WorldWideScience

Sample records for prevention programs results

  1. Family-Based HIV Preventive Intervention: Child Level Results from the CHAMP Family Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smith, & Henry, 2003). This often translates into three concrete programmatic features: (1) Contextual relevance; (2) Developmental-groundedness; and (3) Systemic Delivery. Because families are considered to be urban youth’s best hope to grow up and survive multiple-dangers in urban neighborhoods (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000), centering prevention within families may ensure that youth receive ongoing support, education, and messages that can increase their capacity to negotiate peer situations involving sex. This paper will present preliminary data from an HIV/AIDS prevention program that is contextually relevant, developmentally grounded and systematically-delivered. The collaborative HIV/AIDS Adolescent Mental Health Project (CHAMP) is aimed at decreasing HIV/AIDS risk exposure among a sample of African American youth living in a poverty-stricken, inner-city community in Chicago. This study describes results from this family-based HIV preventive intervention and involves 88 African American pre-adolescents and their primary caregivers. We present results for the intervention group at baseline and post intervention. We compare post test results to a community comparison group of youth. Suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:20852742

  2. [Efficiency of an alcohol addiction prevention program at the workplace: results of an empirical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennenbach, M; Gass, B; Reinecker, H; Soyka, M

    2009-03-01

    Following an anonymous survey on health und substance use problems in 2004, a prevention program for workers at a Bavarian rehabilitation clinic was initiated. Its efficiency was evaluated by a follow-up study in 2007. The initial analysis had indicated a high rate of substance abuse. Young female employees had been identified as one of the risk groups for alcohol consumption and professional discontent. Based on these findings, a special prevention program was established. The follow-up study revealed some improvements with respect to health und substance abuse, including a significant reduction in average alcohol consumption. These findings indicate that prevention programs at the workplace are both possible and effective.

  3. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) The NIDDK-sponsored Diabetes Prevention ... Diabetes Prevention Program for those who are eligible. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) DPP Goal The DPP looked ...

  4. Family-Based HIV Preventive Intervention: Child Level Results from the CHAMP Family Program

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Cami K.; Baptiste, Donna; Traube, Dorian; Paikoff, Roberta L.; Madison-Boyd, Sybil; Coleman, Doris; Bell, Carl C.; Coleman, Ida; McKay, Mary M.

    2007-01-01

    Social indicators suggest that African American adolescents are in the highest risk categories of those contracting HIV/AIDS (CDC, 2001). The dramatic impact of HIV/AIDS on urban African American youth have influenced community leaders and policy makers to place high priority on programming that can prevent youth’s exposure to the virus (Pequegnat & Szapocznik, 2000). Program developers are encouraged to design programs that reflect the developmental ecology of urban youth (Tolan, Gorman-Smit...

  5. Pilot RCT Results of an mHealth HIV Prevention Program for Sexual Minority Male Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ybarra, Michele L; Prescott, Tonya L; Phillips, Gregory L; Bull, Sheana S; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Mustanski, Brian

    2017-07-01

    Guy2Guy (G2G) is the first comprehensive HIV prevention program developed for sexual minority males as young as 14 years old and is delivered nationally via text messaging. Here, we report the results of the pilot randomized control trial. G2G was tested against an attention-matched "healthy lifestyle" control (eg, self-esteem). Both programs lasted 5 weeks and delivered 5 to 10 text messages daily. A 1-week booster was delivered 6 weeks subsequently. Participants were cisgender males ages 14 to 18 years old who were gay, bisexual, and/or queer and had an unlimited text messaging plan. Youth were recruited across the United States via Facebook and enrolled by telephone from October 2014 to April 2015. Ninety-day postintervention outcomes were condomless sex acts (CSA) and abstinence and, secondarily, HIV testing. We also examined these outcomes at intervention end and stratified them by sexual experience. At 90 days postintervention, there were no significant differences in CSAs or abstinence noted. Among participants who were sexually active at baseline, intervention participants were significantly more likely to report getting an HIV test (adjusted odds ratio = 3.42, P = .001). They were also less likely than control youth to be abstinent (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48, P = .05). CSAs were significantly lower for those in the intervention versus control at intervention end (incident rate ratio = 0.39, P = .04), although significance was lost once age was added to the analysis (incident rate ratio = 0.58, P = .26). G2G appears promising in increasing adolescent HIV testing rates. Sex-positive intervention messages appear to have increased the participants' comfort with having sex (ie, less abstinence) while not increasing their potential for HIV transmission (ie, more CSAs). Additional content or features may be needed to invigorate condom use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. [Results of a comprehensive workplace program for the prevention and treatment of smoking addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerín, I; Crucelaegui, A; Más, A; Villalba, J A; Guillén, D; Gracia, A

    2005-04-01

    To assess a comprehensive smoking prevention and treatment program in an electrical appliances company with 1600 employees. The program included smoking restrictions with the designation of smoking areas and the offer of smoking cessation treatment for the smokers affected. Study variables were age, sex, nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test), carbon monoxide in expired air, adherence to therapy, and smoking abstinence at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months (end of treatment), and 6 months. Successful smoking abstinence was defined as continuous abstinence from the beginning of treatment. Smoking prevalence was 34.8% and 19.5% of smokers requested treatment (77.4% men and 22.6% women). Mean (SD) age was 41.3 (10.3) years. Mean score of nicotine dependence was 5.3 (2.6) and the mean quantity of carbon monoxide in expired air was 35.6 (23.7) ppm. Adherence to therapy was good in 80% of patients. Rate of abstinence was 57.5% at 6 months, signifying a 4% reduction in prevalence. Workplace smoking cessation programs reduce prevalence and facilitate the establishment of smoking restrictions at the worksite. Companies are convenient settings for the implementation of programs aimed at smoking prevention and treatment.

  7. Results of a drug prevention program in the changing attitudes of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal VILLANUEVA ROA

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse is a problem that the population is highly sensitive. On the other hand, is clear that in the field of education, together with the family, the ideal roomto articulate prevention programmes. One the aspects which many educational programmes have not had the expec ted results has been for not taking into account the family environment and not control his influence. with this research we have found that there are significant differences in the 2nd ESO students attitude, regarding the rejection of tobacco, alcohol and other drugs, depending on which the prevention programme is aplied or not to students. Research has been done with quasi experimental pretest postest to not equivalent control group. The analysis of results, shows that the implementation of the programme has been effective as far as the students attitude has highly improved with regard to the prevention of drugs, mainly tobacco which is the most widely abused drug at these ages. Regarding the expected differences in students attitude by the implementation of a prevention programme with parents, we have not seen significant differences in the results possibly because the initial attitudes are very positive and is very short period of time. As a result of the study we believe it is important to recover the educator family role since its influence is decisive in prevention.

  8. Using focus group results to inform preschool childhood obesity prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, Elizabeth L; Collie, Kate R; Fraser, Gertrude; Shufflebarger, Cindy; Lloyd, Bronwyn; Norman Oliver, M

    2006-08-01

    This study about maternal feeding practices and beliefs was conducted as background for the development of a childhood obesity prevention program for multi-ethnic parents in the USA receiving services from a federal government supplemental nutrition program for low-income mothers. Using a grounded theory approach, focus groups were conducted with low-income African American, white non-Hispanic (i.e. the majority Caucasian American population), Hispanic and Vietnamese parents to collect cross-cultural perspectives on: (a) infant and child feeding practices, (b) childhood overweight, (c) healthy dietary intake, (d) physical activity and inactivity, and (e) infant feeding information sources. A content analysis of the data yielded three main themes common to all four groups: (a) lack of awareness of the relationship between increased physical activity and health, (b) the use of food to influence behavior, and (c) the loss of parental control over feeding when a child starts child care or school, and revealed perspectives on age-appropriate food, infant satiety, overweight and information sources that were specific to each group. Interventions that enhance parent self-efficacy that build on themes that are specific to ethnic groups toward preventing childhood obesity are needed. There is also a need for culturally appropriate information for governmental nutrition programs that is in the client's own language and takes into account ethnic differences in beliefs and traditions.

  9. Pilot evaluation of a media literacy program for tobacco prevention targeting early adolescents shows mixed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p media literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p media literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.

  10. Extension of Type 2 Diabetes Genome-Wide Association Scan Results in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Allan F.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; McAteer, Jarred B.; Saxena, Richa; Pollin, Toni I.; Franks, Paul W.; Hanson, Robert L.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Knowler, William C.; Altshuler, David; Florez, Jose C.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE— Genome-wide association scans (GWASs) have identified novel diabetes-associated genes. We evaluated how these variants impact diabetes incidence, quantitative glycemic traits, and response to preventive interventions in 3,548 subjects at high risk of type 2 diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), which examined the effects of lifestyle intervention, metformin, and troglitazone versus placebo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS— We genotyped selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in or near diabetes-associated loci, including EXT2, CDKAL1, CDKN2A/B, IGF2BP2, HHEX, LOC387761, and SLC30A8 in DPP participants and performed Cox regression analyses using genotype, intervention, and their interactions as predictors of diabetes incidence. We evaluated their effect on insulin resistance and secretion at 1 year. RESULTS— None of the selected SNPs were associated with increased diabetes incidence in this population. After adjustments for ethnicity, baseline insulin secretion was lower in subjects with the risk genotype at HHEX rs1111875 (P = 0.01); there were no significant differences in baseline insulin sensitivity. Both at baseline and at 1 year, subjects with the risk genotype at LOC387761 had paradoxically increased insulin secretion; adjustment for self-reported ethnicity abolished these differences. In ethnicity-adjusted analyses, we noted a nominal differential improvement in β-cell function for carriers of the protective genotype at CDKN2A/B after 1 year of troglitazone treatment (P = 0.01) and possibly lifestyle modification (P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS— We were unable to replicate the GWAS findings regarding diabetes risk in the DPP. We did observe genotype associations with differences in baseline insulin secretion at the HHEX locus and a possible pharmacogenetic interaction at CDKNA2/B. PMID:18544707

  11. Effectiveness of a selective alcohol prevention program targeting personality risk factors: Results of interaction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Jeroen; Goossens, Ferry; Conrod, Patricia; Engels, Rutger; Wiers, Reinout W; Kleinjan, Marloes

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether specific groups of adolescents (i.e., scoring high on personality risk traits, having a lower education level, or being male) benefit more from the Preventure intervention with regard to curbing their drinking behaviour. A clustered randomized controlled trial, with participants randomly assigned to a 2-session coping skills intervention or a control no-intervention condition. Fifteen secondary schools throughout The Netherlands; 7 schools in the intervention and 8 schools in the control condition. 699 adolescents aged 13-15; 343 allocated to the intervention and 356 to the control condition; with drinking experience and elevated scores in either negative thinking, anxiety sensitivity, impulsivity or sensation seeking. Differential effectiveness of the Preventure program was examined for the personality traits group, education level and gender on past-month binge drinking (main outcome), binge frequency, alcohol use, alcohol frequency and problem drinking, at 12months post-intervention. Preventure is a selective school-based alcohol prevention programme targeting personality risk factors. The comparator was a no-intervention control. Intervention effects were moderated by the personality traits group and by education level. More specifically, significant intervention effects were found on reducing alcohol use within the anxiety sensitivity group (OR=2.14, CI=1.40, 3.29) and reducing binge drinking (OR=1.76, CI=1.38, 2.24) and binge drinking frequency (β=0.24, p=0.04) within the sensation seeking group at 12months post-intervention. Also, lower educated young adolescents reduced binge drinking (OR=1.47, CI=1.14, 1.88), binge drinking frequency (β=0.25, p=0.04), alcohol use (OR=1.32, CI=1.06, 1.65) and alcohol use frequency (β=0.47, p=0.01), but not those in the higher education group. Post hoc latent-growth analyses revealed significant effects on the development of binge drinking (β=-0.19, p=0.02) and binge drinking frequency (β=-0.10, p=0

  12. The cost-effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program: Results from a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to bullying affects around 3-5 percent of adolescents in secondary school and is related to various mental health problems. Many different anti-bullying programmes are currently available, but economic evaluations are lacking. The aim of this study is to identify the cost effectiveness of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP). We constructed a decision-tree model for a Swedish secondary school, using a public payer perspective, and retrieved data on costs and effects from the published literature. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis to reflect the uncertainty in the model was conducted. The base-case analysis showed that using the OBPP to reduce the number of victims of bullying costs 131,250 Swedish kronor (€14,470) per victim spared. Compared to a relevant threshold of the societal value of bullying reduction, this indicates that the programme is cost-effective. Using a relevant willingness-to-pay threshold shows that the OBPP is a cost-effective intervention. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Promotion of media competence and prevention of cyberbullying using the Medienhelden program: results from an evaluation study ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheithauer, Herbert; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja; Wölfer, Ralf; Zagorscak, Pavle

    2014-01-01

    The manualized Medienhelden (engl. Media Heroes) program (Schultze-Krumbholz, Zagorscak, Siebenbrock, Scheithauer, 2012) is implemented in the school environment either as a ten-week program during lessons (curriculum; IGL) or as a single project day with reduced content of the long version (IGK). In consecutive lessons, topics of the program are, for example: definition of cyberbullying, its negative impact, how to protect oneself on the internet, and opportunities to react in appropriate ways. The program utilizes mainly cognitive-behavioral methods. In the present contribution the program and selected results from a controlled, pre-follow-up evaluation study with 570 adolescents (Ncontrolgroup = 289, NIGK = 98 and NIGL = 183), from one general high school and four college preparatory high schools from a German major city will be presented. Results show that cyberbullying decreased in both intervention groups (project day, curriculum) compared to the control group while at the same time an increase of social competencies, self-esteem, and subjective health was observed. These effects were more pronounced for the curriculum intervention group. An opposite pattern was found for the control group: Cyberbullying and empathy worsened, and no change was found for perspective-taking, self-esteem, and subjective health. The program shows both preventive and intervention effects.

  14. Primary preventive programs for risk behavior: Results from a study in high poverty areas of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brito-Navarrete

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Educational interventions that provide mothers with strategies and knowledge regarding the cognitive and emotional development of their preschool children, have an impact on mother–child relationship, promoting interpersonal affective behavior and mother responsiveness to the needs of their children and they also promote the development of self-control and regulation of children, which allow them a functional social adjustment, thus preventing the onset of antisocial behavior.

  15. A home-based prevention program for sixth-grade alcohol use: Results from project Northland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C L; Perry, C L; Dudovitz, B; Veblen-Mortenson, S; Anstine, P S; Komro, K A; Toomey, T L

    1995-12-01

    Project Northland is designed to prevent alcohol use among young adolescents. The project is ongoing in 24 school districts, randomly assigned to intervention or reference conditions. Multiple interventions begin with sixth graders and continue through eighth grade. The reference districts offer their standard health curricula. Evaluation consists of school surveys with the cohort (N = 2201) and telephone surveys of half their parents. This article describes the sixth-grade home-based intervention, the Slick Tracy Home Team. Findings of broad-based participation across sex, race, and risk status were documented, as well as some increases in knowledge and family communication about alcohol use.

  16. Eagle Adventure: School-Based Type 2 Diabetes Prevention Program Results in Improved Outcomes Related to Food and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall-Amos, Angelina; Parker, Stephany; Mata, Sara; Fox, Jill; Jackson, Teresa; Miracle, Sarah; Hermann, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The Eagle Adventure program was designed as a semester-long, SNAP-Ed program to address food and physical activity choices important for prevention of type 2 diabetes, obesity, and other chronic diseases. The program was developed for implementation in Grades 1-3. This article presents findings from two participating grade centers inclusive of…

  17. Medication errors in pediatric inpatients: prevalence and results of a prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Paula; Leyton, Andrea; Mariani, Gonzalo; Ceriani Cernadas, José María

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of medication errors in pediatric and neonatal inpatients and to measure the impact of interventions to reduce medication errors. A preintervention and postintervention cross-sectional study was conducted of a sample of prescriptions that were ordered by physicians and medications that were administered by nurses to patients at the NICU, PICU, and general pediatric settings at the Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires Department of Pediatrics in 2002 and 2004. Number and type of errors, time shift on which they occurred, and whether they had any kind of adverse event on the patient were recorded. Medication errors were stratified according to physicians' and nurses' status. Several interventions, including incorporating a positive safety culture without a punitive management of errors and specific prescribing and drug-administration recommendations were implemented between the 2 phases of the study. A total of 590 prescriptions and 1174 drug administrations for 95 patients in the first phase of the study and 1144 prescriptions with 1588 drug administrations for 92 patients in the second phase were evaluated. The prevalence of medication error rate in the second phase was 7.3% (199 of 2732) and 11.4% (201 of 1764) in the first phase. The risk difference was -4.1%. The development of a program mainly centered on the promotion of a cultural change in the approach to medical errors can effectively diminish medication errors in neonates and children.

  18. Results of the "Aprender a Convivir" Program for Development of Social Competence and Prevention of Antisocial Behavior in Four-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Juan L.; Fernandez, Maria; Justicia, Fernando; Fernandez, Eduardo; Justicia, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The present study is the result of implementing an antisocial behavior prevention program in preschool education. The intervention goal was to prevent the emergence of antisocial behaviors through developing social competence in the participants. The program, called "Aprender a Convivir", is divided into four modules by topic: rules and…

  19. Eating Disorder Prevention Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapia, Jennifer L.

    This paper provides information for school psychologists regarding the necessity and benefits of school-based prevention programming for students at risk for developing eating disorders (i.e., females). School-based programming is a cost-effective means of reaching the largest number of individuals at once and identifying those individuals…

  20. The prevention of occupational hand dermatitis in bakers, confectioners and employees in the catering trades. Preliminary results of a skin prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A; Kelterer, D; Stadeler, M; Schneider, W; Kleesz, P; Wollina, U; Elsner, P

    2001-02-01

    Occupational skin diseases (OSD) are among the most frequent occupational diseases (OD). Compared to other occupations, bakers, confectioners and employees in the catering trades are at a high risk of developing OSD. In January 1999, the interdisciplinary Skin Disease Prevention Program in the Baking, Hotel and Catering Industries (SDPP) conducted by the Department of Dermatology and Allergology at the Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, in cooperation with the Research Center for Applied System Safety and Industrial Medicine, Erfurt, and the technical experts at the Social Insurance for the Food Industry and Related Professions (Berufsgenossenschaft für Nahrungsmittel und Gaststätten--(BGN)), Erfurt, was initiated. Following detailed analysis of the occupational exposure of the employees and their personal occupational disease history, the patients' diagnosis and therapy was re-evaluated and supplemented if necessary. Individual skin care and protection regimes were demonstrated and practically trained. Skin care and protection products were supplied. Skin-care and protection seminars were offered to volunteering participants. From January to December 1999, 29 affected employees were examined in the OSD clinic. 22 employees (76%) suffered from irritant contact dermatitis. The follow-up data of 11 employees are available. In 8 employees (73%), the skin disease improved or disappeared. Moreover, in 1 employee (9%), the skin condition was stabilized even though he continued working. In only 2 employees (18%) did the skin condition worsen. These preliminary results showed that most of the OSD were due to lack of or unsuitable skin care and protection. The program will be extended to cover a larger number of food industry employees with OSD.

  1. Canagliflozin for Primary and Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events: Results From the CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Neal, Bruce; Perkovic, Vlado; de Zeeuw, Dick; Fulcher, Greg; Erondu, Ngozi; Shaw, Wayne; Fabbrini, Elisa; Sun, Tao; Li, Qiang; Desai, Mehul; Matthews, David R

    2018-01-23

    Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor that significantly reduces the composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated cardiovascular risk. The comparative effects among participants with and without a history of cardiovascular disease (secondary versus primary prevention) were prespecified for evaluation. The CANVAS Program (Canagliflozin Cardiovascular Assessment Study) randomly assigned 10 142 participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus to canagliflozin or placebo. The primary prevention cohort comprised individuals ≥50 years of age with ≥2 risk factors for cardiovascular events but with no prior cardiovascular event, and the secondary prevention cohort comprised individuals ≥30 years of age with a prior cardiovascular event. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Secondary outcomes included heart failure hospitalization and a renal composite (40% reduction in estimated glomerular filtration rate, renal replacement therapy, or renal death). Primary prevention participants (N=3486; 34%) were younger (63 versus 64 years of age), were more often female (45% versus 31%), and had a longer duration of diabetes mellitus (14 versus 13 years) compared with secondary prevention participants (N=6656; 66%). The primary end point event rate was higher in the secondary prevention group compared with the primary prevention group (36.9 versus 15.7/1000 patient-years, P <0.001). In the total cohort, the primary end point was reduced with canagliflozin compared with placebo (26.9 versus 31.5/1000 patient-years; hazard ratio [HR], 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-0.97; P <0.001 for noninferiority, P =0.02 for superiority) with no statistical evidence of heterogeneity (interaction P value=0.18) between the primary (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.74-1.30) and secondary prevention (HR, 0.82; 95

  2. The Efficacy of a Universal School-Based Prevention Program for Eating Disorders among German Adolescents: Results from a Randomized-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warschburger, Petra; Zitzmann, Jana

    2018-04-10

    Disordered eating is highly prevalent during adolescence and has a detrimental effect on further development. Effective prevention programs are needed to prevent unhealthy developmental trajectories. This study evaluated the efficacy of the POPS-program (POtsdam Prevention at Schools), a universal school-based eating disorder prevention program for adolescents. In a cluster-randomized design, we compared the intervention group receiving the prevention program to a waiting control group. Outcomes included indicators of disordered eating and relevant risk factors for eating disorders (body dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal, perceived media pressure, perfectionism, emotional element of exercise, social comparison, and perceived teasing). Questionnaires were administered at the start of the intervention, 3 and 12 months post intervention. At baseline, 1112 adolescents aged 10 to 16 years participated (49% girls; 51% intervention group). Intention-to-treat analyses with the complete data set and per-protocol analyses as a completer analysis were performed. The intervention group showed a more favorable course compared to the control group regarding all observed risk factors for eating disorders except for perceived teasing. Effect sizes were small but comparable to other primary prevention programs. At 1-year follow-up, a small but significant effect on disordered eating was observed. Results of the per-protocol analyses were mostly confirmed by the intention-to-treat analyses. Results were promising for both genders although girls benefited more regarding disordered eating and internalization of the thin ideal. Further studies are warranted examining successful program elements and whether gender-specific programs are needed.

  3. Prevention of illicit drug use through a school-based program: results of a longitudinal, cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jong-Long; Lee, Tzu-Chi; Liao, Jung-Yu; Huang, Chiu-Mieh

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the long-term effects of an illicit drug use prevention program for adolescents that integrates life skills into the theory of planned behavior. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in which 24 participating schools were randomized to either an intervention group (12 schools, n = 1,176 students) or a control group (12 schools, n = 915 students). Participants were grade 7 students. The intervention comprised a main intervention of 10 sessions and two booster interventions. Booster 1 (four sessions) and booster 2 (two sessions) were performed at 6 months and 12 months, respectively, after completion of the main intervention. Assessments were made at baseline, after the main intervention, and after each booster session using specific questionnaires for measuring participants' attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and life skills. Retention rates were 71.9% (845/1,176) in the intervention group and 90.7% (830/915) in the control group after the 12-month follow-up. A significantly lower proportion of intervention group participants reported illicit drug use after the first and second booster sessions compared with control group participants (.1% vs. 1.7% and .2% vs. 1.7%, respectively; both p drug use. A drug use prevention program integrating life skills into the theory of planned behavior may be effective for reducing illicit drug use and improving planned behavior-related constructs in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pollution prevention pledge program: Program overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Pollution Prevention Pledge Program invites facilities to develop pollution reduction goals which exceed existing provincial, municipal or federal regulatory requirements and to share them with the ministry of Environment and Energy. This document presents a program overview and looks at the following points: benefits of participation; pollution prevention pledge program; levels of participation; determining what to reduce; the 50/90 challenge; estimating and tracking reductions; verifying reductions; program registry and annual report; and achievement awards.

  5. Preventing errors in administration of parenteral drugs: the results of a four-year national patient safety program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C. de; Schilp, J.; Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the implementation of a four-year national patient safety program concerning the parenteral drug administration process in the Netherlands. Methods: Structuring the preparation and administration process of parenteral drugs reduces the number of medication errors. A

  6. Moderators of the intervention effects for a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program; results from an amalgam of three randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sina; Stice, Eric

    2013-03-01

    To investigate factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, including initial elevations in thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, eating disorders symptoms, and older participant age. Adolescent female high school and college students with body image concerns (N=977; M age=18.6) were randomized to a dissonance-based thin-ideal internalization reduction program or an assessment-only control condition in three prevention trials. The intervention produced (a) significantly stronger reductions in thin-ideal internalization for participants with initial elevations in thin-ideal internalization and a threshold/subthreshold DSM-5 eating disorder at baseline, (b) significantly greater reductions in eating disorder symptoms for participants with versus without a DSM-5 eating disorder at baseline, and (c) significantly stronger reductions in body dissatisfaction for late adolescence/young adulthood versus mid-adolescent participants. Baseline body dissatisfaction did not moderate the intervention effects. Overall, intervention effects tended to be amplified for individuals with initial elevations in risk factors and a DSM-5 eating disorder at baseline. Results suggest that this prevention program is effective for a broad range of individuals, but is somewhat more beneficial for the subgroups identified in the moderation analyses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 68.175 - Prevention program/Program 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.175 Prevention program/Program...) The name(s) of the substance(s) covered. (d) The date on which the safety information was last...) The expected date of completion of any changes resulting from the PHA; (2) Major hazards identified...

  8. Pollution prevention program implementation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    The Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan (the Plan) describes the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) Pollution Prevention (P2) Program. The Plan also shows how the P2 Program at PNNL will be in support of and in compliance with the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Awareness Program Plan and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation. In addition, this plan describes how PNNL will demonstrate compliance with various legal and policy requirements for P2. This plan documents the strategy for implementing the PNNL P2 Program. The scope of the P2 Program includes implementing and helping to implement P2 activities at PNNL. These activities will be implemented according to the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) hierarchy of source reduction, recycling, treatment, and disposal. The PNNL P2 Program covers all wastes generated at the Laboratory. These include hazardous waste, low-level radioactive waste, radioactive mixed waste, radioactive liquid waste system waste, polychlorinated biphenyl waste, transuranic waste, and sanitary waste generated by activities at PNNL. Materials, resource, and energy conservation are also within the scope of the PNNL P2 Program

  9. Municipal water pollution prevention program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    EPA believes that the most effective and equitable means of assuring viability of this infrastructure is through environmentally preferred pollution prevention approaches especially through application of Municipal Water Pollution Prevention (MWPP). These approaches may enhance worker safety, improve the usability of sludge, increase the ability for local community expansion, and reduce operation and compliance costs. State-based municipal pollution prevention programs focus attention on a series of actions to prevent pollution in advance rather than taking more expensive corrective actions. MWPP encourages resource conservation to reduce water and energy use, appropriate pricing, toxicity reductions at the source, BOD reductions, recycling, proper treatment of wastes, and beneficial uses of sludge

  10. A cross-validation trial of an Internet-based prevention program for alcohol and cannabis: Preliminary results from a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Katrina E; Newton, Nicola C; Stapinski, Lexine; Slade, Tim; Barrett, Emma L; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Replication is an important step in evaluating evidence-based preventive interventions and is crucial for establishing the generalizability and wider impact of a program. Despite this, few replications have occurred in the prevention science field. This study aims to fill this gap by conducting a cross-validation trial of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis course, an Internet-based prevention program, among a new cohort of Australian students. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted among 1103 students (Mage: 13.25 years) from 13 schools in Australia in 2012. Six schools received the Climate Schools course and 7 schools were randomized to a control group (health education as usual). All students completed a self-report survey at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Mixed-effects regressions were conducted for all outcome variables. Outcomes assessed included alcohol and cannabis use, knowledge and intentions to use these substances. Compared to the control group, immediately post-intervention the intervention group reported significantly greater alcohol (d = 0.67) and cannabis knowledge (d = 0.72), were less likely to have consumed any alcohol (even a sip or taste) in the past 6 months (odds ratio = 0.69) and were less likely to intend on using alcohol in the future (odds ratio = 0.62). However, there were no effects for binge drinking, cannabis use or intentions to use cannabis. These preliminary results provide some support for the Internet-based Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis course as a feasible way of delivering alcohol and cannabis prevention. Intervention effects for alcohol and cannabis knowledge were consistent with results from the original trial; however, analyses of longer-term follow-up data are needed to provide a clearer indication of the efficacy of the intervention, particularly in relation to behavioral changes. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  11. EXPANDING URBAN AMERICAN INDIAN YOUTHS’ REPERTOIRE OF DRUG RESISTANCE SKILLS: PILOT RESULTS FROM A CULTURALLY ADAPTED PREVENTION PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen; Dustman, Patricia A.; Brown, Eddie F.; Martinez, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    This article examines changes in the drug resistance strategies used by urban American Indian (UAI) middle school students during a pilot test of a substance use prevention curriculum designed specifically for UAI youth, Living in 2 Worlds (L2W). L2W teaches four drug resistance strategies (refuse, explain, avoid, leave [R-E-A-L]) in culturally appropriate ways. Data come from 57 UAI students (53% female; mean age = 12.5 years) who participated in L2W during an academic enrichment class for Native youth at two Phoenix schools. Students completed a pre-test questionnaire before the L2W lessons and a post-test 7 months later. Questions assessed the use of R-E-A-L and alternative strategies commonly reported by UAI youth (change the subject, use humor). Tests of mean differences from pre-test to post-test showed significant increases in use of refuse, R-E-A-L repertoire. Use of more passive strategies (avoid, use humor) did not change significantly, except for change the subject, which increased. Changes in the use of strategies did not differ significantly by gender, age, school grades, parental education, or length of urban residence. The L2W curriculum appears effective in teaching culturally relevant communication strategies that expand UAI youths’ repertoire of drug resistance skills. PMID:23529769

  12. Evaluation of the results of the prevention program “Protect your voice” implemented by The Greater Poland Center of Occupational Medicine of Poznań

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Jałowska

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to evaluate the rationale for training in voice emission and voice prophylaxis among teachers and to assess the effects of voice disorders rehabilitation in the selected group of teachers participating in the program “Protect your voice.” Material and Methods: An anonymous survey was conducted among 463 teachers participating in the training part of the program. The effectivness of rehabilitation of teachers with occupational voice disorders was evaluated among 51 subjects (average age: 43 years taking part in diagnostic and rehabilitation part of the program. Phonation voice exercises with speech therapist and physiotherapy (iontophoresis, inhalations and elektrostimulation were administered. Evaluation of rehabilitation was based on phoniatric examination, including videostroboscopy and statistical calculations. Results: The survey showed that among teachers there is high demand (98% for training in proper voice emission, hygiene and prevention of voice. The effectiveness of rehabilitation has been confirmed by the observed improvements in phonatory activities of larynx, proper breathing during phonation (p = 0.0000, the voice quality (p = 0.0022, prolonged phonation time (an average of 1.39 s, increased number of people who correctly activated resonators (p = 0.0000 and increased number of people with phonation without excesive muscle tension of the neck. Conclusions: The results indicate that among all the professionally active teachers, there is a need for regular training of proper voice emission and vocal hygiene and then conduct individually phonation and breathing exercises, supported by the physiotherapy. This should be an effective method of voice disorders prevention in teachers. Med Pr 2017;68(5:593–603

  13. [Evaluation of the results of the prevention program "Protect your voice" implemented by The Greater Poland Center of Occupational Medicine of Poznan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jałowska, Magdalena; Wośkowiak, Grażyna; Wiskirska-Woźnica, Bożena

    2017-07-26

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the rationale for training in voice emission and voice prophylaxis among teachers and to assess the effects of voice disorders rehabilitation in the selected group of teachers participating in the program "Protect your voice." An anonymous survey was conducted among 463 teachers participating in the training part of the program. The effectivness of rehabilitation of teachers with occupational voice disorders was evaluated among 51 subjects (average age: 43 years) taking part in diagnostic and rehabilitation part of the program. Phonation voice exercises with speech therapist and physiotherapy (iontophoresis, inhalations and elektrostimulation) were administered. Evaluation of rehabilitation was based on phoniatric examination, including videostroboscopy and statistical calculations. The survey showed that among teachers there is high demand (98%) for training in proper voice emission, hygiene and prevention of voice. The effectiveness of rehabilitation has been confirmed by the observed improvements in phonatory activities of larynx, proper breathing during phonation (p = 0.0000), the voice quality (p = 0.0022), prolonged phonation time (an average of 1.39 s), increased number of people who correctly activated resonators (p = 0.0000) and increased number of people with phonation without excesive muscle tension of the neck. The results indicate that among all the professionally active teachers, there is a need for regular training of proper voice emission and vocal hygiene and then conduct individually phonation and breathing exercises, supported by the physiotherapy. This should be an effective method of voice disorders prevention in teachers. Med Pr 2017;68(5):593-603. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  14. School Programming for the Prevention of Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Marilyn A.

    1992-01-01

    Defines "addiction" and discusses models of addiction. Discusses implications for school prevention programs. Discusses role of school counselor in implementation of a comprehensive addiction prevention program, including assessment, curricular components, intervention programs, and staff development. Presents questions and criteria to…

  15. Effectiveness of programs to prevent school bullying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldry, A.C.; Farrington, D.P.

    2007-01-01

    Sixteen major evaluations of programs to prevent school bullying, conducted in 11 different countries, are reviewed in detail. Of these 16 evaluations, 8 produced desirable results, 2 produced mixed results, 4 produced small or negligible effects, and 2 produced undesirable results. These varying

  16. Pollution Prevention Program: Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has established a national Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing, and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) Program for pollution prevention and waste minimization at its production plants During FY89/90 the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM), through the Office of Technology Development (OTD), established comprehensive, pollution prevention technical support programs to demonstrate new, environmentally-conscious technology for production processes. The RDDT ampersand E program now entails collaborative efforts across DOE. The Pollution Prevention Program is currently supporting three major activities: The DOE/US Air Force Memorandum of Understanding Program is a collaborative effort to utilize the combined resources of DOE and the Department of Defense, eliminate duplication of effort in developing technologies, and to facilitate technology solutions aimed at reducing waste through process modification, material substitution or recycling. The Waste Component Recycle, Treatment and Disposal Integrated Demonstration (WeDID) will develop recycle, treatment, and disposal processes and associated technologies for use in the dismantlement of non-nuclear weapons components, to support US arms treaties and policies. This program will focus on meeting all security and regulatory requirements (with additional benefit to the commercial electronics industry). The Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID) will effectively implement ECM technologies that address both the needs of the DOE Complex and US electronics industry, and encourage strong interaction between DOE and US industry. The ECMID will also develop life cycle analysis tools that will aid decisionmakers in selecting the optimum process based on the tradeoffs between cost an environmental impact

  17. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to provide a detailed description of the highly successful lifestyle intervention administered to 1,079 participants, which included 45% racial and ethnic minorities and resulted in a 58% reduction in the incidence rate of diabetes (2). The two major goals of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention were a minimum of 7% weight loss/weight maintenance and a minimum of 150 min of physical activity similar in intensity to brisk walking. Both goals were hypothesized to be feasible, safe, and effective based on previous clinical trials in other countries (3–7). The methods used to achieve these lifestyle goals include the following key features: 1) individual case managers or “lifestyle coaches;” 2) frequent contact with participants; 3) a structured, state-of-the-art, 16-session core-curriculum that taught behavioral self-management strategies for weight loss and physical activity; 4) supervised physical activity sessions; 5) a more flexible maintenance intervention, combining group and individual approaches, motivational campaigns, and “restarts;” 6) individualization through a “toolbox” of adherence strategies; 7) tailoring of materials and strategies to address ethnic diversity; and finally 8) an extensive network of training, feedback, and clinical support. PMID:12453955

  18. 40 CFR 68.170 - Prevention program/Program 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevention program/Program 2. 68.170 Section 68.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.170 Prevention program/Program...

  19. Prevention program at construction worksites aimed at improving health and work ability is cost-saving to the employer: Results from an RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Dongen, J.M. van; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To prolong sustainable healthy working lives of construction workers, a prevention program was developed which aimed to improve the health and work ability of construction workers. The objective of this study was to analyze the cost-effectiveness and financial return from the employers'

  20. Pollution prevention program plan 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This plan serves as the principal crosscutting guidance to Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters, Operations Office, laboratory, and contractor management to fully implement pollution prevention programs within the DOE complex between now and 2000. To firmly demonstrate DOE's commitment to pollution prevention, the Secretary of Energy has established goals, to be achieved by December 31, 1999, that will aggressively reduce DOE's routine generation of radioactive, mixed, and hazardous wastes, and total releases and offsite transfers of toxic chemicals. The Secretary also has established sanitary waste reduction, recycling, and affirmative procurement goals. Site progress in meeting these goals will be reported annually to the Secretary in the Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, using 1993 as the baseline year. Implementation of this plan will represent a major step toward reducing the environmental risks and costs associated with DOE operations

  1. Haemoglobinopathy prevention program in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Canatan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and abnormal haemoglobins are a serious health problem in Turkey. Very important steps for toward preventing thalassemia have been taken in Turkey by Ministry of Health (MOH, Turkish National Haemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT since 2000. In 1993, a law was issued called Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease especially for thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. The law commends to prevent haemoglobinopathies and to treat all patients with haemoglobinopathy and thalassemia. A pilot project was started and centres were created in the MOH Hospitals in the southern provinces of Turkey. In 2000, TNHC was installed to combine all centres, foundations, and associations into one organization controlled by the MOH. In 2001, the MOH and the TNHC made an inventory of all recorded patients with thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobins in Turkey, registering at least 4513 patients. In 2002, written regulations for the Fight Against Hereditary Blood Disease were published. MOH and TNHC selected 33 provinces situated in the Thrace, Marmara, Aegean, Mediterranean and South Eastern regions with high birth prevalence of severe haemoglobinopathies. In 2003, the haemoglobinopathy scientific committee was set-up, a guidebook was published and a national Hemoglobinopaty Prevention Program (HPP was started in these high risk provinces . This program is running in these provinces successfully. In 2005, TFT was established as a secular society organization instead of TNHC. In 2007, National Thalassemia Prevention Campaign (NTPC was organized for public education by TFT. This campaign contributed very important supporting to HPP in Turkey, because totally 62.682 people such as health workers, students, teachers, demarches, religion officers and the other many people were educated for preventing thalassemia and haemoglobinopathies. In 2009, National Thalassemia Education Seminars (NTES for health personnel have been planned in

  2. Results and lessons learned from a prevention of weight gain program for low-income overweight and obese young mothers: Mothers In Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Wei Chang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mothers In Motion (MIM, a community-based lifestyle behavioral intervention, was designed and conducted to help low-income overweight and obese young mothers prevent further weight gain via promotion of stress management, healthy eating, and physical activity. This paper presents intervention effect on body weight (primary outcome and summarizes lessons learned. Methods Participants (N = 612 were recruited from 7 Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC offices in Michigan and were individually randomized to an intervention n= 410 or a comparison (n =202 group (2: 1 ratio. During the 16-week intervention, intervention participants watched theory-based culturally sensitive videos (in DVD format featuring peers from the target audience to learn skills for managing stress, eating healthier, and being more physically active. They also dialed into peer support group teleconferences to enhance skills learned in the videos and increase motivation for lifestyle behavioral changes. Body weight, the primary outcome, was measured at baseline, immediately after the 16-week intervention, and 3 months after the 16-week intervention. Intervention effect was tested via general linear mixed model for repeated measures, using baseline measures as adjusting covariates. Results At baseline, the mean age of the participants was 28.5 ± 5.0 years (intervention: 28.4 ± 5.0, comparison: 28.9 ± 5.0; the mean body weight was 190.2 ± 1.4 lbs (intervention: 191.8 ± 30.0, comparison: 188.5 ± 29.1; and the mean body mass index (BMI was 32.2 ± 4.4 (intervention: 32.2 ± 4.4, comparison: 31.7 ± 4.2. Of sample, 64.7% were obese. At 3 months after the 16-week intervention, no significant weight differences were found between the intervention (188.3 ± 10.6 lbs, BMI: 31.6 ± 1.8 and comparison groups (187.7 ± 10.6 lbs, BMI: 31.53 ± 1.8 when controlling

  3. Wanted: A Developmentally Oriented Alcohol Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoth, Richard; Rosenthal, David

    1980-01-01

    Describes an alcohol prevention program with a comprehensive developmental skills orientation. The program includes values clarification, decision making, career planning and communication skills, assertiveness and relaxation training, and relationship with parents and peers. (Author/JAC)

  4. Preventative maintenance program for bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Kentucky Transportation Cabinets (KYTC) bridge inventory is rapidly aging. As such, the Cabinet : needs to identify and implement relevant preventative maintenance (PM) actions to extend the useful : service lives of those structures. Maintena...

  5. THE PREVENTION PROGRAMS OF PHYSICAL REHABILITATION FOR CHERNOBYL DISASTER SURVIVORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: approbation of the prevention program of physical rehabilitation for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects. Sixty persons who were disaster survivors and workers of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant aged 32-60 have rehabilitation during 21 days. The complex of training prevention programs of physical and psycho-emotional rehabilitation methods was elaborated. The study of efficacy of training prevention programs among Chernobyl disaster survivors. The results showed the improvement of psycho-emotional status and normalization of cardiovascular vegetative regulation after training prevention programs in Chernobyl disasters survivors. The studies show that the preventive programs for Chernobyl disaster survivors in lifestyle aspects had the high effect. This displays the decrease of tempo of aging and the improving of physical and psychological health status of Chernobyl disaster survivors during preventive course.

  6. Predictors of successful cancer prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzsolt, Franz; Kirner, Anita; Kaplan, Robert M

    2009-01-01

    Finding the optimal use of health-care resources requires the reliable estimation of costs and consequences. Acquiring these estimates may not be difficult for some common treatments. More difficult is the optimization of resources in the area of diagnostics. Only a few attempts have been made to optimize the use of resources in the area of prevention. Several aspects have to be considered when optimizing the resources for prevention: (1) participation rates in structured prevention programs are low, (2), acquiring data on follow-up and outcomes is difficult, (3) there are concerns about the quality of information available to public, and (4), the public is often unaware of scientific assessments of prevention programs. As prevention programs are costly long-term projects, a strategy to select these programs according to possible predictors of success might be useful. The few analyses of cancer prevention in the literature have been directed towards the most common malignant diseases (as assessed by incidence) such as cancer of the breast, colon, lung and prostate. We argue that incidence is a poor marker for selecting secondary prevention programs. Incidence may be a misleading indicator for two reasons: incidence of disease does not predict efficiency of management or good health outcomes, and incidence does not separate clinically significant from non-significant disease. The traditional strategy is based on the assumption that more screening increases the chance of cure. We propose an alternative outcomes model that suggests better disease management justifies new prevention programs. Indicators for better disease management are effective and efficient treatments as well as high-quality screening (sensitivity and specificity) techniques and possibly "side-effects of prevention programs," which provide early signs of success to motivate the patient's participation, to keep up with the program and finally to succeed.

  7. Implementing a Pediatric Fall Prevention Policy and Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; Vess, Joy; Edlund, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Preventing patient falls begins with an accurate assessment of a patient's risk of falling followed by the initiation and continued evaluation of a fall prevention program based on patient-specific identified risks. Children have a normal tendency to fall based on developmental growth, and each child is different in physical and cognitive abilities. Falls may occur both in and out of the hospital setting. Prevention programs that have revealed the most favorable restuls include the use of a validated fall risk assessment tool. The Humpty Dumpty fall Scale is a screening tool specifically developed for pediatric patients to assess risk for fall. This project developed a pediatric fall prevention policy and implemented an inpatient pediatric fall prevention program. Pediatric staff contributed to the development of this policy and program by providing feedback, support, and cooperation, which was instrumental in the success of this program resulting in no falls after implementation.

  8. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  9. Program Administration | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governance Structure Recognizing the importance of an integrated approach to preventative drug development, there is a unified Governance Structure for the PREVENT Program responsible for coordinating and integrating available resources. With the goal of reaching go/no-go decisions as efficiently as possible, the purpose is to ensure a pragmatic approach to drug development and a clear path to market. |

  10. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  11. Effective prevention programs for tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, M A

    1999-01-01

    Several types of prevention programs have shown effects on delaying or reducing youth tobacco use for periods of 1-5 years or more. These are referred to as evidence-based programs. However, they are not widely used. At the same time, with few exceptions, adolescent tobacco use rates have been stable or have increased in the 1990s. The challenge for prevention is to identify critical components shared by effective prevention programs--that is, components most associated with effect, and then to evaluate factors that are most likely to promote adoption, implementation, and diffusion of effective programs across schools and communities in the United States. Effective tobacco prevention programs focus on counteracting social influences on tobacco use, include either direct training of youth in resistance and assertiveness skills or, for policy and community organization interventions, direct or indirect (through adults) training in community activism, and are mainly theory-based, with an emphasis on three levels of theory: (a) personal (attitudes, normative expectations, and beliefs); (b) social (social or group behavior); and/or (c) environmental (communications and diffusion). Program effects increase with the use of booster sessions, standardized implementor training and support, multiple program components, and multiple levels of theory. Overall, multi-component community programs that have a school program as a basis, with supportive parent, media, and community organization components, have shown the most sustained effects on tobacco use. Positive program adoption by the school or community, extent and quality of program implementation, and existence of credible networks of leaders to promote the program are critical for any effect. Research on predictors of adoption, implementation, and diffusion of evidence-based programs is scanty relative to outcome research. In addition, more research is needed on why multi-component programs appear to be most effective

  12. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some programs deemphasize family involvement while others focus on rebuilding connections among family members. The programs either normalize current family conflicts or, alternatively, provide education about the importance of parental monitoring. All programs aim to reduce HIV-related sexual and drug use acts. A coping skills approach is common across programs: Problem-solving skills are specifically addressed in four of the six programs; alternatively, parents in other programs are encouraged to contingently reward their children. Each program also engineers ongoing social support for the families and the youth, either by providing access to needed resources or by substituting a new, supportive relationship for the existing family caretaker. All of the interventions provide access to health and mental health services as basic program resources. A comparison of HIV prevention programs for homeless youth identifies the robust components of each and suggests which programs providers may choose to replicate. PMID:19067164

  13. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Event Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Underage drinking presents a serious health risk not only to young people themselves but to entire communities. This program guide is designed to help communities establish their own underage drinking prevention programs. Community norms, actions, and attitudes toward alcohol affect young people, as do the ways in which alcohol is promoted.…

  14. Validation of a Poison Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Noel C.; Braden, Barbara T.

    Two way analyses of variance and cross-group descriptive comparisons assessed the effectiveness of the Siop Poison Prevention Program, which included an educational program and the use of warning labels, on improving verbal and visual discrimination of poisonous and nonpoisonous products for preschool children. The study sample consisted of 156…

  15. Staff Directory | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program values the contributions of its fellows and works to provide relevant and useful experiences in research and education in return. Our staff is here to provide unwavering support and guidance to each fellow as they progress through the program.

  16. Comparisons of Prevention Programs for Homeless Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    There are six HIV prevention programs for homeless youth whose efficacy has been or is currently being evaluated: STRIVE, the Community Reinforcement Approach, Strengths-Based Case Management, Ecologically-Based Family Therapy, Street Smart, and AESOP (street outreach access to resources). Programs vary in their underlying framework and theoretical models for understanding homelessness. All programs presume that the youths’ families lack the ability to support their adolescent child. Some pro...

  17. Diabetes Prevention in Australia: 10 Years Results and Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Dunbar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of lifestyle modification for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus but it was achieved at higher cost than can be sustained in routine health services. The first clinical trial to report was the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. This paper describes how Australia worked with Finnish colleagues to adapt the findings of that study to achieve a statewide diabetes prevention program. Small evaluative, effectiveness trials have been conducted in a number of countries to see if the results of the clinical trials can be replicated in routine health services. The Australian evaluative trial, Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Program is described in detail to demonstrate the ingredients for success in moving a program from one country to another. Few countries have managed to scale up from evaluative trials to statewide or national programs. The Australian experience is described in detail including lessons learned about what reduced the effectiveness, particularly the need for policy makers in government, people from the implementing organisation and researchers to work together from the start of the evaluative trial and throughout the first 5 years of a national program.

  18. Construction principles of prevention programs for adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    A.A. Bochaver; T.V. Tretyakova

    2014-01-01

    We present the basic principles for the development of effective programs for prevention of substance abuse among young people employed in the United States. They are based on the model of “risk factors and protective factors” and suggest a consistent, systematic, coordinated deployment of preventive interventions for children of different ages and in different social contexts (individually, in family, at school, in community). These principles can be useful for transfer of foreign experience...

  19. An integral part of an integrated preventive maintenance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper outlines the evolution of the Integrated Preventive Maintenance Program from the Reliability Centered Maintenance pilot program at Bruce Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) 'A.' The Integrated Preventive Maintenance Program provides the means for taking control of the Bruce NGS 'A' Preventive Maintenance Program. In addition, the development of the Bruce NGS 'A' Air-Operated Valve Preventive Maintenance is reviewed

  20. AIDS prevention program for Puerto Rican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro de Alvarez, V

    1990-04-01

    Historically women are considered the family's primary care provider and biologically, they are the link in the transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Because of this dual role, they need programs that are culturally sensitive and effective. Many Latinas do not perceive themselves to be at risk despite the educational resources available to them. This article examines cultural factors that influence risk perception and behavioral changes in response to educational intervention. Interviews and literature review were used in assessing availability, applicability and cultural sensitivity of AIDS prevention programs. Effective programs need to be culturally sensitive to gender role expectation and the role of motherhood for Latinas. Educators expressed the belief that women benefit most from programs that help them implement the behaviors that will help protect them. Programs must be cognizant of the cultures' demand for respect and modesty while providing factual information/instruction.

