal the role of agonist-stimulated of IP 3 degradation as a possible source for complex patterns in Ca 2+ signaling.

  5. Subtype-selective regulation of IP(3) receptors by thimerosal via cysteine residues within the IP(3)-binding core and suppressor domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samir A; Rossi, Ana M; Riley, Andrew M; Potter, Barry V L; Taylor, Colin W

    2013-04-15

    IP(3)R (IP(3) [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate] receptors) and ryanodine receptors are the most widely expressed intracellular Ca(2+) channels and both are regulated by thiol reagents. In DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP(3)R, low concentrations of thimerosal (also known as thiomersal), which oxidizes thiols to form a thiomercurylethyl complex, increased the sensitivity of IP(3)-evoked Ca(2+) release via IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R2, but inhibited IP(3)R3. Activation of IP(3)R is initiated by IP(3) binding to the IBC (IP(3)-binding core; residues 224-604) and proceeds via re-arrangement of an interface between the IBC and SD (suppressor domain; residues 1-223). Thimerosal (100 μM) stimulated IP(3) binding to the isolated NT (N-terminal; residues 1-604) of IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R2, but not to that of IP(3)R3. Binding of a competitive antagonist (heparin) or partial agonist (dimeric-IP(3)) to NT1 was unaffected by thiomersal, suggesting that the effect of thimerosal is specifically related to IP(3)R activation. IP(3) binding to NT1 in which all cysteine residues were replaced by alanine was insensitive to thimerosal, so too were NT1 in which cysteine residues were replaced in either the SD or IBC. This demonstrates that thimerosal interacts directly with cysteine in both the SD and IBC. Chimaeric proteins in which the SD of the IP(3)R was replaced by the structurally related A domain of a ryanodine receptor were functional, but thimerosal inhibited both IP(3) binding to the chimaeric NT and IP(3)-evoked Ca(2+) release from the chimaeric IP(3)R. This is the first systematic analysis of the effects of a thiol reagent on each IP(3)R subtype. We conclude that thimerosal selectively sensitizes IP(3)R1 and IP(3)R2 to IP(3) by modifying cysteine residues within both the SD and IBC and thereby stabilizing an active conformation of the receptor.

  6. Subtype-selective regulation of IP3 receptors by thimerosal via cysteine residues within the IP3-binding core and suppressor domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Samir A.; Rossi, Ana M.; Riley, Andrew M.; Potter, Barry V. L.; Taylor, Colin W.

    2013-01-01

    IP3R (IP3 [inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate] receptors) and ryanodine receptors are the most widely expressed intracellular Ca2+ channels and both are regulated by thiol reagents. In DT40 cells stably expressing single subtypes of mammalian IP3R, low concentrations of thimerosal (also known as thiomersal), which oxidizes thiols to form a thiomercurylethyl complex, increased the sensitivity of IP3-evoked Ca2+ release via IP3R1 and IP3R2, but inhibited IP3R3. Activation of IP3R is initiated by IP3 binding to the IBC (IP3-binding core; residues 224–604) and proceeds via re-arrangement of an interface between the IBC and SD (suppressor domain; residues 1–223). Thimerosal (100 μM) stimulated IP3 binding to the isolated NT (N-terminal; residues 1–604) of IP3R1 and IP3R2, but not to that of IP3R3. Binding of a competitive antagonist (heparin) or partial agonist (dimeric-IP3) to NT1 was unaffected by thiomersal, suggesting that the effect of thimerosal is specifically related to IP3R activation. IP3 binding to NT1 in which all cysteine residues were replaced by alanine was insensitive to thimerosal, so too were NT1 in which cysteine residues were replaced in either the SD or IBC. This demonstrates that thimerosal interacts directly with cysteine in both the SD and IBC. Chimaeric proteins in which the SD of the IP3R was replaced by the structurally related A domain of a ryanodine receptor were functional, but thimerosal inhibited both IP3 binding to the chimaeric NT and IP3-evoked Ca2+ release from the chimaeric IP3R. This is the first systematic analysis of the effects of a thiol reagent on each IP3R subtype. We conclude that thimerosal selectively sensitizes IP3R1 and IP3R2 to IP3 by modifying cysteine residues within both the SD and IBC and thereby stabilizing an active conformation of the receptor. PMID:23282150

  7. Rapid recycling of Ca2+ between IP3-sensitive stores and lysosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina I López Sanjurjo

    Full Text Available Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 evokes release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, but the resulting Ca2+ signals are shaped by interactions with additional intracellular organelles. Bafilomycin A1, which prevents lysosomal Ca2+ uptake by inhibiting H+ pumping into lysosomes, increased the amplitude of the initial Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol in human embryonic kidney (HEK cells. Carbachol alone and carbachol in combination with parathyroid hormone (PTH evoke Ca2+ release from distinct IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores in HEK cells stably expressing human type 1 PTH receptors. Bafilomycin A1 similarly exaggerated the Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol or carbachol with PTH, indicating that Ca2+ released from distinct IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores is sequestered by lysosomes. The Ca2+ signals resulting from store-operated Ca2+ entry, whether evoked by thapsigargin or carbachol, were unaffected by bafilomycin A1. Using Gd3+ (1 mM to inhibit both Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ extrusion, HEK cells were repetitively stimulated with carbachol to assess the effectiveness of Ca2+ recycling to the ER after IP3-evoked Ca2+ release. Blocking lysosomal Ca2+ uptake with bafilomycin A1 increased the amplitude of each carbachol-evoked Ca2+ signal without affecting the rate of Ca2+ recycling to the ER. This suggests that Ca2+ accumulated by lysosomes is rapidly returned to the ER. We conclude that lysosomes rapidly, reversibly and selectively accumulate the Ca2+ released by IP3 receptors residing within distinct Ca2+ stores, but not the Ca2+ entering cells via receptor-regulated, store-operated Ca2+ entry pathways.

  8. Rapid recycling of Ca2+ between IP3-sensitive stores and lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Sanjurjo, Cristina I; Tovey, Stephen C; Taylor, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) evokes release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), but the resulting Ca2+ signals are shaped by interactions with additional intracellular organelles. Bafilomycin A1, which prevents lysosomal Ca2+ uptake by inhibiting H+ pumping into lysosomes, increased the amplitude of the initial Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol in human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Carbachol alone and carbachol in combination with parathyroid hormone (PTH) evoke Ca2+ release from distinct IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores in HEK cells stably expressing human type 1 PTH receptors. Bafilomycin A1 similarly exaggerated the Ca2+ signals evoked by carbachol or carbachol with PTH, indicating that Ca2+ released from distinct IP3-sensitive Ca2+ stores is sequestered by lysosomes. The Ca2+ signals resulting from store-operated Ca2+ entry, whether evoked by thapsigargin or carbachol, were unaffected by bafilomycin A1. Using Gd3+ (1 mM) to inhibit both Ca2+ entry and Ca2+ extrusion, HEK cells were repetitively stimulated with carbachol to assess the effectiveness of Ca2+ recycling to the ER after IP3-evoked Ca2+ release. Blocking lysosomal Ca2+ uptake with bafilomycin A1 increased the amplitude of each carbachol-evoked Ca2+ signal without affecting the rate of Ca2+ recycling to the ER. This suggests that Ca2+ accumulated by lysosomes is rapidly returned to the ER. We conclude that lysosomes rapidly, reversibly and selectively accumulate the Ca2+ released by IP3 receptors residing within distinct Ca2+ stores, but not the Ca2+ entering cells via receptor-regulated, store-operated Ca2+ entry pathways.

  9. Role of Caspase-3 Cleaved IP3R1 on Ca2+ Homeostasis and Developmental Competence of Mouse Oocytes and Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan; Fissore, Rafael. A.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis in most cell types is accompanied by altered Ca2+ homeostasis. During apoptosis, caspase-3 mediated cleavage of the type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) generates a 95-kDa C-terminal fragment (C-IP3R1), which represents the channel domain of the receptor. Aged mouse eggs display abnormal Ca2+ homeostasis and express C-IP3R1, although whether or not C-IP3R1 expression contributes to Ca2+ misregulation or a decrease in developmental competency is unknown. We sought to answer these questions by injecting in mouse oocytes and eggs cRNAs encoding CIP3R1. We found that: 1) expression of C-IP3R1 in eggs lowered the Ca2+ content of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), although, as C-IP3R1 is quickly degraded at this stage, its expression did not impair pre-implantation embryo development; 2) expression of CIP3R1 in eggs enhanced fragmentation associated with aging; 3) endogenous IP3R1 is required for aging associated apoptosis, as its down-regulation prevented fragmentation, and expression of C-IP3R1 in eggs with downregulated IP3R1 partly restored fragmentation; 4) C-IP3R1 expression in GV oocytes resulted in persistent levels of protein, which abolished the increase in the ER releasable Ca2+ pool that occurs during maturation, undermined the Ca2+ oscillatory ability of matured eggs and their activation potential. Collectively, this study supports a role for IP3R1 and C-IP3R1 in regulating Ca2+ homeostasis and the ER Ca2+ content during oocyte maturation. Nevertheless, the role of C-IP3R1 on Ca2+ homeostasis in aged eggs seems minor, as in MII eggs the majority of endogenous IP3R1 remains intact and C-IP3R1 undergoes rapid turnover. PMID:24692207

  10. IP3 Receptor-Dependent Cytoplasmic Ca2+ Signals Are Tightly Controlled by Cavβ3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouar Belkacemi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated calcium channels (Cavs are major Ca2+ entry pathways in excitable cells. Their β subunits facilitate membrane trafficking of the channel’s ion-conducting α1 pore and modulate its gating properties. We report that one β subunit, β3, reduces Ca2+ release following stimulation of phospholipase C-coupled receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 formation. This effect requires the SH3-HOOK domain of Cavβ3, includes physical β3/IP3 receptor interaction, and prevails when agonist-induced IP3 formation is bypassed by photolysis of caged IP3. In agreement with β3 acting as a brake on Ca2+ release, fibroblast migration is enhanced in vitro, and in vivo, closure of skin wounds is accelerated in the absence of β3. To mediate specific physiological responses and to prevent Ca2+ toxicity, cytoplasmic Ca2+ signals must be tightly controlled. The described function of β3, unrelated to its function as a Cav subunit, adds to this tight control.

  11. Numerical study of IP3-induced Ca2+ spiral pattern evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jun; Ma Jun; Yi Ming; Jia Ya

    2008-01-01

    The effect of change in concentration of messenger molecule inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP 3 ) on intracellular Ca 2+ spiral pattern evolution is studied numerically. The results indicate that when the IP 3 concentration decreases from 0.27 μM, a physiologically reasonable value, to different values, the spiral centre drifts to the edge of the medium and disappears for a small enough IP 3 concentration. The instability of spiral pattern can be understood in terms of excitability-change controlled by the IP 3 concentration. On the other hand, when the IP 3 concentration increases from 0.27 μM, a homogeneous area with a high Ca 2+ concentration emerges and competes with the spiral pattern. A high enough IP 3 concentration can lead the homogeneous area to occupy the whole medium. The instability of spiral pattern is ascribed to the change in stability of a stationary state with a high Ca 2+ concentration. (general)

  12. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project Quarterly Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide collaborative elder abuse prevention project, to prevent abuse of elderly and disabled adults. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for…

  13. The wavy Mutation Maps to the Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase 2 (IP3K2) Gene of Drosophila and Interacts with IP3R to Affect Wing Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Derek M; Maroja, Luana S; Cottrill, Sarah; Bomkamp, Brent E; Westervelt, Kathleen A; Deitcher, David L

    2015-11-27

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) regulates a host of biological processes from egg activation to cell death. When IP3-specific receptors (IP3Rs) bind to IP3, they release calcium from the ER into the cytoplasm, triggering a variety of cell type- and developmental stage-specific responses. Alternatively, inositol polyphosphate kinases can phosphorylate IP3; this limits IP3R activation by reducing IP3 levels, and also generates new signaling molecules altogether. These divergent pathways draw from the same IP3 pool yet cause very different cellular responses. Therefore, controlling the relative rates of IP3R activation vs. phosphorylation of IP3 is essential for proper cell functioning. Establishing a model system that sensitively reports the net output of IP3 signaling is crucial for identifying the controlling genes. Here we report that mutant alleles of wavy (wy), a classic locus of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, map to IP3 3-kinase 2 (IP3K2), a member of the inositol polyphosphate kinase gene family. Mutations in wy disrupt wing structure in a highly specific pattern. RNAi experiments using GAL4 and GAL80(ts) indicated that IP3K2 function is required in the wing discs of early pupae for normal wing development. Gradations in the severity of the wy phenotype provide high-resolution readouts of IP3K2 function and of overall IP3 signaling, giving this system strong potential as a model for further study of the IP3 signaling network. In proof of concept, a dominant modifier screen revealed that mutations in IP3R strongly suppress the wy phenotype, suggesting that the wy phenotype results from reduced IP4 levels, and/or excessive IP3R signaling. Copyright © 2016 Dean et al.

  14. The wavy Mutation Maps to the Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate 3-Kinase 2 (IP3K2 Gene of Drosophila and Interacts with IP3R to Affect Wing Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M. Dean

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3 regulates a host of biological processes from egg activation to cell death. When IP3-specific receptors (IP3Rs bind to IP3, they release calcium from the ER into the cytoplasm, triggering a variety of cell type- and developmental stage-specific responses. Alternatively, inositol polyphosphate kinases can phosphorylate IP3; this limits IP3R activation by reducing IP3 levels, and also generates new signaling molecules altogether. These divergent pathways draw from the same IP3 pool yet cause very different cellular responses. Therefore, controlling the relative rates of IP3R activation vs. phosphorylation of IP3 is essential for proper cell functioning. Establishing a model system that sensitively reports the net output of IP3 signaling is crucial for identifying the controlling genes. Here we report that mutant alleles of wavy (wy, a classic locus of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, map to IP3 3-kinase 2 (IP3K2, a member of the inositol polyphosphate kinase gene family. Mutations in wy disrupt wing structure in a highly specific pattern. RNAi experiments using GAL4 and GAL80ts indicated that IP3K2 function is required in the wing discs of early pupae for normal wing development. Gradations in the severity of the wy phenotype provide high-resolution readouts of IP3K2 function and of overall IP3 signaling, giving this system strong potential as a model for further study of the IP3 signaling network. In proof of concept, a dominant modifier screen revealed that mutations in IP3R strongly suppress the wy phenotype, suggesting that the wy phenotype results from reduced IP4 levels, and/or excessive IP3R signaling.

  15. The role of calsenilin/DREAM/KChIP3 in contextual fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jon C; McDermott, Carmel M; Tunur, Tumay; Rands, Vicky; Stelly, Claire; Karhson, Debra; Bowlby, Mark R; An, W Frank; Sweatt, J David; Schrader, Laura A

    2009-03-01

    Potassium channel interacting proteins (KChIPs) are members of a family of calcium binding proteins that interact with Kv4 potassium (K(+)) channel primary subunits and also act as transcription factors. The Kv4 subunit is a primary K(+) channel pore-forming subunit, which contributes to the somatic and dendritic A-type currents throughout the nervous system. These A-type currents play a key role in the regulation of neuronal excitability and dendritic processing of incoming synaptic information. KChIP3 is also known as calsenilin and as the transcription factor, downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator (DREAM), which regulates a number of genes including prodynorphin. KChIP3 and Kv4 primary channel subunits are highly expressed in hippocampus, an area of the brain important for learning and memory. Through its various functions, KChIP3 may play a role in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. We evaluated the role of KChIP3 in a hippocampus-dependent memory task, contextual fear conditioning. Male KChIP3 knockout (KO) mice showed significantly enhanced memory 24 hours after training as measured by percent freezing. In addition, we found that membrane association and interaction with Kv4.2 of KChIP3 protein was significantly decreased and nuclear KChIP3 expression was increased six hours after the fear conditioning training paradigm with no significant change in KChIP3 mRNA. In addition, prodynorphin mRNA expression was significantly decreased six hours after fear conditioning training in wild-type (WT) but not in KO animals. These data suggest a role for regulation of gene expression by KChIP3/DREAM/calsenilin in consolidation of contextual fear conditioning memories.

  16. Triazolophostins: a library of novel and potent agonists of IP3 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Vibhute, Amol M; Konieczny, Vera; Taylor, Colin William; Sureshan, Kana M

    2015-01-01

    IP3 receptors are channels that mediate the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores of cells stimulated by hormones or neurotransmitters. Adenophostin A (AdA) is the most potent agonist of IP3 receptors, with the β-anomeric adenine contributing to the increased potency. The potency of AdA and its stability towards the enzymes that degrade IP3 have aroused interest in AdA analogs for biological studies. The complex structure of AdA poses problems that have necessitated optimization of sy...

  17. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swinburn, B A; Millar, L; Utter, J

    2011-01-01

    , Tonga, New Zealand and Australia) designed to prevent adolescent obesity. This paper overviews the project and the methods common to the four countries. Each country implemented a community-based intervention programme promoting healthy eating, physical activity and healthy weight in adolescents......Obesity is increasing worldwide with the Pacific region having the highest prevalence among adults. The most common precursor of adult obesity is adolescent obesity making this a critical period for prevention. The Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project was a four-country project (Fiji....... The evaluation tools common to each are described. Additional analytical studies included economic, socio-cultural and policy studies. The project pioneered many areas of obesity prevention research: using multi-country collaboration to build research capacity; testing a capacity-building approach in ethnic...

  18. Pollution prevention projects in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Theo; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.; Lulofs, Kristiaan R.D.

    1996-01-01

    As part of its waste matter prevention policy, the Dutch government has tried over the past few years to stimulate pollution prevention in firms by means of so-called stimulation and learning projects. To be able to determine the effectiveness of future policies, an extensive evaluation study was

  19. Triazolophostins: a library of novel and potent agonists of IP3 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibhute, Amol M; Konieczny, Vera; Taylor, Colin W; Sureshan, Kana M

    2015-06-28

    IP3 receptors are channels that mediate the release of Ca(2+) from the intracellular stores of cells stimulated by hormones or neurotransmitters. Adenophostin A (AdA) is the most potent agonist of IP3 receptors, with the β-anomeric adenine contributing to the increased potency. The potency of AdA and its stability towards the enzymes that degrade IP3 have aroused interest in AdA analogs for biological studies. The complex structure of AdA poses problems that have necessitated optimization of synthetic conditions for each analog. Such lengthy one-at-a-time syntheses limit access to AdA analogs. We have addressed this problem by synthesizing a library of triazole-based AdA analogs, triazolophostins, by employing click chemistry. An advanced intermediate having all the necessary phosphates and a β-azide at the anomeric position was reacted with various alkynes under Cu(i) catalysis to yield triazoles, which upon deprotection gave triazolophostins. All eleven triazolophostins synthesized are more potent than IP3 and some are equipotent with AdA in functional analyses of IP3 receptors. We show that a triazole ring can replace adenine without compromising the potency of AdA and provide facile routes to novel AdA analogs.

  20. IP3 production in the hypersensitive response of lemon seedlings against Alternaria alternata involves active protein tyrosine kinases but not a G-protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIMENA ORTEGA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available IP3 increase and de novo synthesis of scoparone are produced in the hypersensitive response (HR of lemon seedlings against the fungus Alternaria alternata. To elucidate whether a G-protein and/or a protein tyrosine kinase (PTK are involved in signal transduction leading to the production of such a defensive response, we studied the HR in this plant system after treatment with G-protein activators alone and PTK inhibitors in the presence of fungal conidia. No changes in the level of IP3 were detected in response to the treatment with the G-protein activators cholera toxin or mastoparan, although the HR was observed in response to these compounds as determined by the scoparone synthesis. On the contrary, the PTK inhibitors lavendustin A and 2,5-dihidroxy methyl cinnamate (DHMC not only prevented the IP3 changes observed in response to the fungal inoculation of lemon seedlings but also blocked the development of the HR. These results suggest that the IP3 changes observed in response to A. alternata require a PTK activity and are the result of a G-protein independent Phospholipase C activity, even though the activation of a G-protein can also lead to the development of a HR. Therefore, it appears that more than one signaling pathway may be activated for the development of HR in lemon seedlings: one involving a G-protein and the other involving a PTK-dependent PLC.

  1. Immunocytochemical evidence for co-expression of Type III IP3 receptor with signaling components of bitter taste transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnamon Sue C

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli into electrical signals that lead to the sense of taste. An important second messenger in taste transduction is IP3, which is involved in both bitter and sweet transduction pathways. Several components of the bitter transduction pathway have been identified, including the T2R/TRB taste receptors, phospholipase C β2, and the G protein subunits α-gustducin, β3, and γ13. However, the identity of the IP3 receptor subtype in this pathway is not known. In the present study we used immunocytochemistry on rodent taste tissue to identify the IP3 receptors expressed in taste cells and to examine taste bud expression patterns for IP3R3. Results Antibodies against Type I, II, and III IP3 receptors were tested on sections of rat and mouse circumvallate papillae. Robust cytoplasmic labeling for the Type III IP3 receptor (IP3R3 was found in a large subset of taste cells in both species. In contrast, little or no immunoreactivity was seen with antibodies against the Type I or Type II IP3 receptors. To investigate the potential role of IP3R3 in bitter taste transduction, we used double-label immunocytochemistry to determine whether IP3R3 is expressed in the same subset of cells expressing other bitter signaling components. IP3R3 immunoreactive taste cells were also immunoreactive for PLCβ2 and γ13. Alpha-gustducin immunoreactivity was present in a subset of IP3R3, PLCβ2, and γ13 positive cells. Conclusions IP3R3 is the dominant form of the IP3 receptor expressed in taste cells and our data suggest it plays an important role in bitter taste transduction.

  2. Prevention of oiled wildlife project (POW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    The establishment of a project to analyse the nature and extent of the problem of marine oil spills and their impact on the wildlife in coastal Newfoundland was described. Pelagic seabirds were identified as the marine wildlife most affected by oil released into the ocean. The Prevention of Oiled Wildlife (POW) project was initiated by the Canadian Coast Guard, the lead agency for oil spills of unknown origin. Details of the POW project were provided. It was shown that the project serves as an interdepartmental approach to: (1) identifying past occurrences, probable sources, causes, effects and possible releases of oil into the marine environment, (2) identifying remedial measures undertaken to date to curb the release of oil, and (3) establishing a plan of action through legislation, education, detection, prosecution or any other means, to eliminate the release of oil. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs

  3. [How do Prevention Projects Reach their Target Groups? Results of a Survey with Prevention Projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Böttcher, S; Jahn, I

    2015-12-01

     The aim of this study was to assess methods used to access target groups in prevention projects funded within the prevention research framework by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.  A survey with prevention projects was conducted. Access strategies, communication channels, incentives, programme reach, and successful practical recruitment strategies were explored.  38 out of 60 projects took part in the survey. Most projects accessed their target group within structured settings (e. g., child day-care centers, schools, workplaces). Multiple communication channels and incentives were used, with written information and monetary incentives being used most frequently. Only few projects were able to report their programme reach adequately; programme reach was highest for programmes accessing the target groups in structured settings. The respondents viewed active recruitment via personal communication with the target group and key persons in the settings as the most successful strategy.  The paper provides an overview on recruitment strategies used in current preven-tion projects. More systematic research on programme reach is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Genome sequence of the organohalide-respiring Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens type strain (IP3-3(T)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Trent A; Richmond, Dray P; Bowman, Kimberly S; Cho, Yong-Joon; Chun, Jongsik; da Costa, Milton S; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2016-01-01

    Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens IP3-3(T) is a strictly anaerobic, mesophilic, Gram negative staining bacterium that grows by organohalide respiration, coupling the oxidation of H2 to the reductive dehalogenation of polychlorinated alkanes. Growth has not been observed with any non-polyhalogenated alkane electron acceptors. Here we describe the features of strain IP3-3(T) together with genome sequence information and its annotation. The 1,849,792 bp high-quality-draft genome contains 1936 predicted protein coding genes, 47 tRNA genes, a single large subunit rRNA (23S-5S) locus, and a single, orphan, small unit rRNA (16S) locus. The genome contains 29 predicted reductive dehalogenase genes, a large majority of which lack cognate genes encoding membrane anchoring proteins.

  5. Cyclic ADP-ribose and IP3 mediate abscisic acid-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Caifeng; Yang, Runqiang; Gu, Zhenxin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the roles of ABA-cADPR-Ca 2+ and ABA-IP3-Ca 2+ signaling pathways in UV-B-induced isoflavone accumulation in soybean sprouts were investigated. Results showed that abscisic acid (ABA) up regulated cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) levels in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. Furthermore, cADPR and IP3, as second messengers of UV-B-triggered ABA, induced isoflavone accumulation by up-regulating proteins and genes expression and activity of isoflavone biosynthetic-enzymes (chalcone synthase, CHS; isoflavone synthase, IFS). After Ca 2+ was chelated by EGTA, isoflavone content decreased. Overall, ABA-induced cADPR and IP3 up regulated isoflavone accumulation which was mediated by Ca 2+ signaling via enhancing the expression of proteins and genes participating in isoflavone biosynthesis in soybean sprouts under UV-B radiation. - Highlights: • UV-B-induced cADPR and IP3 synthesis was mediated by ABA. • cADPR and IP3 were involved in UV-B-ABA-induced isoflavone accumulation. • cADPR and IP3-induced isoflavone accumulation may be mediated by Ca 2+ . • ABA, cADPR, IP3 and Ca 2+ could activate proteins expression of CHS and IFS.

  6. [Endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit: dependence of respiration of secretory cells on activity of ryanodine- and IP3 - sensitive Ca(2+)-channels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velykopols'ka, O Iu; Man'ko, B O; Man'ko, V V

    2012-01-01

    Using Clark oxygen electrode, dependence of mitochondrial functions on Ca(2+)-release channels activity of Chironomus plumosus L. larvae salivary glands suspension was investigated. Cells were ATP-permeabilized in order to enable penetration of exogenous oxidative substrates. Activation of plasmalemmal P2X-receptors (as well as P2Y-receptors) per se does not modify the endogenous respiration of salivary gland suspension. That is, Ca(2+)-influx from extracellular medium does not influence functional activity of mitochondria, although they are located along the basal part of the plasma membrane. Activation of RyRs intensifies endogenous respiration and pyruvate-malate-stimulated respiration, but not succinate-stimulated respiration. Neither activation of IP3Rs (via P2Y-receptors activation), nor their inhibition alters endogenous respiration. Nevertheless, IP3Rs inhibition by 2-APB intensifies succinate-stimulated respiration. All abovementioned facts testify that Ca2+, released from stores via channels, alters functional activity of mitochondria, and undoubtedly confirm the existence of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit in Ch. plumosus larvae salivary glands secretory cells. In steady state of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit the spontaneous activity of IP3Rs is observed; released through IP3Rs, Ca2+ is accumulated in mitochondria via uniporter and modulates oxidative processes. Activation of RyRs induces the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to the active state, which is required to intensify cell respiration and oxidative phosphorylation. As expected, the transition of endoplasmic-mitochondrial Ca(2+)-functional unit to inactivated state (i. e. inhibition of Ca(2+)-release channels at excessive [Ca2+]i) limits the duration of signal transduction, has protective nature and prevents apoptosis.

  7. Qualification of Type IP-2, Type IP-3 and Type A packages for radioactive liquid shipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, L.; Sullivan, G.; Lo, K.K.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial products such as pails, drums or bulk containers can be used for radioactive materials transportation if they can be shown to meet the regulatory requirements. Ontario Power Generation (OPG) has successfully tested and qualified several off-the-shelf containers as Type IP-2, Type IP-3 and Type A packages for liquids in accordance with the International and Canadian Regulations. This paper describes the testing and qualification of these commercial products, and discusses the problems encountered and lessons learned during this process. (author)

  8. Calcium Domains around Single and Clustered IP3 Receptors and Their Modulation by Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüdiger, S.; Nagaiah, Ch.; Warnecke, G.; Shuai, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We study Ca2+ release through single and clustered IP3 receptor channels on the ER membrane under presence of buffer proteins. Our computational scheme couples reaction-diffusion equations and a Markovian channel model and allows our investigating the effects of buffer proteins on local calcium concentrations and channel gating. We find transient and stationary elevations of calcium concentrations around active channels and show how they determine release amplitude. Transient calcium domains occur after closing of isolated channels and constitute an important part of the channel's feedback. They cause repeated openings (bursts) and mediate increased release due to Ca2+ buffering by immobile proteins. Stationary domains occur during prolonged activity of clustered channels, where the spatial proximity of IP3Rs produces a distinct [Ca2+] scale (0.5–10 μM), which is smaller than channel pore concentrations (>100 μM) but larger than transient levels. While immobile buffer affects transient levels only, mobile buffers in general reduce both transient and stationary domains, giving rise to Ca2+ evacuation and biphasic modulation of release amplitude. Our findings explain recent experiments in oocytes and provide a general framework for the understanding of calcium signals. PMID:20655827

  9. Astrocyte IP3R2-dependent Ca2+ signaling is not a major modulator of neuronal pathways governing behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy ePetravicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent release of gliotransmitters by astrocytes is reported to play a critical role in synaptic transmission and be necessary for long-term potentiation (LTP, long-term depression (LTD and other forms of synaptic modulation that are correlates of learning and memory . Further, physiological processes reported to be dependent on Ca2+ fluxes in astrocytes include functional hyperemia, sleep, and regulation of breathing. The preponderance of findings indicate that most, if not all, receptor dependent Ca2+ fluxes within astrocytes are due to release of Ca2+ through IP3 receptor/channels in the endoplasmic reticulum. Findings from several laboratories indicate that astrocytes only express IP3 receptor type 2 (IP3R2 and that a knockout of IP3R2 obliterates the GPCR-dependent astrocytic Ca2+ responses. Assuming that astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes play a critical role in synaptic physiology, it would be predicted that eliminating of astrocytic Ca2+ fluxes would lead to marked changes in behavioral tests. Here, we tested this hypothesis by conducting a broad series of behavioral tests that recruited multiple brain regions, on an IP3R2 conditional knockout mouse model. We present the novel finding that behavioral processes are unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signals. IP3R2 cKO animals display no change in anxiety or depressive behaviors, and no alteration to motor and sensory function. Morris water maze testing, a behavioral correlate of learning and memory, was unaffected by lack of astrocyte IP3R2-mediated Ca2+-signaling. Therefore, in contrast to the prevailing literature, we find that neither receptor-driven astrocyte Ca2+ fluxes nor, by extension, gliotransmission is likely to be a major modulating force on the physiological processes underlying behavior.

  10. The Esperance primary prevention of suicide project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaven, Janine; Kisely, Stephen

    2002-10-01

    Suicide has been a major community concern in Esperance, a geographically isolated port on the south coast of Western Australia. To evaluate the effect of three evidence-based initiatives for the primary prevention of suicide: (i) providing suicide awareness sessions for staff members in health, education and social services; (ii) limiting the sale of over the counter analgesics (aspirin and paracetamol) to packets containing less than the minimum lethal dose; and (iii) implementing Commonwealth media guidelines in the reporting of suicides by media. Changes in knowledge, awareness, attitudes, comfort and use, before and after each intervention were assessed using standardized instruments and pro forma derived from previous work, such as the Youth Suicide Prevention Training Manual and Suicide Intervention Beliefs Scale. Percentage changes in the number of retail outlets selling over the counter analgesics to less than potentially lethal quantities (less than 8 g of paracetamol or aspirin) were also measured. Media representatives were interviewed to gain their perceptions of Commonwealth Guidelines for the reporting of suicide, and encouraged to consult the project team before reporting suicide related issues. The baseline survey illustrated that mental health staff and general practitioners were more aware of suicide issues, risk factors for suicide and awareness of professional and ethical responses than staff from other services, and were more willing to raise the issue with a person at risk. Thirty-three subjects participated in suicide awareness training of whom 21 (66%) returned questionnaires. There were significant increases in awareness of suicide-related issues and risk factors, as well as reported levels of knowledge of professional and ethical responses and comfort, competence and confidence levels when assisting a person at risk. Only three media representatives were aware of the Commonwealth Health Department Guidelines for reporting suicide and only

  11. Negative modulation of NMDA receptor channel function by DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3 provides neuroprotection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, KeWei; Wang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated ion channels highly permeable to calcium and essential to excitatory neurotransmission. The NMDARs have attracted much attention because of their role in synaptic plasticity and excitotoxicity. Evidence has recently accumulated that NMDARs are negatively regulated by intracellular calcium binding proteins. The calcium-dependent suppression of NMDAR function serves as a feedback mechanism capable of regulating subsequent Ca2+ entry into the postsynaptic cell, and may offer an alternative approach to treating NMDAR-mediated excitotoxic injury. This short review summarizes the recent progress made in understanding the negative modulation of NMDAR function by DREAM/calsenilin/KChIP3, a neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) protein. PMID:22518099

  12. Project SAIL: An Evaluation of a Dropout Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John L.; And Others

    Project SAIL (Student Advocates Inspire Learning) is a Title IV-C Project located in Hopkins, Minnesota, designed to prevent students from dropping out of school by keeping them successfully involved in the mainstream environment. This study presents a review of other dropout prevention approaches, describes the intervention strategies involved in…

  13. Inhibitory Effects of Cytosolic Ca2+ Concentration by Ginsenoside Ro Are Dependent on Phosphorylation of IP3RI and Dephosphorylation of ERK in Human Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuk-Woo Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i is platelet aggregation-inducing molecule and is involved in activation of aggregation associated molecules. This study was carried out to understand the Ca2+-antagonistic effect of ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro, an oleanane-type saponin in Panax ginseng. G-Ro, without affecting leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, dose-dependently inhibited thrombin-induced platelet aggregation, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration was approximately 155 μM. G-Ro inhibited strongly thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which was strongly increased by A-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS compared to G-kinase inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cGMPS. G-Ro increased the level of cAMP and subsequently elevated the phosphorylation of inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor I (IP3RI (Ser1756 to inhibit [Ca2+]i mobilization in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Phosphorylation of IP3RI (Ser1756 by G-Ro was decreased by PKA inhibitor Rp-8-Br-cAMPS. In addition, G-Ro inhibited thrombin-induced phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa, indicating inhibition of Ca2+ influx across plasma membrane. We demonstrate that G-Ro upregulates cAMP-dependent IP3RI (Ser1756 phosphorylation and downregulates phosphorylation of ERK 2 (42 kDa to decrease thrombin-elevated [Ca2+]i, which contributes to inhibition of ATP and serotonin release, and p-selectin expression. These results indicate that G-Ro in Panax ginseng is a beneficial novel Ca2+-antagonistic compound and may prevent platelet aggregation-mediated thrombotic disease.

  14. Octopamine regulates antennal sensory neurons via daytime-dependent changes in cAMP and IP3 levels in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schendzielorz

    Full Text Available The biogenic amine octopamine (OA mediates reward signals in olfactory learning and memory as well as circadian rhythms of sleep and activity. In the crepuscular hawkmoth Manduca sexta, OA changed pheromone detection thresholds daytime-dependently, suggesting that OA confers circadian control of olfactory transduction. Thus, with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays we searched hawkmoth antennae for daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA and its respective second messengers. Antennal stimulation with OA raised cAMP- and IP3 levels. Furthermore, antennae expressed daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA, with maxima at Zeitgebertime (ZT 20 when moths were active and also maximal concentrations of cAMP occurred. Maximal IP3 levels at ZT 18 and 23 correlated with maximal flight activity of male moths, while minimal IP3 levels at dusk correlated with peaks of feeding activity. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50 for activation of the OA-receptor decreased during the moth's activity phase suggesting daytime-dependent changes in OA receptor sensitivity. With an antiserum against tyramine, the precursor of OA, two centrifugal neurons were detected projecting out into the sensory cell layer of the antenna, possibly mediating more rapid stimulus-dependent OA actions. Indeed, in fast kinetic assays OA receptor stimulation increased cAMP concentrations within 50 msec. Thus, we hypothesize that fast, stimulus-dependent centrifugal control of OA-release in the antenna occurs. Additional slow systemic OA actions might be based upon circadian release of OA into the hemolymph mediating circadian rhythms of antennal second messenger levels. The resulting rhythms of odor sensitivity are suggested to underlie circadian rhythms in odor-mediated behavior.

  15. AIDS prevention project among women in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, L

    1993-01-01

    The recommendations of a staff member of the Paulina Luisi Movement and member of the Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights were six-fold. Being a woman was considered a risk factor for AIDS. AIDS and HIV infection prevention must concentrate on prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 1) Women's organizations have the responsibility for sensitizing health professionals about STDs and AIDS and break the "culture of silence." 2) Women's health focus must actively include prevention of AIDS/HIV. 3) The Pap test must be included routinely as part of public and individual health services and conducted with high quality standards. 4) The flow of communication about women's health issues must be initiated between health professionals and women advocates with the objective of changing concepts and attitudes and of developing complementary strategies. 5) The strategy of promoting condom use and quality information does not address the larger issue of discrimination against women. Gender relations between spouses and between patient and doctor must be based on responsibility, reciprocity, and autonomy. Strategies must aim to combat the negativity in society that prevents responsible gender relations. 6) Professional women who have an awareness of gender issues must be engaged in international and governmental institutions with decision making power. Sex and women's health have been lesser priorities. The health system has responded to women as "objects" rather than subjects of attention. Women's position sexually and socially makes them more vulnerable to AIDS and HIV infections, which may be transmitted through a single sexual contact. STDs increase the risk of AIDS. Latin American women feel shame about STDS, while men respond to STDs as a condition of their sexual virility or potency. Treatment of STDS, much less AIDS prevention, is inadequate. The health system must stop treating women as objects and give them their right to health.

  16. [HIV prevention program for young people--the WYSH Project as a model of "combination prevention"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono-Kihara, Masako

    2010-03-01

    In face of the HIV pandemic that still grows, unsuccessful efforts of developing biomedical control measures or the failure of cognitive-behavioral approach to show sustained social level effectiveness, behavioral strategy is now expected to evolve into a structural prevention ("combination prevention") that involves multiple behavioral goals and multilevel approaches. WYSH Project is a combination prevention project for youth developed through socio-epidemiological approach that integrates epidemiology with social science such as social marketing and mixed method. WYSH Project includes mass education programs for youth in schools and programs for out-of-school youth through cyber network and peer communication. Started in 2002, it expanded nationwide with supports from related ministries and parent-teacher associations and has grown into a single largest youth prevention project in Japan.

  17. Quantitative properties and receptor reserve of the IP(3) and calcium branch of G(q)-coupled receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Eamonn J; Falkenburger, Björn H; Hille, Bertil

    2013-05-01

    Gq-coupled plasma membrane receptors activate phospholipase C (PLC), which hydrolyzes membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into the second messengers inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). This leads to calcium release, protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and sometimes PIP2 depletion. To understand mechanisms governing these diverging signals and to determine which of these signals is responsible for the inhibition of KCNQ2/3 (KV7.2/7.3) potassium channels, we monitored levels of PIP2, IP3, and calcium in single living cells. DAG and PKC are monitored in our companion paper (Falkenburger et al. 2013. J. Gen. Physiol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1085/jgp.201210887). The results extend our previous kinetic model of Gq-coupled receptor signaling to IP3 and calcium. We find that activation of low-abundance endogenous P2Y2 receptors by a saturating concentration of uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP; 100 µM) leads to calcium release but not to PIP2 depletion. Activation of overexpressed M1 muscarinic receptors by 10 µM Oxo-M leads to a similar calcium release but also depletes PIP2. KCNQ2/3 channels are inhibited by Oxo-M (by 85%), but not by UTP (calcium responses can be elicited even after PIP2 was partially depleted by overexpressed inducible phosphatidylinositol 5-phosphatases, suggesting that very low amounts of IP3 suffice to elicit a full calcium release. Hence, weak PLC activation can elicit robust calcium signals without net PIP2 depletion or KCNQ2/3 channel inhibition.

  18. Roles of calcium and IP3 in impaired colon contractility of rats following multiple organ dysfunction syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zheyu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to explore changes in rat colon motility, and determine the roles of calcium and inositol (1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3 in colon dysmotility induced by multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS caused by bacteria peritonitis. The number of stools, the contractility of the muscle strips and the length of smooth muscle cells (SMC in the colon, the concentration of calcium and IP3 in SMC, and serum nitric oxide were measured. Number of stools, fecal weight, IP3 concentration in SMC and serum nitric oxide concentration were 0.77 ± 0.52 pellets, 2.51 ± 0.39 g, 4.14 ± 2.07 pmol/tube, and 113.95 ± 37.89 µmol/L, respectively, for the MODS group (N = 11 vs 1.54 ± 0.64 pellets, 4.32 ± 0.57 g, 8.19 ± 3.11 pmol/tube, and 37.42 ± 19.56 µmol/L for the control group (N = 20; P < 0.05. After treatment with 0.1 mM acetylcholine and 0.1 M potassium chloride, the maximum contraction stress of smooth muscle strips, the length of SMC and the changes of calcium concentration were 593 ± 81 and 458 ± 69 g/cm³, 48.1 ± 11.8 and 69.2 ± 15.7 µM, 250 ± 70 and 167 ± 48%, respectively, for the control group vs 321 ± 53 and 284 ± 56 g/cm³, 65.1 ± 18.5 and 87.2 ± 23.7 µM, 127 ± 35 and 112 ± 35% for the MODS group (P < 0.05. Thus, colon contractility was decreased in MODS, a result possibly related to reduced calcium concentration and IP3 in SMC.

  19. Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer pilot projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuot, J.R.; Myron, H.; Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.

    1996-08-01

    The projects were a series of pilot projects developed for DOE with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to private industry. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education program, the microscale cost benefit study, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee program. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The recycle trainee project provided training for two participants and identified recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne`s solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identification of target technologies that were already available, identification of target audiences, and a focus of effort to achieve a limited but defined objective.

  20. Aviation Safety Program: Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project Overview and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadell, Shari-Beth

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a project overview and status for the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) aviation safety program. The topics include: 1) Weather Accident Prevention Project Background/History; 2) Project Modifications; 3) Project Accomplishments; and 4) Project's Next Steps.

  1. Alpha-helical destabilization of the Bcl-2-BH4-domain peptide abolishes its ability to inhibit the IP3 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Monaco

    Full Text Available The anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein is the founding member and namesake of the Bcl-2-protein family. It has recently been demonstrated that Bcl-2, apart from its anti-apoptotic role at mitochondrial membranes, can also directly interact with the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R, the primary Ca(2+-release channel in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Bcl-2 can thereby reduce pro-apoptotic IP3R-mediated Ca(2+ release from the ER. Moreover, the Bcl-2 homology domain 4 (Bcl-2-BH4 has been identified as essential and sufficient for this IP3R-mediated anti-apoptotic activity. In the present study, we investigated whether the reported inhibitory effect of a Bcl-2-BH4 peptide on the IP 3R1 was related to the distinctive α-helical conformation of the BH4 domain peptide. We therefore designed a peptide with two glycine "hinges" replacing residues I14 and V15, of the wild-type Bcl-2-BH4 domain (Bcl-2-BH4-IV/GG. By comparing the structural and functional properties of the Bcl-2-BH4-IV/GG peptide with its native counterpart, we found that the variant contained reduced α-helicity, neither bound nor inhibited the IP 3R1 channel, and in turn lost its anti-apoptotic effect. Similar results were obtained with other substitutions in Bcl-2-BH4 that destabilized the α-helix with concomitant loss of IP3R inhibition. These results provide new insights for the further development of Bcl-2-BH4-derived peptides as specific inhibitors of the IP3R with significant pharmacological implications.

  2. Preventing Elder Abuse: The Texas Plan for a Coordinated Service Delivery System. Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Garry L.

    The Texas Department of Human Services, in collaboration with 13 other public and private organizations, co-sponsored a statewide Collaborative Elder Abuse Prevention project. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive, long-range plan for the prevention of elder abuse, a method for achieving a coordinated service delivery system for…

  3. The Heartfile Lodhran CVD prevention project--end of project evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishtar, Sania; Badar, Asma; Kamal, Mohammad Umer; Iqbal, Azhar; Bajwa, Rashid; Shah, Tauqeer; Larik, Zahid; Karim, Fazle; Mehmood, Mahmood ul Hassan; Jehangir, Haroon; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Mirza, Yasir Abbas; Khan, Shahzad Ali; Qayyum, Aamra; Aqeel, Fauzia; Bakir, Abdul; Rahim, Ejaz

    2007-01-01

    Mainstream preventive interventions often fail to reach poor populations with a high risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in Pakistan. A community-based CVD primary prevention project aimed at developing approaches to reduce risk factors in such populations was established by Heartfile in collaboration with the National Rural Support Program in the district of Lodhran. The project implemented a range of activities integrated with existing social and health service mechanisms during a three year intervention period 2000/01-03/04. These were targeted in 4 key settings: community health education, mass media interventions, training of health professionals and health education through Lady Health Workers. The project received support from the Department for International Development, U.K. At the community level, a pre-test-post-test quasi-experimental design was used for examining project outcomes related to the community component of the intervention. Pre and post-intervention (training) evaluations were conducted involving all health care providers in randomly selected workshops in order to determine baseline levels of knowledge and the impact of training on knowledge level. In order to assess practices of physician and non-physician health care providers patient interviews, with control comparisons were conducted at each health care facility. Significant positive changes were observed in knowledge levels at a community level in the district of intervention compared with baseline knowledge levels particularly in relation to a heart healthy diet, beneficial level of physical activity, the causes of high blood pressure and heart attack and the effects of high blood pressure and active and passive smoking on health. Significant changes in behaviors at a practice level were not shown in the district of intervention. However the project played a critical role in spurring national action for the prevention and control of non-communicable diseases and introducing

  4. Evaluation of an institutional project to improve venous thromboembolism prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Christina A; Yang, Anthony D; Ju, Mila; Culver, Eckford; Seifert, Kathryn; Kreutzer, Lindsey; Halverson, Terri; O'Leary, Kevin J; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2016-12-01

    Northwestern Memorial Hospital (NMH) was historically a poor performer on the venous thromboembolism (VTE) outcome measure. As this measure has been shown to be flawed by surveillance bias, NMH embraced process-of-care measures to ensure appropriate VTE prophylaxis to assess healthcare-associated VTE prevention efforts. To evaluate the impact of an institution-wide project aimed at improving hospital performance on VTE prophylaxis measures. A retrospective observational study. NMH, an 885-bed academic medical center in Chicago, Illinois PATIENTS: Inpatients admitted to NMH from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013 and from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015 were eligible for evaluation. Using the define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) process-improvement methodology, a multidisciplinary team implemented and iteratively improved 15 data-driven interventions in 4 broad areas: (1) electronic medical record (EMR) alerts, (2) education initiatives, (3) new EMR order sets, and (4) other EMR changes. The Joint Commission's 6 core measures and the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) SCIP-VTE-2 measure. Based on 3103 observations (1679 from January 1, 2013 to May 1, 2013, and 1424 from October 1, 2014 to April 1, 2015), performance on the core measures improved. Performance on measure 1 (chemoprophylaxis) improved from 82.5% to 90.2% on medicine services, and from 94.4% to 97.6% on surgical services. The largest improvements were seen in measure 4 (platelet monitoring), with a performance increase from 76.7% adherence to 100%, and measure 5 (warfarin discharge instructions), with a performance increase from 27.4% to 88.8%. A systematic hospital-wide DMAIC project improved VTE prophylaxis measure performance. Sustained performance has been observed, and novel control mechanisms for continued performance surveillance have been embedded in the hospital system. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:S29-S37. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital

  5. On the phase space structure of IP3 induced Ca2+ signalling and concepts for predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcke, Martin; Moein, Mahsa; TilÅ«naitÄ--, Agne; Thul, Rüdiger; Skupin, Alexander

    2018-04-01

    The correspondence between mathematical structures and experimental systems is the basis of the generalizability of results found with specific systems and is the basis of the predictive power of theoretical physics. While physicists have confidence in this correspondence, it is less recognized in cellular biophysics. On the one hand, the complex organization of cellular dynamics involving a plethora of interacting molecules and the basic observation of cell variability seem to question its possibility. The practical difficulties of deriving the equations describing cellular behaviour from first principles support these doubts. On the other hand, ignoring such a correspondence would severely limit the possibility of predictive quantitative theory in biophysics. Additionally, the existence of functional modules (like pathways) across cell types suggests also the existence of mathematical structures with comparable universality. Only a few cellular systems have been sufficiently investigated in a variety of cell types to follow up these basic questions. IP3 induced Ca2+signalling is one of them, and the mathematical structure corresponding to it is subject of ongoing discussion. We review the system's general properties observed in a variety of cell types. They are captured by a reaction diffusion system. We discuss the phase space structure of its local dynamics. The spiking regime corresponds to noisy excitability. Models focussing on different aspects can be derived starting from this phase space structure. We discuss how the initial assumptions on the set of stochastic variables and phase space structure shape the predictions of parameter dependencies of the mathematical models resulting from the derivation.

  6. Long-Term Haloperidol Treatment Prolongs QT Interval and Increases Expression of Sigma 1 and IP3 Receptors in Guinea Pig Hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stracina, Tibor; Slaninova, Iva; Polanska, Hana; Axmanova, Martina; Olejnickova, Veronika; Konecny, Petr; Masarik, Michal; Krizanova, Olga; Novakova, Marie

    2015-07-01

    Haloperidol is a neuroleptic drug used for a medication of various psychoses and deliria. Its administration is frequently accompanied by cardiovascular side effects, expressed as QT interval prolongation and occurrence of even lethal arrhythmias. Despite these side effects, haloperidol is still prescribed in Europe in clinical practice. Haloperidol binds to sigma receptors that are coupled with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors. Sigma receptors are expressed in various tissues, including heart muscle, and they modulate potassium channels. Together with IP3 receptors, sigma receptors are also involved in calcium handling in various tissues. Therefore, the present work aimed to study the effects of long-term haloperidol administration on the cardiac function. Haloperidol (2 mg/kg once a day) or vehiculum was administered by intraperitoneal injection to guinea pigs for 21 consecutive days. We measured the responsiveness of the hearts isolated from the haloperidol-treated animals to additional application of haloperidol. Expression of the sigma 1 receptor and IP3 receptors was studied by real time-PCR and immunohistochemical analyses. Haloperidol treatment caused the significant decrease in the relative heart rate and the prolongation of QT interval of the isolated hearts from the haloperidol-treated animals, compared to the hearts isolated from control animals. The expression of sigma 1 and IP3 type 1 and type 2 receptors was increased in both atria of the haloperidol-treated animals but not in ventricles. The modulation of sigma 1 and IP3 receptors may lead to altered calcium handling in cardiomyocytes and thus contribute to changed sensitivity of cardiac cells to arrhythmias.

  7. Environmental Friendly Coatings and Corrosion Prevention For Flight Hardware Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    2014-01-01

    Identify, test and develop qualification criteria for environmentally friendly corrosion protective coatings and corrosion preventative compounds (CPC's) for flight hardware an ground support equipment.

  8. Pressure ulcer prevention is everyone's business: the PUPS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blenman, Juliet; Marks-Maran, Di

    2017-03-23

    Prevention of pressure ulcers is one of the greatest healthcare challenges in terms of reducing patient harm. The literature shows that although numerous reports and policy documents have been published, pressure ulcer prevention remains an ongoing challenge. A number of innovations have been published offering practising nurses and managers ideas for raising awareness of skin care and preventing pressure ulcers. The majority of these have focused on patients in hospital settings with very little in the literature related to care-home and community initiatives. This article reports on an innovative approach to education for pressure ulcer prevention through collaboration between patients, carers and health and social care professionals.

  9. Interfering RNA against PKC-α Inhibits TNF-α-induced IP3R1 Expression and Improves Glomerular Filtration Rate in Rats with Fulminant Hepatic Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Lei; Dai, Wen-Ying; Wang, Wen; Wen, Ying; Zhou, Ying; Zhao, Yi-Tong; Wu, Jian; Liu, Pei

    2018-01-10

    We have reported that tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-α) is critical for reduction of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in rats with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). The present study aims to evaluate the underlying mechanisms of decreased GFR during acute hepatic failure. Rats with FHF induced by D-galactosamine plus lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS) were injected intravenously with recombinant lentivirus harboring shRNA against the protein kinase C-α (PKC-α) gene (Lenti-shRNA-PKC-α). GFR, serum levels of aminotransferases, creatinine, urea nitrogen, potassium, sodium, chloride, TNF-α and endothelin-1 (ET-1), as well as type 1 inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R1) expression in renal tissue were assessed. The effects of PKC-α silencing on TNF-α-induced IP3R1, specificity protein 1 (SP-1) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) expression, as well as cytosolic calcium content were determined in glomerular mesangial cell (GMCs) with RNAi against PKC-α. Renal IP3R1 overexpression was abrogated by pre-treatment with Lenti-shRNA-PKC-α. The PKC- silence significantly improved the compromised GFR, reduced Cr levels, and reversed the decrease in glomerular inulin space and the increase in glomerular calcium content in GalN/LPS-exposed rats. TNF-α treatment increased expression of PKC-α, IP3R1, specificity protein 1 (SP-1), JNK and p-JNK in GMCs, and increased Ca2+ release and binding activity of SP-1 to the IP3R1 promoter. These effects were blocked by transfection of siRNA against the PKC-α gene, and the PKC-α gene silence also restored cytosolic [Ca2+]i. RNAi targeting PKC-α inhibited TNF-α-induced IP3R1 overexpression, and in turn improved compromised GFR in the development of acute kidney injury during FHF in rats.

