González, Raquel; Pons-Duran, Clara; Piqueras, Mireia; Aponte, John J; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Menéndez, Clara
The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy. One such candidate is mefloquine. To assess the effects of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women, specifically, to evaluate:• the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of mefloquine for preventing malaria in pregnant women; and• the impact of HIV status, gravidity, and use of insecticide-treated nets on the effects of mefloquine. We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), the Malaria in Pregnancy Library, and two trial registers up to 31 January 2018. In addition, we checked references and contacted study authors to identify additional studies, unpublished data, confidential reports, and raw data from published trials. Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing mefloquine IPT or mefloquine prophylaxis against placebo, no treatment, or an alternative drug regimen. Two review authors independently screened all records identified by the search strategy, applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trial authors to ask for additional information when required. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RRs), count outcomes as incidence rate ratios (IRRs), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MDs). We have presented all
Full Text Available Background: Listeriosis is a food-borne disease often associated with ready-to-eat foods. It usually causes mild febrile gastrointestinal illness in immunocompetent persons. In pregnant women, it may cause more severe infection and often crosses the placenta to infect the fetus, resulting in miscarriage, fetal death or neonatal morbidity. Simple precautions during pregnancy can prevent listeriosis. However, many women are unaware of these precautions and listeriosis education is often omitted from prenatal care.
Bookallil, M; Chalmers, E; Andrew, B
To measure the quality of antenatal care in rural and remote regions of the Northern Territory, using asymptomatic bacteruria as an indicator. Indigenous Australian women and their babies have a greater frequency of adverse outcomes in pregnancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. It is well established that asymptomatic bacteriuria may have serious outcomes in pregnancy, including an increased risk of pyelonephritis and a strong association with preterm and low birth weight delivery. Ensuring good quality antenatal care can reduce the individual risks of pregnancy for mothers and their babies. In the Northern Territory there are well established guidelines for antenatal care in rural and remote Indigenous communities. These are documented in the Women's Business Manual. Audit and feedback is one method that has been shown to have a small to moderate effect in changing clinician behaviour, in this case improving compliance with guidelines. A retrospective chart audit of antenatal clients was conducted at 10 rural and remote primary health care clinics in the Northern Territory, Australia. The audit reviewed all the available charts (n = 268) of pregnant women, from the participating communities, who gave birth in 2002 or 2003. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria was chosen as the indicator of quality antenatal care, as it is one of five areas of antenatal care where there is evidence that appropriate management improves outcomes. The quality of care was measured against the local guidelines, the Women's Business Manual. Women frequently had urine tests with where the dipstick showed an abnormal result, with 75% (95% CI [0.70,0.80]) of women having at least one episode of abnormal urinalysis during pregnancy. Six hundred and twenty episodes of abnormal urinalysis in pregnancy were identified. The incidence of bacteriuria at first visit was 16%, (95%-confidence interval = 95% CI [0.10, 0.21]). Compliance with the guidelines was poor. Fifty
Conclusions: Streptococcus mutans is commonly transferred from mothers to their babies, and the preventive program applied to the pregnant women reduced both the amount of plaque and S. mutans colonization and thus had a positive effect.
Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen
Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...
Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Ali, Mohamed Nabil Al; Alrashid, Ahmed Abdulmohsen; Ahmed Al-Agnam, Amena; Al Sultan, Amina Abdullah
Introduction: Many cases of congenital toxoplasmosis can be prevented provided that pregnant women following hygienic measures to avert risk of infection and to reduce severity of the condition if primary prevention failed. Objectives: This descriptive exploratory study aimed to assess the risk behavior and knowledge related to toxoplasmoisis among Saudi pregnant women attending primary health care centers (PHCs) in Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia and to determine socio-demographic characteristics related to risk behavior and knowledge. Methods: All Saudi pregnant women attending antenatal care at randomly selected six urban and four rural PHCs were approached. Those agreed to participate were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire collecting data regarding socio-demographic, obstetric history, toxoplasmosis risk behaviors and related knowledge. Results: Of the included pregnant women, 234 (26.8%) have fulfilled the criteria for toxoplasmosis preventive behavior recommended by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, while 48.9% reported at least one risk behavior and 24.3% reported ≥ two risk behaviors. Logistic regression model revealed that pregnant women aged 20 to toxoplasmosis preventive behavior. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge showed that many women had identified the role of cats in disease transmission while failed to identify other risk factors including consumption of undercooked meats, unwashed fruits and vegetables, and contacting with soil. Predictors for pregnant women to be knowledgeable towards toxoplasmosis included those aged 30 to toxoplasmosis (OR=2.08) as reveled by multivariate regression model. Conclusion: Pregnant women in Al Hasas, Saudi Arabia, are substantially vulnerable to toxoplasmosis infection as they are lacking the necessary preventive behavior. A sizable portion have no sufficient knowledge for primary prevention of congenital toxoplasmosis, health education at primary care is