  1. Ten-year decrease of acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA bacteremia at a single institution: the result of a multifaceted program combining cross-transmission prevention and antimicrobial stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalfine Annie

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In France, the proportion of MRSA has been over 25% since 2000. Prevention of hospital-acquired (HA MRSA spread is based on isolation precautions and antibiotic stewardship. At our institution, before 2000, the Infection Disease and the Infection Control teams had failed to reduce HA-MRSA rates. Objectives and methods We implemented a multifaceted hospital-wide prevention program and measured the effects on HA-MRSA colonization and bacteremia rates between 2000 and 2009. From 2000 to 2003, active screening and decontamination of ICU patients, hospital wide alcohol based hand rubs (ABHR use, control of specific classes of antibiotics, compliance audits, and feed-backs to the care providers were successively implemented. The efficacy of the program was assessed by HA-MRSA colonized and bacteremic patient rates per 1000 patient-days in patients hospitalized for more than twenty-four hours. Results Compliance with the isolation practices increased between 2000 and 2009. Consumption of ABHR increased from 6.8 L to 27.5 L per 1000 patient-days. The use of antibiotic Defined Daily Doses (DDD per 1000 patient-days decreased by 31%. HA-MRSA colonization decreased by 84% from 1.09 to 0.17 per 1000 patient-days and HA-MRSA bacteremia by 93%, from 0.15 to 0.01 per 1000 patient-days (p −7 for each rate. Conclusions In an area highly endemic for MRSA, a multifaceted prevention program allows for sustainable reduction in HA-MRSA bacteremia rates.

  2. Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S

    2012-03-29

    This document describes how Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) meets the requirements and management practices of federal regulation 10 CFR 850, 'Chronic Beryllium Disease Prevention Program (CBDPP).' This revision of the LLNL CBDPP incorporates clarification and editorial changes based on lessons learned from employee discussions, observations and reviews of Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and commercial industry beryllium (Be) safety programs. The information is used to strengthen beryllium safety practices at LLNL, particularly in the areas of: (1) Management of small parts and components; and (2) Communication of program status to employees. Future changes to LLNL beryllium activities and on-going operating experience will be incorporated into the program as described in Section S, 'Performance Feedback.'

  3. DiAlert: a prevention program for overweight first degree relatives of type 2 diabetes patients: results of a pilot study to test feasibility and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heideman Wieke H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is increasing due to lifestyle changes, particularly affecting those genetically at risk. We developed DiAlert as a targeted group-based intervention aimed to promote intrinsic motivation and action planning for lifestyle changes and weight loss in first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The main objective of the pilot of the DiAlert intervention was to assess fidelity, feasibility and acceptability prior to starting the randomized controlled trial. Methods Individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus were self-identified and screened for eligibility. DiAlert consists of two group sessions. Feasibility, fidelity, acceptability and self-reported perceptions and behavioral determinants were evaluated in a pre-post study using questionnaires and observations. Determinants of behavior change were analyzed using paired-samples t tests and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Results DiAlert was delivered to two groups of first degree relatives of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (N = 9 and N = 12. Feasibility and fidelity were confirmed. Overall, the DiAlert group sessions were positively evaluated (8.0 on a scale of 1 to 10 by participants. The intervention did not impact perceived susceptibility or worry about personal diabetes risk. Action planning with regard to changing diet and physical activity increased. Conclusions DiAlert proved feasible and was well-accepted by participants. Positive trends in action planning indicate increased likelihood of actual behavior change following DiAlert. Testing the effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial is imperative. Trial registration Netherlands National Trial Register (NTR: NTR2036

  4. Workplace Wellness Programs to Promote Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldano, Sharon K

    2016-08-01

    To define the diversity of and business case for workplace wellness programs, highlight best practices for a comprehensive health promotion program, and describe the opportunities for employees to become wellness advocates. Current literature and articles published between 2010 and 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Health Enhancement Research Organization, National Business Group on Health, Wellness Councils of America, best practice program guidelines and internet resources. Employers are increasingly affected by rising health care costs and epidemic rates of obesity and associated chronic diseases within the workforce. Employers who offer workplace wellness programs can contribute to the overall health and well-being of their employees, improve employee productivity and retention, and reduce absenteeism and health care costs. Employees participating in workplace wellness programs can reduce their health risks and serve as health promotion advocates. Nurses can lead by example by participating in their workplace wellness programs, serving as an advocate to influence their employers and colleagues, and educating their patients regarding the benefits of workplace wellness programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Partner Services in STD Prevention Programs: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogben, Matthew; Collins, Dayne; Hoots, Brooke; O’Connor, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Background Partner services have been a mainstay of public health sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention programs for decades. The principal goals are to interrupt transmission and reduce STD morbidity and sequelae. In this paper, we review current literature with the goal of informing STD prevention programs. Methods We searched the literature for systematic reviews. We found nine reviews published between 2005 and 2014 (covering 108 studies). The reviews varied by study inclusion criteria (e.g., study methods, geographic location, infections). We abstracted major conclusions and recommendations from the reviews. Results Conclusions and recommendations were divided into patient referral interventions and provider referral interventions. For patient referral, there was evidence supporting the use of expedited partner therapy and interactive counseling, but not purely didactic instruction. Provider referral through Disease Intervention Specialists was efficacious and particularly well-supported for HIV. For other studies, modeling data and testing outcomes showed that partner notification in general reached high-prevalence populations. Reviews also suggested more focus on using technology and population-level implementation strategies. However, partner services may not be the most efficient means to reach infected persons. Conclusions Partner services programs constitute a large proportion of program STD prevention activities. Value is maximized by balancing a portfolio of patient and provider referral interventions and by blending partner notification interventions with other STD prevention interventions in overall partner services program structure. STD prevention needs program-level research and development to generate this portfolio. PMID:26779688

  6. Eating disorder prevention programs: a meta-analytic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2004-03-01

    This meta-analysis of eating disorder prevention programs found that intervention effects ranged from an absence of any effects to reductions in current and future eating pathology. Certain effects persisted as long as 2 years and were superior to minimal-intervention control conditions. Larger effects occurred for selected (vs. universal), interactive (vs. didactic), and multisession (vs. single session) programs; for programs offered solely to females and to participants over age 15; for programs without psychoeducational content; and for trials that used validated measures. The results identify promising prevention programs and delineate sample, format, and design features that are associated with larger effects, but they suggest the need for improved methodological rigor and statistical modeling of trials and enhanced theoretical rationale for interventions.

  7. Optimizing violence prevention programs: an examination of program effectiveness among urban high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompkins, Amanda C; Chauveron, Lisa M; Harel, Ofer; Perkins, Daniel F

    2014-07-01

    While demand for youth violence prevention programs increases, the ability of the school-day schedule to accommodate their time requirements has diminished. Viable school-based prevention programs must strike a balance between brevity and effectiveness. This article reports results from an effectiveness trial of a 12-session curriculum-based universal violence prevention program that promotes healthy conflict resolution skills among urban adolescents. Using a review of program record data and a multisite quasi-experimental study design, we examined the effectiveness of a New York City-based violence prevention program entitled the Violence Prevention project (VPP) optimized to meet school needs. We analyzed survey data from 1112 9th- and 10th-grade students in 13 New York City public high schools across 4 consecutive school years. Both participants and nonparticipants were surveyed. Review of program record data indicated that the program was implemented with acceptable fidelity to the core component structure, and that participant responsiveness to the model was high. Multilevel modeling indicated that VPP participation was protective for academic self-concept and promoted conflict resolution skills. Findings indicate that semester-long violence prevention programs optimized to meet the needs of a typical high school can be effective at promoting healthy conflict resolution skills in urban adolescents. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  8. An internet obesity prevention program for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Grey, Margaret

    2013-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two school-based internet obesity prevention programs for diverse adolescents on body mass index (BMI), health behaviors, and self-efficacy, and to explore moderators of program efficacy. It was hypothesized that the addition of coping skills training to a health education and behavioral support program would further enhance health outcomes. A randomized clinical trial with cluster randomization by class and repeated measures with follow-up at 3 and 6 months was conducted (n = 384). BMI was assessed by use of standard procedures. Sedentary behavior, physical activity, nutrition behavior, self-efficacy, and satisfaction were assessed with self-report measures. Data analysis consisted of mixed model analyses with autoregressive covariance structure for repeated data by use of intent-to-treat procedures. The mean age of students was 15.31 years (±0.69), with a mean BMI of 24.69 (±5.58). The majority were girls (62%) and of diverse race/ethnicity (65% non-white). There were no significant differences between groups on any outcomes and no change in BMI over time. There were significant improvements in health behaviors (sedentary behavior, moderate and vigorous physical activity, healthy eating, fruit and vegetable intake, sugar beverages, and junk food intake) and self-efficacy. Gender and lesson completion moderated select health outcomes. There was excellent participation and high satisfaction with the programs. School-based internet obesity prevention programs are appealing to adolescents and improve health behaviors. The differential effect of coping skills training may require longer follow-up. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Burnout prevention: a review of intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awa, Wendy L; Plaumann, Martina; Walter, Ulla

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intervention programs at the workplace or elsewhere aimed at preventing burnout, a leading cause of work related mental health impairment. A systematic search of burnout intervention studies was conducted in the databases Medline, PsycINFO and PSYNDEX from 1995 to 2007. Data was also extracted from papers found through a hand search. A total of 25 primary intervention studies were reviewed. Seventeen (68%) were person-directed interventions, 2 (8%) were organization-directed and 6 (24%) were a combination of both interventions types. Eighty percent of all programs led to a reduction in burnout. Person-directed interventions reduced burnout in the short term (6 months or less), while a combination of both person- and organization-directed interventions had longer lasting positive effects (12 months and over). In all cases, positive intervention effects diminished in the course of time. Intervention programs against burnout are beneficial and can be enhanced with refresher courses. Better implemented programs including both person- and organization-directed measures should be offered and evaluated. A combination of both intervention types should be further investigated, optimized and practiced. Institutions should recognize the need for and make burnout intervention programs available to employees. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluating the SOS suicide prevention program: a replication and extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glanovsky Jaime

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suicide is a leading cause of death for children and youth in the United States. Although school based programs have been the principal vehicle for youth suicide prevention efforts for over two decades, few have been systematically evaluated. This study examined the effectiveness of the Signs of Suicide (SOS prevention program in reducing suicidal behavior. Methods 4133 students in 9 high schools in Columbus, Georgia, western Massachusetts, and Hartford, Connecticut were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups during the 2001–02 and 2002–03 school years. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by students in both groups approximately 3 months after program implementation. Results Significantly lower rates of suicide attempts and greater knowledge and more adaptive attitudes about depression and suicide were observed among students in the intervention group. Students' race/ethnicity, grade, and gender did not alter the impact of the intervention on any of the outcomes assessed in this analysis. Conclusion This study has confirmed preliminary analysis of Year 1 data with a larger and more racially and socio-economically diverse sample. SOS continues to be the only universal school-based suicide prevention program to demonstrate significant effects of self-reported suicide attempts in a study utilizing a randomized experimental design. Moreover, the beneficial effects of SOS were observed among high school-aged youth from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds, highlighting the program's utility as a universal prevention program. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT000387855.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence Prevention Programs in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangum, Dana W

    One in 4 women will experience intimate partner violence in her lifetime. The goal of primary intimate partner violence prevention programs is to stop the violence before it begins. Secondary prevention programs identify violence that is occurring and intervene as soon as possible to prevent the problem from progressing. This commentary discusses intimate partner violence, primary and secondary prevention, and current prevention programs in North Carolina. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  12. A Review of School-based Drug-Prevention Program Evaluation in the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyucksun S.

    2001-01-01

    Reviewed evaluation studies of school-based drug prevention programs published from 1993-99 to identify significant program features that could influence the success of drug prevention education. Results found that programs components varied significantly. Programs employing a social-influence model varied in their effectiveness depending on the…

  13. Successful Bullying Prevention Programs: Influence of Research Design, Implementation Features, and Program Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryanna Hahn Fox

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Bullying prevention programs have been shown to be generally effective in reducing bullying and victimization. However, the effects are relatively small in randomized experiments and greater in quasi-experimental and age-cohort designs. Programs that are more intensive and of longer duration (for both children and teachers are more effective, as are programs containing more components. Several program components are associated with large effect sizes, including parent training or meetings and teacher training. These results should inform the design and evaluation of anti-bullying programs in the future, and a system ofaccreditation of effective programs.

  14. The Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) Model: Developing Substance Abuse Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, Susan J.; Gieck, Joe; Fang, Wei Li; Freedman, Alan

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse affects every sector of society, and student-athletes are no exception. Because many factors affecting athletes do not affect other students, athletic departments commonly approach prevention through AOD education. Different educational approaches are described in this article, particularly the Athletic Prevention Programming and Leadership Education (APPLE) model. Project APPLE is designed to enable an athletic department to systematically analyze its AOD p...

  15. Beyond primary prevention of alcohol use: a culturally specific secondary prevention program for Mexican heritage adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie; Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Mettler, Kathleen; Booth, Jaime

    2012-06-01

    Classroom-based primary prevention programs with adolescents are effective in inhibiting the onset of drug use, but these programs are not designed to directly address the unique needs of adolescents at higher risk of use or already using alcohol and other drugs. This article describes the initial efficacy evaluation of a companion psychosocial small group program which aims at addressing the needs of Mexican heritage students identified by their teachers as being at higher risk for substance use or already experimenting with alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent (7th grade) small group curricula, REAL Groups, is a secondary prevention program which supplements the primary classroom-based substance use prevention program, keepin' it REAL. Following a mutual aid approach, a total of 109 7th grade students were referred by their teachers and participated in the REAL Groups. The remaining 252 7th grade students who did not participate served as the control group. To account for biased selection into REAL Groups, propensity score matching (PSM) was employed. The estimated average treatment effect for participants' use of alcohol was calculated at the end of the 8th grade. Results indicate that alcohol use decreased among students who participated in the REAL Groups relative to matched students who did not participate. These findings suggest that REAL Groups may be an effective secondary prevention program for higher-risk Mexican heritage adolescents.

  16. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This plan, which is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400. 1, provides waste minimization and pollution prevention guidance for all Hanford Site contractors. The plan is primary in a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan, Prime contractor implementation plans, and the Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Generator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation (DOE-RL, 1997a) describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Items discussed include the pollution prevention policy and regulatory background, organizational structure, the major objectives and goals of Hanford Site's pollution prevention program, and an itemized description of the Hanford Site pollution prevention program. The document also includes US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office's (RL's) statement of policy on pollution prevention as well as a listing of regulatory drivers that require a pollution prevention program

  17. Sparsity Prevention Pivoting Method for Linear Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Peiqiang; Li, Qiyuan; Li, Canbing

    2018-01-01

    . The principle of this method is avoided choosing the row which the value of the element in the b vector is zero as the row of the pivot element to make the matrix in linear programming density and ensure that most subsequent steps will improve the value of the objective function. One step following......When the simplex algorithm is used to calculate a linear programming problem, if the matrix is a sparse matrix, it will be possible to lead to many zero-length calculation steps, and even iterative cycle will appear. To deal with the problem, a new pivoting method is proposed in this paper...... this principle is inserted to reselect the pivot element in the existing linear programming algorithm. Both the conditions for inserting this step and the maximum number of allowed insertion steps are determined. In the case study, taking several numbers of linear programming problems as examples, the results...

  18. Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolarová, Marie M; Poulton, Donald; Aubert, Maryse M; Oh, HeeSoo; Ellerhorst, Thomas; Mosby, Terezie; Tolar, Miroslav; Boyd, Robert L

    2006-10-01

    There is no doubt modern genetics have greatly influenced our professional and personal lives during the last decade. Uncovering genetic causes of many medical and dental pathologies is helping to narrow the diagnosis and select a treatment plan that would provide the best outcome. Importantly, having an understanding of multifactorial etiology helps direct our attention toward prevention. We now understand much better our own health problems. In some cases, we can modify our lifestyle and diet in order to prevent "environmental factors" from triggering the mutated genes inherited from our parents. Good examples are diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. If we realize we might have inherited genes for cardiovascular problems from several ancestors who had heart attacks, we already know that these genes will make us only "susceptible" for disease. Those who exercise, watch one's weight, diet, and carefully monitor one's lifestyle will very likely--though possessing "susceptibility genes"--stay healthier and, maybe, will never experience any cardiovascular problems. In principle, the same applies for craniofacial anomalies, especially for nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate. One needs to understand genetic and environmental causes of nonsyndromic orofacial clefts in order to prevent them. With all this in mind, the Pacific Craniofacial Team and Cleft Prevention Program have been established at the Department of Orthodontics, University of the Pacific Arthur A. Dugoni School of Dentistry in San Francisco. A partnership with Rotaplast International, Inc., has made it possible for the faculty, orthodontic residents, and students to participate in 27 multidisciplinary cleft medical missions in underdeveloped and developing countries by donating professional and educational services, and, last but not least, by collecting valuable data and specimens to further research. A significant number of research studies, including 15 master of science theses, have been accomplished in

  19. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2010-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2007-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  1. Postoperative pneumonia-prevention program for the inpatient surgical ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Sherry M; Martin, Molinda; Yoon, Jung K; Bech, Fritz

    2010-04-01

    Postoperative pneumonia can lead to increased morbidity, length of hospital stay, and costs. Pneumonia-prevention programs have been successfully implemented in ICU settings, but no program exists for surgical ward patients. A pilot prevention program was designed and implemented based on literature review. The program consisted of education of physicians and ward staff and a standardized postoperative electronic order set consisting of incentive spirometer, chlorhexidine oral hygiene, ambulation, and head-of-bed elevation. Quarterly staff meetings discussed the results of and compliance with the program. The intervention commenced in April 2007. Baseline incidence of inpatient ward pneumonia was calculated from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database for fiscal year (FY) 2006 and FY 2007. Postintervention incidence was calculated in the same manner from FY 2007 through FY 2008. Any patient who contracted pneumonia in the ICU was excluded from analysis. There was a significant decrease in ward pneumonia incidence from 0.78% in the preintervention group compared with 0.18% in the postintervention group (p = 0.006), representing an 81% decrease in incidence from 2006 to 2008. The pneumonia-prevention program was very successful in diminishing postoperative pneumonia on the surgical ward. There was a highly statistically significant 4-fold decrease in pneumonia incidence after program implementation. The interventions were not costly but did require ongoing communication and cooperation between physician and nursing leadership to achieve compliance with the measures. This program has great potential for dissemination to hospital surgical wards and could decrease inpatient postoperative pneumonias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Connect: An Effective Community-Based Youth Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Gretchen; Baber, Kristine M.

    2011-01-01

    Youth suicide prevention is an important public health issue. However, few prevention programs are theory driven or systematically evaluated. This study evaluated Connect, a community-based youth suicide prevention program. Analysis of pre and posttraining questionnaires from 648 adults and 204 high school students revealed significant changes in…

  3. Literature Review of Military Related Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    school-based suicide prevention programs. Five other reviews were found again of youth , adolescent and school-based programs, while 45 clinical...Health Organizations Health Evidence Network identified only one report of strategies for suicide prevention, again for youth and adolescents . The...Coping and Support Training) Columbia University TeenScreen Emergency Room Intervention for Adolescent Females PROSPECT (Prevention of Suicide

  4. [Prevention of cardiovascular diseases - Prophylactic program in a selected enterprise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Jadwiga; Gadzicka, Elżbieta; Szyjkowska, Agata; Siedlecki, Patryk; Szymczak, Wiesław; Makowiec-Dąbrowska, Teresa; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    2017-10-17

    In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD), classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents' expectations concerning the prevention program. The study group comprised 407 multi-profile company employees aged (mean) 46.7 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.1), including 330 men (81.1%), mean age = 46.9 (SD = 9.2) and 77 women (18.9%), mean age = 45.9 (SD = 8.2) The study was performed using the method of auditorium survey. Employees declared the need for actions related to physical activity: use of gym, swimming pool, tennis (56.5%), smoking habits - education sessions on quitting smoking (24.6%). A few people were interested in activities related to healthy diet. According to the majority of the study group, the scope of preventive examinations should be expanded. Based on our own findings and literature data CVD- -oriented preventive program, addressed to the analyzed enterprise was prepared. The program will be presented in another paper. The results showed significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the classic and occupational CVD risk factors between men and women, as well as in preferences for participation in prevention programs. Therefore, gender differences should be taken into account when planning prevention programs. Med Pr 2017;68(6):757-769. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  5. A National Survey of Alcohol Prevention Programs on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Kate L.

    2010-01-01

    As alcohol-related incidents and tragedies continue to be a major concern on college campuses, researchers and college counseling center directors struggle to find the most effective alcohol prevention programs Several theories have been adapted to form the foundation of prevention programs. These programs have then been evaluated to discover…

  6. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  7. Use of quality management methods in the transition from efficacious prevention programs to effective prevention services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Vicki-Smith; Sandler, Irwin; Wolchik, Sharlene

    2008-06-01

    This paper applies concepts and methods developed in management to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services. The paper describes Quality Function Deployment (QFD) as a method for structured planning and development that connects the needs and wants of the consumer with the design of the product or service. The paper describes basic tools used in quality management, and discusses how they might be applied to prepare a prevention program for implementation by community agencies. Prevention programs are conceptualized as having multiple consumers (i.e., stakeholders), including the participants who receive the service, the service providers, the organizations that deliver the program, and the researchers who evaluate the programs. As an illustration of one step in the application of QFD to translate efficacious prevention programs into effective prevention services, analysis of the needs and preferences of Family Courts for the implementation of an the New Beginnings Program is presented.

  8. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP): Description of lifestyle intervention

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to provide a detailed description of the highly successful lifestyle intervention administered to 1,079 participants, which included 45% racial and ethnic minorities and resulted in a 58% reduction in the incidence rate of diabetes (2). The two major goals of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention were a minimum of 7% weight loss/weight maintenance and a minimum of 150 min of physical activity similar in intensity to brisk walking. B...

  9. Hanford site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkendall, J.R.

    1996-09-23

    This plan documents the requirements of the Hanford Site Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) Program. The plan specifies requirements for Hanford contractors to prevent pollution from entering the environment, to conserve resources and energy, and to reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary waste generated at Hanford. The Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE 5400.1 (DOE 1988A) is included in the Hanford WMin/P2 Program.

  10. Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    families , but also to advance the clinical science in this field of study and better understand how we might prevent violence among our service members...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM

  11. Developing the strategic plan for pollution prevention in defense programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, John A.; Betschart, James F.; Suffern, J. Samuel

    1992-01-01

    In order to provide effective leadership and to ensure a consistent pollution prevention effort in all of its production facilities and laboratories, Defense Programs (DP) Headquarters, in close cooperation with the Field, has developed a strategic plan for its Pollution Prevention Program. The strategic plan is built upon the history of waste minimization, waste reduction, and pollution prevention activity to date, and articulates both long- and short-term strategies to ensure program initiation, growth, and stability. The organization of the program, including Headquarters staffing and linkages to the Geld, is described. Life-cycle analysis of program barriers and bottlenecks, along with associated initiatives and action plans are discussed. (author)

  12. Eating Disorders Prevention Programming May Be Failing: Evaluation of 2 One-Shot Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Denise M.; Bazzini, Doris G.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies (N=114; n=77) were conducted to evaluate the impact of one-shot interventions to prevent eating disorders. Results of the first study were positive but small. The second study showed minimal effects on dieting and body esteem at one-month follow-up. The overall utility of such programming is discussed. (Author/EMK)

  13. "An ounce of prevention": a primary care based prevention program for pre-diabetic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Clare E; Cullen-Arseneau, Pamela; Merizzi, Shannon; Blazhko, Valeriya

    2013-02-01

    Given the existing and projected number of individuals with diabetes mellitus, there is an urgent need to implement effective prevention programs. Research trials have demonstrated reductions in risk through programs targeted at adopting a healthier lifestyle however translating this research evidence into primary care can be challenging. We examined the feasibility of implementing a pre-diabetes program into a primary care clinic in Ottawa, Canada. "An Ounce of Prevention" Healthy Lifestyle and Diabetes Program was adapted from best evidence clinical trials and uses educational tools developed by the Diabetes Prevention Program for long-term behavior change, relies on principles of self-management, is group based and includes an integrated exercise component. We used a multimethod evaluation approach and examined feasibility and practical implementation aspects such as space, staffing, recruitment and retention issues. We have implemented the program and have offered 10 courses from June 2010 through to August 2012 with 74 participants in total. Results of the evaluation surveys show that participants are highly satisfied with the content as well as the format of the program and think that the content is relevant to them. Recruitment of patients is time- intensive and requires dedicated resources. Evaluation of effectiveness with follow-up surveys and clinical measures has been challenging due to limited resources and is ongoing. The translation and implementation of research evidence into clinical practice is complex and requires consideration of real-life practicalities such as time demands on participants, staffing costs, effective recruiting and ongoing evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The SUCOZOMA program: results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, Anders

    2005-03-01

    The research program Sustainable Coastal Zone Management (SUCOZOMA), which was started in 1996 by the Swedish Foundation of Strategic Environmental Research, was motivated by the recognition of increasingly severe global, regional and national coastal problems. The program approached the complex issues of coastal eutrophication, fishing practices, and overexploited coastal resources, with a concerted effort involving multidisciplinarity, stakeholder cooperation, and a focus on the problems perceived as most serious by the public and decision-makers. As the program was concluded in 2004 it had resulted in the completion or near-completion of 22 doctoral dissertations and approximately one hundred publications. More than 40 scientists were involved in the program. Göteborg University was the host university, but important research teams have also been located at Stockholm University, the Beijer Institute, and the Kristineberg Marine Research Station of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and within the National Board of Fisheries. During the program, networks of stakeholders were established and SUCOZOMA had contributed to numerous political and administrative processes relevant for integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). SUCOZOMA program results can be grouped into different categories. Many of the projects in the two phases of the program produced results which can be defined as technical or practical and available for direct implementation in, e.g. mussel cultivation, restoration and safeguarding of spawning areas, seal-safe fishing gear or sustainable fishing of underexploited species. Other results can be characterized as policy oriented, and the impact of these can only be fairly evaluated as new policies are put into effect. SUCOZOMA resulted in important new knowledge regarding coastal science and management, but also concerning the organization required to conduct an end-user oriented multidisciplinary program effectively.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories, California Pollution Prevention Program annual report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.

    2011-04-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA. Pollution Prevention supports the goals and objectives to increase the procurement and use of environmentally friendly products and materials and minimize the generation of waste (nonhazardous, hazardous, radiological, wastewater). Through participation on the Interdisciplinary Team P2 provides guidance for integration of environmentally friendly purchasing and waste minimization requirements into projects during the planning phase. Table 7 presents SNL's corporate objectives and targets that support the elements of the Pollution Prevention program.

  16. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force. PMID:24714056

  17. Predictors of prevention failure in college students participating in two indicated depression prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L; Otero, Patricia

    2014-04-04

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were randomized to a cognitive-behavioral or relaxation training group preventive intervention. Classification tree analysis showed that older age was the strongest risk factor for persistently elevated depression. Additional risk factors were: (1) for younger students, fewer daily pleasant activities; (2) for those with higher level of pleasant activities, higher level of stressful events; and (3) for those with higher level of stressful events, lower assertiveness. Results offer directions for prevention foci, identify specific subgroups of college students to target for depression prevention efforts, and suggest that research aim to help older, non-traditional students or graduating students manage the transition from college to the work force.

  18. A Program on Preventing Sexual Assault Directed toward Greek Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tamara; Boyd, Cynthia

    This paper discusses a program that uses the leadership and status of Greek system officers to prevent sexual assault at a large university. This program aims to prevent future assaults by altering the conditions of a rape-prone culture. The presentation comprises a definition and two examples of acquaintance rape situations, a discussion of…

  19. Evaluation of School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Laura; Iobst, Emily A.; McGrady, Meghan E.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of individuals who will become "smokers" begin smoking during their teenage years. Schools are optimal settings for relaying messages about health risks associated with smoking and for implementing smoking prevention programs. This article presents successful components of smoking prevention programs, describes the evaluation process,…

  20. Cyberbullying Prevention and Intervention Programs in Schools: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of school-based cyberbullying prevention and intervention programs. Research presenting empirical evidence about the effectiveness of a school-based cyberbullying prevention or intervention program published before August 2016 was searched. Seventeen studies were obtained and reviewed. The findings showed…

  1. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay: eight-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Jones, C

    1996-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease that affects more than 50% of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children. A community-oriented program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 AI/AN communities in 1986. In 1989, the overall prevalence of BBTD for the 12 sites combined decreased from 57% to 43% which represented a 25% reduction (P<.001). Funding for the formal program was discontinued in 1990. In 1994, the Indian Health Service Dental and Head Start funded an assessment of the current prevalence of BBTD and the level of program implementation at the 12 original sites. This paper describes the findings. At the five sites where both one-to- one counseling and community-based educational activities had continued, BBTD prevalence was reduced by 38%(P<.001) over the eight-year period. PMID:8610193

  2. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  3. 1994 Accident sequence precursor program results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belles, R.J.; Cletcher, J.W.; Copinger, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program involves the systematic review and evaluation of operational events that have occurred at light-water reactors to identify and categorize precursors to potential severe core damage accident sequences. The results of the ASP Program are published in an annual report. The most recent report, which contains the analyses of the precursors for 1994, is NUREG/CR-4674, Vols. 21 and 22, Precursors to Potential Severe Core Damage Accidents: 1994, A Status Report, published in December 1995. This article provides an overview of the ASP review and evaluation process and a summary of the results for 1994. 12 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Effect of an internally versus externally focused acl injury prevention program on injury risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga, J.; Benjaminse, A.; Gokeler, A.; Otten, Egbert; Lemmink, K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention programs have shown mixed results, which may be in part due to suboptimal training components. OBJECTIVE: Determine effects of a prevention program with external and internal focus of attention on (potential) biomechanical risk factors

  5. The Body Logic Program for Adolescents: A Treatment Manual for the Prevention of Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnado-Sullivan, Paula J.; Zucker, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Body Logic Program for Adolescents was developed as a two-stage intervention to prevent the development of eating disorder symptoms. Preliminary results indicate that this program shows promise as an effective prevention effort. The current article provides a detailed description of the protocol for implementing Body Logic Part I, a…

  6. Educational program for the prevention and management of school violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viriam Leiva Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main results of the implementation of an educational program for the preventionand management of violence in public schools by teachers of first and second cycle, the program was taught bythe School of Nursing at the University of Costa Rica, with a total of 40 hours from January to February 2011. Weused various teaching strategies based on the educational needs of this group of teachers, which were shown in aprevious study and application of a needs assessment. Attended by 33 teachers, 32 women and one man. Of theparticipants, 30 completed the program. The main results are as follows: participants were able to acquire, buildor improve their knowledge about the prevention and treatment of school violence, and also learned varioustechniques and strategies for prevention and control of violence in schools. It is concluded that success inachieving the goals set for each of the sessions is directly related to the fact that the entire educational programstuck to the educational needs expressed by the participating population and its characteristics as teachers, usingprinciples of andragogy, which allowed understanding learning as a knowledge sharing among stakeholders

  7. A Systematic Review of Elderly Suicide Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda; De Leo, Diego; Oyama, Hirofumi; Scocco, Paolo; Gallo, Joseph; Szanto, Katalin; Conwell, Yeates; Draper, Brian; Quinnett, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area. Aims We carried out a systematic review to examine the results of interventions aimed at suicidal elderly persons and to identify successful strategies and areas needing further exploration. Methods Searches through various electronic databases yielded 19 studies with an empirical evaluation of a suicide prevention or intervention program designed especially for adults aged 60 years and older. Results Most studies were centered on the reduction of risk factors (depression screening and treatment, and decreasing isolation), but when gender was considered, programs were mostly efficient for women. The empirical evaluations of programs attending to the needs of high-risk older adults seemed positive; most studies showed a reduction in the level of suicidal ideation of patients or in the suicide rate of the participating communities. However, not all studies used measures of suicidality to evaluate the outcome of the intervention, and rarely did they aim at improving protective factors. Conclusions Innovative strategies should improve resilience and positive aging, engage family and community gatekeepers, use telecommunications to reach vulnerable older adult, and evaluate the effects of means restriction and physicians education on elderly suicide. PMID:21602163

  8. Metformin for diabetes prevention: insights gained from the Diabetes Prevention Program/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroda, Vanita R; Knowler, William C; Crandall, Jill P; Perreault, Leigh; Edelstein, Sharon L; Jeffries, Susan L; Molitch, Mark E; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Darwin, Christine; Heckman-Stoddard, Brandy M; Temprosa, Marinella; Kahn, Steven E; Nathan, David M

    2017-09-01

    The largest and longest clinical trial of metformin for the prevention of diabetes is the Diabetes Prevention Program/Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPP/DPPOS). In this review, we summarise data from the DPP/DPPOS, focusing on metformin for diabetes prevention, as well as its long-term glycaemic and cardiometabolic effects and safety in people at high-risk of developing diabetes. The DPP (1996-2001) was a RCT of 3234 adults who, at baseline, were at high-risk of developing diabetes. Participants were assigned to masked placebo (n = 1082) or metformin (n = 1073) 850 mg twice daily, or intensive lifestyle intervention (n = 1079). The masked metformin/placebo intervention phase ended approximately 1 year ahead of schedule because of demonstrated efficacy. Primary outcome was reported at 2.8 years. At the end of the DPP, all participants were offered lifestyle education and 88% (n = 2776) of the surviving DPP cohort continued follow-up in the DPPOS. Participants originally assigned to metformin continued to receive metformin, unmasked. The DPP/DPPOS cohort has now been followed for over 15 years with prospective assessment of glycaemic, cardiometabolic, health economic and safety outcomes. After an average follow-up of 2.8 years, metformin reduced the incidence of diabetes by 31% compared with placebo, with a greater effect in those who were more obese, had a higher fasting glucose or a history of gestational diabetes. The DPPOS addressed the longer-term effects of metformin, showing a risk reduction of 18% over 10 and 15 years post-randomisation. Metformin treatment for diabetes prevention was estimated to be cost-saving. At 15 years, lack of progression to diabetes was associated with a 28% lower risk of microvascular complications across treatment arms, a reduction that was no different among treatment groups. Recent findings suggest metformin may reduce atherosclerosis development in men. Originally used for the treatment of type 2

  9. Preventing falls in assisted living: Results of a quality improvement pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Greene, Angela; Sloane, Philip D; Mitchell, Madeline; Giuliani, Carol; Nyrop, Kirsten; Walsh, Edith

    Residents of assisted living (AL) communities are at high risk for falls, which result in negative outcomes and high health care costs. Adapting effective falls prevention programs for AL quality improvement (QI) has the potential to reduce falls, improve resident quality of life, and reduce costs. This project tested the feasibility and outcomes of an evidence-based multi-component QI program, the Assisted Living Falls Prevention and Monitoring Program (AL-FPMP). Resident posture and gait improved, likely due to exercise and/or physical therapy. Effective falls prevention QI programs can be implemented in AL, and are advised to (1) establish and maintain a falls team to create a culture focused on the reduction of falls risk; (2) teach staff to assess residents using the Morse Falls Scale to increase their awareness of residents' falls risk and improvement; and (3) modify existing exercise programs to address balance and lower body strength. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Team teaching fire prevention program: evaluation of an education technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank L. Ryan; Frank H. Gladen; William S. Folkman

    1978-01-01

    The California Department of Forestry's Team Teaching Fire Prevention Program consists of small-group discussions, slides or films, and a visit by Smokey Bear to school classrooms. In a survey, teachers and principals who had experienced the program responded favorably to it. The conduct by team members also received approval. The limited criticisms of the Program...

  11. [German Prevention Programs for Eating Disorders - A Systematic Review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickhardt, Mara; Adametz, Luise; Richter, Felicitas; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

    2018-02-13

    In the past years a considerable amount of primary and secondary prevention programs for eating disorders was developed in German speaking countries. However, up to now there has been no systematic review of contents and evaluation studies. The main objective of the present systematic review is to identify and outline German prevention programs for eating disorders. This should facilitate the selection of appropriate and effective interventions for medical experts, other professionals and teachers. A systematic literature research was conducted and 22 German-language primary and secondary prevention programs were identified. Half of them were evaluated. The programs were conducted either in school, on the internet or in a group setting. The findings show that throughout almost all programs a reduction in weight and shape concerns and drive for thinness as well as an increase of (body) self-esteem could be observed in either the total sample or the high-risk sample. However, programs were inconsistently effective in reducing disordered eating behavior in the target population. All studies were effective in reducing at least one risk factor. Overall, higher effect sizes were found for secondary prevention programs than for primary prevention programs. Lastly, limitations of the studies and suggestions for future prevention efforts are discussed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Boosting a teen substance use prevention program with motivational interviewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve

    2012-03-01

    A brief motivational interviewing (MI) intervention may be a viable adjunct to school-based substance abuse prevention programs. This article describes the development and implementation of a brief MI intervention with 573 adolescents (mean age 16.8; 40.3% female, 68% Latino) enrolled in eight continuation high schools in Southern California. Study participants were assigned to the MI condition in a randomized controlled trial of Project Toward No Drug Abuse. Data are provided on dosage, topics discussed, and quality of MI determined with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Results suggest that the protocol was feasible and implemented with adequate fidelity. The study's limitations are noted.

  13. Boosting a Teen Substance Use Prevention Program with Motivational Interviewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A brief motivational interviewing (MI) intervention may be a viable adjunct to school-based substance abuse prevention programs. This article describes the development and implementation of a brief MI intervention with 573 adolescents (mean age 16.8; 40.3% female, 68% Latino) enrolled in eight continuation high schools in Southern California. Study participants were assigned to the MI condition in a randomized controlled trial of Project Toward No Drug Abuse. Data are provided on dosage, topics discussed, and quality of MI determined with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Results suggest that the protocol was feasible and implemented with adequate fidelity. The study’s limitations are noted. PMID:22216936

  14. Communities Putting Prevention to Work: Results of an Obesity Prevention Initiative in Child Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Ruby; Camejo, Stephanie; Sanders, Lee M.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health issue affecting even our youngest children. Given that a significant amount of young children are enrolled in child care, the goal of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of a child care facility-based obesity prevention program. Over 1,000 facilities participated in the study. The intervention…

  15. A systematic review of school-based suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Cara; Bolton, Shay-Lee; Katz, Laurence Y; Isaak, Corinne; Tilston-Jones, Toni; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-10-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among youth today. Schools are a cost-effective way to reach youth, yet there is no conclusive evidence regarding the most effective prevention strategy. We conducted a systematic review of the empirical literature on school-based suicide prevention programs. Studies were identified through MEDLINE and Scopus searches, using keywords such as "suicide, education, prevention and program evaluation." Additional studies were identified with a manual search of relevant reference lists. Individual studies were rated for level of evidence, and the programs were given a grade of recommendation. Five reviewers rated all studies independently and disagreements were resolved through discussion. Sixteen programs were identified. Few programs have been evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing suicide attempts. Most studies evaluated the programs' abilities to improve students' and school staffs' knowledge and attitudes toward suicide. Signs of Suicide and the Good Behavior Game were the only programs found to reduce suicide attempts. Several other programs were found to reduce suicidal ideation, improve general life skills, and change gatekeeper behaviors. There are few evidence-based, school-based suicide prevention programs, a combination of which may be effective. It would be useful to evaluate the effectiveness of general mental health promotion programs on the outcome of suicide. The grades assigned in this review are reflective of the available literature, demonstrating a lack of randomized controlled trials. Further evaluation of programs examining suicidal behavior outcomes in randomized controlled trials is warranted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Universal Adolescent Depression Prevention Programs: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Teresa D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the subject of adolescent depression has gained significant attention, little is being done in the way of primary prevention. The purpose of this article is to conduct a review of the literature through the lens of the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance framework. This review was conducted utilizing several…

  17. Preventing Occupational Skin Disease: A Review of Training Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Bethany; Arrandale, Victoria H; Holness, D Linn

    Occupational contact dermatitis (OCD) is a common occupational disease that impacts a variety of worker groups. Skin protection and disease prevention training programs have shown promise for improving prevention practices and reducing the incidence of OCD. This review details the features of training programs for primary prevention of OCD and identifies gaps in the literature. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth review: many studies included wet workers employed in health care, hairdressing, cleaning, and food preparation; 1 program featured manufacturing workers. Few programs provided content on allergic contact dermatitis, and only 1 was evaluated for long-term effectiveness. Effective programs were similar in content, delivery method, and timing and were characterized by industry specificity, multimodal learning, participatory elements, skin care resource provision, repeated sessions, and management engagement. Long-term effectiveness, generalizability beyond OCD, workplace health and safety culture impact, and translation of programs in the North American context represent areas for future research.

  18. Economic Evaluation of a Comprehensive Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Program: Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S.; Ross, Joseph S.; Bilodeau, RoseAnne; Richter, Rosemary S.; Palley, Jane E.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on costs and cost-effectiveness of such programs. Objectives To use a community-based participatory research approach, to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Methods Using data from 1997-2003, we conducted an in-time intervention analysis to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled and then used an extrapolation analysis to estimate accyrred economibc benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30. Results The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage females, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1,599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1. Conclusions We estimate that this comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program would provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost-effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:19896030

  19. Evaluation of a Shoulder Injury Prevention Program in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilroy, Jereme; Hibberd, Elizabeth

    2017-11-15

    Previous literature has theorized that alterations in shoulder physical characteristics are present in wheelchair athletes and contribute to shoulder pain and injury. Limited empirical evidence is present that evaluates the effectiveness of a shoulder injury prevention program focusing on improving these altered characteristics. To evaluate the effectiveness of a 6-week intervention program at improving characteristics that increases the risk of developing pain or shoulder injury. Pre and post-test. Home-based and controlled laboratory. Seven collegiate wheelchair athletes. Shoulder range of motion (ROM) and scapular muscle strength were assessed, and a 5-minute injury prevention program was taught to participants. Participants completed the intervention 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Following completion of the program, a post-intervention screening was performed. Internal/external rotation ROM, retraction strength, and internal/external rotation strength. Participants experienced a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder internal rotation ROM (t6=3.56,p=0.012) with an average increase of 11.4° of IR ROM, and a significant improvement in dominant limb shoulder external rotation (ER) ROM (t6=2.79,p=0.032) with an average increase of 8.0° of ER ROM. There were no significant increases in shoulder IR or ER strength and scapular retraction strength (p>0.05). Improvements in ROM have previously been linked to decreases in shoulder pain and injury in other upper-extremity dominant sports by improving scapular kinematics. These results provide evidence that a 6-week strengthening and stretching intervention program may decrease risk factors for shoulder injury in wheelchair athletics.

  20. Program characteristics and organizational factors affecting the implementation of a school-based indicated prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Samruddhi; Steckler, Allan; Sánchez, Victoria; Khatapoush, Shereen; Rose, John; Hallfors, Denise Dion

    2008-04-01

    Reconnecting Youth (RY) is a school-based drug prevention program designed to address academic, substance use and mood management goals among youth at risk of dropping out of high school. This paper presents the organizational factors and RY program characteristics that either promoted or hindered the implementation of the program during a randomized controlled effectiveness trial in 10 schools in two school districts in the United States. Data were collected using surveys and interviews from teachers and school and district staff who participated in the implementation of the RY program in these schools. Results suggest that certain RY program characteristics made it difficult to implement. Small class size, resource-intensive procedures for student selection and recruitment and special training, qualities and skills needed to be an effective RY teacher meant that schools had to significantly change their usual practices to implement the program. Organizational barriers included a lack of financial resources and leadership support for program implementation, and low priority for non-academic courses for high-risk students. Transient student populations, staff turnover and district-wide scheduling and curriculum changes all resulted in high levels of organizational turbulence at most schools, further hindering program implementation.

  1. A systematic review of evaluated suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Alyssa F; Bohanna, India; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous young people have significantly higher suicide rates than their non-indigenous counterparts. There is a need for culturally appropriate and effective suicide prevention programs for this demographic. This review assesses suicide prevention programs that have been evaluated for indigenous youth in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the United States. The databases MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for publications on suicide prevention programs targeting indigenous youth that include reports on evaluations and outcomes. Program content, indigenous involvement, evaluation design, program implementation, and outcomes were assessed for each article. The search yielded 229 articles; 90 abstracts were assessed, and 11 articles describing nine programs were reviewed. Two Australian programs and seven American programs were included. Programs were culturally tailored, flexible, and incorporated multiple-levels of prevention. No randomized controlled trials were found, and many programs employed ad hoc evaluations, poor program description, and no process evaluation. Despite culturally appropriate content, the results of the review indicate that more controlled study designs using planned evaluations and valid outcome measures are needed in research on indigenous youth suicide prevention. Such changes may positively influence the future of research on indigenous youth suicide prevention as the outcomes and efficacy will be more reliable.

  2. Systematic review: internet-based program for youth smoking prevention and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunhee; Drake, Emily

    2015-01-01

    To review the characteristics and effects Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs. Systematic review of published articles in peer-reviewed journals in the past 10 years, focused on Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs. Twelve articles were selected based on the following criteria: studies reporting the outcomes of Internet-based smoking cessation or prevention intervention programs for adolescents who are younger than 24 years. The components of youth Internet-based smoking intervention programs are analyzed based on study features (i.e., sample, design, theoretical basis, analysis, outcome measures) and program characteristics (i.e., focus, setting, frequency, duration, intensity, and different components) that make the programs effective. The most common components of effective Internet-based programs are identified as the following: the use of multimedia, tailored approaches, personalized feedback, and interactive features. The characteristics and effects of the programs vary, but most programs show positive results in youth smoking prevention and cessation in spite of the studies' limitations. The evidence from this review provides useful information of recent efforts related to Internet-based youth smoking prevention and cessation programs, which can have significant clinical implications in developing future innovative youth smoking prevention and intervention programs. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Africa, HIV is having a devastating impact on young people. Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are unique challenges to implementing adolescent-friendly policies and HIV prevention programs. More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on ...

  4. Research Program of Adolescent HIV Prevention Strategies | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Africa, HIV is having a devastating impact on young people. Globally, youth aged 15 to 24 account for almost one third of all new infections. There are unique challenges to implementing adolescent-friendly policies and HIV prevention programs. More research is needed to inform HIV prevention strategies focusing on ...

  5. Factors Related to Teenage Dating Violence Prevention Programming in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.

    2017-01-01

    The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…

  6. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  7. Importance of multidisciplinary trauma prevention program for youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcir Escocia Dorigatti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: present the experience of the P.A.R.T.Y. program in Campinas, thereby changing the habits of young people.METHODS: The organizers visited the participating schools talking to the students, who are aged between 14-18 years. These students spent an afternoon at the Clinics Hospital of Unicamp, where, for four hours, they attended lectures of the organizers, partners and municipal sectors, and also visited the hospital, talking with trauma victims. Questionnaires were evaluated between2010-2012, being applied before and after the project.RESULTS:2,450 high school students attended the program. The mean age is 16 ± 0,99 years and 37.6% were male. 3.6% of males already drive while drunk versus 0.8% of women. Before the project 116 (11.3% thought that drunk driving wasn't a risk, and only 37 (3.6% knew the alcohol effects. After the project, 441 (43% began to consider drunk driving a risk and 193 (18.8% know the alcohol effects when driving. 956 (93.3% considered that prevention projects have a huge impact on their formation.CONCLUSION: It's expected that the attendees will act as multipliers of information, conveying the message of prevention to their entire social circles resulting in reduction in the number of trauma events involving the young, in the long term.

  8. Preventing eating disorder pathology: common and unique features of successful eating disorders prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-07-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors' descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research.

  9. Preventing Eating Disorder Pathology: Common and Unique Features of Successful Eating Disorders Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciao, Anna C.; Loth, Katie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the field of eating disorders has made remarkable strides in identifying, evaluating, and disseminating successful prevention programs. The current review identifies and discusses nine distinct eating disorders prevention programs that reduce existing eating disorder pathology or prevent the onset of future pathology. Each program was evaluated in one or more controlled trial with a follow-up period of at least six months. We review the evidence base for these nine successful programs and discuss their common and unique features. Based on authors’ descriptions of their programs in published trials, we found that all programs were theory-driven, targeted one or more eating disorder risk factor (e.g., body dissatisfaction), were delivered across multiple group sessions, and included at least some interactive content. Most programs included content related to healthy eating/nutrition, media literacy/sociocultural pressures, and body acceptance/body satisfaction. Notably, there was wide variation in some participant features (e.g., participant age, sex, risk status) and intervention features (e.g., setting and format, length and dose, providers), suggesting that a variety of programs are beneficial in impacting eating disorder pathology. Implications and directions for future research are discussed, including an increased focus on universal and indicated prevention programs, expanding programs to a wider age range and a broader spectrum of weight-related problems, and rigorous evaluation of programs through efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation research. PMID:24821099

  10. Postural hygiene program to prevent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, F J; Gómez-Conesa, A

    2001-06-01

    A quasi-experimental study with 3 x 4 design was performed. To improve the level of knowledge and motor skills and thereby avert the development of painful symptoms. Despite the fact that low back pain affects a high percentage of the population, little research has been carried out to prevent low back pain through health education. The participants in this study were 106 third-grade (9-year-old) students. The program included 11 sessions. The teacher attended the placebo group sessions. No intervention was used with the control group. The level of knowledge and motor skills in the experimental group showed a significant increase immediately after the intervention finished, and at 6- and 12-month intervals after completion of the postural hygiene program (P = 0.00). Some positive changes were generalized to natural situations (P = 0.00). In an independent health check carried out by the local school health services 4 years after application of the postural hygiene program, the results tended slightly to favor the experimental condition over the control conditions (placebo + no intervention). A greater number of the control subjects required medical treatment for low back pain, although this difference was only marginally significant (P = 0.07). The findings from this study support the hypothesis that programs involving practice and motivating strategies impart health knowledge and habits more efficiently than those restricted to the mere transmission of information.