  10. 76 FR 27649 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting... Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  11. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Provider and Public Health... Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC...

  12. 75 FR 28626 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-029, Pilot Study... Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  13. 77 FR 29351 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control; Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial Review The meeting.... L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned...

  14. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Examining the Impact of... Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the...

  15. Age-dependent changes in diastolic Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyopathy: Role of Ca2+ entry and IP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mijares, Alfredo; Altamirano, Francisco; Kolster, Juan; Adams, José A.; López, José R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Age-dependent increase in [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d in mdx cardiomyocytes. • Gadolinium significantly reduced both [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d at all ages. • IP 3 -pathway inhibition reduced cations concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. - Abstract: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal X-inherited disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Besides the relatively well characterized skeletal muscle degenerative processes, DMD is also associated with a dilated cardiomyopathy that leads to progressive heart failure at the end of the second decade. The aim of the present study was to characterize the diastolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] d ) and diastolic Na + concentration ([Na + ] d ) abnormalities in cardiomyocytes isolated from 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month old mdx mice using ion-selective microelectrodes. In addition, the contributions of gadolinium (Gd 3+ )-sensitive Ca 2+ entry and inositol triphosphate (IP 3 ) signaling pathways in abnormal [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d were investigated. Our results showed an age-dependent increase in both [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d in dystrophic cardiomyocytes compared to those isolated from age-matched wt mice. Gd 3+ treatment significantly reduced both [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d at all ages. In addition, blockade of the IP 3 -pathway with either U-73122 or xestospongin C significantly reduced ion concentrations in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. Co-treatment with U-73122 and Gd 3+ normalized both [Ca 2+ ] d and [Na + ] d at all ages in dystrophic cardiomyocytes. These data showed that loss of dystrophin in mdx cardiomyocytes produced an age-dependent intracellular Ca 2+ and Na + overload mediated at least in part by enhanced Ca 2+ entry through Gd 3+ sensitive transient receptor potential channels (TRPC), and by IP 3 receptors

  16. Pollution prevention program for new projects -- Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lum, J. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to relay the experience of the Office of New Production Reactors (NP) in developing and implementing its pollution prevention program. NP was established to plan, design, and construct a new safe and environmentally acceptable nuclear reactor capacity necessary to provide an assured supply of tritium to maintain the nation`s long-term deterrent capability. The Program offered the Department of Energy an opportunity to demonstrate its commitment to environmental protection via minimization of environmental releases; new design offers the best opportunity for pollution prevention. The NP pollution prevention program was never fully implemented because NP`s tritium production design activity was recovery terminated. The information in this paper represented lessons learned from the last three years of NP operation.

  17. IP3-dependent intracellular Ca2+ release is required for cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenting; Tingare, Asmita; Ng, David Chi-Heng; Johnson, Hong W.; Schell, Michael J.; Lord, Rebecca L.; Chawla, Sangeeta

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► cAMP-induced c-fos expression in hippocampal neurons requires a submembraneous Ca 2+ pool. ► The submembraneous Ca 2+ pool derives from intracellular ER stores. ► Expression of IP 3 -metabolizing enzymes inhibits cAMP-induced c-fos expression. ► SRE-mediated and CRE-mediated gene expression is sensitive to IP 3 -metabolizing enzymes. ► Intracellular Ca 2+ release is required for cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of TORC1. -- Abstract: Ca 2+ and cAMP are widely used in concert by neurons to relay signals from the synapse to the nucleus, where synaptic activity modulates gene expression required for synaptic plasticity. Neurons utilize different transcriptional regulators to integrate information encoded in the spatiotemporal dynamics and magnitude of Ca 2+ and cAMP signals, including some that are Ca 2+ -responsive, some that are cAMP-responsive and some that detect coincident Ca 2+ and cAMP signals. Because Ca 2+ and cAMP can influence each other’s amplitude and spatiotemporal characteristics, we investigated how cAMP acts to regulate gene expression when increases in intracellular Ca 2+ are buffered. We show here that cAMP-mobilizing stimuli are unable to induce expression of the immediate early gene c-fos in hippocampal neurons in the presence of the intracellular Ca 2+ buffer BAPTA-AM. Expression of enzymes that attenuate intracellular IP 3 levels also inhibited cAMP-dependent c-fos induction. Synaptic activity induces c-fos transcription through two cis regulatory DNA elements – the CRE and the SRE. We show here that in response to cAMP both CRE-mediated and SRE-mediated induction of a luciferase reporter gene is attenuated by IP 3 metabolizing enzymes. Furthermore, cAMP-induced nuclear translocation of the CREB coactivator TORC1 was inhibited by depletion of intracellular Ca 2+ stores. Our data indicate that Ca 2+ release from IP 3 -sensitive pools is required for cAMP-induced transcription in hippocampal neurons.

  18. Evidence-Based Practices Project for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Philip L.; Sudak, Howard S.; Silverman, Morton M.; Litts, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Suicide continues to be a serious public health problem. In response to this problem, a myriad of suicide prevention programs have been developed and employed across the United States. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of many of these programs is unknown because they have not been evaluated using rigorous methods. The Evidence-Based Practices…

  19. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  20. Synaptic neuron-astrocyte communication is supported by an order of magnitude analysis of inositol tris-phosphate diffusion at the nanoscale in a model of peri-synaptic astrocyte projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes de Oca Balderas, Pavel; Montes de Oca Balderas, Horacio

    2018-01-01

    Astrocytes were conceived for decades only as supporting cells of the brain. However, the observation of Ca2+ waves in astrocyte synctitia, their neurotransmitter receptor expression and gliotransmitter secretion suggested a role in information handling, conception that has some controversies. Synaptic Neuron-Astrocyte metabotropic communication mediated by Inositol tris-phosphate (SN-AmcIP3) is supported by different reports. However, some models contradict this idea and Ca2+ stores are 1000 ± 325 nm apart from the Postsynaptic Density in the Perisynaptic Astrocyte Projections (PAP's), suggesting that SN-AmcIP3 is extrasynaptic. However, this assumption does not consider IP3 Diffusion Coefficient ( Dab ), that activates IP3 Receptor (IP3R) releasing Ca2+ from intracellular stores. In this work we idealized a model of a PAP (PAPm) to perform an order of magnitude analysis of IP3 diffusion using a transient mass diffusion model. This model shows that IP3 forms a concentration gradient along the PAPm that reaches the steady state in milliseconds, three orders of magnitude before IP3 degradation. The model predicts that IP3 concentration near the Ca2+ stores may activate IP3R, depending upon Phospholipase C (PLC) number and activity. Moreover, the PAPm supports that IP3 and extracellular Ca2+ entry synergize to promote global Ca2+ transients. The model presented here indicates that Ca2+ stores position in PAP's does not limit SN-AmcIP3.

  1. [Project summarize of "reestablishing disease prevention and control system of China"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Mo; Yu, Jingjin; Yu, Mingzhu; Duan, Yong

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduced the project of "reestablishing the disease control and prevention system of China" in brief, including background, objectives, funding resources, researching objects and sampling methods. This project which funded by National Outstanding Younger Fund and the research fund of MOH aimed at nailing down the key problem existed in disease control and prevention system of China, demonstrating the reasons and mechanism of key problem, developing feasible policy idea and strategy. This paper also introduced some issues concerning the reestablishing of the disease control and prevention system of China: the definition of public function, the standard of human resource allocation and the standard of financing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 8 provinces, 80 cities and 80 counties have been sampled to provide information that project needed. In addition, this project also cited some data which come from the early study, in which 3 provinces, 12 counties, 49 towns, 179 villages and 9781 rural families have been sampled and investigated.

  2. Long-term effects of adolescent marijuana use prevention on adult mental health services utilization: the midwestern prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Nathaniel R; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Evaluated were effects of a drug abuse(1) prevention program, previously shown to prevent marijuana use in adolescence, on adulthood mental health service use. Analyses were conducted on 961 6th (41%) and 7th (59%) grade participants randomly assigned to intervention or control groups at baseline in 1984. These participants were followed-up through 2003 representing 15 waves of data collection. Eighty-five percent of participants were Caucasian and 56% were female. The hypothesis was that direct program effects on early adulthood mental health service use would be mediated by program effects on high school marijuana use trajectories. Structural equation models, imputing for missing data, demonstrated that MPP (Midwestern Prevention Project) program effects on mental health were mediated by the marijuana use growth curve intercept. Findings support the role of early adolescent drug use prevention programs in impacting later mental health problems. The study's limitations are noted.

  3. Community-based osteoporosis prevention: Physical activity in relation to bone density, fall prevention, and the effect of training programmes : The Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn Kronhed, Ann-Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    This thesis is based on studies of the ten-year community-based intervention programme entitled, the Vadstena Osteoporosis Prevention Project (VOPP). The specific aims of the research were to describe the effects of physical activity and training programmes on bone mass and balance performance in adults, to determine whether a fall risk prevention programme could motivate personal actions among the elderly, to ascertain whether the intervention programme could reduce the incidence of forearm ...

  4. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting... Disease or Treated by Assisted Reproductive Technology, SIP11-048, Panel F,'' initial review In accordance...

  5. 77 FR 30292 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Project (SIP): Initial Review The meeting...)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  6. 75 FR 30410 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Outcomes of Screening... 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92- 463), the Centers for Disease Control and...

  7. 75 FR 32190 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): SIP 10-033, Innovative... with Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463), the Centers for Disease...

  8. OECD Health Care Quality Indicator Project. The expert panel on primary care prevention and health promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, Martin; Klazinga, Niek; Leatherman, Sheila; Hardy, Charlie; Bergmann, Eckhard; Pisco, Luis; Mattke, Soeren; Mainz, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This article describes a project undertaken as part of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)'s Healthcare Quality Indicator (HCQI) Project, which aimed to develop a set of quality indicators representing the domains of primary care, prevention and health

  9. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project, Phase Two, Three and Four. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regina Univ. (Saskatchewan). Univ. Extension. Seniors Education Centre.

    This document presents the final report from an educational and community development program designed to raise awareness about the abuse and neglect of the elderly. The Elder Abuse Prevention Project is briefly described in terms of project goals, objectives, the model used, the target groups served, and the evaluation processes employed. It is…

  10. Involvement of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, IP3 receptors, and ryanodine receptors in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the cricket lateral oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the isolated cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) lateral oviduct exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) with a frequency of 0.29±0.009 Hz (n=43) and an amplitude of 14.6±1.25 mg (n=29). SRCs completely disappeared following removal of extracellular Ca2+ using a solution containing 5mM EGTA. Application of the non-specific Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ also decreased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels is essential for the generation of SRCs. Application of ryanodine (30 μM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ by locking ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ channels in an open state, gradually reduced the frequency and amplitude of SRCs. A RyR antagonist, tetracaine, reduced both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs, whereas a RyR activator, caffeine, increased the frequency of SRCs with a subsequent increase in basal tonus, indicating that RyRs are essential for generating SRCs. To further investigate the involvement of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in SRCs, we examined the effect of a PLC inhibitor, U73122, and an IP3R antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), on SRCs. Separately, U73122 (10 μM) and 2-APB (30-50 μM) both significantly reduced the amplitude of SRCs with little effect on their frequency, further indicating that the PLC/IP3R signaling pathway is fundamental to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs. A hypotonic-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs and a hypertonic-induced decrease in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs indicated that mechanical stretch of the lateral oviduct is involved in the generation of SRCs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid impaired or suppressed the relaxation phase of SRCs. Taken together, the present results indicate that Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2

  11. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence Within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2018-01-01

    Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states. Objective DELTA PREP’s summative evaluation addressed four major questions: (1) Did coalitions improve their prevention capacity during the project period? (2) Did coalitions serve as catalysts for prevention activities within their states during the project period? (3) Was initial prevention capacity associated with the number of prevention activity types initiated by coalitions by the end of the project? (4) Did coalitions sustain their prevention activities 6 months after the end of the project period? Results DELTA PREP achieved its capacity-building goal, with all 19 participant coalitions integrating prevention within their organizations and serving as catalysts for prevention activities in their states. At 6 months follow up, coalitions had sustained almost all prevention activities they initiated during the project. Baseline prevention capacity (Beginner vs. Intermediate) was not associated with the number of prevention activity types coalitions implemented by the end of the project. Conclusion Service and treatment organizations are increasingly asked to integrate a full spectrum of prevention strategies. Selecting organizations that have high levels of general capacity and readiness for an innovation like integrating a public health approach to IPV prevention will likely increase success in building an innovation-specific capacity, and in turn implementing an innovation. PMID:26245932

  12. Prevention of homicidal violence in schools in Germany: the Berlin Leaking Project and the Networks Against School Shootings Project (NETWASS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Bondü, Rebecca; Schroer-Hippel, Miriam; Panno, Jennifer; Neumetzler, Katharina; Fisch, Sarah; Scholl, Johanna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    Since 1999, Germany has experienced at least twelve serious cases of targeted school violence. This article describes two projects designed to fill the gap between universal prevention and emergency response in preventing severe forms of school violence in Germany. The Berlin Leaking Project examined the viability of preventive efforts based on early identification of leaking behavior that often precedes targeted school attacks. Leaking refers to any behavior or communication that indicates a student is preparing to carry out a violent attack. This would include explicit or implied threats of violence, apparent fascination with prior acts of violence such as Columbine, and any evidence of planning or preparation to carry out an attack. The NETWASS project will test a training program and intervention strategy based on those findings, examining the usefulness of a threat assessment approach to prevent violence by training teachers to recognize leaking behavior by students. This approach is extended by training teachers on a larger scale to identify leaking and then having a school-based team evaluate the student and initiate appropriate interventions, such as mental health services, and in some cases, law enforcement action. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  13. Potentiation of nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells by ifenprodil: the role of sigma-1 and IP3 receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaki Ishima

    Full Text Available In addition to both the α1 adrenergic receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonists, ifenprodil binds to the sigma receptor subtypes 1 and 2. In this study, we examined the effects of ifenprodil on nerve growth factor (NGF-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Ifenprodil significantly potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, the α1 adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin and the NMDA receptor NR2B antagonist, Ro 25-6981 did not alter NGF-induced neurite outgrowth. Potentiation of NGF-induced neurite outgrowth mediated by ifenprodil was significantly antagonized by co-administration of the selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist, NE-100, but not the sigma-2 receptor antagonist, SM-21. Similarly, ifenprodil enhanced NGF-induced neurite outgrowth was again significantly reduced by the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP(3 receptor antagonists, xestospongin C and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB treatment. Furthermore, BAPTA-AM, a chelator of intracellular Ca(2+, blocked the effects of ifenprodil on NGF-induced neurite outgrowth, indicating the role of intracellular Ca(2+ in the neurite outgrowth. These findings suggest that activation at sigma-1 receptors and subsequent interaction with IP(3 receptors may mediate the pharmacological effects of ifenprodil on neurite outgrowth.

  14. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-dependent Ca2+ signaling mediates delayed myogenesis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy fetal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farini, Andrea; Sitzia, Clementina; Cassinelli, Letizia; Colleoni, Federica; Parolini, Daniele; Giovanella, Umberto; Maciotta, Simona; Colombo, Augusto; Meregalli, Mirella; Torrente, Yvan

    2016-02-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle wasting and premature death. The defective gene is dystrophin, a structural protein, absence of which causes membrane fragility and myofiber necrosis. Several lines of evidence showed that in adult DMD patients dystrophin is involved in signaling pathways that regulate calcium homeostasis and differentiation programs. However, secondary aspects of the disease, such as inflammation and fibrosis development, might represent a bias in the analysis. Because fetal muscle is not influenced by gravity and does not suffer from mechanical load and/or inflammation, we investigated 12-week-old fetal DMD skeletal muscles, highlighting for the first time early alterations in signaling pathways mediated by the absence of dystrophin itself. We found that PLC/IP3/IP3R/Ryr1/Ca(2+) signaling is widely active in fetal DMD skeletal muscles and, through the calcium-dependent PKCα protein, exerts a fundamental regulatory role in delaying myogenesis and in myofiber commitment. These data provide new insights into the origin of DMD pathology during muscle development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase interferes with GTP γS stimulated IP3 formation in differentiated HL-60 cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Naoyuki; Imaizumi, Taro; Watanabe, Yashuiro

    1989-01-01

    The effects of addition of activated cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) on the function of islet-activating protein (IAP)-sensitive GTP-binding (G) protein were studied in the plasma membranes of 3 H-inositol-labeled differentiated human leukemic (HL-60) cells. Pretreatment of the membranes with activated PKA in the presence of MgATP for 15 min. at 37 degree C decreased GTP γS-stimulated inositol trisphosphate (IP 3 ) formation by about 30%, but had no influence on Ca 2+ -stimulated IP 3 formation. And autoradiography in the phosphorylation experiments of solubilized HL-60 cell membranes by PKA showed some 32 P incorporated bands, and among them one of the major bands showed the migration at 40 kDa supporting that the G protein coupling with PI response was phosphorylated by PKA. These results showed that pretreatment with activated PKA inhibited the mediating function of the G protein between the fMLP receptor and phospholipase C by its phosphorylation

  16. Waste minimization and pollution prevention technology transfer : the Airlie House Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatrone, R.; McHenry, J.; Myron, H.; Thout, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The Airlie House Pollution Prevention Technology Transfer Projects were a series of pilot projects developed for the US Department of Energy with the intention of transferring pollution prevention technology to the private sector. The concept was to develop small technology transfer initiatives in partnership with the private sector. Argonne National Laboratory developed three projects: the microscale chemistry in education project, the microscale cost benefit study project, and the Bethel New Life recycling trainee project. The two microscale chemistry projects focused on introducing microscale chemistry technologies to secondary and college education. These programs were inexpensive to develop and received excellent evaluations from participants and regulators. The Bethel New Life recycling trainee project provided training for two participants who helped identify recycling and source reduction opportunities in Argonne National Laboratory's solid waste stream. The pilot projects demonstrated that technology transfer initiatives can be developed and implemented with a small budget and within a short period of time. The essential components of the pilot projects were identifying target technologies that were already available, identifying target audiences, and focusing on achieving a limited but defined objective

  17. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-05-23

    Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. To evaluate the intervention we: 1) interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2) reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3) abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of evaluation due to insufficient resources and a waning of local

  18. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliba Debra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage patients to appropriate services. Here we report the formative evaluation of this project. Methods To evaluate the intervention we: 1 interviewed patient and employee stakeholders, 2 reviewed participating patients' electronic health record data and 3 abstracted information from meeting minutes. We describe the implementation process, including whether the project was implemented according to plan; identify barriers and facilitators to implementation; and assess the incremental benefit to the quality of health care for fall prevention received by patients in the project. We also estimate the cost of developing the pilot project. Results The project underwent multiple changes over its life span, including the addition of an option to mail patients educational materials about falls. During the project's lifespan, 113 patients were considered for inclusion and 35 participated. Patient and employee interviews suggested support for the project, but revealed that transportation to medical care was a major barrier in following up on fall risks identified by nurse telephone triage. Medical record review showed that the project enhanced usual medical care with respect to home safety counseling. We discontinued the program after 18 months due to staffing limitations and competing priorities. We estimated a cost of $9194 for meeting time to develop the project. Conclusions The project appeared feasible at its outset but could not be sustained past the first cycle of

  19. The PoET (Prevention of Error-Based Transfers) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jill; Chidwick, Paula

    2017-01-01

    The PoET (Prevention of Error-based Transfers) Project is one of the Ethics Quality Improvement Projects (EQIPs) taking place at William Osler Health System. This specific project is designed to reduce transfers from long-term care to hospital that are caused by legal and ethical errors related to consent, capacity and substitute decision-making. The project is currently operating in eight long-term care homes in the Central West Local Health Integration Network and has seen a 56% reduction in multiple transfers before death in hospital.

  20. The Leadership Program’s Violence Prevention Project: Infusing the Arts into Conflict Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Chauveron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While the demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the traditional school day schedule to accommodate violence prevention program time requirements has diminished. School reforms, such as No Child Left Behind, have pressed schools to focus more tightly on academics, often to the exclusion of subjects such as physical education and the arts. Viable violence prevention programs must offer components that supplement classroom curriculum as well as reduce violence and strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. The Leadership Program’s (TLP universal Violence Prevention Project (VPP meets this call with a conflict resolution model for students in urban schools. The curriculum is based on a conceptual framework derived from prevention science and positive youth development delivered through the vehicle of the arts. Utilizing an engaging hybrid prevention program, this high quality 12 session model melds fidelity and adaptation to yield effective evaluation outcomes.

  1. Formative evaluation of the telecare fall prevention project for older veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Miake-Lye, Isomi M; Amulis, Angel; Saliba, Debra; Shekelle, Paul G; Volkman, Linda K; Ganz, David A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Fall prevention interventions for community-dwelling older adults have been found to reduce falls in some research studies. However, wider implementation of fall prevention activities in routine care has yielded mixed results. We implemented a theory-driven program to improve care for falls at our Veterans Affairs healthcare facility. The first project arising from this program used a nurse advice telephone line to identify patients' risk factors for falls and to triage pa...

  2. Youths as partners in a community participatory project for substance use prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulbok, Pamela A; Meszaros, Peggy S; Bond, Donna C; Thatcher, Esther; Park, Eunhee; Kimbrell, Monica; Smith-Gregory, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    This community-based participatory research project aimed to develop strategies to prevent youth substance use in a rural county. This article (1) describes the project phases, (2) examines unique contributions and considerations of youth involvement, and (3) explores the youths' perspective. Twelve youths, aged 16 to 18 years, joined parents, community leaders, and research specialists on the community-based participatory research team. The youths were integrally involved in all phases including the community assessment, community leader interviews, selection of a substance use prevention program, and program implementation. Youths reported sustained enthusiasm, experiences of authentic leadership, development of research skills, and greater awareness of their community.

  3. Error begat error: design error analysis and prevention in social infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Peter E D; Lopez, Robert; Edwards, David J; Goh, Yang M

    2012-09-01

    Design errors contribute significantly to cost and schedule growth in social infrastructure projects and to engineering failures, which can result in accidents and loss of life. Despite considerable research that has addressed their error causation in construction projects they still remain prevalent. This paper identifies the underlying conditions that contribute to design errors in social infrastructure projects (e.g. hospitals, education, law and order type buildings). A systemic model of error causation is propagated and subsequently used to develop a learning framework for design error prevention. The research suggests that a multitude of strategies should be adopted in congruence to prevent design errors from occurring and so ensure that safety and project performance are ameliorated. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Rescue the problem project: a complete guide to identifying, preventing, and recovering from project failure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Todd C

    2011-01-01

    ... vii American Management Association www.amanet.orgviii Contents Creating the Assignment's Statement of Work Defining the Responsibilities by Phase in the SOW Establishing the Recovery Manager's Authority Accepting the Role as a Recovery Manager Creating an Outline of the Recovery Chapter Takeaway 24 25 28 28 29 30 PART II Auditing the Project: Unde...

  5. Basal activity of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels controls the IP3-mediated contraction by α(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation of mouse aorta segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Arthur J; Van Hove, Cor E; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Fransen, Paul

    2015-08-05

    α1-Adrenoceptor stimulation of mouse aorta causes intracellular Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores via stimulation of inositoltriphosphate (IP3) receptors. It is hypothesized that this Ca(2+) release from the contractile and IP3-sensitive Ca(2+) store is under the continuous dynamic control of time-independent basal Ca(2+) influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LCC) residing in their window voltage range. Mouse aortic segments were α1-adrenoceptor stimulated with phenylephrine in the absence of external Ca(2+) (0Ca) to measure phasic isometric contractions. They gradually decreased with time in 0Ca, were inhibited with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and declined with previous membrane potential hyperpolarization (levcromakalim) or with previous inhibition of LCC (diltiazem). Former basal stimulation of LCC with depolarization (15 mM K(+)) or with BAY K8644 increased the subsequent phasic contractions by phenylephrine in 0Ca. Although exogenous NO (diethylamine NONOate) reduced the phasic contractions by phenylephrine, stimulation of endothelial cells with acetylcholine in 0Ca failed to attenuate these phasic contractions. Finally, inhibition of the basal release of NO with N(Ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester also attenuated the phasic contractions by phenylephrine. Results indicated that α1-adrenoceptor stimulation with phenylephrine causes phasic contractions, which are controlled by basal LCC and endothelial NO synthase activity. Endothelial NO release by acetylcholine was absent in 0Ca. Given the growing interest in the active regulation of arterial compliance, the dependence of contractile SR Ca(2+) store-refilling in basal conditions on the activity of LCC and basal eNOS may contribute to a more thorough understanding of physiological mechanisms leading to arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Reconstructing Masculinity in the Locker Room: The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jackson

    1995-01-01

    The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project seeks to reduce violence against women by inspiring male athletes and other models of traditional masculinity to challenge norms that equate strength in men with dominance over women and to use their influence for positive behavior change. (SK)

  7. A European Seal of Approval for 'gay' businesses: findings from an HIV-prevention pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Nigel; Gugglberger, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    'Gay' businesses can be important settings through which to deliver health promotion interventions to vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men (MSM) regarding HIV prevention. This article draws on data from the European Everywhere project, which represents the first scheme to develop and pre-test a common framework for HIV/STI prevention in 'gay' businesses across eight European countries. The scientific basis of the Everywhere framework was developed using a comprehensive consensus-building process over 30 months. This process included: formative scoping research; interviews with 54 'gay' businesses; meetings/workshops with representatives from project partners, 'gay' businesses, public health administrations and external experts; 15 interviews and three focus groups with project partners; a five-month pilot action phase in eight countries, together with support from the project's Advisory Group; and all Everywhere project partners including the Scientific Steering Committee. A voluntary European code setting out differentiated HIV/STI-prevention standards for 'gay' businesses (including sex venues, 'gay' and 'gay' friendly social spaces, travel agencies, hotels, dating websites) was developed and piloted in eight European cities. During a five-month pilot action, 83 'gay' businesses were certified with the Everywhere Seal of Approval representing a considerable increase on the expected pilot target of 30. Everywhere offers a major contribution to the public health and/or health promotion field in the form of a practical, policy-relevant, settings-based HIV-prevention framework for 'gay' businesses that is common across eight European countries. Findings suggest that a European-wide model of prevention is acceptable and feasible to businesses.

  8. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Solid waste data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizior, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    In late 1989 Amoco and the US Environmental Protection Agency initiated a joint project to review pollution prevention alternatives at Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown, Virginia, Refinery as a case study site. The report summarizes the solid waste emissions inventory, solids source identification, and the solid waste sampling program that was conducted at the Amoco Yorktown Refinery on September 25-27, 1990, in support of the Pollution Prevention Project. Major findings showed that the majority of solid waste generation occurs as end-of-pipe solids resulting from the treatment of wastewaters from the refinery sewer. Based on a regression analysis of the composition data for samples collected during this project, major upstream contributors to these solids appear to be soils. Solids from process units are also significant contributors

  9. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Yorktown refinery project workplan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, L.; Grieves, C.; Browning, R.; Hanlon, D.; Crane, C.

    1990-09-01

    The report provides a detailed workplan for obtaining data and analyzing results for a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The goals of the study include (1) a multi-media inventory of all releases entering the environment from the Refinery, (2) development of possible engineering options to reduce the releases, (3) analysis of each option in terms of release reduction potential, impact on human health risk, ecological impact, changes in future liability, etc. and (4) identification of obstacles and incentives for implementation of any of the options considered

  10. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Project peer review. Report of the Peer Review Committee of the Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project at the Yorktown, Virginia refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Podar, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Amoco/EPA Pollution Prevention Project involved a number of representatives from federal and Virginia regulatory agencies, and Amoco's refining business. Participants believed that the Project could benefit from a broader perspective than these organizations along might provide. The Project Work Group selected an independent Peer Review Process which was conducted by Resource for the Future (RFF), a Washington DC think tank. A group of technical, policy and environmental experts from diverse backgrounds served as Peer Review members. The Peer Review Committee met on three occasions to discuss (1) the Project Work Plan (2) sampling data and interpretation and (3) project conclusions and recommendations. The focus of the meeting was on the general scope and content of the project

  11. Ripk3 regulates cardiac microvascular reperfusion injury: The role of IP3R-dependent calcium overload, XO-mediated oxidative stress and F-action/filopodia-based cellular migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hao; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Pingjun; Hu, Shunying; Ren, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Ripk3-mediated cellular apoptosis is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of myocardial ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury. However, the mechanisms by which Ripk3 influences microvascular homeostasis and endothelial apoptosis are not completely understood. In this study, loss of Ripk3 inhibited endothelial apoptosis, alleviated luminal swelling, maintained microvasculature patency, reduced the expression of adhesion molecules and limited the myocardial inflammatory response. In vitro, Ripk3 deficiency protected endothelial cells from apoptosis and migratory arrest induced by HR injury. Mechanistically, Ripk3 had the ability to migrate onto the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to ER damage, as evidenced by increased IP3R and XO expression. The higher IP3R content was associated with cellular calcium overload, and increased XO expression was involved in cellular oxidative injury. Furthermore, IP3R-mediated calcium overload and XO-dependent oxidative damage were able to initiate cellular apoptosis. More importantly, IP3R and XO also caused F-actin degradation into G-actin via post-transcriptional modification of cofilin, impairing the formation of the filopodia and limiting the migratory response of endothelial cells. Altogether, our data confirmed that Ripk3 was involved in microvascular IR injury via regulation of IP3R-mediated calcium overload, XO-dependent oxidative damage and filopodia-related cellular migration, ultimately leading to endothelial apoptosis and migratory inhibition. These findings provide a potential target for treating cardiac microcirculatory IR injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of a 5-year cervical cancer prevention project in Indonesia: opportunities, issues, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Mi; Lambe, Fransisca Maria; Soetikno, Djoko; Wysong, Megan; Tergas, Ana Isabel; Rajbhandari, Presha; Ati, Abigael; Lu, Enriquito

    2013-06-01

    The Cervical and Breast Cancer Prevention (CECAP) Project sought to develop a national model for cervical cancer prevention in Indonesia based on visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) to detect abnormal changes in the cervix. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a pilot project introducing VIA and cryotherapy in Indonesia and to identify lessons learned that could be applied to the national scale-up of cervical cancer prevention services. Fifty-four months (July 2007 to December 2011) of service records at 17 health centers were abstracted and analyzed. The data were used to calculate the proportion of all women aged 30-50 who received VIA screening, the VIA-positive rate, the treatment rate, and the interval between screening and treatment. The 45 050 women screened during the project included 24.4% of the total female population in the target age group in the catchment area. Throughout the 5-year project, 83.1% of VIA-positive women sought cryotherapy. During the last 18 months of the project, after data collection tools were revised to more accurately reflect when cryotherapy was received, 13% of women were treated on the same day that they were screened. Among the 74% of women treated within 1 month of screening, the mean interval between screening and treatment was 7.2 days. As cervical cancer prevention services are scaled up throughout Indonesia, changes in the service delivery model and program management are needed to increase screening coverage, promote a single-visit approach, and ensure the quality of services. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Uranium Mill Tailings remedial action project waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this plan is to establish a waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness (WM/PPA) program for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The program satisfies DOE requirements mandated by DOE Order 5400.1. This plan establishes planning objectives and strategies for conserving resources and reducing the quantity and toxicity of wastes and other environmental releases

  14. Evaluation of DELTA PREP: A Project Aimed at Integrating Primary Prevention of Intimate Partner Violence within State Domestic Violence Coalitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…

  15. Determinants of participation in targeted preventive health checks: the TOF pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars

    the identification and management of people at high risk in the population. Reach is a corner stone in the evaluation of preventive health checks. Even if the intervention is effective in itself, effect can only be expected if the intervention reaches persons who will benefit from the intervention. Objectives...... To examine the reach of a preventive healthcare intervention that systematically identifies patients at high risk of developing lifestyle-related disease, and provides targeted and coherent preventive services to these individuals. Material/Methods The study population comprises 8814 persons born between...... national registers concerning demographic information, prescriptions, and health care usage of the study population will be obtained from Statistics Denmark and analysed using logistic regression. Results Preliminary results show that 41 % consented to the project and 75 % here of participated in the joint...

  16. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.

  17. Outcomes of an infection prevention project focusing on hand hygiene and isolation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Daleen; Sole, Mary Lou; Brown, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are a major health problem for hospitalized patients and their families. Since the 1800s, hand hygiene has been recognized as the single best method to prevent the spread of pathogens and nosocomial infections. Despite this fact, many healthcare workers do not adhere to hand hygiene policies. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention issued a guideline for hand hygiene practices in 2002. Multifaceted approaches to improve hand hygiene have been shown to increase compliance among healthcare workers and subsequently reduce infections. A performance improvement project was initiated to implement this guideline and other strategies to prevent nosocomial infection. This article summarizes the performance improvement processes and the preliminary outcomes on adherence to infection prevention policies related to hand hygiene and isolation practices. Clinically and statistically significant increases were noted for hand hygiene prior to patient care and in wearing masks when indicated. Nurses and patient care technicians had the greatest increases in compliance. Increases in hand hygiene after patient contact and wearing of gown and gloves were also noted, but results were not statistically significant. Nosocomial infection rates from antibiotic-resistant organisms decreased in the first surveillance, but rates increased during the 1-year surveillance. Consumption of alcohol-based foam disinfectant doubled from baseline. Findings are consistent with other published studies. The project will continue with further reinforcement and education over the second year.

  18. Development of a student engagement approach to alcohol prevention: the Pragmatics Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Cynthia K; Andrews, David W; Glassman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Significant involvement of students in the development and implementation of college alcohol prevention strategies is largely untested, despite recommendations by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and others. The purpose of the Pragmatics Project was to test a student engagement model for developing and implementing alcohol intervention strategies. The Pragmatics Project involved 89 undergraduate students on a large Midwestern university campus in the design and implementation of projects focused on reducing harm associated with high-risk drinking and off-campus parties. The engagement model used an innovative course piloted in the Human Development and Family Science department. The course successfully involved both students and the community in addressing local alcohol issues. The course design described would fit well into a Master of Public Health, Community Psychology, Health Psychology, or interdisciplinary curricula as well as the service learning model, and it is applicable in addressing other health risk behaviors.

  19. Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Adolescents and Surveillance System for the Obesity Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacchi, Garden; Bianco, Antonino; Alessi, Nicola; Filippi, Anna Rita; Napoli, Giuseppe; Jemni, Monèm; Censi, Laura; Breda, João; Schumann, Nathali Lehmann; Firenze, Alberto; Vitale, Francesco; Mammina, Caterina

    2016-03-01

    The Adolescents Surveillance System for Obesity prevention (ASSO) Project aimed at developing standardized and web-based tools for collecting data on adolescents' obesity and its potential determinants. This has been implemented and piloted in the local area of Palermo city, Italy. The aim of the present study is to provide an overview of the Project's design, implementation, and evaluation, highlighting all the aspects for a potential scale-up of the surveillance system on the whole national territory and abroad, as a sustainable and effective source of data.The overall structure and management, the ASSO-toolkit, the ASSO-NutFit software, and all developed and used procedures for recruiting, training, and data collecting/analyzing are addressed. An interim evaluation has been performed through a feasibility study; a final Project evaluation has been performed reporting the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) and the attributes that a surveillance system should have.This article provides a detailed overview of the Project and highlights that ASSO can be considered a valid, logical, coherent, efficient, and sustainable surveillance system that is consistent with countries' needs and priorities.The system developed by the ASSO Project provides high-quality data and complies with several characteristics typical of a suitable surveillance system. It has a potential of being adopted within the National Health Service and other countries' Health Services for monitoring adolescents' obesity and its determinants, such as food intakes, behaviors, physical activity, and fitness profiles.

  20. An interplay between 2 signaling pathways: Melatonin-cAMP and IP3–Ca2+ signaling pathways control intraerythrocytic development of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuyama, Wakako; Enomoto, Masahiro; Mossaad, Ehab; Kawai, Satoru; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A melatonin receptor antagonist blocked Ca 2+ oscillation in P. falciparum and inhibited parasite growth. • P. falciparum development is controlled by Ca 2+ - and cAMP-signaling pathways. • The cAMP-signaling pathway at ring form and late trophozoite stages governs parasite growth of P. falciparum. - Abstract: Plasmodium falciparum spends most of its asexual life cycle within human erythrocytes, where proliferation and maturation occur. Development into the mature forms of P. falciparum causes severe symptoms due to its distinctive sequestration capability. However, the physiological roles and the molecular mechanisms of signaling pathways that govern development are poorly understood. Our previous study showed that P. falciparum exhibits stage-specific spontaneous Calcium (Ca 2+ ) oscillations in ring and early trophozoites, and the latter was essential for parasite development. In this study, we show that luzindole (LZ), a selective melatonin receptor antagonist, inhibits parasite growth. Analyses of development and morphology of LZ-treated P. falciparum revealed that LZ severely disrupted intraerythrocytic maturation, resulting in parasite death. When LZ was added at ring stage, the parasite could not undergo further development, whereas LZ added at the trophozoite stage inhibited development from early into late schizonts. Live-cell Ca 2+ imaging showed that LZ treatment completely abolished Ca 2+ oscillation in the ring forms while having little effect on early trophozoites. Further, the melatonin-induced cAMP increase observed at ring and late trophozoite stage was attenuated by LZ treatment. These suggest that a complex interplay between IP 3 –Ca 2+ and cAMP signaling pathways is involved in intraerythrocytic development of P. falciparum

  1. Estimating unbiased economies of scale of HIV prevention projects: a case study of Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudha; Blanc, Elodie; Le Nestour, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Governments and donors are investing considerable resources on HIV prevention in order to scale up these services rapidly. Given the current economic climate, providers of HIV prevention services increasingly need to demonstrate that these investments offer good 'value for money'. One of the primary routes to achieve efficiency is to take advantage of economies of scale (a reduction in the average cost of a health service as provision scales-up), yet empirical evidence on economies of scale is scarce. Methodologically, the estimation of economies of scale is hampered by several statistical issues preventing causal inference and thus making the estimation of economies of scale complex. In order to estimate unbiased economies of scale when scaling up HIV prevention services, we apply our analysis to one of the few HIV prevention programmes globally delivered at a large scale: the Indian Avahan initiative. We costed the project by collecting data from the 138 Avahan NGOs and the supporting partners in the first four years of its scale-up, between 2004 and 2007. We develop a parsimonious empirical model and apply a system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) and fixed-effects Instrumental Variable (IV) estimators to estimate unbiased economies of scale. At the programme level, we find that, after controlling for the endogeneity of scale, the scale-up of Avahan has generated high economies of scale. Our findings suggest that average cost reductions per person reached are achievable when scaling-up HIV prevention in low and middle income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alberta's Tomorrow Project: adherence to cancer prevention recommendations pertaining to diet, physical activity and body size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Heather K; Xu, Jian-Yi; Vaseghi, Sanaz; Lo Siou, Geraldine; McGregor, S Elizabeth; Robson, Paula J

    2017-05-01

    To explore cross-sectional adherence to cancer prevention recommendations by adults enrolled in a prospective cohort in Alberta, Canada. Questionnaire data were used to construct a composite cancer prevention adherence score for each participant, based on selected personal recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Data were self-reported on health and lifestyle, past-year physical activity and past-year FFQ. The scores accounted for physical activity, dietary supplement use, body size, and intakes of alcohol, fruit, vegetables and red meat. Tobacco exposure was also included. Scores ranged from 0 (least adherent) to 7 (most adherent). Alberta's Tomorrow Project; a research platform based on a prospective cohort. Adult men and women (n 24 988) aged 35-69 years recruited by random digit dialling and enrolled in Alberta's Tomorrow Project between 2001 and 2009. Of the cohort, 14 % achieved adherence scores ≥5 and 60 % had scores ≤3. Overall adherence scores were higher in women (mean (sd): 3·4 (1·1)) than in men (3·0 (1·2)). The extent of overall adherence was also associated with level of education, employment status, annual household income, personal history of chronic disease, family history of chronic disease and age. Reported adherence to selected personal recommendations for cancer prevention was low in this cohort of adults. In the short to medium term, these results suggest that more work is required to identify behaviours to target with cancer prevention strategies at a population level. Future work will explore the associations between adherence scores and cancer risk in this cohort.

  3. [KIPKEL--an interdisciplinary ambulatory prevention project for children with mentally ill parents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staets, S; Hipp, M

    2001-09-01

    Children of psychiatrically ill parents up to now have hardly been perceived as a risk group. In order to prevent these children form becoming psychiatrically ill the practice for art-therapy and psychotherapy and the social psychiatric service of the city of Hilden have developed a programme for parents having children under 18 years of age in which at least one parent suffers from endogenous psychosis or severe personality disorder. The two initiators of the KIPKEL project describe the experiences they had during the preparatory phase and while securing the financial basis and building up solid structures of cooperation. The conceptual basis of the project and problems of practical realization are presented. Finally an example of a family who participated in the programme is given. It illustrates the complex arrangement of interpersonal relationship and the course of the carework.

  4. Evaluation of Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project: Republic of the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, Peter; Tut, Ohnmar K

    2009-01-01

    This communication reports an outcomes evaluation of the Pacific Islands Early Childhood Caries Prevention Project. The evaluation includes children in three conditions: a) topical fluoride varnish three times per school year; b) varnish plus twice-per-day toothbrushing; and c) intervention 2 plus three-times-per-day xylitol containing gummy bear snacks at school and home visits to encourage parental involvement. For this evaluation, groups 2 and 3 have been combined. One year after project implementation, mean decayed, extracted, or filled primary teeth was 10.3 [standard deviation (SD)= 4.3] teeth for group 1, and 8.2 (SD = 4.0) teeth for the combination of groups 2 and 3 (P 0.05). Evaluation confirms the outcome of a program including both in-school twice-daily toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste and frequent applications of fluoride varnish.

  5. Community Awareness on Rabies Prevention and Control in Bicol, Philippines: Pre- and Post-Project Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Rose M. Barroga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is endemic in the Philippines. To support the rabies campaign in the Bicol region at the southeastern part of Luzon, the BAI-OIE Stop Transboundary Animal Diseases and Zoonoses (STANDZ Rabies project was implemented in the pilot provinces of Camarines Norte, Camarines Sur, Albay, and Masbate. A community awareness survey was conducted with the residents of these provinces to determine their knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP on rabies during the start and end of the project. Qualitative, descriptive research was done with a structured KAP questionnaire. Pet owners in the pilot provinces were chosen as respondents. Results showed that respondents know that they can acquire rabies in animals through the bite of a rabid dog (pre-project implementation (PRI: 19.6%, post-project implementation (POI: 38.0%. Vaccination was the top rabies preventive measure (PRI: 61.8%, POI: 92.8%. Biting incidents were noted in some respondents, and observing the dog and killing it immediately were some of the actions taken by bite victims. If a supposed rabid dog was seen, respondents would either: immediately kill the dog (PRI: 20.3%, POI: 13.7%, report it to authorities (PRI: 26.3%, POI: 63.1%, and capture and observe the dog concerned (PRI: 13.5%, POI: 6.0%. Pet owners increased their KAP about rabies prevention and control as compared to the pre-implementation study. However, certain gaps in their KAP need to be given attention; thus continuous education of pet owners must be done.

  6. The surgical care improvement project and prevention of post-operative infection, including surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Laura H; Politano, Amani D; Sawyer, Robert G

    2011-06-01

    In response to inconsistent compliance with infection prevention measures, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services collaborated with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on the Surgical Infection Prevention (SIP) project, introduced in 2002. Quality improvement measures were developed to standardize processes to increase compliance. In 2006, the Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) developed out of the SIP project and its process measures. These initiatives, published in the Specifications Manual for National Inpatient Quality Measures, outline process and outcome measures. This continually evolving manual is intended to provide standard quality measures to unify documentation and track standards of care. Seven of the SCIP initiatives apply to the peri-operative period: Prophylactic antibiotics should be received within 1 h prior to surgical incision (1), be selected for activity against the most probable antimicrobial contaminants (2), and be discontinued within 24 h after the surgery end-time (3); (4) euglycemia should be maintained, with well-controlled morning blood glucose concentrations on the first two post-operative days, especially in cardiac surgery patients; (6) hair at the surgical site should be removed with clippers or by depilatory methods, not with a blade; (9) urinary catheters are to be removed within the first two post-operative days; and (10) normothermia should be maintained peri-operatively. There is strong evidence that implementation of protocols that standardize practices reduce the risk of surgical infection. The SCIP initiative targets complications that account for a significant portion of preventable morbidity as well as cost. One of the goals of the SCIP guidelines was a 25% reduction in the incidence of surgical site infections from implementation through 2010. Process measures are becoming routine, and as we practice more evidence-based medicine, it falls to us, the surgeons and scientists, to be active

  7. A reliability-based preventive maintenance methodology for the projection spot welding machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayzimatov Ulugbek

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An effective operations of a projection spot welding (PSW machine is closely related to the effec-tiveness of the maintenance. Timely maintenance can prevent failures and improve reliability and maintainability of the machine. Therefore, establishing the maintenance frequency for the welding machine is one of the most important tasks for plant engineers. In this regard, reliability analysis of the welding machine can be used to establish preventive maintenance intervals (PMI and to identify the critical parts of the system. In this reliability and maintainability study, analysis of the PSW machine was carried out. The failure and repair data for analysis were obtained from automobile manufacturing company located in Uzbekistan. The machine was divided into three main sub-systems: electrical, pneumatic and hydraulic. Different distributions functions for all sub-systems was tested and their parameters tabulated. Based on estimated parameters of the analyzed distribu-tions, PMI for the PSW machines sub-systems at different reliability levels was calculated. Finally, preventive measures for enhancing the reliability of the PSW machine sub-systems are suggested.

  8. A childhood obesity prevention programme in Barcelona (POIBA Project): Study protocol of the intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Juárez, Olga; Serral, Gemma; Valmayor, Sara; Puigpinós, Rosa; Pasarín, María Isabel; Díez, Élia; Ariza, Carles

    2018-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity preventive interventions should promote a healthy diet and physical activity at home and school. This study aims to describe a school-based childhood obesity preventive programme (POIBA Project) targeting 8-to-12- year-olds. Design and methods Evaluation study of a school-based intervention with a pre-post quasi-experimental design and a comparison group. Schools from disadvantaged neighbourhoods are oversampled. The intervention consists of 9 sessions, including 58 activities of a total duration between 9 and 13 hours, and the booster intervention of 2 sessions with 8 activities lasting 3 or 4 hours. They are multilevel (individual, family and school) and multicomponent (classroom, physical activity and family). Data are collected through anthropometric measurements, physical fitness tests and lifestyle surveys before and after the intervention and the booster intervention. In the intervention group, families complete two questionnaires about their children’s eating habits and physical activity. The outcome variable is the cumulative incidence rate of obesity, obtained from body mass index values and body fat assessed by triceps skinfold thickness. The independent variables are socio-demographic, contextual, eating habits, food frequency, intensity of physical activity and use of new technologies. Expected impact for public health It is essential to implement preventive interventions at early ages and to follow its effects over time. Interventions involving diet and physical activity are the most common, being the most effective setting the school. The POIBA Project intervenes in both the school and family setting and focuses on the most disadvantaged groups, in which obesity is most pronounced and difficult to prevent. Significance for public health Overweight and obesity are a major public health concern that predispose affected individuals to the development of chronic diseases. Of importance, obesity is more common among

  9. Whole School Improvement and Restructuring as Prevention and Promotion: Lessons from STEP and the Project on High Performance Learning Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felner, Robert D.; Favazza, Antoinette; Shim, Minsuk; Brand, Stephen; Gu, Kenneth; Noonan, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    Describes the School Transitional Environment Project and its successor, the Project on High Performance Learning Communities, that have contributed to building a model for school improvement called the High Performance Learning Communities. The model seeks to build the principles of prevention into whole school change. Presents findings from…

  10. Project ECHO: A Telementoring Program for Cervical Cancer Prevention and Treatment in Low-Resource Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Lopez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer incidence and mortality rates are significantly higher in low- and middle-income countries compared with the United States and other developed countries. This disparity is caused by decreased access to screening, often coupled with low numbers of trained providers offering cancer prevention and treatment services. However, similar disparities are also found in underserved areas of the United States, such as the Texas-Mexico border, where cervical cancer mortality rates are 30% higher than in the rest of Texas. To address these issues, we have adopted the Project ECHO (Extension for Community Healthcare Outcomes program, a low-cost telementoring model previously proven to be successful in increasing local capacity, improving patient management skills, and ultimately improving patient outcomes in rural and underserved areas. We use the Project ECHO model to educate local providers in the management of cervical dysplasia in a low-resource region of Texas and have adapted it to inform strategies for the management of advanced cervical and breast cancer in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. This innovative approach, using ECHO, is part of a larger strategy to enhance clinical skills and develop collaborative projects between academic centers and partners in low-resource regions.

  11. The Healthy Skin Project: changing nursing practice to prevent and treat hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour-Burton, Teri; Fields, Willa; Outlaw, Lanie; Deleon, Elvira

    2013-06-01

    Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers are serious clinical complications that can lead to increased length of stay, pain, infection, and, potentially, death. The surgical progressive care unit at Sharp Grossmont Hospital, San Diego, California, developed the multidisciplinary Healthy Skin Project to decrease the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. The previous treatment plan was reviewed and modified according to current evidence-based practice. The project consisted of 3 components: creation of a position for a unit-based wound liaison nurse, staff education, and involvement of the nursing assistants. The wound liaison nurse developed and conducted bimonthly skin audits, which revealed inconsistencies in clinical practice and documentation. Education for the staff was accomplished via a self-learning module, case presentations, and 1-on-1 training. In addition, a pressure ulcer algorithm tool was developed to demonstrate step-by-step wound management and documentation. From Spring 2003 through Summer 2006, the prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers ranged from 0.0% to 18.92%, with a mean of 4.85%. After implementation of the project, the prevalence decreased to 0.0% for 17 of 20 quarters, through 2011. Prevention and a multidisciplinary approach are effective in reducing the occurrence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers.

  12. Presynaptic Dopamine D2 Receptors Modulate [3H]GABA Release at StriatoPallidal Terminals via Activation of PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin and Inhibition of AC → cAMP → PKA Signaling Cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijón-Lorenzo, Rafael; Caballero-Florán, Isaac Hiram; Recillas-Morales, Sergio; Cortés, Hernán; Avalos-Fuentes, José Arturo; Paz-Bermúdez, Francisco Javier; Erlij, David; Florán, Benjamín

    2018-02-21

    Striatal dopamine D2 receptors activate the PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin-signaling pathway to modulate the neural excitability of En+ Medium-sized Spiny GABAergic neurons (MSN) through the regulation of L-type Ca 2+ channels. Presynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptors modulate GABA release at striatopallidal terminals through L-type Ca 2+ channels as well, but their signaling pathway is still undetermined. Since D2 receptors are Gi/o-coupled and negatively modulate adenylyl cyclase (AC), we investigated whether presynaptic D2 receptors modulate GABA release through the same signaling cascade that controls excitability in the striatum or by the inhibition of AC and decreased PKA activity. Activation of D2 receptors stimulated formation of [ 3 H]IP 1 and decreased Forskolin-stimulated [ 3 H]cAMP accumulation in synaptosomes from rat Globus Pallidus. D2 receptor activation with Quinpirole in the presence of L 745,870 decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, K + -induced [ 3 H]GABA release in pallidal slices. The effect was prevented by the pharmacological blockade of Gi/o βγ subunit effects with Gallein, PLC with U 73122, IP3 receptor activation with 4-APB, Calcineurin with FK506. In addition, when release was stimulated with Forskolin to activate AC, D2 receptors also decreased K + -induced [ 3 H]GABA release, an effect occluded with the effect of the blockade of PKA with H89 or stimulation of release with the cAMP analog 8-Br-cAMP. These data indicate that D2 receptors modulate [ 3 H]GABA release at striatopallidal terminals by activating the PLC → IP3 → Calcineurin-signaling cascade, the same one that modulates excitability in soma. Additionally, D2 receptors inhibit release when AC is active. Both mechanisms appear to converge to regulate the activity of presynaptic L-type Ca 2+ channels. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Allowing for MSD prevention during facilities planning for a public service: an a posteriori analysis of 10 library design projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemare, Marie; Trudel, Louis; Ledoux, Elise; Montreuil, Sylvie; Marier, Micheline; Laberge, Marie; Vincent, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Research was conducted to identify an ergonomics-based intervention model designed to factor in musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) prevention when library projects are being designed. The first stage of the research involved an a posteriori analysis of 10 recent redesign projects. The purpose of the analysis was to document perceptions about the attention given to MSD prevention measures over the course of a project on the part of 2 categories of employees: librarians responsible for such projects and personnel working in the libraries before and after changes. Subjects were interviewed in focus groups. Outcomes of the analysis can guide our ergonomic assessment of current situations and contribute to a better understanding of the way inclusion or improvement of prevention measures can support the workplace design process.

  14. Trials and projects on cervical cancer and human papillomavirus prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adefuye, Peter O; Broutet, Nathalie J; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Denny, Lynette A

    2013-12-29

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality in women in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), accounting for about 50,000 deaths annually. Until recently, cytology was the gold standard for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. This method of screening has not been successful in SSA due to a lack of human, financial and material resources and poor health care infrastructure. It is estimated that less than 5% of at risk women have ever being screened. In the past two decades alternative approaches to cytology for cervical cancer screening have been evaluated in low- and medium-income countries. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugol's iodine (VILI) have been shown to have adequate sensitivity, although low specificity, in a number of cross-sectional research and demonstration projects. Visual inspection methods require minimal resources, are technologically accessible, and are feasible for screening for precancerous lesions. Linking screening with VIA/VILI to treatment with cryotherapy may enable screening and treatment to take place in one visit, but this is likely to result in large numbers of women being subjected to unnecessary treatment. A number of studies have shown that cryotherapy is not associated with significant side effects or complications and is well tolerated. Creating the infrastructure for screening of older women is considered desirable, despite the limitations of visual inspection methods as screening tests. Understanding the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the etiology of cervical cancer and the discovery of HPV rapid test kits, as well as the development of vaccines against the HPV oncogenic types, have created new opportunities for prevention of cervical cancer. Trials and projects have established (and are still ongoing) the feasibility of using these molecular tests for screening. The ultimate in prevention method is primary prevention, offered by the advent of prophylactic vaccines

  15. Project Protect” intervention. Testing a new approach for HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasylyeva, Tetyana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. “Project Protect” aims to find highly infectious individuals through screening for acute/recent infection cases and prevent HIV transmission in the risk networks of these cases through contact tracing of these networks` participants, distributing community alerts about risk of acute infection among them and accurate post-test counseling.METHODS. An ongoing pilot phase of the intervention began in Kriviy Rig and Lviv, Ukraine in November, 2011. Participants are recruited through: 1 screening for cases of acute/recent infection at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT sites and in partner organizations (including AIDS-Centers which conduct VCT; 2 visits to drug use venues, chain-referral and contact tracing. Genscreen ultra HIV Ag-Ab “special-tests” are used to detect cases of acute infection. Recent infection is defined as positive test result and preceding negative result within 6 months and/or age younger than 21 years old.RESULTS. In the two cities 173 respondents were recruited to the project, 118 special tests were done. No cases of acute infection and eleven cases of recent infection were found (8 injection drug users (IDUs with preceding negative result within 6 months, 2 IDUs younger than 21 recruited by project team; one non-IDU with preceding negative result within 6 months referred from AIDS-Center. Six recent cases were recruited through screening at VCT sites, 5 others through contact tracing. Psychologists conducted 41 interviews with recent infection cases and their risk networks` members; 176 community alert flyers were distributed to members of risk networks during the interview by psychologist, at the venue by social worker and by participants themselves; 3 drug use venues were visited by project team with concomitant HIV-testing of people present at the venue. CONCLUSIONS. Network tracing seems to be feasible and to help find recently infected people. Further research is needed to tell whether this

  16. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  17. A National Implementation Project to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Greene, M Todd; Meddings, Jennifer; Krein, Sarah L; McNamara, Sara E; Trautner, Barbara W; Ratz, David; Stone, Nimalie D; Min, Lillian; Schweon, Steven J; Rolle, Andrew J; Olmsted, Russell N; Burwen, Dale R; Battles, James; Edson, Barbara; Saint, Sanjay

    2017-08-01

    .95; 95% CI, 0.88-1.03; P = .26) in adjusted analyses. The number of urine cultures ordered for all residents decreased from 3.49 per 1000 resident-days to 3.08 per 1000 resident-days. Similarly, after adjustment, the rates were shown to decrease from 3.52 to 3.09 (IRR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.77-0.94; P = .001). In a large-scale, national implementation project involving community-based nursing homes, combined technical and socioadaptive catheter-associated UTI prevention interventions successfully reduced the incidence of catheter-associated UTIs.

  18. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmons Annie M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008 project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. Methods The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation, a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring and a Project Management Committee (project delivery. A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. Results The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as

  19. The process evaluation of It's Your Move!, an Australian adolescent community-based obesity prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Louise B; Moodie, Marj M; Simmons, Annie M; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2010-07-30

    Evidence on interventions for preventing unhealthy weight gain in adolescents is urgently needed. The aim of this paper is to describe the process evaluation for a three-year (2005-2008) project conducted in five secondary schools in the East Geelong/Bellarine region of Victoria, Australia. The project, 'It's Your Move!' aimed to reduce unhealthy weight gain by promoting healthy eating patterns, regular physical activity, healthy body weight, and body size perception amongst youth; and improve the capacity of families, schools, and community organisations to sustain the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in the region. The project was supported by Deakin University (training and evaluation), a Reference Committee (strategic direction, budgetary approval and monitoring) and a Project Management Committee (project delivery). A workshop of students, teachers and other stakeholders formulated a 10-point action plan, which was then translated into strategies and initiatives specific to each school by the School Project Officers (staff members released from teaching duties one day per week) and trained Student Ambassadors. Baseline surveys informed intervention development. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and these were collated and enumerated, where possible, into a set of mutually exclusive tables to demonstrate the types of strategies and the dose, frequency and reach of intervention activities. The action plan included three guiding objectives, four on nutrition, two on physical activity and one on body image. The process evaluation data showed that a mix of intervention strategies were implemented, including social marketing, one-off events, lunch time and curriculum programs, improvements in infrastructure, and healthy school food policies. The majority of the interventions were implemented in schools and focused on capacity building and healthy eating strategies as physical activity practices were seen by the teachers as

  20. Using logic models in a community-based agricultural injury prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, Deborah; Willging, Cathleen; Hathorn, Gary; Benally, Jeannie

    2009-01-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has long promoted the logic model as a useful tool in an evaluator's portfolio. Because a logic model supports a systematic approach to designing interventions, it is equally useful for program planners. Undertaken with community stakeholders, a logic model process articulates the underlying foundations of a particular programmatic effort and enhances program design and evaluation. Most often presented as sequenced diagrams or flow charts, logic models demonstrate relationships among the following components: statement of a problem, various causal and mitigating factors related to that problem, available resources to address the problem, theoretical foundations of the selected intervention, intervention goals and planned activities, and anticipated short- and long-term outcomes. This article describes a case example of how a logic model process was used to help community stakeholders on the Navajo Nation conceive, design, implement, and evaluate agricultural injury prevention projects.

  1. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the feasibility study project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Feasibility studies (FS) determine what remedial alternatives are presented to regulators for site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best remedial option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user in incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FS phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  2. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the facility characterization project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    A facility characterization (FC) is conducted to determine the nature and extent contamination at a potential hazardous facility waste site. The information gathered during an FC includes (1) data on the volume and chemical nature of the waste, (2) information on the extent of contamination and the migration potential of the contaminants, (3) preliminary information on evaluation of alternative concepts that can or cannot be considered, and (4)supportive technical and cost data. For the purposes of identification, the following operational phases will be used for definition for this phase of the decommissioning and decontamination process (1) facility characterization before clean up, (2) characterization during clean up, (3) characterization of waste materials, and (4) site characterization after clean up. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these characterization activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist users with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all FC phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction

  3. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention checklist guide for the surveillance and maintenance project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    DOE Order 5820.2 mandates that a surveillance and maintenance program be established in all shut-down facilities to ensure adequate containment of contamination, provide physical safety and security, and reduce potential public and environmental hazards. A key consideration in this process is the prevention of any waste to be generated from these activities. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Surveillance and Maintenance (S ampersand M) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will help users document their PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to assist users with implementing and evaluating waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves and perform preliminary waste assessments

  4. Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Historical and Projected Nuclear Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A.; Hansen, James E.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the future contribution of nuclear power to the global energy supply has become somewhat uncertain. Because nuclear power is an abundant, low-carbon source of base-load power, it could make a large contribution to mitigation of global climate change and air pollution. Using historical production data, we calculate that global nuclear power has prevented an average of 1.84 million air pollution-related deaths and 64 gigatonnes of CO2-equivalent (GtCO2-eq) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that would have resulted from fossil fuel burning. On the basis of global projection data that take into account the effects of the Fukushima accident, we find that nuclear power could additionally prevent an average of 420 000-7.04 million deaths and 80-240 GtCO2-eq emissions due to fossil fuels by midcentury, depending on which fuel it replaces. By contrast, we assess that large-scale expansion of unconstrained natural gas use would not mitigate the climate problem and would cause far more deaths than expansion of nuclear power.

  5. PREVENTING POLLUTION USING ISO 14001 AT A PARTICLE ACCELERATOR THE RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLIDER PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRIGGS, S.L.K.; MUSOLINO, S.V.

    2001-01-01

    In early 1997 Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) discovered that the spent fuel pool of their High Flux Beam Reactor was leaking tritium into the groundwater. Community members, activist groups, politicians and regulators were outraged with the poor environmental management practices at BNL. The reactor was shut down and the Department of Energy (DOE) terminated the contract with the existing Management Company. At this same time, a major new scientific facility, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), was nearing the end of construction and readying for commissioning. Although environmental considerations had been incorporated into the design of the facility; some interested parties were skeptical that this new facility would not cause significant environmental impacts. RHIC management recognized that the future of its operation was dependent on preventing pollution and allaying concerns of its stakeholders. Although never done at a DOE National Laboratory before Brookhaven Science Associates, the new management firm, committed to implementing an Environmental Management System (EMS) and RHIC managers volunteered to deploy it within their facility on an extremely aggressive schedule. Several of these IS0 requirements contribute directly to preventing pollution, an area where particular emphasis was placed. This paper describes how Brookhaven used the following key IS0 14001 elements to institutionalize Pollution Prevention concepts: Environmental Policy, Aspects, Objectives and Targets, Environmental Management Program, Structure and Responsibility, Operational Controls, Training, and Management Review. In addition, examples of implementation at the RHIC Project illustrate how BNL's premiere facility was able to demonstrate to interested parties that care had been taken to implement technological and administrative controls to minimize environmental impacts, while at the same time reduce the applicability of regulatory requirements to their operations

  6. [Resource support as the basis of projects for the prevention of violence and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keupp, Heiner

    2004-10-01

    Lastingly effective projects for the prevention of violence and addiction must ask which resources adolescents require for coping with their lives. A central criteria for a successful life is the creation of coherence in one's inner life and thus the basis for becoming capable of functioning in society. In earlier social eras, the readiness to take on ready-made identity packages was the central criteria for coping with life. Today, this depends on individual adaptation and identity work, and thus the capability for self-organisation, for "intentionality" or "embedding". Children and young people need "free spaces" in their worlds, in order to be able to outline themselves and to act formatively upon their everyday environment. The future prospects of adolescents depend upon their options for learning the "craft of freedom". Sustainable key qualifications for coping with life in globalised, digital capitalism must grasp education as a hard-headed process in which the subject's capacity for self-organisation is to be given optimal encouragement, so that the patchwork of their own identity can succeed as a self-determined creative project.

  7. The Help-line "Invito alla Vita": a new project for suicide prevention in Trentino region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma; Andreatta, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    "Invito alla Vita" is a community-based suicide prevention project that officially started in Trentino in late 2008. The project was promoted by the local Health Services, trying from the beginning to involve other community subjects, and has been working over five years and a half in different directions, particularly promoting a phone help-line. The aims of the Invito alla Vita (IaV) Help Line have been clear from the beginning: decrease the sense of loneliness, offer encouragement and support, promote engagement with health services, reduce stigma and prejudice. Contrary to popular misconceptions, talking with people about suicide will not increase suicide risk, neither will it induce patients to commit suicide.The volunteers involved in the IaV help-line offer people empathic listening without judgment and easy tips, to reduce loneliness, sadness and supply reassurance that other people care. In this study we tried to deepen our knowledges about the volunteers' motivations and necessities to use them for creating a better system of support: we realized indeed that continuous training and supervision, along with official awards given by community institutions, are basic factors to sustain the volunteers' motives to cooperate with the help line.

  8. Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evaluate a tailored knowledge-brokering approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji, a Pacific nation challenged by increasingly high rates of obesity and concomitant NCDs. Methods The TROPIC project draws on the concept of ‘knowledge exchange’ between policy developers (individuals; organisations) and researchers to deliver a knowledge broking programme that maps policy environments, conducts workshops on evidence-informed policy making, supports the development of evidence-informed policy briefs, and embeds evidence-informed policy making into organisational culture. Recruitment of government and nongovernment organisational representatives will be based on potential to: develop policies relevant to obesity, reach broad audiences, and commit to resourcing staff and building a culture that supports evidence-informed policy development. Workshops will increase awareness of both obesity and policy cycles, as well as develop participants’ skills in accessing, assessing and applying relevant evidence to policy briefs. The knowledge-broking team will then support participants to: 1) develop evidence-informed policy briefs that are both commensurate with national and organisational plans and also informed by evidence from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project and elsewhere; and 2) collaborate with participating organisations to embed evidence-informed policy making structures and processes. This knowledge broking initiative will be evaluated via

  9. Interdisciplinary Approach to Fall Prevention in a High-Risk Inpatient Pediatric Population: Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Kendra E; Sikes, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    Within a tertiary care pediatric medical center, the largest number of inpatient falls (8.84 falls per 1,000 patient days) occurred within a 14-bed rehabilitation/transitional care unit between February and September 2009. An interdisciplinary fall prevention program, called "Red Light, Green Light," was developed to better educate all staff and family members to ensure safety of transfers and ambulation of children with neurological impairments. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an interdisciplinary pediatric fall prevention program to reduce total falls and falls with family members present in this population. Preintervention 2009 data and longitudinal data from 2010-2014 were obtained from retrospective review of event/incident reports. This quality improvement project was based on inpatient pediatric admissions to a rehabilitation care unit accommodating children with neurological impairments. Data extraction included: total falls, falls with caregiver (alone versus staff versus family), type of falls, and falls by diagnosis. Descriptive statistics were obtained on outcome measures; chi-square statistics were calculated on preintervention and postintervention comparisons. Total falls decreased steadily from 8.84 falls per 1,000 patient days in 2009 to 1.79 falls per 1,000 patient days in 2014 (χ12=3.901, P=.048). Falls with family members present decreased 50% postintervention. (χ12=6.26, P=.012). Limitations included unit size nearly doubled postintervention, event reporting changed to both uncontrolled and controlled therapy falls (safely lowering patient to bed, chair, or floor), and enhanced reporting increased numbers of postintervention falls. The Red Light, Green Light program has resulted in reductions in overall fall rates, falls with family members present, increased staff collaboration, heightened staff and family safety awareness, and a safer environment for patients at high risk for neurological or musculoskeletal impairments

  10. Is Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND) an evidence-based drug and violence prevention program? A review and reappraisal of the evaluation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M

    2014-08-01

    This paper critically reviews the published evidence pertaining to Project Towards No Drug Abuse (Project TND). Publications from seven evaluation studies of Project TND are reviewed, and the results from these are discussed as related to the following outcomes: main effects on the use of cigarettes, alcohol and marijuana; main effects on the use of "hard drugs," defined in the evaluations as cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, inhalants, ecstasy and other drugs (e.g., depressants, PCP, steroids and heroin); subgroup and interaction analyses of drug use; and violence-related behaviors. Very few main effects have been found for cigarette, alcohol and marijuana use in the Project TND evaluations. While studies do report main effects for hard drug use, these findings are subject to numerous threats to validity and may be attributable to the data analyses employed. Similarly, while isolated subgroup and interaction effects were found for alcohol use among baseline nonusers and some violence-related behaviors in the early Project TND evaluations, these findings have not been replicated in more recent studies and may result from multiple comparisons between study conditions. In conclusion, there is little evidence to support the assertion that Project TND is an effective drug or violence prevention program. The broader implications of these findings for prevention science are discussed and suggestions are made as to how the quality of research in the field might be improved.

  11. Multicenter Quality Improvement Project to Prevent Sternal Wound Infections in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Cathy; Taylor, Richard; Son, Minnette; Taeed, Roozbeh; Jacobs, Marshall L; Kane, Lauren; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Husain, S Adil

    2017-07-01

    Children undergoing cardiac surgery are at risk for sternal wound infections (SWIs) leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Single-center quality improvement (QI) initiatives have demonstrated decreased infection rates utilizing a bundled approach. This multicenter project was designed to assess the efficacy of a protocolized approach to decrease SWI. Pediatric cardiac programs joined a collaborative effort to prevent SWI. Programs implemented the protocol, collected compliance data, and provided data points from local clinical registries using Society of Thoracic Surgery Congenital Heart Surgery Database harvest-compliant software or from other registries. Nine programs prospectively collected compliance data on 4,198 children. Days between infections were extended from 68.2 days (range: 25-82) to 130 days (range: 43-412). Protocol compliance increased from 76.7% (first quarter) to 91.3% (final quarter). Ninety (1.9%) children developed an SWI preprotocol and 64 (1.5%) postprotocol, P = .18. The 657 (15%) delayed sternal closure patients had a 5% infection rate with 18 (5.7%) in year 1 and 14 (4.3%) in year 2 P = .43. Delayed sternal closure patients demonstrated a trend toward increased risk for SWI of 1.046 for each day the sternum remained open, P = .067. Children who received appropriately timed preop antibiotics developed less infections than those who did not, 1.9% versus 4.1%, P = .007. A multicenter QI project to reduce pediatric SWIs demonstrated an extension of days between infections and a decrease in SWIs. Patients who received preop antibiotics on time had lower SWI rates than those who did not.

  12. Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Multisite Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 2 - Demonstration projects using individualized and group training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two demonstration projects were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive training program for carpenters. This training was paired with audiometry and counseling and a survey of attitudes and beliefs in hearing loss prevention. All participants received hearing tests, multimedia instruction on occupational noise exposure/hearing loss, and instruction and practice in using a diverse selection of hearing protection devices (HPDs. A total of 103 apprentice carpenters participated in the Year 1 training, were given a large supply of these HPDs, and instructions on how to get additional free supplies if they ran out during the 1-year interval between initial and follow-up training. Forty-two participants responded to the survey a second time a year later and completed the Year 2 training. Significant test-retest differences were found between the pre-training and the post-training survey scores. Both forms of instruction (individual versus group produced equivalent outcomes. The results indicated that training was able to bring all apprentice participants up to the same desired level with regard to attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions to use hearing protection properly. It was concluded that the health communication models used to develop the educational and training materials for this effort were extremely effective.

  14. Amoco-US Environmental Protection Agency, pollution prevention project, Yorktown, Virginia: Surface water data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloo, S.

    1991-08-01

    The report summarizes the surface water sampling program at the Amoco Refinery at Yorktown, Virginia. This was undertaken as a part of the joint project between Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to review pollution prevention alternatives at a petroleum refinery. The surface water data provides a snapshot of surface water pollutant generation and discharge from the refinery. Different process units contribute to the total wastewater flow of 460 GPM in the refinery. Water in the ditch system, which is non-process water, is free of organic contamination. Oil and grease, phenols, ammonia and sulfides are the significant components measured in the process wastewater. The concentrations of organics in most water streams leaving the individual process units are relatively low, in the 1-5 parts per million (ppm) range. A few individual streams such as the crude desalter brine and tank water draws have high pollutant loadings. Concentrations of metals in the refinery wastewater are very low. The wastewater treatment plant is very effective in reducing the pollutant loading in the water with overall removal efficiencies greater than 99% for most organics and inorganics

  15. Environmental restoration program pollution prevention checklist guide for the evaluation of alternatives project phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Evaluation of alternative studies determine what decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) alternatives are presented to regulators for facility and site cleanup. A key consideration in this process is the waste to be generated. Minimizing the volume and toxicity of this waste will ultimately contribute to the selection of the best clean-up option. The purpose of this checklist guide is to assist the user with incorporating pollution prevention/waste minimization (PP/WM) in all Evaluation of Alternatives (EV) phase projects of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program. This guide will assist users with documenting PP/WM activities for technology transfer and reporting requirements. Automated computer screens will be created from the checklist data to help users implement and evaluate waste reduction. Users can then establish numerical performance measures to measure progress in planning, training, self-assessments, field implementation, documentation, and technology transfer. Cost savings result as users train and assess themselves, eliminating expensive process waste assessments and audit teams

  16. Preventing diarrhoea with household ceramic water filters: assessment of a pilot project in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon M

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to prevent diarrhoea in a rural community in central Bolivia, an international non-governmental organization implemented a pilot project to improve drinking water quality using gravity-fed, household-based, ceramic water filters. We assessed the performance of the filters by conducting a five-month randomized controlled trial among all 60 households in the pilot community. Water filters eliminated thermotolerant (faecal) coliforms from almost all intervention households and significantly reduced turbidity, thereby improving water aesthetics. Most importantly, the filters were associated with a 45.3% reduction in prevalence of diarrhoea among the study population (p = 0.02). After adjustment for household clustering and repeated episodes in individuals and controlling for age and baseline diarrhoea, prevalence of diarrhoea among the intervention group was 51% lower than controls, though the protective effect was only borderline significant (OR 0.49, 95% CI: 0.24, 1.01; p = 0.05). A follow-up survey conducted approximately 9 months after deployment of the filters found 67% being used regularly, 13% being used intermittently, and 21% not in use. Water samples from all regularly used filters were free of thermotolerant coliforms.

  17. The television, school, and family smoking prevention and cessation project. VIII. Student outcomes and mediating variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flay, B R; Miller, T Q; Hedeker, D; Siddiqui, O; Britton, C F; Brannon, B R; Johnson, C A; Hansen, W B; Sussman, S; Dent, C

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the student outcomes of a large-scale, social-influences-based, school and media-based tobacco use prevention and cessation project in Southern California. The study provided an experimental comparison of classroom delivery with television delivery and the combination of the two in a 2 x 2 plus 1 design. Schools were randomly assigned to conditions. Control groups included "treatment as usual" and an "attention control" with the same outcome expectancies as the treatment conditions. Students were surveyed twice in grade 7 and once in each of grades 8 and 9. The interventions occurred during grade 7. We observed significant effects on mediating variables such as knowledge and prevalence estimates, and coping effort. The knowledge and prevalence estimates effects decayed partially but remained significant up to a 2-year follow-up. The coping effort effect did not persist at follow-ups. There were significant main effects of both classroom training and TV programming on knowledge and prevalence estimates and significant interactions of classroom and TV programming on knowledge (negative), disapproval of parental smoking, and coping effort. There were no consistent program effects on refusal/self-efficacy, smoking intentions, or behavior. Previous reports demonstrated successful development and pilot testing of program components and measures and high acceptance of the program by students and parents. The lack of behavioral effects may have been the result of imperfect program implementation or low base rates of intentions and behavior.

  18. A Mediation Analysis of a Tobacco Prevention Program for Adolescents in India: How Did Project MYTRI Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Melissa Harrell; Perry, Cheryl L.; Smolenski, Derek; Arora, Monika; Reddy, K. Srinath

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of a mediation analysis of Project MYTRI (Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives in India), a randomized, controlled trial of a multiple-component, school-based tobacco prevention program for sixth- to ninth-graders (n = 14,085) in Delhi and Chennai, India. A mediation analysis identifies "how"…

  19. Goal Attainment Scaling: A Primary Method of Treatment and Program Evaluation in Project SAIL - A Special Education Dropout Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Linda Hall; Thompson, John L.

    The manual discusses Project SAIL's (a special dropout prevention program) use of Goal Attainment Scaling as part of individualized education plans in the treatment of troubled adolescents and in overall program evaluation. The scaling is characterized as an explicit, respectful treatment contact through which the adolescent can learn to set…

  20. The TARGET project in Tuscany: the first disease management model of a regional project for the prevention of hip re-fractures in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscitelli, Prisco; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Nuti, Ranuccio; Rizzuti, Carla; Giorni, Loredano; Giovannini, Valtere; Metozzi, Alessia; Merlotti, Daniela

    2010-09-01

    The official inquiry on osteoporosis in Italy, promoted by the Italian Senate in 2002 concluded that proper preventive strategies should be adopted at regional level in order to prevent osteoporotic fractures. Tuscany is the first Italian region who has promoted an official program (the TARGET project) aimed to reduce osteoporotic fractures by ensuring adequate treatment to all people aged ≥65 years old who experience a hip fragility fracture. this paper provides information concerning the implementation of TARGET project in Tuscany, assuming that it may represent an useful model for similar experiences to be promoted in other Italian Regions and across Europe. we have examined the model proposed for the regional program, and we have particularly analyzed the in-hospital and post-hospitalization path of hip fractured patients aged >65 years old in Tuscany after the adoption of TARGET project by Tuscany healthcare system and during its ongoing start-up phase. orthopaedic surgeons have been gradually involved in the project and are increasingly fulfilling all the clinical prescriptions and recommendations provided in the project protocol. Different forms of cooperation between orthopaedic surgeons and other clinical specialists have been adopted at each hospital for the treatment of hip fractured elderly patients. GPs involvement needs to be fostered both at regional and local level. The effort of Tuscany region to cope with hip fractures suffered from elderly people must be acknowledged as an interesting way of addressing this critical health problem. Specific preventive strategies modelled on the Tuscany TARGET project should be implemented in other Italian regions.

  1. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  2. Inhibition of cAMP-Dependent PKA Activates β2-Adrenergic Receptor Stimulation of Cytosolic Phospholipase A2 via Raf-1/MEK/ERK and IP3-Dependent Ca2+ Signaling in Atrial Myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabbidi, M R; Ji, X; Maxwell, J T; Mignery, G A; Samarel, A M; Lipsius, S L

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported in atrial myocytes that inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) by laminin (LMN)-integrin signaling activates β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) stimulation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). The present study sought to determine the signaling mechanisms by which inhibition of PKA activates β2-AR stimulation of cPLA2. We therefore determined the effects of zinterol (0.1 μM; zint-β2-AR) to stimulate ICa,L in atrial myocytes in the absence (+PKA) and presence (-PKA) of the PKA inhibitor (1 μM) KT5720 and compared these results with atrial myocytes attached to laminin (+LMN). Inhibition of Raf-1 (10 μM GW5074), phospholipase C (PLC; 0.5 μM edelfosine), PKC (4 μM chelerythrine) or IP3 receptor (IP3R) signaling (2 μM 2-APB) significantly inhibited zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L in-PKA but not +PKA myocytes. Western blots showed that zint-β2-AR stimulation increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in-PKA compared to +PKA myocytes. Adenoviral (Adv) expression of dominant negative (dn) -PKCα, dn-Raf-1 or an IP3 affinity trap, each inhibited zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L in + LMN myocytes compared to control +LMN myocytes infected with Adv-βgal. In +LMN myocytes, zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L was enhanced by adenoviral overexpression of wild-type cPLA2 and inhibited by double dn-cPLA2S505A/S515A mutant compared to control +LMN myocytes infected with Adv-βgal. In-PKA myocytes depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores by 5 μM thapsigargin failed to inhibit zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L via cPLA2. However, disruption of caveolae formation by 10 mM methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibited zint-β2-AR stimulation of ICa,L in-PKA myocytes significantly more than in +PKA myocytes. We conclude that inhibition of PKA removes inhibition of Raf-1 and thereby allows β2-AR stimulation to act via PKCα/Raf-1/MEK/ERK1/2 and IP3-mediated Ca2+ signaling to stimulate cPLA2 signaling within caveolae. These findings may be relevant to the remodeling of

  3. 76 FR 28437 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-17

    ... Preventive Services for Older Adults SIP11-045, and Measuring Impact of Multi-Component Interventions to Prevent Older Adult Falls and Assessing Sustainability and Scalability, SIP 11-046, Panel D,'' initial... SIP11-045, and Measuring Impact of Multi- Component Interventions to Prevent Older Adult Falls and...

  4. Violence prevention in schools: Resilience promotion in the framework of a European practice research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Rauh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the theoretical background, design and evaluation results of the international practice research project Strong implementing strategies of violence prevention in schools by means of resilience promotion. After presenting the results from the quantitative and qualitative results briefly, success factors for the implementation of a prevention strategy are highlighted. Este artigo apresenta o quadro teórico, a conceção e a avaliação dos resultados do projeto internacional Strong de investigação prática no que à implementação de estratégias de prevenção da violência nas escolas diz respeito através da promoção da resiliência. Após a apresentação breve dos resultados quantitativos e qualitativos, serão realçados os fatores de sucesso de uma estratégia de prevenção. En este artículo se presenta el marco teórico, el diseño y la evaluación de los resultados del proyecto internacional de investigación práctica Strong de la implementación de estrategias para prevenir la violencia en las escuelas mediante la promoción de la resiliencia. Después de la breve presentación de los resultados cuantitativos y cualitativos se destacarán los factores de éxito de una estrategia de prevención. Cet article présente le cadre théorique, la conception et l'évaluation des résultats du projet international de recherche pratique Strong dans la mise en œuvre de stratégies visant à prévenir la violence dans les écoles préoccupations en favorisant la résilience. Après la brève présentation des résultats quantitatifs et qualitatifs seront mis en évidence les facteurs de réussite d'une stratégie de prévention

  5. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, Kalesita F; Moodie, Marj M; Mavoa, Helen M; Pomana, Siosifa; Schultz, Jimaima T; Swinburn, Boyd A

    2011-05-09

    The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP) conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents) to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider than the target group), but the dose and frequency of activities were

  6. Process evaluation of a community-based adolescent obesity prevention project in Tonga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pomana Siosifa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rising burden of obesity in Tonga is alarming. The promotion of healthy behaviours and environments requires immediate urgent action and a multi-sectoral approach. A three-year community based study titled the Ma'alahi Youth Project (MYP conducted in Tonga from 2005-2008 aimed to increase the capacity of the whole community (schools, churches, parents and adolescents to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity and to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity amongst youth and their families. This paper reflects on the process evaluation for MYP, against a set of Best Practice Principles for community-based obesity prevention. Methods MYP was managed by the Fiji School of Medicine. A team of five staff in Tonga were committed to planning, implementation and evaluation of a strategic plan, the key planks of which were developed during a two day community workshop. Intervention activities were delivered in villages, churches and schools, on the main island of Tongatapu. Process evaluation data covering the resource utilisation associated with all intervention activities were collected, and analysed by dose, frequency and reach for specific strategies. The action plan included three standard objectives around capacity building, social marketing and evaluation; four nutrition; two physical activity objectives; and one around championing key people as role models. Results While the interventions included a wide mix of activities straddling across all of these objectives and in both school and village settings, there was a major focus on the social marketing and physical activity objectives. The intervention reach, frequency and dose varied widely across all activities, and showed no consistent patterns. Conclusions The adolescent obesity interventions implemented as part of the MYP program comprised a wide range of activities conducted in multiple settings, touched a broad spectrum of the population (wider

  7. HIV prevention costs and program scale: data from the PANCEA project in five low and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Nicci

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic theory and limited empirical data suggest that costs per unit of HIV prevention program output (unit costs will initially decrease as small programs expand. Unit costs may then reach a nadir and start to increase if expansion continues beyond the economically optimal size. Information on the relationship between scale and unit costs is critical to project the cost of global HIV prevention efforts and to allocate prevention resources efficiently. Methods The "Prevent AIDS: Network for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis" (PANCEA project collected 2003 and 2004 cost and output data from 206 HIV prevention programs of six types in five countries. The association between scale and efficiency for each intervention type was examined for each country. Our team characterized the direction, shape, and strength of this association by fitting bivariate regression lines to scatter plots of output levels and unit costs. We chose the regression forms with the highest explanatory power (R2. Results Efficiency increased with scale, across all countries and interventions. This association varied within intervention and within country, in terms of the range in scale and efficiency, the best fitting regression form, and the slope of the regression. The fraction of variation in efficiency explained by scale ranged from 26% – 96%. Doubling in scale resulted in reductions in unit costs averaging 34.2% (ranging from 2.4% to 58.0%. Two regression trends, in India, suggested an inflection point beyond which unit costs increased. Conclusion Unit costs decrease with scale across a wide range of service types and volumes. These country and intervention-specific findings can inform projections of the global cost of scaling up HIV prevention efforts.

  8. Longitudinal and postural changes of blood pressure predict dementia: the Malmö Preventive Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Hannes; Nägga, Katarina; Nilsson, Erik D; Melander, Olle; Minthon, Lennart; Bachus, Erasmus; Fedorowski, Artur; Magnusson, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The role of blood pressure (BP) changes in dementia is debatable. We aimed to analyse how resting and postural BP changes relate to incident dementia over a long-term follow-up. In the prospective population-based Malmö Preventive Project, 18,240 study participants (mean age: 45 ± 7 years, 63% male) were examined between 1974 and 1992 with resting and standing BP measurement, and re-examined between 2002 and 2006 at mean age of 68 ± 6 years with resting BP. A total of 428 participants (2.3%) were diagnosed with dementia through Dec 31, 2009. The association of resting and postural BP changes with risk of dementia was studied using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models controlling for traditional risk factors. Diastolic BP (DBP) decrease on standing indicated higher risk of dementia [Hazard ratio (HR) per 10 mmHg: 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.44, p = 0.036], which was mainly driven by increased risk in normotensive individuals. Higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP at re-examination was associated with lower risk of dementia (HR per 10 mmHg: 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.99, p = 0.011; and 0.87; 0.78-0.96, p = 0.006, respectively). Extreme decrease in SBP/DBP between baseline and re-examination (4th quartile; -7 ± 12/-15 ± 7 mmHg, respectively) indicated higher risk of dementia (HR 1.46; 95% CI 1.11-1.93, p = 0.008, and 1.54; 95% CI 1.14-2.08, p = 0.005; respectively) compared with reference group characterised by pronounced BP increase over the same period (1st quartile; +44 ± 13/+15 ± 7 mmHg). Diastolic BP decrease on standing in the middle age, decline in BP between middle-and advanced age, and lower BP in advanced age are independent risk factors of developing dementia.

  9. Heat and health in Antwerp under climate change: Projected impacts and implications for prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Martinez, Gerardo; Diaz, Julio; Hooyberghs, Hans

    2018-01-01

    Background Excessive summer heat is a serious environmental health problem in several European cities. Heat-related mortality and morbidity is likely to increase under climate change scenarios without adequate prevention based on locally relevant evidence. Methods We modelled the urban climate...... climate, and the calibration of existing prevention activities in light of locally relevant evidence....

  10. Smoking Cessation and Relapse Prevention among Undergraduate Students: A Pilot Demonstration Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Jim; Hoffmann, Anne

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of college students' tobacco use is widely recognized, but successful cessation and relapse-prevention programs for these smokers have drawn little attention. The authors, who explored the feasibility of training peers to lead cessation and relapse-prevention programs for undergraduates, found a quit rate of 88.2%, suggesting that…

  11. A coordinated school health approach to obesity prevention among Appalachian youth: the Winning with Wellness Pilot Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetzina, Karen E; Dalton, William T; Lowe, Elizabeth F; Azzazy, Nora; VonWerssowetz, Katrina M; Givens, Connie; Pfortmiller, Deborah T; Stern, H Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been an increasing problem in the United States, especially in rural areas. Effective prevention approaches are needed. This article describes the development, implementation, effectiveness, feasibility, and sustainability of a school-based obesity prevention pilot project, Winning with Wellness. The program was based on the coordinated school health model and included a community-based participatory research approach aimed at promoting healthy eating and physical activity in a rural Appalachian elementary school. Findings from this preliminary project revealed improvements in nutrition offerings and increased physical activity during the school day. In addition, the program was found to be acceptable to teachers, successfully implemented utilizing both existing and newly developed resources, and sustainable as evidenced in continued practice and expansion to other area schools.

  12. "Just dreaming of them": The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Oezdemir, Umut C; Schlinzig, Eliza; Groll, Anna; Hupp, Elena; Hellenschmidt, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    The Berlin Project for Primary Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse by Juveniles (PPJ) offers diagnostic and therapeutic help to 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for the prepubescent and/or early pubescent body of children and who apply for treatment on a voluntary basis. The project goal is to prevent primary or recurrent child sexual abuse as well as primary or recurrent use of child abuse images. Treatment aims to enable affected juveniles to obtain control over their conflictual sexual behaviors. In the present article, the origin of the PPJ; its main approach, including the conception of a media campaign; as well as results from the first year of a three-year study are presented. Further, initial characterizations of juveniles taking part in the project for the first 12 months are provided. The results confirmed that the group of 12-to-18-year-old juveniles with a sexual preference for prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors exists as a target group for primary preventive measures and that they can be assessed for their sexual preferences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of optimizing prevention in patients with coronary heart disease: the EUROASPIRE III health economics project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smedt, Delphine; Kotseva, Kornelia; De Bacquer, Dirk; Wood, David; De Backer, Guy; Dallongeville, Jean; Seppo, Lehto; Pajak, Andrzej; Reiner, Zeljko; Vanuzzo, Diego; Georgiev, Borislav; Gotcheva, Nina; Annemans, Lieven

    2012-11-01

    The EUROASPIRE III survey indicated that the guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention are poorly implemented in patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD). The purpose of this health economic project was to assess the potential clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of optimizing cardiovascular prevention in eight EUROASPIRE III countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Finland, France, Italy, Poland, and the U.K.). METHODS AND RESULTS The individual risk for subsequent cardiovascular events was estimated, based on published Framingham equations. Based on the EUROASPIRE III data, the type of suboptimal prevention, if any, was identified for each individual, and the effects of optimized tailored prevention (smoking cessation, diet and exercise, better management of elevated blood pressure and/or LDL-cholesterol) were estimated. Costs of prevention and savings of avoided events were based on country-specific data. A willingness to pay threshold of €30,000/quality-adjusted life year (QALY) was used. The robustness of the results was validated by sensitivity analyses. Overall, the cost-effectiveness analyses for the eight countries showed mainly favourable results with an average incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of €12,484 per QALY. Only in the minority of patients at the lowest risk for recurrent events, intensifying preventive therapy seems not cost-effective. Also, the single impact of intensified cholesterol control seems less cost-effective, possibly because their initial 2-year risk was already fairly low, hence the room for improvement is rather limited. These results underscore the societal value of optimizing prevention in most patients with established CHD, but also highlight the need for setting priorities towards patients more at risk and the need for more studies comparing intensified prevention with usual care in these patients.

  14. Balancing between feasibility and relationship : Interventions to prevent dysfunctionality of conflict in public private partnership projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lousberg, L.H.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that there are many bottle-necks in Public Private Partnership (PPP) Projects in Dutch spatial development. Due to the specific properties of Public Private Partnerships, these bottle-necks can lead to dysfunctional conflicts which are damaging the project. Hence the question is: how

  15. Sibanye Methods for Prevention Packages Program Project Protocol: Pilot Study of HIV Prevention Interventions for Men Who Have Sex With Men in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaghten, Ad; Kearns, Rachel; Siegler, Aaron J; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Stephenson, Rob; Baral, Stefan D; Brookmeyer, Ron; Yah, Clarence S; Lambert, Andrew J; Brown, Benjamin; Rosenberg, Eli; Blalock Tharp, Mondie; de Voux, Alex; Beyrer, Chris; Sullivan, Patrick S

    2014-10-16

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention intervention programs and related research for men who have sex with men (MSM) in the southern African region remain limited, despite the emergence of a severe epidemic among this group. With a lack of understanding of their social and sexual lives and HIV risks, and with MSM being a hidden and stigmatized group in the region, optimized HIV prevention packages for southern African MSM are an urgent public health and research priority. The objective of the Sibanye Health Project is to develop and evaluate a combination package of biomedical, behavioral, and community-level HIV prevention interventions and services for MSM in South Africa. The project consists of three phases: (1) a comprehensive literature review and summary of current HIV prevention interventions (Phase I), (2) agent-based mathematical modeling of HIV transmission in southern African MSM (Phase II), and (3) formative and stigma-related qualitative research, community engagement, training on providing health care to MSM, and the pilot study (Phase III). The pilot study is a prospective one-year study of 200 men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. The study will assess a package of HIV prevention services, including condom and condom-compatible lubricant choices, risk-reduction counseling, couples HIV testing and counseling, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for eligible men, and non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis for men with a high risk exposure. The pilot study will begin in October 2014. Preliminary results from all components but the pilot study are available. We developed a literature review database with meta-data extracted from 3800 documents from 67 countries. Modeling results indicate that regular HIV testing and promotion of condom use can significantly impact new HIV infections among South African MSM, even in the context of high coverage of early treatment of HIV-positive men and high coverage of PrEP for at-risk HIV

  16. The first results of pilot project on combined preventive suplementation of iodine- and iron deficiency conditions in Tyumen region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G V Sharuho

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008–2010 pilot project were realized in Tyumen region on combined preventive maintenance iodine deficiency and iron deficiency conditions, within the framework of which children from pilot of the territory got feeding, enriched premixes of the iodine and ferric while checking group has formed the children, getting monoprevention iodized salt. In study were examined 467 children. Frequency of the goiter on ultrasonography in pilot territory fell from 19.8 to 6.4%, in checking from 12.5 to 10.1%. In group teenager on background combined micronutrient preventive maintenance frequency tests ferritin less 15 mcg/l fell for 76 weeks in four times (p = 0.000, herewith average factors in 2010 above, than in 2008 (p = 0.114. In group teenager checking territory on background monoprevention frequency of the lowered tests ferritin more, than in group on background of the combined preventive maintenance in 2 times (p = 0.004, improvements for period of the study is not revealed.Dynamics indices of iodine deficiency conditions on background of the combined preventive maintenance and monoprevention confirms greater efficiency of the simultaneous using the products fortifications iodine and iron. Shown efficiency micronutrient preventive maintenances of the latent deficit ferric fortifications bread.

  17. Neomycin inhibits PDGF-induced IP3 formation and DNA synthesis but not PDGF-stimulated uptake of inorganic phosphate in C3H/10T1/2 fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassbotn, F S; Langeland, N; Holmsen, H

    1990-09-01

    Porcine PDGF was found to increase [3H]inositol trisphosphate, [3H]thymidine incorporation and 32P-labelling of polyphosphoinositides in C3H/10T1/2 Cl 8 fibroblasts. These responses to PDGF stimulation were all inhibited by 5 mM neomycin, a polycationic aminoglycoside formerly known to inhibit polyphosphoinositide turnover. PDGF also markedly increased the cellular uptake of inorganic [32P]Pi. This response of PDGF was not inhibited by neomycin (5 mM). Thus, neomycin inhibited PDGF-induced IP3 formation, 32P-labelling of polyphosphoinositides and DNA synthesis, but not cellular uptake of inorganic phosphate. These effects of neomycin suggest a bifurcation of the initial part of the PDGF-induced signal transduction, separating at the receptor level or before phospholipase C activation.

  18. The study of KBP of road construction workers of highway AIDS prevention project before and after intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Dong, Si-Ping; Gao, Guang-Ming; Fan, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Zong-Jiu; Fang, Peng-Qian

    2013-10-01

    To get scientific basis for further health education through the research of the road construction workers' KBP before and after the interventions of highway AIDS prevention project. Multi-stage random sampling method was employeed to select workers of 8 sites from 14 sites along highway to investigate their AIDS knowledge, belief and performance (KBP) before and after highway AIDS prevention project. Over 90% of the investigated workers had ever heard about AIDS, and the non-skilled workers of lower educational level improved more after intervention. The correct answer rate of the three transmitting ways of AIDS of drivers which is the focused group of highway before and after intervention had the obvious statistical significance (Proad construction workers is effective and further health education of HIV prevention should be carried out among the road construction workers to improve their knowledge and awareness of avoiding the high-risk behaviors. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Outcome results for the Ma'alahi Youth Project, a Tongan community-based obesity prevention programme for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotu, K F; Millar, L; Mavoa, H; Kremer, P; Moodie, M; Snowdon, W; Utter, J; Vivili, P; Schultz, J T; Malakellis, M; McCabe, M P; Roberts, G; Swinburn, B A

    2011-11-01

    Tonga has a very high prevalence of obesity with steep increases during youth, making adolescence a critical time for obesity prevention. The Ma'alahi Youth Project, the Tongan arm of the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities project, was a 3-year, quasi-experimental study of community-based interventions among adolescents in three districts on Tonga's main island (Tongatapu) compared to the island of Vava'u. Interventions focused mainly on capacity building, social marketing, education and activities promoting physical activity and local fruit and vegetables. The evaluation used a longitudinal design (mean follow-up duration 2.4 years). Both intervention and comparison groups showed similar large increases in overweight and obesity prevalence (10.1% points, n = 815; 12.6% points, n = 897 respectively). Apart from a small relative decrease in percentage body fat in the intervention group (-1.5%, P Youth Project had no impact on the large increase in prevalence of overweight and obesity among Tongan adolescents. Community-based interventions in such populations with high obesity prevalence may require more intensive or longer interventions, as well as specific strategies targeting the substantial socio-cultural barriers to achieving a healthy weight. © 2011 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Project STYLE: a multisite RCT for HIV prevention among youths in mental health treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry K; Hadley, Wendy; Donenberg, Geri R; DiClemente, Ralph J; Lescano, Celia; Lang, Delia M; Crosby, Richard; Barker, David; Oster, Danielle

    2014-03-01

    The study examined the efficacy of family-based and adolescent-only HIV prevention programs in decreasing HIV risk and improving parental monitoring and sexual communication among youths in mental health treatment. A randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 721 adolescents (ages 13-18 years) and their caregivers from mental health settings in three U.S. cities were randomly assigned to one of three theory-based, structured group interventions: family-based HIV prevention, adolescent-only HIV prevention, and adolescent-only health promotion. Interventions were delivered during an all-day workshop. Assessments were completed at baseline and three months postintervention. Compared with those in the health intervention, adolescents in the HIV prevention interventions reported fewer unsafe sex acts (adjusted rate ratio=.49, p=.01), greater condom use (adjusted relative change=59%, p=.01), and greater likelihood of avoiding sex (adjusted odds ratio=1.44, p=.05). They also showed improved HIV knowledge (pprevention interventions reduced sexual risk behavior over three months in a large, diverse sample of youths in mental health treatment and that the family-based intervention improved parental monitoring and communication with teens about sex. These interventions show promise.

  1. 77 FR 31358 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... announced below concerns Research to Enhance Community- Based Fall Prevention among Older Adults, SIP12-058, and Developing a Compendium of Measures and Questions to Assess Mobility: A Focus on Older Adult... Older Adults, SIP12-058, and Developing a Compendium of Measures and Questions to Assess Mobility: A...

  2. The PARAChute Project: Remote Monitoring of Posture and Gait for Fall Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, David J.; Duchêne, Jacques; Charpillet, François; Saboune, Jamal; Michel-Pellegrino, Valérie; Amoud, Hassan; Doussot, Michel; Paysant, Jean; Boyer, Anne; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2007-12-01

    Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths). This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.

  3. The PARAChute Project: Remote Monitoring of Posture and Gait for Fall Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Boyer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Falls in the elderly are a major public health problem due to both their frequency and their medical and social consequences. In France alone, more than two million people aged over 65 years old fall each year, leading to more than 9 000 deaths, in particular in those over 75 years old (more than 8 000 deaths. This paper describes the PARAChute project, which aims to develop a methodology that will enable the detection of an increased risk of falling in community-dwelling elderly. The methods used for a remote noninvasive assessment for static and dynamic balance assessments and gait analysis are described. The final result of the project has been the development of an algorithm for movement detection during gait and a balance signature extracted from a force plate. A multicentre longitudinal evaluation of balance has commenced in order to validate the methodologies and technologies developed in the project.

  4. Pressure ulcer prevention and healing using alternating pressure mattress at home: the PARESTRY project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaume, S; Marty, M

    2015-08-01

    Specialised pressure-relieving supports reduce or relieve the interface pressure between the skin and the support surface. The comparative effectiveness of dynamic support surfaces is debated. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of using an alternating pressure air mattress (APAM) on pressure ulcer (PU) incidence in patients receiving home-based care. A second aim was to determine the level of patient/family satisfaction with comfort and gain the views of the care team that used the APAM. The PARESTRY study was a prospective observational study conducted in patients with a high risk of PUs (Braden score prevention groups consisted of patients with no PU at baseline who were in bed for at least 20 hours a day. Patients at baseline with a category 3 or 4 PU or a category 1 or 2 PU in association with poor general health or end-of-life status were included in the secondary prevention group. All patients were laid on an APAM. The primary end point was the % of patients with a worsening skin condition in the pressure area (heel, sacrum, ischium) at day 90 or at the end of the study. The primary analysis was done on the full analysis set (patients included with at least a second assessment), using the last observation carried forward technique to handle missing data, at day 90. A 95% confidence interval was calculated. Analysis was performed on 92 patients (30 in primary prevention and 62 in secondary prevention). The average time spent in bed was 22.7 (SD 2.7) hours a day and 22.6 (SD 2.2) hours in the primary and secondary prevention groups, respectively. At baseline, in the secondary group, 77% of patients had a sacral PU, 63% a heel PU, 8% an ischial tuberosity PU and 45% a PU in another area, a number of patients having multiple PUs. In the primary prevention group, 63% (19/30) of patients dropped out of the study (5 were hospitalised, 9 died, 5 other causes). In the secondary prevention group, 61% (38/62) dropped out (7 were hospitalised, 23 died, 8

  5. Assessment of family history of substance abuse for preventive interventions with patients experiencing chronic pain: A quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestka, Elizabeth; Nash, Virginia; Evans, Michele; Cronin, Joan; Bee, Susan; King, Susan; Osborn, Kristine; Gehin, Jessica; Weis, Karen; Loukianova, Larissa

    2016-04-01

    This quality improvement project demonstrates that RN Care Managers, in a chronic pain programme, can assess for a family history of substance abuse in 5-10 min. Information informs treatment based on specific high risk criteria. Benefits include heightened awareness of the genetic and environmental risks associated with a family history of substance abuse, an opportunity to participate in motivational interventions to prevent or minimize consequences of substance use disorders, and likely substantial overall health-care cost savings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph; Meekers, Dominique; Adewuyi, Alfred

    2006-05-03

    In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo) Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1) discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2) awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3) condom use at last intercourse. Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01-2.16) times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49-3.25) as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and disseminate information on where to obtain condoms, are needed to reduce

  7. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and

  8. Assessment and Evaluation Report on a Pilot Project on Preventive School Maintenance in Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    In 2002, efforts started on formulating a maintenance policy for schools and other social service facilities in Eritrea. Since then, an appropriate policy and related implementation strategies have been further developed. In 2003, a specific pilot project was designed covering a number of schools...... of a school based approach to school maintenance are presented in the report....

  9. Integrating ergonomic aspects into research and development projects as a preventive strategy in the food industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Iben Posniak; Broberg, Ole

    1997-01-01

    As part of a national research and development programme for food technology it was formulated as a demand to applicants to describe the potential ergonomics impact of the research and development (R&D) projects. As the primary purpose of the research programme was to strengthen the Danish food...