  11. Sustainability of an interdisciplinary secondary prevention program for hairdressers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfhorst, B; Bock, M; Gediga, G; Skudlik, C; Allmers, H; John, S M

    2010-02-01

    Two hundred and fifteen hairdressers suffering from occupational skin diseases (OSD) have attended a 6-month combined dermatological and educational prevention program with an education and counseling scheme as well as an intervention in the respective hairdressers' shops. The aim of this program, conducted from 1994 to 1997, was to enable the affected hairdressers to remain at work without suffering from major OSD. To assess the sustainability of this interdisciplinary medical and educational training program, the intervention group (IG, N = 215) and a control group (CG, hairdressers with OSD who solely received dermatological treatment, N = 85) were followed up 9 month and 5 years after their individual project participation by a standardized questionnaire. A subcohort of the intervention group (IG(1994), participants in 1994, N = 62) was followed up again 10 years after their participation. The follow-up survey 9 months after the beginning of the program (response rate: IG: N = 163, 75.8%; CG: N = 80, 94.1%) showed that 71.8% (N = 117) of the intervention group could remain in work as opposed to 60.0% (N = 48) in the control group. In the intervention group 14.7% gave up work due to OSD versus 22.5% in the control group (no statistically significant effect). In the 5-year follow-up (response rate: IG: N = 172, 80%; CG: N = 55, 64.7%) 58.7% (N = 101) of the IG remained at work versus 29.1% (N = 16) of the CG. In the IG 12.8% had stopped work because of OSD versus 27.3% in the CG (p sustained knowledge on OSD and more adequate prevention at the work place in the IG. The results confirm that interdisciplinary training can be successful in effecting self-protection against workplace hazards by using positive approaches that include the learning of "safe" behavior and insuring transferability to real workplace settings ("empowerment"). Combined preventive measures as studied in this program have recently become the standard offered by different statutory accident

  12. Osteoporosis prevention and osteoporosis exercise in community-based public health programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu H. Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a serious public health concern worldwide, and community-based public health programs that increase osteoporosis preventive behaviors are ideal to combat this major public health issue. A review of community-based public health programs for osteoporosis prevention show that programs vary in numerous ways and have mixed results in increasing osteoporosis preventive behaviors, although most programs have had success in significantly increasing calcium intake, only a few programs have had success in significantly increasing weight-bearing exercise. Regarding calcium intake, all community-based public health programs that implemented: 1 at least one theoretical behavior change model, such as the health belief model, or 2 bone mineral density (BMD testing for osteoporosis screening, have shown success in significantly increasing calcium intake. As community-based public health programs for osteoporosis prevention have shown limited success in increasing weight-bearing exercise, an additional review of community-based public health programs incorporating osteoporosis exercise showed that they have high compliance rates to increase weight-bearing exercise, but require high-intensity weight-bearing exercise of 80–85% 1-repetition maximum to significantly increase BMD to prevent osteoporosis. In the prevention of osteoporosis, for community-based public health programs to be most effective, they should implement theoretical behavior change models and/or BMD testing for osteoporosis screening, along with high-intensity resistance training. Recommendations for future research to further study effective community-based public health programs are also provided.

  13. 75 FR 35360 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... implementation of a safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  14. 75 FR 23637 - Injury and Illness Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... safety and health program as a way of demonstrating good faith. Similarly, in its first decision, the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Occupational Safety and Health Administration 29 CFR Part 1910 Injury and Illness Prevention Program AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION...

  15. A Primary Prevention Program to Reduce Bulimia and Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullari, Salvatore; Redmon, William K.

    This paper presents a theoretical model for a primary prevention program for bulimia and anorexia nervosa to be used with adolescents and young women considered most at risk of developing these eating disorders. Characteristics of potential anorexics and bulimics are identified to aid in the selection of target groups for the program. It is…

  16. Applying national survey results for strategic planning and program improvement: the National Diabetes Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffey, Susan; Piccinino, Linda; Gallivan, Joanne; Lotenberg, Lynne Doner; Tuncer, Diane

    2015-02-01

    Since the 1970s, the federal government has spearheaded major national education programs to reduce the burden of chronic diseases in the United States. These prevention and disease management programs communicate critical information to the public, those affected by the disease, and health care providers. The National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), the leading federal program on diabetes sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), uses primary and secondary quantitative data and qualitative audience research to guide program planning and evaluation. Since 2006, the NDEP has filled the gaps in existing quantitative data sources by conducting its own population-based survey, the NDEP National Diabetes Survey (NNDS). The NNDS is conducted every 2–3 years and tracks changes in knowledge, attitudes and practice indicators in key target audiences. This article describes how the NDEP has used the NNDS as a key component of its evaluation framework and how it applies the survey results for strategic planning and program improvement. The NDEP's use of the NNDS illustrates how a program evaluation framework that includes periodic population-based surveys can serve as an evaluation model for similar national health education programs.

  17. Hanford Site waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program is an organized, comprehensive, and continual effort to systematically reduce the quantity and toxicity of hazardous, radioactive, mixed, and sanitary wastes; conserve resources; and prevent or minimize pollutant releases to all environmental media from all Site activities. The Hanford Site WMin/P2 program plan reflects national and DOE waste minimization and pollution prevention goals and policies, and represents an ongoing effort to make WMin/P2 part of the Site operating philosophy. In accordance with these policies, a hierarchical approach to environmental management has been adopted and is applied to all types of polluting and waste generating activities. Pollution prevention and waste minimization through source reduction are first priority in the Hanford WMin/P2 program, followed by environmentally safe recycling. Treatment to reduce the quantity, toxicity, and/or mobility will be considered only when prevention or recycling are not possible or practical. Environmentally safe disposal is the last option

  18. Predictors of Prevention Failure in College Students Participating in Two Indicated Depression Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Vanessa; Rohde, Paul; Vázquez, Fernando L.; Otero, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of university students with the highest likelihood of remaining at elevated levels of depressive symptoms six months following the receipt of a depressive prevention intervention on the basis of known risk factors and participation in one of two depression prevention programs. Data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating depression prevention among 133 college students with elevated depressive symptoms were analyzed. Participants were ...

  19. Preventing the Onset of Child Sexual Abuse by Targeting Young Adolescents With Universal Prevention Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921

  20. Optimal investment in a portfolio of HIV prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaric, G S; Brandeau, M L

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the authors determine the optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds and investigate the impact of different allocation methods on health outcomes. The authors present a resource allocation model that can be used to determine the allocation of HIV prevention funds that maximizes quality-adjusted life years (or life years) gained or HIV infections averted in a population over a specified time horizon. They apply the model to determine the allocation of a limited budget among 3 types of HIV prevention programs in a population of injection drug users and nonusers: needle exchange programs, methadone maintenance treatment, and condom availability programs. For each prevention program, the authors estimate a production function that relates the amount invested to the associated change in risky behavior. The authors determine the optimal allocation of funds for both objective functions for a high-prevalence population and a low-prevalence population. They also consider the allocation of funds under several common rules of thumb that are used to allocate HIV prevention resources. It is shown that simpler allocation methods (e.g., allocation based on HIV incidence or notions of equity among population groups) may lead to alloctions that do not yield the maximum health benefit. The optimal allocation of HIV prevention funds in a population depends on HIV prevalence and incidence, the objective function, the production functions for the prevention programs, and other factors. Consideration of cost, equity, and social and political norms may be important when allocating HIV prevention funds. The model presented in this article can help decision makers determine the health consequences of different allocations of funds.

  1. Suicide Prevention in the Dot Com Era: Technological Aspects of a University Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jessica; VanDeusen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Western Michigan University's Suicide Prevention Program utilizes multiple technological components, including an online training course, a Web site, and 2 social networking Web site profiles, as integral aspects of a comprehensive program. This article discusses the development, maintenance, use, and impact of the technological aspects of this…

  2. Westinghouse Hanford Company Pollution Prevention Program Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, B.C.

    1994-10-01

    This plan documents Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Pollution Prevention (P2) (formerly Waste Minimization) program. The program includes WHC; BCS Richland, Inc. (BCSR); and ICF Kaiser Hanford Company (ICF KH). The plan specifies P2 program activities and schedules for implementing the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness (WMin/P2) Program Plan requirements (DOE 1994a). It is intended to satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other legal requirements that are discussed in both the Hanford Site WMin/P2 plan and paragraph C of this plan. As such, the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program required by DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988) is included in the WHC P2 program. WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH are committed to implementing an effective P2 program as identified in the Hanford Site WMin/P2 Plan. This plan provides specific information on how the WHC P2 program will develop and implement the goals, activities, and budget needed to accomplish this. The emphasis has been to provide detailed planning of the WHC P2 program activities over the next 3 years. The plan will guide the development and implementation of the program. The plan also provides background information on past program activities. Because the plan contains greater detail than in the past, activity scope and implementation schedules may change as new priorities are identified and new approaches are developed and realized. Some activities will be accelerated, others may be delayed; however, all of the general program elements identified in this plan and contractor requirements identified in the Site WMin/P2 plan will be developed and implemented during the next 3 years. This plan applies to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH organizations and subcontractors. It will be distributed to those with defined responsibilities in this plan; and the policy, goals, objectives, and strategy of the program will be communicated to all WHC, BCSR, and ICF KH employees

  3. Understanding small business engagement in workplace violence prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.

  4. Purpose and methods of a Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, P.A.; Irwin, E.F.; Poligone, S.E.

    1994-08-15

    The purpose of the Pollution Prevention Awareness Program (PPAP), which is required by DOE Order 5400.1, is to foster the philosophy that prevention is superior to remediation. The goal of the program is to incorporate pollution prevention into the decision-making process at every level throughout the organization. The objectives are to instill awareness, disseminate information, provide training and rewards for identifying the true source or cause of wastes, and encourage employee participation in solving environmental issues and preventing pollution. PPAP at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was created several years ago and continues to grow. We believe that we have implemented several unique methods of communicating environmental awareness to promote a more active work force in identifying ways of reducing pollution.

  5. Caries risk and prevention: Evaluation of a preventive program in a clinic for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Correia Sampaio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to verify the use of the Nexø caries risk assessment system together with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, in a preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Federal University of Paraíba. Methods: A sample of 107 children (2- to 14-year-old was attended on two occasions. The patients’ clinical data (DMF-T, dmf-t, Bleeding index, OHI-S and those from the preventive procedures performed (professional cleaning, fluoride application, Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, Nexø caries risk were collected twice: first from the clinical record cards and on the second occasion by exams. Parents and guardians evaluated the clinical attendance in an interview and the children, by means of a VAS scale. According to the Nexø caries risk assessment system, 53 children (49.5% were classified at low risk (6. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS (11.0. Results: A positive correlation was observed between the two risk systems: Nexø and Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden of chances of avoiding new caries lesions. The possibility of avoiding new caries lesions increased 5% in both groups and a discrete increase was observed in the other parameters. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the Nexø system associated with the Cariogram® (School of Dentistry, Malmö, Sweden, contributed to the assessment of the patients’ caries risk profile and to the success of the preventive program for children at the cariology clinic at Universidade Federal da Paraíba.

  6. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  7. [Development of a regional program for prevention of children's disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeeva, I A

    2001-01-01

    Pressing problems (social, socio-hygienic, medical, legal, etc.) of childhood disability are discussed for a typical Russian territory. Causes of disability from the viewpoint of its prevention are analyzed. Experience gained in organization of complex measures, inter-department approach to formation and realization of relevant programs with emphasis on prevention is presented on the model of the Republic of North Ossetia--Alania.

  8. Measures and programs for preventing violence in school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašić-Pavišić Slobodanka Ž.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In many countries across the world schools are no longer a safe place for both students and school staff. Violence in school is an issue scarcely studied in Serbia and there are few articles in domestic professional literature. At national and local level there are not developed strategies nor programs for preventing violence among students in our schools. There are no data about planned, systematic and organized prevention of violence in the practice of our schools. The data obtained by investigations indicate that it is necessary to apply adequate programs for preventing violence among students in our schools, despite the finding that violence in school is not that much conspicuous and serious problem like in other countries (USA Israel, Japan, Austria, Germany. On the basis of relevant literature review the present paper high­lights some very popular and less notorious measures and prevention programs applied in various countries. The aim of the paper is to transmit basic and essential pieces of information so as to gain insight into diverse existing approaches to prevention of violent behavior in school hopefully to encourage our schools to pay more attention to preventing violence in school as soon as possible before it is too late.

  9. Prevention of transmitted infections in a pet therapy program: An exemplar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Pam; Brown, Janice; Wright, Mary Ellen

    2016-07-01

    The focus of the patient experience in health care delivery has afforded the opportunity to integrate pet therapy as a part of patient care. The purpose of this article is to present the implementation of a pet therapy program that includes guidelines for the prevention of transmitted infections. Consideration of infection prevention strategies has resulted in a 16-year program with no documented incidences of transmitted infections, averaging 20,000 pet therapy interactions per year. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Crime Prevention Programs in Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Beato

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes previous studies evaluating the effectiveness of the crime prevention policies adopted by the Government of Minas Gerais (Brazil. In this work, greater emphasis is placed on studies evaluating outcomes than on studies dealing with the process of setting up and implementing programs and projects. In order to allow a more systematic discussion, the Maryland Scale, which categorizes research and evaluations according to the methodological strengths and weaknesses in five levels, is employed. Subsequently, the authors draw a parallel between Brazil and other settings. Finally, this essay lays out the implications of this discussion regarding the prevention programs

  11. The Work Disability Prevention CIHR Strategic Training Program: Program Performance After 5 Years of Implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loisel, P.; Hong, Q.N.; Imbeau, D.; Lippel, K.; Guzman, J.; MacEachen, E.; Corbiere, M.; Santos, B.R.; Anema, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The Work Disability Prevention (WDP) Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) Strategic Training Program was developed in 2001 and is a unique program in the world. The main objective of this program is to help future researchers develop transdisciplinary knowledge, skills and

  12. The PASHA Program Sourcebook: Promising Teen Pregnancy and STD/HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Josefina J., Ed.; Becker, Stephani R., Ed.; Hill, Denise M. K., Ed.

    By providing in-depth descriptions of the 23 promising programs available from the Program Archive on Sexuality, Health and Adolescence (PASHA), the "PASHA Program Sourcebook" offers practitioners a detailed look at "what works" to prevent pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases/human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency…

  13. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L.; Crandall, Jill P.; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Hamman, Richard F.; Montez, Maria G.; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study objective was to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopausal status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. Methods The study population included women in premenopause (n=708), natural postmenopause (n=328), and bilateral oophorectomy (n=201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy (HT) use. Results After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (HR 0.19, 95% CI 0.04, 0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of HT use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR 1.29, 95% CI 0.63, 2.64) or placebo arms (HR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74, 2.55). Conclusions Among women at high-risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with decreased diabetes risk. PMID:21709591

  14. [Effectiveness of alcohol prevention program for pre-adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrowski, Krzysztof Jan; Pisarska, Agnieszka; Staszewski, Krzysztof O; Borucka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess the delayed effects of a two-year alcohol prevention program implemented in Polish primary schools. The program comprised two curricula implemented the school and in family houses: Program Domowych Detektywów and Fantastyczne Mozliwości. Both curricula were the Polish versions of two American school-based prevention programs which belonged to Project Northland. The initial study sample (N = 802) comprised 10 to 11 years old pupils (fourth and fifth-grade) from eight primary schools in Warsaw. Schools were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 421) and the reference group (n = 381). A self-completion questionnaire was administered to students four times: at the baseline, seven, fifteen and twenty seven months after. The program had an expected influence on the students' attitudes, knowledge and resistance skills towards alcohol. The effects on the participants' initiation of drunkenness and their first experience in alcohol use with their peers have also been reported. Most of the positive effects remained significant over time. The effectiveness of the program, as shown by the outcome evaluation, supports an argument for its wide implementation in Polish schools. Further progress in the field of alcohol and drug prevention in Poland depends on overcoming the existing barriers in this area of public health.

  15. BPX insulation irradiation program test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McManamy, T.J.; Kanemoto, G.; Snook, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The toroidal field coil insulation for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) is expected to receive a radiation dose of nearly 10 10 rad and to withstand significant mechanical stresses. An irradiation test program was performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) using the Advanced Technology Reactor (ATR) for irradiations to doses on the order of 3 x 10 10 rad. The flexure and shear strength with compression of commercially procured sheet material were reported earlier. A second series of tests has been performed to slightly higher dose levels with vacuum impregnated materials, glass strand material, and Spaulrad-S sheet samples. Vacuum impregnation with a Shell 9405 resin and 9470 hardener was used to produce bonded copper squares and flexure samples of both pure resin and resin with S-glass. A new test fixture was developed to test the bonded samples in shear without applied compression. The Spaulrad-S flexure samples demonstrated a loss of strength with irradiation, similar to previous results. The pure resin lost nearly all flexibility, while the S-glass-reinforced samples retained between 30% and 40% of the initial flexure strength. The S-glass strands showed a 30% loss of strength at the higher dose level when tested in tension. The bonded copper squares had a low room-temperature shear strength of approximately 17 MPa before irradiation, which was unchanged in the irradiated samples. Shear testing of unirradiated bonded copper squares with ten different types of surface treatment revealed that the low shear strength resulted from the polyurethane primer used. In the later series of test, the epoxy-based primers and DZ-80 from Ciba-Geigy did much better, with shear strengths on the order of 40 MPa. These samples also demonstrated a resistance to cryogenic shock. One irradiated bonded sample was tested up 10 210 MPa in compression, the limit of the test fixture, without failure

  16. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cunha-Cruz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTwice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it “myself.” Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children <36 months of age because of the high incidence of disease in this population.MethodsA dental care organization designed and implemented Everybody Brush! in three counties of Central Oregon. Participants were families of Medicaid-insured children <21 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups: test (supplies, voice/printed messages, telephone support, active (supplies, and a waitlist control. Program materials were in English and Spanish. Caregivers of children <36 months were interviewed at the beginning and end of the program.ResultsA total of 83,148 toothbrushing kits were mailed to 21,743 families. In addition, 93,766 printed messages and 110,367 recorded messages were sent to half of the families. Caregivers were highly satisfied. On a global rating scale from 0 to 10 (worst to best program possible, they rated the program 9.5 on average (median: 10, SD 0.9. On a scale from 0 to 10 (not at all to very useful, mean ratings for usefulness of the toothbrushing supplies was 9.5 (SD = 1.5, for the printed postcard messages was 7.2 (SD 3.6, and for the voice telephone messages was 6.5 (SD 3.9.DiscussionA dental care organization carried out a complex community intervention designed to address excess tooth decay among low-income children. Caregivers were highly

  17. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Adolescents in South Korea: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunok

    2006-01-01

    The number of research papers evaluating programs designed to prevent adolescent smoking have increased in the last 13 years in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these programs, to review the features of the studies and to systemically assess the results on the knowledge about, and attitude to, smoking and smoking behavior. Database…

  18. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Alcohol- or Other Drug-Use Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports the results of the study in the area of alcohol- or other drug-use prevention, covering the following topics: (1) Health Education;…

  19. Assessment of a sexual coercion prevention program for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes Martín, Antonio; Orgaz Baz, M Begoña; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Martínez Alvarez, José Luis; Fernández Fuertes, Andrés; Carcedo González, Rodrigo J

    2012-07-01

    This study's focus is to evaluate a sexual coercion prevention program in adolescents. Using a before-and-after design with both a treatment group (n = 93) and a control group (n = 76), an intervention of seven sessions was completed. Said sessions included such content as conceptualizing sexual freedom, sexual coercion and voluntary consent, analyzing different sexual coercion tactics and the contexts in which they occur, empathy toward the victim, and developing abilities to avoid risky situations. Other risk factors for coercive behavior and sexual victimization are explored as well, such as alcohol use, sexist attitudes and inadequate communication, among others. The intervention's results include a decrease in stereotypical beliefs about the opposite sex and increased empathy toward victims of sexual coercion. These changes were maintained with the passage of time. Also, in the treatment group, a more acute decline was observed in the proportion of young people engaging in sexually coercive behaviors, This article emphasizes the importance, necessity and efficacy of such interventions, and discusses and analyzes possible improvements to the program for its future implementation.

  20. Relative Humidity Measurement Assurance Program Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, Miguel

    1993-01-01

    During the summer of 1992, the National Conference of Standards Laboratories sponsored a relative humidity measurement assurance program (RHMAP) whose purpose was to enable each participating center to assess the quality of relative humidity calibrations being performed by their respective standards laboratories. This paper presents the data which was submitted by the participants during the first round of the program and shows the multi-laboratory comparisons of the 20%, 50%, and 80% relative humidity meaurements performed.

  1. [Establishing Prevention Reporting in Bavaria - Concept, Implementation and First Results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisig, Veronika; Kuhn, Joseph; Poppe, Franziska; Caselmann, Wolfgang H

    2018-01-01

    Bavaria is currently embarking on the endeavour of building up systematic prevention reporting. Prevention reporting is meant to support the implementation of the Bavarian Prevention Plan and the German Prevention Law and to further the ongoing development in the field of health promotion and health-related prevention in Bavaria. Prevention reporting in Bavaria aims to draw on general health reporting and complement it with specific prevention-related data taking into special consideration the Bavarian Prevention Plan. Particularly, data on prevention-amenable health determinants, prevention interventions, prevention spending and on indicators related to the targets of the Bavarian Prevention Plan are meant to be included. Periodic reporting will allow ongoing monitoring and the observation of trends. The reporting system will encompass shorter publications for the general public as well as more extensive reports for an expert audience. Where possible, data will be reported not only Bavaria wide but also on a smaller regional level to support local action. An extensive stocktaking of prevention and health promotion activities in Bavaria in 2014/2015 as well as a survey of the partner organisations in the Bavarian Prevention Alliance in 2016 presented an overview of the prevention scene in Bavaria. A core indicator set to support the implementation of the Bavarian Prevention Plan was developed in 2016 and a first short data brochure for the public was published. A comprehensive compilation of prevention-related data and a Bavarian prevention report are planned for 2017 and 2018. Like health reporting, prevention reporting, as conceptualised in Bavaria, presents overview data and thus allows a monitoring of prevention. For specific planning or evaluation purposes, it needs to be supplemented by more in-depth analyses. Current challenges include the development of valid, prevention-specific indicators, the generation of an empiric database and the attempt of a

  2. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Am I eligible? To be considered for the Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP), you must meet eligibility criteria related to educational attainment, US citizenship/permanent residency status, and the duration of prior postdoctoral research experience. Refer to the Eligibility Requirements for details. How do I apply? You must apply through our online application process.

  3. U.S. Teachers' Perceptions of School Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chestnut, Natakie

    2016-01-01

    In response to high profile violent incidents and crimes, many schools have developed plans that address school discipline to create a school climate and culture wherein everyone is valued and treated with respect. The problem that prompted this study is teachers are struggling with effectively implementation prevention program. The purpose of…

  4. Does the national program of prevention of mother to child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In the context of universal access to prevention, treatment, care and support, each country has to ensure that 80% of women and children in need have access to PMTCT interventions. Objective: To assess the PMTCT program achievement in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Methods: Between ...

  5. Eating Disorder Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This meta-analysis of eating disorder prevention programs found that intervention effects ranged from an absence of any effects to reductions in current and future eating pathology. Certain effects persisted as long as 2 years and were superior to minimal-intervention control conditions. Larger effects occurred for selected (vs. universal),…

  6. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention on College Campuses: Model Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to recent alcohol-related tragedies and to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Education to identify and promote effective campus-based prevention programs. Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Education has awarded approximately $3.5…

  7. 2010-2014 Pollution Prevention Program Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Strategic Plan identifies a number of opportunities for EPA's Pollution Prevention (P2) Program to help reduce: the emission of greenhouse gasses; the use of hazardous materials; and the use of natural resources, while contributing to a greener and more sustainable economy.

  8. High School Students' Perceptions of Alcohol Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Grade 11 students' perceptions of programs related to the prevention of alcohol use in high school settings through an analysis of quantitative and qualitative data elicited from student questionnaires (n=452) and focus groups. It was found that students felt a need for increased information on alcohol…

  9. 77 FR 19799 - Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... rates translate to increased public and worker safety and decreased repair and outage costs for pipeline... April 2, 2012 Part III Department of Transportation Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration 49 CFR Parts 196 and 198 Pipeline Safety: Pipeline Damage Prevention Programs; Proposed Rule #0;#0...

  10. Using Youth Participatory Evaluation to Improve a Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Adrienne M.; Sollie, Donna L.; Silva, Kelcie

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a youth participatory evaluation of a bullying prevention curriculum before the curriculum was implemented in communities. We partnered with youths from a young women leaders' program to reduce the number of lessons in an existing curriculum and determine which activities were likely to have the greatest impact. To evaluate the…

  11. Cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial fracture prevention program for elderly people admitted to nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dirk; Borsi, Lisa; Stracke, Claudia; Stock, Stephanie; Stollenwerk, Björn

    2015-06-01

    Fractures are one of the most costly consequences of falls in elderly patients in nursing homes. To compare the cost-effectiveness of a 'multifactorial fracture prevention program' provided by a multidisciplinary team with 'no prevention' in newly admitted nursing home residents. We performed a cost-utility analysis using a Markov-based simulation model to establish the effectiveness of a multifaceted fall prevention program from the perspective of statutory health insurance (SHI) and long-term care insurance (LCI). The rate of falls was used to estimate the clinical and economic consequences resulting from hip and upper limb fractures. Robustness of the results was assessed using deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Compared to no prevention a multifactorial prevention program for nursing home residents resulted in a cost-effectiveness ratio of 21,353 euro per quality-adjusted life-year. The total costs for SHI/LCI would result in 1.7 euro million per year. Results proved to be robust following deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Multifactorial fracture prevention appears to be cost-effective in preventing fractures in nursing home residents. Since the results were based on the number of falls further research is required to confirm the results.

  12. XSS-10 microsatellite flight demonstration program results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas M.; Melanson, David

    2004-08-01

    Air Force Research Laboratory"s space experiment XSS-10 was flown on the Air Force Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) mission IIR-8 launched on January 29, 2003. The mission objectives of XSS-10 were to demonstrate autonomous navigation, proximity operations, and inspection of a Resident Space Object (RSO). XSS-10 was a 28-kilogram micro-satellite was launched as a secondary mission on a Delta II expendable launch vehicle carrying a GPS satellite. XSS-10 was equipped with a visible camera, a star sensor, and mini SGLS system, all specially built for this program. In addition, a visible camera was attached to the second stage to observe the release of the micro-satellite and observe its maneuvers. Following the release of the GPS satellite, the Delta II initiated three depletion burns to reorient into an 800 KM circular orbit. The XSS-II was ejected from the Delta II second stage approximately 18 hours after launch. Operating autonomously on a preplanned course, XSS-10 performed its mission of navigating around the Delta II second stage at preplanned positions; the micro-satellite took images of the second stage and send them back to earth in real time. During these demonstrations the XSS-10 mission operations team accomplished responsive checkout of the micro-satellite and all of its subsystems, autonomous navigation on a preplanned course and a variety of algorithms and mission operations that pave the way for more ambitious missions in the future. This paper will discuss the results of the mission and post mission analysis of the XSS-10 space flight.

  13. Access to Employee Wellness Programs and Use of Preventive Care Services Among U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isehunwa, Oluwaseyi O; Carlton, Erik L; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Yu; Kedia, Satish; Chang, Cyril F; Fijabi, Daniel; Bhuyan, Soumitra S

    2017-12-01

    There is little research at the national level on access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. This study examined the use of seven preventive care services among U.S working adults with access to employee wellness programs. The study population comprised 17,699 working adults aged ≥18 years, obtained from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models examined the relationship between access to employee wellness programs and use of seven preventive care services: influenza vaccination, blood pressure check, diabetes check, cholesterol check, Pap smear test, mammogram, and colon cancer screening. Data analysis began in Fall 2016. Overall, 46.6% of working adults reported having access to employee wellness programs in 2015. Working adults with access to employee wellness programs had higher odds of receiving influenza vaccination (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.43, 1.72, pwellness programs and the use of Pap smear test and colon cancer screening services. Using a nationally representative sample of individuals, this study found a positive association between access to employee wellness programs and the use of preventive care services. The results support favorable policies to encourage implementing wellness programs in all worksites, especially those with <50 employees. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental Restoration Program waste minimization and pollution prevention self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The Environmental Restoration (ER) Program within Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. is currently developing a more active waste minimization and pollution prevention program. To determine areas of programmatic improvements within the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program, the ER Program required an evaluation of the program across the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Paducah Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site, and the Portsmouth Environmental Restoration and Waste Minimization Site. This document presents the status of the overall program as of fourth quarter FY 1994, presents pollution prevention cost avoidance data associated with FY 1994 activities, and identifies areas for improvement. Results of this assessment indicate that the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program is firmly established and is developing rapidly. Several procedural goals were met in FY 1994 and many of the sites implemented ER waste minimization options. Additional growth is needed, however, for the ER Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program

  15. Factors associated with the completion of falls prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Anamica; Page, Timothy; Melchior, Michael; Seff, Laura; Vieira, Edgar Ramos; Palmer, Richard C

    2013-12-01

    Falls and fear of falling can affect independence and quality of life of older adults. Falls prevention programs may help avoiding these issues if completed. Understanding factors that are associated with completion of falls prevention programs is important. To reduce fear of falling and increase activity levels, a Matter of Balance (MOB) and un Asunto de Equilibrio (ADE) workshops were offered to 3420 older adults in South Florida between 1 October 2008 and 31 December 2011. Workshops were conducted in English or Spanish over eight, 2-hour sessions. Participants completed a demographic and a pre-post questionnaire. Factors associated with program completion were identified using logistic regression. For MOB, females were more likely to complete the program (OR = 2.076, P = 0.02). For ADE, females, moderate and extreme interference by falls in social activities were found to affect completion (OR = 2.116, P = 0.001; OR = 2.269, P = 0.003 and OR = 4.133, P = 0.008, respectively). Different factors predicted completion of both programs. Awareness of these factors can help lower the attrition rates, increase benefits and cost effectiveness of program. Future research needs to explore why certain groups had a higher likelihood of completing either program.

  16. Effects of a work injury prevention program for housekeeping in the hotel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Merrill; Maguire, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the effectiveness of a work injury prevention program in the housekeeping department of a hotel. Studies have validated the use of different injury prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of work-related injuries. Few studies, however, have reported the efficacy of an on-site work injury prevention program by a physical therapist. In 1995, implementation of a work injury prevention program by a physical therapist to 50 housekeeping supervisors, 60 house persons and 340 guest room attendants at a large hotel began. This program included a detailed work risk analysis of the work environment, development of job descriptions, identification of injury-related problematic work situations, and implementation of a job specific supervisor-training program. Supervisor, house person and guest room attendant training was also conducted at the end of 1995 and the beginning of 1997. Data of injury reports in 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed to determine the results of the program. There was a reduction in total injury claims, total medical expenses, total lost work time and total restricted duty time. These results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of implementing a work injury prevention program for housekeeping guest room attendants in the hotel industry. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  17. Assess the impact of an online tobacco prevention training program on teachers and their students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W William; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Weng, Chung-Bang

    2013-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have been proven effective in reducing tobacco use. This evaluation aimed to assess the impact of an online tobacco prevention teacher training program on teachers and their students in Florida schools. A total of 344 teachers, including 72 K-3 grade teachers, 44 4th-5th grade teachers, and 228 6th-12th grade teachers completed the online training program and 323 (93.9%) were followed up to assess impacts on their 6,490 students. Results suggested that the online tobacco prevention education program for teachers was effective with high satisfaction and the impact on students was significant in improving knowledge and attitude about tobacco use and in increasing the proportion of 6-12th grade students who decided not to use tobacco. The evaluation study recommended the online education program be continued and expanded in the future.

  18. Integrating Social Marketing Into Fijian HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs: Lessons From Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewak, Aarti; Singh, Gurmeet

    2017-01-01

    Social marketing techniques have been tested and proven useful within the health sector worldwide. In Fiji, social marketing was introduced in the early 1990s, and more rapidly during the last decade to improve national response to an increasing incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Given the limited amount of research in the area of program evaluation in Pacific Island Countries and Territories (PICTs), this study systematically analyzes five Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs through Andreasen's benchmark criteria, in order to identify gaps in program design that ultimately impact program effectiveness. Assessment results unveil some interesting trends regarding the focus and applications of past Fijian HIV/AIDS prevention programs in the past decade. This article discusses these findings and other valuable lessons for future HIV/AIDS prevention strategies in Fiji and elsewhere.

  19. USAID program for the prevention and treatment of vaginal fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, P; Stanton, M E

    2007-11-01

    The cornerstone of the US Agency for International Development (USAID) fistula program is to support and strengthen local capacity for fistula repair. The USAID program includes support to upgrade facilities, enhance local surgical repair capability, allocate equipment and supplies to operating rooms, implement quality improvement systems, and cover the women's transportation costs to and from the treatment facilities. The program also offers training in clinical and counseling skills; transferring skills South-to-South; and monitoring and evaluating the program's effectiveness. As new fistula cases continually increase the backlog of untreated cases, its efforts are also directed toward the prevention of fistula and the reintegration of treated women into their communities. Furthermore, the program challenges the culture of sexual violence against women that leads to traumatic gynecologic fistulas.

  20. S-14: Soccer Injury Prevention Program; How Parents Can Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Rahimi Moghaddam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Soccer is classified as a high to moderate-intensity contact sport. It is therefore of importance that the incidence of soccer injuries be reduced through preventive interventions. The purpose of this review is to conclude the importance of a prevention program and explore the role parents have towards minimizing soccer related injuries among children and adolescence football players.METHOD: 42 hand searches, 5 books, and 25 electronic articles were reviewed and relevant results were collected for the purpose of this paper. Selected studies were categorized as follows: soccer injury statistics, injury prevention program, and parents and prevention.RESULTS: 5-16 year of age is a critical age range for soccer related injuries. Some studies have confirmed soccer injuries can be reduced by preventive interventions, and mentioned the importance of prevention program and the role of parents in the program. A few studies reported the efficacy for a positive parent-child relationship and injury prevalence, while other reported the negative influence parental demand on injury rates among children. Moreover, suggestions were made of consideration to parents prior to allowing children to participate in soccer.CONCLUSIONS: Prevention of sports injuries is team work, and parent's role can be as vital as other members of the prevention team. In a successful preventive program, there are steps that parents can take to help kids stay safe on the soccer field or wherever they play or participate in sports activities. Educational materials should be provided to parents by soccer camp organizers before children involve in soccer programs.

  1. Multistation proprioceptive exercise program prevents ankle injuries in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eils, Eric; Schröter, Ralph; Schröder, Marc; Gerss, Joachim; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a multistation proprioceptive exercise program for the prevention of ankle injuries in basketball players using a prospective randomized controlled trial in combination with biomechanical tests of neuromuscular performance. A total of 232 players participated in the study and were randomly assigned to a training or control group following the CONSORT statement. The training group performed a multistation proprioceptive exercise program, and the control group continued with their normal workout routines. During one competitive basketball season, the number of ankle injuries was counted and related to the number of sports participation sessions using logistic regression. Additional biomechanical pre–post tests (angle reproduction and postural sway) were performed in both groups to investigate the effects on neuromuscular performance. In the control group, 21 injuries occurred, whereas in the training group, 7 injuries occurred. The risk for sustaining an ankle injury was significantly reduced in the training group by approximately 65%. [corrected] The corresponding number needed to treat was 7. Additional biomechanical tests revealed significant improvements in joint position sense and single-limb stance in the training group. The multistation proprioceptive exercise program effectively prevented ankle injuries in basketball players. Analysis of number needed to treat clearly showed the relatively low prevention effort that is necessary to avoid an ankle injury. Additional biomechanical tests confirmed the neuromuscular effect and confirmed a relationship between injury prevention and altered neuromuscular performance. With this knowledge, proprioceptive training may be optimized to specifically address the demands in various athletic activities.

  2. Prevention That Works! A Guide for Developing School-Based Drug and Violence Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Cynthia R.

    This book helps educators produce assessments of their schools' drug and violence prevention programs. It contains over 30 separate resources that can be adapted to specific evaluations (e.g., sample youth and adult participant feedback sheets, sample classroom observation sheets and teacher implementation logs, sample en-route participant…

  3. A Program Master Schedule Can Improve Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    briefings, so PMOs often rely on static pictures and Gantt charts available on presentation software such as Microsoft PowerPoint. That’s fine—and...dependencies, current status and individual forecasts to be overlaid and projected in a program context. Commercial scheduling software is...uniquely capable of doing this in re- peatable and reliable fashion. However, scheduling software doesn’t always produce the “pretty” pictures preferred for

  4. THE EARLY VIOLENCE PREVENTION: REVISION OF PROGRAMS AND INTERVENTION MODALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUANITA HENAO ESCOBAR

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a review of different kinds of international early violence prevention-intervention programs,which have shown effectiveness in the reduction of preschooler’s aggression, and in some cases, in the prevention ofviolent behavior during adolescence and youth. The central matter of this article is what we can learn from theexperiences on this field of knowledge around the world. First, the target intervention problem is presented andframed in the colombian context. After presenting the main research findings about aggressive behavior in childrenand the risk factors associated with it, the related intervention modalities will be analyzed and described. Finally, thearticle derives some pragmatic conclusions and recommendations.

  5. Amblyopia prevention screening program in Northwest Iran (Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ojaghi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation showed that coverage of amblyopia screening program was not enough in Ardabil Province. To increase the screening accuracy, standard instruments and examination room must be used; more optometrists must be involved in this program and increasing the validity of obtained results for future programming.

  6. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  7. An Evaluation of Two Dating Violence Prevention Programs on a College Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kerry; Sharps, Phyllis; Banyard, Victoria; Powers, Ráchael A; Kaukinen, Catherine; Gross, Deborah; Decker, Michele R; Baatz, Carrie; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2016-03-13

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent public health problem that is associated with numerous negative physical and psychological health outcomes, and yet there has been limited evaluation of prevention programs on college campuses. A recent innovation in campus prevention focuses on mobilizing bystanders to take action. To date, bystander programs have mainly been compared with no treatment control groups raising questions about what value is added to dating violence prevention by focusing on bystanders. This study compared a single 90-min bystander education program for dating violence prevention with a traditional awareness education program, as well as with a no education control group. Using a quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test design with follow-up at 2 months, a sample of predominately freshmen college students was randomized to either the bystander (n = 369) or traditional awareness (n = 376) dating violence education program. A non-randomized control group of freshmen students who did not receive any education were also surveyed (n = 224). Students completed measures of attitudes, including rape myth acceptance, bystander efficacy, and intent to help as well as behavioral measures related to bystander action and victimization. Results showed that the bystander education program was more effective at changing attitudes, beliefs, efficacy, intentions, and self-reported behaviors compared with the traditional awareness education program. Both programs were significantly more effective than no education. The findings of this study have important implications for future dating violence prevention educational programming, emphasizing the value of bystander education programs for primary dating violence prevention among college students. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Organizational Strategies to Implement Hospital Pressure Ulcer Prevention Programs: Findings from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOBAN, LYNN M.; KIM, LINDA; YUAN, ANITA H.; MILTNER, REBECCA S.

    2017-01-01

    Aim To describe the presence and operationalization of organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer prevention programs across acute care hospitals in a large, integrated healthcare system. Background Comprehensive pressure ulcer programs include nursing interventions such as use of a risk assessment tool and organizational strategies such as policies and performance monitoring to embed these interventions into routine care. The current literature provides little detail about strategies used to implement pressure ulcer prevention programs. Methods Data were collected by an email survey to all Chief Nursing Officers in Veterans Health Administration acute care hospitals. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were used to summarize survey responses and evaluate relationships between some variables. Results Organizational strategies that support pressure ulcer prevention program implementation (policy, committee, staff education, wound care specialists, and use of performance data) were reported at high levels. Considerable variations were noted in how these strategies were operationalized within individual hospitals. Conclusion Organizational strategies to support implementation of pressure ulcer preventive programs are often not optimally operationalized to achieve consistent, sustainable performance. Implications for Nursing Management The results of this study highlight the role and influence of nurse leaders on pressure ulcer prevention program implementation. PMID:27487972

  9. Teachers' Perceptions of a Multiple High-Risk Behavior Prevention Program and Delivery of Universal Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal; Henriksen, Richard C., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the success of high-risk behavior prevention programs rests with teachers who deliver the curriculum however; few studies have investigated teachers' perceptions of program implementation. The objective of this phenomenological study was to answer the question, "What are the experiences of teachers who are asked to be involved in the…

  10. A meta-analytic review of eating disorder prevention programs: encouraging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C Nathan

    2007-01-01

    This meta-analytic review found that 51% of eating disorder prevention programs reduced eating disorder risk factors and 29% reduced current or future eating pathology. Larger effects occurred for programs that were selected (versus universal), interactive (versus didactic), multisession (versus single session), solely offered to females (versus both sexes), offered to participants over 15 years of age (versus younger ones), and delivered by professional interventionists (versus endogenous providers). Programs with body acceptance and dissonance-induction content and without psychoeducational content and programs evaluated in trials using validated measures and a shorter follow-up period also produced larger effects. Results identify promising programs and delineate sample, format, and design features associated with larger effects, which may inform the design of more effective prevention programs in the future.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Adolescent Psychosocial Smoking Prevention Programs Published between 1978 and 1997 in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Myunghee Song; Yeagley, Kathleen Lux; Petosa, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Psychosocial smoking prevention studies have shown inconsistent results and theory-driven programs have been related to program success. This meta-analysis was used as a judgment tool for resolving these issues by estimating average program effects and investigating the relative efficacy of program types. The present study examined 65 adolescent…

  12. Preventive maintenance program for a research and production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rico, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    This program proposes a simple, rapid and efficient methodology for the task of developing a really preventive maintenance discipline. Moreover, the lower cost of its application -since it must satisfy the plant's budget-. To this purpose, an extremely economical and easily obtainable infrastructure is proposed. The following stage is referred to the commissioning system, subsequent supervision and follow-up. The experience gained from the two reactors as RA-6 (Bariloche Atomic Center) and NUR (RAE) of Argelia. Finally, the interacting characteristic of this program, since it may be rapidly adapted to different dimensions of plants, laboratories, etc., must be pointed out. (Author) [es

  13. Survey of High School Athletic Programs in Iowa Regarding Infections and Infection Prevention Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mark; Doyle, Matthew R.; Beste, Alan; Diekema, Daniel J.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Herwaldt, Loreen A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess high school athletic programs’ infection prevention policies and procedures and to estimate the frequency of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among Iowa’s high school athletes. Methods An on-line survey of high school athletic programs. Results Nearly 60% of programs responded. Schools in higher classifications were more likely to have a certified athletic trainer (AT; P athletes with SSTIs from participating in athletic events than were schools in lower classifications (P = 0.0002). Programs that had an AT reported that athletic training equipment (P = 0.01) and tables (P = 0.02) were cleaned more frequently than did programs without ATs. Programs were significantly more likely to provide training equipment than to provide soap or towels. About 57% of programs reported that at least one athlete acquired an SSTI during the prior school year, including methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus (N = 14; 10.8%). Programs that had an AT (P = 0.02) were in higher classifications (P athletes about SSTIs (P athletes with SSTIs (P = 0.01) were more likely than other programs to report having at least one athlete with an SSTI. The estimated SSTI rate per 1000 athletes ranged from 22.0 in 1A to 5.9 in 4A programs. Conclusions SSTIs are common among Iowa’s high school athletes. Staff should review and update their infection prevention policies. Athletic programs need resources to support infection prevention efforts. PMID:24027469

  14. Prevention validation and accounting platform: a framework for establishing accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; McLeod, J H; Williams, C; Hepler, N

    2000-01-01

    The field of substance abuse prevention has neither an overarching conceptual framework nor a set of shared terminologies for establishing the accountability and performance outcome measures of substance abuse prevention services rendered. Hence, there is a wide gap between what we currently have as data on one hand and information that are required to meet the performance goals and accountability measures set by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 on the other. The task before us is: How can we establish the accountability and performance measures of substance abuse prevention programs and transform the field of prevention into prevention science? The intent of this volume is to serve that purpose and accelerate the processes of this transformation by identifying the requisite components of the transformation (i.e., theory, methodology, convention on terms, and data) and by introducing an open forum called, Prevention Validation and Accounting (PREVA) Platform. The entire PREVA Platform (for short, the Platform) is designed as an analytic framework, which is formulated by a collectivity of common concepts, terminologies, accounting units, protocols for counting the units, data elements, and operationalizations of various constructs, and other summary measures intended to bring about an efficient and effective measurement of process input, program capacity, process output, performance outcome, and societal impact of substance abuse prevention programs. The measurement units and summary data elements are designed to be measured across time and across jurisdictions, i.e., from local to regional to state to national levels. In the Platform, the process input is captured by two dimensions of time and capital. Time is conceptualized in terms of service delivery time and time spent for research and development. Capital is measured by the monies expended for the delivery of program activities during a fiscal or reporting period. Program capacity is captured

  15. Adolescent Substance Use Following Participation in a Universal Drug Prevention Program: Examining Relationships With Program Recall and Baseline Use Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarian, Niloofar; Duncan, Robert; Lewis, Kendra M; Miao, Alicia; Washburn, Isaac J

    2015-01-01

    The study examined whether adolescents receiving a universal, school based, drug prevention program in Grade 7 varied, by student profile, in substance use behaviors post program implementation. Profiles were a function of recall of program receipt and substance use at baseline. A secondary analysis was conducted on data from the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, a large, geographically diverse, longitudinal school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial of the Take Charge of Your Life drug prevention program. Profiles were created using self-reported substance use (preintervention) and program recall (postintervention) at Grade 7. First, characteristics of each of the 4 profiles of treatment students who varied by program recall and baseline substance use were explored. Then, multilevel logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences in the odds of substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana) among student profiles at the 6 additional study waves (Time 2 [Grade 7] through Time 7 [Grade 11]). Pearson's chi-square tests showed sample characteristics varied by student profile. Multilevel logistic regression results were consistent across all examined substance use behaviors at all time points. Namely, as compared with students who had no baseline substance use and had program recall (No Use, Recall), each of the remaining 3 profiles (No Use, No Recall; Use, Recall; Use, No Recall) were more likely to engage in substance use. Post hoc analyses showed that for the 2 subprofiles of baseline substance users, there were only 2 observed, and inconsistent, differences in the odds of subsequent substance use by recall status. Findings suggest that for students who were not baseline substance users, program recall significantly decreased the likelihood of subsequent substance use. For students who were baseline substance users, program recall did not generally influence subsequent substance use. Implications for school-based drug prevention

  16. 34 CFR 86.100 - What must the IHE's drug prevention program include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? 86.100 Section 86.100 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION Institutions of Higher Education § 86.100 What must the IHE's drug prevention program include? The IHE's drug prevention program must, a...

  17. Boosting a Teen Substance Use Prevention Program with Motivational Interviewing

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, Elizabeth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sun, Ping; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A brief motivational interviewing (MI) intervention may be a viable adjunct to school-based substance abuse prevention programs. This article describes the development and implementation of a brief MI intervention with 573 adolescents (mean age 16.8; 40.3% female, 68% Latino) enrolled in eight continuation high schools in Southern California. Study participants were assigned to the MI condition in a randomized controlled trial of Project Toward No Drug Abuse. Data are provided on dosage, topi...

  18. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  19. [Female juvenile prostitution and AIDS prevention programs in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cristiane Paulin; Silva, Rosalina Carvalho da; Paiva, Vera

    2002-08-01

    To investigate perception of AIDS and to obtain information for developing AIDS prevention programs targeting female juvenile prostitution. Thirteen young women aged 18 to 21 years working as prostitutes in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The questionnaire focused on sociodemographic aspects, HIV-related knowledge, sexual behavior, relations with clients and other sexual partners, and suggestions for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and AIDS prevention programs. Though all subjects demonstrated knowledge of safe sex and HIV transmission, this contrasted with their belief that destiny determines who gets infected and their search for affection in their relationships with partners and clients. These contradictions act as possible factors preventing safe sex behavior. The strategies of HIV/AIDS prevention should incorporate the need of allowing room for discussion in order to clarify this group's social imaginary beliefs and concepts about AIDS. In addition, discussions about the belief in the safety of affective relationships should take place since this encourages unsafe sexual practices. Another key issue is how to approach this group and strategies sensitive to their individualities should be applied.