  10. Multilevel perspectives on community intervention: an example from an Indo-US HIV prevention project in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schensul, Stephen L; Saggurti, Niranjan; Singh, Rajendra; Verma, Ravi K; Nastasi, Bonnie K; Mazumder, Papiya Guha

    2009-06-01

    This paper explores the meaning and applicability of multilevel interventions and the role of ethnography in identifying intervention opportunities and accounting for research design limitations. It utilizes as a case example the data and experiences from a 6-year, NIMH-funded, intervention to prevent HIV/STI among married men in urban poor communities in Mumbai, India. The experiences generated by this project illustrate the need for multilevel interventions to include: (1) ethnographically driven formative research to delineate appropriate levels, stakeholders and collaborators; (2) identification of ways to link interventions to the local culture and community context; (3) the development of a model of intervention that is sufficiently flexible to be consistently applied to different intervention levels using comparable culturally congruent concepts and approaches; (4) mechanisms to involve community residents, community based organizations and community-based institutions; and (5) approaches to data collection that can evaluate the impact of the project on multiple intersecting levels.

  11. Fifteen-year follow-up of smoking prevention effects in the North Karelia youth project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartiainen, E; Paavola, M; McAlister, A; Puska, P

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluated the long-term effects of a school- and community-based smoking prevention program in Finland. Four intervention schools from North Karelia and two control schools from another province were chosen for the evaluation. Students who received the intervention were taught to resist social pressures to smoke. The program began in 1978 with seventh-grade students and ran through 1980, with a 15-year follow-up. In North Karelia, a community-based smoking cessation program for adults was also carried out. Mean lifetime cigarette consumption was 22% lower among program subjects than among control subjects. Smoking and prevalence were lower up to the age of 21. Long-term smoking prevention effects can be achieved if a school-based program using a social influence model is combined with community and mass media interventions.

  12. Development of an effective communication strategy for the prevention of burns in children: the PRIUS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedri, S; Briguglio, E; Cedri, C; Masellis, A; Crenca, A; Pitidis, A

    2015-06-30

    This study has developed a learning kit for the prevention of domestic burns in childhood. The main objective was to trial an educational package for children (nursery and primary classes), for the prevention of burns, to be implemented through education in schools. The educational kit comprises posters, information leaflets, comic books, and pre and post education evaluation materials for school children, parents and teachers. Recipients of the preliminary study were the students of nine schools in the eight Italian cities where Burn Centers are located. In order to reach the target groups of children, it was necessary to identify the most effective communication strategy to convey the burn prevention message. For nursery school children, it was not possible to use tools with written texts alone, as they were not yet literate. Moreover, even for older children, it was necessary to find an attractive tool to catch their attention and interest, promoting the understanding and memorization of lessons learned. The most suitable means was found to be comic strips, allowing the messages to be conveyed through images as well as words. A total of 370 children (195 from nurseries and 175 from primary schools) participated in the trial of the educational kit. Overall, for every environment represented in the evaluation table, the ability to recognize the dangers among both the pre-school and primary school children increased significantly after the training activity. In conclusion, the educational kit has been positively assessed.

  13. Development of an effective communication strategy for the prevention of burns in children: the PRIUS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedri, S.; Briguglio, E.; Cedri, C.; Masellis, A.; Crenca, A.; Pitidis, A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study has developed a learning kit for the prevention of domestic burns in childhood. The main objective was to trial an educational package for children (nursery and primary classes), for the prevention of burns, to be implemented through education in schools. The educational kit comprises posters, information leaflets, comic books, and pre and post education evaluation materials for school children, parents and teachers. Recipients of the preliminary study were the students of nine schools in the eight Italian cities where Burn Centers are located. In order to reach the target groups of children, it was necessary to identify the most effective communication strategy to convey the burn prevention message. For nursery school children, it was not possible to use tools with written texts alone, as they were not yet literate. Moreover, even for older children, it was necessary to find an attractive tool to catch their attention and interest, promoting the understanding and memorization of lessons learned. The most suitable means was found to be comic strips, allowing the messages to be conveyed through images as well as words. A total of 370 children (195 from nurseries and 175 from primary schools) participated in the trial of the educational kit. Overall, for every environment represented in the evaluation table, the ability to recognize the dangers among both the pre-school and primary school children increased significantly after the training activity. In conclusion, the educational kit has been positively assessed. PMID:27252606

  14. The impact of a prevention delivery system on perceived social capital: the PROSPER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Ang, Patricia M; Greenberg, Mark T; Feinberg, Mark E; Spoth, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The current study examined the impact of the PROSPER delivery system for evidence-based prevention programs on multiple indicators of social capital in a rural and semi-rural community sample. Utilizing a randomized blocked design, 317 individuals in 28 communities across two states were interviewed at three time points over the course of 2.5 years. Bridging, linking, and the public life skills forms of social capital were assessed via community members' and leaders' reports on the perceptions of school functioning and the Cooperative Extension System, collaboration among organizations, communication and collaboration around youth problems, and other measures. Longitudinal mixed model results indicate significant improvements in some aspects of bridging and linking social capital in PROSPER intervention communities. Given the strength of the longitudinal and randomized research design, results advance prevention science by suggesting that community collaborative prevention initiatives can significantly impact community social capital in a rural and semi-rural sample. Future research should further investigate changes in social capital in different contexts and how changes in social capital relate to other intervention effects.

  15. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  16. A reanalysis of a behavioral intervention to prevent incident HIV infections: Including indirect effects in modeling outcomes of Project EXPLORE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Lisa A.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Kenny, David A.; Harel, Ofer

    2013-01-01

    Background Project EXPLORE -- a large-scale, behavioral intervention tested among men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for HIV infection --was generally deemed as ineffective in reducing HIV incidence. Using novel and more precise data analytic techniques we reanalyzed Project EXPLORE by including both direct and indirect paths of intervention effects. Methods Data from 4,296 HIV negative MSM who participated in Project EXPLORE, which included ten sessions of behavioral risk reduction counseling completed from 1999-2005, were included in the analysis. We reanalyzed the data to include parameters that estimate the overtime effects of the intervention on unprotected anal sex and the over-time effects of the intervention on HIV status mediated by unprotected anal sex simultaneously in a single model. Results We found the indirect effect of intervention on HIV infection through unprotected anal sex to be statistically significant up through 12 months post-intervention, OR=.83, 95% CI=.72-.95. Furthermore, the intervention significantly reduced unprotected anal sex up through 18 months post-intervention, OR=.79, 95% CI=.63-.99. Discussion Our results reveal effects not tested in the original model that offer new insight into the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention for reducing HIV incidence. Project EXPLORE demonstrated that when tested against an evidence-based, effective control condition can result in reductions in rates of HIV acquisition at one year follow-up. Findings highlight the critical role of addressing behavioral risk reduction counseling in HIV prevention. PMID:23245226

  17. Retrospective evaluation of Project Envision: A community mobilization pilot program to prevent sexual violence in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria

    2018-02-01

    Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  19. Suicide and attempted suicide: epidemiological surveillance as a crucial means of a local suicide prevention project in Trento's Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Napoli, Wilma Angela; Della Rosa, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization identifies suicide among the top 10 causes of death in many countries with an overall mortality rate of 16 per 100,000 inhabitants. Furthermore suicide attempts present a frequency 4-10 times greater than the suicidal events, representing also one of the main risk factors to lead to recurrent attempts of suicide. In 2008 the Autonomous Province of Trento launched a suicide prevention pogram called "Invitation to Life" which includes various interventions intended to counter the phenomenon of suicide in the region. Actually the epidemiological research upon the phenomenon of suicide in Trentino region is one of the main pillars of the project: it represents a fundamental requirement to identify risk and protective factors in the population in order to adopt more specific and effective preventive strategies. This article aims to present methods and instruments for epidemiological monitoring of suicide and attempted suicide which are applied in Trentino and to describe results after seven years from the beginning of the local prevention program "Invitation to life".

  20. The role of interpersonal communication in preventing unsafe abortion in communities: the dialogues for life project in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Allison; Drake, Jennifer Kidwell; Goodyear, Lorelei; Gopinath, C Y; Kaufman, Anne; Bhattarai, Sanju

    2011-03-01

    Legal, procedural, and institutional restrictions on safe abortion services-such as laws forbidding the practice or policies preventing donors from supporting groups who provide legal services-remain a major access barrier for women worldwide. However, even when abortion services are legal, women face social and cultural barriers to accessing safe abortion services and preventing unwanted pregnancy. Interpersonal communication interventions play an important role in overcoming these obstacles, including as part of broad educational- and behavioral-change efforts. This article presents results from an interpersonal communication behavior change pilot intervention, Dialogues for Life, undertaken in Nepal from 2004 to 2006, after abortion was legalized in 2002. The project aimed to encourage and enable women to prevent unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions and was driven by dialogue groups and select community events. The authors' results confirm that a dialogue-based interpersonal communication intervention can help change behavior and that this method is feasible in a low-resource, low-literacy setting. Dialogue groups play a key role in addressing sensitive and stigmatizing health issues such as unsafe abortion and in empowering women to negotiate for the social support they need when making decisions about their health.

  1. Effect of the long-term care prevention project on the motor functions and daily life activities of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yoshihiro; Sakuraba, Keisyoku; Kubota, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of the long-term care prevention project and develop an effective program. [Subjects] A total of 81 elderly people (age, 79 ± 5.1 years; height, 149.2 ± 9.2 cm; weight, 54.2 ± 11.4 kg). [Methods] Grip, knee extension muscular strength, 10 m walking speed, and Timed Up and Go time were measured for evaluation of motor functions, and the "Locomo 25", a 25-question risk assessment questionnaire, was used as the judgment criterion for evaluation of daily life activities, with measurements being taken at the beginning of the project and after three months. [Results] In the motor functions evaluation, significant differences were observed in 10 m walking speed, Timed Up and Go time, and knee extension strength. In the daily life activities evaluation, scores for pain, rising movement, standing movement, indoor walking, outdoor walking, and fear of falling were significantly reduced. In addition, a significant correlation was also observed between motor functions and daily life activities. [Conclusion] The result of this study indicated that the long-term care prevention project is effective in maintaining or improving muscular strength and mitigating pain in the elderly and that it is an effective program for maintaining daily life activities. We were also able to show that it would be effective to develop programs with a low exercise intensity that can be performed on a continuing by the elderly.

  2. Amoco/Environmental Protection Agency Pollution Prevention Project, Yorktown refinery. Refinery release inventory. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klee, H.; Kizier, G.J.; Baloo, S.; Hockman, E.L.; Couzens-Roberts, C.

    1992-07-01

    The report volume summarizes physical data obtained during a 2-year pollution prevention study of Amoco Oil Company's Yorktown Virginia Refinery. The study was jointly sponsored as a cooperative effort of Amoco Corporation and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. A multi-media sampling program was used to identify potential pollution sources within the Refinery. Sampling and analysis included air, surface water, groundwater, and solid waste data. Public perceptions about environmental issues of concern in the vicinity of the Refinery were also surveyed. The inventory showed that nearly 99 percent of the releases were airborne at the facility. Most of the remainder involved land disposal of solid wastes. Specific sources of major pollutants are identified

  3. Healthy outcomes for teens project: diabetes prevention through distributed interactive learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Darla M; Goss, David; Scherer, Jane; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen

    2011-03-01

    This study assessed whether distributed interactive learning via web-based modules and grounded in schema and social cognitive theory (treatment group, n = 101) would increase knowledge about diabetes prevention in adolescents from three middle schools to a greater extent than the control group (n = 80) and examined whether the school environment used to convey the education had an effect. The treatment group showed substantially greater increases in overall and individual modular content knowledge, with 72 voluntarily choosing to retake evaluations that significantly improved their scores. The treatment (t[3.8], β ≥ 0.30, P school, pull out from physical education, or health education curriculum) (t[3.41], β ≥ 0.24, P learning was more effective than its passive counterpart, and a more structured delivery enhanced knowledge, as did opportunities to self-regulate learning. Attention to these process components will facilitate effective interventions by educators in schools.

  4. Public health genomics and personalized prevention: lessons from the COGS project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Hall, A; Chowdhury, S; Dent, T; Pharoah, P D P; Burton, H

    2013-11-01

    Using the principles of public health genomics, we examined the opportunities and challenges of implementing personalized prevention programmes for cancer at the population level. Our model-based estimates indicate that polygenic risk stratification can potentially improve the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. However, compared with 'one-size-fits-all' screening programmes, personalized screening adds further layers of complexity to the organization of screening services and raises ethical, legal and social challenges. Before polygenic inheritance is translated into population screening strategy, evidence from empirical research and engagement with and education of the public and the health professionals are needed. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  5. [Prevention of drink driving at academic festivals: «Tú decides» project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malveiro, Jorge; de Jesus, Saul Neves; Viseo, Joao; Pechorro, Pedro; Pacheco, Eusébio; Lima-Rodríguez, Joaquín Salvador; Lima-Serrano, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among university students has reached worrying levels, its effects on driving being highly dangerous. This aspect emphasizes the need to develop prevention programs, intended to raise subjects' awareness about the effects of alcohol on driving. The aim of the present research is to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention program «Tú decides», implemented at the Algarve University during several students festivals, between 2010-2014. Quasi-experimental study, pre-post test without control group. A total of 5,079 participants were inquired. They were asked, at two different moments, before and after the measurement of the blood alcohol level and giving an information session with technical recommendations to prevent driving under alcohol effects. One factor ANOVA test used, in order to perform a mean comparison, as well as the Chi-square statistics, to perform a proportion comparison (p<.05). It was found that the intention to drive was lower at the second moment (42.1%) (χ(2)=2078.71; p=.000). This intention was influenced by blood alcohol level different levels (χ(2)=338.252; p=.000), gender (χ(2)=35.718; p=.000), age (χ(2)=62.805; p=.000) and professional situation of the participants (χ(2)=27.397; p=.001). We can affirm that the main objective of this intervention was achieved, since the participants followed the technical recommendations based on the blood alcohol level results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of Adolescent Problem Behavior: Longitudinal Impact of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the longitudinal impact of a curriculum-based positive youth development program, entitled the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes, on adolescent problem behavior in Hong Kong. Using a longitudinal randomized group design, six waves of data were collected from 19 experimental schools (n = 3,797 at Wave 1 in which students participated in the Project P.A.T.H.S. and 24 control schools (n = 4,049 at Wave 1. At each wave, students responded to questions asking about their current problem behaviors, including delinquency and use of different types of drugs, and their intentions of engaging in such behaviors in the future. Results based on individual growth curve modeling generally showed that the participants displayed lower levels of substance abuse and delinquent behavior than did the control students. Participants who regarded the program to be helpful also showed lower levels of problem behavior than did the control students. The present findings suggest that the Project P.A.T.H.S. is effective in preventing adolescent problem behavior in the junior secondary school years.

  7. Tachikawa project for prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder with polyunsaturated fatty acid (TPOP): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yutaka; Nishi, Daisuke; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Hamazaki, Kei; Matsumura, Kenta; Noguchi, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Hamazaki, Tomohito

    2013-01-05

    Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids after trauma might reduce subsequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To date, we have shown in an open trial that PTSD symptoms in critically injured patients can be reduced by taking omega-3 fatty acids, hypothesized to stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis. The primary aim of the present randomized controlled trial is to examine the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in the secondary prevention of PTSD following accidental injury, as compared with placebo. This paper describes the rationale and protocol of this trial. The Tachikawa Project for Prevention of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid (TPOP) is a double-blinded, parallel group, randomized controlled trial to assess whether omega-3 fatty acid supplementation can prevent PTSD symptoms among accident-injured patients consecutively admitted to an intensive care unit. We plan to recruit accident-injured patients and follow them prospectively for 12 weeks. Enrolled patients will be randomized to either the omega-3 fatty acid supplement group (1,470 mg docosahexaenoic acid and 147 mg eicosapentaenoic acid daily) or placebo group. Primary outcome is score on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). We will need to randomize 140 injured patients to have 90% power to detect a 10-point difference in mean CAPS scores with omega-3 fatty acid supplementation compared with placebo. Secondary measures are diagnosis of PTSD and major depressive disorder, depressive symptoms, physiologic response in the experiment using script-driven imagery and acoustic stimulation, serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor, health-related quality of life, resilience, and aggression. Analyses will be by intent to treat. The trial was initiated on December 13 2008, with 104 subjects randomized by November 30 2012. This study promises to be the first trial to provide a novel prevention strategy for PTSD among

  8. First NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention Project Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantonio, Ron

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this Annual Review was to present NASA plans and accomplishments that will impact the national aviation safety goal. NASA's WxAP Project focuses on developing the following products: (1) Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) technologies (displays, sensors, pilot decision tools, communication links, etc.); (2) Electronic Pilot Reporting (E-PIREPS) technologies; (3) Enhanced weather products with associated hazard metrics; (4) Forward looking turbulence sensor technologies (radar, lidar, etc.); (5) Turbulence mitigation control system designs; Attendees included personnel from various NASA Centers, FAA, National Weather Service, DoD, airlines, aircraft and pilot associations, industry, aircraft manufacturers and academia. Attendees participated in discussion sessions aimed at collecting aviation user community feedback on NASA plans and R&D activities. This CD is a compilation of most of the presentations presented at this Review.

  9. A proposed framework for conducting pollution prevention design assessments (P2DAs) on U.S. Department of Energy design projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorsey, J.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide a framework for project managers, engineers, and designers to integrate pollution prevention principles and features into DOE design projects. The framework suggested is referred to as the pollution prevention design assessment (P2DA). The P2DA is based on DOE's method for conducting pollution prevention opportunity assessments (PPOAs) on existing waste-generating operations, but the P2DA is modified because the facility or process it assesses does not physically exist during design. Before the P2DA framework is introduced in the manual, recommendations for establishing the P2DA team and budget are provided. Specific pollution prevention requirements and opportunities for each design stage as delineated in DOE Order 4700.1 Project Management System are also discussed and a sample format for drafting a P2DA report is provided in the appendix. The scope of this manual includes not only the P2DA framework, but also a background discussion of pollution prevention and related topics; the regulatory requirements mandating design for pollution prevention; the benefits and barriers of designing for pollution prevention; and the impact that pollution prevention and related environmental avoidance concepts have had on the engineering profession

  10. Evaluating the impact of a community developed collaborative project for the prevention of early childhood caries: the Healthy Smile Happy Child project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, Robert J; Edwards, Jeanette M; Brothwell, Douglas J; Yakiwchuk, Carol A; Bertone, Mary F; Mellon, Bernadette; Ward, Jennifer; Ellis, Marion; Hai-Santiago, Khalida; Lawrence, Herenia P; Moffatt, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) project, a community-developed initiative promoting early childhood oral health in Manitoba, Canada. Specific aims were to assess improvements in caregiver knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours relating to early childhood oral health, and the burden of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC). A serial cross-sectional study design was selected to contrast findings following the Healthy Smile Happy Child (HSHC) campaign in four communities with the previous baseline data. One community was a remote First Nation in northern Manitoba and another was a rural First Nation in southern Manitoba. The other two communities were urban centres, one of which was located in northern Manitoba. A community-development approach was adopted for the project to foster community solutions to address ECC. Goals of the HSHC program were to promote the project in each community, use existing community-based programs and services to deliver the oral health promotion and ECC prevention activities, and recruit and train natural leaders to assist in program development and to deliver the ECC prevention program. The HSHC coordinator worked with communities to develop a comprehensive list of potential strategies to address ECC. Numerous activities occurred in each community to engage members and increase their knowledge of early childhood oral health and ultimately lead them to adopt preventive oral health practices for their young children. Children under 71 months of age and their primary caregivers participated in this follow-up study. A -value ≤0.05 was statistically significant. 319 children (mean age 38.2±18.6 months) and their primary caregivers participated. Significant improvements in caregiver knowledge and attitudes were observed following the HSHC campaign, including that baby teeth are important (98.8%), that decay involving primary teeth can impact on health (94.3%), and the importance of a dental

  11. Lifestyle changes and prevention of metabolic syndrome in the Heart of New Ulm Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. VanWormer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior research has shown that unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk for developing a number of chronic diseases, but there are few studies examining how lifestyle changes impact metabolic syndrome. This study analyzed the association between two-year changes in key lifestyle risk metrics and incident metabolic syndrome in adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from metabolic syndrome free adults in the Heart of New Ulm Project (New Ulm, MN. The outcome was incident metabolic syndrome observed two years after baseline in 2009. The primary predictor was change in optimal lifestyle score based on four behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity. In the analytical sample of 1059 adults, 12% developed metabolic syndrome by 2011. Multivariable regression models (adjusted for baseline lifestyle score, age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes revealed that a two-year decrease in optimal lifestyle score was associated with significantly greater odds of incident metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.04; p < 0.001. This association was primarily driven by changes in obesity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and alcohol intake. As compared to improving poor lifestyle habits, maintaining a healthy lifestyle seemed to be most helpful in avoiding metabolic syndrome over the two-year study timeframe.

  12. Confronting structural violence in sex work: lessons from a community-led HIV prevention project in Mysore, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Elena; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Robert; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M; Fathima, Mary; Sreeram, S V; Hafeezur, Rahman Syed; O'Neil, John

    2011-01-01

    Evidence from community-led HIV prevention projects suggests that structural interventions may result in reduced rates of HIV and STIs. The complex relationship between empowerment and confronting stigma, discrimination and physical abuse necessitates further investigation into the impact that such interventions have on the personal risks for sex workers. This article aims to describe lived experiences of members from a sex worker's collective in Mysore, India and how they have confronted structural violence. The narratives highlight experiences of violence and the development and implementation of strategies that have altered the social, physical, and emotional environment for sex workers. Building an enabling environment was key to reducing personal risks inherent to sex work, emphasizing the importance of community-led structural interventions for sex workers in India.

  13. Marketing the 'Sex Check': evaluating recruitment strategies for a telephone-based HIV prevention project for gay and bisexual men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Michael B; Picciano, Joseph F; Roffman, Roger A; Swanson, Fred; Kalichman, Seth C

    2006-04-01

    Designing effective marketing and recruitment strategies for HIV prevention research requires attention to cultural relevance, logistical barriers, and perceived psychosocial barriers to accessing services. McGuire's communication/persuasion matrix (1985) guided our evaluation, with particular attention to success of each marketing "channel" (i.e., strategy) vis-à-vis the number of all callers, eligible callers, and enrolled callers, as well as reaching so-called "hard-to-serve" individuals. Nearly all channels offered success in reaching specific subgroups. Latinos responded favorably to posters, bisexuals responded favorably to paid media in an alternative (non-gay) publication, and precontemplators responded to referrals by family and friends. Although multiple recruitment strategies were used, three were crucial to the success of the project: (a) recruiters' presence in gay venues, (b) referrals by family and friends (snowball technique), and (c) paid advertisements in alternative (non-gay) local newspapers. Resource allocation and costs are also presented for each channel.

  14. Corruption and compliance: preventive legislations and policies in international business projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh PATHAK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an insight on the international phenomenon of corruption, dealing with its existence, and whether compliance is higher with Anti-Corruption laws or with corruption itself, resulting in anti-corruption laws being much less effective than the legislators intended it to be and the reasons for increasing demand worldwide for new governance standards and higher compliance controls and other effective anti-corruption laws and policies in light of rapid increase in corruption every year. This article further deals with the diagnosis and measures to deal with the cause of corruption – the short-comings in anti-corruption law – the reasons why corporations are willing to face continuing legal risks and adverse publicity but still indulge in corrupt practices and the extent of negative impact the prevailing levels of corruption ultimately have on international business and trade. Strict compliance controls are being introduced with increasing enforcement of anti-corruption laws internationally and nations have also started to focus on individual and corporate liability in cases of violation of anti-corruption laws, for both government and private organisations. In this context of far-reaching developments, whether European and South-east Asian Countries like India and International Business Organisations can act in ignorance or buck up and accept this trend, slowly and steadily moving towards a less corrupt nation and International business projects – if not towards a totally corruption free one, keeping in mind the growth of international trade and Commerce and its sustainability.

  15. Is a project needed to prevent urinary tract infection in patients admitted to spanish ICUs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Lerma, F; Olaechea Astigarraga, P; Nuvials, X; Gimeno, R; Catalán, M; Gracia Arnillas, M P; Seijas Betolaza, I; Palomar Martínez, M

    2018-02-06

    To analyze epidemiological data of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) in critically ill patients admitted to Spanish ICUs in order to assess the need of implementing a nationwide intervention program to reduce these infections. Non-intervention retrospective annual period prevalence analysis. Participating ICUs in the ENVIN-UCI multicenter registry between the years 2007-2016. Critically ill patients admitted to the ICU with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI). Incidence rates per 1,000 catheter-days; urinary catheter utilization ratio; proportion of CAUTIs in relation to total health care-associated infections (HAIs). A total of 187,100 patients, 137,654 (73.6%) of whom had a urinary catheter in place during 1,215,673 days (84% of days of ICU stay) were included. In 4,539 (3.3%) patients with urinary catheter, 4,977 CAUTIs were diagnosed (3.6 episodes per 100 patients with urinary catheter). The CAUTI incidence rate showed a 19% decrease between 2007 and 2016 (4.69 to 3.8 episodes per 1,000 catheter-days), although a sustained urinary catheter utilization ratio was observed (0.84 [0.82-0.86]). The proportion of CAUTI increased from 23.3% to 31.9% of all HAIs controlled in the ICU. Although CAUTI rates have declined in recent years, these infections have become proportionally the first HAIs in the ICU. The urinary catheter utilization ratio remains high in Spanish ICUs. There is room for improvement, so that a CAUTI-ZERO project in our country could be useful. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  16. Triazolophostins: a library of novel and potent agonists of IP3 receptors? ?Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic procedures and spectral data for all new compounds, crystal data for disaccharide 4 and details of the docking study. CCDC 1022279. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00440c Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    OpenAIRE

    Vibhute, Amol M.; Konieczny, Vera; Taylor, Colin W.; Sureshan, Kana M.

    2015-01-01

    IP3 receptors are channels that mediate the release of Ca2+ from the intracellular stores of cells stimulated by hormones or neurotransmitters. Adenophostin A (AdA) is the most potent agonist of IP3 receptors, with the ?-anomeric adenine contributing to the increased potency. The potency of AdA and its stability towards the enzymes that degrade IP3 have aroused interest in AdA analogs for biological studies. The complex structure of AdA poses problems that have necessitated optimization of sy...

  17. Causes of blindness in rural Myanmar (Burma: Mount Popa Taung-Kalat Blindness Prevention Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Y Nemet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Arie Y Nemet1, Pinhas Nemet2, Geoff Cohn3, Gina Sutton, Gerald Sutton4, Richard Rawson41Department of Ophthalmology, Sydney Hospital and Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, Australia; 2Sackler School of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Israel; 3Departments of Ophthalmology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Sydney, AustraliaPurpose: This study is a review of the major causes of visual impairment (VI and severe visual impairment/blindness (SVI/BL in Mount Popa Taung-Kalat, a rural region in Myanmar (Burma.Methods: A review of our clinical records of consecutive patients attending clinics was conducted. Participants of all ages (n = 650 of the population of Mount Popa Taung-Kalat and villages in its vicinity underwent ophthalmic interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained Australian ophthalmologists and ophthalmic nurses. This evaluation included anterior segment examination with a slit lamp, intraocular pressure recording, and direct or indirect ophthalmoscopy. VI and SVI/BL were defined by the World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Results: Six hundred fifty subjects were screened, with a mean age of 49.0 ± 20.6 years (range, 1–99. One hundred five patients (16.2% were children (ages 1–18. Five hundred thirty-one eyes of the total 1,300 eyes (39.5% had VI/SVI/BL, and 40 eyes of the children (38.1% (average age 15.3 ± 13.3 had VI/SVI/BL. The leading causes of VI/SVI/BL were cataract with 288 cases (54.2%, glaucoma with 84 cases (15.8%, and corneal pathology with 78 cases (14.7%. Of all the VI/SVI/BL cases, 8.4% were preventable, 81.9% were treatable, and total of 90.5% were avoidable.Conclusions: In the current study, cataracts were the major cause of blindness and visual impairment, and most of the ophthalmic pathology causing blindness is avoidable. These results highlight the lack of basic ophthalmologist eye care and optician resources in rural regions in Myanmar

  18. Ion Exchange Technology Development in Support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Julie L.; Broyan, James L.; Pickering, Karen D.; Adam, Niklas; Casteel, Michael; Callahan, Michael; Carrier, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In support of the Urine Processor Assembly Precipitation Prevention Project (UPA PPP), multiple technologies were explored to prevent CaSO4 2H2O (gypsum) precipitation during the on-orbit distillation process. Gypsum precipitation currently limits the water recovery rate onboard the International Space Station (ISS) to 70% versus the planned 85% target water recovery rate. Due to its ability to remove calcium cations in pretreated augmented urine (PTAU), ion exchange was selected as one of the technologies for further development by the PPP team. A total of 13 ion exchange resins were evaluated in various equilibrium and dynamic column tests with solutions of dissolved gypsum, urine ersatz, PTAU, and PTAU brine at 85% water recovery. While initial evaluations indicated that the Purolite SST60 resin had the highest calcium capacity in PTAU (0.30 meq/mL average), later tests showed that the Dowex G26 and Amberlite FPC12H resins had the highest capacity (0.5 meq/mL average). Testing at the Marshall Spaceflight Center (MSFC) integrates the ion exchange technology with a UPA ground article under flight-like pulsed flow conditions with PTAU. To date, no gypsum precipitation has taken place in any of the initial evaluations.

  19. [The CHILT I project (Children's Health Interventional Trial). A multicomponent intervention to prevent physical inactivity and overweight in primary schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, C; Dordel, S

    2011-03-01

    Child and juvenile obesity is increasing worldwide; therefore, effective preventive strategies are warranted. The stepwise project CHILT (Children's Health Interventional Trial) was initiated in 2000 and combines in its multicomponent school-based arm CHILT I health education and physical activity for primary school children to prevent physical inactivity and overweight. The effect on obesity and physical performance was studied in 12 primary schools (intervention schools, IS) compared with 5 control schools (CS). Anthropometric data were recorded. Physical performance was measured by a coordination test for children (the "Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder", KTK) and the 6-minute run. Anthropometric and motoric data of 436 children in IS (55.0% of the population) and 179 children in CS (62.8%) were available at baseline and at follow-up. No difference in the incidence of overweight was found between the IS and CS after 4 years of intervention. Remission of overweight was higher in IS (23.2% versus 19.2%), but not significant. The increase in BMI was significantly lower in IS, in which the program was regularly performed. There was an improvement in selected items of the KTK in IS. In particular, endurance performance tended to be higher at final examination. School-based preventive intervention seems to have a positive influence on physical motor skills and the remission of overweight. To optimize the effects, a consistent and quality assured implementation and the integration of the children's whole environment are warranted.

  20. Addressing vulnerabilities of female sex workers in an HIV prevention intervention in Mumbai and Thane: experiences from the Aastha project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranebennur, Virupax; Gaikwad, Sanjeevsingh; Ramesh, Sowmya; Bhende, Amrita

    2014-01-01

    Background It is important for targeted interventions to consider vulnerabilities of female sex workers (FSWs) such as poverty, work-related mobility, and literacy, for effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. This paper describes and examines the association of the Aastha HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention project in Mumbai and Thane, India, on the relationship between vulnerability and behavioral outcomes. Materials and methods Data were drawn from the Behavioural Tracking Survey, a cross-sectional behavioral study conducted in 2010 with 2,431 FSWs recruited in Mumbai and Thane. The key independent measures used were program exposure and “vulnerability index”, a composite index of literacy, factors of dependence (alternative livelihood options, current debt, and children), and aspects of sex work (mobility and duration in sex work). Dependent measures included service uptake, self-confidence, self-identity, and individual agency. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the study objectives. Results Of the analytical sample of 2,431 FSWs, 1,295 (53.3%) were categorized as highly vulnerable. Highly vulnerable FSWs who were associated with the Aastha program for more than a year were more likely to have accessed crisis-response services in the past 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4–3.6; P<0.001), to have visited a clinic to get a checkup for STI symptoms (AOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2–4.8; P<0.015), not to be ashamed to disclose identity as an FSW to health workers (AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.5; P<0.008), and to be confident in supporting a fellow FSW in crisis (AOR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.8, P<0.033) compared to those less vulnerable with similar exposure to the Aastha program. Conclusion It is critical for HIV/STI interventions to consider vulnerabilities of FSWs at project inception and address them with focused strategies, including a segmented service-delivery model and community

  1. Peer-led Stress Prevention Seminars in the First Year of Medical School – A Project Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugaj, Till Johannes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: From the beginning of the first year of medical studies, increased psychological stress and elevated burnout prevalence rates can be registered compared to sample populations. Characterized by learning “on an equal footing”, the principle of peer-assisted learning (PAL is widely used in medical education. This report aims to showcase the development and evaluation of peer-led stress prevention seminars for first year medical students after one year of implementation.Project description: With each of the three sessions lasting 90 min., the stress prevention seminars took place in small groups (6-10 students in the period from November 2013 to January 2014 and from November 2014 to December 2014 at the Medical Faculty of Heidelberg. Led by trained peers, the seminar content ranged from psycho-educational elements, i.e. time management strategy development and test anxiety assistance, to relaxation techniques. All seminar sessions were evaluated via questionnaire. All questions were answered on a Likert scale ranging from 1 to 7 (1=strongly agree; 7=strongly disagree.Results: 75 students consented to participate in seminars (65% female; aged 20.5±3.3 years. The series of seminars was averagely given the school grade of 1.2±0.4 (1=very good to 6=unsatisfactory in WS 2013/14 and 1.5±0.5 in the following year and the peer tutors’ competence was evaluated as very high (1.4 to 1.5 approval rate on the Likert scale.Discussion: The seminar sessions’ importance to the students is underlined by their very positive evaluations. This offer seems to have benefited students especially during the demanding transitional phase at the start of their studies. Both the implementation of the preventive measure at an early stage as well as the use of PAL seem to have proven effective.Conclusion: PAL seems to be effective in the field of stress prevention. However, specific efficacy studies are still lacking.

  2. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  3. 78 FR 33228 - Final Waiver and Extension of the Project Period for the National Dropout Prevention Center for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... the National Dropout Prevention Center for Students With Disabilities [Catalog of Federal Domestic... period enables the currently funded National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities... Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities. The Center was funded under the Technical...

  4. Projectables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Troels A.; Merritt, Timothy R.

    2017-01-01

    CNC cutting machines have become essential tools for designers and architects enabling rapid prototyping, model-building and production of high quality components. Designers often cut from new materials, discarding the irregularly shaped remains. We introduce ProjecTables, a visual augmented...... reality system for interactive packing of model parts onto sheet materials. ProjecTables enables designers to (re)use scrap materials for CNC cutting that would have been previously thrown away, at the same time supporting aesthetic choices related to wood grain, avoiding surface blemishes, and other...... relevant material properties. We conducted evaluations of ProjecTables with design students from Aarhus School of Architecture, demonstrating that participants could quickly and easily place and orient model parts reducing material waste. Contextual interviews and ideation sessions led to a deeper...

  5. Knowledge-exchange in the Pacific: outcomes of the TROPIC (translational research for obesity prevention in communities) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Peter; Mavoa, Helen; Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marjory; McCabe, Marita; Swinburn, Boyd

    2017-04-26

    The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aimed to design, implement and evaluate a knowledge-broking approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji. This paper reports on the quantitative evaluation of the knowledge-broking intervention through assessment of participants' perceptions of evidence use and development of policy/advocacy briefs. Selected staff from six organizations - four government Ministries and two nongovernment organizations (NGOs) - participated in the project. The intervention comprised workshops and supported development of policy/advocacy briefs. Workshops addressed obesity and policy cycles and developing participants' skills in accessing, assessing, adapting and applying relevant evidence. A knowledge-broking team supported participants individually and/or in small groups to develop evidence-informed policy/advocacy briefs. A questionnaire survey that included workplace and demographic items and the self-assessment tool "Is Research Working for You?" (IRWFY) was administered pre- and post-intervention. Forty nine individuals (55% female, 69% 21-40 years, 69% middle-senior managers) participated in the study. The duration and level of participant engagement with the intervention activities varied - just over half participated for 10+ months, just under half attended most workshops and approximately one third produced one or more policy briefs. There were few reliable changes on the IRWFY scales following the intervention; while positive changes were found on several scales, these effects were small (d organizational-level change post-intervention. This study empirically evaluated a knowledge-broking program that aimed to extend evidence-informed policy making skills and development of a suite of national policy briefs designed to increase the enactment of obesity-related policies. The findings failed to indicate reliable improvements in research utilization at either

  6. Falls prevention in hospitals and mental health units: an extended evaluation of the FallSafe quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Frances; Lowe, Derek; Darowski, Adam; Windsor, Julie; Treml, Jonathan; Byrne, Lisa; Husk, Janet; Phipps, Jill

    2014-07-01

    inpatient falls are a major patient safety issue causing distress, injury and death. Systematic review suggests multifactorial assessment and intervention can reduce falls by 20-30%, but large-scale studies of implementation are few. This paper describes an extended evaluation of the FallSafe quality improvement project, which presented key components of multifactorial assessment and intervention as a care bundle. : data on delivery of falls prevention processes were collected at baseline and for 18 months from nine FallSafe units and nine control units. Data on falls were collected from local risk management systems for 24 months, and data on under-reporting through staff surveys. : in FallSafe units, delivery of seven care bundle components significantly improved; most improvements were sustained after active project support was withdrawn. Twelve-month moving average of reported fall rates showed a consistent downward trend in FallSafe units but not controls. Significant reductions in reported fall rate were found in FallSafe units (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.84 P control units (ARR 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.03 P = 0.13). No significant changes in injurious fall rate were found in FallSafe units (ARR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71-1.03 P = 0.11), or controls (ARR 0.88, 95% CI 0.72-1.08 P = 0.13). In FallSafe units, staff certain falls had been reported increased from 60 to 77%. : introducing evidence-based care bundles of multifactorial assessment and intervention using a quality improvement approach resulted in improved delivery of multifactorial assessment and intervention and significant reductions in fall rates, but not in injurious fall rates. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Process evaluation of a community-based intervention program: Healthy Youth Healthy Communities, an adolescent obesity prevention project in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Moodie, Marj; Schultz, Jimaima; Swinburn, Boyd

    2013-12-01

    Nearly one-half of the adult population in Fiji between the ages of 15-64 years is either overweight or obese; and rates amongst school children have, on average, doubled during the last decade. There is an urgent need to scale up the promotion of healthy behaviors and environments using a multi-sectoral approach. The Healthy Youth Healthy Community (HYHC) project in Fiji used a settings approach in secondary schools and faith-based organizations to increase the capacity of the whole community, including churches, mosques and temples, to promote healthy eating and regular physical activity, and to prevent unhealthy weight gain in adolescents aged 13-18 years. The team consisted of a study manager, project coordinator and four research assistants (RAs) committed to planning, designing and facilitating the implementation of intervention programs in collaboration with other stakeholders, such as the wider school communities, government and non-governmental organizations and business partners. Process data were collected on all intervention activities and analyzed by dose, frequency and reach for each specific strategy. The Fiji Action Plan included nine objectives for the school settings; four were based on nutrition and two on physical activity in schools, plus three general objectives, namely capacity building, social marketing and evaluation. Long-term change in nutritional behavior was difficult to achieve; a key contributor to this was the unhealthy food served in the school canteens. Whilst capacity-building proved to be one of the best mechanisms for intervening, it is important to consider the cultural and social factors influencing health behaviors and affecting specific groups.

  8. The social marketing of project ARIES: overcoming challenges in recruiting gay and bisexual males for HIV prevention counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, D S; Ryan, R; Esacove, A W; Bishofsky, S; Wallis, J M; Roffman, R A

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a social marketing campaign designed to recruit clients Project ARIES, and AIDS prevention study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health. Marketing channels employed for the campaign included advertising in the gay press, generating coverage in the mainstream press, distributing materials to HIV testing centers and other health and social service providers, and displaying posters in gay bars and baths. While these approaches all succeeded in eliciting inquiries from individuals engaging in high risk sexual behaviors, they differed in several respects, including their ability to reach specific subgroups that are often underserved by more traditional programs, such as men of color, younger men, and men who self-report as being closeted. Promotional materials displayed in gay bars and baths resulted in the highest percentage of callers who, after inquiring about the program, decided to participate in the counseling. Coverage in the mainstream press was the most successful in reaching closeted men, men who were less active in the gay community, and individuals who did not self-identify as gay. Display and classified ads in the gay press produced the highest number of initial inquiries. Finally, recruitment of participants via materials distributed to HIV test sites and other service providers was the most effective in reaching men who were HIV-positive.

  9. [Manufacture of upholstered furniture and work-related upper limb musculoskeletal disorders: an industrial sector prevention project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leone, G; Carino, M; Nicoletti, S; Trani, G; Ambrosi, L

    2008-01-01

    In cooperation with the IRCCS Fondazione Maugeri and the IRCCS Fondazione Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico - EPM-CEMOC, of Milan, the Local Health Unit in Bari, Italy carried out a research project, sponsored partly by the Italian Ministry of Health, on upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders (UL-WMSDs) in a specific manufacturing sector, the upholstered furniture industry. This "sofa district" is widely represented with approximately 14,000 workers and 500 factories over a wide geographic area of southern Italy. Advanced technology in the manufacturing process is combined with workers performing intensive arm-hand tasks. The aim of the study included: a) assessment of exposure to repetitive strain and movements of the upper limb in a representative sample of the factories using the OCRA method, b) analysis of the annual prevalence and incidence rates, c) definition of possible improvement via ergonomic solutions in the various factories. Via a network of occupational physicians a total of more than 6000 subjects were examined over a 5-year period. Case-definition was assessed through standardized procedures. A detailed description of the manufacturing process of the upholstered furniture industry and of the characteristics of the working population is provided Exposed groups at risk were:filling preparation workers, leather-cutting operators, sewing and upholstery-assembly workers. Data collected in private companies of different size in this extensive industrial "sofa area" emphasize the importance of prevention through adequate ergonomic solutions and the need to improve training programmes covering the whole area.

  10. An Evaluation of Immediate Outcomes and Fidelity of a Drug Abuse Prevention Program in Continuation High Schools: Project towards No Drug Abuse (TND)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisha, Nadra E.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    The present study provides an implementation fidelity, process, and immediate outcomes evaluation of Project Towards No Drug Abuse (TND), a drug prevention program targeting continuation high school youth (n = 1426) at risk for drug abuse. A total of 24 schools participated in three randomized conditions: TND Only, TND and motivational…

  11. Implementation of an Intersectoral Program to Eliminate Human and Canine Rabies: The Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapiz, Stella Marie D.; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth G.; Garcia, Romulo G.; Daguro, Leonida I.; Paman, Meydalyn D.; Madrinan, Frederick P.; Rances, Polizena A.; Briggs, Deborah J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The province of Bohol, located in the Visayas islands region in the Philippines has a human population of 1.13 million and was the 4th highest region for human rabies deaths in the country, averaging 10 per year, prior to the initiation of the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Elimination Project (BRPEP). Aims The BRPEP was initiated in 2007 with the goal of building a sustainable program that would prevent human rabies by eliminating rabies at its source, in dogs, by 2010. This goal was in line with the Philippine National Rabies Program whose objective is to eliminate rabies by 2020. Methods The intersectoral BRPEP was launched in 2007 and integrated the expertise and resources from the sectors of agriculture, public health and safety, education, environment, legal affairs, interior and local government. The program included: increasing local community involvement; implementing dog population control; conducting mass dog vaccination; improving dog bite management; instituting veterinary quarantine; and improving diagnostic capability, surveillance and monitoring. Funding was secured from the national government, provincial, municipal and village units, dog owners, NGOs, the regional office of the WHO, the UBS Optimus Foundation, and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control. The BRPEP was managed by the Bohol Rabies Prevention and Eradication Council (BRPEC) under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Bohol. Parallel organizations were created at the municipal level and village level. Community volunteers facilitated the institution of the program. Dog population surveys were conducted to plan for sufficient resources to vaccinate the required 70% of the dogs living in the province. Two island-wide mass vaccination campaigns were conducted followed by “catch up” vaccination campaigns. Registration of dogs was implemented including a small fee that was rolled back into the program to maintain sustainability. Children were educated by introducing rabies

  12. 78 FR 11803 - Proposed Waiver and Extension of the Project Period for the National Dropout Prevention Center...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... the National Dropout Prevention Center for Students With Disabilities [Catalog of Federal Domestic... would enable the currently funded National Dropout Prevention Center for Students with Disabilities to... about dropout prevention for students with disabilities, and to develop a series of high-quality...

  13. Knowledge-exchange in the Pacific: outcomes of the TROPIC (translational research for obesity prevention in communities project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kremer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities project aimed to design, implement and evaluate a knowledge-broking approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji. This paper reports on the quantitative evaluation of the knowledge-broking intervention through assessment of participants’ perceptions of evidence use and development of policy/advocacy briefs. Methods Selected staff from six organizations - four government Ministries and two nongovernment organizations (NGOs - participated in the project. The intervention comprised workshops and supported development of policy/advocacy briefs. Workshops addressed obesity and policy cycles and developing participants’ skills in accessing, assessing, adapting and applying relevant evidence. A knowledge-broking team supported participants individually and/or in small groups to develop evidence-informed policy/advocacy briefs. A questionnaire survey that included workplace and demographic items and the self-assessment tool “Is Research Working for You?” (IRWFY was administered pre- and post-intervention. Results Forty nine individuals (55% female, 69% 21–40 years, 69% middle-senior managers participated in the study. The duration and level of participant engagement with the intervention activities varied – just over half participated for 10+ months, just under half attended most workshops and approximately one third produced one or more policy briefs. There were few reliable changes on the IRWFY scales following the intervention; while positive changes were found on several scales, these effects were small (d < .2 and only one individual scale (assess was statistically significant (p < .05. Follow up (N = 1 analyses of individual-level change indicated that while 63% of participants reported increased research utilization post-intervention, this proportion was not different to chance levels. Similar analysis

  14. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Hohman-Billmeier

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14–19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12–14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  15. The German Dunkelfeld project: a pilot study to prevent child sexual abuse and the use of child abusive images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Klaus M; Grundmann, Dorit; Kuhle, Laura F; Scherner, Gerold; Konrad, Anna; Amelung, Till

    2015-02-01

    Sexual interest toward prepubescents and pubescents (pedophilia and hebephilia) constitutes a major risk factor for child sexual abuse (CSA) and viewing of child abusive images, i.e., child pornography offenses (CPO). Most child sexual exploitation involving CSA and CPO are undetected and unprosecuted in the "Dunkelfeld" (German: "dark field"). This study assesses a treatment program to enhance behavioral control and reduce associated dynamic risk factors (DRF) in self-motivated pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2011, 319 undetected help-seeking pedophiles and hebephiles expressed interest in taking part in an anonymous and confidential 1-year-treatment program using broad cognitive behavioral methodology in the Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Therapy was assessed using nonrandomized waiting list control design (n=53 treated group [TG]; n=22 untreated control group [CG]). Self-reported pre-/posttreatment DRF changes were assessed and compared with CG. Offending behavior characteristics were also assessed via self-reporting. No pre-/postassessment changes occurred in the control group. Emotional deficits and offense-supportive cognitions decreased in the TG; posttherapy sexual self-regulation increased. Treatment-related changes were distributed unequally across offender groups. None of the offending behavior reported for the TG was identified as such by the legal authorities. However, five of 25 CSA offenders and 29 of 32 CPO offenders reported ongoing behaviors under therapy. Therapy for pedophiles/hebephiles in the Dunkelfeld can alter child sexual offending DRF and reduce-related behaviors. Unidentified, unlawful child sexual exploitative behaviors are more prevalent in this population than in officially reported recidivism. Further research into factors predictive of problematic sexual behaviors in the Dunkelfeld is warranted. © 2014 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  16. Conducting rigorous research with subgroups of at-risk youth: lessons learned from a teen pregnancy prevention project in Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohman-Billmeier, Kathryn; Nye, Margaret; Martin, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) received federal funding to test an evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention program. The grant required a major modification to an existing program and a randomized control trial (RCT) to test its effectiveness. As the major modifications, Alaska used peer educators instead of adults to deliver the program to youth aged 14-19 instead of the original curriculum intended age range of 12-14. Cultural and approach adaptations were included as well. After 4 years of implementation and data collection, the sample was too small to provide statistically significant results. The lack of findings gave no information about the modification, nor any explanation of how the curriculum was received, or reasons for the small sample. This paper reports on a case study follow-up to the RCT to better understand outcome and implementation results. For this study, researchers reviewed project documents and interviewed peer educators, state and local staff, and evaluators. Three themes emerged from the data: (a) the professional growth of peer educators and development of peer education, (b) difficulties resulting from curriculum content, especially for subpopulations of sexually active youth, youth identified as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex and/or asexual, pregnant, and parenting youth and (c) the appropriateness of an RCT with subpopulations of at-risk youth. Three recommendations emerged from the case study. First, including as many stakeholders as possible in the program and evaluation design phases is essential, and must be supported by appropriate funding streams and training. Second, there must be recognition of the multiple small subpopulations found in Alaska when adapting programs designed for a larger and more homogeneous population. Third, RCTs may not be appropriate for all population subgroups.

  17. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  18. The impact of occupational health and safety regulations on prevention through design in construction projects: Perspectives from Spain and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Aires, María Dolores; Rubio Gámez, María Carmen; Gibb, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1990 s, Prevention through Design (PtD) has become increasingly prevalent in the built environment. The acceptance of PtD has largely been due to the removal or reduction of risks during the execution phase of construction projects. European States have had the added impetus of national legislation. This paper analyzes the influence of European Union Directive 92/57/EEC on occupational safety and health injury prevention in the project design phase. Qualitative methods comprised individual semi-structured interviews and focus groups with a panel of experts. Sixty individuals from construction and related professions (architects, engineers, constructors, developers, and other construction experts) answered 17 key questions to establish national perceptions of the effectiveness of Directive 92/57/EEC in Spain and the United Kingdom (UK). The implementation of PtD in the project design phase in the UK is clearer since the regulations explicitly state the obligations of project designers as well as those of the coordinator. Interviews with Spanish experts show that, in Spain, the prevention culture is less frequently realized. The most significant differences between the European Directive and national regulations which influence PtD are linked to the Health and Safety Coordinator, and Health and Safety documents.

  19. European recommendations for primary prevention of congenital anomalies: a joined effort of EUROCAT and EUROPLAN projects to facilitate inclusion of this topic in the National Rare Disease Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bermejo-Sánchez, Eva; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Carbone, Pietro; Curran, Rhonda; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Latos-Bieleńska, Anna; Khoshnood, Babak; Irgens, Lorentz; Mantovani, Alberto; Martínez-Frías, Maria Luisa; Neville, Amanda; Rißmann, Anke; Ruggeri, Stefania; Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention to an integrated preventive strategy has led to the prevalence of CA remaining relatively stable in recent decades. The 2 European projects, EUROCAT and EUROPLAN, have joined efforts to provide the first science-based and comprehensive set of recommendations for the primary prevention of CA in the European Union. The resulting EUROCAT-EUROPLAN 'Recommendations on Policies to Be Considered for the Primary Prevention of Congenital Anomalies in National Plans and Strategies on Rare Diseases' were issued in 2012 and endorsed by EUCERD (European Union Committee of Experts on Rare Diseases) in 2013. The recommendations exploit interdisciplinary expertise encompassing drugs, diet, lifestyles, maternal health status, and the environment. The recommendations include evidence-based actions aimed at reducing risk factors and at increasing protective factors and behaviors at both individual and population level. Moreover, consideration is given to topics specifically related to CA (e.g. folate status, teratogens) as well as of broad public health impact (e.g. obesity, smoking) which call for specific attention to their relevance in the pre- and periconceptional period. The recommendations, reported entirely in this paper, are a comprehensive tool to implement primary prevention into national policies on rare diseases in Europe. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Give Water a Hand. School Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  1. Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  2. Give Water a Hand. Home Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  3. Preventable coronary heart disease events from control of cardiovascular risk factors in US adults with diabetes (projections from utilizing the UKPDS risk engine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Nathan D; Patao, Christopher; Malik, Shaista; Iloeje, Uchenna

    2014-04-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) carries significant risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined the potential US population impact of single and composite risk factor control. Among US adults with diagnosed T2DM aged≥30 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007 to 2012, we assessed CHD events preventable using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study CHD risk engine. We examined in all those not at goal the impact of statistical control of smoking, glycated hemoglobin, systolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, according to the predefined criteria setting risk factors at different levels of control representing (1) "All to Goal," (2) at "Nominal Control," or (3) at "Aggressive Control." Preventable CHD events represented the difference between the number of events estimated from the control of these risk factors versus current levels of the risk factors. Of 606 men (representing 6.2 million) and 603 women (6.3 million) with DM and no previous CHD, 1.3 million men and 0.7 million women would develop a CHD event within 10 years if left uncontrolled. Controlling all risk factors to goal was projected to prevent 35% and 45% of CHD events in men and women, respectively. Nominal risk factor control was projected to prevent 36% and 38% and aggressive control 51% and 61% of CHD events, respectively. In conclusion, a significant proportion of CHD events in adults with T2DM could be prevented from composite control of risk factors often not at goal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The determinants of technical efficiency of a large scale HIV prevention project: application of the DEA double bootstrap using panel data from the Indian Avahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Aurélia; Vassall, Anna; Chandrashekar, Sudhashree

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, the largest HIV prevention project (Avahan) conducted globally was implemented in India. Avahan was implemented by NGOs supported by state lead partners in order to provide HIV prevention services to high-risk population groups. In 2007, most of the NGOs reached full coverage. Using a panel data set of the NGOs that implemented Avahan, we investigate the level of technical efficiency as well as the drivers of technical inefficiency by using the double bootstrap procedure developed by Simar & Wilson (2007). Unlike the two-stage traditional method, this method allows valid inference in the presence of measurement error and serial correlation. We find that over the 4 years, Avahan NGOs could have reduced the level of inputs by 43% given the level of outputs reached. We find that efficiency of the project has increased over time. Results indicate that main drivers of inefficiency come from the characteristics of the state lead partner, the NGOs and the catchment area. These organisational factors are important to explicitly consider and assess when designing and implementing HIV prevention programmes and in setting benchmarks in order to optimise the use and allocation of resources. C14, I1.

  5. The SISTA pilot project: understanding the training and technical assistance needs of community-based organizations implementing HIV prevention interventions for African American women--implications for a capacity building strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Taleria R; Brown, Mari; King, Winifred; Prather, Cynthia; Cazaubon, Janine; Mack, Justin; Russell, Brandi

    2007-01-01

    The disproportionate rates of HIV/AIDS among African American women in the U.S. signify the ongoing need for targeted HIV prevention interventions. Additionally, building the capacity of service providers to sustain prevention efforts is a major concern. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducted a pilot project to disseminate the Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), an HIV prevention intervention designed for African American women. The project was to inform the diffusion process and examine the training and technical assistance needs of participating community-based organizations. Results demonstrated a need for extensive pre-planning and skills-building prior to implementation.

  6. A structured women's preventive health clinic for residents: a quality improvement project designed to meet training needs and improve cervical cancer screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mamta K; Einstadter, Douglas; Lawrence, Renee

    2010-10-01

    Multiple resident-related factors contribute to 'missed opportunities' in providing comprehensive preventive care for female patients, including comfort level, knowledge and experience--all of which are compounded by resident turnover rates. Of particular concern among Internal Medicine (IM) residents is their knowledge and comfort level in performing pelvic exams. To evaluate the impact of a quality improvement project of implementing a Women's Preventive Health Clinic (WPHC) on addressing gaps identified by needs assessments: residents' comfort and knowledge with female preventive care and cervical cancer screening. The WPHC, a multidisciplinary weekly clinic, focused on preventive services for women with chronic conditions. The alternating didactic and clinic sessions emphasised women's preventive health topics for IM residents. Sixty-three IM residents participated in WPHC between 2002 and 2005. Pre- and post-test design was used to assess resident knowledge and comfort levels. Cervical cancer screening rates of residents' patients were assessed pre- and post-WPHC initiation. There was a significant improvement in general knowledge (64% correct at pretest vs 73% at post-test, p=0.0002), resident comfort level in discussing women's health topics and performing gynaecological exams (p<0.0002). Cervical cancer screening rates among IM residents' patients improved from 54% (pre-WPHC initiation) to 65% (post-WPHC initiation period). The results indicate that a focused resident preventive programme can meet gaps identified by education and needs assessments, and simultaneously have a positive impact on cervical cancer screening rates and thus may serve as a model for other residency programmes.

  7. Effectiveness of Non-Pharmacological Interventions to Prevent Falls in Older People: A Systematic Overview. The SENATOR Project ONTOP Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Joseph M.; Abraha, Iosief; Dell’Aquila, Giuseppina; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Soiza, Roy; Gudmusson, Adalsteinn; Petrovic, Mirko; O’Mahony, Denis; Todd, Chris; Cherubini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Background Falls are common events in older people, which cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Non-pharmacological interventions are an important approach to prevent falls. There are a large number of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions, whose evidence needs to be synthesized in order to facilitate evidence-based clinical decision making. Objectives To systematically examine reviews and meta-analyses that evaluated non-pharmacological interventions to prevent falls in older adults in the community, care facilities and hospitals. Methods We searched the electronic databases Pubmed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO and TRIP from January 2009 to March 2015, for systematic reviews that included at least one comparative study, evaluating any non-pharmacological intervention, to prevent falls amongst older adults. The quality of the reviews was assessed using AMSTAR and ProFaNE taxonomy was used to organize the interventions. Results Fifty-nine systematic reviews were identified which consisted of single, multiple and multifactorial non-pharmacological interventions to prevent falls in older people. The most frequent ProFaNE defined interventions were exercises either alone or combined with other interventions, followed by environment/assistive technology interventions comprising environmental modifications, assistive and protective aids, staff education and vision assessment/correction. Knowledge was the third principle class of interventions as patient education. Exercise and multifactorial interventions were the most effective treatments to reduce falls in older adults, although not all types of exercise were equally effective in all subjects and in all settings. Effective exercise programs combined balance and strength training. Reviews with a higher AMSTAR score were more likely to contain more primary studies, to be updated and to perform meta-analysis. Conclusions The aim of this overview of

  8. Sexual Behavior, Risk Compensation, and HIV Prevention Strategies Among Participants in the San Francisco PrEP Demonstration Project: A Qualitative Analysis of Counseling Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Hojilla, J; Koester, Kimberly A; Cohen, Stephanie E; Buchbinder, Susan; Ladzekpo, Deawodi; Matheson, Tim; Liu, Albert Y

    2016-07-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a viable HIV prevention strategy but risk compensation could undermine potential benefits. There are limited data that examine this phenomenon outside of clinical trials. We conducted a qualitative analysis of counseling notes from the San Francisco site of the US PrEP demonstration project to assess how men who have sex with men used PrEP as a prevention strategy and its impact on their sexual practices. Four major themes emerged from our analysis of 130 distinct notes associated with 26 participants. Prevention strategy decision-making was dynamic, often influenced by the context and perceived risk of a sexual encounter. Counselors noted that participants used PrEP in conjunction with other health promotion strategies like condoms, asking about HIV status of their sex partners, and seroadaptation. With few exceptions, existing risk reduction strategies were not abandoned upon initiation of PrEP. Risk-taking behavior was 'seasonal' and fluctuations were influenced by various personal, psychosocial, and health-related factors. PrEP also helped relieve anxiety regarding sex and HIV, particularly among serodiscordant partners. Understanding sexual decision-making and how PrEP is incorporated into existing prevention strategies can help inform future PrEP implementation efforts.

  9. Evidence-based development of school-based and family-involved prevention of overweight across Europe: The ENERGY-project's design and conceptual framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klepp Knut

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need for more carefully developed public health measures in order to curb the obesity epidemic among youth. The overall aim of the "EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth" (ENERGY-project is the development and formative evaluation of a theory-informed and evidence-based multi-component school-based and family-involved intervention program ready to be implemented and evaluated for effectiveness across Europe. This program aims at promoting the adoption or continuation of health behaviors that contribute to a healthy energy balance among school-aged children. Earlier studies have indicated that school and family environments are key determinants of energy-balance behaviors in schoolchildren. Schools are an important setting for health promotion in this age group, but school-based interventions mostly fail to target and involve the family environment. Methods Led by a multidisciplinary team of researchers from eleven European countries and supported by a team of Australian experts, the ENERGY-project is informed by the Environmental Research Framework for Weight gain Prevention, and comprises a comprehensive epidemiological analysis including 1 systematic reviews of the literature, 2 secondary analyses of existing data, 3 focus group research, and 4 a cross European school-based survey. Results and discussion The theoretical framework and the epidemiological analysis will subsequently inform stepwise intervention development targeting the most relevant energy balance-related behaviors and their personal, family-environmental and school-environmental determinants applying the Intervention Mapping protocol. The intervention scheme will undergo formative and pilot evaluation in five countries. The results of ENERGY will be disseminated among key stakeholders including researchers, policy makers and the general population. Conclusions The ENERGY-project is an international

  10. [Preventing cardiovascular diseases through a screening modelling applicable to wide population groups: results from the first phase of the project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Antonio; Cinquetti, Sandro; Moro, Alessandro; Siddu, Andrea; Trimarchi, Antonino; Penon, Maria Gabriella; Pavan, Pierpaolo; Camillotto, Raffaella; Rossetto, Luca; Volpe, Valter; Zevrain, Simone; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    evaluate, through active call, lifestyles of an asymptomatic population in order to identify hyperglycaemic subjects and/or high-blood pressure sufferers to dispatch to their GP to perform suitable checking, and subjects to invite to a cardiovascular disease prevention programme because of their lifestyles. between January 2009 and July 2012, all healthy residents in the Local Health Authority of Este (ULSS 17 Este) aged 45-59 years were invited to join a cardiovascular disease prevention programme. all participants were evaluated through an administered lifestyle questionnaire. Parameters such as blood pressure (BP), glycaemia, waist circumference and body mass index were collected and recorded. Participants also received counseling, informational materials on lifestyle and were invited to individual or group health promotion initiatives in relation to personal risk factors. among the invited, 55.5% (3,922/7,071) adhered. Women (58.8%) responded significantly better than men (51.9%) (p diseases.

  11. Targeted prevention of lifestyle related diseases in the primary care sector – results from the TOF pilot project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun Larsen, Lars; Thilsing, Trine

    This abstract reports on the results of a non-randomized pilot study carried out to test the acceptability, feasibility and short-term effects of a healthcare intervention in primary care. The intervention is designed to systematically identify persons at risk of developing lifestyle-related dise...... is facilitated by a digital support system. The pilot makes use of both quantitative and qualitative research methods....... prevention and health promotion is required. This has been attempted in past efforts by offering individual preventive health checks to the general population. However, the evidence on the effectiveness of this approach is mixed. Several systematic reviews, on the other hand, suggest that health checks......This abstract reports on the results of a non-randomized pilot study carried out to test the acceptability, feasibility and short-term effects of a healthcare intervention in primary care. The intervention is designed to systematically identify persons at risk of developing lifestyle...

  12. The EUVAC-NET project: creation and operation of a surveillance community network for vaccine preventable infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glismann, S; Rønne, T; Tozzi, A

    2001-06-01

    The EUVAC-NET network is in charge of the epidemiological surveillance and control of vaccine preventable diseases. It is coordinated by the SSI in Denmark, in collaboration with the ISS in Italy. The two main diseases targeted by the network are measles and pertussis. A collaboration is planned with the PHLS for the monitoring of Haemophilus influenzae b. EUVAC-NET includes the Member States of the European Union, and Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.

  13. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)" will be presented by Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, Chair of the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. Date: 2/20/2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove Campus,

  14. Process evaluation of Project WebHealth: a nondieting Web-based intervention for obesity prevention in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dour, Colleen A; Horacek, Tanya M; Schembre, Susan M; Lohse, Barbara; Hoerr, Sharon; Kattelmann, Kendra; White, Adrienne A; Shoff, Suzanne; Phillips, Beatrice; Greene, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the motivational effect of the Project WebHealth study procedures and intervention components on weight-related health behavior changes in male and female college students. Process evaluation. Eight universities in the United States. Project WebHealth participants (n = 653; 29% men). Participants rated motivational effects of study procedures and intervention components. Participants were grouped into outcome-based health behavior categories based on achievement of desired targets for fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and/or body weight. Differences in motivation from each procedure and component were analyzed by gender- and outcome-based health behavior category. Women were generally more motivated than men. Compared to those who did not meet any target health behaviors, men with improved health outcomes (68%) were significantly more motivated by the skills to fuel the body lesson, goal setting, and research snippets. Their female counterparts (63%) were significantly more motivated by the lessons on body size and eating enjoyment, and by the suggested weekly activities. Specific study procedures and components of Project WebHealth motivated study participants to improve their weight-related health behaviors, and they differed by gender. Findings support the need for gender-tailored interventions in this population. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring overweight, obesity and their behavioural correlates among children and adolescents: results from the Health-promotion through Obesity Prevention across Europe project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; Lien, Nanna; Klepp, Knut-Inge; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2010-10-01

    The Health-promotion through Obesity Prevention across Europe (HOPE) project aims to bring the European scientific knowledge on overweight, obesity and their determinants together and use the expertise of researchers across Europe to contribute to tackling the obesity epidemic. This special issue of Public Health Nutrition presents important results from one of the work packages of the HOPE project that aims at gaining and integrating knowledge on the determinants of nutrition, physical activity and obesity among schoolchildren and adolescents (aged 10-18 years) in different European regions. It includes contributions from Northern Europe (Norway), Central and Eastern Europe (Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic), Southern Europe (Greece) and Western Europe (Belgium and The Netherlands), as well as an overview of the availability of good-quality data on prevalence rates and trends in overweight (including obesity) among adolescents in European Union (EU) countries. The studies that are included report prevalence differences, data on relevant nutrition and physical activity behaviours, as well as potential physical and environmental behavioural determinants. These papers provide further evidence on differences in obesity and overweight prevalence among different EU regions and countries, and contribute to the further exploration of risk factors that may or should be addressed in obesity prevention efforts for school-aged children and adolescents in EU countries.

  16. Strategies and actions of multi-purpose health communication on vaccine preventable infectious diseases in order to increase vaccination coverage in the population: The ESCULAPIO project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Bonanni, Paolo; Lauri, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Levi, Miriam; Prato, Rosa; Fortunato, Francesca; Martinelli, Domenico; Gasparini, Roberto; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Coppola, Rosa Cristina; Pellizzari, Barbara; Tabacchi, Garden; Costantino, Claudio; Vitale, Francesco; Iannazzo, Stefania; Boccalini, Sara

    2017-02-01

    The ESCULAPIO Project aims at increasing awareness on vaccine preventable infectious diseases (VPID) and vaccinations in different target populations and to spread the culture of prevention. Information/training interventions on VPID have been developed and health promotion activities for the general population, students and their parents, teachers and health care workers (HCWs) were set up. In Tuscany, educational courses on VPID in high schools were organized and students were stimulated to prepare informative materials on VPID for lower grade school pupils. In Liguria, an educational card game (named 'Vaccine at the Fair') was presented to children of primary schools. Stands in shopping centers were used in Palermo to distribute the regional vaccination schedule and gadgets, also providing indications on reliable websites where to find correct information on vaccinations. A music video played by health care workers (HCWs) was created and used in the University Hospital of Cagliari to promote the anti-flu vaccination campaign in HCWs. In Apulia, meetings with the general population were organized to collect controversial issues about vaccinations and a national call center was launched to create a direct line from the general population to experts in vaccines and vaccination strategies. In Veneto, meetings in the birth centers and home visits for subjects refusing vaccination have been organized. All activities are useful and effective tools to increase knowledge about VPID and confidence in vaccination, which are crucial aspects in order to increase vaccine uptake. The project was funded by the Italian Ministry of Health, Center for Disease Prevention and Control (CCM) in 2013.

  17. Prevention of DNA contamination during forensic medical examinations in a clinical forensic medical service: A best practice implementation project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Tasha

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of forensic specimens can have significant and detrimental effects on cases presented in court. In 2010 a wrongful conviction in Australia resulted in an inquiry with 25 recommendations to minimize the risk of DNA contamination of forensic specimens. DNA decontamination practices in a clinical forensic medical service currently attempt to comply with these recommendations. Evaluation of these practices has not been undertaken. The aim of this project was to audit the current DNA decontamination practices of forensic medical and nursing examiners in the forensic medical examination process and implement changes based on the audit findings. A re-audit following implementation would be undertaken to identify change and inform further research. The Joanna Briggs Institute's Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice were used as the audit tool in this project. A baseline audit was conducted; analysis of this audit process was then undertaken. Following education and awareness training targeted at clinicians, a re-audit was completed. There were a total of 24 audit criteria; the baseline audit reflected 20 of these criteria had 100% compliance. The remaining 4 audit criteria demonstrated compliance between 65% and 90%. Education and awareness training resulted in improved compliance in 2 of the 4 audit criteria, with the remaining 2 having unchanged compliance. The findings demonstrated that education and raising awareness can improve clinical practice; however there are also external factors outside the control of the clinicians that influence compliance with best practice.

  18. [A cooperative project in the district of Mettmann: preventive assistance for mentally ill parents and their children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, Michael; Schatte, Dirk; Altrogge, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    Mentally ill parents are impaired in their ability to care for their children. To support the affected families from the perspective of the parents and the children alike a close cooperation between the institutions of psychiatry and child-welfare is of utmost importance. In the district of Mettmann a cooperation agreement was concluded to realize a cross-system concept to care for the families with mentally ill parents. To prevent children from developing psychiatric disorders the taboo of the psychiatric diseases has to be overcome, an early diagnostic clarification to be reached, and multiinstitutional help to be implemented. In the article the experience in dealing with the affected families in a multidisciplinary context is described.

  19. HIV rapid testing in the framework of an STI prevention project on a cohort of vulnerable Italians and immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccella, Ilaria; Petrelli, Alessio; Vescio, Maria Fenicia; De Carolis, Silvia; Fazioli, Cecilia; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Rezza, Gianni

    2017-08-01

    Uptake of HIV tests is a challenging issue in vulnerable populations including immigrants, normally using standard diagnostic tools. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the acceptability of HIV rapid test; estimate the percentage of newly HIV diagnoses and evaluate knowledge, attitudes and perception (KAP) about HIV/AIDS and other STIs in a specific set of immigrants and vulnerable population in Rome (Italy). All immigrant and Italian people, aged 16-70 years, attending the infectious disease outpatient clinic of the National Institute for Health, Migration and Poverty (INMP) in Rome (Italy), during the period December 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HIV rapid testing was provided for free and patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire evaluating KAP about HIV/STIs. All patients with risky sexual behaviours or with a recent diagnosis of STIs were invited to come back after 3-6 months and a post-counselling questionnaire was offered. Out of the total sample, 99.2% (n = 825) accepted the "rapid test" and 10 new HIV diagnoses were found (1.22%; 95% CI 0.58%-2.22%). Three hundred and eighty-five participants (47%) answered the entry questionnaire and 58 (15%) completed the follow-up. Overall, we found high knowledge about HIV/AIDS; however, lower educational level and immigrant status were associated with poor knowledge about HIV, other STIs and prevention methods. Immigrants have lower perception of sexual risk and higher prejudice than Italians. Our study showed high acceptance of rapid test in this specific vulnerable population and this allowed to identify new HIV diagnoses in unaware people. Socioeconomic inequalities observed in the KAP questionnaire suggest the need for actions to support the reduction of cultural differences in knowledge of HIV/AIDS and for policies aimed at improving access to health services and preventions programmes of marginalized populations.

  20. Air pollution prevention through urban heat island mitigation: An update on the urban heat island pilot project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsevski, V.; Taha, H.; Quattrochi, D.; Luvall, J.

    1998-07-01

    Urban heat islands increase the demand for cooling energy and accelerate the formation of smog. They are created when natural vegetation is replaced by heat-absorbing surfaces such as building roofs and walls, parking lots, and streets. Through the implementation of measures designed to mitigate the urban heat island, communities can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the metropolitan landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, using less energy leads to reductions in emission of CO{sub 2}--a greenhouse gas--as well as ozone (smog) precursors such as NOx and VOCs. Because ozone is created when NOx and VOCs photochemically combine with heat and solar radiation, actions taken to lower ambient air temperature can significantly reduce ozone concentrations in certain areas. Measures to reverse the urban heat island include afforestation and the widespread use of highly reflective surfaces. To demonstrate the potential benefits of implementing these measures, EPA has teamed up with NASA and LBNL to initiate a pilot project with three US cities. As part of the pilot, NASA will use remotely-sensed data to quantify surface temperature, albedo, the thermal response number and NDVI vegetation of each city. This information will be used by scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) along with other data as inputs to model various scenarios that will help quantify the potential benefits of urban heat island mitigation measures in terms of reduced energy use and pollution. This paper will briefly describe this pilot project and provide an update on the progress to date.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of a cardiovascular disease primary prevention programme in a primary health care setting. Results of the Polish part of the EUROACTION project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sović, Nevena; Pająk, Andrzej; Jankowski, Piotr; Duenas, Alejandra; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Wolfshaut-Wolak, Renata; Stepaniak, Urszula; Kawalec, Paweł

    2013-01-01

    Well designed cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention programmes appear to be generally applicable and effective in reducing exposure to risk factors and the incidence of disease. However, introducing them broadly into clinical practice would have a significant impact on the healthcare budget, and requires careful consideration. The purpose of this health economic analysis was to assess the potential cost-effectiveness of the model nurse-led, comprehensive CVD primary prevention programme which was prepared and introduced in the EUROACTION project, in high-risk patients in Poland. A Markov model was developed to assess the long-term costs of preventive intervention. The health states modelled were: event-free (all patients at the beginning of observation), stable angina first year, acute myocardial infarction, stable angina subsequent year, myocardial infarction subsequent year, CVD death, and other causes of death. Health benefits from the reduction in risk factors were estimated based on Framingham risk function assuming the probability of defined health states according to British registers. The time horizon of the analysis was ten years, and one Markov cycle length was one year. The analysis was prepared from the healthcare payer's perspective. A willingness to pay threshold of three gross domestic product (GDP) per capita / quality-adjusted life years (QALY) was used. Univariate sensitivity analysis was conducted. Results were presented as an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) expressed as an incremental cost per QALY. In Poland, EUROACTION intervention resulted mainly in reductions in the prevalence of smoking (by 14%) and high blood pressure (by 7%). Intervention on other risk factors, including blood lipids, was found to be less effective. Estimated ICERs were 19,524 PLN for men and 82,262 PLN for women. The programme was even more cost-effective in smokers i.e. estimated ICERs were 12,377 PLN in men and 53,471 PLN in women. The results were most

  2. Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbestel, Vera; De Henauw, Stefaan; Maes, Lea; Haerens, Leen; Mårild, Staffan; Eiben, Gabriele; Lissner, Lauren; Moreno, Luis A; Frauca, Natalia Lascorz; Barba, Gianvincenzo; Kovács, Eva; Konstabel, Kenn; Tornaritis, Michael; Gallois, Katharina; Hassel, Holger; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-08-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased during the past decades and is now considered an urgent public health problem. Although stabilizing trends in obesity prevalence have been identified in parts of Europe, preventive efforts in children are still needed. Using the socio-ecological approach as the underlying theoretical perspective, the IDEFICS project aimed to develop, implement and evaluate a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in eight European countries. The aim of the present manuscript was to describe the content and developmental process of the IDEFICS intervention. The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development. The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation. The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to the intervention mapping heuristic. The

  3. Project Date SMART: a Dating Violence (DV) and Sexual Risk Prevention Program for Adolescent Girls with Prior DV Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Christie J; Joppa, Meredith; Barker, David; Collibee, Charlene; Zlotnick, Caron; Brown, Larry K

    2018-05-01

    This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing dating violence and sexual risk behavior in a sample of adolescent girls (ages 14-17) with prior exposure to physical dating violence (DV). One hundred and nine girls were randomly assigned to Date SMART (Skills to Manage Aggression in Relationships for Teens) or a Knowledge-only (KO) comparison group. Both intervention arms consisted of six, weekly 2-h sessions and one "booster" session 6 weeks later. Based on principles of cognitive behavioral therapy, the Date SMART intervention was designed to target common underlying skills deficits linked to both DV and sexual risk behavior in adolescent females: depression, self-regulation deficits, and interpersonal skills deficits. Assessments were administered at four time points (baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months). The Date SMART group was effective as reducing sexual DV involvement across the 9-month follow-up period. Both groups evidenced clinically meaningful reductions in physical, emotional, and digital DV involvement, total time in dating relationships, as well as reductions in depression. Findings indicate that delivering a DV and sexual risk prevention intervention to DV-affected adolescent girls is feasible and well-received. Furthermore, a skills-based approach that addresses the co-occurrence of DV and sexual risk behavior may be particularly useful for promoting reductions of sexual DV among high-risk adolescent girls. A future, large-scale trial with an inactive comparison condition is needed to evaluate the efficacy of Date SMART further. Clinical Trials, NCT01326195, and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  4. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  5. Childhood obesity prevention and control in city recreation centres and family homes: the MOVE/me Muevo Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J P; Crespo, N C; Corder, K; Ayala, G X; Slymen, D J; Lopez, N V; Moody, J S; McKenzie, T L

    2014-06-01

    Interventions to prevent and control childhood obesity have shown mixed results in terms of short- and long-term changes. 'MOVE/me Muevo' was a 2-year family- and recreation centre-based randomized controlled trial to promote healthy eating and physical activity among 5- to 8-year-old children. It was hypothesized that children in the intervention group would demonstrate lower post-intervention body mass index (BMI) values and improved obesity-related behaviours compared with the control group children. Thirty recreation centres in San Diego County, California, were randomized to an intervention or control condition. Five hundred forty-one families were enrolled and children's BMI, diet, physical activity and other health indicators were tracked from baseline to 2 years post-baseline. Analyses followed an intent-to-treat approach using mixed-effects models. No significant intervention effects were observed for the primary outcomes of child's or parent's BMI and child's waist circumference. Moderator analyses, however, showed that girls (but not boys) in the intervention condition reduced their BMI. At the 2-year follow-up, intervention condition parents reported that their children were consuming fewer high-fat foods and sugary beverages. Favourable implementation fidelity and high retention rates support the feasibility of this intervention in a large metropolitan area; however, interventions of greater intensity may be needed to achieve effects on child's BMI. Also, further research is needed to develop gender-specific intervention strategies so that both genders may benefit from such efforts. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  6. Fall prevention and safety communication training for foremen: report of a pilot project designed to improve residential construction safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Evanoff, Brad

    2013-02-01

    Falls from heights account for 64% of residential construction worker fatalities and 20% of missed work days. We hypothesized that worker safety would improve with foremen training in fall prevention and safety communication. Training priorities identified through foreman and apprentice focus groups and surveys were integrated into an 8-hour training. We piloted the training with ten foremen employed by a residential builder. Carpenter trainers contrasted proper methods to protect workers from falls with methods observed at the foremen's worksites. Trainers presented methods to deliver toolbox talks and safety messages. Results from worksite observational audits (n=29) and foremen/crewmember surveys (n=97) administered before and after training were compared. We found that inexperienced workers are exposed to many fall hazards that they are often not prepared to negotiate. Fall protection is used inconsistently and worksite mentorship is often inadequate. Foremen feel pressured to meet productivity demands and some are unsure of the fall protection requirements. After the training, the frequency of daily mentoring and toolbox talks increased, and these talks became more interactive and focused on hazardous daily work tasks. Foremen observed their worksites for fall hazards more often. We observed increased compliance with fall protection and decreased unsafe behaviors during worksite audits. Designing the training to meet both foremen's and crewmembers' needs ensured the training was learner-centered and contextually-relevant. This pilot suggests that training residential foremen can increase use of fall protection, improve safety behaviors, and enhance on-the-job training and safety communication at their worksites. Construction workers' training should target safety communication and mentoring skills with workers who will lead work crews. Interventions at multiple levels are necessary to increase safety compliance in residential construction and decrease falls

  7. Methodology of a diabetes prevention translational research project utilizing a community-academic partnership for implementation in an underserved Latino community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yunsheng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Latinos comprise the largest racial/ethnic group in the United States and have 2–3 times the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus as Caucasians. Methods and design The Lawrence Latino Diabetes Prevention Project (LLDPP is a community-based translational research study which aims to reduce the risk of diabetes among Latinos who have a ≥ 30% probability of developing diabetes in the next 7.5 years per a predictive equation. The project was conducted in Lawrence, Massachusetts, a predominantly Caribbean-origin urban Latino community. Individuals were identified primarily from a community health center's patient panel, screened for study eligibility, randomized to either a usual care or a lifestyle intervention condition, and followed for one year. Like the efficacious Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, the LLDPP intervention targeted weight loss through dietary change and increased physical activity. However, unlike the DPP, the LLDPP intervention was less intensive, tailored to literacy needs and cultural preferences, and delivered in Spanish. The group format of the intervention (13 group sessions over 1 year was complemented by 3 individual home visits and was implemented by individuals from the community with training and supervision by a clinical research nutritionist and a behavioral psychologist. Study measures included demographics, Stern predictive equation components (age, gender, ethnicity, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol, body mass index, and family history of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin, dietary intake, physical activity, depressive symptoms, social support, quality of life, and medication use. Body weight was measured at baseline, 6-months, and one-year; all other measures were assessed at baseline and one-year. All surveys were orally administered in Spanish. Results A community-academic partnership enabled the successful recruitment, intervention, and assessment of Latinos at

  8. Community-based prevention leads to an increase in condom use and a reduction in sexually transmitted infections (STIs among men who have sex with men (MSM and female sex workers (FSW: the Frontiers Prevention Project (FPP evaluation results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez Juan-Pablo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background India has an estimated 2.0 million to 3.1 million people living with HIV; it has the highest number of HIV-positive people in Asia and ranks third in the world. The Frontiers Prevention Project (FPP was implemented in 2002 to conduct targeted prevention intervention geared towards female sex workers (FSW and men who have sex with men (MSM in the state of Andhra Pradesh (AP. This paper reports the overall changes in behaviour and STI outcomes between 2003/4 and 2007 and also describes the changes attributed to the FPP. Methods The evaluation used two cross-sectional surveys among MSM and FSW at 24 sites in AP. Surveys were implemented using a similar methodology. Univariate analyses were conducted by comparing means: baseline vs. four-year follow-up and FPP vs. non-FPP. For both MSM and FSW, random and fixed-effects logit regression models at the site level were estimated for condom use with last partner, syphilis sero-positivity and HSV 2 sero-positivity. In addition, for FSW we estimated models for condom use with regular partner, and for MSM we estimated models for condom use with last female partner. Results Among MSM, fixed-effects analysis revealed that FPP was positively correlated with the probability of condom use with last female sexual partner and negatively correlated with the individual probability of sero-positivity to syphilis and HSV 2. Among FSW, the FPP intervention was significantly correlated with increased condom use with regular partners and with lower probability of STI sero-positivity. Discussion Important changes in behaviours related to an increase in prevention activities translated to reductions in STI sero-prevalence in AP, India. In contrast with non-FPP sites, the FPP sites experienced an intense community approach as part of the FPP intervention, and the general increase in condom use and its effect on STI sero-prevalence reflected the efficacy of these intense prevention activities focused on

  9. Developing community-based preventive interventions in Hong Kong: a description of the first phase of the family project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sunita M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the development of culturally-appropriate family-based interventions and their relevant measures, to promote family health, happiness and harmony in Hong Kong. Programs were developed in the community, using a collaborative approach with community partners. The development process, challenges, and the lessons learned are described. This experience may be of interest to the scientific community as there is little information currently available about community-based development of brief interventions with local validity in cultures outside the West. Methods The academic-community collaborative team each brought strengths to the development process and determined the targets for intervention (parent-child relationships. Information from expert advisors and stakeholder discussion groups was collected and utilized to define the sources of stress in parent-child relationships. Results Themes emerged from the literature and discussion groups that guided the content of the intervention. Projects emphasized features that were appropriate for this cultural group and promoted potential for sustainability, so that the programs might eventually be implemented at a population-wide level. Challenges included ensuring local direction, relevance and acceptability for the intervention content, engaging participants and enhancing motivation to make behavior changes after a brief program, measurement of behavior changes, and developing an equal partner relationship between academic and community staff. Conclusions This work has public health significance because of the global importance of parent-child relationships as a risk-factor for many outcomes in adulthood, the need to develop interventions with strong evidence of effectiveness to populations outside the West, the potential application of our interventions to universal populations, and characteristics of the interventions that promote dissemination, including minimal

  10. Developing community-based preventive interventions in Hong Kong: a description of the first phase of the family project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sunita M; Fabrizio, Cecilia S; Hirschmann, Malia R; Lam, Tai Hing

    2012-02-07

    This paper describes the development of culturally-appropriate family-based interventions and their relevant measures, to promote family health, happiness and harmony in Hong Kong. Programs were developed in the community, using a collaborative approach with community partners. The development process, challenges, and the lessons learned are described. This experience may be of interest to the scientific community as there is little information currently available about community-based development of brief interventions with local validity in cultures outside the West. The academic-community collaborative team each brought strengths to the development process and determined the targets for intervention (parent-child relationships). Information from expert advisors and stakeholder discussion groups was collected and utilized to define the sources of stress in parent-child relationships. Themes emerged from the literature and discussion groups that guided the content of the intervention. Projects emphasized features that were appropriate for this cultural group and promoted potential for sustainability, so that the programs might eventually be implemented at a population-wide level. Challenges included ensuring local direction, relevance and acceptability for the intervention content, engaging participants and enhancing motivation to make behavior changes after a brief program, measurement of behavior changes, and developing an equal partner relationship between academic and community staff. This work has public health significance because of the global importance of parent-child relationships as a risk-factor for many outcomes in adulthood, the need to develop interventions with strong evidence of effectiveness to populations outside the West, the potential application of our interventions to universal populations, and characteristics of the interventions that promote dissemination, including minimal additional costs for delivery by community agencies, and high

  11. Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Sara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As concern about youth obesity continues to mount, there is increasing consideration of widespread policy changes to support improved nutritional and enhanced physical activity offerings in schools. A critical element in the success of such programs may be to involve students as spokespeople for the program. Making such a public commitment to healthy lifestyle program targets (improved nutrition and enhanced physical activity may potentiate healthy behavior changes among such students and provide a model for their peers. This paper examines whether student's "public commitment"--voluntary participation as a peer communicator or in student-generated media opportunities--in a school-based intervention to prevent diabetes and reduce obesity predicted improved study outcomes including reduced obesity and improved health behaviors. Methods Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group. Results We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02. The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who

  12. Bullying Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  13. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weel Andre NH

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Methods Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Discussion Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism

  14. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Lisanne M; Proper, Karin I; Weel, Andre N H; Hulshof, Carel T J; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-12-14

    Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of the Balance@Work project is to develop, evaluate, and implement an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees. Following the guideline development protocol of the Netherlands Society of Occupational Medicine and the Intervention Mapping protocol, the guideline was developed based on literature, interviews with relevant stakeholders, and consensus among an expert group. The guideline consists of an individual and an environmental component. The individual component includes recommendations for occupational physicians on how to promote physical activity and healthy dietary behavior based on principles of motivational interviewing. The environmental component contains an obesogenic environment assessment tool. The guideline is evaluated in a randomised controlled trial among 20 occupational physicians. Occupational physicians in the intervention group apply the guideline to eligible workers during 6 months. Occupational physicians in the control group provide care as usual. Measurements take place at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months thereafter. Primary outcome measures include waist circumference, daily physical activity and dietary behavior. Secondary outcome measures include sedentary behavior, determinants of behavior change, body weight and body mass index, cardiovascular disease risk profile, and quality of life. Additionally, productivity, absenteeism, and cost-effectiveness are assessed. Improving workers' daily physical activity and dietary behavior may prevent weight gain and subsequently improve workers' health, increase productivity, and reduce absenteeism. After an effect- and process evaluation the guideline will be

  15. Experience and lessons from health impact assessment guiding prevention and control of HIV/AIDS in a copper mine project, northwestern Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, Astrid M; Divall, Mark J; Owuor, Milka; Nduna, Kennedy; Ng'uni, Harrison; Musunka, Gertrude; Pascall, Anna; Utzinger, Jürg; Winkler, Mirko S

    2017-07-04

    To avoid or mitigate potential project-related adverse health effects, the Trident copper project in Kalumbila, northwestern Zambia, commissioned a health impact assessment. HIV was identified a priority health issue based on the local vulnerability to HIV transmission and experience from other mining projects in Africa. Hence, an HIV/AIDS management plan was developed, including community and workplace interventions, with HIV testing and counselling (HTC) being one of the key components. We present trends in HTC data over a 4-year period. In 13 communities affected by the Trident project, HTC was implemented from 2012 onwards, using rapid diagnostic tests, accompanied by pre- and post-test counselling through trained personnel. In addition, HTC was initiated in the project workforce in 2013, coinciding with the launch of the mine development. HTC uptake and HIV positivity rates were assessed in the study population and linked to demographic factors using regression analysis. In total, 11,638 community members and 5564 workers have taken up HTC with an increase over time. The HIV positivity rate in the community was 3.0% in 2012 and 3.4% in 2015, while positivity rate in the workforce was 5.2% in 2013 and 4.3% in 2015. Females showed a significantly higher odds of having a positive test result than males (odds ratio (OR) = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.55-2.50 among women in the community and OR = 2.90, 95% CI: 1.74-4.84 among women in the workforce). HTC users in the 35-49 years age group were most affected by HIV, with an average positivity rate of 6.6% in the community sample and 7.9% in the workforce sample. These study groups had 4.50 and 4.95 higher odds of being positive, respectively, compared to their younger counterparts (15-24 years). While HTC uptake increased five-fold in the community and almost three-fold in the workplace, the HIV positivity rates were insignificantly higher in 2015 compared to 2012. Our data can be used alongside other

  16. DimeRisk Project: Development of an educational and training program for the prevention and mitigation of seismic risk in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-González, Fidel; Martín-Velazquez, Silvia; Giner-Robles, Jorge; Martínez-Díaz, Jose Jesus; Rodríguez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Béjar, Marta; Pérez-López, Raul; López, Jose Antonio; Morales, Javier; Barranco, Ana; Palomo, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    In Spain, due to the low recurrence of earthquakes in the last century, there is no awareness of seismic risk and prevention plans. For this reason, moderate magnitude earthquakes have generated significant damage and casualties. However, the risk is evident, in Spain during the nineteenth century there were more than five destructive earthquakes with intensities greater than VIII (e.g. Arenas del Rey IX-X, Torrevieja IX-X). A recent example was the 2011 Lorca earthquake, that with moderate magnitudes and intensities (magnitude Mw 5.2, intensity VI) it struck a populated area with old historic buildings and a population unprepared (9 victims, 324 injured, 1,200 million in reparations). In this earthquake many errors were found in the behavior of the population and in the basic self-protection measures. Many countries have educational programs that significantly reduce the damage and losses caused by earthquakes. The objective of this project (Dimerisk project) is to generate training and educational materials that help mitigate the damage and losses caused by earthquakes. This project is based on plans of experienced countries (e.g. U.S.A., Italy, Mexico, New Zealand) but having into account the mistakes made in the last earthquake in Spain, and also the characteristics of the Spanish educational system and building characteristics. This project has been founded by FUNDACION MAPFRE. The team is formed by geologist, earthquake researchers and teachers at secondary schools and universities. The ultimate goal is to generate material that can inform about the seismic and geological processes that participate in an earthquake and the basics of self-protection against earthquakes. This project has focused on scenarios (offices, factories, homes, education centers) and educational levels (schools, colleges and universities). Educational materials have been also developed for different educational levels with basic concepts related to seismicity, how to behave during an

  17. [THE RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT LOAN PROJECT "PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND AIDS", A "TUBERCULOSIS" COMPONENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.

  18. The prevention and reduction of weight loss in an acute tertiary care setting: protocol for a pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial (the PRoWL project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition, with accompanying weight loss, is an unnecessary risk in hospitalised persons and often remains poorly recognised and managed. The study aims to evaluate a hospital-wide multifaceted intervention co-facilitated by clinical nurses and dietitians addressing the nutritional care of patients, particularly those at risk of malnutrition. Using the best available evidence on reducing and preventing unplanned weight loss, the intervention (introducing universal nutritional screening; the provision of oral nutritional supplements; and providing red trays and additional support for patients in need of feeding) will be introduced by local ward teams in a phased way in a large tertiary acute care hospital. Methods/Design A pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial with repeated cross section design will be conducted. The unit of randomisation is the ward, with allocation by a random numbers table. Four groups of wards (n = 6 for three groups, n = 7 for one group) will be randomly allocated to each intervention time point over the trial. Two trained local facilitators (a nurse and dietitian for each group) will introduce the intervention. The primary outcome measure is change in patient’s body weight, secondary patient outcomes are: length of stay, all-cause mortality, discharge destinations, readmission rates and ED presentations. Patient outcomes will be measured on one ward per group, with 20 patients measured per ward per time period by an unblinded researcher. Including baseline, measurements will be conducted at five time periods. Staff perspectives on the context of care will be measured with the Alberta Context Tool. Discussion Unplanned and unwanted weight loss in hospital is common. Despite the evidence and growing concern about hospital nutrition there are very few evaluations of system-wide nutritional implementation programs. This project will test the implementation of a nutritional intervention across one hospital system using a

  19. Construction of a multisite DataLink using electronic health records for the identification, surveillance, prevention, and management of diabetes mellitus: the SUPREME-DM project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Gregory A; Desai, Jay; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Lawrence, Jean M; O'Connor, Patrick J; Pathak, Ram D; Raebel, Marsha A; Reid, Robert J; Selby, Joseph V; Silverman, Barbara G; Steiner, John F; Stewart, W F; Vupputuri, Suma; Waitzfelder, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) data enhance opportunities for conducting surveillance of diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the number of people with diabetes from a diabetes DataLink developed as part of the SUPREME-DM (SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus) project, a consortium of 11 integrated health systems that use comprehensive EHR data for research. We identified all members of 11 health care systems who had any enrollment from January 2005 through December 2009. For these members, we searched inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, laboratory test results, and pharmaceutical dispensings from January 2000 through December 2009 to create indicator variables that could potentially identify a person with diabetes. Using this information, we estimated the number of people with diabetes and among them, the number of incident cases, defined as indication of diabetes after at least 2 years of continuous health system enrollment. The 11 health systems contributed 15,765,529 unique members, of whom 1,085,947 (6.9%) met 1 or more study criteria for diabetes. The nonstandardized proportion meeting study criteria for diabetes ranged from 4.2% to 12.4% across sites. Most members with diabetes (88%) met multiple criteria. Of the members with diabetes, 428,349 (39.4%) were incident cases. The SUPREME-DM DataLink is a unique resource that provides an opportunity to conduct comparative effectiveness research, epidemiologic surveillance including longitudinal analyses, and population-based care management studies of people with diabetes. It also provides a useful data source for pragmatic clinical trials of prevention or treatment interventions.

  20. Construction of a Multisite DataLink Using Electronic Health Records for the Identification, Surveillance, Prevention, and Management of Diabetes Mellitus: The SUPREME-DM Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Jay; Elston Lafata, Jennifer; Lawrence, Jean M.; O’Connor, Patrick J.; Pathak, Ram D.; Raebel, Marsha A.; Reid, Robert J.; Selby, Joseph V.; Silverman, Barbara G.; Steiner, John F.; Stewart, W.F.; Vupputuri, Suma; Waitzfelder, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Electronic health record (EHR) data enhance opportunities for conducting surveillance of diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify the number of people with diabetes from a diabetes DataLink developed as part of the SUPREME-DM (SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus) project, a consortium of 11 integrated health systems that use comprehensive EHR data for research. Methods We identified all members of 11 health care systems who had any enrollment from January 2005 through December 2009. For these members, we searched inpatient and outpatient diagnosis codes, laboratory test results, and pharmaceutical dispensings from January 2000 through December 2009 to create indicator variables that could potentially identify a person with diabetes. Using this information, we estimated the number of people with diabetes and among them, the number of incident cases, defined as indication of diabetes after at least 2 years of continuous health system enrollment. Results The 11 health systems contributed 15,765,529 unique members, of whom 1,085,947 (6.9%) met 1 or more study criteria for diabetes. The nonstandardized proportion meeting study criteria for diabetes ranged from 4.2% to 12.4% across sites. Most members with diabetes (88%) met multiple criteria. Of the members with diabetes, 428,349 (39.4%) were incident cases. Conclusion The SUPREME-DM DataLink is a unique resource that provides an opportunity to conduct comparative effectiveness research, epidemiologic surveillance including longitudinal analyses, and population-based care management studies of people with diabetes. It also provides a useful data source for pragmatic clinical trials of prevention or treatment interventions. PMID:22677160

  1. Audit of preventive activities in 16 inner London practices using a validated measure of patient population, the 'active patient' denominator. Healthy Eastenders Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, J; Falshaw, M

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Reliable comparison of the results of audit between general practices and over time requires standard definitions of numerators and denominators. This is particularly relevant in areas of high population turnover and practice list inflation. Without simple validation to remove supernumeraries, population coverage and professional activity may be underestimated. AIM. This audit study aimed to define a standard denominator, the 'active patient' denominator, to enable comparison of professional activity and population coverage for preventive activities between general practices and over time. It also aimed to document the extent to which computers were used for recording such activities. METHOD. A random sample of people in the age group 30-64 years was drawn from the computerized general practice registers of the 16 inner London general practices that participated in the 'healthy eastenders project'. A validation procedure excluded those patients who were likely to have died or moved away, or who for administrative reasons were unable to contribute to the numerator; this allowed the creation of the active patient denominator. An audit of preventive activities with numerators drawn from both paper and computerized medical records was carried out and results were presented so that practices could compare their results with those of their peers and over time. RESULTS. Of the original sample of 2331 people, 25% (practice range 13%-37%) were excluded as a result of the validation procedure. A denominator based on the complete, unexpurgated practice register rather than the validated active patient denominator would have reduced the proportion of people with blood pressure recorded within the preceding five years from 77% to 61%, recording of smoking status from 68% to 53% and recording of cervical smears from 80% to 66%. Only 53% of the last recordings, within the preceding five years, of blood pressure and only 54% of those of smoking status were recorded on

  2. Rationale and design of the DP-TRANSFERS project: diabetes prevention-transferring findings from European research to society in Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Bernardo; Castell, Conxa; Cos, Xavier; Solé, Claustre; Mestre, Santiago; Canela, Marta; Boquet, Antoni; Cabré, Joan-Josep; Barrio, Francisco; Flores-Mateo, Gemma; Ferrer-Vidal, Daniel; Lindström, Jaana

    2016-04-27

    Compelling evidence has been accumulated to support the effectiveness of intensive lifestyle intervention in delaying progression to Type 2 diabetes even in people identified as being at high risk determined by the Finnish diabetes risk score. The DE-PLAN-CAT project (diabetes in Europe-prevention using lifestyle, physical activity and nutritional intervention-Catalonia) evidenced that intensive lifestyle intervention was feasible and cost-effective on a short scale in real-life primary care settings, at least over 4 years. However, transferring such lifestyle interventions to society remains the major challenge of research in the field of diabetes prevention. The derived DP-TRANSFERS (diabetes prevention-transferring findings from European research to society) is a large scale national programme aimed at translating a tailored lifestyle intervention to the maximum of primary care centres where feasible through a core proposal agreed with all the partners. The method is built upon a 3-step (screening, intervention and follow-up) real-life, community-wide structure on the basis of a dual intensity lifestyle intervention (basic and continuity modules) and supported by a 4-channel transfer strategy (institutional relationships, facilitators' workshops, collaborative groupware and programme WEB page). Participation will initially cover nine health departments (7 million inhabitants) through nine coordinating centres located in metropolitan (3.2 million), semi-urban (2.9 million) and rural (0.9 million) areas from which it is expected accessing 25 % of all primary care settings, equivalent to 90 associated centres (1.6-1.8 million people) with an estimate of 0.32 million participants aged 45-75 years at high risk of future development of diabetes. To ascertain sustainability, effect, satisfaction and quality of the translation programme statistical analyses will be performed from both the entire population (facilitators and participants) and a stratified

  3. Mathematical investigation of IP3-dependent calcium dynamics in astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Gregory; Taheri, Marsa; White, John A; Borisyuk, Alla

    2017-06-01

    We study evoked calcium dynamics in astrocytes, a major cell type in the mammalian brain. Experimental evidence has shown that such dynamics are highly variable between different trials, cells, and cell subcompartments. Here we present a qualitative analysis of a recent mathematical model of astrocyte calcium responses. We show how the major response types are generated in the model as a result of the underlying bifurcation structure. By varying key channel parameters, mimicking blockers used by experimentalists, we manipulate this underlying bifurcation structure and predict how the distributions of responses can change. We find that store-operated calcium channels, plasma membrane bound channels with little activity during calcium transients, have a surprisingly strong effect, underscoring the importance of considering these channels in both experiments and mathematical settings. Variation in the maximum flow in different calcium channels is also shown to determine the range of stable oscillations, as well as set the range of frequencies of the oscillations. Further, by conducting a randomized search through the parameter space and recording the resulting calcium responses, we create a database that can be used by experimentalists to help estimate the underlying channel distribution of their cells.

  4. A mixed-method evaluation of the New York State Eat Well Play Hard Community Projects: Building local capacity for sustainable childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kaydian S; Sekhobo, Jackson P; Gantner, Leigh A; Holbrook, MaryEllen K; Allsopp, Marie; Whalen, Linda B; Koren-Roth, Amy

    2018-04-01

    This study used a mixed-method, comparative case study approach to assess the level of capacity built for childhood obesity prevention among seven New York State Eat Well Play Hard-Community Projects (EWPH-CP). Data were collected through a self-reported survey in 2007, semi-structured interviews in 2009, and EWPH-CP program documentation throughout the 2006-2010 funding cycle. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were used along with an integrative framework for assessing local capacity building to characterize the capacity built by the study coalitions. Four coalitions rated membership characteristics as a challenge at the beginning of the funding cycle. Towards the end of the funding cycle, all seven coalitions reported activities that were initially focused on building their membership (i.e., member capacity) or positive working relationships (i.e. relational capacity), before eventually pursuing support and resources (i.e., organizational capacity) for implementing their chosen community-oriented programmatic goals (i.e., programmatic capacity). Five coalitions reported environmental changes aimed at increasing physical activity or fruit and vegetable intake. Technical assistance provided to coalitions was credited with contributing to the achievement of programmatic goals. These results suggest that the coalitions succeeded in building local capacity for increasing age-appropriate physical activity or fruit and vegetables intake in the target communities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  6. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on `Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition` held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers Refs, figs, tabs, graphs

  7. An examination of the social determinants of health as factors related to health, healing and prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder in a northern context--the Brightening Our Home Fires Project, Northwest Territories, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badry, Dorothy; Felske, Aileen Wight

    2013-01-01

    The Brightening Our Home Fires (BOHF) project was conceptualized as an exploratory project to examine the issue of the prevention of foetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) from a women's health perspective in the Northwest Territories (NT). While dominant discourse suggests that FASD is preventable by abstention from alcohol during pregnancy, a broader perspective would indicate that alcohol and pregnancy is a far more complex issue, that is, bound in location, economics, social and cultural views of health. This project was prevention focused and a social determinant of health (SDH) perspective informed this research. The BOHF project was a qualitative research project using a participatory action research framework to examine women's health and healing in the north. The methodology utilized was Photovoice. Women were provided training in digital photography and given cameras to use and keep. The primary research question utilized was: What does health and healing look like for you in your community? Women described their photos, individually or in groups around this central topic. This research was FASD informed, and women participants were aware this was an FASD prevention funded project whose approach focused on a broader context of health and lived experience. This project drew 30 participants from: Yellowknife, Lutsel 'ke, Behchokö and Ulukhaktok. These four different communities across the NT represented Dene and Inuit culture. The qualitative data analysis offered themes of importance to women's health in the north including: land and tradition; housing; poverty; food; family; health, mental health and trauma, and travel. Photovoice provides a non-threatening way to engage in dialogue on complex health and social issues.