  20. Recent developments in the DOE Waste Minimization Pollution Prevention Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, J.K.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is involved in a wide variety of research and development, remediation, and production activities at more than 100 sites throughout the United States. The wastes generated cover a diverse spectrum of sanitary, hazardous, and radioactive waste streams, including typical office environments, power generation facilities, laboratories, remediation sites, production facilities, and defense facilities. The DOE's initial waste minimization activities pre-date the Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 and focused on the defense program. Little emphasis was placed on nonproduction activities. In 1991 the Office of Waste Management Operations developed the Waste Minimization Division with the intention of coordinating and expanding the waste minimization pollution prevention approach to the entire complex. The diverse nature of DOE activities has led to several unique problems in addressing the needs of waste minimization and pollution prevention. The first problem is developing a program that addresses the geographical and institutional hurdles that exist; the second is developing a monitoring and reporting mechanism that one can use to assess the overall performance of the program

  1. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo, E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [ISIRYM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion, E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Valencia (Spain); Nieva, Marcelino Curiel, E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  2. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo; Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion; Nieva, Marcelino Curiel

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  3. Results of the national audits radiotherapy program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Samper, Jose Luis; Alert Silva, Jose; Alfonso Laguardia, Rodolfo

    2009-01-01

    The National Audit Programme in Radiotherapy in Cuba works regularly 8 years visiting each country's radiotherapy service at least once every two years, during the visit involving two physicists and an oncologist radiation therapist. This paper presents the main features of the program and its main . Early detection deficiencies in the work of the Radiation Therapy Services to may cause radiological risk situations for both patients and workers and the general public. Help with their comments to the continuous improvement of quality treatments. During audit visits is reviewed throughout the process of radiation from that the patient comes to the monitoring service. This is done by dividing the audits into three groups or aspects Clinical Aspects, Aspects of Safety and Quality Control Aspects of the equipment. Methodological guidelines have been established for conducting audits and they serve as standards of quality in radiation therapy, these guidelines also allow quantification of the . It has identified the main gaps in services that affect quality treatments. After each visit, leave recommendations may be directed to service itself, to the direction of the provincial hospital or health. We believe that the National Audit Programme in Radiotherapy is a efficient tool in controlling the quality of treatments given and at the same time with its recommendations to help improve services of continuous quality. (author)

  4. Implementing Suicide Prevention Programs: Costs and Potential Life Years Saved in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria; Lesage, Alain; Latimer, Eric; Seguin, Monique

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the costs and effects of suicide prevention programs at the population level. We aimed to determine (i) the costs associated with a suicide death and using prospective values (ii) the costs and effects of transferring, into a Canadian context, the results of the European Nuremberg Alliance against Depression (NAD) trial with the addition of 4 community-based suicide prevention strategies. These included the training of family physicians in the detection and treatment of depression, population campaigns aimed at increasing awareness about depression, the training of community leaders among first responders and follow-up of individuals who attempted suicide. This study includes a prospective value implementation study design. Using published data and information from interviews with Canadian decision makers, we assessed the costs of a suicide death in the province of Quebec and the costs of potentially implementing the NAD multi-modal suicide prevention programs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), from a health care system and societal perspective, associated with the NAD program while considering the friction cost method (FCM) and human capital approach (HCA) (discounted at 3%.) The costs considered included those incurred for the suicide prevention program and direct medical and non-medical costs as well as those related to a police investigation and funeral costs. Indirect costs associated with loss of productivity and short term disability were also considered. Sensitivity analyses were also carried out. Costs presented were in 2010 dollars. The annual total cost of implementing the suicide prevention programs in Quebec reached CAD23,982,293. The most expensive components of the program included the follow-up of individuals who had attempted suicide and psychotherapy for bereaved individuals. These accounted for 39% and 34% of total costs. The ICER associated with the implementation of the programs reached on average CAD3

  5. Recent Results from the ATLAS UPC Program

    CERN Document Server

    Cole, Brian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results from ATLAS measurements of ultra-peripheral Pb+Pb collisions are presented. Measurements include gamma+gamma -> dimuon, photo-nuclear production of di/multi-jets, and light-by-light scattering.

  6. TOTEM Physics program, analysis and results

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The published results will be quickly reviewed. The current analyses of the data taken in the joint TOTEM-CMS runs will be discussed, including forward multiplicities, jets physics, soft diffractive processes, and related cross-sections. Progress in the study of low-t elastic scattering will be presented.

  7. [Addiction prevention programs in schools and welfare-educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpringer, Monika; Błaszczyk, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Results of research on the functioning of addictions prevention at schools, as well as in welfare-educational institutions have been presented in the study. The survey covered 861 teachers and form tutors from institutions situated all over Poland. The results of studied documents have been also used in the analyses. During last years, systematic growth of social pathology among groups of children and school children has been observed. Pathologies of family life are considered to be the main reason. 79.2% of those participating in the survey bear it out. Negative influence of violence in programmes presented in mass media appears to be another reason (23.7%). As many as 68.1% of being surveyed point to other causes: among them demoralizing influence of a place of residence, acquaintances, lack of possibilities to spend leisure time. A huge role in averting the social pathology growth is attributed to prevention, also to prevention carried out at schools. 35.7% of those under the survey think that prevention is carried out at Polish schools. However, its efficiency is low because it is done on irregular basis, mainly during so called weekly class meetings. In practice, programme contents included in different subjects are used to the limited extent during prevention actions. Thus, there appears an urgent need to promote prevention programmes designed by central, provincial and council institutions, as well as schools.

  8. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries in soccer: Loading mechanisms, risk factors, and prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyi Dai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries are common in soccer. Understanding ACL loading mechanisms and risk factors for ACL injury is critical for designing effective prevention programs. The purpose of this review is to summarize the relevant literature on ACL loading mechanisms, ACL injury risk factors, and current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players. Literature has shown that tibial anterior translation due to shear force at the proximal end of tibia is the primary ACL loading mechanism. No evidence has been found showing that knee valgus moment is the primary ACL loading mechanism. ACL loading mechanisms are largely ignored in previous studies on risk factors for ACL injury. Identified risk factors have little connections to ACL loading mechanisms. The results of studies on ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are inconsistent. Current ACL injury prevention programs for soccer players are clinically ineffective due to low compliance. Future studies are urgently needed to identify risk factors for ACL injury in soccer that are connected to ACL loading mechanisms and have cause-and-effect relationships with injury rate, and to develop new prevention programs to improve compliance.

  9. Factors associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Dias Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze if characteristics of managers, schools, and curriculum are associated with the implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in elementary and high schools. METHODS Cross-sectional study, with random sample of 263 school managers. Data were collected between 2012 and 2013 by a program that sends forms via internet. A closed self-filling questionnaire was applied online. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests and logistic regression models. The outcome variable was the presence of program for drug abuse prevention inserted in the daily life and educational program of the school. The explanatory variables were divided into: demographic data of the manager; characteristics of the school and of the curriculum; health education; and drug use in the school. RESULTS We found that 42.5% (95%CI 36.1–49.1 of the evaluated schools had programs for drug abuse prevention. With the multiple logistic regression model, we observed that the more time the manager has worked with education, the chance of the school having a program increased at about 4.0%. Experimenting with innovative teaching techniques also increased at about six times the chance of the school developing a program for drug abuse prevention. The difficulties in the implementation of the programs were more present in state and municipal schools, when compared with private schools, due to, for instance: lack of teaching materials, lack of money, and competing demands for teaching other subjects. CONCLUSIONS The implementation of programs for drug abuse prevention in the city of Sao Paulo is associated with the experience of the manager in education and with the teaching strategies of the school.

  10. Results of Amultidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Gomes Lobo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the PCA developed by the Infection Control Service of a university hospital in southern Brazil from January / 2013 to July / 2014. Methods: The PCA is developed by two doctors and a pharmacist infectious disease. They are evaluated all prescriptions carbapenems, vancomycin, polymyxin B, daptomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, voriconazole, micafungin and amphotericin b lipid complex. In need of intervention the same is conducted by telephone with guidance to prescribers or alert in the electronic medical record. Moreover, they are made rounds with teams of cardiac intensive care unit (ICU-CV for case discussion. Results and Conclusion: 5118 requirements were evaluated with an average of 297 prescriptions month. The percentage of crops request in half 1 (January to June / 13, 2 (July to December / 13 and 3 (January to July / 14 was respectively 25%, 35% and 83%. on average they were performed 70 operations / month, where the percentage of accepted interventions in the semester 1,2 and 3 was respectively 61%, 70% and 84%. The defined daily dose (DDD of meropenem in UTI-CV for the period was 231.4 DDD / 1000 patient-days in semestre1, 108.13 DDD / 1000 patient-days in semester 2 and 83.79 DDD / 1000-patient -day in half 3.Nossos data allow to conclude that actions such as encouraging the targeted treatment (culture collection, education and feedback to prescribers (guiding the rational use and active participation in rounds together the care teams can be strategies in the fight against the resistance. KEY WORDS: Infection control. Anti-Infective Agents. Interdisciplinary research.

  11. Program and Policy Options for Preventing Obesity in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijun, Wang; Fengying, Zhai

    2014-01-01

    By 2002, China’s prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults was 18.9 percent and 2.9 percent, respectively. The Chinese traditional diet has been replaced by the “Western diet” and major declines in all phases of activity and increased sedentary activity as the main reasons explaining the rapid increase in overweight and obesity, bring major economic and health costs. The Nutrition Improvement Work Management Approach was released in 2010. Overweight and obesity prevention-related policies were added to national planning for disease prevention and control. The Guidelines for Prevention and Control of Overweight and Obesity of Chinese Adults and the School-age Children and Teenagers Overweight and Obesity Prevention and Control Guidelines in China were promulgated in 2003 and 2007, respectively. Few education programs have been implemented. Selected academic intervention research projects dominate with a focus on reducing child obesity and promoting healthier diets; increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary time; and facilitating changes in family, school, social, and cultural environments. Intervention samples are small and have not addressed the increasing rates of obesity throughout the entire population. Government provision of effective policy measures, multisectoral cooperation and increasing corporate social responsibility are keys to curb the trend toward overweight and obesity in China. PMID:24102781

  12. Analysis of industrial pollution prevention programs in selected Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Industrialization in developing countries is causing increasing environmental damage. Pollution prevention (P2) is an emerging environmental concept that could help developing countries achieve leapfrog goals, bypassing old and pollutive technologies and minimizing traditional control practices. The current P2 promotion activities in Hong Kong, the Republic of Korea, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand are discussed. These programs, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into five categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technical assistance, and financial incentives. All important at the early stages of P2 promotion, these programs should inform industries of the benefits of P2 and help them identify applicable P2 measures. Participation in these programs is voluntary. The limited data indicate that adoption of P2 measures in these countries is not yet widespread. Recommendations for expanding P2 promotion activities include (1) strengthening the design and enforcement of environmental regulations; (2) providing P2 training and education to government workers, nongovernmental organizations and labor unions officials, university faculties, and news media; (3) tracking the progress of P2 programs; (4) implementing selected P2 mandatory measures; (5) identifying cleaner production technologies for use in new facilities; (6) implementing special programs for small and medium enterprises; and (7) expanding P2 promotion to other sectors, such as agriculture and transportation, and encouraging green design and green consumerism.

  13. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    This rule adopts the interim rule implementing the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) nutrition education and obesity prevention grant program with changes as provided in this rule. This rule also amends SNAP regulations to implement section 28 of the Food and Nutrition Act (FNA) of 2008, as added by section 241 of the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) of 2010, to award grants to States for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs provide services for eligible individuals that promote healthy food choices consistent with the current Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAs). The rule provides State agencies with requirements for implementing section 28, including the grant award process and describes the process for allocating the Federal grant funding for each State's approved SNAP-Ed plan authorized under the FNA to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal year. This final rule also implements section 4028 of the Agricultural Act of 2014 (Farm Bill of 2014), which authorizes physical activity promotion in addition to promotion of healthy food choices as part of this nutrition education and obesity prevention program.

  14. Universal school-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2011-05-11

    Alcohol misuse in young people is cause of concern for health services, policy makers, prevention workers, criminal justice system, youth workers, teachers, parents. This is one of three reviews examining the effectiveness of (1) school-based, (2) family-based, and (3) multi-component prevention programs. To review evidence on the effectiveness of universal school-based prevention programs in preventing alcohol misuse in school-aged children up to 18 years of age. Relevant evidence (up to 2002) was selected from the previous Cochrane review. Later studies, to July 2010, were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Project CORK, and PsycINFO. Randomized trials evaluating universal school-based prevention programs and reporting outcomes for alcohol use in students 18 years of age or younger were included. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full text of identified records. Two reviewers extracted relevant data independently using an a priori defined extraction form. Risk of bias was assessed. 53 trials were included, most of which were cluster-randomised. The reporting quality of trials was poor, only 3.8% of them reporting adequate method of randomisation and program allocation concealment. Incomplete data was adequately addressed in 23% of the trials. Due to extensive heterogeneity across interventions, populations, and outcomes, the results were summarized only qualitatively.Six of the 11 trials evaluating alcohol-specific interventions showed some evidence of effectiveness compared to a standard curriculum. In 14 of the 39 trials evaluating generic interventions, the program interventions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in alcohol use either through a main or subgroup effect. Gender, baseline alcohol use, and ethnicity modified the effects of interventions. Results from the remaining 3 trials with interventions targeting cannabis, alcohol, and/or tobacco were inconsistent. This review identified

  15. Effects of a parental program for preventing underage drinking - The NGO program strong and clear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson Charli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study is an evaluation of a 3-year parental program aiming to prevent underage drinking. The intervention was implemented by a non-governmental organization and targeted parents with children aged 13-16 years old and included recurrent activities during the entire period of secondary school. The program consisted of four different types of group and self-administered activities: parent meetings, family dialogues, friend meetings, and family meetings. Methods A quasi-experimental design was used following parents and children with questionnaires during the three years of secondary school. The analytic sample consisted of 509 dyads of parents and children. Measures of parental attitudes and behaviour concerning underage drinking and adolescents' lifetime alcohol consumption and drunkenness were used. Three socio-demographic factors were included: parental education, school, and gender of the child. A Latent Growth Modelling (LGM approach was used to examine changes in parental behaviour regarding youth drinking and in young people's drinking behaviour. To test for the pre-post test differences in parental attitudes repeated measures ANOVA were used. Results The results showed that parents in the program maintained their restrictive attitude toward underage drinking to a higher degree than non-participating parents. Adolescents of participants were on average one year older than adolescents with non-participating parents when they made their alcohol debut. They were also less likely to have ever been drunk in school year 9. Conclusion The results of the study suggested that Strong and Clear contributed to maintaining parents' restrictive attitude toward underage drinking during secondary school, postponing alcohol debut among the adolescents, and significantly reducing their drunkenness.

  16. Development of a Preventive Maintenance Program for Tooling Used in Powder Slush Molding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Marquez Rossy, Andres E [ORNL

    2016-07-19

    ORNL collaborated with Faurecia Interior Systems to investigate the feasibility of developing a thermomagnetic preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling used in powder slush molding. It was found that thermal treatments at temperatures greater than 500°C can anneal strain hardening in nickel tooling and a range of temperatures and times for effective thermal annealing were identified. It was also observed that magnetic fields applied during thermal annealing do not alter the kinetics of strain hardening annealing. The results obtained in this investigation provide a foundation for establishing a preventive maintenance program for nickel tooling.

  17. Industrial pollution prevention programs in selected developing Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Shen-yann [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the information on current activities to promote industrial pollution prevention (P2) in five selected Asian economies including Hong Kong, Republic of Korea, the Philippines, ROC in Taiwan, and Thailand. These activities, generally initiated in the last 5 years, are classified into 6 categories: awareness promotion, education and training, information transfer, technology development an demonstration, technical assistance, and financial incentives. Although participation is voluntary, these programs are all important at the early stages of P2 promotion and should be useful in informing industries of the benefit of P2 and helping them identify specific P2 measures as viable environmental management alternatives.

  18. Health promotion and disease prevention: a look at demand management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, P

    1996-09-01

    This Issue Brief describes employers' efforts to contain health expenditures through demand management programs. These programs are designed to reduce utilization by focusing on disease prevention and health promotion. Demand management includes work site health promotion, wellness programs, and access management. Work site health promotion is a comprehensive approach to improving health and includes awareness, health education, behavioral change, and organizational health initiatives. Wellness programs usually include stress management, smoking cessation, weight management, back care, health screenings, nutrition education, work place safety, prenatal and well baby care, CPR and first aid classes, and employee assistance programs (EAPs). These programs are often viewed positively by workers and can have long-term benefits for employers above and beyond health care cost containment. Demand management can benefit employers by increasing productivity, employee retention, and employee morale and by reducing turnover, absenteeism, future medical claims, and ultimately expenditures on health care. Even though a growing number of employers are offering wellness programs, only 37 percent of full-time workers employed in medium and large private establishments were eligible for wellness programs by 1993. However, a recent survey found that 88 percent of major employers have introduced some form of health promotion, disease prevention, or early intervention initiative to encourage healthy lifestyles among their salaried employees. Distinctions must be drawn between short- and long-term strategies. Demand management can be thought of as a short-term strategy when the focus of the program is on creating more appropriate and efficient health care utilization. Disease prevention is characterized by longer-term health improvement objectives. Whether the purpose is to reduce utilization in the short term or in the long term, the ultimate goal remains the same: to reduce health

  19. Effectiveness of two prevention programs on alcohol use as a function of provider type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Gázquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, it is still unclear how to translate effectively programs validated in research for use in real-world contexts. Among the efforts being made to identify strategies which optimize the application of these programs in everyday practice are tests of the differential effectiveness of the programs depending on the application agent. Method: this study analyses the effects of two programs on alcohol use and its variables as a function of provider type. Two hundred students from the first year of secondary education were distributed among five experimental conditions: four treatment conditions, in which the two programs were applied by teachers at the school or external psychologists, and a control condition. Results: the results suggest that, for both programs, teachers obtain better outcomes in alcohol use and concern about addiction. Conclusions: it is concluded that teachers are the ideal application agents in terms of efficiency, and we discuss the implications for research and preventive practice.

  20. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Cruz, Joana; Huebner, Colleen E; Ludwig, Sharity; Dysert, Jeanne; Mitchell, Melissa; Allen, Gary; Shirtcliff, R Mike; Scott, JoAnna M; Milgrom, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Twice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it "myself." Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children tooth decay among low-income children. Caregivers were highly satisfied with the Everybody Brush! program and toothbrushing supplies were considered the most useful, followed by printed messages. Voice telephone messages were rated least useful. Further evaluation of the impact of the program on toothbrushing behavior and dental-care utilization is underway.

  1. IAGG workshop: health promotion program on prevention of late onset dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrieu, S.; Aboderin, I.; Baeyens, J. P.; Beard, J.; Benetos, A.; Berrut, G.; Brainin, M.; Cha, H. B.; Chen, L. K.; Du, P.; Forette, B.; Forette, F.; Franco, A.; Fratiglioni, L.; Gillette-Guyonnet, S.; Gold, G.; Gomez, F.; Guimaraes, R.; Gustafson, D.; Khachaturian, A.; Luchsinger, J.; Mangialasche, F.; Mathiex-Fortunet, H.; Michel, J. P.; Richard, E.; Schneider, L. S.; Solomon, A.; Vellas, B.

    2011-01-01

    IAGG, WHO, and SFGG organized a international workshop on Health promotion programs on prevention of late on-set dementia. Thirty world specialists coming from Europe, North America, Asia, South America, Africa and Australia, shared their experience on methods and results of large epidemiological

  2. Providing Consultation to Primary Prevention Programs: Applying the Technology of Community Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, David S.

    Nationwide attention to the problems of teenage pregnancy and suicide, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), substance abuse, domestic violence, child abuse, dropping out of school, and other conditions is resulting in a proliferation of primary prevention programs, projects, and activities. In too many communities, however, the growth of…

  3. Funding Collaborative Juvenile Crime Prevention Programs: Does It Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, John L.

    2004-01-01

    Panel data were analyzed to determine whether funding for collaborative juvenile crime prevention programs reduced arrests in California counties. Because the data were a population (i.e., all 58 counties in the state), regression results were summarized descriptively, and special attention was given to the direction and magnitude of key…

  4. Using a Domestic and Sexual Violence Prevention Advocate to Implement a Dating Violence Prevention Program with Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.

    2016-01-01

    "Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…

  5. An Ounce of Prevention, a Pound of Uncertainty: The Cost-Effectiveness of School-Based Drug Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, Jonathan P.; Rydell, C. Peter; Everingham, Susan S.; Chiesa, James; Bushway, Shawn

    This book describes an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of model school-based drug prevention programs at reducing cocaine consumption. It compares prevention's cost-effectiveness with that of several enforcement programs and with that of treating heavy cocaine users. It also assesses the cost of nationwide implementation of model prevention…

  6. Translating Evidence Based Violence and Drug Use Prevention to Obesity Prevention: Development and Construction of the Pathways Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Pentz, Mary Ann

    2012-01-01

    Effective school-based obesity prevention programs are needed to prevent and reduce the growing obesity risk among youth. Utilizing the evidence-rich areas of violence and substance use prevention, translation science may provide an efficient means for developing curricula across multiple health behaviors. This paper introduces Pathways to Health,…

  7. Sustaining Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs in Schools: Needs and Barriers Identified by School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Lesley R.; Brandt, Heather M.; Prince, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Background: To reduce teen pregnancy rates, prevention programs must be consistently available to large numbers of youth. However, prevention efforts have been historically conducted with little emphasis on ensuring program sustainability. This study examined the needs and barriers to sustaining teen pregnancy prevention (TPP) programming in…

  8. Developing and Negotiating Effective School-Based Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavela, Kathleen J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated effective drug prevention strategies for school-aged populations from drug prevention programs funded by the Department of Health and Human Services Center for Substance Abuse Prevention. Interviews with model programs' directors and staff highlighted 15 strategies essential for developing effective programs. Strategies focused on…

  9. School-Based Drug Prevention Program: Quantitative Assessment of Life Skills Training Elementary School Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindle, Silverlene J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1960s long-term studies have documented nation-wide patterns of adolescent smoking, drinking and illicit drug use. The federal government responded by passing the Safe and Drug Free Schools and Communities Act, which funded school-based prevention programs. The problem for school counselors in a Georgia Public School District was…

  10. Impact of a multifaceted community-based falls prevention program on balance-related psychologic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiatrault, Johanne; Gauvin, Lise; Richard, Lucie; Robitaille, Yvonne; Laforest, Sophie; Fournier, Michel; Corriveau, Hélène

    2008-10-01

    To assess the impact of a multifaceted falls prevention program including exercise and educational components on perceived balance and balance confidence among community-dwelling seniors. Quasi-experimental design. Community-based organizations. Two hundred community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and over recruited by community-based organizations. A 12-week multifaceted falls prevention program including 3 components (a 1-hour group exercise class held twice a week, a 30-minute home exercise module to be performed at least once a week, a 30-minute educational class held once a week). Perceived balance and balance confidence. Multivariate analysis showed that the program was successful in increasing perceived balance in experimental participants. However, balance confidence was not improved by program participation. A multifaceted community-based falls prevention program that was successful in improving balance performance among community-dwelling seniors also had a positive impact on perceived balance. However, the program did not improve participants' balance confidence. These results suggest that balance confidence has determinants other than balance and that new components and/or modifications of existing components of the program are required to achieve maximal benefits for seniors in terms of physical and psychologic outcomes.

  11. Recruitment of Underrepresented Minority Researchers into HIV Prevention Research: The HIV Prevention Trials Network Scholars Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Erica L.; Griffith, Sam B.; Jennings, Larissa; Dyer, Typhanye V.; Mayer, Kenneth; Wheeler, Darrell

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Most U.S. investigators in the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) have been of majority race/ethnicity and sexual orientation. Research participants, in contrast, have been disproportionately from racial/ethnic minorities and men who have sex with men (MSM), reflecting the U.S. epidemic. We initiated and subsequently evaluated the HPTN Scholars Program that mentors early career investigators from underrepresented minority groups. Scholars were affiliated with the HPTN for 12–18 months, mentored by a senior researcher to analyze HPTN study data. Participation in scientific committees, trainings, protocol teams, and advisory groups was facilitated, followed by evaluative exit surveys. Twenty-six trainees have produced 17 peer-reviewed articles to date. Research topics typically explored health disparities and HIV prevention among black and Hispanic MSM and at-risk black women. Most scholars (81% in the first five cohorts) continued HIV research after program completion. Alumni reported program-related career benefits and subsequent funding successes. Their feedback also suggested that we must improve the scholars' abilities to engage new research protocols that are developed within the network. Mentored engagement can nurture the professional development of young researchers from racial/ethnic and sexual minority communities. Minority scientists can benefit from training and mentoring within research consortia, whereas the network research benefits from perspectives of underrepresented minority scientists. PMID:29145745

  12. Teen Suicide in Nevada: The Problem, Effective Intervention & Prevention Programs, Status of Programs in Nevada Schools, Exemplary Programs, [and] Guidelines for Nevada School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaby, Marlow H.; Downing, Jerry

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: it reviews current national research on adolescent suicide and successful intervention/prevention programs and it surveys the 17 Nevada school districts to determine the presence of successful suicide intervention/prevention programs in the state. Findings include the following: (1) the popular…

  13. [The influence of preventive programs on laboral injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rojas, Pablo; Salinas-Tovar, Santiago; Marín-Cotoñieto, Irma Araceli; Méndez-Vargas, María Martha; Quezada-Ortega, Rafael Martin; Martínez-Ramírez, Eva

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of preventive programs at enterprises affiliated to the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS) during 2004. Transversal study in 987 enterprises. labor injuries (LI) of temporal disability, permanent disability and death. simple and relative frequencies, rates and Anova application to differences. 64.4% of the enterprises decrease LI (p < 0.04), with a decrement of 2602 LI (16%); the rate of LI per 100 workers declined from 4.19 to 3.60 (p < 0.08), with a decrease of 43,369 disability days (10.93%), which represents $8,456,955 MXP. States with larger decreases were: Queretaro (80%) p < 0.05; Sinaloa (63%) p < 0.05, and Morelos (61%) p < 0.05. Permanent incapacities diminished at 12.1%, p < 0.09; the rate of permanent disability per 1000 workers diminished from 1.37 to 1.32 and death cases increased from 42 to 49. the expenses on consultancy by IMSS was estimated as $9,341,955 MXP. The savings on temporal and permanent incapacities was $33,691,255 MXP with a cost containment of $19,701,310 MXP. Preventive programs are profitable, because they generate benefits to the workers, the IMSS and the enterprises.

  14. Female adolescent athletes' attitudes and perspectives on injury prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jessica C; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Denegar, Craig R; Joseph, Michael F; Pagnotta, Kelly D; Trojian, Thomas H; DiStefano, Lindsay J

    2017-02-01

    To examine what factors influence a high school female athlete's stated willingness to perform a lower extremity injury prevention program (IPP). A secondary aim was to examine if a participant's stated willingness affected her compliance with an IPP. Repeated measures. We surveyed high school female field hockey, soccer and volleyball athletes before and after a season-long IPP warm-up intervention. Participants completed the Injury Prevention Program Attitude Survey (IPPAS), a paper and pencil survey utilizing Likert-style and open-ended questions. It was used to assess the athletes' willingness to perform an IPP if the data proved the player would experience improved performance, fewer injuries and risk factors, what outside factors influence their willingness to perform an IPP, who they would feel comfortable leading their team in an IPP, and what they believe an IPP can improve. Participants responded that they were willing to perform an IPP if data proved that they would have fewer injury risk factors (p≤0.001) and be less likely to suffer an ACL injury (pinjuries. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vocal problems among teachers: evaluation of a preventive voice program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Roberto; Galceran, Marta; Petruccelli, Joseph; Hatzopoulos, Stavros

    2007-11-01

    Vocal education programs for teachers may prevent the emergence of vocal disorders; however, only a few studies have tried to evaluate the effectiveness of these preventive programs, particularly in the long term. Two hundred and sixty-four subjects, mostly kindergarten and primary school female teachers, participated in a course on voice care, including a theoretical seminar (120 minutes) and a short voice group therapy (180 minutes, small groups of 20 subjects). For 3 months, they had to either attend the vocal ergonomics norms and, as psychological reinforcement, they had to make out a daily report of vocal abuse, or to follow the given exercises for a more efficient vocal technique, reporting on whether the time scheduled was respected or not. The effectiveness of the course was assessed in a group of 21 female teachers through a randomized controlled study. Evaluation comprehended stroboscopy, perceptual and electro-acoustical voice analysis, Voice Handicap Index, and a course benefit questionnaire. A group of 20 teachers matched for age, working years, hoarseness grade, and vocal demand served as a control group. At 3 months evaluation, participants demonstrated amelioration in the global dysphonia rates (P=0.0003), jitter (P=0.0001), shimmer (P=0.0001), MPT (P=0.0001), and VHI (P=0.0001). Twelve months after the course, the positive effects remained, although they were slightly reduced. In conclusion, a course inclusive of two lectures, a short group voice therapy, home-controlled voice exercises, and hygiene, represents a feasible and cost-effective primary prevention of voice disorders in a homogeneous and well-motivated population of teachers.

  16. Conceptualizing community mobilization for HIV prevention: implications for HIV prevention programming in the African context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A Lippman

    Full Text Available Community mobilizing strategies are essential to health promotion and uptake of HIV prevention. However, there has been little conceptual work conducted to establish the core components of community mobilization, which are needed to guide HIV prevention programming and evaluation.We aimed to identify the key domains of community mobilization (CM essential to change health outcomes or behaviors, and to determine whether these hypothesized CM domains were relevant to a rural South African setting.We studied social movements and community capacity, empowerment and development literatures, assessing common elements needed to operationalize HIV programs at a community level. After synthesizing these elements into six essential CM domains, we explored the salience of these CM domains qualitatively, through analysis of 10 key informant in-depth-interviews and seven focus groups in three villages in Bushbuckridge.CM DOMAINS INCLUDE: 1 shared concerns, 2 critical consciousness, 3 organizational structures/networks, 4 leadership (individual and/or institutional, 5 collective activities/actions, and 6 social cohesion. Qualitative data indicated that the proposed domains tapped into theoretically consistent constructs comprising aspects of CM processes. Some domains, extracted from largely Western theory, required little adaptation for the South African context; others translated less effortlessly. For example, critical consciousness to collectively question and resolve community challenges functioned as expected. However, organizations/networks, while essential, operated differently than originally hypothesized - not through formal organizations, but through diffuse family networks.To date, few community mobilizing efforts in HIV prevention have clearly defined the meaning and domains of CM prior to intervention design. We distilled six CM domains from the literature; all were pertinent to mobilization in rural South Africa. While some adaptation of

  17. General and program-specific moderators of two eating disorder prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Marti, Nathan; Shaw, Heather; O'Neil, Kelly

    2008-11-01

    To investigate general and program-specific factors hypothesized to moderate the effects of two eating disorder prevention programs. High-risk adolescent girls (N = 481; M age = 17) were randomized to a dissonance-based thin-ideal internalization reduction program, a healthy weight management program, an expressive-writing control condition, or an assessment-only control condition. Participants completed diagnostic interviews and surveys at pretest, post-test, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Dissonance program effects on bulimic symptoms were stronger for participants with initial elevations in body image distress, bulimic symptoms, and thin-ideal internalization. Healthy weight program effects on bulimic symptoms were stronger for adolescents with initial elevations in body image distress, bulimic symptoms, readiness to change, body mass, and emotional eating. Overall, intervention effects tended to be amplified for high-risk versus low-risk adolescents. However, certain moderator effects appeared to be specific to the two different prevention programs.

  18. Environmental Restoration Program pollution prevention performance measures for FY 1993 and 1994 remedial investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Environmental Restoration (ER) Program adopted a Pollution Prevention Program in March 1991. The program's mission is to minimize waste and prevent pollution in remedial investigations (RI), feasibility studies (FS), decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), and surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M) site program activities. Mission success will result in volume and/or toxicity reduction of generated waste. Energy Systems is producing a fully developed a Numerical Scoring System (NSS) and actually scoring the generators of Investigation Derived Waste (IDW) at six ER sites: Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the Oak Ridge K-25 site, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), and Portsmouth Uranium Enrichment Complex (Portsmouth). This report summarizes the findings of this initial numerical scoring evaluation and shows where improvements in the overall ER Pollution prevention program may be required. This report identifies a number of recommendations that, if implemented, would help to improve site-performance measures. The continued development of the NSS will support generators in maximizing their Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization efforts. Further refinements of the NSS, as applicable suggest comments and/or recommendations for improvement

  19. Economic evaluation of a comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program: pilot program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Marjorie S; Ross, Joseph S; Bilodeau, Roseanne; Richter, Rosemary S; Palley, Jane E; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-12-01

    Previous research has suggested that comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention programs that address sexual education and life skills development and provide academic support are effective in reducing births among enrolled teenagers. However, there have been limited data on the costs and cost effectiveness of such programs. The study used a community-based participatory research approach to develop estimates of the cost-benefit of the Pathways/Senderos Center, a comprehensive neighborhood-based program to prevent unintended pregnancies and promote positive development for adolescents. Using data from 1997-2003, an in-time intervention analysis was conducted to determine program cost-benefit while teenagers were enrolled; an extrapolation analysis was then used to estimate accrued economic benefits and cost-benefit up to age 30 years. The program operating costs totaled $3,228,152.59 and reduced the teenage childbearing rate from 94.10 to 40.00 per 1000 teenage girls, averting $52,297.84 in total societal costs, with an economic benefit to society from program participation of $2,673,153.11. Therefore, total costs to society exceeded economic benefits by $559,677.05, or $1599.08 per adolescent per year. In an extrapolation analysis, benefits to society exceed costs by $10,474.77 per adolescent per year by age 30 years on average, with social benefits outweighing total social costs by age 20.1 years. This comprehensive teenage pregnancy prevention program is estimated to provide societal economic benefits once participants are young adults, suggesting the need to expand beyond pilot demonstrations and evaluate the long-range cost effectiveness of similarly comprehensive programs when they are implemented more widely in high-risk neighborhoods.

  20. Programs and Place: Risk and Asset Mapping for Fall Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew Lee; Towne, Samuel D; Motlagh, Audry S; Smith, Donald R; Boolani, Ali; Horel, Scott A; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-01-01

    Identifying ways to measure access, availability, and utilization of health-care services, relative to at-risk areas or populations, is critical in providing practical and actionable information to key stakeholders. This study identified the prevalence and geospatial distribution of fall-related emergency medical services (EMS) calls in relation to the delivery of an evidence-based fall prevention program in Tarrant County, Texas over a 3-year time period. It aims to educate public health professionals and EMS first respondents about the application of geographic information system programs to identify risk-related "hot spots," service gaps, and community assets to reduce falls among older adults. On average, 96.09 (±108.65) calls were received per ZIP Code (ranging from 0 calls to 386 calls). On average, EMS calls per ZIP Code increased from 30.80 (±34.70) calls in 2009 to 33.75 (±39.58) calls in 2011, which indicate a modest annual call increase over the 3-year study period. The percent of ZIP Codes offering A Matter of Balance/Volunteer Lay Leader Model (AMOB/VLL) workshops increased from 27.3% in 2009 to 34.5% in 2011. On average, AMOB/VLL workshops were offered in ZIP Codes with more fall-related EMS calls over the 3-year study period. Findings suggest that the study community was providing evidence-based fall prevention programming (AMOB/VLL workshops) in higher-risk areas. Opportunities for strategic service expansion were revealed through the identification of fall-related hot spots and asset mapping.

  1. Optimizing Implementation of Obesity Prevention Programs: A Qualitative Investigation Within a Large-Scale Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, Samantha L; Teede, Helena J; Harrison, Cheryce L; Klein, Ruth; Lombard, Catherine B

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in rural and remote areas is elevated in comparison to urban populations, highlighting the need for interventions targeting obesity prevention in these settings. Implementing evidence-based obesity prevention programs is challenging. This study aimed to investigate factors influencing the implementation of obesity prevention programs, including adoption, program delivery, community uptake, and continuation, specifically within rural settings. Nested within a large-scale randomized controlled trial, a qualitative exploratory approach was adopted, with purposive sampling techniques utilized, to recruit stakeholders from 41 small rural towns in Australia. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with clinical health professionals, health service managers, and local government employees. Open coding was completed independently by 2 investigators and thematic analysis undertaken. In-depth interviews revealed that obesity prevention programs were valued by the rural workforce. Program implementation is influenced by interrelated factors across: (1) contextual factors and (2) organizational capacity. Key recommendations to manage the challenges of implementing evidence-based programs focused on reducing program delivery costs, aided by the provision of a suite of implementation and evaluation resources. Informing the scale-up of future prevention programs, stakeholders highlighted the need to build local rural capacity through developing supportive university partnerships, generating local program ownership and promoting active feedback to all program partners. We demonstrate that the rural workforce places a high value on obesity prevention programs. Our results inform the future scale-up of obesity prevention programs, providing an improved understanding of strategies to optimize implementation of evidence-based prevention programs. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  2. Supporting universal prevention programs: a two-phased coaching model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kimberly D; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-06-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in Early Child Res Q 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in Early Child Educ 38:279-288, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al. in School Psychol Rev 34:87-106, 2005; Stormont et al. 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker et al. 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports, whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs.

  3. The Office Guidelines Applied to Practice program improves secondary prevention of heart disease in Federally Qualified Healthcare Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adesuwa Olomu

    2016-12-01

    Office-GAP resulted in increased use of guideline-based medications for secondary CVD prevention in underserved populations. The Office-GAP program could serve as a model for implementing guideline-based care for other chronic diseases.

  4. 76 FR 40798 - Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programs for Personnel Engaged in Specified Aviation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ...-11301; Amendment No. 121-315] RIN 2120-AH14 Antidrug and Alcohol Misuse Prevention Programs for... maintain a training program. For both the antidrug and alcohol misuse prevention programs, the employer... the contracting company to obtain and implement its own FAA drug and alcohol (D&A) testing programs...

  5. Efficacy evaluation of the school program Unplugged for drug use prevention among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zila M. Sanchez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most Brazilian schools do not have a continuous program for drug use prevention and do not conduct culturally adapted activities for that purpose. This study evaluated the impact of the Unplugged program on drug use prevention among children and adolescents in public middle schools of Brazil. Methods A non-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2013 with 2185 students in 16 public schools from 3 Brazilian cities. The intervention group attended 12 weekly classes of the Unplugged program for drug use prevention, and the control group did not attend to any school prevention programs in the same year. Multilevel analyses were used to evaluate temporal and between group changes in the consumption of each drug. Results The study suggested that there was no evidence that Unplugged effected 11- to 12-year-old students. However, the program seemed to stimulate a decrease in recent marijuana use (transition from use to non-use in 85.7% of intervention cases and 28.6% of control cases, OR = 17.5, p = 0.039 among 13- to 15-year-old students. In addition, students in this age range who received the Unplugged program had similar drug consumption levels to those observed before the program began. However, students in the control group presented a significant tendency to increase marijuana use and binge drinking. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence of program efficacy among Brazilian middle school students by presenting marginal effects on binge drinking and marijuana use. An 18-month randomized controlled trial is recommended for a future study.

  6. Advancing cervical cancer prevention initiatives in resource-constrained settings: insights from the Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulindi H Mwanahamuntu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Groesbeck Parham and colleagues describe their Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Zambia, which has provided services to over 58,000 women over the past five years, and share lessons learned from the program's implementation and integration with existing HIV/AIDS programs.

  7. Preventing Alcohol-Related Harm in College Students: Alcohol-Related Harm Prevention Program Effects on Hypothesized Mediating Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J. W.; Tatterson, J. W.; Roberts, M. M.; Johnston, S. E.

    2004-01-01

    The Alcohol-related Harm Prevention (AHP) program is a normative education and skill-acquisition program designed to reduce serious, long-term alcohol-related harm in college students. Without admonishing students not to drink, which is likely to fail in many student populations, the AHP program attempts to give students the necessary perceptions,…

  8. Sandia National Laboratories California Pollution Prevention Program Annual Report February 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Janet S.; Farren, Laurie J.

    2008-03-01

    The annual program report provides detailed information about all aspects of the SNL/CA Pollution Prevention Program for a given calendar year. It functions as supporting documentation to the SNL/CA Environmental Management System Program Manual. The program report describes the activities undertaken during the past year, and activities planned in future years to implement the Pollution Prevention Program, one of six programs that supports environmental management at SNL/CA.

  9. A systematic review of elderly suicide prevention programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lapierre, Sylvie; Erlangsen, Annette; Waern, Margda

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Suicide rates are highest among the elderly, yet research on suicide prevention in old age remains a much-neglected area. AIMS: We carried out a systematic review to examine the results of interventions aimed at suicidal elderly persons and to identify successful strategies and areas ......, engage family and community gatekeepers, use telecommunications to reach vulnerable older adult, and evaluate the effects of means restriction and physicians education on elderly suicide....

  10. Comprehensive programs for preventing pressure ulcers: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederhauser, Andrea; VanDeusen Lukas, Carol; Parker, Victoria; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Zulkowski, Karen; Berlowitz, Dan

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the evidence supporting the combined use of interventions to prevent pressure ulcers (PrUs) in acute care and long-term-care facilities. A systematic review of the literature describing multifaceted PrU prevention programs was performed. Articles were included if they described an intervention implemented in acute care settings or long-term-care facilities, incorporated more than 1 intervention component, involved a multidisciplinary team, and included information about outcomes related to the intervention. Twenty-four studies were identified. Recurring components used in the development and implementation of PrU prevention programs included preparations prior to the start of a program, PrU prevention best practices, staff education, clinical monitoring and feedback, skin care champions, and cues to action. Ten studies reported PrU prevalence rates; 9 of them reported decreased prevalence rates at the end of their programs. Of the 6 studies reporting PrU incidence rates, 5 reported a decrease in incidence rates. Four studies measured care processes: 1 study reported an overall improvement; 2 studies reported improvement on some, but not all, measures; and 1 study reported no change. There is a growing literature describing multipronged, multidisciplinary interventions to prevent PrUs in acute care settings and long-term-care facilities. Outcomes reported in these studies suggest that such programs can be successful in reducing PrU prevalence or incidence rates. However, to strengthen the level of evidence, sites should be encouraged to rigorously evaluate their programs and to publish their results.

  11. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. METHODS: Expectant AI women (mean age = 18.15; N = 47) were randomized (1:1) to either the Living in Harmony program (LIH, an 8 lesson cognitive-behaviorally based program) or an Educational-Support program (ES, an 8 lesson education program). Both interventions were delivered by AI paraprofessionals. Adolescents were evaluated during their pregnancy at baseline, at post-intervention, and at 4, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. The primary outcome measure was the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Additional measures of depression included the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD; assessed via computerized diagnostic interview) and the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS). Secondary outcomes included changes in mothers' global functioning and social support. RESULTS: At all post intervention assessments, mothers in both groups showed similar reductions in depressive symptoms and similar rates of MDD (0 and 6% in LIH and ES respectively). Both groups of participants also showed similar improvements in global functioning. No changes in either group were found on the measure of social support. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that both paraprofessional-delivered interventions may reduce symptoms of depression among AIs. Replication with a larger sample, a usual care control condition, blinded evaluators, and a longer follow-up is needed.

  12. Menopause and risk of diabetes in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Catherine; Edelstein, Sharon L; Crandall, Jill P; Dabelea, Dana; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Hamman, Richard F; Montez, Maria G; Perreault, Leigh; Foulkes, Mary A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    The study objectives were to examine the association between menopause status and diabetes risk among women with glucose intolerance and to determine if menopause status modifies response to diabetes prevention interventions. The study population included women in premenopause (n = 708), women in natural postmenopause (n = 328), and women with bilateral oophorectomy (n = 201) in the Diabetes Prevention Program, a randomized placebo-controlled trial of lifestyle intervention and metformin among glucose-intolerant adults. Associations between menopause and diabetes risk were evaluated using Cox proportional hazard models that adjusted for demographic variables (age, race/ethnicity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes mellitus), waist circumference, insulin resistance, and corrected insulin response. Similar models were constructed after stratification by menopause type and hormone therapy use. After adjustment for age, there was no association between natural menopause or bilateral oophorectomy and diabetes risk. Differences by study arm were observed in women who reported bilateral oophorectomy. In the lifestyle arm, women with bilateral oophorectomy had a lower adjusted hazard for diabetes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.19; 95% CI, 0.04-0.94), although observations were too few to determine if this was independent of hormone therapy use. No significant differences were seen in the metformin (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.63-2.64) or placebo arms (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.74-2.55). Among women at high risk for diabetes, natural menopause was not associated with diabetes risk and did not affect response to diabetes prevention interventions. In the lifestyle intervention, bilateral oophorectomy was associated with a decreased diabetes risk.

  13. Prevention of cardiovascular diseases – Prophylactic program in a selected enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Siedlecka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Poland cardiovascular diseases (CVD, classified as work-related diseases, are responsible for 25% of disability and cause 50% of all deaths, including 26.9% of deaths in people aged under 65 years. The aim of the study was to analyze employee expectations regarding CVD- oriented prophylactic activities in the selected enterprise. Material and Methods: A questionnaire, developed for this study, consists of: socio-demographic data, job characteristics, occupational factors, and questions about the respondents’ expectations concerning the prevention program. The study group comprised 407 multi-profile company employees aged (mean 46.7 years (standard deviation (SD = 9.1, including 330 men (81.1%, mean age = 46.9 (SD = 9.2 and 77 women (18.9%, mean age = 45.9 (SD = 8.2 The study was performed using the method of auditorium survey. Results: Employees declared the need for actions related to physical activity: use of gym, swimming pool, tennis (56.5%, smoking habits – education sessions on quitting smoking (24.6%. A few people were interested in activities related to healthy diet. According to the majority of the study group, the scope of preventive examinations should be expanded. Based on our own findings and literature data CVD- oriented preventive program, addressed to the analyzed enterprise was prepared. The program will be presented in another paper. Conclusions: The results showed significant quantitative and qualitative differences in the classic and occupational CVD risk factors between men and women, as well as in preferences for participation in prevention programs. Therefore, gender differences should be taken into account when planning prevention programs. Med Pr 2017;68(6:757–769

  14. Program Development and Effectiveness of Workplace Health Promotion Program for Preventing Metabolic Syndrome among Office Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Hosihn; Jung, Jiyeon; Cho, Jeonghyun; Chin, Dal Lae

    2017-08-04

    This paper aims to develop and analyze the effects of a socio-ecological model-based intervention program for preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) among office workers. The intervention program was developed using regular health examinations, a "health behavior and need" assessment survey among workers, and a focus group study. According to the type of intervention, subjects took part in three groups: health education via an intranet-based web magazine (Group 1), self-monitoring with the U-health system (Group 2), and the target population who received intensive intervention (Group 3). The intervention programs of Group 1 and Group 2, which relied on voluntary participation, did not show significant effects. In Group 3, which relied on targeted and proactive programs, showed a decrease in waist circumference and in fasting glucose ( p light of the effectiveness of the intensive intervention strategy for metabolic syndrome prevention among workers used in this study, companies should establish targeted and proactive health care programs rather than providing a healthcare system that is dependent on an individual's voluntary participation.

  15. Effects of a teenage pregnancy prevention program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Myra; Jinabhai, Champak; Dlamini, Siyabonga; Sathiparsad, Reshma; Eggers, Matthijs S; De Vries, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Researchers aimed to determine the effects of a teenage pregnancy (TP) prevention program for 816 high school students attending 16 KwaZulu-Natal, South African schools through a randomized control trial. Data were collected at baseline and at the 8-month follow-up in 2009. Results were calculated using multivariate analyses of program effects employing Mplus 6, and indicated significantly healthier attitudes, including intentions to abstain from sex whilst at school, plans to communicate with partners about teenage pregnancy, and increased reports of condom use. Researchers thus provide some support for the effectiveness of a TP prevention program that should be further strengthened in a comprehensive approach that includes schools and families.

  16. Oncology patients' and their significant others' responses to a proposed cancer prevention/detection program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranicar-Lapka, D; Barbour-Randall, L; Trippon, M; Wild, L D; Coffou, B; Grace-Louthen, C; Hausen, V; Schaeffer, C

    1992-02-01

    We used a needs assessment questionnaire to survey a primarily adult oncology population and their significant others, to gauge their interest in a cancer screening program. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of developing a cancer prevention and detection program for this group of individuals. Although there was overwhelming interest in participating in the program, the subjects held varied opinions about the program's benefits. Differences correlated with personal and familial history of cancer and, in some categories, were quite significant. Additional questionnaire information related to patients' preference in the design of a cancer screening program. The majority preferred the screening examination to be performed by both nurses and physicians. In selecting what should be included in examinations, those surveyed chose testicular cancer and prostate cancer the least number of times. Results of this questionnaire can be used to demonstrate the need for nurses to take an active role in the screening process, especially in patient education.

  17. Motivational Interviewing in an Obesity Prevention Program for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ige, Teminijesu John; DeLeon, Patrice; Nabors, Laura

    2017-03-01

    After-school programs are an ideal setting for childhood obesity prevention interventions. This qualitative study examined the implementation of a training technique in the Children's Healthy Eating and Exercise Program: motivational interviewing. Participants included 19 children in Grades 3 through 5, nine coaches enrolled in university health education classes, and four parents. Nine lessons were presented during the fall session (N = 5) and eight during the spring (N = 14), with five individual coaching sessions per child. From September, 2014 through April 2015, child and coach perceptions were assessed using goal sheets, surveys, a focus group, and the analysis of the video recording of a health habit commercial created by teams of children grouped by gender. Children developed weekly eating and exercise goals with coaches and reported on their progress the following week. Following the intervention, children reported improved eating and exercise habits and coaches reported they learned more about healthy food options for themselves. Overall, children responded positively to the motivational interviewing. Involving teachers may allow for dissemination of lessons and reinforcement for healthy choices during the school day. Involving parents in training may remove roadblocks to healthy lifestyle changes for children for nonschool hours and when packing lunches.