  8. Behavioral and Cognitive Effects of a Worksite-Based Weight Gain Prevention Program: The NHF-NRG In Balance-Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, L.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Baak, van M.A.; Brug, J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Examine the effectiveness of the worksite-based weight gain prevention program Netherlands Heart Foundation-Netherlands Research program weight Gain prevention In Balance, with regard to behavioral changes and corresponding cognitive determinants. METHODS:: A nonrandomized

  9. Prevention of diabetes in overweight/obese children through a family based intervention program including supervised exercise (PREDIKID project): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenaza, Lide; Medrano, María; Amasene, María; Rodríguez-Vigil, Beatriz; Díez, Ignacio; Graña, Manuel; Tobalina, Ignacio; Maiz, Edurne; Arteche, Edurne; Larrarte, Eider; Huybrechts, Inge; Davis, Catherine L; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Margareto, Javier; Labayen, Idoia

    2017-08-10

    The global pandemic of obesity has led to an increased risk for prediabetes and type-2 diabetes (T2D). The aims of the current project are: (1) to evaluate the effect of a 22-week family based intervention program, including supervised exercise, on insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) risk in children with a high risk of developing T2D and (2) to identify the profile of microRNA in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with a high risk of developing T2D and its response to a multidisciplinary intervention program including exercise. A total of 84 children, aged 8-12 years, with a high risk of T2D will be included and randomly assigned to control (N = 42) or intervention (N = 42) groups. The control group will receive a family based lifestyle education and psycho-educational program (2 days/month), while the intervention group will attend the same lifestyle education and psycho-educational program plus the exercise program (3 days/week, 90 min per session including warm-up, moderate to vigorous aerobic activities, and strength exercises). The following measurements will be evaluated at baseline prior to randomization and after the intervention: fasting insulin, glucose and hemoglobin A1c; body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry); ectopic fat (magnetic resonance imaging); microRNA expression in circulating exosomes and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MiSeq; Illumina); cardiorespiratory fitness (cardiopulmonary exercise testing); dietary habits and physical activity (accelerometry). Prevention and identification of children with a high risk of developing T2D could help to improve their cardiovascular health and to reduce the comorbidities associated with obesity. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03027726 . Registered on 16 January 2017.

  10. Long-term prediction of prostate cancer diagnosis and death using PSA and obesity related anthropometrics at early middle age: data from the malmö preventive project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assel, Melissa J; Gerdtsson, Axel; Thorek, Daniel L J; Carlsson, Sigrid V; Malm, Johan; Scardino, Peter T; Vickers, Andrew; Lilja, Hans; Ulmert, David

    2018-01-19

    To evaluate whether anthropometric parameters add to PSA measurements in middle-aged men for risk assessment of prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis and death. After adjusting for PSA, both BMI and weight were significantly associated with an increased risk of PCa death with the odds of a death corresponding to a 10 kg/m2 or 10 kg increase being 1.58 (95% CI 1.10, 2.28; p = 0.013) and 1.14 (95% CI 1.02, 1.26; p = 0.016) times greater, respectively. AUCs did not meaningfully increase with the addition of weight or BMI to prediction models including PSA. In 1974 to 1986, 22,444 Swedish men aged 44 to 50 enrolled in Malmö Preventive Project, Sweden, and provided blood samples and anthropometric data. Rates of PSA screening in the cohort were very low. Documentation of PCa diagnosis and disease-specific death up to 2014 was retrieved through national registries. Among men with anthropometric measurements available at baseline, a total of 1692 men diagnosed with PCa were matched to 4190 controls, and 464 men who died of disease were matched to 1390 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to determine whether diagnosis or death from PCa were associated with weight and body mass index (BMI) at adulthood after adjusting for PSA. Men with higher BMI and weight at early middle age have an increased risk of PCa diagnosis and death after adjusting for PSA. However, in a multi-variable numerical statistical model, BMI and weight do not importantly improve the predictive accuracy of PSA. Risk-stratification of screening should be based on PSA without reference to anthropometrics.

  11. Project Shikamana: Baseline Findings From a Community Empowerment-Based Combination HIV Prevention Trial Among Female Sex Workers in Iringa, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrigan, Deanna; Mbwambo, Jessie; Likindikoki, Samuel; Beckham, Sarah; Mwampashi, Ard; Shembilu, Catherine; Mantsios, Andrea; Leddy, Anna; Davis, Wendy; Galai, Noya

    2017-01-01

    Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs. Cohort members were recruited from entertainment venues across 2 communities in the region using time-location sampling. All study participants gave consent, and were surveyed and screened for HIV at baseline. Primary biological study outcomes are viral suppression among the HIV-infected and remaining free of HIV among HIV-uninfected women. A cohort of 496 FSWs was established and is currently under follow-up. Baseline HIV prevalence was 40.9% (203/496). Among HIV-infected FSWs, 30.5% (62/203) were previously aware of their HIV status; among those who were aware, 69.4% were on antiretroviral therapy (43/62); and for those on antiretroviral therapy, 69.8% (30/43) were virally suppressed. Factors associated with both HIV infection and viral suppression at baseline included community, age, number of clients, and substance use. Amount of money charged per client and having tested for sexually transmitted infection in the past 6 months were protective for HIV infection. Social cohesion among FSWs was protective for viral suppression. Significant gaps exist in HIV service coverage and progress toward reaching the 90-90-90 goals among FSWs in Iringa, Tanzania. Community empowerment approaches hold promise given the high HIV prevalence, limited services and stigma, discrimination, and violence.

  12. European recommendations for primary prevention of congenital anomalies: A joined effort of EUROCAT and EUROPLAN projects to facilitate inclusion of this topic in the National Rare Disease Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taruscio, Domenica; Arriola, Larraitz; Baldi, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are the paradigm example of rare diseases liable to primary prevention actions due to the multifactorial etiology of many of them, involving a number of environmental factors together with genetic predispositions. Yet despite the preventive potential, lack of attention t...

  13. Employing the church as a marketer of cancer prevention: a look at a health promotion project aimed to reduce colorectal cancer among African Americans in the Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Coffey, Candice R; Daley, Christine M; Greiner, K Allen

    2013-01-01

    Health promotion programs designed to address colorectal cancer disparities among African Americans are increasing. Unfortunately, this group still shoulders a disproportionate mortality burden in the United States; these numbers are also reflective of colorectal cancer (CRC) disparities in the Midwest. The purpose of this study was to extrapolate results from in-depth interviews and brief surveys on the effectiveness of the church as a social marketer of CRC-prevention messages. Results show that pastors believe the congregation has limited knowledge about CRC risk and prevention; they also believe the church can improve cancer-prevention communication among members and those affiliated with the church.

  14. Give Water a Hand. Farm and Ranch Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation on a farm or ranch, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  15. Project WP#422: Consolidated Research Program, Right of Way Automated Monitoring Threat Prevention (Topic Area #1); Leak Detection (Topic Area #2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    Preventing unauthorized intrusions on pipeline Right of Ways (ROWs) and mechanical damage due to third party strikes by machinery is a constant challenge for the pipeline industry. Equally important for safety and environmental protection is the dete...

  16. The impact of integrated prevention and treatment on child malnutrition and health: the PROMIS project, a randomized control trial in Burkina Faso and Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybregts, Lieven; Becquey, Elodie; Zongrone, Amanda; Le Port, Agnes; Khassanova, Regina; Coulibaly, Lazare; Leroy, Jef L; Rawat, Rahul; Ruel, Marie T

    2017-03-09

    Evidence suggests that both preventive and curative nutrition interventions are needed to tackle child acute malnutrition (AM) in developing countries. In addition to reducing the incidence of AM, providing preventive interventions may also help increase attendance (and coverage) of AM screening, a major constraint in the community-based management of child acute malnutrition (CMAM) model. There is a paucity of evidence-based strategies to deliver integrated preventive and curative interventions effectively and affordably at scale. The aim of the Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition (PROMIS) study is to assess the feasibility, quality of implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated child malnutrition prevention and treatment intervention package implemented through a community-based platform in Mali and a facility-based platform in Burkina Faso. The PROMIS intervention entails a comprehensive preventive package offered on a monthly basis to caregivers of children, while children are screened for acute malnutrition (AM). The package consists of behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions, and monthly preventive doses of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) for children aged 6 to 23.9 months. Positive AM cases are referred to treatment services offered by first-line health services according to the CMAM model. The PROMIS intervention will be evaluated using a mixed methods approach. The impact study encompasses two types of study design: i) repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted at baseline and at endline after 24 months of program implementation and ii) a longitudinal study with a monthly follow-up for 18 months. Primary study impact measures include the incidence and endpoint prevalence of AM, AM screening coverage and treatment compliance. A process evaluation will assess the feasibility and quality of implementation of the intervention guided by country

  17. The impact of integrated prevention and treatment on child malnutrition and health: the PROMIS project, a randomized control trial in Burkina Faso and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Huybregts

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that both preventive and curative nutrition interventions are needed to tackle child acute malnutrition (AM in developing countries. In addition to reducing the incidence of AM, providing preventive interventions may also help increase attendance (and coverage of AM screening, a major constraint in the community-based management of child acute malnutrition (CMAM model. There is a paucity of evidence-based strategies to deliver integrated preventive and curative interventions effectively and affordably at scale. The aim of the Innovative Approaches for the Prevention of Childhood Malnutrition (PROMIS study is to assess the feasibility, quality of implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an integrated child malnutrition prevention and treatment intervention package implemented through a community-based platform in Mali and a facility-based platform in Burkina Faso. Methods/Design The PROMIS intervention entails a comprehensive preventive package offered on a monthly basis to caregivers of children, while children are screened for acute malnutrition (AM. The package consists of behavior change communication on essential nutrition and hygiene actions, and monthly preventive doses of small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS for children aged 6 to 23.9 months. Positive AM cases are referred to treatment services offered by first-line health services according to the CMAM model. The PROMIS intervention will be evaluated using a mixed methods approach. The impact study encompasses two types of study design: i repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted at baseline and at endline after 24 months of program implementation and ii a longitudinal study with a monthly follow-up for 18 months. Primary study impact measures include the incidence and endpoint prevalence of AM, AM screening coverage and treatment compliance. A process evaluation will assess the feasibility and quality of

  18. Measures to prevent global warming, and NEDO's energy-saving model projects; Chikyu ondanka boshi taisaku to NEDO sho energy model jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Described herein are United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the world AIJ (Activities Implemented Jointly) projects, and the Japan's measures and NEDO's energy-saving model projects therefor. NEDO has been inviting the public to join the contests for the projects to be implemented as part of the AIJ Japan program for the first time since April 1996. A total of 11 projects were adopted in July, including the model project for recovering heat from red-hot coke with inert gas, to be implemented by NEDO in China. After the first invitation, an individual proposal will be accepted and examined for which no time limit is set. The NEDO's model projects approved so far include demonstration studies on facilities for effective utilization of paper-making sludge, waste heat recovery at steel furnaces, energy-saving at electric furnaces for alloys, effective utilization of waste heat at garbage incinerators, and power saving at cement kilns. (NEDO)

  19. Rationale and design of the PREDICE project: cost-effectiveness of type 2 diabetes prevention among high-risk Spanish individuals following lifestyle intervention in real-life primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Bernardo; Cabré, Joan J; Sagarra, Ramon; Solà-Morales, Oriol; Barrio, Francisco; Piñol, Josep L; Cos, Xavier; Bolíbar, Bonaventura; Castell, Conxa; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2011-08-04

    Type 2 diabetes is an important preventable disease and a growing public health problem. Based on information provided by clinical trials, we know that Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by lifestyle intervention. In view of translating the findings of diabetes prevention research into real-life it is necessary to carry out community-based evaluations so as to learn about the feasibility and effectiveness of locally designed and implemented programmes. The aim of this project was to assess the effectiveness of an active real-life primary care strategy in high-risk individuals for developing diabetes, and then evaluate its efficiency. Cost-Effectiveness analysis of the DE-PLAN (Diabetes in Europe - Prevention using Lifestyle, physical Activity and Nutritional intervention) project when applied to a Mediterranean population in Catalonia (DE-PLAN-CAT). Multicenter, longitudinal cohort assessment (4 years) conducted in 18 primary health-care centres (Catalan Health Institute). Individuals without diabetes aged 45-75 years were screened using the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score - FINDRISC - questionnaire and a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. All high risk tested individuals were invited to participate in either a usual care intervention (information on diet and cardiovascular health without individualized programme), or the intensive DE-PLAN educational program (individualized or group) periodically reinforced. Oral glucose tolerance test was repeated yearly to determine diabetes incidence. Besides measuring the accumulated incidence of diabetes, information was collected on economic impact of the interventions in both cohorts (using direct and indirect cost questionnaires) and information on utility measures (Quality Adjusted Life Years). A cost-utility and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed and data will be modelled to predict long-term cost-effectiveness. The project was intended to evidence that a substantial reduction in Type 2 diabetes incidence

  20. Model projections on the impact of HCV treatment in the prevention of HCV transmission among people who inject drugs in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraser, Hannah; Martin, Natasha K; Brummer-Korvenkontio, Henrikki

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID) is critical to eliminating HCV in Europe. We estimate impact of current and scaled-up HCV treatment with and without scaling-up opioid substitution therapy (OST) and needle and syringe programmes (...

  1. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Lisanne M.; Proper, Karin I.; Weel, Andre N. H.; Hulshof, Carel T. J.; van Mechelen, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence- and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date. The aim of

  2. Design of the Balance@Work project: systematic development, evaluation and implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at the prevention of weight gain among employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, L.M.; Proper, K.I.; Weel, A.N.H.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; van Mechelen, W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Occupational health professionals may play an important role in preventive health promotion activities for employees. However, due to a lack of knowledge and evidence-and practice based methods and strategies, interventions are hardly being implemented by occupational physicians to date.

  3. Reductions in Transmission Risk Behaviors in HIV-Positive Clients Receiving Prevention Case Management Services: Findings from a Community Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowicz, Mari; Llanas, Michelle R.; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Benotsch, Eric G.; Brondino, Michael J.; Catz, Sheryl L.; Hoxie, Neil J.; Reiser, William J.; Vergeront, James M.

    2005-01-01

    Prevention case management (PCM) for HIV-infected persons is an HIV risk reduction intervention designed to assist clients who are aware of their HIV infection and who continue to engage in risk transmission behaviors. PCM combines individual risk reduction counseling with case management to address the psychosocial factors affecting HIV…

  4. Effectiveness of locomotion training in a home visit preventive care project: one-group pre-intervention versus post-intervention design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinya; Hashimoto, Mari; Aduma, Saori; Yasumura, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    Locomotion training in a home visit-type preventive-care program has been reported elsewhere. However, continuation of appropriate exercises in a home setting is difficult, and few reports are available on locomotion training in a home setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of locomotion training over 3 months in a home visit-type preventive-care program for improvement of motor function among elderly people. Nine hundred and fifty-eight elderly people in Tendo City in Japan who were not currently attending any preventive-care program were invited to participate in the study, and 87 were enrolled. In the pre-intervention and post-intervention assessments, we administered an interview survey (the Kihon Checklist), the timed one-leg standing test with eyes open and the sit-to-stand test, at the participants' homes. The intervention involved one set of training exercises with the participants standing on each leg for 1 min and squatting five or six times. The participants were asked to repeat one set of the exercises three times a day at home. In addition, the participants were regularly asked over the telephone about their performance of the exercises. Physical strength, cognitive function, and total scores of the Kihon Checklist were significantly lower after the intervention than before. In addition, the one-leg standing test time was significantly longer after the intervention (mean ± SD, 23.9 ± 35.4) than before (15.7 ± 20.5), and the sit-to-stand test time was significantly shorter after the intervention (13.0 ± 6.2) than before (14.8 ± 8.3). Locomotion training in a home-visit preventive-care program with telephone support effectively improved the motor function of elderly people who were not currently attending any preventive-care program organized by the long-term care insurance system.

  5. “Facoltà d’Amarsi”: when young people try to change the situation. Youth project as a tool for health communication and STD prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Massini

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Since its discovery, AIDS has been a major pandemic infection. Nowadays, despite high levels of awareness, HIV infection is still one of the most complex phenomenon in our society and people, especially young people, don’t apply changes to reduce sexual risk behaviour to bring about prevention of HIV and AIDS. Condom use, particularly consistent use, is suboptimal in our communities. In our country, for Family Planning Worldwide 2008, just 38,3% of young people reported to use condoms. Monogamy and harmonious relationships play a positive role in young people and reduce their risk of HIV infection and such aspects of relationship contexts could form a significant part of the progressive strategies required for HIV-prevention interventions to be successful. Many prevention campaigns have been realized and in particular they try to explain the risk connected to HIV and give information about how to prevent infection and the infection’s course. The next generation of HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions should move beyond basic sex education and condom use / availability. Successful interventions must optimize strategies that support HIV risk reduction behaviours. Despite extensive behavioural research, current strategies have not resulted.

    Methods: In this article we explain why the old campaign didn’t work and why youth initiatives could be a possible answer to a prevention needs. We choose the method of peer education and scientific contents using transverse knowledge from expert of medicine, psychology and media science to face off at the needs of efficacy and reliability. 

    Results: The final sample is made by 271 students, 102 males, 164 females. 91,5% declare that had already sexual relations, instead 5,19% never had one. 38,% of sample affirm to use habitually condoms, 20,3% sometimes, 18,8% never used condoms

  6. U.S. Department of Energy's initiatives for proliferation prevention in Russia: results of radioactive liquid waste treatment project, year 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhitonov, Y.; Kamachev, V.; Kelley, D.

    2010-10-01

    The objective of the project is to engage weapons scientists with training and research programs at selected nuclear sites in Russia and apply high technology polymers to immobilize legacy ILW and HLW liquids that have posed environmental challenges over the years. One compelling advantage of the projects is that V.G. Khlopin Radium Institute and Pacific Nuclear Solutions have been engaged in applied research for seven years to validate the performance and effectiveness of the polymer technology for use with radioactive liquids. With conclusive results of the research work on sixty active and simulant waste streams, the project can focus on actual applications of the technology at Ozersk (Mayak), Sever sk (SCC) Zheleznogorsk (MCC) and Gatchyna rather that on pure research. The long term objective of the project is find viable waste management solutions for serious radioactive and chemical contamination that has existed in Russia and the U. S. for several decades. The polymer technologies may be applied to all radioactive liquid. This paper summarizes the experimental work of the immobilization process and data definition of the most effective polymer compositions in addition to determining the optimum polymer to liquid ratios for economic considerations. (Author)

  7. The Children and Parents in Focus project : a population-based cluster-randomised controlled trial to prevent behavioural and emotional problems in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Salari, Raziye; Fabian, Helena; Prinz, Ron; Lucas, Steven; Feldman, Inna; Fairchild, Amanda; Sarkadi, Anna

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is large body of knowledge to support the importance of early interventions to improve child health and development. Nonetheless, it is important to identify cost-effective blends of preventive interventions with adequate coverage and feasible delivery modes. The aim of the Children and Parents in Focus trial is to compare two levels of parenting programme intensity and rate of exposure, with a control condition to address impact and cost-effectiveness of a universally offer...

  8. Favourable outcomes of a preventive screening and counselling programme for older people in underprivileged areas in the Netherlands: The PRIMUS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Annemarie van Dijk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An aging population is associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and depression. Important aspects of programmes targeted at older people are: to reach those at risk, effective screening, optimising advice, and referral to local interventions. We examined the effect of a preventive health consultation (PRIMUS, a multi-behavioural screening programme for persons aged 55–74 years in primary care. In a multi-centre randomised controlled trial, the effects of participating in the PRIMUS intervention were compared to a comparison group receiving personalised summaries and advice by postal mail, both preceded by a health risk assessment via a questionnaire. The intervention consisted of a baseline health risk assessment, followed by a preventive health consultation (after 4 weeks, and a follow-up visit (2 weeks later in the primary care centre. A newly developed web-based computer-tailored programme supported the nurse practitioner during the consultation. Main outcomes measures were awareness of, and compliance with referral advice for changing unhealthy lifestyles. The PRIMUS preventive health consultation was successful in older people at risk for cardio metabolic diseases compared to the comparison group (compliance: RR 1.43; 95% CI 1.12–1.79; p < 0.05. The intervention was less successful in older people at risk for mental health problems. This preventive health consultation for older people resulted in positive changes in unhealthy behaviours by optimising reach, raising awareness, motivating and assisting individuals to change, and referring to local interventions.

  9. [Survey and analysis of awareness of lung cancer prevention and control in a LDCT lung cancer screening project in Tianjin Dagang Oilfield of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guanhua; Ye, Jianfei; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhijuan; Jia, Hui; Du, Xinxin; Hou, Chaohua; Wang, Ying; Zhao, Yongcheng; Zhou, Qinghua

    2014-02-01

    It has been proven that increase of the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control could enhance participation of lung cancer screening of lung cancer high risk group. The aim of this study is to investigate the awareness level of lung cancer prevention and control and the effect of individual characteristics on lung cancer awareness, and to provide evidence for comprehensive lung cancer prevention in high risk areas of lung cancer. Staffs of Tianjin Dagang Oil Field who participate low dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening by cluster sampling or according to voluntary principle were surveyed, data of lung cancer awareness were collected by questionnaire. A total of 1,633 valid questionnaires were collected. The average age of respondents was 60.08±6.58. Most participants were males (82.2%) while female only accounted for 17.8%. The proportions of awareness about lung cancer in China, risk factors, screening methods and the knowledge of health examination were 64.5%, 77.1%, 43.7%, 49.6% respectively. Result of multiple logistic regression analysis showed that education level, smoking (pack-year), age, prior tuberculosis were the influencing factors of lung cancer awareness with adjusted Ors for education and age level as of 0.567 (95%CI: 0.439-0.733) and 1.373 (95%CI: 1.084-1.739) respectively. 80.3% of the participants can accept health examination once a year, while the ability to pay the medical expenses was not high. The influencing factors of health examination willingness were gender, age, income, the knowledge of lung cancer. Education level and smoking affect the awareness of lung cancer prevention and control, health education for lung cancer should be conducted especially in population with low education level. Comprehensive lung cancer control in high risk areas should combined lung cancer screening, tobacco control and health education.

  10. The GENACIS project: a review of findings and some implications for global needs in women-focused substance abuse prevention and intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilsnack SC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sharon C WilsnackDepartment of Clinical Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS is a collaborative study of gender-related and cultural influences on alcohol use and alcohol-related problems of women and men. Members conduct comparative analyses of data from comparable general population surveys in 38 countries on five continents. This paper presents GENACIS findings that (1 age-related declines in drinking are uncommon outside North America and Europe; (2 groups of women at increased risk for hazardous drinking include women who cohabit, women with fewer social roles, more highly educated women in lower-income countries, and sexual minority women in North America; (3 heavier alcohol use shows strong and cross-culturally consistent associations with increased likelihood and severity of intimate partner violence; and (4 one effect or accompaniment of rapid social, economic, and gender-role change in traditional societies may be increased drinking among formerly abstinent women. These findings have potentially important implications for women-focused intervention and policy. Substance abuse services should include attention to middle-aged and older women, who may have different risk factors, symptoms, and treatment issues than their younger counterparts. Creative, targeted prevention is needed for high-risk groups of women. Programs to reduce violence between intimate partners must include attention to the pervasive role of alcohol use in intimate partner aggression. Social and economic empowerment of women, together with social marketing of norms of abstention or low-risk drinking, may help prevent increased hazardous alcohol use among women in countries undergoing rapid social change. Greater attention to effects of gender, culture, and their interactions can inform the design of more effective prevention

  11. Nuclear safety projects 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carl-Erik Christoffersen

    1996-01-01

    Action plans for the prevention of contamination in the Arctic regions is concretized in a number of international projects. The Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority is responsible for the follow-up of 13 projects. The report describes the development of these projects in 1995

  12. Prevention of Medical Device-Related Pressure Injuries Associated With Respiratory Equipment Use in a Critical Care Unit: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Cynthia A; Paradis, Heidi; Goodwin, Robert; Lynch, Judith; Hegerich-Bartula, Deborah

    Medical devices have been identified as an extrinsic risk factor for development of pressure injuries, with as many as 30% to 70% of medical device-related pressure injuries resulting from respiratory equipment. This article describes a quality improvement project undertaken to reduce the occurrence of respiratory device-related pressure injuries in a critically care unit. Multiple actions were implemented to achieve this goal. Respiratory therapists were trained to document occurrences on a daily basis, and apparent cause analyses were conducted on each occurrence. An interdisciplinary team conducted biweekly rounds on patients with respiratory devices and consulted other professionals as indicated. Nurses and respiratory therapists attended an evidence-based, collaborative, educational offering and completed a measure of team functioning before the program and at the end of the study period. The occurrence rates of respiratory device-related pressure injuries were reduced over the project period, and these changes were sustained over the subsequent 12 months.

  13. Protocol for the CHORD project (community health outreach to reduce diabetes): a cluster-randomized community health worker trial to prevent diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nadia; Gepts, Thomas; Lief, Isaac; Gore, Radhika; Levy, Natalie; Tanner, Michael; Fang, Yixin; Sherman, Scott E; Schwartz, Mark D

    2018-04-19

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) affects 9.4% of US adults and children, while another 33.9% of Americans are at risk of DM. Health care institutions face many barriers to systematically delivering the preventive care needed to decrease DM incidence. Community health workers (CHWs) may, as frontline public health workers bridging clinic and community, help overcome these challenges. This paper presents the protocol for a pragmatic, cluster-randomized trial integrating CHWs into two primary care clinics to support DM prevention for at-risk patients. The trial will randomize 15 care teams, stratified by practice site (Bellevue Hospital and Manhattan VA), totaling 56 primary care physicians. The study cohort will consist of ~ 2000 patients who are 18-75 years of age, actively enrolled in a primary care team, able to speak English or Spanish, and have at least one glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) result in the prediabetic range (5.7-6.4%) since 2012. Those with a current DM diagnosis or DM medication prescription (other than metformin) are ineligible. The intervention consists of four core activities - setting health goals, health education, activation for doctor's appointments, and referrals to DM prevention programs - adjustable according to the patient's needs and readiness. The primary outcome is DM incidence. Secondary outcomes include weight loss, HbA1C, and self-reported health behaviors. Clinical variables and health behaviors will be obtained through electronic medical records and surveys, respectively. Implementation outcomes, namely implementation fidelity and physicians' perspectives about CHW integration into the clinic, will be assessed using interviews and CHW activity logs and analyzed for the influence of moderating organizational factors. This is the first rigorous, pragmatic trial to test the effectiveness of integrating CHWs into primary care for DM prevention reaching a population-based sample. Our study's limitations include language

  14. The HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project. Using a web-based medium to influence attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention for obesity and type 2 diabetes prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Henna; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Castelli, Darla M; Scherer, Jane A

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs (behavioral belief, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, knowledge and behavioral intention) regarding preventive behaviors for obesity and type 2 diabetes will change favorably after completing the web-based intervention, HOT (Healthy Outcome for Teens) project, grounded in the TPB; and that passive online learning (POL) group will improve more than the active online learning (AOL) group. The secondary hypothesis was to determine to what extent constructs of the TPB predict intentions. 216 adolescents were recruited, 127 randomly allocated to the treatment group (AOL) and 89 to the control group (POL). The subjects completed a TPB questionnaire pre and post intervention. Both POL and AOL groups showed significant improvements from pretest to posttest survey. However, the results indicated no significant difference between POL and AOL for all constructs except behavioral belief. Correlational analysis indicated that all TPB constructs were significantly correlated with intentions for pretest and posttest for both groups. Attitude and behavioral control showed strongest correlations. Regression analysis indicated that TPB constructs were predictive of intentions and the predictive power improved post intervention. Behavioral control consistently predicted intentions for all categories and was the strongest predictor for pretest scores. For posttest scores, knowledge and attitude were the strongest predictors for POL and AOL groups respectively. Thus, HOT project improved knowledge and the TPB constructs scores for targeted behaviors, healthy eating and physical activity, for prevention of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Report `A field test project for the disaster prevention type photovoltaic power generation (Kobe city, Hyogo prefecture)`; `Bosaigata taiyoko hatsuden field test jigyo (Hyogoken Kobeshi)` hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-12

    An experiment was conducted on the introduction of the disaster prevention type photovoltaic power system provided with storage batteries to public facilities, etc., considering not only the use of new energy from the environmental aspect, but the emergency use. In fiscal 1995, 5kW-output photovoltaic power systems were installed on the rooftop of Hiyodori and Takamaru regional welfare centers and a 30kW photovoltaic power system on the rooftop of the Hyogo Ward Office. Demonstrative tests of these systems started for collection of various data. Now that the systems were installed at the regional welfare center managed mostly by regional citizens and the ward office which is an administrative office familiar with regional residents, the understanding of and familiarity with the photovoltaic power system were obtained from regional residents, and also people were enlightened on the use of solar energy in such a point as economization of power rates using the interconnected power system. Further, for life supports, it was made possible to secure minimum electric power in emergency and to secure functions of disaster prevention spots. 3 figs.

  16. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Y Lai

    Full Text Available Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the "train-the-trainer" workshop (TTT for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled "Happy Family Kitchen Project" (HFK under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers' competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women. It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees' reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a

  17. Development and Two-Year Follow-Up Evaluation of a Training Workshop for the Large Preventive Positive Psychology Happy Family Kitchen Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y; Mui, Moses W; Wan, Alice; Stewart, Sunita M; Yew, Carol; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2016-01-01

    Evidence-based practice and capacity-building approaches are essential for large-scale health promotion interventions. However, there are few models in the literature to guide and evaluate training of social service workers in community settings. This paper presents the development and evaluation of the "train-the-trainer" workshop (TTT) for the first large scale, community-based, family intervention projects, entitled "Happy Family Kitchen Project" (HFK) under the FAMILY project, a Hong Kong Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society. The workshop aimed to enhance social workers' competence and performance in applying positive psychology constructs in their family interventions under HFK to improve family well-being of the community they served. The two-day TTT was developed and implemented by a multidisciplinary team in partnership with community agencies to 50 social workers (64% women). It focused on the enhancement of knowledge, attitude, and practice of five specific positive psychology themes, which were the basis for the subsequent development of the 23 family interventions for 1419 participants. Acceptability and applicability were enhanced by completing a needs assessment prior to the training. The TTT was evaluated by trainees' reactions to the training content and design, changes in learners (trainees) and benefits to the service organizations. Focus group interviews to evaluate the workshop at three months after the training, and questionnaire survey at pre-training, immediately after, six months, one year and two years after training were conducted. There were statistically significant increases with large to moderate effect size in perceived knowledge, self-efficacy and practice after training, which sustained to 2-year follow-up. Furthermore, there were statistically significant improvements in family communication and well-being of the participants in the HFK interventions they implemented after training. This paper offers a practical example

  18. Alignment of adherence and risk for HIV acquisition in a demonstration project of pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda: a prospective analysis of prevention-effective adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberer, Jessica E; Kidoguchi, Lara; Heffron, Renee; Mugo, Nelly; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Katabira, Elly; Asiimwe, Stephen; Thomas, Katherine K; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M

    2017-07-25

    Adherence is essential for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to protect against HIV acquisition, but PrEP use need not be life-long. PrEP is most efficient when its use is aligned with periods of risk - a concept termed prevention-effective adherence. The objective of this paper is to describe prevention-effective adherence and predictors of adherence within an open-label delivery project of integrated PrEP and antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV serodiscordant couples in Kenya and Uganda (the Partners Demonstration Project). We offered PrEP to HIV-uninfected participants until the partner living with HIV had taken ART for ≥6 months (a strategy known as "PrEP as a bridge to ART"). The level of adherence sufficient to protect against HIV was estimated in two ways: ≥4 and ≥6 doses/week (per electronic monitoring). Risk for HIV acquisition was considered high if the couple reported sex with 25 years, older male partners and desire for relationship success. Predictors of not achieving sufficient adherence were no longer being a couple, delayed PrEP initiation, >6 months  of follow-up, ART use >6 months  by the partner living with HIV and problem alcohol use. Over three-quarters of participant-visits by HIV-uninfected partners in serodiscordant couples achieved prevention-effective adherence with PrEP. Greater adherence was observed during months with HIV risk and the strongest predictor of achieving sufficient adherence was sexual activity.

  19. Pollution Prevention, Waste Minimization and Material Recycling Successes Realized during Savannah River Site's K Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Project, W226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    As DOE continues to forge ahead and re-evaluate post cold war missions, facilities that were constructed and operated for DOE/DOD over the past 50+ years are coming to the end of their useful life span. These various facilities throughout the country had served a very useful purpose in our nations history; however, their time of Cold War materials production has come to an end. With this looming finalization comes a decision as to how to remedy their existence: D and R the facilities and return to ''Greenfield''; or, retrofit the existing facilities to accommodate the newer missions of the DOE Complex. The 105-K Reactor Building located at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina was retrofit on an accelerated project schedule for a new mission called K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS). Modifications to the former defense reactor's building and equipment will allow storage of Plutonium from the Rocky Flats Site in Colorado and other materials deemed necessary by the Department of Energy. Proper project planning and activity sequencing allowed the DOE and the Westinghouse Savannah River Company to realize savings from: the recycling and/or reuse of modified facility components; reduction and reclassification of waste; reduction in radiological area footprint (rollbacks)

  20. Preeclampsia in low and middle income countries-health services lessons learned from the PRE-EMPT (PRE-Eclampsia-Eclampsia Monitoring, Prevention and Treatment) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Dadelszen, Peter; Firoz, Tabassum; Donnay, France; Gordon, Rebecca; Justus Hofmeyr, G; Lalani, Shifana; Payne, Beth A; Roberts, James M; Teela, Katherine C; Vidler, Marianne; Sawchuck, Diane; Magee, Laura A

    2012-10-01

    The hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, in particular preeclampsia, matter because adverse events occur in women with preeclampsia and, to a lesser extent, in women with the other hypertensive disorders. These adverse events are maternal, perinatal, and neonatal and can alter the life trajectory of each individual, should that life not be ended by complications. In this review we discuss a number of priorities and dilemmas that we perceive to be facing health services in low and middle income countries as they try to prioritize interventions to reduce the health burden related to preeclampsia. These priorities and dilemmas relate to calcium for preeclampsia prevention, risk stratification, antihypertensive and magnesium sulphate therapy, and mobile health. Significant progress has been and is being made to reduce the impact of preeclampsia in low and middle income countries, but it remains a priority focus as we attempt to achieve Millennium Development Goal 5.

  1. One project's waste is another project's resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, J.

    1997-01-01

    The author describes the efforts being made toward pollution prevention within the DOE complex, as a way to reduce overall project costs, in addition to decreasing the amount of waste to be handled. Pollution prevention is a concept which is trying to be ingrained into project planning. Part of the program involves the concept that ultimately the responsibility for waste comes back to the generator. Parts of the program involve efforts to reuse materials and equipment on new projects, to recycle wastes to generate offsetting revenue, and to increase awareness, accountability and incentives so as to stimulate action on this plan. Summaries of examples are presented in tables

  2. Safety, acceptability, and feasibility of a single-visit approach to cervical-cancer prevention in rural Thailand: a demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffikin, L; Blumenthal, P D; Emerson, M; Limpaphayom, K

    2003-03-08

    To increase screening and treatment coverage, innovative approaches to cervical-cancer prevention are being investigated in rural Thailand. We assessed the value of a single-visit approach combining visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid wash (VIA) and cryotherapy. 12 trained nurses provided services in mobile (village health centre-based) and static (hospital-based) teams in four districts of Roi-et Province, Thailand. Over 7 months, 5999 women were tested by VIA. If they tested positive, after counselling about the benefits, potential risks, and probable side-effects they were offered cryotherapy. Data measuring safety, acceptability, feasibility, and effort to implement the programme were gathered. The VIA test-positive rate was 13.3% (798/5999), and 98.5% (609/618) of those eligible accepted immediate treatment. Overall, 756 women received cryotherapy, 629 (83.2%) of whom returned for their first follow-up visit. No major complications were recorded, and 33 (4.4%) of those treated returned for a perceived problem. Only 17 (2.2%) of the treated women needed clinical management other than reassurance about side-effects. Both VIA and cryotherapy were highly acceptable to the patients (over 95% expressed satisfaction with their experience). At their 1-year visit, the squamocolumnar junction was visible to the nurses, and the VIA test-negative rate was 94.3%. A single-visit approach with VIA and cryotherapy seems to be safe, acceptable, and feasible in rural Thailand, and is a potentially efficient method of cervical-cancer prevention in such settings.

  3. Decision support in addiction: The development of an e-health tool to assess and prevent risk of fatal overdose. The ORION Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, A; Crocamo, C; Humphris, G; Neufeind, J; Frisher, M; Scherbaum, N; Carrà, G

    2016-09-01

    The application of e-health technology to the field of substance use disorders is at a relatively early stage, and methodological quality is still variable. Few have explored the extent of utilization of communication technology in exploring risk perception by patients enrolled in substance abuse services. The Overdose RIsk InfOrmatioN (ORION) project is a European Commission funded programme, aimed to develop and pilot an e-health psycho-educational tool to provide information to drug using individuals about the risks of suffering a drug overdose. In this article, we report on phase 1 (risk estimation), phase 2 (design), and phase 3 (feasibility) of the ORION project. The development of ORION e-health tool underlined the importance of an evidence-based intervention aimed in obtaining reliable evaluation of risk. The ORION tool supported a decision making process aimed at influencing the substance users' self-efficacy and the degree to which the substance users' understand risk factors. Therefore, its innovative power consisted in translating risks combination into a clear estimation for the user who will then appear more likely to be interested in his/her risk perception. Exploratory field testing and validation confirmed the next stage of evaluation, namely, collection of routine patient samples in study clinics. The associations between risk perception of overdose, engagement with the ORION tool and willingness to alter overdose risk factors, in a clinical setting across various EU member states will further confirm the ORION tool's generalisability and effectiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Teachers' Personal Health Behaviors on Operationalizing Obesity Prevention Policy in Head Start Preschools: A Project of the Children's Healthy Living Program (CHL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, Monica Kazlausky; Nigg, Claudio R; Fialkowski, Marie K; Braun, Kathryn L; Li, Fenfang; Novotny, Rachel

    2016-05-01

    To quantify the Head Start (HS) teacher mediating and moderating influence on the effect of a wellness policy intervention. Intervention trial within a larger randomized community trial. HS preschools in Hawaii. Twenty-three HS classrooms located within 2 previously randomized communities. Seven-month multi-component intervention with policy changes to food served and service style, initiatives for employee wellness, classroom activities for preschoolers promoting physical activity (PA) and healthy eating, and training and technical assistance. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) classroom scores and teacher questionnaires assessing on knowledge, beliefs, priorities, and misconceptions around child nutrition and changes in personal health behaviors and status were the main outcome measures. Paired t tests and linear regression analysis tested the intervention effects on the classroom and mediating and moderating effects of the teacher variables on the classroom environment. General linear model test showed greater intervention effect on the EPAO score where teachers reported higher than average improvements in their own health status and behaviors (estimate [SE] = -2.47 (0.78), P teacher health status and behaviors included in a multi-component policy intervention aimed at child obesity prevention may produce a greater effect on classroom environments. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of an HIV prevention intervention for African Americans and Hispanics: findings from the VOICES/VOCES Community-based Organization Behavioral Outcomes Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Holly H; Patel-Larson, A; Green, K; Shapatava, E; Uhl, G; Kalayil, E J; Moore, A; Williams, W; Chen, B

    2011-11-01

    There is limited knowledge about whether the delivery of evidence-based, HIV prevention interventions in 'real world' settings will produce outcomes similar to efficacy trial outcomes. In this study, we describe longitudinal changes in sexual risk outcomes among African American and Hispanic participants in the Video Opportunities for Innovative Condom Education and Safer Sex (VOICES/VOCES) program at four CDC-funded agencies. VOICES/VOCES was delivered to 922 high-risk individuals in a variety of community settings such as substance abuse treatment centers, housing complex centers, private residences, shelters, clinics, and colleges. Significant risk reductions were consistently observed at 30- and 120-days post-intervention for all outcome measures (e.g., unprotected sex, self-reported STD infection). Risk reductions were strongest for African American participants, although Hispanic participants also reported reducing their risky behaviors. These results suggest that, over a decade after the first diffusion of VOICES/VOCES across the U.S. by CDC, this intervention remains an effective tool for reducing HIV risk behaviors among high-risk African American and Hispanic individuals.

  6. Co-ordinated research project on application of nuclear techniques in the prevention of degenerative diseases (obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes) in ageing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    In the developed countries, research using nuclear methods has been substantially used to examine the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in obesity-related diseases. This Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) is intended to promote the use of these techniques in the developing world. The specific objectives of this CRP are: 1. To define the magnitude of the obesity/NIDDM problem in developing countries. 2. To identify vulnerable groups at high risk. 3. To describe the metabolic mechanisms involved. The purpose of this first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was thus to develop a worldwide collaboration in the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques to investigate the aetiology of degenerative diseases in ageing. All countries participating in this CRP are going through the epidemiological transition with changes in lifestyles to approach those seen in the developed nations. This first meeting was held in the Agency's headquarters in Vienna, with participation of contract and agreement holders, experts, observer, and in-house staff.

  7. Co-ordinated research project on application of nuclear techniques in the prevention of degenerative diseases (obesity and non-insulin dependent diabetes) in ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In the developed countries, research using nuclear methods has been substantially used to examine the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in obesity-related diseases. This Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) is intended to promote the use of these techniques in the developing world. The specific objectives of this CRP are: 1. To define the magnitude of the obesity/NIDDM problem in developing countries. 2. To identify vulnerable groups at high risk. 3. To describe the metabolic mechanisms involved. The purpose of this first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was thus to develop a worldwide collaboration in the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques to investigate the aetiology of degenerative diseases in ageing. All countries participating in this CRP are going through the epidemiological transition with changes in lifestyles to approach those seen in the developed nations. This first meeting was held in the Agency's headquarters in Vienna, with participation of contract and agreement holders, experts, observer, and in-house staff

  8. The Children and Parents in Focus project: a population-based cluster-randomised controlled trial to prevent behavioural and emotional problems in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Fabian, Helena; Prinz, Ron; Lucas, Steven; Feldman, Inna; Fairchild, Amanda; Sarkadi, Anna

    2013-10-16

    There is large body of knowledge to support the importance of early interventions to improve child health and development. Nonetheless, it is important to identify cost-effective blends of preventive interventions with adequate coverage and feasible delivery modes. The aim of the Children and Parents in Focus trial is to compare two levels of parenting programme intensity and rate of exposure, with a control condition to address impact and cost-effectiveness of a universally offered evidence-based parenting programme in the Swedish context. The trial has a cluster randomised controlled design comprising three arms: Universal arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2); Universal Plus arm (with access to participation in Triple P - Positive Parenting Program, level 2 as well as level 3, and level 4 group); and Services as Usual arm. The sampling frame is Uppsala municipality in Sweden. Child health centres consecutively recruit parents of children aged 3 to 5 years before their yearly check-ups (during the years 2013-2017). Outcomes will be measured annually. The primary outcome will be children's behavioural and emotional problems as rated by three informants: fathers, mothers and preschool teachers. The other outcomes will be parents' behaviour and parents' general health. Health economic evaluations will analyse cost-effectiveness of the interventions versus care as usual by comparing the costs and consequences in terms of impact on children's mental health, parent's mental health and health-related quality of life. This study addresses the need for comprehensive evaluation of the long-term effects, costs and benefits of early parenting interventions embedded within existing systems. In addition, the study will generate population-based data on the mental health and well-being of preschool aged children in Sweden. ISRCTN16513449.

  9. EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth (ENERGY project: Design and methodology of the ENERGY cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Luis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity treatment is by large ineffective long term, and more emphasis on the prevention of excessive weight gain in childhood and adolescence is warranted. To inform energy balance related behaviour (EBRB change interventions, insight in the potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours is needed. Studies on such multilevel correlates of EBRB among schoolchildren in Europe are lacking. The ENERGY survey aims to (1 provide up-to-date prevalence rates of measured overweight, obesity, self-reported engagement in EBRBs, and objective accelerometer-based assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour and blood-sample biomarkers of metabolic function in countries in different regions of Europe, (2 to identify personal, family and school environmental correlates of these EBRBs. This paper describes the design, methodology and protocol of the survey. Method/Design A school-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in 2010 in seven different European countries; Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, and Spain. The survey included measurements of anthropometrics, child, parent and school-staff questionnaires, and school observations to measure and assess outcomes (i.e. height, weight, and waist circumference, EBRBs and potential personal, family and school environmental correlates of these behaviours including the social-cultural, physical, political, and economic environmental factors. In addition, a selection of countries conducted accelerometer measurements to objectively assess physical activity and sedentary behaviour, and collected blood samples to assess several biomarkers of metabolic function. Discussion The ENERGY survey is a comprehensive cross-sectional study measuring anthropometrics and biomarkers as well as assessing a range of EBRBs and their potential correlates at the personal, family and school level, among 10-12 year old children in seven

  10. Psychological Care, Patient Education, Orthotics, Ergonomics and Prevention Strategies for Neck Pain: An Systematic Overview Update as Part of the ICON§ Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anita R.; Kaplan, Faith; Huang, Stacey; Khan, Mahweesh; Santaguida, P. Lina; Carlesso, Lisa C.; MacDermid, Joy C.; Walton, David M.; Kenardy, Justin; Söderlund, Anne; Verhagen, Arianne; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To conduct an overview on psychological interventions, orthoses, patient education, ergonomics, and 1⁰/2⁰ neck pain prevention for adults with acute-chronic neck pain. Search Strategy: Computerized databases and grey literature were searched (2006-2012). Selection Criteria: Systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, quality-of-life and patient satisfaction were retrieved. Data Collection & Analysis: Two independent authors selected articles, assessed risk of bias using AMSTAR tool and extracted data. The GRADE tool was used to evaluate the body of evidence and an external panel to provide critical review. Main Results: We retrieved 30 reviews (5-9 AMSTAR score) reporting on 75 RCTs with the following moderate GRADE evidence. For acute whiplash associated disorder (WAD), an education video in emergency rooms (1RCT, 405participants] favoured pain reduction at long-term follow-up thus helping 1 in 23 people [Standard Mean Difference: -0.44(95%CI: -0.66 to -0.23)). Use of a soft collar (2RCTs, 1278participants) was not beneficial in the long-term. For chronic neck pain, a mind-body intervention (2RCTs, 1 meta-analysis, 191participants) improved short-term pain/function in 1 of 4 or 6 participants. In workers, 2-minutes of daily scapula-thoracic endurance training (1RCT, 127participants) over 10 weeks was beneficial in 1 of 4 participants. A number of psychosocial interventions, workplace interventions, collar use and self-management educational strategies were not beneficial. Reviewers' Conclusions: Moderate evidence exists for quantifying beneficial and non-beneficial effects of a limited number of interventions for acute WAD and chronic neck pain. Larger trials with more rigorous controls need to target promising interventions PMID:24133554

  11. Kā-HOLO Project: a protocol for a randomized controlled trial of a native cultural dance program for cardiovascular disease prevention in Native Hawaiians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Keawe‘aimoku Kaholokula

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a major risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease (CVD, hypertension affects 33% of U.S. adults. Relative to other US races and ethnicities, Native Hawaiians have a high prevalence of hypertension and are 3 to 4 times more likely to have CVD. Effective, culturally-relevant interventions are needed to address CVD risk in this population. Investigators of the Kā-HOLO Project developed a study design to test the efficacy of an intervention that uses hula, a traditional Hawaiian dance, to increase physical activity and reduce CVD risk. Methods A 2-arm randomized controlled trial with a wait-list control design will be implemented to test a 6-month intervention based on hula to manage blood pressure and reduce CVD risk in 250 adult Native Hawaiians with diagnosed hypertension. Half of the sample will be randomized to each arm, stratified across multiple study sites. Primary outcomes are reduction in systolic blood pressure and improvement in CVD risk as measured by the Framingham Risk Score. Other psychosocial and sociocultural measures will be included to determine mediators of intervention effects on primary outcomes. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months for all participants, and at 12 months for intervention participants only. Discussion This trial will elucidate the efficacy of a novel hypertension management program designed to reduce CVD risk in an indigenous population by using a cultural dance form as its physical activity component. The results of this culturally-based intervention will have implications for other indigenous populations globally and will offer a sustainable, culturally-relevant means of addressing CVD disparities. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02620709 , registration date November 23, 2015.

  12. The SHAZ! project: results from a pilot randomized trial of a structural intervention to prevent HIV among adolescent women in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan S Dunbar

    Full Text Available Adolescent females in Zimbabwe are at high risk for HIV acquisition. Shaping the Health of Adolescents in Zimbabwe (SHAZ! was a randomized controlled trial of a combined intervention package including life-skills and health education, vocational training, micro-grants and social supports compared to life-skills and health education alone. SHAZ! was originally envisioned as a larger effectiveness trial, however, the intervention was scaled back due to contextual and economic conditions in the country at the time. SHAZ! enrolled 315 participants randomly assigned to study arm within blocks of 50 participants (158 intervention and 157 control. The intervention arm participants showed statistically significant differences from the control arm participants for several outcomes during the two years of follow up including; reduced food insecurity [IOR = 0.83 vs. COR = 0.68, p-0.02], and having their own income [IOR = 2.05 vs. COR = 1.67, p = 0.02]. Additionally, within the Intervention arm there was a lower risk of transactional sex [IOR = 0.64, 95% CI (0.50, 0.83], and a higher likelihood of using a condom with their current partner [IOR = 1.79, 95% CI (1.23, 2.62] over time compared to baseline. There was also evidence of fewer unintended pregnancies among intervention participants [HR = 0.61, 95% CI (0.37, 1.01], although this relationship achieved only marginal statistical significance. Several important challenges in this study included the coordination with vocational training programs, the political and economic instability of the area at the time of the study, and the difficulty in creating a true standard of care control arm. Overall the results of the SHAZ! study suggest important potential for HIV prevention intervention packages that include vocational training and micro-grants, and lessons for further economic livelihoods interventions with adolescent females. Further work is needed to refine the

  13. The SHAZ! project: results from a pilot randomized trial of a structural intervention to prevent HIV among adolescent women in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Megan S; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Lambdin, Barrot; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Nhamo, Definate; Padian, Nancy S

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent females in Zimbabwe are at high risk for HIV acquisition. Shaping the Health of Adolescents in Zimbabwe (SHAZ!) was a randomized controlled trial of a combined intervention package including life-skills and health education, vocational training, micro-grants and social supports compared to life-skills and health education alone. SHAZ! was originally envisioned as a larger effectiveness trial, however, the intervention was scaled back due to contextual and economic conditions in the country at the time. SHAZ! enrolled 315 participants randomly assigned to study arm within blocks of 50 participants (158 intervention and 157 control). The intervention arm participants showed statistically significant differences from the control arm participants for several outcomes during the two years of follow up including; reduced food insecurity [IOR = 0.83 vs. COR = 0.68, p-0.02], and having their own income [IOR = 2.05 vs. COR = 1.67, p = 0.02]. Additionally, within the Intervention arm there was a lower risk of transactional sex [IOR = 0.64, 95% CI (0.50, 0.83)], and a higher likelihood of using a condom with their current partner [IOR = 1.79, 95% CI (1.23, 2.62)] over time compared to baseline. There was also evidence of fewer unintended pregnancies among intervention participants [HR = 0.61, 95% CI (0.37, 1.01)], although this relationship achieved only marginal statistical significance. Several important challenges in this study included the coordination with vocational training programs, the political and economic instability of the area at the time of the study, and the difficulty in creating a true standard of care control arm. Overall the results of the SHAZ! study suggest important potential for HIV prevention intervention packages that include vocational training and micro-grants, and lessons for further economic livelihoods interventions with adolescent females. Further work is needed to refine the intervention model, and

  14. The SHAZ! Project: Results from a Pilot Randomized Trial of a Structural Intervention to Prevent HIV among Adolescent Women in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Megan S.; Kang Dufour, Mi-Suk; Lambdin, Barrot; Mudekunye-Mahaka, Imelda; Nhamo, Definate; Padian, Nancy S.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent females in Zimbabwe are at high risk for HIV acquisition. Shaping the Health of Adolescents in Zimbabwe (SHAZ!) was a randomized controlled trial of a combined intervention package including life-skills and health education, vocational training, micro-grants and social supports compared to life-skills and health education alone. SHAZ! was originally envisioned as a larger effectiveness trial, however, the intervention was scaled back due to contextual and economic conditions in the country at the time. SHAZ! enrolled 315 participants randomly assigned to study arm within blocks of 50 participants (158 intervention and 157 control). The intervention arm participants showed statistically significant differences from the control arm participants for several outcomes during the two years of follow up including; reduced food insecurity [IOR = 0.83 vs. COR = 0.68, p-0.02], and having their own income [IOR = 2.05 vs. COR = 1.67, p = 0.02]. Additionally, within the Intervention arm there was a lower risk of transactional sex [IOR = 0.64, 95% CI (0.50, 0.83)], and a higher likelihood of using a condom with their current partner [IOR = 1.79, 95% CI (1.23, 2.62)] over time compared to baseline. There was also evidence of fewer unintended pregnancies among intervention participants [HR = 0.61, 95% CI (0.37, 1.01)], although this relationship achieved only marginal statistical significance. Several important challenges in this study included the coordination with vocational training programs, the political and economic instability of the area at the time of the study, and the difficulty in creating a true standard of care control arm. Overall the results of the SHAZ! study suggest important potential for HIV prevention intervention packages that include vocational training and micro-grants, and lessons for further economic livelihoods interventions with adolescent females. Further work is needed to refine the intervention model, and

  15. An exploration of beliefs and attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle behaviour in an urban population in The Netherlands: Results from a focus group study in a community-based prevention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterboer, Sanne M; van den Brekel, Karolien; Rengers, Antonia H; Peek, Niels; de Wit, Niek J

    2015-06-01

    The positive effects of lifestyle intervention programmes might be enhanced when targeted to the health-related behaviour of the users. This study explores the beliefs and attitudes regarding a healthy lifestyle, the influences on lifestyle behavioural change and the needs to support a healthy lifestyle in the local community, during an integrated community-based prevention project in newly developed urban area in the Netherlands. Three focus groups were conducted with urban residents aged 45-70 (n = 28). Thematic qualitative analysis was applied to verbatim transcripts to identify emerging themes. The following themes were identified: beliefs to healthy behaviour, responsibility for health, perceived behavioural control, external influences on behavioural change and needs in the local community. Within these themes, personal responsibility for health and the influence of the social and physical environment emerged to be important for health and lifestyle. The participants expressed the need for clearly organized health and lifestyle facilities, a personalized approach and an easily accessible health risk assessment to support lifestyle behavioural change in the community. In our study, urban residents experienced a strong influence of the social and physical environment to their lifestyle behaviour. This finding supports an integrated approach for preventive health services in this population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Capacity-building of the allied health workforce to prevent and control diabetes: Lessons learnt from the National Initiative to Reinforce and Organize General Diabetes Care in Sri Lanka (NIROGI Lanka) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyaratne, Chandrika; Arambepola, Carukshi; Karunapema, Palitha; Periyasamy, Kayathri; Hemachandra, Nilmini; Ponnamperuma, Gominda; Beneragama, Hemantha; de Alwis, Sunil

    2016-04-01

    In 2008, to tackle the exponential rise in the clinical burden of diabetes that was challenging the health systems in Sri Lanka, a shift in focus towards patient-centred care linked with community health promotion was initiated by the National Initiative to Reinforce and Organize General Diabetes Care in Sri Lanka (NIROGI Lanka) project of the Sri Lanka Medical Association. Specific training of "diabetes educator nursing officers" (DENOs), field staff in maternal and child health, footwear technicians, and health promoters from the community, was instituted to improve knowledge, skills and attitudes in the area of control and prevention of diabetes. This article highlights some of the activities carried out to date with the allied health workforce and volunteer community. Specifically, it describes experiences with the DENO programme: the educational and administrative processes adopted, challenges faced and lessons learnt. It also highlights an approach to prevention and management of complications of chronic diabetic foot through training a cohort of prosthetics and orthotics technicians, in the absence of podiatrists, and an initiative to provide low-cost protective footwear. Harnessing the enthusiasm of volunteers - adults and schoolchildren - to address behavioural risk factors in a culturally appropriate fashion has also been a key part of the NIROGI Lanka strategy.