  18. How States are Implementing Evidence-Based Teen Pregnancy Prevention Programs Through the Personal Responsibility Education Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Susan Zief; Rachel Shapiro; Debra Strong

    2014-01-01

    Congress created the Personal Responsibility Education Program (PREP), an initiative to fund evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs, in 2010 to help reduce teen pregnancies and their negative consequences. The evaluation will expand the knowledge base on teen pregnancy prevention programs and help to identify decisions, successes, and challenges involved in replicating, adapting, and scaling up evidence-based programs. This issue brief documents key decisions state grantees made ab...

  19. 34 CFR 86.4 - What are the procedures for submitting a drug prevention program certification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the procedures for submitting a drug prevention program certification? 86.4 Section 86.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.4 What are the procedures for submitting a drug prevention program certification? An IHE shall submi...

  20. Older Adults' Perceptions of Clinical Fall Prevention Programs: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Calhoun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate motivational factors and barriers to participating in fall risk assessment and management programs among diverse, low-income, community-dwelling older adults who had experienced a fall. Methods. Face-to-face interviews with 20 elderly who had accepted and 19 who had not accepted an invitation to an assessment by one of two fall prevention programs. Interviews covered healthy aging, core values, attributions/consequences of the fall, and barriers/benefits of fall prevention strategies and programs. Results. Joiners and nonjoiners of fall prevention programs were similar in their experience of loss associated with aging, core values they expressed, and emotional response to falling. One difference was that those who participated endorsed that they “needed” the program, while those who did not participate expressed a lack of need. Conclusions. Interventions targeted at a high-risk group need to address individual beliefs as well as structural and social factors (transportation issues, social networks to enhance participation.

  1. Stacked Deck: an effective, school-based program for the prevention of problem gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J; Wood, Robert T; Currie, Shawn R

    2010-06-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and skills for good decision making and problem solving. An overriding theme of the program is to approach life as a "smart gambler" by determining the odds and weighing the pros versus cons of your actions. A total of 949 grade 9-12 students in 10 schools throughout southern Alberta received the program and completed baseline and follow-up measures. These students were compared to 291 students in 4 control schools. Four months after receiving the program, students in the intervention group had significantly more negative attitudes toward gambling, improved knowledge about gambling and problem gambling, improved resistance to gambling fallacies, improved decision making and problem solving, decreased gambling frequency, and decreased rates of problem gambling. There was no change in involvement in high risk activities or money lost gambling. These results indicate that Stacked Deck is a promising curriculum for the prevention of problem gambling.

  2. Linking Academics and Social Learning: Perceptions of School Staff to a Violence Prevention Program at an Alternative School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie; Burstyn, Joan

    2002-01-01

    Examines how school staff conceptualize their work with alternative school adolescents after undergoing at least 1 year of a whole school violence prevention program. Results highlight the importance of linking social learning and academics in violence prevention strategies and of sustaining collaborative efforts that connect conflict resolution…

  3. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Tailored, Alcohol Prevention/Intervention Program for College Students: 3-Month Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, C. Raymond; Barretto, Andrea Ippel; Walton, Maureen A.; Bryant, Christopher M.; Shope, Jean T.; Raghunathan, Trivellore E.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the results of an efficacy evaluation of a web-based brief motivational alcohol prevention/intervention program called "Michigan Prevention and Alcohol Safety for Students" (M-PASS). Four on-line sessions providing individually-tailored feedback were delivered to first-year college students over 9 weeks. Non- and…

  4. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  5. Recruitment in an indicated prevention program for externalizing behavior - parental participation decisions

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    Beckers Gabriele

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are the ones who decide whether or not to participate in parent focused prevention trials. Their decisions may be affected by internal factors (e.g., personality, attitudes, sociodemographic characteristics or external barriers. Some of these barriers are study-related and others are intervention-related. Internal as well as external barriers are especially important at the screening stage, which aims to identify children and families at risk and for whom the indicated prevention programs are designed. Few studies have reported their screening procedure in detail or analyzed differences between participants and dropouts or predictors of dropout. Rates of participation in prevention programs are also of interest and are an important contributor to the efficacy of a prevention procedure. Methods In this study, we analyzed the process of parent recruitment within an efficacy study of the indicated Prevention Program for Externalizing Problem behavior (PEP. We determined the retention rate at each step of the study, and examined differences between participants and dropouts/decliners. Predictors of dropout at each step were identified using logistic regression. Results Retention rates at the different steps during the course of the trial from screening to participation in the training ranged from 63.8% (pre-test to 81.1% (participation in more than 50% of the training sessions. Parents who dropped out of the study were characterized by having a child with lower symptom intensity by parent rating but higher ratings by teachers in most cases. Low socioeconomic status and related variables were also identified as predictors of dropout in the screening (first step and for training intensity (last step. Conclusions Special attention should be paid to families at increased risk for non-participation when implementing the prevention program in routine care settings. Trial Registration ISRCTN12686222

  6. [Introduction to the Preventive Medicine Program "Prevention 2006-2009" in the Institute of Cosmetology and Health Care in Bialystok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleszczewska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is still a common habit in Poland. Nowadays, it is the way of coping with stress, it is used to become calm. It is also widely accepted by people from various backgrounds included medicine environment. Unfortunately, the number of young people--tobacco addicts is increasing. Survey proceeding in University implementing of the health promotion's program was to estimate the phenomenon of spreading smoking cigarettes among the students and accomplishing their knowledge and awareness about threats resulting from tobacco smoking. The study was performed among 501 students. They answered questions concerning smoking and knowledge about nicotine dependence. The research touched such questions as conviction about damage caused by smoking, the source of information, causes and effects of smoking, about environment whether they are, the interviewee's smoking preventive activities. Implanting health promotion's program is an interdisciplinary subject which glue together such sciences as medicine, psychology, sociology, social politics and many others.

  7. [How do Prevention Projects Reach their Target Groups? Results of a Survey with Prevention Projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, T; Böttcher, S; Jahn, I

    2015-12-01

     The aim of this study was to assess methods used to access target groups in prevention projects funded within the prevention research framework by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research.  A survey with prevention projects was conducted. Access strategies, communication channels, incentives, programme reach, and successful practical recruitment strategies were explored.  38 out of 60 projects took part in the survey. Most projects accessed their target group within structured settings (e. g., child day-care centers, schools, workplaces). Multiple communication channels and incentives were used, with written information and monetary incentives being used most frequently. Only few projects were able to report their programme reach adequately; programme reach was highest for programmes accessing the target groups in structured settings. The respondents viewed active recruitment via personal communication with the target group and key persons in the settings as the most successful strategy.  The paper provides an overview on recruitment strategies used in current preven-tion projects. More systematic research on programme reach is necessary. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Estimating intervention effects of prevention programs: accounting for noncompliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Elizabeth A; Perry, Deborah F; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2008-12-01

    Individuals not fully complying with their assigned treatments is a common problem encountered in randomized evaluations of behavioral interventions. Treatment group members rarely attend all sessions or do all "required" activities; control group members sometimes find ways to participate in aspects of the intervention. As a result, there is often interest in estimating both the effect of being assigned to participate in the intervention, as well as the impact of actually participating and doing all of the required activities. Methods known broadly as "complier average causal effects" (CACE) or "instrumental variables" (IV) methods have been developed to estimate this latter effect, but they are more commonly applied in medical and treatment research. Since the use of these statistical techniques in prevention trials has been less widespread, many prevention scientists may not be familiar with the underlying assumptions and limitations of CACE and IV approaches. This paper provides an introduction to these methods, described in the context of randomized controlled trials of two preventive interventions: one for perinatal depression among at-risk women and the other for aggressive disruptive behavior in children. Through these case studies, the underlying assumptions and limitations of these methods are highlighted.

  9. Parenting Programs to Prevent Corporal Punishment: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla Magioni Santini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies have shown that corporal punishment against children is a common family practice, causing damage to child development. Considering that parents are the main perpetrators of this type of aggression, parenting programs are needed to raise children without violence. This study aimed at performing a systematic review of parenting programs evaluations to reduce corporal punishment. Intervention procedures, as well as design, results and limitations were identified for each study. The PRISMA protocol (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was used for reporting the results. A literature survey was conducted in Brazilian databases, as well as English ones from 1994-2014. One Brazilian study and eight international studies were selected as relevant, and only four used randomized controlled trials (RCT. All studies reported satisfactory results in decreasing aggression by parents against their children. Further research in the area with solid methodology is recommended.

  10. The Fourth R: A School-Based Adolescent Dating Violence Prevention Program

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    David A. Wolfe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.

  11. A Risk and Prevention Counselor Training Program Model: Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.; Nakkula, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The need for training mental health counselors in risk and prevention is presented, and justification of the development of an innovative and integrative prevention training program is offered. Theoretical underpinnings that connect the counseling discipline to the field of prevention are described. A risk and prevention training model from…

  12. A Pilot Study for Linking Adolescent Patients to an Interactive Tobacco Prevention Program

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    Karen S. Calabro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The American Academy of Pediatrics and professional guidelines recommend intervening with adolescents about avoiding tobacco use in the health-care setting. Barriers in the clinical setting limit consistent provision of this critical service. Objectives: This pilot study compared 2 approaches for referring adolescents to an evidence-based tobacco prevention and cessation program in the outpatient setting. Secondary aims assessed tobacco use, knowledge, and program evaluation. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study setting was a medical and dental clinic. Participants aged 13 to 18 received tobacco advice and instructions to work through “A Smoking Prevention Interactive Experience.” The program addresses health concerns of adolescents about tobacco use and is founded on behavioral change theories. The link to access it is featured on the website of the National Cancer Institute’s Research-Tested Interventions. Participants (N = 197 were randomized to 1 of 2 approaches (ie, a program link via e-mail or referral by a printed card. Results: The program was accessed by 57% (112 of 197 of participants. Both referral approaches were equally effective. Non-Hispanics were twice as likely to access the program as Hispanics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.1, 95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.8, P < .05. Over 95% of participants identified themselves as nonusers of tobacco and evaluated the program as beneficial in increasing knowledge and motivation to remain tobacco-free. Conclusion: Linking adolescent patients to an evidence-based tobacco prevention/cessation program at a community health clinic was highly promising and feasible. We present conclusions for future research.

  13. Lack of implementation of eating disorder education and prevention programs in high schools: Data from incoming college freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Emalee T; Venta, Amanda

    2018-03-22

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation of eating disorder education and prevention programs in high schools retrospectively, as reported by incoming college freshmen, exploring whether characteristics of the school influenced implementation. The sample, 169 first-year students from a public university, participated in an online survey inquiring about exposure to programs and high school characteristics. Results demonstrated few students exposed to any eating disorder programming (29.0%), with no students reporting exposure to prevention programming. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the implementation based on school characteristics, suggesting that this is a universal issue across high schools.

  14. Homogeneity in Community-Based Rape Prevention Programs: Empirical Evidence of Institutional Isomorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Stephanie M.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the practices of 24 community-based rape prevention programs. Although these programs were geographically dispersed throughout one state, they were remarkably similar in their approach to rape prevention programming. DiMaggio and Powell's (1991) theory of institutional isomorphism was used to explain the underlying causes of…

  15. Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program: A Secondary School Curriculum to Combat Underage Drinking and Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Kelli England; Sabo, Cynthia Shier

    2010-01-01

    The Reinforcing Alcohol Prevention (RAP) Program is an alcohol prevention curriculum developed in partnership with secondary schools to serve their need for a brief, evidence-based, and straightforward program that aligned with state learning objectives. Program components included an educational lesson, video, and interactive activities delivered…

  16. Adapting a Multifaceted U.S. HIV Prevention Education Program for Girls in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiscian, Vivian Sarpomaa; Obeng, E. Kwame; Goldstein, Karen; Shea, Judy A.; Turner, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    We adapted a U.S. HIV prevention program to address knowledge gaps and cultural pressures that increase the risk of infection in adolescent Ghanaian girls. The theory-based nine-module HIV prevention program combines didactics and games, an interactive computer program about sugar daddies, and tie-and-dye training to demonstrate an economic…

  17. The Social Construction of "Evidence-Based" Drug Prevention Programs: A Reanalysis of Data from the Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M.; Huber, J. Charles, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that any drug prevention program might be considered "evidence-based" given the use of data analysis procedures that optimize the chance of producing statistically significant results by reanalyzing data from a Drug Abuse Resistance Education (DARE) program evaluation. The analysis produced a number of…

  18. Neighborhood Perceptions and Parent Outcomes in Family Based Prevention Programs for Thai Adolescents: The Role of Program Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2011-01-01

    Due to concerns over Thai adolescent risky behaviors, effective prevention strategies are needed. Determining the role neighborhood context plays in program engagement and outcomes may inform these strategies. This study includes 170 mother-adolescent pairs (M = 13.44, SD = 0.52) in Bangkok, Thailand in a prevention program for adolescent…

  19. Measuring Fidelity and Adaptation: Reliability of a Instrument for School-Based Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Dana C; Pankratz, Melinda M; Hansen, William B; Albritton, Jordan; Albritton, Lauren; Strack, Joann

    2014-06-01

    There is a need to standardize methods for assessing fidelity and adaptation. Such standardization would allow program implementation to be examined in a manner that will be useful for understanding the moderating role of fidelity in dissemination research. This article describes a method for collecting data about fidelity of implementation for school-based prevention programs, including measures of adherence, quality of delivery, dosage, participant engagement, and adaptation. We report about the reliability of these methods when applied by four observers who coded video recordings of teachers delivering All Stars, a middle school drug prevention program. Interrater agreement for scaled items was assessed for an instrument designed to evaluate program fidelity. Results indicated sound interrater reliability for items assessing adherence, dosage, quality of teaching, teacher understanding of concepts, and program adaptations. The interrater reliability for items assessing potential program effectiveness, classroom management, achievement of activity objectives, and adaptation valences was improved by dichotomizing the response options for these items. The item that assessed student engagement demonstrated only modest interrater reliability and was not improved through dichotomization. Several coder pairs were discordant on items that overall demonstrated good interrater reliability. Proposed modifications to the coding manual and protocol are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. EVALUATION OF ALL BABIES CRY, A SECOND GENERATION UNIVERSAL ABUSIVE HEAD TRAUMA PREVENTION PROGRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Morrill, Allison C.; McElaney, Lisa; Peixotto, Betsy; VanVleet, Marcia; Sege, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment results in significant individual, family, and societal costs. This study assessed the efficacy of All Babies Cry (ABC), a media-based infant maltreatment prevention program, using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental staged evaluation design. ABC’s messaging, designed and tested through a series of focus groups, provides strategies for reducing parental stress and soothing infants. Participants (n = 423) were first-time parents, 70% fathers, recruited at two hospitals. The f...

  1. First adaptation of coping power program as a classroom-based prevention intervention on aggressive behaviors among elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Pietro; Bertacchi, Iacopo; Giuli, Consuelo; Lombardi, Lavinia; Bonetti, Silvia; Nocentini, Annalaura; Manfredi, Azzurra; Polidori, Lisa; Ruglioni, Laura; Milone, Annarita; Lochman, John E

    2015-04-01

    Children with high levels of aggressive behavior create a major management problem in school settings and interfere with the learning environment of their classmates. We report results from a group-randomized trial of a program aimed at preventing aggressive behaviors. The purpose of the current study, therefore, was to determine the extent to which an indicated prevention program, Coping Power Program, is capable of reducing behavioral problems and improving pro-social behavior when delivered as a universal classroom-based prevention intervention. Nine classes (five first grade and four second grade) were randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. Findings showed a significant reduction in overall problematic behaviors and in inattention-hyperactivity problems for the intervention classes compared to the control classes. Students who received Coping Power Program intervention also showed more pro-social behaviors at postintervention. The implications of these findings for the implementation of strategies aimed at preventing aggressive behavior in school settings are discussed.

  2. Systematic review of abstinence-plus HIV prevention programs in high-income countries.

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    Kristen Underhill

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abstinence-plus (comprehensive interventions promote sexual abstinence as the best means of preventing HIV, but also encourage condom use and other safer-sex practices. Some critics of abstinence-plus programs have suggested that promoting safer sex along with abstinence may undermine abstinence messages or confuse program participants; conversely, others have suggested that promoting abstinence might undermine safer-sex messages. We conducted a systematic review to investigate the effectiveness of abstinence-plus interventions for HIV prevention among any participants in high-income countries as defined by the World Bank. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Cochrane Collaboration systematic review methods were used. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of abstinence-plus programs for HIV prevention among any participants in any high-income country; trials were included if they reported behavioural or biological outcomes. We searched 30 electronic databases without linguistic or geographical restrictions to February 2007, in addition to contacting experts, hand-searching conference abstracts, and cross-referencing papers. After screening 20,070 abstracts and 325 full published and unpublished papers, we included 39 trials that included approximately 37,724 North American youth. Programs were based in schools (10, community facilities (24, both schools and community facilities (2, health care facilities (2, and family homes (1. Control groups varied. All outcomes were self-reported. Quantitative synthesis was not possible because of heterogeneity across trials in programs and evaluation designs. Results suggested that many abstinence-plus programs can reduce HIV risk as indicated by self-reported sexual behaviours. Of 39 trials, 23 found a protective program effect on at least one sexual behaviour, including abstinence, condom use, and unprotected sex (baseline n = 19,819. No trial found adverse program effects on any

  3. A Fully Automated Diabetes Prevention Program, Alive-PD: Program Design and Randomized Controlled Trial Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Gladys; Azar, Kristen Mj; Block, Torin J; Romanelli, Robert J; Carpenter, Heather; Hopkins, Donald; Palaniappan, Latha; Block, Clifford H

    2015-01-21

    In the United States, 86 million adults have pre-diabetes. Evidence-based interventions that are both cost effective and widely scalable are needed to prevent diabetes. Our goal was to develop a fully automated diabetes prevention program and determine its effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Subjects with verified pre-diabetes were recruited to participate in a trial of the effectiveness of Alive-PD, a newly developed, 1-year, fully automated behavior change program delivered by email and Web. The program involves weekly tailored goal-setting, team-based and individual challenges, gamification, and other opportunities for interaction. An accompanying mobile phone app supports goal-setting and activity planning. For the trial, participants were randomized by computer algorithm to start the program immediately or after a 6-month delay. The primary outcome measures are change in HbA1c and fasting glucose from baseline to 6 months. The secondary outcome measures are change in HbA1c, glucose, lipids, body mass index (BMI), weight, waist circumference, and blood pressure at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Randomization and delivery of the intervention are independent of clinic staff, who are blinded to treatment assignment. Outcomes will be evaluated for the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. A total of 340 subjects with pre-diabetes were randomized to the intervention (n=164) or delayed-entry control group (n=176). Baseline characteristics were as follows: mean age 55 (SD 8.9); mean BMI 31.1 (SD 4.3); male 68.5%; mean fasting glucose 109.9 (SD 8.4) mg/dL; and mean HbA1c 5.6 (SD 0.3)%. Data collection and analysis are in progress. We hypothesize that participants in the intervention group will achieve statistically significant reductions in fasting glucose and HbA1c as compared to the control group at 6 months post baseline. The randomized trial will provide rigorous evidence regarding the efficacy of this Web- and Internet-based program in reducing or

  4. Effectiveness of prevention-oriented school oral health program in a private school in Pimpri, Pune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Programs oriented toward prevention have proven to be highly rewarding in reducing the dental disease burden in western populations. Some developing countries have also reported studies of school health programs with varying effectiveness. However, reports regarding improved effectiveness due to mobile dental unit are scarce. Thus, the present study aims at assessment of effectiveness of prevention-oriented school health program in a private school in Pimpri, Pune. Materials and Methods: A longitudinal study was conducted from May 2015 to June 2016 in Dr. D.Y. Patil school among 449 students aged 5 and 10 years using census sampling. Ethical clearance was obtained from Institutional Ethics Committee of Dr. D. Y. Patil Dental College and Hospital and permission was obtained from the school principal. The study was conducted in 3 phases. SPSS version 18 was used for analyzing the data. Results: There was significant reduction in decayed component and a significant increase in filled component in primary and permanent dentition. There was a significant reduction in treatment needs, i.e., one surface, two surface fillings, and pulp care and restoration. Conclusion: It can be concluded that this prevention-oriented 1-year program was helpful in improving the oral health of the children.

  5. A culturally adapted drug and alcohol abuse prevention program for aboriginal children and youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydala, Lola T; Sewlal, Betty; Rasmussen, Carmen; Alexis, Kathleen; Fletcher, Fay; Letendre, Liz; Odishaw, Janine; Kennedy, Merle; Kootenay, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    In response to substance abuse within their community, the Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation invited the University of Alberta (UofA) to partner in a collaborative effort to establish a school-based substance abuse prevention program. An evidence-based substance abuse prevention program was reviewed and adapted by the community to ensure that it incorporated their cultural beliefs, values, language, and visual images. The adapted program was delivered to students at Alexis Nakota Sioux Nation School and changes in student participants' knowledge, attitudes, refusal skills, and self-beliefs were measured. Benefits and challenges of adapting the program were documented. The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the Canadian Institute for Health Research, Guidelines for Research Involving Aboriginal People, provided a frame of reference for the work throughout the research process. A pre-/posttest questionnaire was used to measure changes in student participants' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use. Focus groups (FGs) documented community members' experiences of and responses to the program adaptations and delivery. Results included (1) positive changes in students' drug and alcohol refusal skills, self-beliefs, and knowledge of the negative effects of drug and alcohol use, (2) ownership of and investment in the program by the community, (3) teaching approaches that correspond with the learning contexts, worldview, and relationships of the community, and (4) participation of community Elders. Quantitative and qualitative measures provide evidence for the importance, benefits, and challenges of employing a culturally adapted evidence-based substance abuse prevention program with Aboriginal students attending a First Nations school.

  6. Evaluating in political turmoil: nursing challenges in prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperrière, Hélène

    2007-03-01

    The concrete insertion of nurses into the context of an inquiry contributes to empirical evaluation research of health promotion programs. As interveners and concrete actors in social movements, nurses are in a privileged position to give realism to a local understanding of the political and cultural context of evaluative research. Drawing on the practice of empirical evaluation research, this paper seeks to generate new methodological approaches in a way that broadens nursing inquiries in community health nursing. It explores new ways of thinking about epistemology and knowledge production in nursing practice. For 5 months an evaluative research project adopting a participatory-action research approach was conducted with local community actors in an AIDS prevention project in Amazonas (Brazil) in a prostitution setting. An auto-ethnographic journal was used as a reflective approach for the critical analysis of nursing research activities. This paper calls for a closer relationship between scientific research settings and the sociopolitical and the sociocultural aspects of nursing practice. It increases an incorporation of popular, social and professional experiential learning and skill acquisition in embedded knowledge production.

  7. Contacts in the Office of Pesticide Programs, Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contact the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD) about regulatory activities associated with biologically-based pesticides, implementation of integrated pest management and the Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program.

  8. OSTA program: A French follow up intervention program for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouaffak, Fayçal; Marchand, Arnaud; Castaigne, Emmanuelle; Arnoux, Armelle; Hardy, Patrick

    2015-12-30

    Attempted suicide is a strong risk factor for subsequent suicidal behavior. In recent years, a particular interest has been given to follow-up interventions as a potential effective strategy in preventing recurrent suicidal behavior. We developed a follow-up intervention program called OSTA (organization of a suitable monitoring for suicide attempters) aimed at addressing this issue and tested its effectiveness in a 1-year randomized controlled trial. Individuals who attempted suicide and were admitted to the emergency department (ED) of Bicêtre Hospital (n=320) were randomly allocated to receive either the OSTA program or a control treatment. On an intention to treat basis, the proportion of patients who reattempted suicide did not differ significantly between the interventional group (IG) 14.5% (22/152) and the control group (CG) 14% (21/150). There were also no significant differences, between the two arms, in the number of suicide attempts. Although no significant difference has been found between the OSTA program and the control treatment concerning the rate of suicide reattempts, we believe that further studies should be conducted to test the effectiveness of more standardized follow-up studies in suicide prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GEOGRAPHICAL ASSESMENT OF RESULTS FROM PREVENTING THE PARAMETER TAMPERING IN A WEB APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Menemencioğlu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The improving usage of internet and attained intensity of usage rate attracts the malicious in around the world. Many preventing systems are offered by researchers with different infrastructures. Very effective preventing system was proposed most recently by the researchers. The previously offered mechanism has prevented the multi-type vulnerabilities after preventing system was put into use. The attack attempts have been recorded. The researchers analysed the results geographically, discussed the obtained results and made some inference of the results. Our assessments show that the geographical findings can be used to retrieve some implication and build an infrastructure which prevents the vulnerabilities by location.

  10. Geographical Assesment of Results from Preventing the Parameter Tampering in a Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menemencioğlu, O.; Orak, İ. M.

    2017-11-01

    The improving usage of internet and attained intensity of usage rate attracts the malicious in around the world. Many preventing systems are offered by researchers with different infrastructures. Very effective preventing system was proposed most recently by the researchers. The previously offered mechanism has prevented the multi-type vulnerabilities after preventing system was put into use. The attack attempts have been recorded. The researchers analysed the results geographically, discussed the obtained results and made some inference of the results. Our assessments show that the geographical findings can be used to retrieve some implication and build an infrastructure which prevents the vulnerabilities by location.

  11. Management characteristics of successful public health programs: "Avahan" HIV prevention program in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabuchi, Shunsuke; Singh, Suneeta; Bishnu, Rituparna; Bennett, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes Avahan, an HIV prevention program in India, that achieved very rapid scale-up. The paper aims to (i) define the distinctive features of the management of Avahan, (ii) examine how the distinctive features relate to key constructs in management frameworks and (iii) investigate how the management approaches of Avahan contributed to the program's ability to scale-up rapidly while maintaining service quality. The Delphi method was used to identify the distinctive features of Avahan. Through three rounds of questions, 38 participants closely associated with Avahan were asked to identify and develop consensus on its distinctive features. These features were then mapped against the Baldrige Health Care Criteria for Performance Excellence to investigate how they related to important dimensions of management. A total of 17 distinctive features of Avahan were identified. These distinctive features emphasized the importance of data use and performance monitoring at all levels, especially combined with a flexible management style that facilitated local responsiveness to community, innovation and learning. The distinctive features comprehensively addressed the criteria for management excellence in the Baldridge framework. In the case of Avahan, the rigorous application of known management techniques to public health programs appears to have been an important factor in the successful scale-up of the program. Also, the Baldrige criteria seem applicable to health programs in low-income and middle-income countries; further applications would help test their robustness and utility in such contexts. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Holland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Methods: Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women—multiethnic, Canadian young adults—to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. Results: The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food—topics on which young adults are already seeking information—rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Conclusion: Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  13. Historical context for the creation of the Office of Adolescent Health and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Evelyn M; Farb, Amy Feldman

    2014-03-01

    In Fiscal Year 2010, Federal funds were dedicated to support evidence-based approaches to effectively target teen pregnancy prevention and resulted in the establishment of the Office of Adolescent Health (OAH) and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention (TPP) Program. Through the tiered TPP Program, OAH supports replication and evaluation of programs using models whose effectiveness has been demonstrated through rigorous evaluation and the development and testing of promising or innovative pregnancy prevention strategies and approaches. This article documents the creation of OAH and the development of the TPP Program, the identification of a TPP evidence base, current program and evaluation efforts at OAH, and government coordination and partnerships related to reducing teen pregnancy. This article is of interest to those working to improve the health and wellbeing of adolescents. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. "La Familia" HIV prevention program: a focus on disclosure and family acceptance for Latino immigrant MSM to the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendez, Rita M; Zepeda, Jorge; Samaniego, Rafael; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Alaniz, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to pilot test and evaluate a HIV prevention program that used a Freirean approach to engage Latino immigrant MSM (men who have sex with men) on issues of sexual orientation, family acceptance, stigma as well as HIV prevention and sexual risk behaviors. Participants were evaluated using a survey before and after participation in the program and compared to a control group. Focus groups where participants discussed their experiences in the program as well as perceptions of the program were held and analyzed. Survey results indicate that after their participation in the program, participants increased their safer sex behaviors, comfort disclosing their sexual orientation and support from friends. HIV prevention needs to incorporate cultural, social and structural factors.

  15. Overdose prevention in injecting opioid users: The role of substance abuse treatment and training programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sarasa-Renedo

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: These findings suggest that preventive programs would benefit from accounting for linguistic and educational limitations and from participation in every treatment episode. Comprehensiveness and broad coverage of such programs could help to maximize their impact.

  16. Final Amendments to Delegation of Authority Provisions in the Prevention of Significant Deterioration Permitting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    finalized amendments to the New Source Review (NSR) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permitting program that will allow the EPA to delegate administration of the program to interested and qualified tribal agencies.

  17. Evaluation of an integrated services program to prevent subsequent pregnancy and birth among urban teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchen, Loral; Letourneau, Kathryn; Berggren, Erica

    2013-01-01

    This article details the evaluation of a clinical services program for teen mothers in the District of Columbia. The program's primary objectives are to prevent unintended subsequent pregnancy and to promote contraceptive utilization. We calculated contraceptive utilization at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after delivery, as well as occurrence of subsequent pregnancy and birth. Nearly seven in ten (69.5%) teen mothers used contraception at 24 months after delivery, and 57.1% of contraceptive users elected long-acting reversible contraception. In the 24-month follow-up period, 19.3% experienced at least one subsequent pregnancy and 8.0% experienced a subsequent birth. These results suggest that an integrated clinical services model may contribute to sustained contraceptive use and may prove beneficial in preventing subsequent teen pregnancy and birth.

  18. Dissonance-Based Prevention of Eating Disorder Risk Factors in Middle School Girls: Results from Two Pilot Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Auslander, Beth A.; Shaw, Heather; Raineri, Kate M.; Gau, Jeff M.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although several eating disorder prevention programs reduce eating disorder risk factors and symptoms for female high school and college students, few efficacious prevention programs exist for female middle school students, despite the fact that body image and eating disturbances often emerge then. Two pilot trials evaluated a new dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program for middle school girls with body image concerns. Methods Female middle school students with body dissatisfaction from two sites (Study 1: N = 81, M age = 12.1, SD = 0.9; Study 2: N = 52, M age = 12.5, SD = 0.8) were randomized to a dissonance intervention (MS Body Project) or educational brochure control; Study 2 included a 3-month follow-up. Results Intervention participants showed significant posttest reductions in only one of six variables with both Studies 1 and 2 (i.e., pressure to be thin and negative affect, respectively), though posttest effect sizes suggested medium reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms (Study 1 M d = 0.40; Study 2 M d = 0.65); reductions at 3-month follow-up in Study 2 were not evident (M d = 0.19). Conclusions Results suggest that this new middle school version of the Body Project is producing medium magnitude reductions in eating disorder risk factors at posttest but that effects are showing limited persistence. Continued refinement and evaluation of this intervention appears warranted to develop more effective prevention programs for this age group. PMID:24590419

  19. Research results of the Optimiturve research program in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alakangas, E.

    1992-01-01

    Optimiturve research program is one of the energy research programs funded by the Ministry of Trade and Industry of Finland. The main target of the program is double the annual hectare yield of peat dried by solar radiation to decrease the peat production costs, to speed up the circulation of capital invested to peat production with the aid of a new production method developed in this research, and hence improve the price competitivity of peat. The targets of the research program are expected to be completed by improving the drying of peat, the efficiency of the peat production machinery, and by developing peat production techniques. The program was started in 1988, and the targets are to be fulfilled up to year 1993. The research program is carried out in cooperation with universities, research organizations and peat producers. This publication consists of the results of the ongoing projects in the Optimiturve research program in 1991. The aim, the contents and the main results of the 18 projects are presented. At the end of this publication there is a list of the reports published in Reports series

  20. Adherence and Attrition in Fall Prevention Exercise Programs for Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osho, Oluwaseyi; Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi; Armijo-Olivo, Susan

    2017-08-03

    Fall prevention exercise programs have been reported to be effective in minimizing falls in older adults. However, adherence and attrition in exercise programs remain a challenge. This study reviewed the evidence on how levels of adherence and attrition in fall prevention exercise programs may affect magnitude of effect of fall risk reduction in community-dwelling older adults. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on fall prevention exercise programs for community-dwelling older adults aged 65+ years published between 2005 and 2016 from six databases were undertaken. Twenty articles met inclusion criteria. Results showed that program adherence >80% may result in greater fall risk reduction compared to lower levels of adherence. A possible inverse relationship exists between attrition levels and effect sizes of fall prevention exercise programs. Future studies should properly report falls/fallers and a consensus on a standardized measure for reporting adherence to fall prevention exercise programs is recommended.

  1. Health promotion and prevention in higher music education: results of a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Mark F; Voltmer, Edgar; Spahn, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    Music-related symptoms can already be found among student musicians during their years of university training. The goals of the present study were to ascertain the state and developmental course of the student musicians' health and to test the effectiveness of a preventive curriculum given to student musicians during their first two semesters at university. Within a longitudinal, observational study, we assessed students' psychological and physical health during the first 2 years of university training. We compared data from the group of students who had followed the prevention program (intervention group, IG, n = 144) with data of a comparison group (CG, n = 103) of students who had not followed the program. Using standardized questionnaires, we measured physical and psychological symptoms as well as health behavior in a sequential plan (duration, 3.5 yrs). Student musicians (n = 247) showed elevated ratings in psychological and physical health in comparison with nonmusicians of the same age. These ratings decreased at the end of the students' second year. The prevention program had a preventive effect on the students' psychological health: while IG students remained stable in their performance and powers of concentration, CG students got worse in those same areas. However, the prevention program did not reduce physical symptoms. In comparison with their younger colleagues, upper-level students took more courses in body-oriented methods, relaxation, and mental techniques, which focus on preventive measures for musicians. At present, the study offers evidence supporting the use of the prevention curriculum for young musicians. In higher music education, preventive education has a positive impact on students' performance and their attitude toward health. The preventive curriculum does not have an effect on preexisting physical symptoms, and those symptoms related to the students musicians' activity should rather be treated in an additional therapeutic setting.

  2. Interventions to prevent adverse fetal programming due to maternal obesity during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanielsz, Peter W; Ford, Stephen P; Long, Nathan M; Vega, Claudia C; Reyes-Castro, Luis A; Zambrano, Elena

    2013-10-01

    Maternal obesity is a global epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Human and animal studies indicate that maternal obesity adversely programs the development of offspring, predisposing them to chronic diseases later in life. Several mechanisms act together to produce these adverse health effects. There is a consequent need for effective interventions that can be used in the management of human pregnancy to prevent these outcomes. The present review analyzes the dietary and exercise intervention studies performed to date in both altricial and precocial animals, rats and sheep, with the aim of preventing adverse offspring outcomes. The results of these interventions present exciting opportunities to prevent, at least in part, adverse metabolic and other outcomes in obese mothers and their offspring. © 2013 International Life Sciences Institute.

  3. Exact penalty results for mathematical programs with vanishing constraints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoheisel, T.; Kanzow, Ch.; Outrata, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 5 (2010), s. 2514-2526 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750802 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Mathematical programs with vanishing constraints * Mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints * Exact penalization * Calmness * Subdifferential calculus * Limiting normal cone Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/MTR/outrata-exact penalty results for mathematical programs with vanishing constraints.pdf

  4. FUEL Your Life: A Translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program to Worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark G; DeJoy, David M; Vandenberg, Robert; Padilla, Heather; Davis, Marsha

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of FUEL Your Life, a translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program for worksites. A randomized control group design was conducted in five worksites of a large transportation company. Measures were collected pretest, posttest (6 months), and follow-up (12 months). Railroad maintenance facilities of Union Pacific Railroad. Participants consisted of 362 workers (227 treatment, 135 control). FUEL Your Life was translated from the Diabetes Prevention Program to better fit within the context of the worksite. The primary difference was the use of peer health coaches to provide social support and reinforcement and an occupational nurse to provide lesson content (six sessions of 10 minutes) to participants instead of the lifestyle coaches employed by the Diabetes Prevention Program, resulting in a less structured meeting schedule. The primary outcomes were weight and body mass index (BMI), with secondary outcomes including eating behaviors, physical activity, and social support. Latent growth modeling was used to measure changes in the outcomes over time. Participants in the intervention group maintained weight/BMI (-.1 pounds/-.1 BMI), whereas the control participants gained weight/BMI (+2.6 pounds/+.3 BMI), resulting in a statistically significant difference between groups. Fifty-five percent of intervention participants lost some weight, whereas only 35% of the control group lost weight. FUEL Your Life, a low intensity intervention, was not effective for promoting weight loss, but was effective for helping workers maintain weight over a 12-month period.

  5. Osteoporosis knowledge translation for young adults: new directions for prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alyson

    2017-08-01

    Osteoporosis prevention is heavily reliant on education programs, which are most effective when tailored to their intended audience. Most osteoporosis prevention education is designed for older adults, making application of these programs to younger adults difficult. Designing programs for young adults requires understanding the information-seeking practices of young adults, so that knowledge about osteoporosis can be effectively translated. Individual interviews were conducted with 60 men and women-multiethnic, Canadian young adults-to explore both the sources and types of information they search for when seeking information on nutrition or bone health. The results of this study raised themes related to the sources participants use, to their interests and to ways of engaging young adults. Prevention programs should make use of traditional sources, such as peers, family members and medical professionals, as well as emerging technologies, such as social media. Choice of sources was related to the perceived authority of and trust associated with the source. Messaging should relate to young adult interests, such as fitness and food-topics on which young adults are already seeking information-rather than being embedded within specific osteoporosis awareness materials. Engaging young adults means using relatable messages that are short and encourage small changes. Small gender-based differences were found in the information-seeking interests of participants. Differences related to age were not examined. Creating short, action-oriented messages that are designed to encourage small changes in behaviour and are packaged with information that young adults are actively seeking is more likely to result in active engagement in prevention behaviours.

  6. A systematic review of combined student- and parent-based programs to prevent alcohol and other drug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Champion, Katrina E; Slade, Tim; Chapman, Cath; Stapinski, Lexine; Koning, Ina; Tonks, Zoe; Teesson, Maree

    2017-05-01

    Alcohol and other drug use among adolescents is a serious concern, and effective prevention is critical. Research indicates that expanding school-based prevention programs to include parenting components could increase prevention outcomes. This paper aims to identify and describe existing combined student- and parent-based programs for the prevention of alcohol and other drug use to evaluate the efficacy of existing programs. The PsycINFO, Medline, Central Register of Controlled trials and Cochrane databases were searched in April 2015 and additional articles were obtained from reference lists. Studies were included if they evaluated a combined universal intervention for students (aged 11-18 years old) and their parents designed to prevent alcohol and/or other drug use, and were delivered in a school-based setting. Risk of bias was assessed by two independent reviewers. Because of the heterogeneity of the included studies, it was not possible to conduct a meta-analysis and a qualitative description of the studies was provided. From a total of 1654 screened papers, 22 research papers met inclusion criteria, which included 13 trials of 10 programs. Of these, nine programs demonstrated significant intervention effects in terms of delaying or reducing adolescent alcohol and/or other drug use in at least one trial. This is the first review of combined student- and parent-based interventions to prevent and reduce alcohol and other drug use. Whilst existing combined student- and parent-based programs have shown promising results, key gaps in the literature have been identified and are discussed in the context of the development of future prevention programs. [Newton NC, Champion KE, Slade T, Chapman C, Stapinski L, Koning I, Tonks Z, Teesson M. A systematic review of combined student- and parent-based programs to prevent alcohol and other drug use among adolescents. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:337-351]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  7. Physician Satisfaction in a Cancer Prevention Program for Low-Income Women in Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Cochran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians and health care organizations that provide services to low-income patients are valuable partners in improving health care access for the uninsured and medically underserved. In this pilot study, we explored physicians' needs and factors for satisfaction in the Women's Health Connection (WHC, a breast and cervical cancer-screening program for low-income women in Nevada. Of the 126 physicians in the WHC program, 50 physicians completed a needs-and-satisfaction questionnaire. Survey data were subjected to factor analysis using Varimax rotation. The results yielded three components, which accounted for 65% of the variance. The three components or dimensions for physician satisfaction were: (1 appropriate administrative support and documentation, (2 availability of support for medical management, and (3 timeliness of diagnostic reports. Amount of reimbursement was not a significant factor. The respondents serving in this cancer prevention program for low-income women were satisfied in their involvement in the program. Further attention should be given on the identified issues for satisfaction among physicians, which could lead to quality improvement and serve as a model for other programs that serve low-income patients in cancer prevention.

  8. Programs of prevention of abuse in intimate relationships for adolescents and young adults abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makurina A.P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the programs of work with teenagers and young people, aimed at primary prevention of violence in intimate relationships. The content models of sex education as one of the highest priorities for primary prevention. A brief description of the methodological foundations of these programs, such as the focus on changing the existing norms of violence, gender stereotypes, pathogenic skills avoiding conflicts. Describes the procedural and substantive content features of these programs. The results of studies on the effectiveness of a number of programs that have demonstrated a decrease in the level of violence, positive changes in the skills that are most scarce to training with regard to the acceptability of violence and behavioral intentions. Highlights those aspects of targeted programs that are short-term and prolonged effects. So changing views on the norms of behavior in intimate relationships, conflict resolution skills and knowledge are stored in the long term, while females exhibit more positive attitudes and behavioral intentions than men.

  9. The Effects of an Injury Prevention Program on Landing Biomechanics Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Lindsay J; Marshall, Stephen W; Padua, Darin A; Peck, Karen Y; Beutler, Anthony I; de la Motte, Sarah J; Frank, Barnett S; Martinez, Jessica C; Cameron, Kenneth L

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge is limited regarding how long improvements in biomechanics remain after completion of a lower extremity injury prevention program. To evaluate the effects of an injury prevention program on movement technique and peak vertical ground-reaction forces (VGRF) over time compared with a standard warm-up (SWU) program. Controlled laboratory study. A total of 1104 incoming freshmen (age range, 17-22 years) at a military academy in the United States volunteered to participate. Participants were cluster-randomized by military company to either the Dynamic Integrated Movement Enhancement (DIME) injury prevention program or SWU. A random subsample of participants completed a standardized jump-landing task at each time point: immediately before the intervention (PRE), immediately after (POST), and 2 (POST2M), 4 (POST4M), 6 (POST6M), and 8 months (POST8M) after the intervention. VGRF data collected during the jump-landing task were normalized to body weight (%BW). The Landing Error Scoring System (LESS) was used to evaluate movement technique during the jump landing. The change scores (Δ) for each variable (LESS, VGRF) between the group's average value at PRE and each time point were calculated. Separate univariate analyses of variance were performed to evaluate group differences. The results showed a greater decrease in mean (±SD) VGRF in the DIME group compared with the SWU group at all retention time points: POST2M (SWU [Δ%BW], -0.13 ± 0.82; DIME, -0.62 ± 0.91; P = .001), POST4M (SWU, -0.15 ± 0.98; DIME,-0.46 ± 0.64; P = .04), POST6M (SWU, -0.04 ± 0.96; DIME, -0.53 ± 0.83; P = .004), and POST8M (SWU, 0.38 ± 0.95; DIME, -0.11 ± 0.98; P = .003), but there was not a significant improvement in the DIME group between PRE and POST8M (Δ%BW, -0.11 ± 0.98). No group differences in Δ LESS were observed. The study findings demonstrated that an injury prevention program performed as a warm-up can reduce vertical ground-reaction forces compared with a standard

  10. Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Jill P; Polsky, Sarit; Howard, Andrea A; Perreault, Leigh; Bray, George A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Brown-Friday, Janet; Whittington, Tracy; Foo, Sandra; Ma, Yong; Edelstein, Sharon L

    2009-09-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the effects in individuals at high risk of diabetes. The objectives were to determine associations between alcohol consumption and diabetes risk factors and whether alcohol consumption was a predictor of incident diabetes in individuals enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). DPP participants (n = 3175) had impaired glucose tolerance (2-h glucose: 7.8-11.1 mmol/L), elevated fasting glucose (5.3-7.0 mmol/L), and a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) > or =24. Participants were randomly assigned to placebo, metformin, or lifestyle modification and were followed for a mean of 3.2 y. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline and year 1 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was diagnosed by annual oral-glucose-tolerance testing and semiannual fasting plasma glucose measurement. Participants who reported higher alcohol consumption tended to be male, older, white, and less obese and to have a higher calorie intake and a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower insulin secretion at any level of insulin sensitivity. We found lower incidence rates of diabetes with higher alcohol consumption in the metformin (P alcohol consumption, there was a reduced risk of incident diabetes in those who reported modest daily alcohol intake and were assigned to metformin or lifestyle modification. Moderate daily alcohol intake is associated with lower insulin secretion-an effect that warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00038727.

  11. Development of an interprofessional program for cardiovascular prevention in primary care: A participatory research approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyne Lalonde

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The chronic care model provides a framework for improving the management of chronic diseases. Participatory research could be useful in developing a chronic care model–based program of interventions, but no one has as yet offered a description of precisely how to apply the approach. Objectives: An innovative, structured, multi-step participatory process was applied to select and develop (1 chronic care model–based interventions program to improve cardiovascular disease prevention that can be adapted to a particular regional context and (2 a set of indicators to monitor its implementation. Methods: Primary care clinicians (n = 16, administrative staff (n = 2, patients and family members (n = 4, decision makers (n = 5, researchers, and a research coordinator (n = 7 took part in the process. Additional primary care actors (n = 26 validated the program. Results: The program targets multimorbid patients at high or moderate risk of cardiovascular disease with uncontrolled hypertension, dyslipidemia or diabetes. It comprises interprofessional follow-up coordinated by case-management nurses, in which motivated patients are referred in a timely fashion to appropriate clinical and community resources. The program is supported by clinical tools and includes training in motivational interviewing. A set of 89 process and clinical indicators were defined. Conclusion: Through a participatory process, a contextualized interventions program to optimize cardiovascular disease prevention and a set of quality indicators to monitor its implementation were developed. Similar approach might be used to develop other health programs in primary care if program developers are open to building on community strengths and priorities.

  12. Effects of Community Based Educational Prevention Program of Drug Abuse in Reduction of High Risk Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Aranpour

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Overcoming social problems requires a participatory approach. This study was performed in order to determine the effect of community based educational prevention program of drug abuse in reduction of high risk behavior. Methods: This study was a community based participatory research. According to planned approach to community health model, "the health companion group" was established with participation of public representatives of villages, researchers, and managers of health sectors. Need assessment and priority setting of health problems was done. Drug abuse was selected as the topmost priority of health problems. By interviewing 10 year olds and older members of households, the questionnaires were completed. By conducting workshops, distributing educational pamphlets and face to face training for six months, the educational program was carried out. After this period, the study population was interviewed again. Data was analyzed by SPSS software, X2, and T tests. Results: The mean score of drug abuse related high risk behavior was 26.8 +/- 2.05 before educational program and 25.2 ±2.3 after the program. The mean score of psychological health was 26.2±5.8 before educational program and 26.4±5.7 after the program. The rate of negative drug abusing related behavior decreased and positive behavior increased after the educational program. Conclusion: The community based participatory research with participation of the public can be a proper pattern to prevent drug abuse and related high risk behaviors and as a result reduce costs and complications of this problem.

  13. Load monitoring program: Status and results report. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    British Columbia Hydro conducts a monitoring program to provide information on customer needs and values for planning; to measure customer response, energy savings impacts, and load shape impacts due to changes in rate level, rate restructuring, and Power Smart programs; to estimate end-use consumption and load shapes by customer class; and to provide load information for distribution and system load studies. To achieve these objectives, the monitoring program tracks the characteristics and energy use patterns of a sample of BC Hydro residential, commercial, and industrial customers over a period of several years. The entire sample will be surveyed periodically to obtain information on changes in building characteristics, equipment stocks, and energy-use behavior and attitudes. A report is provided on the status of monitoring program activities and some results obtained in 1993/94. For the residential sector, the results include typical load profiles, end-user demographics, and extent of electric space heating and water heating. In the commercial sector, customers were divided into two main groups. The large-building group was relatively well organized in terms of energy needs and participated in Power Smart programs. The small-building group was relatively energy-inefficient and relatively unaware of Power Smart programs. 43 figs., 15 tabs

  14. LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program and initial test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlestein, L.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Bloom, G.R.; McCormack, J.D.; Rahn, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    The LWR aerosol containment experiments (LACE) program is described. The LACE program is being performed at the Hanford Engineer Development Laboratory (operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company) and the initial tests are sponsored by EPRI. The objectives of the LACE program are: to demonstrate, at large-scale, inherent radioactive aerosol retention behavior for postulated high consequence LWR accident situations; and to provide a data base to be used for aerosol behavior . Test results from the first phase of the LACE program are presented and discussed. Three large-scale scoping tests, simulating a containment bypass accident sequence, demonstrated the extent of agglomeration and deposition of aerosols occurring in the pipe pathway and vented auxiliary building under realistic accident conditions. Parameters varied during the scoping tests were aerosol type and steam condensation

  15. Preventing Child Behavior Problems in the Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study: Results from Preschool to Secondary School Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Lösel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief overview of the prevention part of the long-term Erlangen-Nuremberg Development and Prevention Study, which combines a prospective longitudinal and experimental design. Findings up to five years after intervention are reported. From a sample of 609 families with kindergarten children, subgroups participated in the universal prevention program EFFEKT (child social skills training, a parent training and a combination of both or were assigned to equivalent control groups. The short-term evaluation showed significant effects in mediating constructs (social problem solving and parenting behavior and in educators’ratings of children’s social behavior. In a follow-up after two to three years, school report cards showed fewer children with multiple behavior problems. In a further follow up after four to five years program children reported fewer externalizing and internalizing problems than the control group. There were no significant effects in the mothers’ reports on their children’s behavior. Most significant effect sizes ranged between d = 0.20 and d = 0.40. The findings suggest various positive long-term effects of the intervention. However, one need to be cautious with regard to over-generalizing the positive findings, because effectsizes vary over time and the positive findings could not be replicated in all investigated variables.

  16. Evaluation of an inpatient preventive treatment program for soldiers returning from deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Peter; Kowalski, Jens; Niggemeier-Groben, Angelika; Sauer, Melanie; Leonhardt, Robert; Ströhle, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Since 1999, the German Armed Forces (Bundeswehr) have been conducting 3-weeks preventive treatment programs aimed at psychological resource-strengthening in soldiers returning from deployment. Five hundred participants of these programs received the Posttraumatic Stress Scale 10 (PTSS-10) before and after treatment and the rehabilitation assessment questionnaire of the German statutory pension insurance body. Sixty control group subjects received the PTSS-10 twice in an interval of 4-5 months without therapeutic interventions. Comparison of pre- and post-treatment PTSS-10 results in the covariance analysis showed an effect of the initial PTSS-10-stress-levels and rank category, not of the intervention. On average, the treatment program received 'very good' to 'excellent' overall ratings in the rehabilitation questionnaire. The acceptance of sports and movement therapy was significantly above average, whereas that of individual and group counselling was below. The results of this pilot study suggest a high acceptance of the post-deployment preventive program. Effectiveness in terms of psychometric improvement cannot be proven at this point.

  17. [Protect employability: effects of prevention programs offered by the German pension scheme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, J; Fröhlich, S M; Heilmeyer, P; Olbrich, D; Karoff, M; Greitemann, B

    2014-08-01

    A pilot study was carried out in 4 medical rehabilitation centers to examine the practicability and effectiveness of preventive life-style interventions for employees with risk factors. The programs were developed in cooperation with the German pension scheme and employers. Selection criteria were risk factors as lack of physical activity, overweight, dorsal pain or job strain. The results demonstrate that preventive programs, which are conducted in addition to the normal working hours on the job, can be implemented successfully in rehabilitation units. The participation in the multimodal prevention program goes along with a stable reduction of risky health behavior: increased physical activity, stress coping, dietary change und weight reduction. The healthier life-style is reflected in an enhanced state of health and has also positive impact on the occupational field scale: The percentage of employees who believed to be able to work until their old-age pension, could be increased significantly (p<0.001) from 47% to 74%. Work-related risk behaviors like excessive demands on oneself were reduced and protective strategies were -developed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Efficacy of a prevention program for eating disorders in schools: a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumz, Antje; Weigel, Angelika; Daubmann, Anne; Wegscheider, Karl; Romer, Georg; Löwe, Bernd

    2017-08-11

    Previous prevention programs in the school context have not addressed both genders, have been time-consuming, or have had deficits in the evaluation method. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a universal prevention program for female and male adolescents on eating disorder pathology and related risk factors. Between February 2012 and July 2014, 2515 students in 23 schools from 8th or 11th grade were assessed for eligibility in this longitudinal cluster-randomized controlled trial with a six months follow-up. Of those students, 2342 were cluster-randomized to the intervention condition which received a six school hours universal prevention program or to the no treatment control condition. The complete case population comprised 724 students in the intervention (54.3% female, M = 14.3 years, SD = 1.61) and 728 in the control condition (57.0% female, M = 14.7 years, SD = 1.63). Random-effects analysis of covariance on the primary outcome showed no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in their eating disorder pathology change scores six months after the intervention. Regarding secondary outcomes, participants in the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge about eating disorders both after the intervention (p < .001, ES = 1.06) and six months later (p = .01, ES = 0.40). Greater reductions in anxiety severity were observed in the intervention group post-intervention (p = .02, ES = 0.22) which was not maintained at the six months follow-up. Results differed between participants from grade 8 and 11. The present universal prevention program can be particularly recommended for adolescents from grade 11. ISRCTN 97989348.

  19. Moving from Efficacy to Effectiveness in Eating Disorders Prevention: The Sorority Body Image Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Ciao, Anna C.; Smith, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Although eating disorders prevention research has begun to produce programs with demonstrated efficacy, many such programs simply target individuals as opposed to engaging broader social systems (e.g., schools, sororities, athletic teams) as participant collaborators in eating disorders prevention. Yet, social systems ultimately will be…

  20. Evaluation of a Nurse-Led Fall Prevention Education Program in Turkish Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uymaz, Pelin E.; Nahcivan, Nursen O.

    2016-01-01

    Falls are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the elderly living in nursing homes. There is a need to implement and evaluate fall prevention programs in nursing homes to reduce the number of falls. The purpose of this research was to examine the effect of a nurse-led fall prevention education program in a sample of nursing home…

  1. Suicide Prevention Programs in the Schools: A Review and Public Health Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; Eckert, Tanya L.; Mazza, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of school-based suicide prevention programs from a public health perspective. A literature review of empirical studies examining school-based suicide prevention programs was conducted. Studies were required to contain information pertaining to the implementation and outcomes of a…

  2. Culturally Sensitive Risk Behavior Prevention Programs for African American Adolescents: A Systematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Isha; Cooper, Shauna M.; Zarrett, Nicole; Flory, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The current review conducted a systematic assessment of culturally sensitive risk prevention programs for African American adolescents. Prevention programs meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria were evaluated across several domains: (1) theoretical orientation and foundation; (2) methodological rigor; (3) level of cultural integration; (4)…

  3. Effects of Comprehensive, Multiple High-Risk Behaviors Prevention Program on High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Crystal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine the effect of a multiple high-risk behaviors prevention program applied comprehensively throughout an entire school-system involving universal, selective, and indicated levels of students at a local private high school during a 4-year period. The prevention program was created based upon the…

  4. Can First and Second Grade Students Benefit from an Alcohol Use Prevention Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary Lou; Padget, Alison; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Rider, Raamses

    2007-01-01

    Protecting You/Protecting Me (PY/PM) is a classroombased, alcohol use prevention and vehicle safety program for elementary students from first through fifth grades developed by Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD). PY/PM is one of the first alcohol prevention programs to target children as early as first grade. The focus of this study is on the…

  5. Modeling the Bullying Prevention Program Preferences of Educators: A Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Rimas, Heather; Deal, Ken; Cunningham, Lesley; Short, Kathy; Chen, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    We used discrete choice conjoint analysis to model the bullying prevention program preferences of educators. Using themes from computerized decision support lab focus groups (n = 45 educators), we composed 20 three-level bullying prevention program design attributes. Each of 1,176 educators completed 25 choice tasks presenting experimentally…

  6. Young Adults in the Workplace: A Multisite Initiative of Substance Use Prevention Programs. RTI Press Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W., Ed.; Galvin, Deborah M., Ed.; Cluff, Laurie A., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Although higher rates of substance use among young adults aged 16 to 24 are well-established (OAS, 2010), existing workplace substance use prevention and early intervention programs primarily target older workers. These data suggest that workplaces need substance abuse prevention and early intervention programs that are proven to be efficacious…

  7. Assess the Impact of an Online Tobacco Prevention Training Program on Teachers and Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. William; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Weng, Chung-Bang

    2013-01-01

    School-based tobacco prevention programs have been proven effective in reducing tobacco use. This evaluation aimed to assess the impact of an online tobacco prevention teacher training program on teachers and their students in Florida schools. A total of 344 teachers, including 72 K-3 grade teachers, 44 4th-5th grade teachers, and 228 6th-12th…

  8. Stacked Deck: An Effective, School-Based Program for the Prevention of Problem Gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert J.; Wood, Robert T.; Currie, Shawn R.

    2010-01-01

    School-based prevention programs are an important component of problem gambling prevention, but empirically effective programs are lacking. Stacked Deck is a set of 5-6 interactive lessons that teach about the history of gambling; the true odds and "house edge"; gambling fallacies; signs, risk factors, and causes of problem gambling; and…

  9. The Effect of a Depression Prevention Program on Negative Cognitive Style Trajectories in Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindt, Karlijn C. M.; Kleinjan, Marloes; Janssens, Jan M. A. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2016-01-01

    As restructuring a negative cognitive style is a central skill taught in many depression prevention programs, we tested whether a universal prevention program evoked a change in negative cognitive style in adolescents. In addition, we examined distinct developmental trajectories of negative cognitive styles and assessed whether research condition…

  10. Colorectal cancer prevention in Europe: burden of disease and status of screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, E; Lattanzi, A; Paduano, R; Varassi, G; di Orio, F

    2014-05-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health challenge worldwide. In Europe it is the first malignancy in terms of incidence and the second in terms of mortality in both genders. Despite evidence indicating that removal of premalignant and early-stage cancer lesion scan greatly reduce mortality, remarkable differences are still found among countries both in terms of organized screening programs and of the tests used. In 2003 the European Council recommended that priority be given to activation of organized cancer screening programs, and various states have been making significant efforts to adopt effective prevention programs with international quality standards and centralizing screening organization and result evaluation. After a 2008 European Union report on the state of screening program, activation highlighted that little more than 50% (12/22) of Member States had colorectal cancer screening programs, Screening programs have been adopted or earlier pilot projects have been extended nationwide. This paper examines the state of activation and the screening strategies of colorectal cancer screening programs in EU States as of July 2013. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A review of educational-based gambling prevention programs for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Chin Oh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstracts Educational-based problem gambling prevention programs are important avenues in targeting at-risk behaviors among adolescents to prevent an escalation of problematic behaviors into adulthood. The aim of this review is to examine features pertinent to effective educational-based programs in the area of adolescent problem gambling prevention in hopes of providing a foundation and future suggestions for preventive efforts. A stronger understanding of this research area will be essential in ensuring that past practical and theoretical advancements are integrated into the development of future programs.

  12. Family Violence Prevention Programs in Immigrant Communities: Perspectives of Immigrant Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…

  13. Text messaging based obesity prevention program for parents of pre-adolescent African American girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American girls are at a greater risk of obesity than their nonminority peers. Parents have the primary control over the home environment and play an important role in the child obesity prevention. Obesity prevention programs to help parents develop an obesity-preventive home environment are ...

  14. CDC's DELTA FOCUS Program: Identifying Promising Primary Prevention Strategies for Intimate Partner Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Theresa L; Rambo, Kirsten; Kearns, Megan; Jones, Kathryn M; Dills, Jenny; Brown, Pamela

    2017-01-01

    According to 2011 data, nearly one in four women and one in seven men in the United States experience severe physical violence by an intimate partner, creating a public health burden requiring population-level solutions. To prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) before it occurs, the CDC developed Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancements and Leadership Through Alliances, Focusing on Outcomes for Communities United with States to identify promising community- and societal-level prevention strategies to prevent IPV. The program funds 10 state domestic violence coalitions for 5 years to implement and evaluate programs and policies to prevent IPV by influencing the environments and conditions in which people live, work, and play. The program evaluation goals are to promote IPV prevention by identifying promising prevention strategies and describing those strategies using case studies, thereby creating a foundation for building practice-based evidence with a health equity approach.

  15. 78 FR 20443 - Sexual Assault Prevention and Response (SAPR) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... 1-02. Emergency. A situation that requires immediate intervention to prevent the loss of life, limb... cases. (c) The Director of the Defense Human Resources Activity (DoDHRA), under the authority, direction... the development of investigative policy in support of sexual assault prevention and response. (f) The...

  16. The Garrett Lee Smith Memorial Suicide Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, David B.; Walrath, Christine M.; McKeon, Richard; Puddy, Richard W.; Lubell, Keri M.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Rodi, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In response to calls for greater efforts to reduce youth suicide, the Garrett Lee Smith (GLS) Memorial Act has provided funding for 68 state, territory, and tribal community grants, and 74 college campus grants for suicide prevention efforts. Suicide prevention activities supported by GLS grantees have included education, training programs…

  17. 34 CFR 86.6 - When must an IHE submit a drug prevention program certification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must an IHE submit a drug prevention program certification? 86.6 Section 86.6 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.6 When must an IHE submit a drug prevention program certification? (a) After October 1, 1990, except as provided in...

  18. 9975 SHIPPING PACKAGE LIFE EXTENSION SURVEILLANCE PROGRAM RESULTS SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W.; Dunn, K.; Hackney, B.; Hoffman, E.; Skidmore, E.

    2011-01-06

    Results from the 9975 Surveillance Program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are summarized for justification to extend the life of the 9975 packages currently stored in the K-Area Materials Storage (KAMS) facility from 10 years to 15 years. This justification is established with the stipulation that surveillance activities will continue throughout this extended time to ensure the continued integrity of the 9975 materials of construction and to further understand the currently identified degradation mechanisms. The current 10 year storage life was developed prior to storage. A subsequent report was later used to extend the qualification of the 9975 shipping packages for 2 years for shipping plus 10 years for storage. However the qualification for the storage period was provided by the monitoring requirements of the Storage and Surveillance Program. This report summarizes efforts to determine a new safe storage limit for the 9975 shipping package based on the surveillance data collected since 2005 when the surveillance program began. KAMS is a zero-release facility that depends upon containment by the 9975 to meet design basis storage requirements. Therefore, to confirm the continued integrity of the 9975 packages while stored in KAMS, a 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program was implemented alongside the DOE required Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) for 3013 plutonium-bearing containers. The 9975 Storage and Surveillance Program performs field surveillance as well as accelerated aging tests to ensure any degradation due to aging, to the extent that could affect packaging performance, is detected in advance of such degradation occurring in the field. The Program has demonstrated that the 9975 package has a robust design that can perform under a variety of conditions. As such the primary emphasis of the on-going 9975 Surveillance Program is an aging study of the 9975 Viton(reg.sign) GLT containment vessel O-rings and the Celotex(reg.sign) fiberboard thermal

  19. Multisite cost analysis of a school-based voluntary alcohol and drug prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau; Burgdorf, James R; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy; Tucker, Joan

    2011-09-01

    This article estimates the societal costs of Project CHOICE, a voluntary after-school alcohol and other drug prevention program for adolescents. To our knowledge, this is the first cost analysis of an after-school program specifically focused on reducing alcohol and other drug use. The article uses microcosting methods based on the societal perspective and includes a number of sensitivity analyses to assess how the results change with alternative assumptions. Cost data were obtained from surveys of participants, facilitators, and school administrators; insights from program staff members; program expenditures; school budgets; the Bureau of Labor Statistics; and the National Center for Education Statistics. From the societal perspective, the cost of implementing Project CHOICE in eight California schools ranged from $121 to $305 per participant (Mdn = $238). The major cost drivers included labor costs associated with facilitating Project CHOICE, opportunity costs of displaced class time (because of in-class promotions for Project CHOICE and consent obtainment), and other efforts to increase participation. Substituting nationally representative cost information for wages and space reduced the range to $100-$206 (Mdn = $182), which is lower than the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's estimate of $262 per pupil for the "average effective school-based program in 2002." Denominating national Project CHOICE costs by enrolled students instead of participants generates a median per-pupil cost of $21 (range: $14-$28). Estimating the societal costs of school-based prevention programs is crucial for efficiently allocating resources to reduce alcohol and other drug use. The large variation in Project CHOICE costs across schools highlights the importance of collecting program cost information from multiple sites.

  20. Effects of a school-based prevention program on European adolescents' patterns of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Maria Paola; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Bellocco, Rino; Galanti, Maria Rosaria

    2011-02-01

    School-based substance abuse prevention programs are widespread but are rarely evaluated in Europe. We aimed to evaluate the effect of a new school-based prevention program against substance use on the frequency of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problem behaviors among European students. During the school year 2004-2005, a total of 7,079 students aged 12-14 years from 143 schools in seven European countries participated in this cluster randomized controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control (65 schools, 3,532 students) or to a 12-session standardized program based on the comprehensive social influence model (78 schools, 3,547 students). Alcohol use and frequency of alcohol-related problem behaviors were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. The association between intervention and changes in alcohol-related outcomes was expressed as odds ratio (OR), estimated by multilevel regression model. The preventive program was associated with a decreased risk of reporting alcohol-related problems (OR = .78, 95% confidence intervals [CI] = .63-.98), although this reduction was not statistically significant in the subgroup of 743 current drinkers at baseline. The risk for alcohol consumption was not modified by exposure to the program (OR = .93, 95% CI = .79-1.09). In the intervention group, nondrinkers and occasional drinkers at baseline progressed toward frequent drinking less often than in the control group. School curricula based on the comprehensive social-influence model can delay progression to frequent drinking and reduce occurrence of alcohol-related behavioral problems in European students. These results, albeit moderate, have potentially useful implications at the population level. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing Online Family Life Prevention and Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Robert, Jr.; Bowers, Jill R.; Mitchell, Elissa Thomann; Curtiss, Sarah; Ebata, Aaron T.

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous online family life education programs have been developed over the past few years, there has been little discussion about best practices in the development of these programs. This article presents a framework to assist family life educators in the development and improvement of online programs from the initial problem analysis…

  2. [Implementation of Evidence-Based Prevention Programs for Eating Disorders: PriMa and Torera in Daily School Life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adametz, Luise; Richter, Felicitas; Mühleck, Julia; Wick, Katharina; Strauß, Bernhard; Berger, Uwe

    2017-09-28

    Background Prevalence rates for eating disorders remained stable over the years despite the implementation of numerous prevention strategies. This may be due to discrepancies between research and practice and scientific findings are not fully applied to the care of risk groups. The school-based programs PriMa and Torera for primary prevention of eating disorders have been delivered in Thuringian schools since 2004. A current survey provides information on barriers and facilitators for a long-term implementation in the school routine. Objectives and Methods Using the "Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research", factors which impact the implementation process are discussed. Results Impeding factors for a long-term implementation are missing framework conditions, staff turnover and a lack of financial support from politicians. Possible solutions could be the establishment of extra time in the curriculum, the employment of individuals responsible for prevention and a close network between all people involved. Conclusion According to the Society for Prevention Research, discussing implementation factors builds the last part of comprehensive program evaluations. We illustrate the barriers for the integration of evidence-based prevention programs in daily school life. It is important to implement new structures prior to the implementation of resource-intensive new prevention programs in order to increase the effectiveness of said programs and enable long-term implementation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use: final results of the Climate Schools course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C; Teesson, Maree; Vogl, Laura E; Andrews, Gavin

    2010-04-01

    To establish the long-term efficacy of a universal internet-based alcohol and cannabis prevention programme in schools. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, is facilitated by the internet and consists of 12 novel and curriculum consistent lessons delivered over 6 months. A total of 764 year 8 students (13 years) from 10 Australian secondary schools were allocated randomly to the internet-based prevention programme (n = 397, five schools), or to their usual health classes (n = 367, five schools). Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and 6 and 12 months following completion of the intervention, on measures of alcohol and cannabis knowledge, attitudes, use and related harms. This paper reports the final results of the intervention trial, 12 months following the completion of the Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis Course. The effectiveness of the course 6 months following the intervention has been reported previously. At the 12-month follow-up, compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant improvements in alcohol and cannabis knowledge, a reduction in average weekly alcohol consumption and a reduction in frequency of drinking to excess. No differences between groups were found on alcohol expectancies, cannabis attitudes or alcohol- and cannabis-related harms. The course was found to be acceptable by teachers and students as a means of delivering drug education in schools. Internet-based prevention programs for school-age children can improve student's knowledge about alcohol and cannabis, and may also reduce alcohol use twelve months after completion.

  4. Preventive Dental Care: An Educational Program to Integrate Oral Care Into Pediatric Oncology
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Erin; Krainovich-Miller, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    Early childhood dental caries (dental cavities) is an infectious process. The development of oral problems during cancer care results in pain, fever, and delay in treatment. 
. The objective of this project was to integrate preventive oral care into pediatric oncology care. 
. This project consisted of an educational program for pediatric oncology providers who completed pre- and postprogram surveys assessing oral health knowledge, attitudes, and practice; attended an oral health education session; and performed oral assessment and fluoride varnish application on children during cancer treatment. 
. Three major outcomes resulted from this project.

  5. Technical efficiency of women's health prevention programs in Bucaramanga, Colombia: a four-stage analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Rodriguez, Myriam; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A; Heredia-Pi, Ileana

    2016-10-13

    Primary Health Care (PHC) is an efficient strategy to improve health outcomes in populations. Nevertheless, studies of technical efficiency in health care have focused on hospitals, with very little on primary health care centers. The objective of the present study was to use the Data Envelopment Analysis to estimate the technical efficiency of three women's health promotion and disease prevention programs offered by primary care centers in Bucaramanga, Colombia. Efficiency was measured using a four-stage data envelopment analysis with a series of Tobit regressions to account for the effect of quality outcomes and context variables. Input/output information was collected from the institutions' records, chart reviews and personal interviews. Information about contextual variables was obtained from databases from the primary health program in the municipality. A jackknife analysis was used to assess the robustness of the results. The analysis was based on data from 21 public primary health care centers. The average efficiency scores, after adjusting for quality and context, were 92.4 %, 97.5 % and 86.2 % for the antenatal care (ANC), early detection of cervical cancer (EDCC) and family planning (FP) programs, respectively. On each program, 12 of the 21 (57.1 %) health centers were found to be technically efficient; having had the best-practice frontiers. Adjusting for context variables changed the scores and reference rankings of the three programs offered by the health centers. The performance of the women's health prevention programs offered by the centers was found to be heterogeneous. Adjusting for context and health care quality variables had a significant effect on the technical efficiency scores and ranking. The results can serve as a guide to strengthen management and organizational and planning processes related to local primary care services operating within a market-based model such as the one in Colombia.

  6. Prevention of language problems in children: the effectiveness of an intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GALLEGO ORTEGA

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Language is an essential tool for personal and social development of children and it is perceived as the most important learning that children undertake in the early years of their lives. It is generally accepted that from birth to the age of three-four years old, children achieve a basic repertory of skills in different linguistic dimensions which allow them to communicate effectively with their environment. However, research has shown that phonemic disorders, morphosyntactic dysfunctions and semantic poverty figure prominently in the overall oral language disorders in infancy. In this respect, the review of literature informs us of the abundance of work aimed at rehabiliting the conditions already set in childlike expression, but there are significant gaps in regard to systematic prevention programs to prevent such evolutionary disorders which can become operational because of an early intervention in the field of communication. According to the above, it was developed a research project designed to establish the differential impact of a program to develop language skills in preschoolers. We worked with a sample of 32 children (5 years old in a pretest-posttest design. The data analysis shows that the magnitude of change is significant when comparing the results obtained by the experimental and the control group before and after program implementation. The overall effect of the program allowed to determine its effectiveness to increase language skills in the morph syntactic level.

  7. Outcomes of a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training Program Among School Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamis, Dorian A; Underwood, Maureen; D'Amore, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    Gatekeeper suicide prevention programs train staff to increase the identification and referral of suicidal individuals to the appropriate resources. We evaluated Act on FACTS: Making Educators Partners in Youth Suicide Prevention (MEP), which is an online training program designed to enhance the knowledge of suicide risk factors and warning signs as well as improve participants' attitudes and self-efficacy/confidence. School personnel (N = 700) completed a survey administered before and immediately after the training to assess gains in training outcomes and to evaluate participants' satisfaction with the training. Results indicated that MEP participants demonstrated significant increases in suicide knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy. Moreover, exploratory analyses revealed moderating effects of professional role on pre-/posttest changes in self-efficacy, but not suicide knowledge or attitudes. Specifically, guidance counselors demonstrated significantly smaller increases in self-efficacy/confidence compared with teachers and classroom aids, whereas teachers demonstrated significantly larger increases in self-efficacy/confidence compared with administrators. The majority of school personnel who completed the MEP program were satisfied with the training content and experience. Although the current findings are promising, more rigorous evaluations employing randomized controlled research designs are warranted to adequately determine the effectiveness of the MEP program.

  8. A community intervention trial of multimodal suicide prevention program in Japan: A Novel multimodal Community Intervention program to prevent suicide and suicide attempt in Japan, NOCOMIT-J

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Yuriko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To respond to the rapid surge in the incidence of suicide in Japan, which appears to be an ongoing trend, the Japanese Multimodal Intervention Trials for Suicide Prevention (J-MISP have launched a multimodal community-based suicide prevention program, NOCOMIT-J. The primary aim of this study is to examine whether NOCOMIT-J is effective in reducing suicidal behavior in the community. Methods/DesignThis study is a community intervention trial involving seven intervention regions with accompanying control regions, all with populations of statistically sufficient size. The program focuses on building social support networks in the public health system for suicide prevention and mental health promotion, intending to reinforce human relationships in the community. The intervention program components includes a primary prevention measures of awareness campaign for the public and key personnel, secondary prevention measures for screening of, and assisting, high-risk individuals, after-care for individuals bereaved by suicide, and other measures. The intervention started in July 2006, and will continue for 3.5 years. Participants are Japanese and foreign residents living in the intervention and control regions (a total of population of 2,120,000 individuals. Discussion The present study is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the community-based suicide prevention program in the seven participating areas. Trial registration UMIN Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN-CTR UMIN000000460.

  9. Effectiveness of waste prevention program in primary students' schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Voukkali, Irene; Loizia, Pantelitsa

    2017-06-01

    Even though reducing waste is at the top of the waste hierarchy, no real decoupling between waste generation and consumption has been demonstrated. Several waste directives had been published from EU, but they have only brought minor changes within the key objective of reducing waste generation. Most efforts have been targeted towards greater amounts of recycling and better management of waste disposal. While these are necessary and socially beneficial goals, they are not adequate for the achievement of long-term sustainability goals. The purpose of this study is to understand students' knowledge, attitudes and behavioural changes in relation to the water plastic bottle of 500 ml. Understanding waste prevention behaviour (WPB) could enable schools' principals, local authorities and committees as well as decision makers to design and implement more effective policies for reducing the amount of specific waste streams that is generated. Students in a daily base bring their own water containers of 500 ml or buy water from the school as they do not feel safe to use other sources of water. Nine hundred ninety-eight refilling stainless steel water refilling bottles (SSWRB-of 600 ml) were shared to the students in four primary schools. The results indicated that the students are presented with different behaviours from class to class for many reasons; most of them are related with what their parents believe, and how themselves or the synergies between them reacts and affected.

  10. Risk-based technical specifications program: Site interview results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.R.; Baker, A.J.; Johnson, R.L.

    1991-08-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute and Pacific Gas and Electric Company are sponsoring a program directed at improving Technical Specifications using risk-based methods. The major objectives of the program are to develop risk-based approaches to improve Technical Specifications and to develop an Interactive Risk Advisor (IRA) prototype. The IRA is envisioned as an interactive system that is available to plant personnel to assist in controlling plant operation. Use of an IRA is viewed as a method to improve plant availability while maintaining or improving plant safety. In support of the program, interviews were conducted at several PWR and BWR plant sites, to elicit opinions and information concerning risk-based approaches to Technical Specifications and IRA requirements. This report presents the results of these interviews, including the functional requirements of an IRA. 2 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Can community care workers deliver a falls prevention exercise program? A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Gill Lewin,2 Hilary O’Connell,3 Mark Petrich,4,5 Eileen Boyle,1 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 2School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 3Independent Living Centre Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 4Western Australian Department of Health, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 5School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia Background: Almost half of older people receiving community care fall each year and this rate has not improved in the last decade. Falls prevention programs targeted at this group are uncommon, and expensively delivered by university trained allied health professionals. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of community care workers delivering a falls prevention exercise program to older clients, at low or medium risk of falling, as part of an existing service provision. Patients and methods: Community care workers from 10 community care organizations participated in the training for, and delivery to their clients of, an 8-week evidence-based falls prevention exercise program. Community care workers included assessment staff (responsible for identifying the need for community care services through completing an assessment and support workers (responsible for providing support in the home. Clients were surveyed anonymously at the completion of the intervention and workers participated in a semi-structured interview. Results: Twenty-five community care workers participated in the study. The falls prevention program was delivered to 29 clients, with an average age of 82.7 (SD: 8.72 years and consisting of 65.5% female. The intervention was delivered safely with no adverse events recorded, and the eligibility and assessment tools

  12. Adolescents' reactions to universal and indicated prevention programs for depression: perceived stigma and consumer satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapee, Ronald M; Wignall, Ann; Sheffield, Jeanie; Kowalenko, Nick; Davis, Anna; McLoone, Jordana; Spence, Susan H

    2006-06-01

    There is a common view that one of the major considerations in selecting between universal and indicated interventions is the marked stigma produced by the latter. However, to date there has been no empirical examination of this assumption. The current study examined reported stigma and program satisfaction following two school-based interventions aimed at preventing depression in 532 middle adolescents. The interventions were conducted either across entire classes by classroom teachers (universal delivery) or in small high risk groups by mental health professionals (indicated delivery). The indicated delivery was associated with significantly greater levels of perceived stigma, but effect sizes were small and neither program was associated with marked stigma in absolute terms. Perceived stigma was more strongly associated with aspects of the individual including being male and showing greater externalizing symptomatology. In contrast, the indicated program was evaluated more positively by both participants and program leaders and effect sizes for these measures of satisfaction were moderate to large. The results point to the need for further empirical evaluation of both perceived stigma and program satisfaction in providing balanced considerations of the value of indicated and universal programs.

  13. Integration of reliability objectives into GCFR Accident Prevention Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torri, A.; Katz, R.

    1980-05-01

    Under DOE sponsorship, the Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) Program is implementing a program to integrate reliability into the engineering and design of safety-related systems, subsystems, and components. The objective of the program is to ensure that reliability goals established for each Line of Protection (LOP) are met consistent with the overall plant goals. Special consideration is given to components for which only a generic data base exists. Based on evaluations of past reliability test programs, it is concluded that full-scale reliability test programs are not cost effective but that extended design verification and support (DV and S) testing may be warranted in special circumstances. The paper discusses the major elements of the program, their relationship, and benefits to the design of safety systems

  14. Strategies to optimize participation in diabetes prevention programs following gestational diabetes: a focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaberi Dasgupta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2 prevention program. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. RESULTS: Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. CONCLUSIONS: Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners.

  15. Program content of teaching physical education in order to prevent violence in educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sretenović Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary goal of this paper is to show the capacity of the program content of physical education in the implementation of the third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan for the Prevention of Violence in Educational Institutions. Ministry of Education brought this plan in January 2009. The third specific objective of the Framework Action Plan: Provide preventive and protective role of school sport and sporting activities of students. This paper examines the extent to which this goal is achieved, trough regular classes, after-school and extracurricular activities of physical education; indicates the capacity of the teaching field in the creation and development of a safe and supportive environment in the institution; sees level of participation by experts, council and teams in the design and implementation of sports activities in school and the extent to which these activities are implemented in the institution documents, plans and programs of experts, and larger teams; it is the sustainability of these activities achieved in school practices and also to strengthen the competence of teachers in supporting the development of students personality, communication and collaboration. In order to complete document association of council, experts and teams in the institution, there has been an insight into the school curriculum, the development plan, annual plan of the institution, protection program community of students, the curriculum of a school parliament, council of parents, higher vocational and physical education teachers and report on the implementation of the protection program. In order to document by empirical data the capacity of the teaching areas in the function of preventing violence, a sample of 46 primary schools in Sumadija area, evaluation of the implementation of sports and sports activities students in programming classes of physical education, was executed. By these results, it can be concluded that in teaching methods

  16. Examining the Effectiveness of the Smoking Prevention Program "I Do Not Smoke, I Exercise" in Elementary and Secondary School Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovelonis, Athanasios; Goudas, Marios; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effectiveness of the smoking prevention program "I do not smoke, I exercise" implemented with elementary and secondary school students. "I do not smoke, I exercise" is a theory-based smoking prevention program that promotes exercise as an alternative of smoking. The program consists of eight sessions implemented weekly. Participants were 338 Greek students (135 elementary and 203 secondary students) who were pre- and posttested in smoking, program, and exercise-related measures. The results showed that the program had significant effects on elementary students' attitudes toward smoking, intention to smoke, subjective norms, attitudes toward the application of the program, and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking. For secondary students, significant effects were found on students' perceived behavioral control and knowledge about the health consequences of smoking, while very few students reported a smoking experience before and after the intervention. Therefore the program "I do not smoke, I exercise" may have positive effects on variables related with smoking behavior. Differences in the program's impact on elementary and secondary students were identified. All these are discussed with reference to the need of implementing smoking prevention programs in schools contexts. © 2016 Society for Public Health Education.

  17. An Ounce of Prevention: A Survey of Preventive Service Programs Contracted by New York City Special Services for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlung, Susan, Ed.

    A survey of 47 New York City programs designed to provide preventive services to high risk families and children was undertaken through mailback collection forms, onsite interviews, and case record readings. Among findings were that data in the applications and monthly reports were incomplete and inconsistent; operational definitions of prevention…

  18. A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs' Effects on Bystander Intervention Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized bullying prevention programs' effectiveness at increasing bystander intervention in bullying situations. Evidence from 12 school-based programs, involving 12,874 students, indicated that overall the programs were successful (Hedges's g = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.11 to 0.29, p = 0.001), with larger…

  19. Process Evaluation of a Bullying Prevention Program: A Public School-County Health Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Lynne; Hoover, John

    2008-01-01

    In this article, a process evaluation of a school-based, violence intervention program is presented. The program was modeled after bullying prevention programs described by Daniel Olweus (1993) whose components were implemented to achieve student safety goals. The process evaluation instrument used in this study was developed by a rural Midwestern…

  20. Exercise program for prevention of groin pain in football players: a cluster-randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hölmich, P; Larsen, K; Krogsgaard, Kim

    2010-01-01

    programs. We performed a cluster-randomized trial including 55 football clubs representing 1211 players. The clubs were randomized to an exercise program aimed at preventing groin injuries (n=27) or to a control group training as usual (n=28). The intervention program consisted of six exercises including...

  1. Combining Primary Prevention and Risk Reduction Approaches in Sexual Assault Protection Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menning, Chadwick; Holtzman, Mellisa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The object of this study is to extend prior evaluations of Elemental, a sexual assault protection program that combines primary prevention and risk reduction strategies within a single program. Participants and Methods: During 2012 and 2013, program group and control group students completed pretest, posttest, and 6-week and 6-month…

  2. A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of a School-Based Depression Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Sally; McDowell, Heather; Wild, Chris J.; Bir, Julliet; Cunliffe, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a placebo-controlled study of the effectiveness of a universal school-based depression prevention program. Method: Three hundred ninety-two students age 13 to 15 from two schools were randomized to intervention (RAP-Kiwi) and placebo programs run by teachers. RAP-Kiwi was an 11-session manual-based program derived from…

  3. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse Victimization: A Meta Analysis of School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispens, Jan; Aleman, Andre; Goudena, Paul P.

    1997-01-01

    Meta-analysis of 16 evaluation studies of school programs aimed at the prevention of child sexual abuse victimization found significant and considerable mean postintervention and follow-up effect sizes, indicating that the programs were effective in teaching children sexual abuse concepts and self-protection skills. Program duration and content…

  4. Comparing a telephone- and a group-delivered diabetes prevention program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S, Lim; Dunbar, James; Versace, Vin

    2017-01-01

    Aims To explore the acceptability of a telephone- or a group-delivered diabetes prevention program for women with previous gestational diabetes and to compare the characteristics associated with program engagement. Methods Postpartum women participated in a lifestyle modification program delivere...

  5. An Integrative Suicide Prevention Program for Visitor Charcoal Burning Suicide and Suicide Pact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Liu, Patricia M. Y.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Law, Y. W.; Law, Steven C. K.; Fu, King-Wa; Li, Hana S. H.; Tso, M. K.; Beautrais, Annette L.; Yip, Paul S. F.

    2009-01-01

    An integrative suicide prevention program was implemented to tackle an outbreak of visitor charcoal burning suicides in Cheung Chau, an island in Hong Kong, in 2002. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the program. The numbers of visitor suicides reduced from 37 deaths in the 51 months prior to program implementation to 6 deaths in the 42…

  6. December 1993 National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month: Program Planner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This program planner's kit is based on the experiences of the first 12 years of the National Drunk and Drugged Driving (3D) Prevention Month program and provides practical advice to help readers plan activities for this year's campaign. Included in the kit is a background and resource guide that explains the background and goals of the program and…

  7. Functionally oriented rehabilitation program for patients with fibromyalgia: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennemer, Heidi K; Borg-Stein, Joanne; Gomba, Lorraine; Delaney, Bobbi; Rothmund, Astrid; Barlow, David; Breeze, Gail; Thompson, Anita

    2006-08-01

    To evaluate function and disability in patients with fibromyalgia before and after participation in a functionally oriented, multidisciplinary, 8-wk treatment program. A total of 23 patients who met American College of Rheumatology criteria for the diagnosis of fibromyalgia were enrolled in the study. Outcome measures included: range of motion, 6-min walk test, a modified Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, a modified SF-36 Physical Functioning Scale, and the Fibromyalgia Health Assessment Questionnaire. Pretreatment and posttreatment scores were analyzed using paired t tests. All subjects completed the program, and there were no reported injuries. Three subjects failed to complete the survey instruments at the conclusion of the study. Intention to treat analysis including these subjects was carried out but did not significantly change results. For the remaining subjects (n = 20), a significant improvement was found on the Physical Functioning Scale (P = 0.01). Trends toward improvement on the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (P = 0.40) and Fibromyalgia Health Assessment Questionnaire (P = 0.14) were seen but did not achieve statistical significance. Range of motion testing revealed significant improvements in lumbar spine extension (P Borg scale did not change. There were no injuries or other adverse consequences of the program. This study utilized multiple functional outcome measures to demonstrate improved function and decreased disability in patients with fibromyalgia. Our patients reported significantly improved physical function after participation in the 8-wk intensive multidisciplinary treatment program. This progressive, functionally based exercise training program was well tolerated by all participants and outlines an effective exercise prescription for patients with fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia patients in this study responded favorably to a treatment program that focused on function instead of pain.

  8. Community Priorities for Hospital-Based Prevention Initiatives: Results From a Deliberating Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marthe R; Realmuto, Lindsey; Scherer, Maya; Kamler, Alexandra; Weiss, Linda

    2017-06-21

    Internal revenue service provisions require not-for-profit hospitals to provide "community benefit." In addition, the Affordable Care Act requires these hospitals to conduct community health needs assessments that involve appropriate stakeholders. These requirements signal government interest in creating opportunities for developing programs that are well tailored and responsive to the needs of the communities served. Gaining meaningful input from residents is a critical aspect of these processes. To implement public deliberations that explore local resident priorities for use of a hospital's community benefit resources to prevent chronic disease. Public deliberation is a method of community engagement that can provide guidance to decision makers on value-laden issues when technical solutions alone are inadequate to provide direction or set priorities. Three deliberations featuring presentations by experts and discussions among participants were convened with a cross section of residents in Brooklyn, New York. Participants were asked whether new hospital initiatives should prioritize: clinical prevention, community-based interventions, or action on broader policies affecting population health. Pre- and postsurveys, as well as qualitative methods, were used to assess knowledge and attitudes. Postdeliberation, participants had significant changes in knowledge, particularly on the impact of education on health. Participants prioritized community-based and policy interventions over expanding clinical prevention capacity. Public deliberation offers a method to probe informed constituent views of how a hospital can best promote its community's health. Informed local residents felt that hospitals should frame health-promoting activities more broadly than is current practice. Not-for-profit hospitals gain significant tax advantages. Increased insurance rates suggest that some hospitals will experience savings in uncompensated care that can be used to promote health more

  9. DOE radiological calibrations intercomparison program: Results of fiscal year 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, F.M.; Roberson, P.L.; McDonald, J.C.

    1987-05-01

    The Department of Energy Radiological Calibration Intercomparison Program was initiated in January 1986, under the research portion of the DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program. The program operates via the exchange of transfer standards, consisting of instrument sets and standard secondary beta sources. There are two instrument sets and the scheduled use has been staggered such that one set is available for use during each month. One set of secondary standard beta sources is available for use bimonthly. During the 1986 fiscal year, five laboratories used the instrument sets and three laboratories used the beta source set. Results were reported for all the measurements. The average and one standard deviation of the ratios of participant results to Pacific Northwest Laboratory calibration values were 1.12 +- 0.17 for gamma measurements. Those ratios for the gamma measurements varied from 0.98 to 3.06. The larger differences of results from measurements performed at two facilities were directly attributable to unfamiliarity with the intercomparison instruments. The average and one standard deviation of the ratios of participant results to PNL calibration values obtained using the secondary 90 Sr beta source was 1.02 +- 0.05, which is well within measurement uncertainties. The one participant who performed measurements using 147 Pm and 204 Tl sources obtained ratios of 0.68 and 1.11, respectively. No measurements were performed using neutron or x-ray sources

  10. Westinghouse accident tolerant fuel program. Current results and future plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, Sumit; Xu, Peng; Lahoda, Edward; Hallstadius, Lars; Boylan, Frank [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Hopkins, SC (United States)

    2016-07-15

    This paper discusses the current status, results from initial tests, as well as the future direction of the Westinghouse's Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) program. The current preliminary testing is addressed that is being performed on these samples at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) test reactor, initial results from these tests, as well as the technical learning from these test results. In the Westinghouse ATF approach, higher density pellets play a significant role in the development of an integrated fuel system.

  11. Training Needs Assessment to Design Empowerment Programs for Preventing Domestic Violence Against Iranian Married Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Kianfard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The World Health Organization declared violence against women a top priority for health and emphasized the importance of the world's attention to the prevention and control programs. This study was conducted aimed to identify the training needs of married women referring to health centers in Ahvaz with the objective of enabling the design of a program to prevent violence. Methodology: This sectional study consisted of two qualitative and quantitative studies. In qualitative study, the opinions of 30 married women residing in Ahvaz were collected and analyzed in four focus group discussions. using a validated and reliable questionnaire, the knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy and performance of 320 married women in area of domestic violence were identified Findings: 79% of the women surveyed had adequate awareness about violence against women. 34% of the target group in the field of domestic violence against women has had the right attitude and more than 80% of them stated that violence by men is considered inevitable and natural. 89% of the target group expressed lack of efficacy for the prevention of domestic violence against women. The findings also suggest that there is significant relationship between education and early marriage with violent behavior. Conclusion: providing proper education and awareness to women and group discussion and clarification in order to change attitudes and increase efficacy in abused women against domestic violence are the necessary strategies which result in changing attitudes of women and increasing empowerment of women against domestic violence.

  12. Effects of a prevention program for divorced families on youth cortisol reactivity 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecken, Linda J; Hagan, Melissa J; Mahrer, Nicole E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Sandler, Irwin N; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether an empirically based, randomised controlled trial of a preventive intervention for divorced mothers and children had a long-term impact on offspring cortisol regulation. Divorced mothers and children (age 9-12) were randomly assigned to a literature control condition or the 11-week New Beginnings Program, a family-focused group preventive intervention for mothers and children in newly divorced families. Fifteen years after the trial, offspring salivary cortisol (n = 161) was measured before and after a social stress task. Multilevel mixed models were used to predict cortisol from internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, group assignment and potential moderators of intervention effects. Across the sample, higher externalizing symptoms were associated with lower cortisol reactivity. There was a significant group-by-age interaction such that older offspring in the control group had higher reactivity relative to the intervention group, and younger offspring in the control group exhibited a decline across the task relative to younger offspring in the intervention group. Preventive interventions for youth from divorced families may have a long-term impact on cortisol reactivity to stress. Results highlight the importance of examining moderators of program effects.

  13. Implementation of a multicenter shoulder dystocia injury prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Linda; Arnold, Christine; Vaught, Arthur J; LaMantia, Susan; Harris, Theresa; Satin, Andrew J

    2017-04-01

    Although the evidence for supporting the effectiveness of many patient safety practices has increased in recent years, the ability to implement programs to positively impact clinical outcomes across multiple institutions is lagging. Shoulder dystocia simulation has been shown to reduce avoidable patient harm. Neonatal injury from shoulder dystocia contributes to a significant percentage of liability claims. We describe the development and the process of implementation of a shoulder dystocia simulation program across five academic medical centers and their affiliated hospitals united by a common insurance carrier. Key factors in successful roll out of this program included the following: involvement of physician and nursing leadership from each academic medical center; administrative and logistic support from the insurer; development of consensus on curriculum components of the program; conduct of gap and barrier analysis; financial support from insurer to close necessary gaps and mitigate barriers; and creation of dashboards and tracking performance of the program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The 4-H Health Rocks! Program in Florida: Outcomes on Youth Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Substance Abuse Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusami Kumaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Youth tobacco, alcohol, and other substance abuse is a serious concern in the State of Florida, as well as across the nation. 4-H Health Rocks! is a positive youth development prevention program that utilizes experiential learning methods and youth-adult partnerships. The program and supporting curriculum were designed to foster personal and social skills to better equip adolescents to overcome pressures to participate in substance use. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of Health Rocks! in Florida and program evaluation including its impact on participants’ drug knowledge, drug beliefs and attitudes, and drug resistance skills. Program evaluation indicates that 4-H Health Rocks! resulted in statistically significant improvement in each of these categories for hundreds of youth reached in 2009-2012. The importance of program components in preventing and influencing adolescent substance abuse are discussed.

  15. Family-Based Psychoeducation Programs for Prevention of Depression in Adolescents with Depressed Parents: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyda Basogul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the effects of family-based psychoeducation programs to the prevention depression for children of depressed parents and investigates participant, intervention, provider, and research designs. Family-based psychoeducation programs described by articles in several national and international databases were reviewed. Five studies were identified using this approach and are included in this review. The adolescents who participated in Family-Based Psychoeducation programs reported a significant decrease in symptoms of depression, internalizing and externalizing symptoms and increase in secondary control coping. Moreover, it was noted that there was an increase in positive parental skills and a moderate effect for episodes of depression of the parents who participated in the programs. Studies evaluating effects of family-based psychoeducation programs have indicated positive results to the prevention depression for children of depressed parents. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(3.000: 265-279

  16. An effective suicide prevention program in the Israeli Defense Forces: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, L; Tatsa-Laur, L; Derazne, E; Mann, J J; Fruchter, E

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program, implemented since 2006. Quasi-experimental (before and after) cohort study. Two cohorts of IDF mandatory service soldiers: the first inducted prior to (1992-2005, n=766,107) and the second subsequent to (2006-2012, n=405,252) the launching of the intervention program. The IDF Suicide Prevention Program is a population-based program, incorporating: reducing weapon availability, de-stigmatizing help-seeking behavior, integrating mental health officers into service units, and training commanders and soldiers to recognize suicide risk factors and warning signs. Suicide rate and time to suicide in cohorts before and after exposure to the Suicide Prevention Program. Trend analysis showed lower suicide rates in the cohort after intervention. The hazard ratio for the intervention effect on time to suicide was 0.44 (95% CI=0.34-0.56, Psuicide rate following the administration of the IDF Suicide Prevention Program. The effect of the intervention appears to be related to use of a weapon, and being able to benefit from improved help-seeking and de-stigmatization. Future efforts should seek to extend the program's prevention reach to other demographic groups of soldiers. The success of the IDF program may inform suicide prevention in other military organizations and in the civilian sector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Selective prevention programs for children from substance-affected families: a comprehensive systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bröning Sonja

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. So far, such programs for children of substance-involved parents have not been reviewed together. We conducted a comprehensive systematic review to identify and summarize evaluations of selective preventive interventions in childhood and adolescence targeted at this specific group. From the overall search result of 375 articles, 339 were excluded, 36 full texts were reviewed. From these, nine eligible programs documented in 13 studies were identified comprising four school-based interventions (study 1–6, one community-based intervention (study 7–8, and four family-based interventions (study 9–13. Studies’ levels of evidence were rated in accordance with the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN methodology, and their quality was ranked according to a score adapted from the area of meta-analytic family therapy research and consisting of 15 study design quality criteria. Studies varied in program format, structure, content, and participants. They also varied in outcome measures, results, and study design quality. We found seven RCT’s, two well designed controlled or quasi-experimental studies, three well-designed descriptive studies, and one qualitative study. There was preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the programs, especially when their duration was longer than ten weeks and when they involved children’s, parenting, and family skills training components. Outcomes proximal to the intervention, such as program-related knowledge, coping-skills, and family relations, showed better results than more distal outcomes such as self-worth and substance use initiation, the latter due to the comparably young age of participants and sparse longitudinal data. However, because of the small overall number of studies found

  18. The Meta Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Prevention Programs of Students’ Attitude Change toward Substance Abuse in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi Mehri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the aim of current study was the study of the effectiveness of prevention programs of students’ attitude change toward substance abuse and its effective factors. Method: for this purpose, the studies which related to evaluation of prevention program were gathered. For gathering of these researches related keywords were used and search was done in sites and universities dissertations. Finally, the researches which were conformed to the entrance criterions, were selected and considered information for testing of hypothesizes was extracted by reverse questionnaire which provided by authors. Of 20 selected studies proper statistics for calculation of effect size and other required information were recorded and analyzed by CMA2. Results: the findings showed that altogether, prevention programs of substance abuse were successful on students’ attitude change. The pooled effect size was significant. Because of the amount of pooled effect size was placed in range of 0.6-0.7, and then according to Cohen’s opinion is classified as moderate effect size. The results also, showed the variables as having of theoretical base, transactional approach in program presentation, the severity of program, the using of diversity educational strategies in presentation, the using of peer instructors were affected significantly on the effectiveness of programs. Conclusion: For attaining of more effective programs on students’ attitude change toward substance abuse these results should be considered.