  17. Diagnosis, monitoring and prevention of exposure-related non-communicable diseases in the living and working environment: DiMoPEx-project is designed to determine the impacts of environmental exposure on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnik, Lygia Therese; Adam, Balazs; Albin, Maria; Banelli, Barbara; Baur, Xaver; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Bolognesi, Claudia; Broberg, Karin; Gustavsson, Per; Göen, Thomas; Fischer, Axel; Jarosinska, Dorota; Manservisi, Fabiana; O'Kennedy, Richard; Øvrevik, Johan; Paunovic, Elizabet; Ritz, Beate; Scheepers, Paul T J; Schlünssen, Vivi; Schwarzenbach, Heidi; Schwarze, Per E; Sheils, Orla; Sigsgaard, Torben; Van Damme, Karel; Casteleyn, Ludwine

    2018-01-01

    The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies. Research addressing the links between environmental exposure and disease prevalence is key for prevention of the pandemic increase in NCD morbidity and mortality. However, the long latency, the chronic course of some diseases and the necessity to address cumulative exposures over very long periods does mean that it is often difficult to identify causal environmental exposures. EU-funded COST Action DiMoPEx is developing new concepts for a better understanding of health-environment (including gene-environment) interactions in the etiology of NCDs. The overarching idea is to teach and train scientists and physicians to learn how to include efficient and valid exposure assessments in their research and in their clinical practice in current and future cooperative projects. DiMoPEx partners have identified some of the emerging research needs, which include the lack of evidence-based exposure data and the need for human-equivalent animal models mirroring human lifespan and low-dose cumulative exposures. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach incorporating seven working groups, DiMoPEx will focus on aspects of air pollution with particulate matter including dust and fibers and on exposure to low doses of solvents and sensitizing agents. Biomarkers of early exposure and their associated effects as indicators of disease-derived information will be tested and standardized within individual projects. Risks arising from some NCDs, like pneumoconioses, cancers and

  18. Salmonella Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and in vegetable and fruit harvesting and packing operations may help prevent salmonellosis caused by contaminated foods. Better education of food industry workers in basic food safety and restaurant inspection procedures may prevent cross-contamination and other ...

  19. Optimized NSAIDS for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2005-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breast cancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can be taken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  20. Optimized NSAIDs for Breast Cancer Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carson, Dennis A

    2006-01-01

    .... Also, how these agents prevent breastcancer is not understood. This project will develop an optimized NSAID for breast cancer prevention that can betaken safely at high doses, and will determine its mechanisms of action...

  1. One project`s waste is another project`s resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, J.

    1997-02-01

    The author describes the efforts being made toward pollution prevention within the DOE complex, as a way to reduce overall project costs, in addition to decreasing the amount of waste to be handled. Pollution prevention is a concept which is trying to be ingrained into project planning. Part of the program involves the concept that ultimately the responsibility for waste comes back to the generator. Parts of the program involve efforts to reuse materials and equipment on new projects, to recycle wastes to generate offsetting revenue, and to increase awareness, accountability and incentives so as to stimulate action on this plan. Summaries of examples are presented in tables.

  2. Report realized in the name of the finances, economy and the plan commission on the project of financing law for 2009 (n. 1127), annex n. 13 ecology, sustainable development and management risks prevention planing of the ecology, the energy, the sustainable development and the territory management policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This document presents the law project n. 1127 for 2009, concerning the risks prevention in the framework of the ecology and the sustainable development and management. The first part details the program of risks prevention (technological, pollutions, natural and hydraulic risks, nuclear safety and radioprotection, the mine site rehabilitation). The second part develops the ecology, energy sustainable development and territory management, policies. (A.L.B.)

  3. Preventing Illegitimate Teenage Pregnancy Through Systems Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    Social workers, Cooperating with doctors, nurses, hospital social workers and educators in other helping systems, conducted a demonstration project described here, aimed at preventing illegitimate teenage pregnancy. (Author)

  4. Lifestyle intervention in prevention of type 2 diabetes in women with a history of gestational diabetes mellitus: one-year results of the FIN-D2D project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautio, Nina; Jokelainen, Jari; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Oksa, Heikki; Saaristo, Timo; Peltonen, Markku; Moilanen, Leena; Vanhala, Mauno; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka

    2014-06-01

    Lifestyle interventions are effective in preventing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may have barriers to lifestyle changes, and the previous results of lifestyle interventions are contradictory reporting either favorable outcomes or no significant beneficial effects. Our aim was to compare cardio-metabolic risk profile and responses to a 1-year lifestyle intervention program in women with and without history of GDM. The Implementation Project of the Program for Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes (FIN-D2D) was conducted in Finland in five hospital districts. Altogether 1,661 women aged ≤45 years participated in the program. One-year follow-up was available for 393 women who did not have screen-detected T2D at baseline, and 265 of them had at least one intervention visit [115 (43.4%) women with history of GDM and 150 (56.6%) without history of GDM]. At baseline, women with GDM had similar baseline glucose tolerance but better anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and lipid profile than women without GDM after adjustment for age. Beneficial changes in cardiovascular risk profile existed among women with and without GDM during follow-up and the effect of lifestyle intervention was similar between the groups, except that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol improved only in women with GDM. Altogether, 4.0% of those with GDM and 5.0% of those without GDM developed T2D (p=0.959 adjustment for age). The effect of a 1-year lifestyle intervention in primary healthcare setting was similar regardless of history of GDM, both women with and without GDM benefitted from participation in the lifestyle intervention.

  5. Project Management with IT Security Focus

    OpenAIRE

    Felician Alecu; Paul Pocatilu; Sergiu Capisizu

    2011-01-01

    The paper focus on the main key points related to the IT security project management. The most important lifecycle stages are identified: IT security project proposal definition, project organization, project planning, quality planning, project team organization, IT security project activities management and project closing. The most important success factors for IT security projects are the support of top-management, customer satisfaction, prevention over remediation and continuous progress....

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  7. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  8. Preventive analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jørgen B; Kehlet, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper will discuss the concepts of pre-emptive and preventive analgesia in acute and persistent postsurgical pain, based on the most recent experimental and clinical literature, with a special focus on injury-induced central sensitization and the development from acute to chronic pain. Recent...... of preventive analgesia for persistent postoperative pain are promising. However, clinicians must be aware of the demands for improved design of their clinical studies in order to get more conclusive answers regarding the different avenues for intervention. Summary: The concept of preventive analgesia is still...

  9. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  10. Large proportions of overweight and obese children, as well as their parents, underestimate children's weight status across Europe. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Androutsos, Odysseas; Chinapaw, Mai; Moreno, Luis A; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Singh, Amika; Brug, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the magnitude and country-specific differences in underestimation of children's weight status by children and their parents in Europe and to further explore its associations with family characteristics and sociodemographic factors. Children's weight and height were objectively measured. Parental anthropometric and sociodemographic data were self-reported. Children and their parents were asked to comment on children's weight status based on five-point Likert-type scales, ranging from 'I am much too thin' to 'I am much too fat' (children) and 'My child's weight is way too little' to 'My child's weight is way too much' (parents). These data were combined with children's actual weight status, in order to assess underestimation of children's weight status by children themselves and by their parents, respectively. Chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the aims of the current study. Eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. A school-based survey among 6113 children aged 10-12 years and their parents. In the total sample, 42·9 % of overweight/obese children and 27·6 % of parents of overweight/obese children underestimated their and their children's weight status, respectively. A higher likelihood for this underestimation of weight status by children and their parents was observed in Eastern and Southern compared with Central/Northern countries. Overweight or obese parents (OR=1·81; 95 % CI 1·39, 2·35 and OR=1·78, 95 % CI 1·22, 2·60), parents of boys (OR=1·32; 95 % CI 1·05, 1·67) and children from overweight/obese (OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·29, 1·98 and OR=1·76; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·41) or unemployed parents (OR=1·53; 95 % CI 1·22, 1·92) were more likely to underestimate children's weight status. Children of overweight or obese parents, those from Eastern and Southern Europe, boys, younger children and

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  12. Preventing Rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... After the transplant Preventing rejection Post-transplant medications Types of immunosuppressants Switching immunosuppressants Side effects Other medications Generic and brand name drugs Post-transplant tests Infections and immunity Lifestyle changes Health concerns Back to work or ...

  13. Prevent Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tips for Teachers Report Cyberbullying Print Share Prevent Cyberbullying Be Aware of What Your Kids are Doing ... Signs a Child is Being Cyberbullied or is Cyberbullying Others Many of the warning signs that cyberbullying ...

  14. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... protective factors listed below: Skills in problem solving, conflict resolution, and nonviolent ways of handling disputes Effective ... 2017 Page last updated: August 9, 2017 Content source: National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  17. Preventing accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    As the most effective strategy for improving safety is to prevent accidents from occurring at all, the Volpe Center applies a broad range of research techniques and capabilities to determine causes and consequences of accidents and to identify, asses...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  20. HIV Prevention

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-01

    Dr. Kevin Fenton, Director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, talks about steps people can take to protect their health from HIV.  Created: 2/1/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 2/1/2012.

  1. Design of the Bottom-up Innovation project--a participatory, primary preventive, organizational level intervention on work-related stress and well-being for workers in Dutch vocational education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelvis, Roosmarijn M C; Oude Hengel, Karen M; Wiezer, Noortje M; Blatter, Birgitte M; van Genabeek, Joost A G M; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; van der Beek, Allard J

    2013-08-15

    In the educational sector job demands have intensified, while job resources remained the same. A prolonged disbalance between demands and resources contributes to lowered vitality and heightened need for recovery, eventually resulting in burnout, sickness absence and retention problems. Until now stress management interventions in education focused mostly on strengthening the individual capacity to cope with stress, instead of altering the sources of stress at work at the organizational level. These interventions have been only partly effective in influencing burnout and well-being. Therefore, the "Bottom-up Innovation" project tests a two-phased participatory, primary preventive organizational level intervention (i.e. a participatory action approach) that targets and engages all workers in the primary process of schools. It is hypothesized that participating in the project results in increased occupational self-efficacy and organizational efficacy. The central research question: is an organization focused stress management intervention based on participatory action effective in reducing the need for recovery and enhancing vitality in school employees in comparison to business as usual? The study is designed as a controlled trial with mixed methods and three measurement moments: baseline (quantitative measures), six months and 18 months (quantitative and qualitative measures). At first follow-up short term effects of taking part in the needs assessment (phase 1) will be determined. At second follow-up the long term effects of taking part in the needs assessment will be determined as well as the effects of implemented tailored workplace solutions (phase 2). A process evaluation based on quantitative and qualitative data will shed light on whether, how and why the intervention (does not) work(s). "Bottom-up Innovation" is a combined effort of the educational sector, intervention providers and researchers. Results will provide insight into (1) the relation between

  2. Project LifeSkills - a randomized controlled efficacy trial of a culturally tailored, empowerment-based, and group-delivered HIV prevention intervention for young transgender women: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Biello, Katie; Garofalo, Robert

    2017-09-16

    Transgender women in the U.S. have an alarmingly high incidence rate of HIV infection; condomless anal and vaginal sex is the primary risk behavior driving transmission. Young transgender women are the subpopulation at the highest risk for HIV. Despite this, there are no published randomized controlled efficacy trials testing interventions to reduce sexual risk for HIV among this group. This paper describes the design of a group-based intervention trial to reduce sexual risk for HIV acquisition and transmission in young transgender women. This study, funded by the National Institutes of Health, is a randomized controlled trial of a culturally-specific, empowerment-based, and group-delivered six-session HIV prevention intervention, Project LifeSkills, among sexually active young transgender women, ages 16-29 years in Boston and Chicago. Participants are randomized (2:2:1) to either the LifeSkills intervention, standard of care only, or a diet and nutrition time- and attention-matched control. At enrollment, all participants receive standardized HIV pre- and post-test counseling and screening for HIV and urogenital gonorrhea and chlamydia infections. The primary outcome is difference in the rate of change in the number of self-reported condomless anal or vaginal sex acts during the prior 4-months, assessed at baseline, 4-, 8-, and 12-month follow-up visits. Behavioral interventions to reduce sexual risk for HIV acquisition and transmission are sorely needed for young transgender women. This study will provide evidence to determine feasibility and efficacy in one of the first rigorously designed trials for this population. ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01575938 , registered March 29, 2012.

  3. Family sociodemographic characteristics as correlates of children's breakfast habits and weight status in eight European countries. The ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Androutsos, Odysseas; Filippou, Christina; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Vik, Froydis N; te Velde, Saskia J; Jan, Natasha; Dössegger, Alain; Bere, Elling; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Chinapaw, Mai J M; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the associations of family sociodemographic characteristics with children's weight status and whether these potential associations are mediated by children's breakfast habits. A school-based survey among 10-12-year-old children was conducted in eight European countries. Children's weight and height were measured and breakfast habits and family sociodemographic characteristics were self-reported by 5444 children and their parents. International Obesity Task Force cut-off points were used to categorize children as overweight/obese or normal weight. Mediation analyses were used to test the potential mediating effect of children's breakfast consumption on the associations between family sociodemographic characteristics and children's overweight/obesity. Schools in eight European countries participating in the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) project. Children aged 10-12 years and their parents (n 5444). Children's reported daily breakfast consumption varied from 56 % in Slovenia to 92 % in Spain on weekdays and from 79 % in Greece to 93 % in Norway on weekends. Children of native parents, with both parents employed and with at least one parent having more than 14 years of education were more likely to consume breakfast daily and less likely to be overweight/obese. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the association of parental nationality and parental educational status with children's overweight/obesity was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption. The study shows that the lower likelihood of being overweight/obese among 10-12-year-old children of native background and higher parental educational status was partially mediated by children's daily breakfast consumption.

  4. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  5. Cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, M

    1999-01-01

    Over 70% of human cancers are associated with lifestyle and about half of cancer deaths could be prevented by relatively simple individual actions: no smoking, moderate consumption of alcohol, increased consumption of fruit and vegetables, avoidance of sunbathing, obesity and a too high consumption of saturated lipids. Most of these efforts would also markedly decrease the incidence of cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, the concept of prevention is currently neither well accepted nor understood by the medical community and the general public. It is often felt that it restricts freedom, imposes a choice between pleasure and duty, and that passing judgement on lifestyle is a form of intolerance. The case of tobacco illustrates the difficulties encountered by prevention, notably among adolescents. The fight against smoking requires information, a societal approach (ban on advertising, increase in price), and a reduction of the example given by adult smoking (parents, peers, teachers, physicians, TV presenters, movie stars, have a great influence on adolescents), while tobacco cessation programs must be promoted. The various approaches should be integrated into a global program of health prevention, including health education at school from 5 to 12 years of age. The efficacy of each of the global program's components should be evaluated. Misconceptions such as overestimation of the impact of pollution on health should also be corrected. Health is created and experienced by people within the setting of their daily lives, in particular during childhood. Prevention is the responsibility of individual members of the community but also of the community as a whole.

  6. Opinion presented on the behalf of the Commission for Sustainable Development and Land Planning on the 2015 on the finance bill project for 2015 (nr 2234), Volume I - Ecology, sustainable development and mobility, risk prevention - Meteorology - Nr 2266

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krabal, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this report discusses the credits asked for 2015 for the 'Risk prevention' program (program nr 181) in different areas: prevention and struggle in the field of natural and hydraulic risks (fund for the prevention of major natural risks, prevention of flooding and safety of dams and dikes), prevention and struggle in the field of technological risks (prevention plans, nuclear safety and radiation protection), public health and environment policies (evolution of the PNSE, struggle against noise, waste management). The second part discusses the credits asked for 2015 for the 'Meteorology' program: program structure and asked credits, position of the market of meteorological information services, implementation of the contract for objectives and performance and achievement of a denser territorial coverage

  7. Prevent Pneumonia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-08-06

    CDC’s Matthew Westercamp explains what pneumonia is, its symptoms, and how to prevent it.  Created: 8/6/2015 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Bacterial Diseases (DBD), Respiratory Diseases Branch (RDB).   Date Released: 8/6/2015.

  8. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  9. Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... corresponding to World Suicide Prevention Day, to celebrate life, hope, and reasons to live. SAMHSA is committed to ... members, and helping people navigate the struggles of life to find a sustainable sense of hope, meaning, and purpose. For information about how you ...

  10. Report realized in the name of the finances, economy and the plan commission on the project of financing law for 2009 (n. 1127), annex n. 13 ecology, sustainable development and management risks prevention planing of the ecology, the energy, the sustainable development and the territory management policies; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des finances, de l'economie generale et du plan sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2009 (n. 1127), annexe n. 13 ecologie, developpement et amenagement durables prevention des risques conduite et pilotage des politiques de l'ecologie, de l'energie, du developpement durable et de l'amenagement du territoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presents the law project n. 1127 for 2009, concerning the risks prevention in the framework of the ecology and the sustainable development and management. The first part details the program of risks prevention (technological, pollutions, natural and hydraulic risks, nuclear safety and radioprotection, the mine site rehabilitation). The second part develops the ecology, energy sustainable development and territory management, policies. (A.L.B.)

  11. SISCAL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    ), combining satellite data, evaluation algorithms and value-adding ancillary digital information. This prevents the end user from investing funds into expensive equipment or to hire specialized personnel. The data processor shall be a generic tool, which may be applied to a large variety of operationally gathered satellite data. In the frame of SISCAL, the processor shall be applied to remotely sensed data of selected coastal areas and lakes in Central Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, according to the needs of the end users within the SISCAL consortium. A number of measures are required to achieve the objective of the proposed project: (1) Identification and specification of the SISCAL end user needs for NRT water related data products accessible to EO techniques. (2) Selection of the most appropriate instruments, evaluation algorithms and ancillary data bases required to provide the identified data products. (3) Development of the actual Near-Real-Time data processor for the specified EO data products. (4) Development of the GIS processor adding ancillary digital information to the satellite images and providing the required geographical projections. (5) Development of a product retrieval and management system to handle ordering and distribution of data products between the SISCAL server and the end users, including payment and invoicing. (6) Evaluation of the derived data products in terms of accuracy and usefulness by comparison with available in-situ measurements and by making use of the local expertise of the end users. (7) Establishing an Internet server dedicated to internal communication between the consortium members as well as presenting the SISCAL project to a larger public. (8) Marketing activities, presentation of data processor to potential external customers, identification of their exact needs. The innovative aspect of the SISCAL project consists in the generation of NRT data products on water quality parameters from EO data. This article mainly deals

  12. Teleophthalmology in preventive medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Michelson, Georg

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date overview of the clinical applications, methods, and technologies of teleophthalmology within the field of preventive medicine. The ability of novel methods to detect the initial signs of neurodegenerative diseases on the basis of alterations in the retina is reviewed, and detailed attention is paid to the role of teleophthalmology in screening for vision-threatening diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and age-related macular degeneration. A major part of the book is devoted to novel imaging methods and the latest information technologies, including advanced mobile communication and Web 2.0 applications in teleophthalmology. In addition, the initial projects of an interdisciplinary cooperation in preventive medicine are described. All of the authors are experienced in the scientific and practical aspects of teleophthalmology, including e-learning, and have produced a book that will meet the needs of all medical care providers interested in using teleophthalmology.

  13. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  14. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  15. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  16. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, A.

    1998-01-01

    Project financing was defined ('where a lender to a specific project has recourse only to the cash flow and assets of that project for repayment and security respectively') and its attributes were described. Project financing was said to be particularly well suited to power, pipeline, mining, telecommunications, petro-chemicals, road construction, and oil and gas projects, i.e. large infrastructure projects that are difficult to fund on-balance sheet, where the risk profile of a project does not fit the corporation's risk appetite, or where higher leverage is required. Sources of project financing were identified. The need to analyze and mitigate risks, and being aware that lenders always take a conservative view and gravitate towards the lowest common denominator, were considered the key to success in obtaining project financing funds. TransAlta Corporation's project financing experiences were used to illustrate the potential of this source of financing

  17. Project descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This part specifies the activities and project tasks of each project broken down according to types of financing, listing the current projects Lw 1 through 3 funded by long-term provisions (budget), the current projects LB 1 and 2, LG 1 through 5, LK1, LM1, and LU 1 through 6 financed from special funds, and the planned projects ZG 1 through 4 and ZU 1, also financed from special funds. (DG) [de

  18. Adherence to the WCRF/AICR Dietary Recommendations for Cancer Prevention and Risk of Cancer in Elderly from Europe and the United States: A Meta-Analysis within the CHANCES Project.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Winkels, Renate M; Mwungura, Blaise; Fedirko, Veronika; Jenab, Mazda; Illner, Anne K; Brenner, Hermann; Ordóñez-Mena, José M; Kiefte de Jong, Jessica C; Franco, Oscar H; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Boffetta, Paolo; Agudo, Antonio; Peeters, Petra H; Tjønneland, Anne; Hallmans, Göran; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Park, Yikyung; Feskens, Edith J; de Groot, Lisette C; Kampman, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    It is unknown whether dietary recommendations for cancer prevention are applicable to the elderly. We analyzed WCRF/AICR recommendations in cohorts of European and U.S. adults ages 60 years and above.

  19. Allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  20. Project studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geraldi, Joana; Söderlund, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Project organising is a growing field of scholarly inquiry and management practice. In recent years, two important developments have influenced this field: (1) the study and practice of projects have extended their level of analysis from mainly focussing on individual projects to focussing on micro......, and of the explanations of project practices they could offer. To discuss avenues for future research on projects and project practice, this paper suggests the notion of project studies to better grasp the status of our field. We combine these two sets of ideas to analyse the status and future options for advancing...... project research: (1) levels of analysis; and (2) type of research. Analysing recent developments within project studies, we observe the emergence of what we refer to as type 3 research, which reconciles the need for theoretical development and engagement with practice. Type 3 research suggests pragmatic...

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of selected community-level interventions on key maternal, child health, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV outcomes in three countries (the ACCLAIM Project): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey B; Kieffer, Mary Pat; Walker, Damilola; Mpofu, Daphne; Machekano, Rhoderick

    2016-02-16

    Efforts to scale up and improve programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) have focused primarily at the health facility level, and limited attention has been paid to defining an effective set of community interventions to improve demand and uptake of services and retention. Many barriers to PMTCT are also barriers to pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal care faced by mothers regardless of HIV status. Demand for maternal and child health (MCH) and PMTCT services can be limited by critical social, cultural, and structural barriers. Yet, rigorous evaluation has shown limited evidence of effectiveness of multilevel community-wide interventions aimed at improving MCH and HIV outcomes for pregnant women living with HIV. We propose to assess the effect of a package of multilevel community interventions: a social learning and action component, community dialogues, and peer-led discussion groups, on the demand for, uptake of, and retention of HIV positive pregnant/postpartum women in MCH/PMTCT services. This study will undertake a three-arm randomized trial in Swaziland, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Districts/regions (n = 9) with 45 PMTCT-implementing health facilities and their catchment areas (populations 7,300-27,500) will be randomly allocated to three intervention arms: 1) community leader engagement, 2) community leader engagement with community days, or 3) community leader engagement with community days and male and female community peer groups. The primary study outcome is HIV exposed infants (HEIs) returning to the health facility within 2 months for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV. Secondary study outcomes include gestational age of women attending for first antenatal care, male partners tested for HIV, and HEIs receiving nevirapine prophylaxis at birth. Changes in community knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs on MCH/PMTCT will be assessed through household surveys. Implementation of the protocol necessitated changes in the

  2. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects....... The overall implications for research and practice are to acknowledge virtual project management as very different to traditional project management and to address this difference.......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  3. Project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.U.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the basic concepts and components of the project financing of large industrial facilities. Diagrams of a simple partnership structure and a simple leveraged lease structure are included. Finally, a Hypothetical Project is described with basic issues identified for discussion purposes. The topics of the paper include non-recourse financing, principal advantages and objectives, disadvantages, project financing participants and agreements, feasibility studies, organization of the project company, principal agreements in a project financing, insurance, and an examination of a hypothetical project

  4. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  5. Microsoft project

    OpenAIRE

    Markić, Lucija; Mandušić, Dubravka; Grbavac, Vitomir

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft Project je alat čije su prednosti u svakodnevnom radu nezamjenjive. Pomoću Microsoft Projecta omogućeno je upravljanje resursima, stvaranje izvještaja o projektima u vremenu, te analize različitih scenarija. Pojavljuje u tri verzije: Microsoft Project Professional, Microsoft Project Server i Microsoft Project Server Client Access Licenses. Upravo je trend da suvremeni poslovni ljudi zadatke povjeravaju Microsoft Projectu jer on znatno povećava produktivnost rada. Te prednos...

  6. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  7. Sunburn: Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Living Healthy Living Healthy Living Nutrition Fitness Sports Oral Health Emotional Wellness Growing Healthy Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations ...

  8. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...... multiply in interaction with project management technologies and how conventional linear conceptions of project time may be contested with the emergence of new non-human stakeholders and temporalities. Research limitations/implications – The study draws on ANT to show how animals can become stakeholders...

  9. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  10. Cholera Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... name=”commit” type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevention of ... of cholera and other diarrheal disease prevention. Prevention & Control Topics Ending Cholera: The Global Roadmap to 2030 ...

  11. Comprehensive management of project changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljaž Stare

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine how project changes can be prevented, and how to reduce their negative impact. Theoretical research examined risk management, project control and change management. Based on the study a “Comprehensive Change Management Model” was developed and verified after conducting empirical research in Slovenian enterprises. The research confirmed that risk management identifies possible changes and reduces their impact; project control ensures the timely detection of changes and an efficient response, while formal change management ensures the effective implementation of changes. The combined functioning of all three areas ensures effective project execution.

  12. 40 CFR 117.14 - Demonstration projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demonstration projects. 117.14 Section... DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE QUANTITIES FOR HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES Applicability § 117.14 Demonstration projects... research or demonstration projects relating to the prevention, control, or abatement of hazardous substance...

  13. Shock Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The electrician pictured is installing a General Electric Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI), a device which provides protection against electrical shock in the home or in industrial facilities. Shocks due to defective wiring in home appliances or other electrical equipment can cause severe burns, even death. As a result, the National Electrical Code now requires GFIs in all new homes constructed. This particular type of GFI employs a sensing element which derives from technology acquired in space projects by SCI Systems, Inc., Huntsville, Alabama, producer of sensors for GE and other manufacturers of GFI equipment. The sensor is based on the company's experience in developing miniaturized circuitry for space telemetry and other spacecraft electrical systems; this experience enabled SCI to package interruptor circuitry in the extremely limited space available and to produce sensory devices at practicable cost. The tiny sensor measures the strength of the electrical current and detects current differentials that indicate a fault in the functioning of an electrical system. The sensing element then triggers a signal to a disconnect mechanism in the GFI, which cuts off the current in the faulty circuit.

  14. Project h[schwa]li?dx[superscript w]/Healthy Hearts across Generations: Development and Evaluation Design of a Tribally Based Cardiovascular Disease Prevention Intervention for American Indian Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Karina L.; LaMarr, June; Levy, Rona L.; Pearson, Cynthia; Maresca, Teresa; Mohammed, Selina A.; Simoni, Jane M.; Evans-Campbell, Teresa; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen; Fryberg, Sheryl; Jobe, Jared B.

    2012-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) populations are disproportionately at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and obesity, compared with the general US population. This article describes the h[schwa]li?dx[superscript w]/Healthy Hearts Across Generations project, an AIAN-run, tribally based randomized controlled trial (January…

  15. Report on achievements in research and development in Sunshine Project - Hydrogen energy. Studies on prevention of hydrogen explosion disasters (Fiscal 1974 through fiscal 1983); 1974 - 1983 nendo suiso no bakuhatsu saigai boshi no kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    Experimental studies have been performed on prevention of hydrogen explosion disasters in attempting practical use of hydrogen energy. Regarding the prevention of disasters caused by high-pressure hydrogen, elucidation was made on causes of the fire, and estimation expression was introduced on size of fire caused by ignition. Measurements were also made on explosion limit and explosion pressure of low-temperature hydrogen gas. Furthermore, a flame arrester for hydrogen was developed. In studies on prevention of explosion of liquefied hydrogen, investigations were given on physical and chemical natures of a system mixed with air and oxygen, and on explosion causing sensitivity against impact to have elucidate danger of impurities in liquefied hydrogen. An experiment verified the effectiveness of carbon dioxide or powder extinguishing agent in the case of liquefied hydrogen fire. With regard to metal hydrides, elucidation was given on their ignitability in atmosphere and danger of dust explosion. In addition, it was made clear that containers may break down due to rise in internal pressure as a result of temperature rise, whereas safety valves were discussed, and models were decided. (NEDO)

  16. Screen-and-Treat Approach to Cervical Cancer Prevention Using Visual Inspection With Acetic Acid and Cryotherapy: Experiences, Perceptions, and Beliefs From Demonstration Projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L.; Bartolini, Rosario M.; Penny, Mary E.; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success. PMID:24217554

  17. Screen-and-treat approach to cervical cancer prevention using visual inspection with acetic acid and cryotherapy: experiences, perceptions, and beliefs from demonstration projects in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Proma; Winkler, Jennifer L; Bartolini, Rosario M; Penny, Mary E; Huong, Trinh Thu; Nga, Le Thi; Kumakech, Edward; Mugisha, Emmanuel; Jeronimo, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is preventable but continues to cause the deaths of more than 270,000 women worldwide each year, most of them in developing countries where programs to detect and treat precancerous lesions are not affordable or available. Studies have demonstrated that screening by visual inspection of the cervix using acetic acid (VIA) is a simple, affordable, and sensitive test that can identify precancerous changes of the cervix so that treatment such as cryotherapy can be provided. Government partners implemented screening and treatment using VIA and cryotherapy at demonstration sites in Peru, Uganda, and Vietnam. Evaluations were conducted in the three countries to explore the barriers and facilitating factors for the use of services and for incorporation of screen-and-treat programs using VIA and cryotherapy into routine services. Results showed that use of VIA and cryotherapy in these settings is a feasible approach to providing cervical cancer prevention services. Activities that can help ensure successful programs include mobilizing and educating communities, organizing services to meet women's schedules and needs, and strengthening systems to track clients for follow-up. Sustainability also depends on having an adequate number of trained providers and reducing staff turnover. Although some challenges were found across all sites, others varied from country to country, suggesting that careful assessments before beginning new secondary prevention programs will optimize the probability of success.

  18. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  19. OMEGA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, E.H.

    1989-01-01

    The OMEGA - Observation of Multiple particle production, Exotic Interactions and Gamma-ray Air Shower-project is presented. The project try to associate photosensitive detectors from experiences of hadronic interactions with electronic detectors used by experiences that investigate extensive atmospheric showers. (M.C.K.)

  20. The effectiveness of a skin care program for the prevention of contact dermatitis in health care workers (the Healthy Hands Project): study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanipoor, Maryam; Kezic, Sanja; Sluiter, Judith K; Rustemeyer, Thomas

    2017-02-28

    Health care workers (HCW) are at high risk for developing occupational hand dermatitis (HD) due to frequent exposure to 'wet work'. Amongst HCWs, nurses are at highest risk, with an estimated point prevalence of HD ranging between 12 and 30%. The burden of disease is high with chronicity, sick leave, risk of unemployment and impaired quality of life. Despite evidence from the medical literature on the risk factors and the importance of skin care in the prevention of HD, in practice, compliance to skin care protocols are below 30%. New preventive strategies are obviously needed. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial, focusing on nurses performing wet work. In total, 20 wards are recruited to include 504 participating nurses in the study at baseline. The wards will be randomized to an intervention or a control group and followed up for 18 months. The intervention consists of the facilitation of creams being available at the wards combined with the continuous electronic monitoring of their consumption with regular feedback on skin care performance in teams of HCWs. Both the intervention and the control group receive basic education on skin protection (as 'care as usual'). Every 6 months, participants of both groups will fill in the questionnaires regarding exposure to wet work and skin protective behavior. Furthermore, skin condition will be assessed and samples of the stratum corneum collected. The effect of the intervention will be measured by comparing the change in Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI score) from baseline to 12 months. The Natural Moisturizing Factor (NMF) levels, measured in the stratum corneum as an early biomarker of skin barrier damage, and the total consumption of creams per ward will be assessed as a secondary outcome. This trial will assess the clinical effectiveness of an intervention program to prevent hand dermatitis among health care workers TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register (NTR), identification number NTR5564

  1. The SAVEMEDCOASTS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, Marco; Patias, Petros; Forlenza, Giovanna; Trivigno, Maria Lucia; Michetti, Melania; Torresan, Silvia; Loizidou, Xenia; Petousis, Thanos; Doumaz, Fawzi; Lorito, Stefano; Brunori, Carlo Alberto; Pesci, Arianna; Carmisciano, Cosmo

    2017-04-01

    The SAVEMEDCOASTS Project (Sea Level Rise Scenarios along the Mediterranean Coasts), focuses on the Prevention Priority program of the European Commission ECHO A.5 "Civil protection policy, Prevention, Preparedness and Disaster Risk Reduction" and aims to respond to the need for people and assets prevention from natural disasters in Mediterranean coastal areas undergoing to increasing sea level rise and climate change impacts. The goals of the project are: i) to support civil protection at different levels and with different tools and methods to produce exhaustive risk assessments for different periods; ii) to improve governance and raise community awareness towards the impacts of sea level rise and related hazard; iii) to foster the cooperation amongst science, affected communities and civil protection organizations within and between targeted Mediterranean areas. Advanced methods are implied to develop multi-hazard assessments and existing databases for low-lying coastal areas already below or at less than 1 m above sea level, characterized by high economic and environmental value. The effects of sea level rise are assessed by mapping the multi-temporal scenarios of the inland extension of marine flooding and coastline position up to 2100, also temporarily increased during storms or tsunamis. They will result from i) the best available high resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTM); ii) known rates of land subsidence and iii) local sea level rise estimates. Finally, information is transferred to society, policy makers and stakeholders through an open web platform populated with collected information, videos and photo galleries, project results and guidelines. Here we show the strategy and goals of the SAVEMEDCOASTS Project.

  2. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  3. Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Backholer, Kathryn; Peeters, Anna; Herman, William H.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Liew, Danny; Ademi, Zanfina; Magliano, Dianna J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Effective interventions to prevent, delay, or remit diabetes are currently available. However, their impact on the prevalence of diabetes at the population level is unknown. This study aimed to estimate the impact of a range of diabetes interventions on the population prevalence of diabetes for Australian adults between 2010 and 2025. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the Australian Diabetes Projection Model to estimate the impact of a population-wide strategy, high-risk preventio...

  4. Pilot Project to Integrate Community and Clinical Level Systems to Address Health Disparities in the Prevention and Treatment of Obesity among Ethnic Minority Inner-City Middle School Students: Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rieder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective obesity prevention and treatment interventions are lacking in the United States, especially for impoverished minority youths at risk for health disparities, and especially in accessible community-based settings. We describe the launch and pilot implementation evaluation of the first year of the B’N Fit POWER initiative as a middle school-based comprehensive wellness program that integrates weight management programming into existing onsite preventive and clinical services. Consistent with the existing implementation science literature, we focused on both the organizational structures that facilitate communication and the development of trust among stakeholders, students, and families and the development of realistic and timely goals to implement and integrate all aspects of the program. New implementation and programming strategies were developed and tested to increase the proportion of students screened, support the linkage of students to care, and streamline the integration of program clinical and afterschool components into routine services already offered at the school. We report on our initial implementation activities using the Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies (StaRI framework using hybrid outcomes combining the Reach element from the RE-AIM framework with a newly conceptualized Wellness Cascade.

  5. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  6. EBFA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    An engineering project office was established during the fall of 1976 to manage and coordinate all of the activities of the Electron Beam Fusion Project. The goal of the project is to develop the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator (EBFA) and its supporting systems, and integrate these systems into the new Electron Beam Fusion Facility (EBFF). Supporting systems for EBFA include a control/monitor system, a data acquistion/automatic data processing system, the liquid transfer systems, the insulating gas transfer systems, etc. Engineers and technicians were assigned to the project office to carry out the engineering design, initiate procurement, monitor the fabrication, perform the assembly and to assist the pulsed power research group in the activation of the EBFA

  7. Project Reptile!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Integrating curriculum is important in helping children make connections within and among areas. Presents a class project for kindergarten children which came out of the students' interests and desire to build a reptile exhibit. (ASK)

  8. Project Soar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Marion

    1982-01-01

    Project Soar, a Saturday enrichment program for gifted students (6-14 years old), allows students to work intensively in a single area of interest. Examples are cited of students' work in crewel embroidery, creative writing, and biochemistry. (CL)

  9. EUROFANCOLEN Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueren, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The first follow-up report of European Project EUROFANCOLEN, the purpose of which is to develop a gene therapy clinical trial to resolve bone marrow failure in patients with a genetic disease known as Fanconi anemia (FA), was sent to the European Commission in September. The main objective of project EUROFANCOLEN is to develop a gene therapy trial for patients with Fanconi anemia Type A (FA-A), which affects 80% of the patients with FA in Spain. (Author)

  10. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2009-01-01

    In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception......In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception...

  11. Fiscal 2000 research cooperation project on the research cooperation on practical application of wastewater treatment technologies for global warming prevention; 2000 nendo chikyu ondanka boshi haisui shori gijutsu no jitsuyoka ni kansuru kenkyu kyoryoku jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A verification plant operation study is conducted in cooperation with Thailand over wastewater treatment technologies for effectively decomposing and removing organic matters contained in foods plant wastewater and for recovering methane gas therefrom. The effort aims to transfer to Thailand anaerobic wastewater treatment technologies for recovering methane gas. For the 3-year research that began in fiscal 1998, a verification plant was installed at Cho Heng Rice Vermicell Factory Co., Ltd., located 30 kilometers west of Bangkok City. In the first half of verification plant related operation studies for fiscal 2000, the plant was kept in operation for the determination of the optimum operating conditions, and operation/maintenance technologies were transferred to Thailand. In the second half, plant operation was studied for by-passing the ultimate sedimentation tank of the factory. The results of activities are summarized into seven chapters of (1) outline of research cooperation project implementation, (2) outline of project implementation in fiscal 2000, (3) verification plant operation study, (4) automatic monitoring system construction, (5) technology disseminating activities, (6) study of support in Japan, and (7) subjects for future discussion. (NEDO)

  12. 48 CFR 852.236-87 - Accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accident prevention. 852... Accident prevention. As prescribed in 836.513, insert the following clause: Accident Prevention (SEP 1993) The Resident Engineer on all assigned construction projects, or other Department of Veterans Affairs...

  13. Perceived need to increase physical activity levels among adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional analysis within a community-based diabetes prevention project FIN-D2D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vähäsarja Kati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased physical activity is a cornerstone of type 2 diabetes prevention. The perception of a need to change is considered essential in behaviour change processes. However, the existing literature on individuals’ perceived need to change health behaviour is limited. In order to improve understanding of diabetes prevention through increased physical activity levels (PAL, we assessed factors associated with perceiving a need to increase PAL among adults at high risk of diabetes. Methods Opportunistic screening was used within a primary-care based lifestyle intervention covering 10 149 men and women at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Data were obtained at baseline visits. The explored determinants were demographic, anthropometric/clinical, behavioural and psychosocial characteristics, along with four categories of PAL awareness. Logistic regression was used in the analysis. Results 74% of men (n = 2 577 and 76% of women (n = 4 551 perceived a need to increase their PAL. The participants most likely to perceive this need were inactive, had a larger waist circumference, rated their PAL as insufficient, and were at the contemplation stage of change. Smoking, elevated blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, and a family history of diabetes were not associated with this perception. The likelihood was also greater among women with less perceived fitness and less education. Demographic factors other than education did not determine participants’ perceived need to increase PAL. PAL overestimators were less likely to perceive the need to increase their PAL than realistic inactive participants. Conclusions Subjective rather than objective health factors appear to determine the perception of a need to increase PAL among adults at high risk of diabetes. Client perceptions need to be evaluated in health counselling in order to facilitate a change in PAL. Practical descriptions of the associations between metabolic risk factors, PAL, and

  14. Modeling accidents for prioritizing prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, A.R.; Ale, B.J.M.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Heijer, T.; Bellamy, L.J; Mud, M.L.; Roelen, A.; Baksteen, H.; Post, J.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bloemhoff, A.; Oh, J.I.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Workgroup Occupational Risk Model (WORM) project in the Netherlands is developing a comprehensive set of scenarios to cover the full range of occupational accidents. The objective is to support companies in their risk analysis and prioritization of prevention. This paper describes how the modeling has developed through projects in the chemical industry, to this one in general industry and how this is planned to develop further in the future to model risk prevention in air transport. The core modeling technique is based on the bowtie, with addition of more explicit modeling of the barriers needed for risk control, the tasks needed to ensure provision, use, monitoring and maintenance of the barriers, and the management resources and tasks required to ensure that these barrier life cycle tasks are carried out effectively. The modeling is moving from a static notion of barriers which can fail, to seeing risk control dynamically as (fallible) means for staying within a safe envelope. The paper shows how concepts develop slowly over a series of projects as a core team works continuously together. It concludes with some results of the WORM project and some indications of how the modeling is raising fundamental questions about the conceptualization of system safety, which need future resolution

  15. Polio and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...

  16. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Preventing Child Sexual Abuse Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Talking to Teens about Healthy Relationships ... of child abuse prevention through our Pinwheels for Prevention campaign. ...

  17. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Initiatives Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... Call The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  18. Prevention Research Matters

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Prevention Research Matters is a series of one-on-one interviews with researchers from 26 university prevention research centers across the country. Their work focuses on preventing and controlling chronic diseases like obesity, cancer, and heart disease.

  19. Project mobilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.; Limbrick, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper identifies and reviews the issues to be addressed and the procedures to be followed during the mobilisation of projects using LFG as an energy source. Knowledge of the procedures involved in project mobilisation, their sequence and probable timescales, is essential for efficient project management. It is assumed that the majority of projects will be situated on existing, licensed landfill sites and, in addition to complying with the relevant conditions of the waste management licence and original planning consent, any proposed developments on the site will require a separate planning consent. Experience in the UK indicates that obtaining planning permission rarely constitutes a barrier to the development of schemes for the utilisation of LFG. Even so, an appreciation of the applicable environmental and planning legislation is essential as this will enable the developer to recognise the main concerns of the relevant planning authority at an early stage of the project, resulting in the preparation of an informed and well-structured application for planning permission. For a LFG utilisation scheme on an existing landfill site, the need to carry out an environmental assessment (EA) as part of the application for planning permission will, in vitually all cases, be discretionary. Even if not deemed necessary by the planning authority, an EA is a useful tool at the planning application stage, to identify and address potential problems and to support discussions with bodies such as the Environment Agency, from whom consents or authorisations may be required. Carrying out an EA can thus provide for more cost-effective project development and enhanced environmental protection. Typically, the principal contractual arrangements, such as the purchase of gas or the sale of electricity, will have been established before the project mobilisation phase. However, there are many other contractural arrangements that must be established, and consents and permits that may be

  20. Sleep-time ambulatory blood pressure as a prognostic marker of vascular and other risks and therapeutic target for prevention by hypertension chronotherapy: Rationale and design of the Hygia Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, objectives, design and conduct of the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM)-based Hygia Project. Given the substantial evidence of the significantly better prognostic value of ABPM compared to clinic BP measurements, several international guidelines now propose ABPM as a requirement to confirm the office diagnosis of hypertension. Nonetheless, all previous ABPM outcome investigations, except the Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares study (MAPEC) study, relied upon only a single, low-reproducible 24 h ABPM assessment per participant done at study inclusion, thus precluding the opportunity to explore the potential reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk associated with modification of prognostic ABPM-derived parameters by hypertension therapy. The findings of the single-center MAPEC study, based upon periodic systematic 48 h ABPM evaluation of all participants during a median follow-up of 5.6 years, constitute the first proof-of-concept evidence that the progressive reduction of the asleep systolic blood pressure (SBP) mean and correction of the sleep-time relative SBP decline toward the normal dipper BP profile, most efficiently accomplished by a bedtime hypertension treatment strategy, best attenuates the risk of CVD, stroke and development of new-onset diabetes. The Hygia Project, primarily designed to extend the use of ABPM in primary care as a requirement for diagnosis of hypertension, evaluation of response to treatment and individualized assessment of CVD and other risks, is a research network presently composed of 40 clinical sites and 292 investigators. Its main objectives are to (i) investigate whether specific treatment-induced changes in ABPM-derived parameters reduce risk of CVD events, stroke, new-onset diabetes and/or development of chronic kidney disease (CKD); and (ii) test the hypothesis that bedtime chronotherapy entailing the entire daily dose of ≥1

  1. Second research co-ordination meeting for the coordinated research project on 'Application of nuclear techniques in the prevention of degenerative diseases (obesity and non-insulin dependent diseases) in ageing'. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.; Mokhtar, N.

    2002-01-01

    In the developed countries, research using nuclear methods has been substantially used to examine the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in obesity-related diseases. This Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) is intended to promote the use of these techniques in the developing world. The specific objectives of this CRP are: 1. To define the magnitude of the obesity/NIDDM problem in developing countries. 2. To identify vulnerable groups at high risk. 3. To describe the metabolic mechanisms involved. The purpose of this first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was thus to develop a worldwide collaboration in the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques to investigate the aetiology of degenerative diseases in ageing. All countries participating in this CRP are going through the epidemiological transition with changes in lifestyles to approach those seen in the developed nations

  2. Co-ordinated research project on application of nuclear techniques in the prevention of degenerative diseases (obesity and non-Insulin dependent diseases) in ageing. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In the developed countries, research using nuclear methods has been substantially used to examine the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in obesity-related diseases. This Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) is intended to promote the use of these techniques in the developing world. The specific objectives of this CRP are: 1. To define the magnitude of the obesity/NIDDM problem in developing countries. 2. To identify vulnerable groups at high risk. 3. To describe the metabolic mechanisms involved. The purpose of this first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was thus to develop a worldwide collaboration in the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques to investigate the aetiology of degenerative diseases in ageing. All countries participating in this CRP are going through the epidemiological transition with changes in lifestyles to approach those seen in the developed nations.

  3. Co-ordinated research project on application of nuclear techniques in the prevention of degenerative diseases (obesity and non-Insulin dependent diseases) in ageing. Report on the second research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In the developed countries, research using nuclear methods has been substantially used to examine the physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in obesity-related diseases. This Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) is intended to promote the use of these techniques in the developing world. The specific objectives of this CRP are: 1. To define the magnitude of the obesity/NIDDM problem in developing countries. 2. To identify vulnerable groups at high risk. 3. To describe the metabolic mechanisms involved. The purpose of this first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) was thus to develop a worldwide collaboration in the use of nuclear and isotopic techniques to investigate the aetiology of degenerative diseases in ageing. All countries participating in this CRP are going through the epidemiological transition with changes in lifestyles to approach those seen in the developed nations

  4. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Scabies FAQs Workplace FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Biology Disease Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals Medications Institutional Settings Prevention ...

  5. The project “D.E.A.Th. by Eros to Thanatos AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases”. A multimedia exhibition as a means of prevention of sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ferrara

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: An educational intervention on Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs accompanied by a multimedia exhibition was proposed in order to verify the effectiveness of an exhibition as a tool for prevention, to increase awareness in youth and to evaluate whether it yielded changes in the sexual behaviour of its’ visitors. The Target population were high schools and university students.

    Methods: The Exhibition consisted of a historical overview and four other sections: biological and clinical aspects, epidemiology, prevention and a section called the Red Zone with clear and explicit images relating to STDs. The exhibition was supported by three observational studies carried out on about2000 students of two High Schools and the university in the city of Cassino, Italy. Data collection took place through three different types of “ad hoc” questionnaires. The Statistical analysis carried out was that typical of cross-sectional surveys. We utilized the statistical program Epi-Info 3.5.