  19. Achieving primary prevention program objectives through culture change systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J

    1986-12-01

    The appropriate goal of reducing the onset of mental disorder through modifying organic factors, stress, exploitation, coping skills, self-esteem and group support, will require cultural change. Group, organizational, and community norms can stand in the way of prevention efforts. In order to create a more supportive cultural environment for primary prevention, culture change principles must be adopted and a systematic change strategy must be employed. A four phase, Normative Systems model is proposed. The model has shown its utility over its 30 year history. A description of a Normative Systems application with migrant farm workers helps to illustrate Normative Systems project development.

  20. Hanford Site Guide for Preparing and Maintaining Fenerator Group Pollution Prevention Program Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PLACE, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime Contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and (300501) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMinn ) Assessments (WMAs); Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting; WMin Certification

  1. Hanford Site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, B.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides guidance to generator groups for preparing and maintaining documentation of Pollution Prevention Waste Minimization (P2/WMin) Program activities. The guidance is one of a hierarchical series that includes the Hanford Site Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan (DOE-RL, 1998a) and Prime contractor implementation plans describing programs required by Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) 3002(b) and 3005(h) (RCRA and EPA, 1994). Documentation guidance for the following five P2/WMin elements are discussed: Fiscal Year (FY) Goals; Budget and Staffing; Waste Minimization (WMin) Assessments (WMAs); Quarterly Pollution Prevention (P2) Reporting WMin Certification

  2. Recent results from the ATLAS heavy ion program

    CERN Document Server

    Havener, Laura Brittany; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The heavy-ion program in the ATLAS experiment at the LHC originated as an extensive program to probe and characterize the hot, dense matter created in relativistic lead-lead collisions. In recent years, the program has also broadened to a detailed study of collective behavior in smaller systems. In particular, the techniques used to study larger systems are also applied to proton-proton and proton-lead collisions over a wide range of particle multiplicities, to try and understand the early-time dynamics which lead to similar flow-like features in all of the systems. Another recent development is a program studying ultra-peripheral collisions, which provide gamma-gamma and photonuclear processes over a wide range of CM energy, to probe the nuclear wavefunction. This talk presents a subset of the the most recent results from the ATLAS experiment based on Run 1 and Run 2 data, including measurements of collectivity over a wide range of collision systems, potential nPDF modifications — using electroweak bosons,...

  3. Engaging black sub-Saharan African communities and their gatekeepers in HIV prevention programs: Challenges and strategies from England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Nyashanu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV infection is a sensitive issue in black communities [Serrant-Green L. Black Caribbean men, sexual health decisions and silences. Doctoral thesis. Nottingham School of Nursing, University of Nottingham; 2004]. Statistics show black sub-Saharan African (BSSA communities disproportionately constitute two-thirds of people with HIV [Heath Protection Agency. Health protection report: latest infection reports-GOV.UK; 2013]. African communities constitute 30% of people accessing HIV treatment in the United Kingdom yet represent less than 1% of the population [Health Protection Agency. HIV in the United Kingdom: 2012 report; 2012], [Department of Health. DVD about FGM. 2012. Available from fgm@dh.gsi.gov.uk.]. This article explores the sociocultural challenges in engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs in England and possible strategies to improve their involvement. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions and 24 semistructured interviews were conducted in a 2-year period with participants from the BSSA communities and sexual health services in the West Midlands, England. The research was supported by the Ubuntu scheme, a sexual health initiative working with African communities in Birmingham, England. Results: Ineffective engagement with African communities can hinder the effectiveness of HIV prevention programs. Skills and strategies sensitive to BSSA culture are important for successful implementation of prevention programs. HIV prevention programs face challenges including stigma, denial, and marginalized views within BSSA communities. Conclusion: Networking, coordination, and cultural sensitivity training for health professionals are key strategies for engaging BSSA communities in HIV prevention programs.

  4. The Value Proposition of Prevention: The Impacts of Pure North S’Energy Foundation’s Preventive Care Program on Acute Care Utilization in Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Herbert Emery

    2016-04-01

    and the number of visits for ambulatory care reduced by 14 per cent over a control group matched for age, sex and postal code, who did not participate in the Pure North program. In the second year after joining the program, hospital admissions dropped by 32 per cent for participants aged 55 and over. If these effects could be achieved in the population of Albertans aged 55 to 75, the hospital bed nights freed up per year would be equivalent to adding the acute care bed capacity of the Foothills Medical Centre in Calgary. These figures translate into significant cost differences. The average cost of hospitals, ambulatory care and visits to general practitioners in the year prior to joining Pure North’s program came to $1,320 per individual. Cost reductions in annual health-care utilization among participants ranged from $294 (22 per cent per person who joined the program to $600 (45 per cent per person who stayed in the program for at least a year. Two years into the program, a participant could expect to avoid $276 in hospitalization and emergency room costs. The Pure North program is a cost-effective model for preventive health services, resulting in better health and labour productivity for individuals, and considerable savings in public money for the health-care system. Every dollar spent on a participant who stays with the program for at least a year represents a $2.36 benefit in the avoidance of hospitalization and ambulatory care, as well as gains in personal health and productivity. The public health-care system must shift its focus to preventive care if it wants to realize cost savings, efficiency and improved health for Albertans, rather than waiting to treat people until after they become ill with chronic diseases. Pure North offers an important model to help the public system understand how to make that transition to a prevention-oriented mindset.

  5. Putting the Diabetes Prevention Program into practice: a program for weight loss and cardiovascular risk reduction for patients with metabolic syndrome or type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, P E; Einerson, J A; Grant, H; Sargent, C; Underbakke, G; Vitcenda, M; Zeller, L; Stein, J H

    2008-12-01

    The increasing incidence and prevalence of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) have significant implications on health world-wide. Large clinical trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of a comprehensive lifestyle program with a goal of moderate weight loss (5-7%) and regular exercise (150 minutes/week), resulting in a significant decrease in the incidence of type 2 DM and cardiovascular risk. This study reports on the translation of the multi-center Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) into a cardiac rehabilitation program, utilizing the expertise and experience of a cardiac rehabilitation program staff. The study adapted materials from the DPP to develop a program that fit local needs for diabetes prevention. Most participants completed the program (11 months) and their moderate weight loss was maintained for 11-12 months. At 11-12 months, waist circumference was reduced by approximately 2 inches, percent body fat was reduced by 5% (11% relative decrease, pExercise, nutrition, glucose, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were all were significantly improved at 11-12 months (pdiabetes. This program demonstrates that an intensive effort can significantly improve lifestyle and reduce body weight in patients with DM or at risk for DM. A program that simulates cardiac rehabilitation, translated from a successful clinical trial into practice, resulted in significant reduction and improvement in metabolic outcomes and cardiovascular risk. Support for cardiac rehabilitation from insurers to develop similar programs is encouraged and deserves further study.

  6. Better Strength, Better Balance! Partnering to deliver a fall prevention program for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Darcie; McKay, Kelly

    2017-09-14

    Falls incur significant health and economic costs, particularly among older adults. Physical activity has been found to be the single most important fall prevention behaviour an older adult can do. This manuscript describes Ottawa Public Health's (OPH) experience implementing the Better Strength, Better Balance! (BSBB) program, a fall prevention exercise program for older adults, through an innovative partnership with the local Recreation, Cultural & Facility Services (RCFS) Department. BSBB aims to reach 1300 community-dwelling adults (aged 65 years and older) per year through approximately 86-130 exercise programs. Designed as a universal program, BSBB addresses participation barriers such as transportation, cost and location. BSBB was enabled with funding from the Champlain Local Health Integration Network, and coincided with the implementation of an Older Adult Plan for the City of Ottawa. BSBB is a beginner-level, fall prevention exercise and education program that takes place twice a week, over 12 weeks. Certified RCFS instructors delivered the exercise components of the program and OPH staff incorporated fall prevention messaging and conducted the evaluation. The formative evaluation indicated that participants experienced improved strength and balance, decreased fear of falling and the intent to adopt new fall prevention behaviours following the program. The partnership between OPH and RCFS allowed both partners to leverage their unique and mutual strengths to continually improve the program. Improving access to strength and balance programming is an important public health strategy to reduce falls. The recreation sector is an ideal partner to help public health in this pursuit.

  7. A randomized comparative effectiveness trial of using cable television to deliver diabetes prevention programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Ronald T; Sandy, Lewis G; Beauregard, Tom; Coblitz, Mark; Norton, Kristi L; Vojta, Deneen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the use and effectiveness of two “in-home” strategies for delivering diabetes prevention programming using cable television. Methods An individually randomized, two-arm intervention trial including adults with diabetes risk factors living in two US cities. Interventions involved a 16-session lifestyle intervention delivered via “video-on-demand” cable television, offered alone versus in combination with web-based lifestyle support tools. Repeated measures longitudinal linear regression with imputation of missing observations was used to compare changes in body weight. Results A total of 306 individuals were randomized and offered the interventions. After 5 months, 265 (87%) participants viewed at least 1, and 110 (36%) viewed ≥9 of the video episodes. A total of 262 (86%) participants completed a 5-month weight measurement. In intention-to-treat analysis with imputation of missing observations, mean weight loss at 5 months for both treatment groups combined was 3.3% (95% CI 0.7-5.0%), regardless of intervention participation (with no differences between randomized groups (P = 0.19)), and was 4.9% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%) for participants who viewed ≥9 episodes. Conclusions In-home delivery of evidence-based diabetes prevention programming in a reality television format, offered with or without online behavioral support tools, can achieve modest weight losses consistent with past implementation studies of face-to-face programs using similar content. PMID:24740868

  8. Health, community, and spirituality: evaluation of a multicultural faith-based diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Jaime; Devia, Carlos; Weiss, Linda; Chantarat, Tongtan; Ruddock, Charmaine; Linnell, Jill; Golub, Maxine; Godfrey, Loyce; Rosen, Rosa; Calman, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate Fine, Fit, and Fabulous (FFF), a faith-based diabetes prevention program for black and Latino congregants at churches in low-income New York City neighborhoods. FFF includes nutrition education and fitness activities while incorporating Bible-based teachings that encourage healthy lifestyles. FFF is a 12-week, bilingual program developed by the Bronx Health REACH coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded Center of Excellence for the Elimination of Disparities. This program has been implemented in 15 Bronx and Harlem churches, engaging a primarily black and Latino overweight and obese urban population. Pre-post surveys, nutrition tests, and weight logs were collected to assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding healthy eating and physical activity. Participants (n = 183) reported statistically significant improvements in knowledge and healthy behaviors from baseline. Increased numbers of participants reported exercising in the past 30 days, eating fruit daily, being able to judge portion sizes, and reading food labels. Statistically significant numbers reported that they ate less fast food and were less likely to overeat at follow-up. The average weight loss across churches was 4.38 lbs or 2% of participants' initial body weight. Significant differences were observed when stratifying by race/ethnicity. Evaluation results show FFF's success at engaging overweight adults in behavior changes related to healthy eating and exercise. FFF demonstrates the potential of faith-based health interventions to address obesity and diabetes risk in high-need communities of color.

  9. Do adherence variables predict outcome in an online program for the prevention of eating disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, Jamie L; Bryson, Susan W; Goldschmidt, Andrea B; Winzelberg, Andrew J; Luce, Kristine H; Cunning, Darby; Wilfley, Denise E; Taylor, C Barr

    2008-04-01

    Unlike traditional interventions, Internet interventions allow for objective tracking and examination of the usage of program components. Student Bodies (SB), an online eating disorder (ED) prevention program, significantly reduced ED attitudes/behaviors in college-aged women with high body image concerns, and reduced the development of EDs in some higher risk subgroups. The authors investigated how adherence measures were associated with ED attitudes and behaviors after treatment. Female SB participants (n = 209) completed the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q; C. G. Fairburn & S. J. Beglin, 1994) at baseline, posttreatment, and 1-year follow-up. Total weeks participation and frequency of utilizing the online Web pages/journals predicted pre- to posttreatment changes in EDE-Q Restraint but not in other ED symptoms. In participants with some compensatory behaviors, discussion board and booster session use were associated with increased weight/shape concerns during follow-up. In overweight participants, higher online Web page/journal use was related to decreased EDE-Q Eating Concern scores during follow-up. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between adherence to specific program components and outcome in a successful Internet-based intervention. Results can be used to inform future development and tailoring of prevention interventions to maximize effectiveness and facilitate dissemination. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Primary Prevention Programs for Children in the Social Service System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Mary C.; Evans, Mary E.; Lukens, Ellen P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the prevalence and incidence of children in need of social services due to child maltreatment, child poverty, parental incarceration, parental substance abuse problems, and homelessness. Examines early childhood family education and family support approaches in primary prevention designed to meet the needs of these children.…

  11. Preventing Hypothermia in Preterm Infants: A Program of Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using plastic bags or wrap is a low cost way to prevent neonatal hypothermia. This practice is being used in under resourced countries when environmental tem- peratures cannot be controlled, even in larger, term infants (Lester, Kimani, & Cartledge, 2014). Body temperature and stabilization in the. NICU. After completing ...

  12. Exercise-Based School Obesity Prevention Programs: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, Georgette

    2009-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are major health concerns for young people. Schools are particularly promising environments for preventing and treating obesity. The Institutes of Medicine recommends 60 minutes per day of physical activity for children and youth, including at least 30 minutes at school. Yet the amount of moderate to vigorous physical…

  13. Health Promotion/Disease Prevention Programs for Special Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selker, Leopold; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This article addresses the concept of "special needs" as it applies to health promotion and disease prevention. The three sections of this article deal with three special subgroups of the general population: the elderly, those with disabilities, and those with cultural heritages that are not the same as the majority population's. (Author/CT)

  14. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  15. How much are we willing to pay to prevent a fall? Cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial falls prevention program for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyn, Krista Bray; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Speechley, Mark

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the cost-effectiveness of a multifactorial falls prevention program and estimated the trade-off between the extra costs of such a program and the additional reduction of unintentional falls. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated using the traditional incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and the net benefit regression framework (NBRF). Using the NBRF, decision making was formalized by incorporating values of willingness to pay (WTP) a priori. The results failed to provide evidence that a multifactorial falls prevention program was cost-effective. Participant adherence to recommendations ranged from low (41.3%), to moderate (21.1%), to high (37.6%). A future challenge is to understand more clearly the relationship between the community-dwelling older adult, potentially modifiable risks for falls, adherence to multifactorial risk factor recommendations, costs, and resulting effects of falls prevention practices. Future economic evaluations of falls prevention interventions remain necessary and should consider the NBRF so that regression tools can facilitate cost-effectiveness analysis.

  16. The value of partnerships in state obesity prevention and control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, James; Kelly, Bridget; Roussel, Amy; Curtis, LaShawn; Horne, Joseph; Williams-Piehota, Pamela; Kuester, Sarah; Farris, Rosanne

    2012-03-01

    State health departments funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity Program collaborate with multiple partners to develop and implement comprehensive obesity prevention and control programs. A mixed-methods evaluation of 28 state programs over a 5-year period assessed states' progress on program requirements, including developing statewide partnerships and coordinating with partners to support obesity prevention and control efforts. States with greater partnership involvement leveraged more funding support for their programs, passed more obesity-related policies, and were more likely to implement obesity interventions in multiple settings. Case studies provided guidance for establishing and maintaining strong partnerships. Findings from this study offer emerging evidence to support assumptions about the centrality of partnerships to states' success in obesity program development and implementation and related health promotion activities.

  17. Barriers to Effective Implementation of Programs for the Prevention of Workplace Violence in Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hartley, Daniel; Casteel, Carri

    2015-01-01

    Effective workplace violence (WPV) prevention programs are essential, yet challenging to implement in healthcare. The aim of this study was to identify major barriers to implementation of effective violence prevention programs. After reviewing the related literature, the authors describe their research methods and analysis and report the following seven themes as major barriers to effective implementation of workplace violence programs: a lack of action despite reporting; varying perceptions of violence; bullying; profit-driven management models; lack of management accountability; a focus on customer service; and weak social service and law enforcement approaches to mentally ill patients. The authors discuss their findings in light of previous studies and experiences and offer suggestions for decreasing WPV in healthcare settings. They conclude that although many of these challenges to effective implementation of workplace violence programs are both within the program itself and relate to broader industry and societal issues, creative innovations can address these issues and improve WPV prevention programs.

  18. After reliability centred maintenance. Preventive maintenance living program implementation at Bruce Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harazim, Michael L.; Ferguson, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Industrial preventive maintenance (PM) programs represent a large part of plant O and M costs. PM Optimization (PMO) projects represent an effective mechanism for identifying unnecessary PM, extending PM intervals and infusing predictive maintenance (PdM) methods. However, once optimized, what process prevents the PM program from returning to a state of disarray? This is the function of a PM living program (PMLP). In 1997, an independent performance assessment identified concerns with the applicability and effectiveness of all Ontario Power Generation, Inc. (OPGI) PM programs. In response, OPGI instituted an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) including Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) and a PMLP. It should be noted that the PMLP was developed for the 3 OPGI nuclear Sites (i.e. Bruce, Pickering, and Darlington). Effective 1 May 2001, the Bruce Site has been leased to a group of investors lead by British Energy. This paper is written in historical context and therefore refers to the Bruce Site as part of OPGI. The PMLP is made up of five elements: 1) process control, 2) change control, 3) worker feedback, 4) program performance metrics, and 5) deferral module. A PMLP software tool, originally applied to Duke Energy nuclear plants, was enhanced and customized specifically for the OPGI PMLP, and then implemented at all three of OPGI's nuclear sites. The objective of the OPGI PMLP was to: Provide processes/procedures for continual optimization of all site PM tasks, Ensure effective and timely revision of PM tasks in the work management system, Ensure PM tasks remain applicable/effective at all times, Maintain and enhance PM consistency on a component, system and Site basis, Ensure that new predictive maintenance techniques are applied and integrated with the PM program, Ensure that mandated PM tasks are identified and executed, Provide a mechanism for craft feedback, Meet regulatory requirements for PM program effectiveness, and Provide PM task deferral

  19. PROSID - a program to evaluate SIMMER-II results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flad, M.; Kuefner, K.; Maschek, W.

    1990-02-01

    The PROSID program supports the evaluation of SIMMER-II results. PROSID enables the user to get a printout of variables, to get a linear combination of variables or quadrats of variables, to sum up variables or quadrats of variables, to compare variables or whole datasets, to interpolate to a new meshgrid and to get weighted mean values. As special options are available the calculation of the volume of connected gas regions, the evaluation of the fuel enrichment, an estimation of reactivity changes and the retransformation of interpolated velocity values. The results can be stored for further evaluations. (orig.) [de

  20. The Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program: A community-based translational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrell Louise

    2010-06-01

    , psychological well being, medication use and health service utilization. Discussion This translational study will ascertain the reach, feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a lifestyle modification program delivered in a community setting through primary health care. If demonstrated to be effective, it will result in recommendations for policy change and practical methods for a wider community program for preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high risk people.

  1. Active aging promotion: results from the vital aging program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Mariagiovanna; Molina, María Ángeles; Schettini, Rocío; Santacreu, Marta; Orosa, Teresa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel; Rojas, Macarena; Fernández-Ballesteros, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative) are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants' satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  2. Active Aging Promotion: Results from the Vital Aging Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagiovanna Caprara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Active aging is one of the terms in the semantic network of aging well, together with others such as successful, productive, competent aging. All allude to the new paradigm in gerontology, whereby aging is considered from a positive perspective. Most authors in the field agree active aging is a multidimensional concept, embracing health, physical and cognitive fitness, positive affect and control, social relationships and engagement. This paper describes Vital Aging, an individual active aging promotion program implemented through three modalities: Life, Multimedia, and e-Learning. The program was developed on the basis of extensive evidence about individual determinants of active aging. The different versions of Vital Aging are described, and four evaluation studies (both formative and summative are reported. Formative evaluation reflected participants’ satisfaction and expected changes; summative evaluations yielded some quite encouraging results using quasi-experimental designs: those who took part in the programs increased their physical exercise, significantly improved their diet, reported better memory, had better emotional balance, and enjoyed more cultural, intellectual, affective, and social activities than they did before the course, thus increasing their social relationships. These results are discussed in the context of the common literature within the field and, also, taking into account the limitations of the evaluations accomplished.

  3. Effects of a cognitive dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program are similar for Asian American, Hispanic, and White participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Rosalía; Marchand, Erica; Ng, Janet; Stice, Eric

    2008-11-01

    This study explored the effects of participating in a dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program on changes in thin ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and eating symptoms among White, Asian American, and Hispanic participants. Participants were (n = 394), 13 to 20-year-old adolescent girls and young women who reported being White (n = 311), Hispanic/Latina (n = 61), or Asian-American/Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 33). The current study used data drawn from the pre- and post assessments of an efficacy trial and an effectiveness trial of this eating disorder prevention program. The intervention reduced disordered eating behaviors and eating disorder risk factors for all three ethnic groups at post-intervention assessment; there was no evidence of significantly stronger effects in any particular ethnic group. Results suggest that a cognitive dissonance-based prevention program for eating disorders may be equally effective for Asian American, Hispanic, and White adolescent women.

  4. [Effectiveness of a school-based program to prevent obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Solís, D; Díaz Martín, J J; Álvarez Caro, F; Suárez Tomás, I; Suárez Menéndez, E; Riaño Galán, I

    2015-07-01

    Intervention for childhood obesity is a public health priority. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an elementary school-based intervention against obesity in children. Non-randomised controlled trial was conducted on children from first to fifth grade from two public schools of Avilés (Spain). The intervention lasted for 2 school years comprising healthy diet workshops, educational chats, educational meetings, informative written material, and promotion of physical activities. Primary outcome measure was body mass index z-score. Secondary outcomes included: obesity and overweight prevalence, waist circumference, dietary habits, and physical activity. A total of 382 (177 girls, 205 boys) out of 526 pupils of both schools were included in the study. Complete anthropometric data were obtained in 340 of the 382 individuals. Compared to children in control group, those in intervention group decreased body mass index z-score from 1.14 to 1.02 (P=.017), and improved KIDMED score from 7.33 to 7.71 points (P=.045). The percentage of students who carried on an optimal diet increased from 42.6% to 52.3% (P=.021). There were no statistical differences in the prevalence of obesity and overweight, or in waist circumference between the intervention and control groups. This school-based program resulted in modest beneficial changes in body mass index and diet quality. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  6. The Seismic Category I Structures Program results for FY 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, C.R.; Bennett, J.G.; Dunwoody, W.E.; Baker, W.E.

    1990-10-01

    The accomplishments of the Seismic Category I Structures Program for FY 1987 are summarized. These accomplishments include the quasi-static load cycle testing of large shear wall elements, an extensive analysis of previous data to determine if equivalent linear analytical models can predict the response of damaged shear wall structures, and code committee activities. In addition, previous testing and results that led to the FY 1987 program plan are discussed and all previous data relating to shear wall stiffness are summarized. Because separate reports have already summarized the experimental and analytical work in FY 1987, this report will briefly highlight this work and the appropriate reports will be references for a more detailed discussion. 12 refs., 23 figs., 18 tabs

  7. Preliminary Results of the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee A. Underwood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to offer preliminary support for the Louisiana Sex Offender Treatment Program (LSOTP in addressing the needs of juvenile sex offenders. Research objectives were (1 to offer statistical evidence for reductions in anxiety, depression, cognitive distortion and negative attitudes towards women comparing a group of 21 adolescents, 12 of whom received services as usual and nine of whom participated in the LSOTP. A controlled experimental evaluation design was utilized. The juvenile sex offenders were randomly assigned to the experimental group for 12 weeks receiving treatment services and a control group receiving care “as usual” in a residential group care program. Participants in the experimental group experienced statistically significant decreases in cognitive distortions related specifically to rape and molestation.The results of this study offer preliminary support of the LSOTP as a best practices alternative to other treatment modalities.

  8. Evaluating gingival health of children who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies in the city of Teresina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Deus Moura de Lima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the gingival health of children who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies and correlate theresults obtained with the assiduousness of attending the consultations offered by the program, oral hygiene habits, mother’s educational level, family income, child’s age and the number of carious surfaces. Methods: Three hundred and forty-one patients were selected, and divided into two groups for comparative purposes. Group 1 (experimental was composed of 262 children of both sexes, between the ages of three and six, who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies; Group 2 (control consisted of 79 children in the same age group, who did not attend the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies, but who were attended at the Social Perinatological Institute of Piaui by other health professionals. The exams were performed in dental offices to determine the Gingival Bleeding Index. Results: It was noted that 74.8% of the children from experimental group and 82.3% of control group presented gingival bleeding in one of the sites assessed. Lower Gingival Bleeding Index values were related to the higher educational level of the mothers, supervision or brushing by adults and increase in the number of daily brushings. The Chi-square test showed that the variables are dependent (p<0.001, that is, Gingival Bleeding Index is subject to the number of consultations attended at the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies. Spearman’s Coefficient (= -0.292 proved that the higher the number of consultations attended at the program, the lower was the Gingival Bleeding Index (p<0.001. Conclusion: The children who presented the lowest gingival bleeding indexes were those who most assiduously attended the preventive maintenanceconsultations of the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies.

  9. Ethics of prevention: an interactive computer-tailored program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooren, Rob H; Van den Borne, Bart W; Curfs, Leopold M G; Widdershoven, Guy A M

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the contents of an interactive computer-tailored program. The program is based on previous studies of the practice of care for persons with Prader-Willi syndrome. This genetic condition is associated with a constant overeating behaviour with the risk of obesity. The aim of the program is to start a process of awareness, reflection, and discussion by caregivers who are confronted with the moral dilemma of respect for autonomy versus restricting overeating behaviour. The program focuses on values (such as health and well-being) that are relevant to caregivers in daily practice. Furthermore, the focus is on various ways of interaction with the client. Caregivers were expected to focus mainly on health, and on both paternalistic and interpretive/deliberative forms of interaction. Sixteen professionals and 12 parents pilot-tested the program contents. With a pre-test, responses on one central case were collected for tailored feedback; with a post-test, the effects of the program were measured. Significant correlations were found between the values of autonomy and consultation and between autonomy and well-being. In contrast to our expectations respondents valued all categories (autonomy, consultation, health, well-being, and liveability for others) as equally important in the pre-test. No significant changes in scores were found between pre- and post-test. The open answers and remarks of participants support the program contents. Participants' responses support previous research findings, advocating a concept of autonomy in terms of positive freedom, through support by others. The promotion of the client's self-understanding and self-development is central in this concept.

  10. Risk and direct protective factors for youth violence: results from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Multisite Violence Prevention Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David B; Tolan, Patrick H; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Schoeny, Michael E

    2012-08-01

    This study was conducted as part of a multisite effort to examine risk and direct protective factors for youth violence. The goal was to identify those factors in the lives of young people that increase or decrease the risk of violence. These analyses fill an important gap in the literature, as few studies have examined risk and direct protective factors for youth violence across multiple studies. Data on 4432 middle-school youth, from the CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project were used. Evaluations were made of effects of variables coded as risk and direct protective factors in the fall of 6th grade on violence measured in spring of 7th and 8th grades. Factors tested included depression, delinquency, alcohol and drug involvement, involvement in family activities, academic achievement, attitudes toward school, truancy, and peer deviance. Most variables were coded with two sets of dummy variables indicating risk and protective directions of effects. Results showed that higher teacher-rated study skills were associated with lower subsequent violence across genders and ethnic groups. Affiliation with deviant peers was significantly associated with increased subsequent violence among youth reporting their race/ethnicity as white or other, marginally associated with increased violence among African-American youth, and unrelated among Latino youth. This study identified some factors than should be areas of interest for effective prevention programs. Some ethnic differences also should be considered in planning of prevention. The CDC Multisite Violence Prevention Project completed enrollment prior to July 2005. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Pollution Prevention in Air Force System Acquisition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    entire policy sector, spanning federal to local levels . A policy sector usually consists of a collection of many diverse governments, bureaucracies , courts...examine the variety of actors actually and potentially involved in addressing it; 2) street - level implementators are always important to implementation...34Implementing Pollution Prevention: Incentives and Irrationalities." J Air & Waste Management Association, 40, no. 9 (September 1990): 1227-1231. Lipsky , Michael

  12. Educating and Engaging Older Adults in the Sure Steps® Fall Prevention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciance, Karin L

    Falls are the leading cause of fatal and nonfatal injuries among adults 65 years and older. Each year, one in three older adults experiences a fall, and people who fall are more likely to fall again. According to the National Council on Aging (2017), instituting evidence-based falls prevention programs can significantly decrease falls. The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot study that examined the impact of the Sure Steps Fall Prevention Program on incidence of falls among adults 65 and older living in their home. A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling participants aged 65 and older was recruited. After the Sure Steps Fall Prevention Program was implemented, participants were contacted by telephone monthly for 1 year. None of the participants reported falls during that time. Based on the findings of this pilot study, the Visiting Nurse Association implemented the Sure Steps Fall Prevention Program into their other four clinical sites.

  13. Economic Analyses of an Alcohol Misconduct Prevention Program in a Military Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Waters, Teresa M; Kaplan, Erin K; Kaplan, Cameron M; Nyarko, Kwame A; Derefinko, Karen J; Talcott, Gerald W; Klesges, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    The economic burden associated with alcohol misuse, in particular early attrition or discharge associated with alcohol-related incidents (ARIs), is significant in military settings. We assessed the potential economic benefit of a brief alcohol intervention program, the Alcohol Misconduct Prevention Program (AMPP), initially implemented at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland Technical Training site for the U.S. Air Force (USAF) from October 1, 2010, to December 31, 2012. We conducted cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit analyses of the AMPP from the perspective of the USAF. Program effectiveness was measured as the number of ARIs avoided after the AMPP implementation, and program benefit was measured as the potential cost savings related to reductions in ARIs. One-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the robustness of base case results. The AMPP resulted in the avoidance of 59 ARIs which cost $9,869 for every ARI avoided. For every dollar invested in the AMPP, the USAF saved $4.09 in a conservative model without health effects, and saved $6.17 taking into account the potential health benefits. Our findings of favorable cost benefit were robust across sensitivity analyses. Investing in the AMPP at other military bases is likely to produce substantial economic benefit. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  14. Mitigating preventable chronic disease: Progress report of the Cleveland Clinic's Lifestyle 180 program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricanati Elizabeth HW

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor lifestyle choices are key in development and progression of preventable chronic diseases. The purpose of the study was to design and test a program to mitigate the physical and fiscal consequences of chronic diseases. Methods Here we report the outcomes for 429 participants with one or more chronic conditions, including obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus, many of whom had failed traditional disease management programs, who enrolled into a comprehensive lifestyle intervention. The Lifestyle 180 program integrates nutrition, physical activity and stress management interventions and was conducted at the Wellness Institute of the Cleveland Clinic, United States. An intensive 6 week immersion course, with 8 hours of group instruction per week, was followed by 3 follow-up, 4 hour-long sessions over the course of 6 months. Results Changes in biometric (weight, height, waist circumference, resting heart rate and blood pressure and laboratory variables (fasting lipid panel, blood glucose, insulin, hemoglobin A1c, ultra sensitive C-reactive protein at 6 months were compared with baseline (pre-post analysis. At week 30, biometric and laboratory data were available for 244 (57% and 299 (70% participants, respectively. These had a mean ± SD reduction in weight (6.8 ± 6.9 kg, P Conclusion Implementation of a comprehensive lifestyle modification program among adults with common chronic conditions results in significant and clinically meaningful improvements in biometric and laboratory outcomes after 6 months.

  15. Adolescents’ Responses to a School-Based Prevention Program Promoting Healthy Eating at School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel C. J. Hermans

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundTo improve the effectiveness of school-based programs that aim to promote adolescents’ healthy food choices, it is essential to understand the views and behaviors of the target group. This study aimed to get a better understanding of adolescents’ food and health perceptions and their willingness to be involved in a specific school-based prevention program, i.e., the Dutch “Healthy School Canteen Program.”MethodsThis study used a mixed-methods research design. First, seven semi-structured focus groups were conducted using a selective sample of 42 Dutch adolescents (25 girls, 17 boys, aged 13–16 years. Second, an online survey among 133 adolescent respondents (72 girls, 61 boys, aged 12–19 years using snowball sampling was conducted. Content analysis was performed to make inferences about the focus group discussions, whereas statistical analyses were conducted to analyze the survey data.ResultsFindings from the group discussions indicated that healthy eating was only an issue of importance when adolescents perceived negative physical changes (e.g., with regard to looks or physical performance. Adolescents also indicated that they clearly wanted to make their own food and beverage choices at school. The quantitative data indicated that taste, price, and variety were seen as the most important aspects of a healthy food assortment (mean scores 8.1, 7.8, and 7.7 on a 10-point scale, respectively. In general, a majority of the adolescents (64% expressed that students should be involved in the organization of a healthy food environment in schools. At the same time, however, adolescents were not willing to participate themselves. This was mostly because they were skeptical about their ideas being heard and put into action by their schools.ConclusionSchool-based prevention programs, such as the Healthy School Program, should take into account that adolescents have a low risk perception of unhealthy eating and are seeking food

  16. Effect of Childhood Obesity Prevention Programs on Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Wu, Yang; Wilson, Renee F.; Segal, Jodi B.; Kim, Miyong T.; Wang, Youfa

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight and obesity are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP). However, little is known about how childhood obesity lifestyle prevention programs affect BP. We assessed the effects of childhood obesity prevention programs on BP in children in developed countries. Methods and Results We searched databases up to April 22, 2013 for relevant randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments. Studies were included if they applied a diet and/or physical activity intervention(s) and were followed for ≥1 year (or ≥ 6 months for school-based intervention studies); they were excluded if they targeted only overweight/obese subjects or those with a medical condition. In our meta-analysis, intervention effects were calculated for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using weighted random effects models. Of the 23 included intervention studies (involving 18,925 participants), 21 involved a school setting. Our meta-analysis included 19 studies reporting on SBP and 18 on DBP. The pooled intervention effect was −1.64 mmHg (95% CI: -2.56, −0.71; P=0.001) for SBP and -1.44 mmHg (95% CI: −2.28, −0.60; P=0.001) for DBP. The combined diet and physical activity interventions led to a significantly greater reduction in both SBP and DBP than the diet-only or physical activity-only intervention. Thirteen interventions (46%) had a similar effect on both adiposity-related outcomes and BP; while 11 interventions (39%) showed a significant desirable effect on BP, but not on adiposity-related outcomes. Conclusions Obesity prevention programs have a moderate effect on reducing BP and those targeting at both diet and physical activity seem to be more effective. PMID:24552832

  17. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  18. Evaluation of a large healthy lifestyle program: informing program implementation and scale-up in the prevention of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozica, S L; Lombard, C B; Harrison, C L; Teede, H J

    2016-11-24

    The Healthy Lifestyle Program for women (HeLP-her) is a low-intensity, self-management program which has demonstrated efficacy in preventing excess weight gain in women. However, little is known about the implementation, reach, and sustainability of low-intensity prevention programs in rural settings, where risk for obesity in women is higher than urban settings. We aimed to evaluate a low-intensity healthy lifestyle program delivered to women in a rural setting to inform development of effective community prevention programs. A mixed method hybrid implementation and evaluation study, guided by the RE-AIM framework (addressing the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance), was undertaken. Data collection tools included anthropometric measures, program checklists, questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews with participants and local stakeholders. The RE-AIM self-audit tool was applied to assess evaluation rigor. Six hundred and forty-nine women from 41 relatively socio-economic disadvantaged communities in Australia participated: mean age 39.6 years (±SD 6.7) and body mass index of 28.8 kg/m 2 (±SD 6.9). A between-group weight difference of -0.92 kg (95% CI -1.67 to -0.16) showed program effectiveness. Reach was broad across 41 towns with 62% of participants reporting influencing some of the health behaviors of their families. Strong implementation fidelity was achieved with good retention rates at 1 year (76%) and high participant satisfaction (82% of participants willing to recommend this program). Over 300 multi-level community partnerships were established supporting high adoption. Stakeholders reported potential capacity to implement and sustain the prevention program in resource poor rural settings, due to the low-intensity design and minimal resources required. Our comprehensive RE-AIM evaluation demonstrates that an evidence-based obesity prevention program can be successfully implemented in real-world settings. The program

  19. Sagittal Plane Knee Biomechanics and Vertical Ground Reaction Forces Are Modified Following ACL Injury Prevention Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Padua, Darin A.; DiStefano, Lindsay J.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) occur because of excessive loading on the knee. ACL injury prevention programs can influence sagittal plane ACL loading factors and vertical ground reaction force (VGRF). Objective: To determine the influence of ACL injury prevention programs on sagittal plane knee biomechanics (anterior tibial shear force, knee flexion angle/moments) and VGRF. Data Sources: The PubMed database was searched for studies published between January 1988 an...

  20. Promoting Positive Peer Relationships among Youths: A Study Examining the Effects of a Class-Wide Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, James Allen, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Bullying in schools has revealed deleterious psychosocial consequences for bullies, victims, and bystanders. Programs aimed at preventing bullying have largely revealed limited positive outcomes. Efforts that have been associated with positive results have drawn from the social-ecological model, focusing on the constellation of individual…

  1. An Evaluation of California’s Adolescent Sibling Pregnancy Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Patricia; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Chávez, Gilberto

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT The siblings of adolescents who have been pregnant or are parents have disproportionately high rates of teenage pregnancies and births. California’s Adolescent Sibling Pregnancy Prevention Program is targeted at these high-risk youths. METHODS An evaluation of the program was conducted in 1997–1999 with 1,176 predominantly Hispanic 11–17-year-olds who had at least one sibling who was an adolescent parent or had been pregnant—731 youths who were program clients and 445 youths who received no systematic services. All evaluation participants completed an interview and questionnaire at enrollment and again nine months later. RESULTS Female program clients had a significantly lower pregnancy rate than comparison females over the evaluation period (4% vs. 7%), as well as a lower rate of sexual initiation (7% vs. 16%). They also significantly decreased their frequency of school truancy, whereas this outcome increased among comparison females; program females had significantly more definite intentions of remaining abstinent at posttest than comparison females. Consistency of contraceptive use increased over time among males in the program and decreased among comparison males. Delivery of group services was correlated with delayed onset of intercourse among males, and the receipt of services related to psychosocial skills was correlated with greater contraceptive use at last sex among all sexually experienced youth. CONCLUSIONS This new program, which serves a population known to be at very high risk for early pregnancy, appears to be effective at reducing rates of pregnancy and improving several pregnancy-related risk behaviors. PMID:12729135

  2. Long-term Impact of Prevention Programs to Promote Effective Parenting: Lasting Effects but Uncertain Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Sandler, Irwin; Schoenfelder, Erin; Wolchik, Sharlene; MacKinnon, David

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to twenty years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting progr...

  3. Economic and other barriers to adopting recommendations to prevent childhood obesity: results of a focus group study with parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taveras Elsie M

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parents are integral to the implementation of obesity prevention and management recommendations for children. Exploration of barriers to and facilitators of parental decisions to adopt obesity prevention recommendations will inform future efforts to reduce childhood obesity. Methods We conducted 4 focus groups (2 English, 2 Spanish among a total of 19 parents of overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile children aged 5-17 years. The main discussion focused on 7 common obesity prevention recommendations: reducing television (TV watching, removing TV from child's bedroom, increasing physically active games, participating in community or school-based athletics, walking to school, walking more in general, and eating less fast food. Parents were asked to discuss what factors would make each recommendation more difficult (barriers or easier (facilitators to follow. Participants were also asked about the relative importance of economic (time and dollar costs/savings barriers and facilitators if these were not brought into the discussion unprompted. Results Parents identified many barriers but few facilitators to adopting obesity prevention recommendations for their children. Members of all groups identified economic barriers (time and dollar costs among a variety of pertinent barriers, although the discussion of dollar costs often required prompting. Parents cited other barriers including child preference, difficulty with changing habits, lack of information, lack of transportation, difficulty with monitoring child behavior, need for assistance from family members, parity with other family members, and neighborhood walking safety. Facilitators identified included access to physical activity programs, availability of alternatives to fast food and TV which are acceptable to the child, enlisting outside support, dietary information, involving the child, setting limits, making behavior changes gradually, and parental change in shopping

  4. Testing Mediators of Intervention Effects in Randomized Controlled Trials: An Evaluation of Three Depression Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Seeley, John R.; Gau, Jeff M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate a new 5-step method for testing mediators hypothesized to account for the effects of depression prevention programs. Method: In this indicated prevention trial, at-risk teens with elevated depressive symptoms were randomized to a group cognitive-behavioral (CB) intervention, group supportive expressive intervention, CB…

  5. Prevention of Targeted School Violence by Responding to Students' Psychosocial Crises: The NETWASS Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuschner, Vincenz; Fiedler, Nora; Schultze, Martin; Ahlig, Nadine; Göbel, Kristin; Sommer, Friederike; Scholl, Johanna; Cornell, Dewey; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    The standardized, indicated school-based prevention program "Networks Against School Shootings" combines a threat assessment approach with a general model of prevention of emergency situations in schools through early intervention in student psychosocial crises and training teachers to recognize warning signs of targeted school violence.…

  6. A National Model for Diabetes Prevention and Treatment Program in Civilian and Military Healthcare Beneficiary Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    of renal function)  Dipstick urinalysis (Routine screening for proteinuria and urinary glucose)  AST, ALT (Screening for non - alcoholic fatty liver ...method of pediatric obesity treatment and chronic disease prevention. Pediatrics Diabetes Prevention and Weight Management Programs...developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1]. Moreover, approximately 65% of US adults are overweight or obese . [2

  7. Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) post-natal intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shih, Sophy T F; Davis-Lameloise, Nathalie; Janus, Edward D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Mothers After Gestational Diabetes in Australia Diabetes Prevention Program (MAGDA-DPP) is a randomized controlled trial (RCT) that aims to assess the effectiveness of a structured diabetes prevention intervention for women who had gestational diabetes.Methods/Design: The original...

  8. Gang Prevention: An Overview of Research and Programs. Juvenile Justice Bulletin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, James C.

    2010-01-01

    This bulletin presents research on why youth join gangs and how a community can build gang prevention and intervention services. The author summarizes recent literature on gang formation and identifies promising and effective programs for gang prevention. The following are some key findings: (1) Youth join gangs for protection, enjoyment, respect,…

  9. Performing Gender: A Discourse Analysis of Theatre-Based Sexual Violence Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Susan V.

    2006-01-01

    Among the numerous approaches that are employed to prevent sexual violence, the performance of scenarios has become one of the "promising practices" in U.S. postsecondary education. This article describes findings from a pilot study to analyze scripts used for theatre-based sexual violence prevention programs. Employing the method of…

  10. Latest results from the Seismic Category I Structures Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.G.; Dove, R.C.; Dunwoody, W.E.; Farrar, C.

    1985-01-01

    With the use of scale models, the Seismic Category I Structures Program has demonstrated consistent results for measured values of stiffness at working loads. Furthermore, the values are well below the theoretical stiffnesses calculated from an uncracked strength-of-materials approach. The scale model structures, which are also models of each other, have demonstrated scalability between models. The current effort is to demonstrate that the use of microconcrete and other modeling effects do not introduce significant distortions that could drastically change conclusions regarding prototype behavior for these very stiff, shear dominated structures. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Plutonium immobilization program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results

  12. Plutonium Immobilization Program - Cold pour Phase 1 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, L.

    2000-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project will disposition excess weapons grade plutonium. It uses the can-in-canister approach that involves placing plutonium-ceramic pucks in sealed cans that are then placed into Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters. These canisters are subsequently filled with high-level radioactive waste glass. This process puts the plutonium in a stable form and makes it unattractive for reuse. A cold (non-radioactive) glass pour program was performed to develop and verify the baseline design for the canister and internal hardware. This paper describes the Phase 1 scoping test results

  13. The DarkSide physics program and its recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, D.; Agnes, P.; Agostino, L.; F. M. Albuquerque, I.; Alexander, T.; K. Alton, A.; Arisaka, K.; Back, H. O.; Baldin, B.; Biery, K.; Bonfini, G.; Bossa, M.; Bottino, B.; Brigatti, A.; Brodsky, J.; Budano, F.; Bussino, S.; Cadeddu, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cadoni, M.; Calaprice, F.; Canci, N.; Candela, A.; Cao, H.; Cariello, M.; Carlini, M.; Catalanotti, S.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Cocco, A. G.; Covone, G.; Crippa, L.; D'Incecco, M.; Davini, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Deo, M.; De Vincenzi, M.; Derbin, A.; Devoto, A.; Di Eusanio, F.; Di Pietro, G.; Edkins, E.; Empl, A.; Fan, A.; Fiorillo, G.; Fomenko, K.; Forster, G.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Giganti, C.; M. Goretti, A.; Granato, F.; Grandi, L.; Gromov, M.; Guan, M.; Guardincerri, Y.; R. Hackett, B.; Herner, K.; V. Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Al.; Ianni, An.; James, I.; Jollet, C.; Keeter, K.; L. Kendziora, C.; Kobychev, V.; Koh, G.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kubankin, A.; Lissia, M.; Li, X.; Lombardi, P.; Luitz, S.; N. Machulin, I.; Mandarano, A.; Maricic, J.; Marini, L.; M. Mari, S.; J. Martoff, C.; Ma, Y.; Meregaglia, A.; D. Meyers, P.; Miletic, T.; Milincic, R.; Montanari, D.; Monte, A.; Montuschi, M.; Monzani, M.; Mosteiro, P.; J. Mount, B.; N. Muratova, V.; Musico, P.; Napolitano, J.; Nelson, A.; Odrowski, S.; Orsini, M.; Ortica, F.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Pantic, E.; Parmeggiano, S.; Pelczar, K.; Pelliccia, N.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Pordes, S.; A. Pugachev, D.; Qian, H.; Randle, K.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Reinhold, B.; L. Renshaw, A.; Romani, A.; Rossi, B.; Rossi, N.; Rountree, D.; Sablone, D.; Saggese, P.; Saldanha, R.; Sands, W.; Sangiorgio, S.; Savarese, C.; Segreto, E.; A. Semenov, D.; Shields, E.; N. Singh, P.; D. Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Stanford, C.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Tatarowicz, J.; Testera, G.; Tonazzo, A.; Trinchese, P.; V. Unzhakov, E.; Vishneva, A.; Vogelaar, B.; Wada, M.; Walker, S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; W. Watson, A.; Westerdale, S.; Wilhelmi, J.; M. Wojcik, M.; Xiang, X.; Xu, J.; Yang, C.; Yoo, J.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zec, A.; Zhong, W.; Zhu, C.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-07-01

    DarkSide (DS) at Gran Sasso underground laboratory is a direct Dark Matter search program based on Time Projection Chambers (TPC) with liquid Argon from underground sources. The DarkSide-50 (DS-50) TPC, with 150kg of Argon is installed inside active neutron and muon detectors. DS-50 has been taking data since November 2013 with Atmospheric Argon (AAr) and since April 2015 with Underground Argon (UAr), depleted in radioactive ^{39} Ar by a factor {˜}1400 . The exposure of 1422kg d of AAr has demonstrated that the operation of DS-50 for three years in a background free condition is a solid reality, thanks to the superb performance of the Pulse Shape Analysis. The first release of results from an exposure of 2616kg d of UAr has shown no candidate Dark Matter events. We have set the best limit for Spin-Independent elastic nuclear scattering of WIMPs obtained by Argon-based detectors, corresponding to a cross-section of 2 10^{-44}{ cm2} at a WIMP mass of 100GeV. We present the detector design and performance, the results from the AAr run and the first results from the UAr run and we briefly introduce the future of the DarkSide program.

  14. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the open-quotes sourcesclose quotes and open-quotes targetsclose quotes requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources

  15. Impact of a patient incentive program on receipt of preventive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Ateev; An, Ruopeng; Patel, Deepak N; Sturm, Roland

    2014-06-01

    Patient financial incentives are being promoted as a mechanism to increase receipt of preventive care, encourage healthy behavior, and improve chronic disease management. However, few empirical evaluations have assessed such incentive programs. In South Africa, a private health plan has introduced a voluntary incentive program which costs enrollees approximately $20 per month. In the program, enrollees earn points when they receive preventive care. These points translate into discounts on retail goods such as airline tickets, movie tickets, or cell phones. We chose 8 preventive care services over the years 2005 to 2011 and compared the change between those who entered the incentive program and those that did not. We used multivariate regression models with individual random effects to try to address selection bias. Of the 4,186,047 unique individuals enrolled in the health plan, 65.5% (2,742,268) voluntarily enrolled in the incentive program. Joining the incentive program was associated with statistically higher odds of receiving all 8 preventive care services. The odds ratio (and estimated percentage point increase) for receipt of cholesterol testing was 2.70 (8.9%); glucose testing 1.51 (4.7%); glaucoma screening 1.34 (3.9%); dental exam 1.64 (6.3%); HIV test 3.47 (2.6%); prostate specific antigen testing 1.39 (5.6%); Papanicolaou screening 2.17 (7.0%); and mammogram 1.90 (3.1%) (P < .001 for all 8 services). However, preventive care rates among those in the incentive program was still low. Voluntary participation in a patient incentive program was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of receiving preventive care, though receipt of preventive care among those in the program was still lower than ideal.

  16. Preventing Hypothermia in Preterm Infants: A Program of Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neonatal hypothermia is a worldwide problem and leads to increased morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. This paper describes a program of research to examine thermoregulation in premature infants and to decrease neonatal hypothermia. Our studies include 1) examining an intervention to reduce heat loss in ...

  17. Effectiveness of Secondary Pregnancy Prevention Programs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jacqueline; Pillai, Vijayan K.

    2007-01-01

    Because subsequent pregnancy in teen parents often worsens the impact of adolescent parenting; therefore, a common goal of teenage parent programs has been to reduce repeat pregnancy. To examine the impact of this goal, a meta-analysis was conducted on 16 control-comparison group studies that evaluated the effect of teenage pregnancy and parenting…

  18. Does the national program of prevention of mother to child ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To assess the PMTCT program achievement in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Methods: Between August and October 2008, a cross sectional study was ... Care providers were not qualified enough to deliver PMTCT services. Vitamin A supplementation was not implemented. None of the facilities ...

  19. Effects of a school-based pediatric obesity prevention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a school-based pediatric obesity program for elementary children. Children (n = 782) were between the ages of 7 and 9 and in the 2nd grade. A total of 323 (189 males) children who exceeded the 85th percentile for BMI were randomized into an integrated health...

  20. Project Healthy Bones: An Osteoporosis Prevention Program for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotzbach-Shimomura, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    Project Healthy Bones is a 24-week exercise and education program for older women and men at risk for or who have osteoporosis. The exercise component is designed to improve strength, balance, and flexibility. The education curriculum stresses the importance of exercise, nutrition, safety, drug therapy, and lifestyle factors. (SK)

  1. Assessing effects of a media campaign on HIV/AIDS awareness and prevention in Nigeria: results from the VISION Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewuyi Alfred

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In response to the growing HIV epidemic in Nigeria, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID initiated the VISION Project, which aimed to increase use of family planning, child survival, and HIV/AIDS services. The VISION Project used a mass-media campaign that focused on reproductive health and HIV/AIDS prevention. This paper assesses to what extent program exposure translates into increased awareness and prevention of HIV/AIDS. Methods This analysis is based on data from the 2002 and 2004 Nigeria (Bauchi, Enugu, and Oyo Family Planning and Reproductive Health Surveys, which were conducted among adults living in the VISION Project areas. To correct for endogeneity, two-stage logistic regression is used to investigate the effect of program exposure on 1 discussion of HIV/AIDS with a partner, 2 awareness that consistent condom use reduces HIV risk, and 3 condom use at last intercourse. Results Exposure to the VISION mass media campaign was high: 59%, 47%, and 24% were exposed to at least 1 VISION radio, printed advertisement, or TV program about reproductive health, respectively. The differences in outcome variables between 2002 baseline data and the 2004 follow-up data were small. However, those with high program exposure were almost one and a half (Odds Ratio [O.R.] = 1.47, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.01–2.16 times more likely than those with no exposure to have discussed HIV/AIDS with a partner. Those with high program exposure were over twice (O.R. = 2.20, C.I. 1.49–3.25 as likely as those with low exposure to know that condom use can reduce risk of HIV infection. Program exposure had no effect on condom use at last sex. Conclusion The VISION Project reached a large portion of the population and exposure to mass media programs about reproductive health and HIV prevention topics can help increase HIV/AIDS awareness. Programs that target rural populations, females, and unmarried individuals, and

  2. Universal family-based prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2011-09-07

    Alcohol misuse in young people is a cause of concern for health services, policy makers, prevention workers, and criminal justice system, youth workers, teachers, and parents. To systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of universal family-based prevention programs in preventing alcohol misuse in school-aged children up to 18 years of age. To update a part of a previously published Cochrane systematic review. Relevant evidence (up to 2002) was selected from the previous Cochrane review. Later studies, to July 2010, were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Project CORK, and PsycINFO. Randomized trials evaluating universal family-based prevention programs and reporting outcomes for alcohol use in students 18 years of age or younger were included. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full text of identified records. Two reviewers extracted relevant data independently using an a priori defined extraction form. Risk of bias was assessed. 12 parallel-group trials were included. The reporting quality of trials was poor, only 20% of them reporting adequate method of randomisation and program allocation concealment. Incomplete data was adequately addressed in about half of the trials and this information was unclear for about 30% of the trials. Due to extensive heterogeneity across interventions, populations, and outcomes, the results were summarized only qualitatively.9 of the 12 trials showed some evidence of effectiveness compared to a control or other intervention group, with persistence of effects over the medium and longer-term. Four of these effective interventions were gender-specific, focusing on young females. One study with a small sample size showed positive effects that were not statistically significant, and two studies with larger sample sizes reported no significant effects of the family-based intervention for reducing alcohol misuse. In conclusion, in this Cochrane systematic review we found

  3. Universal multi-component prevention programs for alcohol misuse in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxcroft, David R; Tsertsvadze, Alexander

    2011-09-07

    Alcohol misuse in young people is a cause of concern for health services, policy makers, prevention workers, and criminal justice system, youth workers, teachers, and parents. To systematically review evidence on the effectiveness of universal multi-component prevention programs in preventing alcohol misuse in school-aged children up to 18 years of age. To update a part of a previously published Cochrane systematic review. Relevant evidence (up to 2002) was selected from the previous Cochrane review. Later studies, to July 2010, were identified from MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Project CORK, and PsycINFO. Randomized trials evaluating universal multi-component prevention programs (intervention delivered in more than one setting) and reporting outcomes for alcohol use in students 18 years of age or younger were included. Two reviewers screened titles/abstracts and full text of identified records. Two reviewers extracted relevant data independently using an a priori defined extraction form. Risk of bias was assessed. 20 parallel-group trials were included. The reporting quality of trials was poor, only 25% and 5% of them reporting adequate method of randomisation and program allocation concealment, respectively. Incomplete data was adequately addressed in about half of the trials and this information was unclear for about 20% of the trials. Due to extensive heterogeneity across interventions, populations, and outcomes, the results were summarized only qualitatively.12 of the 20 trials showed some evidence of effectiveness compared to a control or other intervention group, with persistence of effects ranging from 3 months to 3 years. Of the remaining 8 trials, one trial reported significant effects using one-tailed tests and 7 trials reported no significant effects of the multi-component interventions for reducing alcohol misuse.Assessment of the additional benefit of multiple versus single component interventions was possible in 7

  4. HEALS: A Faith-Based Hypertension Control and Prevention Program for African American Churches: Training of Church Leaders as Program Interventionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sunita; Sullivan, Debra; Pankey, Sydney; Champagne, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background. A 12-session church-based HEALS program (healthy eating and living spiritually) was developed for hypertension control and prevention program in African Americans (AAs). This study presents specifics of training lay health educators to effectively deliver HEALS to high-risk AAs. Methods. A one-day workshop was conducted by the research experts in an AA church. Five church members were recruited to be program interventionists called church health counselors (CHCs). Results. Using principles of adult education, a training protocol was developed with the intention of recognizing and supporting CHCs skills. CHCs received training on delivering HEALS program. The process of training emphasized action methods including role playing and hands-on experience with diet portion measurements. Conclusion. With adequate training, the community lay health educator can be an essential partner in a community-based hypertension control programs. This may motivate program participants more and encourages the individual to make the behavior modifications on a permanent basis.

  5. Anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention training in female athletes: a systematic review of injury reduction and results of athletic performance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Frank R; Barber Westin, Sue D

    2012-01-01

    Many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention training programs have been published, but few have assessed the effects of training on both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. To determine if ACL injury prevention programs have a positive influence on both injury rates and athletic performance tests in female athletes. In August 2011, a search was conducted (1995-August 2011) of the PubMed, Science Direct, and CINAHL databases. Selected studies determined the effect of ACL intervention training programs on ACL incidence rates (determined by athlete-exposures) and athletic performance tests, such as isokinetic strength, vertical jump height, speed, agility, and dynamic balance. Because no single article contained both criteria, investigations were cross-referenced to obtain data on both factors from the same training programs. The authors reviewed the selected studies for cohort population numbers, age, sports, duration of study, program components, duration of training, number of athlete-exposures, ACL injury incidence rates, and results of athletic performance tests. Initially, 57 studies were identified that described 42 ACL injury prevention training programs. Of these, 17 studies that investigated 5 programs met the inclusion criteria. Two programs significantly reduced ACL injury rates and improved athletic performance tests: Sportsmetrics and the Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance program (PEP). Sportsmetrics produced significant increases in lower extremity and abdominal strength, vertical jump height, estimated maximal aerobic power, speed, and agility. Prevent Injury and Enhance Performance significantly improved isokinetic knee flexion strength but did not improve vertical jump height, speed, or agility. The other 3 programs (Myklebust, the "11," and Knee Ligament Injury Prevention) did not improve both ACL injury rates and athletic performance tests. Only the Sportsmetrics and PEP ACL intervention training programs had a

  6. Triangle of prevention: a union's experience promoting a systems-of-safety health and safety program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuiston, Thomas H; Cable, Steve; Cook, Linda; Drewery, Karen; Erwin, Glenn; Frederick, James; Lessin, Nancy; Ouellette, Dan; Scardella, John; Spaeth, Colin; Wright, Mike

    2012-01-01

    After years of watching company health and safety programs fail to prevent major incidents, injuries, illness, and death in industrial workplaces, union health and safety staff and rank and file activists took up the challenge of creating a union-run alternative program. Named the Triangle of Prevention (TOP), the program successfully engages both local unions and management in incident and near-miss reporting and investigation, root cause analysis, recommending and tracking solutions, and learning and sharing lessons. In all phases, TOP uses a hierarchical, systems-of-safety-based approach to hazard identification, reporting, prevention and control while aiming to engage the union, its members, and all other employees of a worksite. This article explains the foundations and workings of this program, the role of an expansive worker-to-worker training regimen, and the ways in which the program has transformed workplaces.

  7. Selection & Interviews: Start and Duration | Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    All complete applications submitted by eligible candidates by the application deadline will be reviewed by members of the CPFP Scientific Education Committee. This Committee is comprised of scientists from different divisions within the NCI, the FDA, and an ad hoc member from outside the NCI with expertise in the field of cancer prevention and control. Those applicants judged to be highly qualified will be notified and invited for a one-day interview. The interviews will be held in October in Rockville, Maryland. Applicants will be notified of their status shortly thereafter.

  8. Lifestyle medicine curriculum for a preventive medicine residency program: implementation and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, Haq; Petraro, Paul V.; Via, Christina; Ullah, Saif; Lim, Lionel; Wild, Dorothea; Kennedy, Mary; Phillips, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the healthcare problems burdening our society today are caused by disease-promoting lifestyles (e.g., physical inactivity and unhealthy eating). Physicians report poor training and lack of confidence in counseling patients on lifestyle changes. Objective To evaluate a new curriculum and rotation in lifestyle medicine for preventive medicine residents. Methods Training included didactics (six sessions/year), distance learning, educational conferences, and newly developed lifestyle medicine rotations at the Institute of Lifestyle Medicine, the Yale-Griffin Prevention Research Center, and the Integrative Medicine Center. We used a number of tools to assess residents’ progress including Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs), self-assessments, and logs of personal health habits. Results A total of 20 residents participated in the lifestyle medicine training between 2010 and 2013. There was a 15% increase in residents’ discussions of lifestyle issues with their patients based on their baseline and follow-up surveys. The performance of preventive medicine residents on OSCEs increased each year they were in the program (average OSCE score: PGY1 73%, PGY2 83%, PGY3 87%, and PGY4 91%, p=0.01). Our internal medicine and preliminary residents served as a control, since they did participate in didactics but not in lifestyle medicine rotations. Internal medicine and preliminary residents who completed the same OSCEs had a slightly lower average score (76%) compared with plural for resident, preventive medicine residents (80%). However, this difference did not reach statistical significance (p=0.11). Conclusion Incorporating the lifestyle medicine curriculum is feasible for preventive medicine training allowing residents to improve their health behavior change discussions with patients as well as their own personal health habits. PMID:27507540

  9. Hip fracture prevention with a multifactorial educational program in elderly community-dwelling Finnish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkarinen, T; Löyttyniemi, E; Välimäki, M

    2013-12-01

    Guidelines suggest identification of women at fracture risk by bone density measurement and subsequently pharmacotherapy. However, most women who sustain a hip fracture do not have osteoporosis in terms of bone density. The present non-pharmacological intervention among elderly women unselected for osteoporosis reduced hip fracture risk by 55 % providing an alternative approach to fracture prevention. Hip fractures are expensive for society and cause disability for those who sustain them. We studied whether a multifactorial non-pharmacological prevention program reduces hip fracture risk in elderly women. A controlled trial concerning 60- to 70-year-old community-dwelling Finnish women was undertaken. A random sample was drawn from the Population Information System and assigned into the intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). Of the 2,547 women who were invited to the IG, 1,004 (39 %) and of the 2,120 invited to the CG, 1,174 (55 %) participated. The IG participated in a fracture prevention program for 1 week at a rehabilitation center followed by review days twice. The CG received no intervention. During the 10-year follow-up, both groups participated in survey questionnaire by mail. Outcome of interest was occurrence of hip fractures and changes in bone-health-related lifestyle. During the follow-up, 12 (1.2 %) women in the IG and 29 (2.5 %) in the CG sustained a hip fracture (P = 0.039). The determinants of hip fractures by stepwise logistic regression were baseline smoking (odds ratio (OR) 4.32 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.14-8.71), age OR 1.15/year (95 % CI 1.03-1.28), fall history OR 2.7 (95 % CI 1.24-5.9), stroke history OR 2.99 (95 % CI 1.19-7.54) and participating in this program OR 0.45 (95 % CI 0.22-0.93). Starting vitamin D and calcium supplement use was more common in the IG compared with the CG. The results suggest that this non-pharmacological fracture prevention program may reduce the risk of hip fractures in elderly

  10. Translating an Effective Group-Based HIV Prevention Program to a Program Delivered Primarily by a Computer: Methods and Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Josefina J.; Kuhn, Tamara; Solomon, Julie; Benner, Tabitha A.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    We describe development of SAHARA (SiSTAS Accessing HIV/AIDS Resources At-a-click), an innovative HIV prevention program that uses a computer to deliver an updated version of SiSTA, a widely used, effective group-level HIV prevention intervention for African American women ages 18-29. Fidelity to SiSTA's core components was achieved using: (1)…

  11. Gender differences and a school-based obesity prevention program in Argentina: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Rausch Herscovici

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a school-based obesity prevention program that seeks to change food intake among students at schools in Rosario, Argentina. METHODS: This was a prospective study involving 405 children 9-11 years of age at six schools in the poor areas of Rosario, Argentina, in May-October 2008. After matching for socioeconomic status, schools were selected by simple randomization; participants were assessed at baseline (T1 and again 6 months later, after completion of the intervention (T2. The program focused on increasing the children's knowledge of healthy nutrition and exercise through four workshops; educating the parents/caregivers; and offering healthy options at the school snack bar. The main outcome measures were the children's intake of healthy and unhealthy foods (assessed with a weekly food frequency questionnaire and their body mass index (BMI. RESULTS: Of the 387 children assessed at T1, 369 were reassessed at T2 (205 intervention; 164 control. Girls at the schools where the intervention occurred increased their intake of three of the five healthy food items promoted by the program (fruits, vegetables, low-sugar cereals. Statistical significance was reached for skim milk (P = 0.03 and for pure orange juice (P = 0.05. Boys of both the intervention and control groups failed to improve their intake of healthy foods, but those of the intervention arm significantly reduced their intake of hamburgers and hot dogs (P = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Girls were more amenable to improving their dietary intake. Overall, the program was more likely to increase consumption of healthy food than to decrease intake of unhealthy foods. Gender differences should be taken into account when designing preventive interventions.

  12. Processing of toxicological studies results in the statistical program R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoseeva Elena Vasilyevna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented article is devoted to the analysis of the experimental values and the applicability of the toxicological studies results in the statistical environment R. This freely distributed program has great functional potential and well-designed algorithm, these make it "...the undisputed leader among the freely distributed systems for statistical analysis..." As the data, the experimental results to assess the toxicity of a highly- mineralized sample in the industrial production wastes were used. We evaluated two test-functions: the change in the population increase of cells and the fluorescence level of laboratory culture of the marine diatom algae Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The detailed algorithm of the analysis, namely: data initialization, evaluation of selective parameters of descriptive statistics, toxicity assessment, single-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, Tukey and Dunnett multiple comparison tests, evaluation of correlation between the observed variable (Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients are presented in the article. The complete list of scripts in the program R allows to reproduce a similar analysis.

  13. Engaging Vulnerable Adolescents in a Pregnancy Prevention Program: Perspectives of Prime Time Staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Amanda E.; Secor-Turner, Molly; Garwick, Ann; Sieving, Renee; Rush, Kayci

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Evaluating interventions for reducing unintended adolescent pregnancy is necessary to ensure quality and efficacy. The purpose of this study was to examine core case management practices and processes for engaging high-risk girls in Prime Time, an intensive multi-component intervention from the perspectives of intervention program staff. Method Structured individual interviews were conducted with the entire Prime Time program staff (N=7) to assess successes and challenges in engaging adolescent girls at high risk for early pregnancy recruited from school and community clinics. Results Program staff described different capacities of adolescents to engage with the program (easy, middle and difficult connecting adolescents) and provided specific recommendations for working with different connectors. Discussion Findings from this study support the notion that preventive interventions with vulnerable groups of adolescents must pay careful attention to strategies for establishing trusting youth-adult relationships. The ability of staff (e.g., case managers, nurses) to engage with adolescents is a crucial step in improving health outcomes. The identified strategies are useful in helping adolescents build skills, motivations and supports needed for healthy behavior change. PMID:22726710

  14. An effectiveness trial of a new enhanced dissonance eating disorder prevention program among female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Butryn, Meghan L; Rohde, Paul; Shaw, Heather; Marti, C Nathan

    2013-12-01

    Efficacy trials indicate that a dissonance-based prevention program in which female high school and college students with body image concerns critique the thin-ideal reduced risk factors, eating disorder symptoms, and future eating disorder onset, but weaker effects emerged from an effectiveness trial wherein high school clinicians recruited students and delivered the program under real-world conditions. The present effectiveness trial tested whether a new enhanced dissonance version of this program produced larger effects when college clinicians recruited students and delivered the intervention using improved procedures to select, train, and supervise clinicians. Young women recruited from seven universities across the US (N = 408, M age = 21.6, SD = 5.64) were randomized to the dissonance intervention or an educational brochure control condition. Dissonance participants showed significantly greater decreases in risk factors (thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dieting, negative affect) and eating disorder symptoms versus controls at posttest and 1-year follow-up, resulting in medium average effect size (d = .60). Dissonance participants also reported significant improvements in psychosocial functioning, but not reduced health care utilization or unhealthy weight gain. This novel multisite effectiveness trial with college clinicians found that the enhanced dissonance version of this program and the improved facilitator selection/training procedures produced average effects that were 83% larger than effects observed in the high school effectiveness trial. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of a health promotion and fall prevention program in elderly individuals participating in interaction groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lays Cavallero Pagliosa

    Full Text Available Introduction Falls in elderly people are an increasing public health problem resulting in high costs to health services. Thus, it is essential to invest in the development of actions and programs focused on decreasing such risks. Objective To verify the effects of a program of health promotion and prevention of falls in relation to balance and functional abilities in elderly people participating in interaction groups in Caxias do Sul City, RS State. Materials and methods For this purpose, 14 elderly people were selected for assessment and reassessment through the following instruments: the Barthel Index, Timed Up and Go Test (TUG, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and a questionnaire to characterize the sample. Over the course of 2 months, group activities were conducted in a multi-sensory and proprioceptive circuit with a frequency of 2 times per week, totaling 14 meetings. Results The average age of participants was about 72 years old, mostly women (78.6%; 64.3% of them had experienced falls, and 92.9% had already practiced physical activities. After the intervention, there was an average increase of 9.14 points in the BBS (p = 0.000 and an average reduction of 4.4 seconds in gait speed on the TUG test (p = 0.000. Conclusion The application of the proposed program resulted in increasing balance and gait performance of the elderly, reducing the risk of falls.

  16. Uses of data to plan cancer prevention and control programs.

    OpenAIRE

    Boss, L P; Suarez, L

    1990-01-01

    Seven State health departments, those in Illinois, Nebraska, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Texas, and Wisconsin, have participated in an effort to utilize a variety of State-specific cancer-related data to describe the cancer burden in their State's population. The data were then used to develop a statewide cancer plan or supplement an existing plan to address the defined problems. Cancer data have not been well utilized in the planning of intervention programs in the past, and the ef...

  17. Department of Defense HIV/AIDS Prevention Program (DHAPP), 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    based on curriculum for PwP developed by PEPFAR and is currently being adapted for the Angolan military context. A total of 163 health care ...provided HIV-related palliative care to military members and their families. During the year, 3,318 individuals were enrolled into HIV care in the KDF HIV...messages and HTC services. The HTC program is directly linked to palliative care , including drugs for OIs, and provides services for HIV-infected military

  18. How Effective are F-MARC Injury Prevention Programs for Soccer Players? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Attar, Wesam Saleh A; Soomro, Najeebullah; Pappas, Evangelos; Sinclair, Peter J; Sanders, Ross H

    2016-02-01

    The FIFA Medical and Research Centre (F-MARC) has designed a comprehensive warm-up program targeting muscular strength, body kinaesthetic awareness, and neuromuscular control during static and dynamic movements to decrease injury risk for soccer players. Prior studies have investigated the effectiveness of the F-MARC programs, but have not consistently reported a statistically significant reduction in injury and reduction in time loss due to injury from utilizing the program. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and interventional studies that evaluated the efficacy of the F-MARC injury prevention programs in soccer. Two independent researchers searched the relevant article databases. The keyword domains used during the search were 'F-MARC', 'FIFA 11+', 'the 11+', 'injury prevention programs', 'soccer', and variations of these keywords. The initial search resulted in 4299 articles which were filtered to nine articles that met the inclusion criteria. Main inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials or interventional studies, use of F-MARC injury prevention programs, and the primary outcome measuring overall and lower extremity injuries. Extracted data were entered and analyzed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software, version 2 (CMA.V2). The pooled results based on total injuries per 1000 h of exposure showed that F-MARC injury prevention programs had a statistically significant reduction in the overall injury risk ratio of 0.771 (95% CI 0.647-0.918, p = 0.003) and the lower extremity injury risk ratio of 0.762 (95% CI 0.621-0.935, p = 0.009). Moreover, FIFA '11+' had a statistically significant reduction in the overall injury risk ratio to 0.654 (95% CI 0.537-0.798, p injuries among soccer players. These data also support the case for the development and introduction of sport-specific programs.

  19. Utilization of aging program results in plant inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.; Fullwood, R.

    1988-01-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large data base of component and system operating experience. This data base has been used to determine equipment aging susceptibility and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and reliability. Methods of detecting and mitigating component and system aging have also been identified. This paper discusses how the NPAR results could be used to focus inspection activities on age-sensitive components and systems and on the specific modes and mechanisms of age degradation. These activities range from the regular inspections conducted by resident inspectors to extensive special inspections such as the Safety System Functional Inspection typically conducted by a team of inspectors. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  20. Utilization of aging program results in plant inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunther, W.; Fullwood, R.

    1989-01-01

    Research conducted under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program has resulted in a large data base of component and system operating experience. This data base has been used to determine equipment aging susceptibility and the potential for equipment aging to impact plant safety and reliability. Methods of detecting and mitigating component and system aging have also been identified. This paper discusses how the NPAR results could be used to focus inspection activities on age-sensitive components and systems and on the specific modes and mechanisms of age degradation. These activities range from the regular inspections conducted by resident inspectors to extensive special inspections such as the Safety System Functional Inspection typically conducted by a team of inspectors. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. CVV Program: suicide prevention in the context of hotlines and volunteering

    OpenAIRE

    Dockhorn, Carolina Neumann de Barros Falcão; PUCRS; Werlang, Blanca Susana Guevara; PUCRS

    2009-01-01

    Suicidal behavior has been increasing in numbers becoming a public health issue. Due to this reality it is of extreme importance that preventive measures with the purpose of reducing outrages numbers of suicide attempts and consummated suicides. Within the prevention programs there is the resource of hotlines on which has its presence in Brazil by the CVV agencies executors of CVV Suicide Prevention Program and members of the “Centro de Valorização da Vida”. With volunteer workers, CVV offers...

  2. Secondary Prevention Efforts at the Middle School Level: An Application of the Behavior Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Capizzi, Andrea M.; Fisher, Marisa H.; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examine the impact of the Behavior Education Program (BEP; Hawken, MacLeod, & Rawlings, 2007) with four middle school students who were not responsive to a comprehensive primary prevention program including academic, behavioral and social components. To extend this line of inquiry we (a) conducted a functional behavioral…

  3. Dropout Prevention: Diversified Satellite Occupations Program and Career Development. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Hilda B.

    The Diversified Satellite Occupations Program Career Development sought to prevent dropout through these strategies: registration at a school situation away from the normal school setting, creation of a close teacher-student relationship, and raise achievement levels and lower anxiety levels. Program emphases at elementary, junior and senior high…

  4. A worksite prevention program for construction workers: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Hengel, K.M.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program

  5. Living Peace: An Exploration of Experiential Peace Education, Conflict Resolution and Violence Prevention Programs for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettler, Shannon; Johnston, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors review the types of experiential peace education programs available to teens in the US and provide a classification guide for educators, parents, other concerned adults and teens who may be interested in developing conflict, peace and/or violence prevention knowledge, skills and attitudes. The authors identify experiential programs in…

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Online Relapse Prevention Program for Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.; Black, Ryan A.; Kamon, Jody L.; Sussman, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Background: An Internet-based relapse prevention supplement to adolescent substance abuse treatment programming is a promising modality to reinforce treatment gains and enhance recovery; however, an evidence base is lacking. Objective: To assess the efficacy of the online Navigating my Journey (NmJ) program. Methods: 129 adolescent-aged…

  7. Pilot Test of Standup, an Online School-Based Bullying Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons-Mitchell, Jane; Levesque, Deborah A.; Harris, Leon A., III.; Flannery, Daniel J.; Falcone, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Bullying is a significant public health problem for students in schools. Prevention programs have addressed targets with some success; however, meta-analyses find small effects among older youths. A pilot study was conducted with high school students to evaluate the potential efficacy of StandUp, a three-session online program that delivers…

  8. A Meta-Evaluation of 11 School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, Lynne R.; DeSimone, Marie; Covington, Benjamin

    2003-01-01

    Conducted a meta-evaluation of 11 school-based smoking prevention programs. Criteria included: adequacy of research design; evidence of reliability and validity; appropriate statistical analyses and interpretations; reporting of effect sizes or practical significance; accounting for attrition; and tracking fidelity to the program. Criteria with…

  9. A High School Depression and Suicide Prevention Program: A Collaboration between Health Education and Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Donna L.; Bradbury, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Examined a collaboration between health education and psychological services in generating a high school depression and suicide prevention program. The five-component program raised awareness of teen depression and suicide, increased communication about these issues within the school and community, and provided information about available…

  10. Substance Use Prevention among At-Risk Rural Youth: Piloting the Social Ecological "One Life" Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ronald D., Jr.; Barnes, Jeremy T.; Holman, Thomas; Hunt, Barry P.

    2014-01-01

    Substance use among youth is a significant health concern in the rural United States, particularly among at-risk students. While evidence-based programs are available, literature suggests that an underdeveloped rural health prevention workforce often limits the adoption of such programs. Additionally, population-size restrictions of national…

  11. Preventing Adolescents' Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutuli, J. J.; Gillham, Jane E.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Reivich, Karen J.; Seligman, Martin E. P.; Gallop, Robert J.; Abenavoli, Rachel M.; Freres, Derek R.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports secondary outcome analyses from a past study of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for middle-school aged children. Middle school students (N = 697) were randomly assigned to PRP, PEP (an alternate intervention), or control conditions. Gillham et al., (2007) reported analyses…

  12. Implementation and Evaluation of a Parenting Program to Prevent Child Maltreatment in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kooij, Inger W.; Bipat, Shandra; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.; Graafsma, Tobi L. G.

    2017-01-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment has become a global health concern because child maltreatment is a violation of children's rights. Across the world, a variety of parenting programs have been developed to address this problem. However, no such parenting program currently exists in Suriname. This

  13. Preventing Smoking among Hispanic Preadolescents: Program Orientation, Participant Individualism-Collectivism, and Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Stella G.; Garza, Raymond T.; Gonzalez-Blanks, Ana G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the role of individualism-collectivism (IC) and acculturation in smoking prevention programs for Hispanic preadolescents. The sixth graders received a collectivist or individualist curriculum. Both programs contained knowledge-based facts about smoking. The collectivist condition included an interdependent…

  14. Project EX-India: A classroom-based tobacco use prevention and cessation intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Anupreet Kaur; Sussman, Steve; Tewari, Abha; Bassi, Shalini; Arora, Monika

    2016-02-01

    Tobacco use experimentation is most frequent between the ages of 15–24 in India. Therefore, programming to counteract tobacco use among adolescents is needed. There is a lack of evidence-based teen tobacco use prevention and cessation programs. The current study provides an outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Indian adolescents (16–18 years). An eight-session classroom-based curriculum was adapted to the Indian context and translated from English to Hindi (local language). Next, it was tested using a quasi-experimental design with 624 Indian students at baseline, involving two program and two control schools, with a three-month post-program follow-up. Project EX involves motivation enhancement (e.g., talk shows and games) and coping skills (e.g., complementary and alternative medicine) components. Program participants rated complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) activities like meditation, yoga and healthy breathing higher than talk shows and games. Compared to the standard care control condition, the program condition revealed a prevention effect, but not a cessation effect. Implications for prevention/cessation programming among Indian teens are discussed. This study was approved by the Independent Ethics Committee, Mumbai.

  15. 34 CFR 86.101 - What review of IHE drug prevention programs does the Secretary conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What review of IHE drug prevention programs does the Secretary conduct? 86.101 Section 86.101 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND... programs does the Secretary conduct? The Secretary annually reviews a representative sample of IHE drug...

  16. Dumping Ground or Effective Alternative: Dropout Prevention Programs in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Cori

    1998-01-01

    An alternative dropout-prevention program is examined from the students' perspectives. Findings from interviews and observations suggest that the program is effective in keeping the students in school but does little to help the students develop daily living and social skills. Policy implications are discussed and suggestions for future research…

  17. A Model Human Sexuality--HIV/AIDS Prevention and Intervention Service-Learning Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Clarence, M., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with a service-learning program focused on human sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention and intervention at the Howard University Department of Health, Human Performance and Leisure Studies. Topics discussed include how this program was created, an overview of peer education, HIV/AIDS peer education training, and services provided to…

  18. 76 FR 31241 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Program; Massachusetts; Announcing Delegation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Deterioration (PSD) Program; Massachusetts; Announcing Delegation Agreement Between EPA and Massachusetts... authority to implement and enforce the Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) program to the... at the Office of Ecosystem Protection, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA New England Regional...

  19. Valued Youth Partnerships: Programs in Caring. Cross-Age Tutoring Dropout Prevention Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intercultural Development Research Association, San Antonio, TX.

    This booklet provides information about the Valued Youth Partnership (VYP) program for dropout prevention. Begun in 1984 with the support of the Coca-Cola Company and the collaboration of the Intercultural Development Research Association, the VYP program is being implemented in the Edgewood and South San Antonio school districts in San Antonio,…

  20. Evaluation of Three Osteoporosis Prevention Programs for Young Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lein, Donald H.; Turner, Lori; Wilroy, Jereme

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of theory-based osteoporosis prevention programs on calcium and vitamin D intakes and osteoporosis health beliefs in young women. Methods: Women (N = 152) aged 19 to 25 years were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups: a brochure group (n = 51), a computer-tailored program group…

  1. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  2. School-based adolescent obesity prevention programming: perceptions of school personnel in Southern Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Jodi L; Williams, Christian L; Dula, Taylor McKeehan; Slawson, Deborah Leachman

    2015-02-01

    Coordinated School Health (CSH) is a systematic approach to improving the health and well-being of school-age children. It is recommended for its potential to promote healthy weight in adolescents through strategic programming. Resources and programming for adolescent obesity prevention varies among schools, thereby limiting the intended benefits of CSH. The purpose of this study was to understand gaps in schools' approaches to healthy weight promotion and support for overweight/obese students. We evaluated perceptions of adolescent obesity and environmental factors and programs facilitating healthy weight in high schools in Appalachian Tennessee. In 2012, 17 key school personnel from 5 randomly selected high schools were interviewed. Questions addressed their perceptions of adolescent obesity, school-based physical activity and nutrition programming, and support available to overweight/obese students. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify emerging themes. Participants consistently identified adolescent obesity and/or associated risk factors as major health problems within their schools. Barriers to physical activity and healthful eating were identified at multiple levels. Because of the sensitivity surrounding overweight/obesity, no particular programs or curricula targeted overweight/obese adolescents specifically, but they were available to all students. Support is not explicitly available; therefore, overweight/obese students must seek out these resources. Findings suggest that although school personnel are concerned about the impact of adolescent obesity on health outcomes, there is wide variation across schools on the types and quality of programming available to address the issue. Results can be used to encourage school-based strengths and identify gaps in the CSH infrastructure in school systems.

  3. Implementing a pressure ulcer prevention program and enhancing the role of the CWOCN: impact on outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiser, Barbara; Rochette, Jana; Philbin, Shawna; Lowerhouse, Nancy; Terburgh, Catherine; Pietsch, Catherine

    2006-02-01

    Hospitals in the US are increasingly concerned with the rising number of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. To reduce its 2002-2003 average hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence rate of 9.2%, a regional medical center in southeastern US initiated a process improvement and education program. Quarterly pressure ulcer prevalence studies were conducted and the Medical Intensive Care Unit was found to have the highest number of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers among the five units participating in the study. As part of a new Pressure Ulcer Strategic Plan, significant changes were made to the organizational infrastructure and processes, which included implementing the Braden Risk Scale Assessment Tool in place of the Norton Risk Scale, developing a pressure ulcer prevention protocol, creating Pressure Ulcer/Skin Tear Physician orders for nurses, establishing a Skin Resource Team, and providing additional education, training, and other relevant resources. Better appreciation for and enhanced utilization of Certified Wound Ostomy Continence Nurses were encouraged. New support surfaces were purchased. Implementing these changes resulted in a decrease in the quarterly hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence in participating units, including the Medical Intensive Care Unit where rates dropped from a high of 29% to near 0%. Clinicians now approach pressure ulcers as preventable rather than inevitable and view Certified Wound Ostomy Continence Nurses as resources and clinical experts for prevention and treatment. Overall quality of care and financial resource utilization also have substantially improved.

  4. The relationship between neighborhood characteristics and recruitment into adolescent family-based substance use prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Keagy, Carolyn D

    2012-04-01

    Youth in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at risk for poor health outcomes. Characteristics of these neighborhoods may translate into intensified risk due to barriers utilizing preventive care such as substance use prevention programs. While family-level risks affect recruitment into prevention programs, few studies have addressed the influence of neighborhood risks. This study consists of 744 families with an 11- to 12-year-old child recruited for a family-based substance use prevention program. Using US Census data, logistic regressions showed neighborhoods were related to recruitment, beyond individual characteristics. Greater neighborhood unemployment was related to decreased agreement to participate in the study and lower rates of high school graduation were related to lower levels of actual enrolment. Conversely, higher rates of single-female-headed households were related to increased agreement. Recruitment procedures may need to recognize the variety of barriers and enabling forces within the neighborhood in developing different strategies for the recruitment of youth and their families.

  5. Nurses' knowledge of pressure ulcer prevention in ogun state, Nigeria: results of a pilot survey .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilesanmi, Rose Ekama; Ofi, Bola Abosede; Adejumo, Prisca Olabisi

    2012-02-01

     Pressure ulcer (PU) development remains a significant complication among at-risk patients. Optimal prevention strategies start with knowledge about current evidence-based prevention interventions. A pilot study was conducted to describe nurses' level of knowledge of PU preventive interventions and to test the reliability of the Pressure Ulcer Knowledge Test (PUKT) among Nigerian nurses. One hundred, eleven (111) nurses were purposively selected from specific wards of a state teaching hospital in South West Nigeria. While 106 nurses (95.5%) correctly identified patients at risk for PU development, 78 participants (70.3%) had low (prevention intervention knowledge scores. No significant differences in PU prevention intervention knowledge scores were observed between nurses with different educational backgrounds (P = 0.317) or years of working experience (P >0.005). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for reliability was 0.861. The results of this study confirm that many PU prevention interventions in Nigeria are based on tradition and that a structured educational approach is needed to enable Nigerian nurses to provide evidence-based PU prevention interventions.

  6. [Dynamics of tooth decay prevalence in children receiving long-term preventive program in school dental facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamova, O G; Kulazhenko, T V; Gabitova, K F

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the assessment of tooth decay prevalence in clinically homogenous groups of children receiving long-term preventive program (PP) in school dental facilities. Five-years PP were introduced in clinical practice in 2 Moscow schools. Preventive treatment was performed by dental hygienist. The results show that systematic preventive treatment in school dental offices starting from elementary school allows reducing dental caries incidence 46-53% and stabilize the incidence of caries complications. It should be mentioned though that analysis of individualized outcomes proves heterogeneity of study results despite of equal conditions of PP. Potentially significant hence is early diagnostics and treatment of initial caries forms as demineralization foci, especially in children with intensive tooth decay. Optimization of pediatric dentist and dental hygienist activity in school dental facilities is the main factor of caries prevention efficiency.

  7. Evaluation of 4 weeks' neonatal antiretroviral prophylaxis as a component of a prevention of mother-to-child transmission program in a resource-rich setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferguson, Wendy

    2011-05-01

    In resource-rich settings, universal adoption of a 4- rather than 6-week neonatal antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis regimen could reduce toxicity and results in cost savings, provided prevention of mother-to-child transmission program effectiveness is not compromised.

  8. First results from the Hubble OPAL Program: Jupiter in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amy A.; Wong, Michael H.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2015-11-01

    The Hubble 2020: Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program is a Director's Discretionary program designed to generate two yearly global maps for each of the outer planets to enable long term studies of atmospheric color, structure and two-dimensional wind fields. This presentation focuses on Jupiter results from the first year of the campaign. Data were acqured January 19, 2015 with the WFC3/UVIS camera and the F275W, F343N, F395N, F467M, F502N, F547M, F631N, F658N, and F889N filters. Global maps were generated and are publicly available through the High Level Science Products archive: https://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/opal/Using cross-correlation on the global maps, the zonal wind profile was measured between +/- 50 degrees latitude and is in family with Voyager and Cassini era profiles. There are some variations in mid to high latitude wind jet magnitudes, particularly at +40°and -35° planetographic latitude. The Great Red Spot continues to maintain an intense orange coloration, as it did in 2014. However, the interior shows changed structure, including a reduced core and new filamentary features. Finally, a wave not previously seen in Hubble images was also observed and is interpreted as a baroclinic instability with associated cyclone formation near 16° N latitude. A similar feature was observed faintly in Voyager 2 images, and is consistent with the Hubble feature in location and scale.

  9. A national survey of school-based, adolescent suicide prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, A; Shaffer, D; Whittle, B

    1989-11-01

    A national survey of suicide prevention programs was conducted to determine the number, distribution and content of school-based, curriculum programs for adolescents. One hundred fifteen programs were identified. The total number of students and schools targeted for prevention efforts more than doubled during the academic years 1984/1985 to 1986/1987. Content of the programs was similar, with nearly all including information on suicide warning signs and other facts, as well as on accessing community mental health resources. Most included a separate component for school staff and parents. Ninety-five percent subscribed to the view that suicide is most commonly a response to extreme stress or pressure and could happen to anyone. Possible negative implications of this "stress model" of suicide were discussed. While this survey plays an important first step in providing a description of these programs, more evaluative research is needed to determine what effect, if any, these programs have on suicidal behavior.

  10. Hanford site guide for preparing and maintaining generator group pollution prevention program documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This manual provides the necessary guidance to contractor generator groups for developing and maintaining documentation of their pollution prevention (P2) program activities. Preparation of program documentation will demonstrate compliance with contractor and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements, as well as state and federal regulations. Contractor waste generator groups are no longer required to prepare and update facility waste minimization plans. Developing and maintaining program documentation replace this requirement

  11. Comprehensive resurvey program to prevent radiological incidents at a national laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipton, W.V.; Hunckler, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive resurvey program in a general purpose research building at Argonne National Laboratory is being implemented. The program was designed to prevent radiological incidents by increasing the awareness of Health Physics personnel of radiological hazards, initiating corrective actions, and providing information for improving routine survey schedules, and for establishing manpower requirements. The following aspects of the program are described: scheduling, surveys, records, follow-up, and statistics

  12. Alcohol and substance use prevention programs for youth in Hawaii and Pacific Islands: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Zoe; Cook, Angelie; Konishi, Minami; Nigg, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a literature review of recent programs to prevent alcohol and substance use in Hawaii and Pacific Islander youths. Five programs for alcohol and substance use prevention among Hawaii and Pacific Islander youths were found in peer-reviewed literature. Of these, two focused on Native Hawaiians and/or other Pacific Islanders and three focused on overall youths in Hawaii. The main themes of these programs were increasing cultural pride, character development through personal efficacy and integrity, connecting youth to family and community, and being school- or community-centered. Two studies showed a decrease in substance use, one showed a change in knowledge, and two did not published outcomes. This review highlights a lack of evidence-based culturally appropriate options for preventing substance use by Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander youth. Dialogue about best practices is needed and should be supported through publication of program evaluations.

  13. Long-term impact of prevention programs to promote effective parenting: lasting effects but uncertain processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Irwin N; Schoenfelder, Erin N; Wolchik, Sharlene A; MacKinnon, David P

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews findings from 46 randomized experimental trials of preventive parenting interventions. The findings of these trials provide evidence of effects to prevent a wide range of problem outcomes and to promote competencies from one to 20 years later. However, there is a paucity of evidence concerning the processes that account for program effects. Three alternative pathways are proposed as a framework for future research on the long-term effects of preventive parenting programs: (a) through program effects on parenting skills, perceptions of parental efficacy, and reduction in barriers to effective parenting; (b) through program-induced reductions in short-term problems of youth that persist over time, improvements in youth adaptation to stress, and improvements in youth belief systems concerning the self and their relationships with others; and (c) through effects on contexts in which youth become involved and on youth-environment transactions.

  14. Measuring implementation of a school-based violence prevention program : Fidelity and teachers' responsiveness as predictors of proximal outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultes, Marie Therese; Stefanek, Elisabeth; van de Schoot, Rens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Spiel, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    When school-based prevention programs are put into practice, evaluation studies commonly only consider one indicator of program implementation. The present study investigates how two different aspects of program implementation - fidelity and participant responsiveness - jointly influence proximal

  15. Plethyzmography in assessment of hemodynamic results of pacemaker functions programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Dariusz; Sionek, Piotr; Peczalski, Kazimierz; Janusek, Dariusz

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents potential role of plethyzmography in optimization of heart hemodynamic function during pacemaker programming. The assessment of optimal stroke volume in patients, with implanted dual chamber pacemaker (DDD), by plethyzmography was a goal of the study. The data were collected during pacing rhythm. 20 patients (8 female and 12 male, average 77.4+/-4.6 years) with dual chamber pacemaker (DDD) and with pacing rhythm during routine pacemaker control and study tests were incorporated in the study group. Hemodynamic parameters were assessed during modification of atrio-ventricular delay (AVD) for pacing rhythm of 70 bpm and 90 bpm. The time of atrioventricular was programmed with 20 ms steps within range 100-200 ms and data were recorded with two minutes delay between two consecutive measurements. Stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) were calculated from plethyzmographic signal by using Beatscope software (TNO Holand). Highest SV calculated for given pacing rhythm was named optimal stroke volume (OSV) and consequently highest cardiac output was named maximal cardiac output (MCO). The time of atrio-ventricular delay for OSV was named optimal atrioventricular delay (OAVD). The results have showed: mean values of OAVD for 70 bpm - 152+/-33 ms and for 90 bpm -149+/-35 ms, shortening of the mean OAVD time caused by increase of pacing rate from 70 bpm to 90 bpm what resulted in statistically significant decrease of OSV with not statistically significant increase of MCO. The analysis of consecutive patients revealed three types of response to increase of pacing rhythm: 1. typical-shortening of OAVD, 2. neutral-no change of OAVD and 3.atypical-lengthening of OAVD.

  16. Evaluation of a ski and snowboard injury prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusimano, Michael; Luong, Wilson P; Faress, Ahmed; Leroux, Timothy; Russell, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The objective was to study the effectiveness of a brochure and video at improving skiing and snowboarding knowledge. Sixty-nine Grade 7 students were randomised to an educational intervention (n = 35) or control (n = 34) group. The intervention group viewed an injury prevention video aimed at improving skiers and snowboarder's knowledge, attitudes and behaviours about ski and snowboard safety and received a brochure. The control group participated in a teaching session and had a simple question and answer session about snow sports. Pre- and post-tests were administered and injuries during four trips were documented. Pre-test scores were similar between the two groups. Compared with the control group, there was a significantly greater improvement in post-test scores among the intervention group (WMD: 2.1; 95% CI: 0.19-4.01). There was no significant difference in injury rates (RR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.04, 3.39). All injuries were minor and did not require medical attention. The intervention aimed at youth skiers and snowboarders appears to be effective at improving knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of skiing and snowboarding safety.

  17. Obesity Prevention Interventions in US Public Schools: Are Schools Using Programs That Promote Weight Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Erica L; Wintner, Suzanne; Lee, Rebekka M; Austin, S Bryn

    2017-12-28

    Despite substantial research on school-based obesity prevention programs, it is unclear how widely they are disseminated. It is also unknown whether schools use obesity programs that inadvertently promote weight stigma or disordered weight-control behaviors. In spring 2016, we distributed an online survey about school wellness programming to a simple random sample of US public school administrators (N = 247 respondents; 10.3% response rate). We analyzed survey responses and conducted immersion/crystallization analysis of written open-ended responses. Slightly less than half (n = 117, 47.4%) of schools offered any obesity prevention program. Only 17 (6.9%) reported using a predeveloped program, and 7 (2.8%) reported using a program with evidence for effectiveness. Thirty-seven schools (15.0%) reported developing intervention programs that focused primarily on individual students' or staff members' weight rather than nutrition or physical activity; 28 schools (11.3% of overall) used staff weight-loss competitions. School administrators who reported implementing a program were more likely to describe having a program champion and adequate buy-in from staff, families, and students. Lack of funding, training, and time were widely reported as barriers to implementation. Few administrators used educational (n = 12, 10.3%) or scientific (n = 6, 5.1%) literature for wellness program decision making. Evidence-based obesity prevention programs appear to be rarely implemented in US schools. Schools may be implementing programs lacking evidence and programs that may unintentionally exacerbate student weight stigma by focusing on student weight rather than healthy habits. Public health practitioners and researchers should focus on improving support for schools to implement evidence-based programs.

  18. Feasibility of the Positive Thoughts and Actions Prevention Program for Middle Schoolers at Risk for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. McCarty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of adolescent depression, few school-based prevention programs have been developed and tested in the United States with middle school populations. This study examined the acceptability and changes in targeted outcomes for a new preventative program, Positive Thoughts and Actions (PTA. Sixty-seven 7th grade students with elevated depressive symptoms were recruited from public schools and randomized to the 12-week PTA program with a parent-component or to a school-as-usual control group. The PTA prevention program was well received by students and parents, yielding high rates of participation and satisfaction among those randomized to receive the intervention. However, analyses of the efficacy of the program in changing depressive symptoms were not significant. In terms of our proximal program targets, most differences were not statistically significant, though effect sizes suggested advantage of PTA over control group in coping, cognitive style, and parent-child communication. This preliminary research highlights a need for further testing of programs for school-based prevention of depression and promotion of positive emotional health.

  19. IMPACTS. Industrial Technologies Program: Summary of Program Results for CY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-02

    The Impacts report summarizes benefits resulting from ITP-sponsored technologies, including energy savings, waste reduction, increased productivity, and lowered emissions. It also provides an overview of the activities of the Industrial Assessment Centers, BestPractices Program, and Combined Heat and Power efforts.

  20. PASHA: facilitating the replication and use of effective adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Josefina J; Lessard, Laura; Benner, Tabitha

    2007-03-01

    It is important that interventions that have been shown effective in changing risky behavior be disseminated, so that they can be replicated (implemented in a new site) and so that their effectiveness in a new setting can be investigated. This article provides an update on an innovative resource for promoting the replication of effective teen pregnancy and STI/HIV prevention programs. The resource is called the Program Archive on Sexuality, Health & Adolescence (PASHA). A Scientist Expert Panel rates candidate adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV prevention programs based on the strength of the evidence of their effectiveness in changing risky sexual behavior among youth ages 10-19 (10-21 for STI/HIV prevention programs). Developers of selected programs are invited to make their program and evaluation materials publicly available through PASHA. PASHA publishes and disseminates replication kits for programs it successfully acquires. Fifty-six programs have been selected by PASHA's Scientist Expert Panel as "effective" in changing one or more risky behaviors associated with adolescent pregnancy or STI/HIV. Complete program and evaluation materials from 35 of these programs are now currently available through PASHA, five are pending, 12 are publicly available from other sources, and only four are not publicly available. PASHA programs are aimed at a diverse target population and cover diverse content on many abstinence and contraception/condom-related topics. Many pedagogical techniques are used to effect behavior change, noticeably role play and group discussion. PASHA illustrates well the productive research-to-practice feedback loop that is the backbone of "translation research." The resource can be used by adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV prevention practitioners to put what works to work to continue the lowering of the nation's adolescent pregnancy and STI/HIV rates.