    Results: Regarding survey 1, 48% of 529 students taking part said that the exhibition had contributed “enough” for them to acquire new knowledge, 75.2% had already had sexual intercourse and 37.7% of them did not change their sexual habits. Relative to survey 2, 583 responded to the pre test and 403 posttests returned. Regarding knowledge, data obtained from processing of pre-tests showed how 63.9% of the sample did not know how many STDs existed, whilst this value dropped in post test answers to 49.2% . AIDS was the best known disease (96% whilst other STDs were little known. The educational intervention partly increased these percentages. With regard to sexual practices although 43% of the sample claimed to have already had sexual intercourse (66% male and 34% female. The family doctor is seen by a high percentage of young people (70% - 68.6% as the first figure which should address an

  6. Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, Terry

    2011-01-01

    For over two years the National Dropout Prevention Center (NDPC) at Clemson University has been supporting the Lower Kuskokwim School District (LKSD) in NW Alaska with their efforts to reduce high school dropout in 23 remote Yup'ik Eskimo villages. The Rural Alaska Mentoring Project (RAMP) provides school-based E-mentoring services to 164…

  7. Childhood obesity prevention through a community-based cluster randomized controlled physical activity intervention among schools in china: the health legacy project of the 2nd world summer youth olympic Games (YOG-Obesity study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Xu, F; Ye, Q; Tse, L A; Xue, H; Tan, Z; Leslie, E; Owen, N; Wang, Y

    2018-04-01

    Childhood obesity has been becoming a worldwide public health problem. We conducted a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention program aiming at childhood obesity prevention in general student population in Nanjing of China, the host city of the 2nd World Summer Youth Olympic Games (YOG-Obesity study). This was a cluster randomized controlled intervention study. Participants were the 4th (mean age±s.e.: 9.0±0.01) and 7th (mean age±s.e.: 12.0±0.01) grade students (mean age±s.e.: 10.5±0.02) from 48 schools and randomly allocated (1:1) to intervention or control groups at school level. Routine health education was provided to all schools, whereas the intervention schools additionally received an 1-year tailored multi-component PA intervention program, including classroom curricula, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events. The primary outcome measures were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence and PA. Overall, 9858 (97.7%) of the 10091 enrolled students completed the follow-up survey. Compared with the baseline, PA level increased by 33.13 min per week (s.e. 10.86) in the intervention group but decreased by 1.76 min per week (s.e. 11.53) in the control group (P=0.028). After adjustment for potential confounders, compared with the control group, the intervention group were more likely to have increased time of PA (adj. Odds ratio=1.15, 95% confidence interval=1.06-1.25), but had a smaller increase in mean body mass index (BMI) (0.22 (s.e. 0.02) vs 0.46 (0.02), P=0.01) and BMI z-score (0.07 (0.01) vs 0.16 (0.01), P=0.01), and were less likely to be obese (adj. Odds ratio=0.7, 95% confidence interval=0.6, 0.9) at study end. The intervention group had fewer new events of obesity/overweight but a larger proportion of formerly overweight/obese students having normal weight by study end. This large community-based PA intervention was feasible and effective in promoting PA and preventing obesity among the general

  8. Sustained diabetes risk reduction after real life and primary health care setting implementation of the diabetes in Europe prevention using lifestyle, physical activity and nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real life implementation studies performed in different settings and populations proved that lifestyle interventions in prevention of type 2 diabetes can be effective. However, little is known about long term results of these translational studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the maintenance of diabetes type 2 risk factor reduction achieved 1 year after intervention and during 3 year follow-up in primary health care setting in Poland. Methods Study participants (n = 262, middle aged, slightly obese, with increased type 2 diabetes risk ((age 55.5 (SD = 11.3, BMI 32 (SD = 4.8, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score FINDRISC 18.4 (SD = 2.9 but no diabetes at baseline, were invited for 1 individual and 10 group lifestyle counselling sessions as well as received 6 motivational phone calls and 2 letters followed by organized physical activity sessions combined with counselling to increase physical activity. Measurements were performed at baseline and then repeated 1 and 3 years after the initiation of the intervention. Results One hundred five participants completed all 3 examinations (baseline age 56.6 (SD = 10.7, BMI 31.1 (SD = 4.9, FINDRISC 18.57 (SD = 3.09. Males comprised 13% of the group, 10% of the patients presented impaired fasting glucose (IFG and 14% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. Mean weight of participants decreased by 2.27 kg (SD = 5.25 after 1 year (p = 5% was achieved after 1 and 3 years by 27 and 19% of the participants, respectively. Repeated measures analysis revealed significant changes observed from baseline to year 1 and year 3 in: weight (p = 0.048, BMI (p = 0.001, total cholesterol (p = 0.013, TG (p = 0.061, fasting glucose level (p = 0.037 and FINDRISC (p = 0.001 parameters. The conversion rate to diabetes was 2% after 1 year and 7% after 3 years. Conclusions Type 2 diabetes prevention in real life primary health care setting through lifestyle intervention delivered by trained nurses leads

  9. Sustained diabetes risk reduction after real life and primary health care setting implementation of the diabetes in Europe prevention using lifestyle, physical activity and nutritional intervention (DE-PLAN) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Lindström, Jaana; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Piwońska-Solska, Beata; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Szybiński, Zbigniew; Peltonen, Markku; Schwarz, Peter E H; Windak, Adam; Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Alicja

    2017-02-15

    Real life implementation studies performed in different settings and populations proved that lifestyle interventions in prevention of type 2 diabetes can be effective. However, little is known about long term results of these translational studies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the maintenance of diabetes type 2 risk factor reduction achieved 1 year after intervention and during 3 year follow-up in primary health care setting in Poland. Study participants (n = 262), middle aged, slightly obese, with increased type 2 diabetes risk ((age 55.5 (SD = 11.3), BMI 32 (SD = 4.8), Finnish Diabetes Risk Score FINDRISC 18.4 (SD = 2.9)) but no diabetes at baseline, were invited for 1 individual and 10 group lifestyle counselling sessions as well as received 6 motivational phone calls and 2 letters followed by organized physical activity sessions combined with counselling to increase physical activity. Measurements were performed at baseline and then repeated 1 and 3 years after the initiation of the intervention. One hundred five participants completed all 3 examinations (baseline age 56.6 (SD = 10.7)), BMI 31.1 (SD = 4.9)), FINDRISC 18.57 (SD = 3.09)). Males comprised 13% of the group, 10% of the patients presented impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and 14% impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Mean weight of participants decreased by 2.27 kg (SD = 5.25) after 1 year (p = Diabetes risk (FINDRISC) declined after one year by 2.8 (SD = 3.6) (p = 0.001) and the decrease by 2.26 (SD = 4.27) was maintained after 3 years (p = 0.001). Body mass reduction by >5% was achieved after 1 and 3 years by 27 and 19% of the participants, respectively. Repeated measures analysis revealed significant changes observed from baseline to year 1 and year 3 in: weight (p = 0.048), BMI (p = 0.001), total cholesterol (p = 0.013), TG (p = 0.061), fasting glucose level (p = 0.037) and FINDRISC (p = 0.001) parameters. The conversion rate to diabetes was 2% after 1 year and 7% after 3 years

  10. Sunflower Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Leon; Osness, Donna

    1978-01-01

    An elementary school physical education program is described involving (1) grade-specific health education emphasizing nutrition, heart and lung anatomy and physiology, and disease prevention; (2) an innovative physical education program for children, teachers, and parents; (3) development of a low-cholesterol, low-sugar lunch program; and (4)…

  11. Sniffer project development

    CERN Document Server

    Grau, S; CERN. Geneva. ST Division

    2002-01-01

    To ensure the safety of the personnel, and prevent major damage to the equipment in the LHC experiments, a combined fire and gas detection system is being developed in conjunction with the industry. This system named SNIFFER, shall detect fire, flammable gas leaks and oxygen deficiency. In addition it shall interface with the Experiments' Control System and the CERN Safety Alarm Monitoring system. The SNIFFER project is currently at the end of the prototyping phase, and the technical specification is being written for the outsourcing of the system. The purpose of this document is to describe the main functions, constraints and interfaces of the system, to present the status report and planning of the project, and to explain the preliminary conclusions of the prototyping phase.

  12. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. R and D on preventive technology of scale deposition derived from hot water; 1980 nendo chinetsu nessui kara no scale fuchaku wo boshisuru gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-31

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1980 research result on preventive technology of scale deposition derived from hot water. Hot water of Nigori-Gawa, Hokkaido forms CaCO{sub 3} scale just after releasing into ambient air, and scale composed of amorphous silica and calcite at 60 degrees C or less, reaching a peak around pH 8. Deposition increases with a decrease in flow velocity and temperature. Polymerized silica removal experiment was made using Otake hot water and a floatation separator of 1 T/H. No cation and kerosene, and additional 6A-1 (coconut amine) and NS-18 (amine T) were effective for floatation separation. Continuous operation of the floatation separator of 50 T/H and a sludge recycling equipment was carried out as test for practical use. It was confirmed that addition of amine system floatation agent to hot water of 80 degrees C and pH 5 with polymerized silica of 20ppm is effective for reduction of polymerized silica in treatment water to 5ppm or less. The treated water was reinjected into Otake No.6 reinjection well. The sludge recycling equipment was tested for recycling floatation sludge separated, resulting in achievement of an expected target. (NEDO)

  13. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    by the practical testing environment. As a result of the changes, a reasonable assumption would be to question the consequences caused by the variations in method procedures. Here, the aim is to highlight the proven or hypothetic consequences of variations of Projective Mapping. Presented variations will include...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent......Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometimes...

  14. Isotopes Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dairiki, J.M.; Browne, E.; Firestone, R.B.; Lederer, C.M.; Shirley, V.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Isotopes Project compiles and evaluates nuclear structure and decay data and disseminates these data to the scientific community. From 1940-1978 the Project had as its main objective the production of the Table of Isotopes. Since publication of the seventh (and last) edition in 1978, the group now coordinates its nuclear data evaluation efforts with those of other data centers via national and international nuclear data networks. The group is currently responsible for the evaluation of mass chains A = 167-194. All evaluated data are entered into the International Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) and are published in Nuclear Data Sheets. In addition to the evaluation effort, the Isotopes Project is responsible for production of the Radioactivity Handbook

  15. Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) projections for present and future waste minimization and pollution prevention. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be used to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. It is intended to satisfy Department of Energy (DOE) requirements. This Plan provides an overview of projected activities from FY 1994 through FY 1999. The plans are broken into site-wide and problem-specific activities. All directorates at LLNL have had an opportunity to contribute input, to estimate budget, and to review the plan. In addition to the above, this plan records LLNL's goals for pollution prevention, regulatory drivers for those activities, assumptions on which the cost estimates are based, analyses of the strengths of the projects, and the barriers to increasing pollution prevention activities

  16. LLAMA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Giménez de Castro, G.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Larrarte, J. J.; Lepine, J.; Morras, R.; Viramonte, J.

    2014-10-01

    The project LLAMA, acronym of Long Latin American Millimetre Array is very briefly described in this paper. This project is a joint scientific and technological undertaking of Argentina and Brazil on the basis of an equal investment share, whose mail goal is both to install and to operate an observing facility capable of exploring the Universe at millimetre and sub/millimetre wavelengths. This facility will be erected in the argentinean province of Salta, in a site located at 4830m above sea level.

  17. Project of law authorizing the adhesion to the protocol of 1997 modifying the international convention of 1973 for the prevention of the pollution by ships, such as modified by the related protocol of 1978; Projet de loi autorisant l'adhesion au protocole de 1997 modifiant la convention internationale de 1973 pour la prevention de la pollution par les navires, telle que modifiee par le protocole de 1978 y relatif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-04-01

    The first international agreement of May 12, 1954, for the protection of the marine and coastal environments against pollution was replaced on November 2, 1973 by a more detailed convention for the prevention of the pollution by ships. The 25 rules defined in the appendix 1 of this last document were modified and completed by the protocol of February 17, 1978. To make this system even more constraining for the atmospheric pollution, a diplomatic conference took place in September 1997 at the head office of the international maritime organization in London (UK). This conference has adopted a protocol which introduced a new appendix no. 6 in the text of the 1973 convention for the abatement of the emissions of sulfur compounds and other polluting combustion products in case of oil-tank burning. This document is a project of law authorizing the adhesion of France to the protocol of 1997. It summarizes the main content of the articles of this protocol, and in particular the rules introduced in the new appendix. The full text of the protocol and of its appendixes are also attached. (J.S.)

  18. Project Avatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    'Project Avatar' tager udgangspunkt i den efterretningsdisciplin, der kaldes Open Source Intelligence og indebærer al den information, som ligger frit tilgængeligt i åbne kilder. Med udbredelsen af sociale medier åbners der op for helt nye typer af informationskilder. Spørgsmålet er; hvor nyttig er...

  19. Project Baltia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Uus arhitektuuriajakiri "Project Baltia" tutvustab Baltimaade, Soome ja Peterburi regiooni arhitektuuri, linnaehitust ja disaini. Ilmub neli korda aastas inglise- ja venekeelsena. Väljaandja: kirjastus Balticum Peterburis koostöös Amsterdami ja Moskva kirjastusega A-Fond. Peatoimetaja Vladimir Frolov

  20. Tedese Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, E.; Davila, J. Martin; Bock, G.; Pazos, A.; Udias, A.; Hanka, W.

    The TEDESE (Terremotos y Deformacion Cortical en el Sur de España) project is a joint project of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) and Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando, Cadiz (ROA) supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia with the participation of the GeoforschungZen- trum, Potsdam (GFZ). The aim is to carry out a study of the characteristics of the oc- currence and mechanism of earthquakes together with measurements of crustal struc- ture and deformations in order to obtain an integrated evaluation of seismic risk in southern Spain from. As part of this project a temporal network of 10 broad-band seismological stations, which will complete those already existing in the zone, have been installed in southern Spain and northern Africa for one year beginning in October 2001. The objectives of the project are the study in detail of the focal mechanisms of earthquakes in this area, of structural in crust and upper mantle, of seismic anisotropy in crust and mantle as indicator for tectonic deformation processed and the measure- ments of crustal deformations using techniques with permanent GPS and SLR stations and temporary GPS surveys. From these studies, seismotectonic models and maps will be elaborated and seismic risk in the zone will be evaluated.

  1. Project Boomerang

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Allen L.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experimental project on boomerangs designed for an undergraduate course in classical mechanics. The students designed and made their own boomerangs, devised their own procedures, and carried out suitable measurements. Presents some of their data and a simple analysis for the two-bladed boomerang. (Author/MLH)

  2. Project Narrative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Mary C. [St. Bonaventure University, St Bonaventure, NY(United States)

    2012-07-12

    The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.

  3. Radiochemistry Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Radiochemistry Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise: dosimetry and radiological protection; development of techniques and methods of chemical analysis and radiochemistry. (M.A.) [pt

  4. FLOAT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Aarup, Bendt

    The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach a commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price...

  5. Hydrology Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out in the 'Hydrology Project' of the Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura', Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, are described. Such research comprises: Amazon hydrology and Northeast hydrology. Techniques for the measurement of isotope ratios are used. (M.A.) [pt

  6. CHEMVAL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandratillake, M.; Falck, W.E.; Read, D.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarises the development history of the CHEMVAL Thermodynamic Database, the criteria employed for data selection and the contents of Version 4.0, issued to participants on the completion of the project. It accompanies a listing of the database constructed using the dBase III + /IV database management package. (Author)

  7. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  8. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1993-01-01

    The main sources of the financing of Swedish research on gas technology are listed in addition to names of organizations which carry out this research. The titles and descriptions of the projects carried out are presented in addition to lists of reports published with information on prices. (AB)

  9. SDN Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The SDN Project completed on time and on budget and successfully accomplished 100% of the scope of work outlined in the original Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The SDN Project formed an alliance between Ameren Corporation, University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign (UIUC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). The objective of the SDN Project is to address Topic Area of Interest 2: Sustain critical energy delivery functions while responding to a cyber-intrusion under Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-0000797. The goal of the project is to design and commercially release technology that provides a method to sustain critical energy delivery functions during a cyber intrusion and to do this control system operators need the ability to quickly identify and isolate the affected network areas, and re-route critical information and control flows around. The objective of the SDN Project is to develop a Flow Controller that monitors, configures, and maintains the safe, reliable network traffic flows of all the local area networks (LANs) on a control system in the Energy sector. The SDN team identified the core attributes of a control system and produced an SDN flow controller that has the same core attributes enabling networks to be designed, configured and deployed that maximize the whitelisted, deny-bydefault and purpose built networks. This project researched, developed and commercially released technology that: Enables all field networks be to configured and monitored as if they are a single asset to be protected; Enables greatly improved and even precalculated response actions to reliability and cyber events; Supports pre-configured localized response actions tailored to provide resilience against failures and centralized response to cyber-attacks that improve network reliability and availability; Architecturally enables the right subject matter experts, who are usually the information

  10. Projective geometry and projective metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    The basic results and methods of projective and non-Euclidean geometry are indispensable for the geometer, and this book--different in content, methods, and point of view from traditional texts--attempts to emphasize that fact. Results of special theorems are discussed in detail only when they are needed to develop a feeling for the subject or when they illustrate a general method. On the other hand, an unusual amount of space is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental concepts of distance, motion, area, and perpendicularity.Topics include the projective plane, polarities and conic sectio

  11. Projective measure without projective Baire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittesser, David; Friedman, Sy David

    We prove that it is consistent (relative to a Mahlo cardinal) that all projective sets of reals are Lebesgue measurable, but there is a ∆13 set without the Baire property. The complexity of the set which provides a counterexample to the Baire property is optimal.......We prove that it is consistent (relative to a Mahlo cardinal) that all projective sets of reals are Lebesgue measurable, but there is a ∆13 set without the Baire property. The complexity of the set which provides a counterexample to the Baire property is optimal....

  12. The prevention access and risk taking in young people (PARTY) project protocol: a cluster randomised controlled trial of health risk screening and motivational interviewing for young people presenting to general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanci, Lena; Grabsch, Brenda; Chondros, Patty; Shiell, Alan; Pirkis, Jane; Sawyer, Susan; Hegarty, Kelsey; Patterson, Elizabeth; Cahill, Helen; Ozer, Elizabeth; Seymour, Janelle; Patton, George

    2012-06-06

    There are growing worldwide concerns about the ability of primary health care systems to manage the major burden of illness in young people. Over two thirds of premature adult deaths result from risks that manifest in adolescence, including injury, neuropsychiatric problems and consequences of risky behaviours. One policy response is to better reorientate primary health services towards prevention and early intervention. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to support this recommendation for young people. This paper describes the design and implementation of a trial testing an intervention to promote psychosocial risk screening of all young people attending general practice and to respond to identified risks using motivational interviewing. clinicians' detection of risk-taking and emotional distress, young people's intention to change and reduction of risk taking. pathways to care, trust in the clinician and likelihood of returning for future visits. The design of the economic and process evaluation are not detailed in this protocol. PARTY is a cluster randomised trial recruiting 42 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Baseline measures include: youth friendly practice characteristics; practice staff's self-perceived competency in young people's care and clinicians' detection and response to risk taking behaviours and emotional distress in 14-24 year olds, attending the practice. Practices are then stratified by a social disadvantage index and billing methods and randomised. Intervention practices receive: nine hours of training and tools; feedback of their baseline data and two practice visits over six weeks. Comparison practices receive a three hour seminar in youth friendly practice only. Six weeks post-intervention, 30 consecutive young people are interviewed post-consultation from each practice and followed-up for self-reported risk taking behaviour and emotional distress three and 12 months post consultation. The PARTY trial is the

  13. The prevention access and risk taking in young people (PARTY project protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of health risk screening and motivational interviewing for young people presenting to general practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanci Lena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are growing worldwide concerns about the ability of primary health care systems to manage the major burden of illness in young people. Over two thirds of premature adult deaths result from risks that manifest in adolescence, including injury, neuropsychiatric problems and consequences of risky behaviours. One policy response is to better reorientate primary health services towards prevention and early intervention. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to support this recommendation for young people. This paper describes the design and implementation of a trial testing an intervention to promote psychosocial risk screening of all young people attending general practice and to respond to identified risks using motivational interviewing. Main outcomes: clinicians’ detection of risk-taking and emotional distress, young people’s intention to change and reduction of risk taking. Secondary outcomes: pathways to care, trust in the clinician and likelihood of returning for future visits. The design of the economic and process evaluation are not detailed in this protocol. Methods PARTY is a cluster randomised trial recruiting 42 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Baseline measures include: youth friendly practice characteristics; practice staff’s self-perceived competency in young people’s care and clinicians’ detection and response to risk taking behaviours and emotional distress in 14–24 year olds, attending the practice. Practices are then stratified by a social disadvantage index and billing methods and randomised. Intervention practices receive: nine hours of training and tools; feedback of their baseline data and two practice visits over six weeks. Comparison practices receive a three hour seminar in youth friendly practice only. Six weeks post-intervention, 30 consecutive young people are interviewed post-consultation from each practice and followed-up for self-reported risk taking

  14. Family Violence Prevention Programs in Immigrant Communities: Perspectives of Immigrant Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…

  15. Optimizing preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiCola, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    The traditional approach to preventive maintenance (PM) is based on adherence to manufacturers's requirements and recommended frequencies. When equipment fails, either new procedures are established or the frequency is increased. This leads to an increase in the number of PM activities, overloading not only maintenance resources, but support as well. There is no correlation between more PM and an increase in equipment reliability. More PM may actually induce failures. Reliability-centered maintenance, a new concept in utility maintenance, is based on identifying system/subsystem functions, failures, and dominant failure modes to develop or revise PM tasks. The activities described in this paper are based on actual implementation of this concept on an ongoing project to upgrade the PM program at one of the largest electric utilities in the country. Optimum PM activities are those that, when implemented, will minimize factors that c cause equipment to fail. One technique described illustrates how equipment performance, failure modes, and causes can be related to minimize the occurrence of failures. Operating history and service life of a component are key factors in determining the most effective PM activities, provided that the factors are related to failure modes and causes

  16. Project Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, S.

    1988-01-01

    The project started in March 1987. The objective is to perform radon monitoring in 2000 dwellings occupied by people employed by State Power Board and to continue to contribute to the development of radon filters. The project participates in developing methods for radon measurement and decontamination and in adapting the methods to large scale application. About 400 so called radon trace measurements (coarse measurement) and about 10 action measurements (decontamination measurement) have been made so far. Experience shows that methods are fully applicable and that the decontamination measures recommended give perfectly satisfactory results. It is also established that most of the houses with high radon levels have poor ventilation Many of them suffer from moisture and mould problems. The work planned for 1988 and 1989 will in addition to measurements be directed towards improvement of the measuring methods. An activity catalogue will be prepared in cooperation with ventilation enterprises. (O.S.)

  17. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  18. Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunell, J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is given of research activities, concerning heating systems, which were carried out in Sweden during 1991. The main subject areas dealt with under the gas technology group within the area of heating systems were catalytic combustion, polyethylene materials, and gas applications within the paper and pulp industries. A list is given of the titles of project reports published during 1991 and of those begun during that year. Under the Swedish Centre for Gas Technology (SGC), the main areas of research regarding gas applications were polyethylene materials, industrial applications and the reduction of pollutant emissions. A detailed list is given of research projects which were in progress or proposed by March 1992 under the heating system gas technology research group in Sweden. This list also presents the aims and descriptions of the methods, etc. (AB)

  19. AVE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During 1998, ANAV began to optimize Human Resources to cope with the ERE and ANA-ANV integration. Project AVE was intended to achieve an orderly transfer of know-how, skills, attitudes and experiences. The most complex part was renovation of personnel with Operating Licenses. Nearly 140 people had joined the organization by late December 2003. This opportunity was seized to draw up a new Training Manual, and a common Initial Training Plan was designed for the two plants, accounting for the singularities of each one. The plan is divided into 5 modules: Common Training, Specific Training, PEI/CAT, Management, and on-the-job Training. The training environments were defined according to the nature of the capabilities to be acquired. Project AVE resulted in the merger of the Asco and Vandellos II Training services. (Author)

  20. Spent Nuclear Fuel project, project management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuquay, B.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project has been established to safely store spent nuclear fuel at the Hanford Site. This Project Management Plan sets forth the management basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. The plan applies to all fabrication and construction projects, operation of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project facilities, and necessary engineering and management functions within the scope of the project

  1. ARTIST Project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ferguson, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Biennial Conference Presented by: Keith Ferguson Date: 9 October 2012 Mobile IPTV Broadcasting Platform Consortium: CSIR, UCT, ECA Funded by TIA 2008-2011 ARTIST Project Min time - sacrifice quality Max quality - sacrifice time Application Context... idth > ARTIST Platform Advertiser Client 1 Client 2 Client 3 Client 4 Sport channel News channel Wildlife channel Advert database Transaction database Transcoder Servers Media Switching Servers INTERNET Channel viewing Advert upload...

  2. CARA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergallo, Juan E.; Brasnarof, Daniel O.

    2000-01-01

    The CARA (Advanced Fuels for Argentine Reactors) Project successfully completed its first stage, phase one, last year. The performance of this fuel has been partially examined, using CNEA and CONUAR facilities and personnel. With the results obtained in this stage, determined by the corresponding tests and verification of the fuel behavior, the performance of the second stage started immediately afterwards. Works performed and results obtained during the development of the second stage are generally described in this paper. (author)

  3. Polytope projects

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2013-01-01

    How do you know what works and what doesn't? This book contains case studies highlighting the power of polytope projects for complex problem solving. Any sort of combinational problem characterized by a large variety of possibly complex constructions and deconstructions based on simple building blocks can be studied in a similar way. Although the majority of case studies are related to chemistry, the method is general and equally applicable to other fields for engineering or science.

  4. Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    1999-01-01

    When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....

  5. Project Phaseolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Research carried out through the Phaseolus Project of the 'Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura' (CENA) Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, is described. It comprises the following subject s: plant breeding; nitrogen fixation; tissue cultures; proteins; photosynthetic efficiency; soil-plant interactions; electron microscopy of the golden mosaic virus; pest control; production of 15 N-enriched ammonium sulfate, and determination of elements in the beans plant. (M.A.) [pt

  6. Numatron project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, K [Osaka Univ., Toyonaka (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Hirao, Yasuo

    1977-04-01

    A project of high energy heavy ion acceleration is under consideration. The high energy heavy ions can produce highly condensed states of nuclei. A new phase of nucleus would be seen at the incident energy higher than 140 MeV/nucleon. High energy heavy ions causing high density states and meson emission will produce various new nuclides. Process of formation of atomic elements will be studied. Various fields of science can be also investigated by the high energy heavy ions. Spectroscopic study of multi-valent ions will be made high energy uranium. Study of materials for the fusion reactor is important. Impurity heavy ion from the wall of the fusion reactor may lose the energy of the reactor, and the characteristic features of heavy ions should be investigated. The highly ionized states of atoms are also produced by heavy ion injection into material. Several projects of heavy ion acceleration are in progress in the world. The Numatron project in Japan is to construct a combination machine of a Cockcroft type machine, three linear accelerator and a synchrotron. The planned energy of the machine is 670 MeV/nucleon. Technical problems are under investigation.

  7. Recent advances in preventing mass violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, David A

    2010-10-01

    Since his presidency of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and co-chairmanship of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, David Hamburg has been actively engaged in projects related to the prevention of genocide and other mass violence. In these remarks to the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, he describes the significance of preventing mass violence in the 21st century. In particular, he discusses the danger of nuclear and other highly lethal weapons, emphasizing examples of prevention drawn from the Cold War and subsequent period. He delineates practical steps that can be taken to prevent war and genocide, including restraints on weaponry, preventive diplomacy, fostering indigenous democracy, fostering equitable socioeconomic development, education for human survival, and international justice in relation to human rights. Training and support in preventive diplomacy are highlighted as crucially important, particularly in the context of the United Nations, using the novel Mediation Support Unit based out of the Department of Political Affairs as a key example. He concludes that the creation of international centers for the prevention of mass atrocities could provide a crucial resource in preventing mass violence. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.

  8. Reflections on preventive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettinen, Olli S

    2014-10-01

    Having thought much about medicine in my career-long effort to understand it and the research for its advancement, I have come to views rather different form the now-prevailing ones in respect to what preventive medicine is about; what epidemiology is in relation to preventive medicine; what distinguishes preventive medicine in preventive healthcare at large; the relation of preventive medicine to public health; the concept of health promotion; and also the core principles of preventive medicine. All of these views I set forth in this article, for the readers' critical reflection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coloss project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The COLOSS project was a shared-cost action, co-ordinated by IRSN within the Euratom Research Framework Programme 1998-2002. Started in February 2000, the project lasted three years. The work-programme performed by 19 partners was shaped around complementary activities aimed at improving severe accident codes. Unresolved risk-relevant issues regarding H2 production, melt generation and the source term were studied, through a large number of experiments such as a) dissolution of fresh and high burn-up UO 2 and MOX by molten Zircaloy, b) simultaneous dissolution of UO 2 and ZrO 2 by molten Zircaloy, c) oxidation of U-O-Zr mixtures by steam, d) degradation-oxidation of B 4 C control rods. Significant results have been produced from separate-effects, semi-global and large-scale tests on COLOSS topics. Break-through were achieved on some issues. Nevertheless, more data are needed for consolidation of the modelling on burn-up effects on UO 2 and MOX dissolution and on oxidation of U-O-Zr and B 4 C-metal mixtures. There was experimental evidence that the oxidation of these mixtures can contribute significantly to the large H2 production observed during the reflooding of degraded cores under severe accident conditions. Based on the experimental results obtained on the COLOSS topics, corresponding models were developed and were successfully implemented in several severe accident codes. Upgraded codes were then used for plant calculations to evaluate the consequences of new models on key severe accident sequences occurring in different plants designs involving B 4 C control rods (EPR, BWR, VVER- 1000) as well as in the TMI-2 accident. The large series of plant calculations involved sensitivity studies and code benchmarks. Main severe accident codes in use in the EU for safety studies were used such as ICARE/CATHARE, SCDAP/RELAP5, ASTEC, MELCOR and MAAP4. This activity enabled: a) the assessment of codes to calculate core degradation, b) the identification of main

  10. Project report about the motives of the future law project 'security and nuclear clearness'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-11-01

    This project aims to prevent the hazards in relation with nuclear activities for man and his environment, as well to reinforce information on risks associated to these activities and on measures taken to avoid them. (N.C.)

  11. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  12. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... do to prevent pressure sores? play_arrow What role does diet and hydration play in preventing pressure ...

  13. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Cancer treatment - preventing infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radiation - preventing infection; Bone marrow transplant - preventing infection; Cancer treatment - immunosuppression ... this is a short-lived side effect of cancer treatment. Your provider may give you medicines to help ...

  15. Research Areas: Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s prevention research has a broad focus, from identifying environmental and lifestyle factors that influence cancer risk to studying the biology of how cancer develops and studying ways to disseminate prevention interventions.

  16. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  17. Preventing Pressure Sores

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Preventing Pressure Sores Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to Home ...

  18. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  19. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  20. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  1. Preventing Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Preventing Weight Gain Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... cancer. Choosing an Eating Plan to Prevent Weight Gain So, how do you choose a healthful eating ...

  2. Breast Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... from starting. Risk-reducing surgery . General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suicide Populations Racial/Ethnic Groups Older Adults Adolescents LGBT Military/Veterans Men Effective Prevention Comprehensive Approach Identify ... Based Prevention Settings American Indian/Alaska Native Settings Schools Colleges and Universities Primary Care Emergency Departments Behavioral ...

  4. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professional printing [PDF-1.5MB] Cancer Home “Prevent Cervical Cancer” Infographic Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time ...

  5. Project Exodus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Project Exodus is an in-depth study to identify and address the basic problems of a manned mission to Mars. The most important problems concern propulsion, life support, structure, trajectory, and finance. Exodus will employ a passenger ship, cargo ship, and landing craft for the journey to Mars. These three major components of the mission design are discussed separately. Within each component the design characteristics of structures, trajectory, and propulsion are addressed. The design characteristics of life support are mentioned only in those sections requiring it.

  6. CAREM Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Viviana; Gomez, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    CAREM project consists on the development and design of an advanced nuclear power plant. CAREM is a very low power innovative reactor conceived with new generation design solutions. Based on an indirect cycle integrated light water reactor using enriched uranium, CAREM has some distinctive features that greatly simplify the reactor and also contribute to a high level of safety: integrated primary system, primary system cooling by natural convection, self pressurization, and passive safety systems. In order to verify its innovative features the construction of a prototype is planned. (author)

  7. Determining Factors for Cyberbullying Prevention Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzuoli, Cristina Hennig; Medina, Liliana Cuesta

    2017-01-01

    This study reports on the first stages of a larger project to develop an ICT-supported cyberbullying prevention programme that fosters development of children's communication skills for the safe use of social media. To establish baseline data on the incidence and growth of cyberbullying in Bogotá, Colombia, we applied a Revised School Violence…

  8. Prevention of overweight in the school arena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge

    2007-01-01

    studies were performed in Germany and in the United Kingdom. The studies, which had a significant effect on overweight were 'Dance for Health', 'Planet Health', 'San Jose Study', 'Kiel Obesity Prevention Study', 'Healthy Schools' programme, 'El Paso Catch', and 'Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project...

  9. PREVENTION FETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Skitnevskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the influence of alcohol problems in women of childbearing age during pregnancy on the unborn child. The concept of a fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS. We describe the stages of the research project "Prevention of fetal FAS in Russia."

  10. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a gentle exercise that involves slow and graceful dance-like movements. Such activities reduce the risk of ... healthy-lifestyle/healthy-aging/in-depth/fall-prevention/art-20047358 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and Terms ...

  11. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  12. Statewide Suicide Prevention Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    State Employees Statewide Suicide Prevention Council DHSS State of Alaska Home Divisions and Agencies National Suicide Prevention Lifeline Alaska Community Mental Health Centers National Survivors of Suicide Meetings Presentations 2010 Alaska Statewide Suicide Prevention Summit: Mending the Net Connect with us on

  13. Prevention IS Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-03-26

    This podcast provides an overview of the Prevention IS Care campaign, which provides HIV prevention tools for medical care providers to use on a daily basis with patients who are living with HIV.  Created: 3/26/2009 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/26/2009.

  14. Project subsidized by the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1982. Report on achievements in the project commissioned from NEDO - development of a hot water utilizing power generation plant and development of a binary cycle power generation plant (Researches on corrosion preventive measures and the cycle optimum for the plant); 1982 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu (fushoku taisaku no kenkyu oyobi plant saiteki cycle no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    As the element research on a 10-MW class geothermal binary cycle power plant to be built in the coming term, researches were made on corrosion preventive measures and the cycle optimum for the plant. This paper reports the achievements in fiscal 1982. In the research on corrosion preventive measures, different kinds of materials were buried in three locations having different soil natures to study corrosion due to soil. The corrosion rate of heat conducting pipes using the heat media R114 was estimated as very small as 1/40 of the corrosion rate in geothermal waters. In the research on the cycle optimum for the plant, experimental research was performed on thermo-dynamic properties and thermal stability of the mixed media using R114 as the main component. As a result, the R114/R112 system was found to have higher pressure than R114, but the media circulation amount is less, and the output at the power transmission terminal increased by 5 to 10%. The system showed the most excellent heat cycle characteristics. In the research of building a power plant installed with two different power generation systems, a computer program was prepared that calculates heat balances all at once for the case of installing a geothermal binary cycle power plant in a geothermal steam power plant. (NEDO)

  15. PORTNUS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyal, Rebecca E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-14

    The objective of the Portunus Project is to create large, automated offshore ports that will the pace and scale of international trade. Additionally, these ports would increase the number of U.S. domestic trade vessels needed, as the imported goods would need to be transported from these offshore platforms to land-based ports such as Boston, Los Angeles, and Newark. Currently, domestic trade in the United States can only be conducted by vessels that abide by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 – also referred to as the Jones Act. The Jones Act stipulates that vessels involved in domestic trade must be U.S. owned, U.S. built, and manned by a crew made up of U.S. citizens. The Portunus Project would increase the number of Jones Act vessels needed, which raises an interesting economic concern. Are Jones Act ships more expensive to operate than foreign vessels? Would it be more economically efficient to modify the Jones Act and allow vessels manned by foreign crews to engage in U.S. domestic trade? While opposition to altering the Jones Act is strong, it is important to consider the possibility that ship-owners who employ foreign crews will lobby for the chance to enter a growing domestic trade market. Their success would mean potential job loss for thousands of Americans currently employed in maritime trade.

  16. FLORAM project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulauf, W E [Sao Paolos Environmental Secretariat, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Goelho, A S.R. [Riocell, S.A. (Brazil); Saber, A [IEA-Instituto de Estudos Avancados (Brazil); and others

    1996-12-31

    The project FLORAM was formulated at the `Institute for Advanced Studies` of the University of Sao Paulo. It aims at decreasing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thus curbing the green-house effect by way of a huge effort of forestation and reforestation. The resulting forests when the trees mature, will be responsible for the absorption of about 6 billion tons of excess carbon. It represents 5 % of the total amount of CO{sub 2} which is in excess in the earth`s atmosphere and represents 5 % of the available continental surfaces which can be forested as well. Therefore, if similar projects are implemented throughout the world, in theory all the exceeding CO{sub 2}, responsible for the `greenhouse effect`, (27 % or 115 billion tons of carbon) would be absorbed. Regarding this fact, there would be a 400 million hectar increase of growing forests. FLORAM in Brazil aims to plant 20.000.000 ha in 2 years at a cost of 20 billion dollars. If it reaches its goals that will mean that Brazil will have reforested an area almost half as big as France. (author)

  17. FLORAM project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulauf, W.E. [Sao Paolos Environmental Secretariat, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Goelho, A.S.R. [Riocell, S.A. (Brazil); Saber, A. [IEA-Instituto de Estudos Avancados (Brazil)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The project FLORAM was formulated at the `Institute for Advanced Studies` of the University of Sao Paulo. It aims at decreasing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thus curbing the green-house effect by way of a huge effort of forestation and reforestation. The resulting forests when the trees mature, will be responsible for the absorption of about 6 billion tons of excess carbon. It represents 5 % of the total amount of CO{sub 2} which is in excess in the earth`s atmosphere and represents 5 % of the available continental surfaces which can be forested as well. Therefore, if similar projects are implemented throughout the world, in theory all the exceeding CO{sub 2}, responsible for the `greenhouse effect`, (27 % or 115 billion tons of carbon) would be absorbed. Regarding this fact, there would be a 400 million hectar increase of growing forests. FLORAM in Brazil aims to plant 20.000.000 ha in 2 years at a cost of 20 billion dollars. If it reaches its goals that will mean that Brazil will have reforested an area almost half as big as France. (author)

  18. 77 FR 39497 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Special Interest Projects (SIPs): Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and...

  19. Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Post-Traumatic Osteoarthritis: Evaluation in Animal and Clinical Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Science of Variation Group (Wolf JM, SVG group member). Variation in recommendation for surgical treatment for compressive neuropathy. J Hand... Goldberg Arthritis Grant Animal Model of Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Osteoarthritis This project evaluates the potentially preventive

  20. [Prevention of mental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Gühne, Uta

    2013-12-01

    Investment in prevention is a major public health requirement. Mental disorders are common and are associated with severe consequences. They are a major target for prevention. Based on vulnerabilitiy-stress-models the theoretical background for prevention in mental disorders is outlined. Effective strategies for children, adolescents, adults and individuals in old age do exist. Results regarding the prevention of depres-sion and psychoses are outlined and risk groups which require current actions are determined. Current activities towards a national prevention strategy in Germany are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Mathematical modelling informs HIV prevention policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... Treatment as prevention Earlier research conducted under Modelling and controlling infectious diseases project showed that providing ... for HIV screening, diagnostics, and treatment at county and township hospitals. And in ...

  2. Project Financing

    OpenAIRE

    S. GATTI

    2005-01-01

    Στην εισαγωγή της παρούσας εργασίας δίνεται ο ορισμός του project financing, τα ιστορικά στοιχεία και οι τάσεις αγοράς του. Στο πρώτο κεφάλαιο αναφέρεται γιατί οι εταιρείες προτιμούν την χρηματοδότηση με project financing. Γίνεται λόγος για τα πλεονεκτήματά του έναντι της άμεσης χρηματοδότησης, καθώς και για τα μειονεκτήματα του project financing. Στο δεύτερο κεφάλαιο παρουσιάζονται τα χρηματοοικονομικά στοιχεία και ο ρόλος του χρηματοοικονομικού συμβούλου. Στην τρίτη ενότητα γίνεται η αναγνώ...

  3. Preventing adolescent suicide: a community takes action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirruccello, Linda M

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescents and young people in the United States. The etiology of suicide in this population has eluded policy makers, researchers, and communities. Although many suicide prevention programs have been developed and implemented, few are evidence-based in their effectiveness in decreasing suicide rates. In one northern California community, adolescent suicide has risen above the state's average. Two nurses led an effort to develop and implement an innovative grassroots community suicide prevention project targeted at eliminating any further teen suicide. The project consisted of a Teen Resource Card, a community resource brochure targeted at teens, and education for the public and school officials to raise awareness about this issue. This article describes this project for other communities to use as a model. Risk and protective factors are described, and a comprehensive background of adolescent suicide is provided.

  4. Prevention Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is an important cause for neurological morbidity and mortality. Prevention of ischemic stroke involves identification and prevention of risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy. Risk factors have been classified as modifiable and non-modifiable; control of modifiable factors should prevent stroke occurrence. Stroke prevention has been described at three levels: primary, secondary and tertiary. Prolonged hypertension increases an individual′s risk for developing fatal or nonfatal stroke by three times and its control has been shown to prevent stroke. Diabetes mellitus is an important cause for microangiopathy and predisposes to stroke. Statin trials have shown significant reduction in stroke in those who were treated with statins. Stroke risk can be reduced by avoiding tobacco use, control of obesity and avoiding sedentary life style. Anti platelet medications are effective for secondary prevention of stroke. Educating society regarding modifiable risk factors and optimal use of pharmacotherapy form the cornerstone for the prevention of stroke.

  5. Project: Ultracentrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olea C, O.

    1990-07-01

    The trans elastic ultracentrifuge of magnetic suspension, is an instrument that arose of an interdisciplinary group directed by the Dr. James Clark Keith where it was projected, designed and built a centrifuge that didn't exist, to be applied in forced diffusion of uranium, like one of the many application fields. The written present, has as purpose to give to know the fundamental physical principles of this technology, its fundamental characteristics of design, the application of this in the separation process of isotopes, as well as the previous studies and essential control parameters in the experimental processes, the same thing that, the most outstanding results and the detection systems used in the confirmation and finally, the carried out potential applications of the principles of the ultracentrifugation technology. (Author)

  6. ENVISION Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is a highly advanced technique of cancer radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (ions) to destroy tumour cells. While conventional X-rays traverse the human body depositing radiation as they pass through, ions deliver most of their energy at one point. Hadrontherapy is most advantageous once the position of the tumour is accurately known, so that healthy tissues can be protected. Accurate positioning is a crucial challenge for targeting moving organs, as in lung cancer, and for adapting the irradiation as the tumour shrinks with treatment. Therefore, quality assurance becomes one of the most relevant issues for an effective outcome of the cancer treatment. In order to improve the quality assurance tools for hadrontherapy, the European Commission is funding ENVISION, a 4-year project that aims at developing solutions for: real-• time non invasive monitoring • quantitative imaging • precise determination of delivered dose • fast feedback for optimal treatment planning • real-t...

  7. EUROTRAC projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, J.; Arends, B.G.; Wyers, G.P.

    1992-07-01

    The projects discussed are BIATEX (BIosphere-ATmosphere EXchange of pollutants), ACE (Acidity in Clouds Experiment) and GCE (Ground-based Cloud Experiment). ECN also coordinates BIATEX and contributes to the coordination of EUROTRAC. Research in BIATEX is aimed at the development of equipment, by which atmosphere-surface interactions of air pollution can be quantified. A ion chromatograph, connected to a rotating denuder, is developed to be applicated in the field for on-line analysis of denuder extracts and other samples. To investigate dry deposition of ammonia a continuous-flow denuder has been developed. A thermodenuder system to measure the concentrations of HNO 3 and NH 4 NO 3 in the ambient air is optimized to determine depositions and is part of the ECN monitoring station in Zegveld, Netherlands. An aerosol separation technique, based on a cyclone separator, has also been developed. All this equipment has been used in field experiments above wheat and heather. An automated monitoring station for long-term investigations of NH 3 , HNO 3 and SO 2 dry deposition on grassland and the impact of the deposition on the presence and composition of water films has been set up and fully tested. Research in GCE concerns the uptake and conversion of air pollution in clouds (cloud chemistry). Measuring equipment from several collaborative institutes has been specified and calibrated in a cloud chamber at ECN. The ECN contribution is the determination of the gas phase composition and the micro-physical characterization of the clouds. Measurement campaigns were carried out in the Po area (Italy) in fog, and in Kleiner Feldberg near Frankfurt, Germany, in orographic clouds. Estimations are given of the deposition of fog water and cloud water on forests in the Netherlands and the low mountain range in Germany. The project ACE was not started because of financial reasons and will be reconsidered. 26 figs., 1 tab., 3 apps., 34 refs

  8. Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention and management of implantable cardiac electronic device infection. Report of a joint Working Party project on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (BSAC, host organization), British Heart Rhythm Society (BHRS), British Cardiovascular Society (BCS), British Heart Valve Society (BHVS) and British Society for Echocardiography (BSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoe, Jonathan A T; Barlow, Gavin; Chambers, John B; Gammage, Michael; Guleri, Achyut; Howard, Philip; Olson, Ewan; Perry, John D; Prendergast, Bernard D; Spry, Michael J; Steeds, Richard P; Tayebjee, Muzahir H; Watkin, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Infections related to implantable cardiac electronic devices (ICEDs), including pacemakers, implantable cardiac defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices, are increasing in incidence in the USA and are likely to increase in the UK, because more devices are being implanted. These devices have both intravascular and extravascular components and infection can involve the generator, device leads and native cardiac structures or various combinations. ICED infections can be life-threatening, particularly when associated with endocardial infection, and all-cause mortality of up to 35% has been reported. Like infective endocarditis, ICED infections can be difficult to diagnose and manage. This guideline aims to (i) improve the quality of care provided to patients with ICEDs, (ii) provide an educational resource for all relevant healthcare professionals, (iii) encourage a multidisciplinary approach to ICED infection management, (iv) promote a standardized approach to the diagnosis, management, surveillance and prevention of ICED infection through pragmatic evidence-rated recommendations, and (v) advise on future research projects/audit. The guideline is intended to assist in the clinical care of patients with suspected or confirmed ICED infection in the UK, to inform local infection prevention and treatment policies and guidelines and to be used in the development of educational and training material by the relevant professional societies. The questions covered by the guideline are presented at the beginning of each section. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  10. A enfermagem e a prevenção do uso indevido de drogas entre adolescentes La enfermería y la prevención del uso indebido de drogas entre adolescentes Nursing student participation in a community project to prevent drug abuse among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Mendonça Corradi-Webster

    2009-06-01

    la temática con adolescentes y la alumna de pregrado involucrada tuvo la oportunidad de vivenciar el trabajo comunitario, importante en este momento de remodelación de las prácticas de enfermería.This is an undergraduate nursing student experience report with a community project to prevent drug use among teenagers. The project consists of preventive educational interventions to teenagers, aged 15 to 17 years, attending the "Programa Agente Jovem de Desenvolvimento Social e Humano - Young Agent Program for the Social and Human Development.' This program, which is coordinated by the Social Services Department of the District of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, is funded by the Brazilian Federal Government. An interdisciplinary approach is used to address several community issues such as violence, the environment, teenager's sexuality, the use of drugs, and opportunities for engagement in life experience projects. The program uses workshops to provide information, provoke discussions, and stimulate reflections on the main aspects of substance abuse and on strategies teenagers can use to develop coping skills. The program provided the undergraduate nursing student with an excellent experience with community project, which is very important in determining innovative nursing practices.

  11. Switchgear project meticulously managed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    Electrical engineering and estates personnel at Sodexo--which manages a wide range of soft and hard facilities management services for five hospitals under a PFI contract at the Manchester Royal Infirmary--have successfully planned, managed, and co-ordinated, a complex electrical engineering project which saw high voltage (HV) switchgear in the site's main intake sub-station dismantled by the supplier to repair a potential earthing mechanism fault which would have prevented individual switchgear panels being shut down, to, for example, cater for renovation of electrical cabling or components cross the site's high voltage network. With detailed planning, including provision for bringing onto site temporary bulk generators, and the formulation of a 600-step switching programme, the replacement of potential faulty driver components in the disconnect mechanism for 20 HV switchgear panels was completed in just four weeks, with minimal interruption to the vast complex's power supply.

  12. The Maple reactor project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkoske, G.R.; Labrie, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    MDS Nordion supplies the majority of the world's reactor-produced medical isotopes. These isotopes are currently produced in the NRU reactor at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). Medical isotopes and related technology are relied upon around the world to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. The NRU reactor, which has played a key role in supplying medical isotopes to date, has been in operation for over 40 years. Replacing this aging reactor has been a priority for MDS Nordion to assure the global nuclear medicine community that Canada will continue to be a dependable supplier of medical isotopes. MDS Nordion contracted AECL to construct two MAPLE reactors dedicated to the production of medical isotopes. The MDS Nordion Medical Isotope Reactor (MMIR) project started in September 1996. This paper describes the MAPLE reactors that AECL has built at its CRL site, and will operate for MDS Nordion. (author)

  13. Project Success in IT Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Farhan Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The rate of failed and challenged Information Technology (IT) projects is too high according to the CHAOS Studies by the Standish Group and the literature on project management (Standish Group, 2008). The CHAOS Studies define project success as meeting the triple constraints of scope, time, and cost. The criteria for project success need to be agreed by all parties before the start of the project and constantly reviewed as the project progresses. Assessing critical success factors is another ...

  14. Guide of good practices for methanization projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatte, Constant; Orozco-Souel, Paola; Rouxel, Anaick; Tanneau, Patrick; Schreiber, Konrad; Jaubert, Jean Noel; Micone, Philippe; Dionne, Denis; Renner, Christophe; Ollivier, Denis

    2011-12-01

    This guide aims at providing project holders with guidance on factors which may influence social acceptability of methanization projects and with recommendations regarding communication and dialogue for a better project integration, with a technical support in order to guarantee project quality for a minimised environmental impact, and at convincing and reassuring local communities which plan to implement a methanization project, notably with respect to issues like odours, safety or landscape integration. The guide first outlines the importance of a serious and credible approach, and aims project holders at demonstrating an actual reasonable economic control of energy, environmental and social issues related to their project. The second part proposes technical solutions regarding the limitation of impact on air quality, preservation and restoration of soil quality and water resources, landscape integration, transport management and noise prevention. Feedbacks on experiences with different types of installations (agricultural, industrial, and so on) are also provided. A good practice charter is finally proposed

  15. Preventing repetition of attempted suicide-III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahoz, Titia; Hvid, Marianne; Wang, August G

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Amager Project was initiated as a quasi-experimental study in 2005, based on an active outreach suicide preventive intervention inspired by the Norwegian Baerum Model. A 1-year follow-up study was conducted as a randomized controlled trial showing that this kind of active outreach...... to suicide attempters had a significant preventive effect on the prevalence of suicide attempts and significantly reduced the number of patients repeating a suicide attempt. AIMS: In this 5-year RCT follow-up the aim was to investigate the sustainability of the suicide preventive effect shown in a 1-year...... follow-up study. METHOD: One hundred and thirty-three suicide attempters were included at this 5-year follow-up RCT study at Copenhagen University Hospital, Amager, and randomized to a rapid outreach suicide preventive intervention (OPAC) or TAU. RESULTS: Offering OPAC intervention to patients after...

  16. Teacher Burnout: Causes and Projected Preventative and Curative Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrad, Mohammad I.

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined how teachers at Valley High School internalize the phenomenon of teacher burnout. Teachers at Valley High School are suffering from teacher burnout on a daily basis with little to no support. The teachers at Valley High School were asked to participate in a survey, semi-structured interviews, and class…

  17. Elder Abuse Prevention Project - Phase I. Literature Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Lori; And Others

    This document summarizes information on elder abuse collected from various sources in Canada and the United States. It is noted that document entries are often representative of more than one source, and have been selected as each adds something new and valuable to the overall research on elder abuse. An attempt has been made to choose information…

  18. Chemoprevention of Skin Cancer Program Project | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in the world. One out of three new cancers is a skin cancer. More than 1 million cases of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) (basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell cancers [SCC]) occur annually. While the incidence rates for non-melanoma skin cancers continue to rise, there continues to be a

  19. Exe-Guard Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Lab., Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Marshall, Tim [Dominion Virginia Power, Richmond, VA (United States); Chavez, Adrian [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Bratus, Sergey [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States)

    2016-01-30

    The exe-Guard Project is an alliance between Dominion Virginia Power (DVP), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Dartmouth University, and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). SEL is primary recipient on this project. The exe-Guard project was selected for award under DE-FOA-0000359 with CFDA number 81.122 to address Topic Area of Interest 4: Hardened platforms and Systems. The exe-Guard project developed an antivirus solution for control system embedded devices to prevent the execution of unauthorized code and maintain settings and configuration integrity. This project created a white list antivirus solution for control systems capable of running on embedded Linux® operating systems. White list antivirus methods allow only credible programs to run through the use of digital signatures and hash functions. Once a system’s secure state is baselined, white list antivirus software denies deviations from that state because of the installation of malicious code as this changes hash results. Black list antivirus software has been effective in traditional IT environments but has negative implications for control systems. Black list antivirus uses pattern matching and behavioral analysis to identify system threats while relying on regular updates to the signature file and recurrent system scanning. Black list antivirus is vulnerable to zero day exploits which have not yet been incorporated into a signature file update. System scans hamper the performance of high availability applications, as revealed in NIST special publication 1058 which summarizes the impact of blacklist antivirus on control systems: Manual or “on-demand” scanning has a major effect on control processes in that they take CPU time needed by the control process (Sometimes close to 100% of CPU time). Minimizing the antivirus software throttle setting will reduce but not eliminate this effect. Signature updates can also take up to 100% of CPU time, but for a much shorter period than a typical

  20. Urban upgrading for violence prevention in South Africa: Does it ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) project, funded jointly by the German Development Bank and the City of Cape Town in South Africa, is a prime example of an evidence-based intervention for violence prevention that was designed to address all urban violence determining factors. The VPUU ...