Full Text Available The aim of the study is — to develop a strategy of prevention of hypoxic fetal abnormalities in pregnant women with congenital heart disease, heart failure and iron deficiency anemia. Materials and methods. The study included 86 pregnant women with CHD and NYHA II–III. 68 women in the third trimester of pregnancy is diagnosed anemia (group I, 18 pregnant women with CHD, NYHA II–III without anemia (II group, the control group consisted of 24 pregnant women without cardiac disease, with physiological pregnancy. All pregnant with information registration consent studied the concentration of ferritin, hemoglobin level, morphological study of the placenta. All pregnant women were assigned to iron supplements, oral iron (III hydroxide polymaltose complex (Maltofer when hemoglobin levels above 95 g/l and the expected delivery date more than 40 days of starting treatment. When the hemoglobin level below 95 g/l of intravenously administered iron (III hydroxide sucrose complex (Venofer followed by transfer to oral iron (III. Results. In groups of pregnant I and II did not have perinatal losses, births in gestation less than 28 weeks, with a score Apgar at birth of less than 4 points. Pregnant women with cyanotic heart defects and the need for early delivery in less than 37 weeks are not included in the study. Also, there is a correlation between the degree of severity of anemia in women with CHD with HF and prematurity, and the presence of IUGR child birth asphyxia able to varying degrees (respectively, r=0.8, r=0.75 and r=0.85. Conclusions. Formation of fetoplacental unit in women with CHD on a background of heart failure occurs with complications associated with the presence of tissue hypoxia, as well as the possible impact on the process of oxidative stress. The development of iron deficiency anemia in this group is an additional risk factor for placental dysfunction, which is confirmed by morphometric and morphological studies of placentas
Simmons, Vani Nath; Cruz, Ligia M; Brandon, Thomas H; Quinn, Gwendolyn P
Quitting smoking is one of the most important behavior changes a pregnant woman can make, with health benefits extending beyond pregnancy for the woman and her child. Increasing numbers of pregnant women are quitting smoking; however, the majority resume smoking later in their pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. Previous research has demonstrated the efficacy of self-help smoking relapse-prevention booklets; however, there is a dearth of materials available in Spanish for Hispanic smokers. The goal of the present study was to translate and adapt existing, theoretically based, smoking relapse-prevention materials for pregnant and postpartum Hispanic women. This article describes the transcreation approach used to ensure the Forever Free for Baby and Me booklets were linguistically and culturally relevant for the heterogeneous populations of Hispanic women. The authors conducted multistage formative research to adapt the booklets and modify vignettes and graphics. Compared with previous research conducted with pregnant non-Hispanic women, results revealed the following: (a) a lack of association or concern about smoking and weight gain, (b) the importance of family approval of behavior, and (c) stress related to difficulties surrounding the immigration experience. The authors' qualitative findings confirm and extend past research that has suggested ways to enhance the cultural relevance and acceptability of a health intervention.
Kadimova, Sh G
Nowadays, increasing of renal pathology, especially of its chronic forms characterized by long clinical duration and frequent exacerbations is observed in pregnant women. The study was carried out to analyze prevalence and structure of renal pathology in pregnant women with further development of social economic basics of its prevention. The epidemiological analysis established that during 2009-2011 in Baku prevalence of renal pathology in pregnant women amounted to 11%. The analysis of structure and dynamics of renal pathology in pregnant women during the same period revealed that leading positions are taken by chronic pyelonephritis (27.2%), hydronephrosis (14.8%) and eclampsia (12%). The percentage of cystitis amounted to 4.8%, urolithiasis - 3.2%, renal colic - 2.4% and renal anomalies - 0.8%. The study established that under application of scientifically valid preventive measures an effective prevention of disease is achieved. In particular risk of morbidity is decreased up to 4.18 times. After 10-12 months after implementation of explanatory work degree of implementation of preventive measures among female patients with close adherence to these measures attained maximal level (88.6±2.8%) and among female patients attaching no importance to them in many ways implementation remained low (41±5.6%). At the same time, organization and implementation of developed complex of preventive measures are available. They have no requirement in an additional manpower and material technical resources and are applied using sanitary agitation among population. The task-oriented and permanent explanatory work increases responsibility of population for one's own health, activates population to implement complex of preventive measure. On the whole, workable premises both to stabilize level of morbidity of renal pathology and its consistent decreasing are established.
Seidman, Dominika L; Weber, Shannon; Cohan, Deborah
HIV prevention during pregnancy and lactation is critical for both maternal and child health. Pregnancy provides a critical opportunity for clinicians to elicit women's vulnerabilities to HIV and offer HIV testing, treatment and referral and/or comprehensive HIV prevention options for the current pregnancy, the postpartum period and safer conception options for future pregnancies. In this commentary, we review the safety of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine in pregnant and lactating women and suggest opportunities to identify pregnant and postpartum women at substantial risk of HIV. We then describe a clinical approach to caring for women who both choose and decline pre-exposure prophylaxis during pregnancy and postpartum, highlighting areas for future research. Evidence suggests that pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir/emtricitabine is safe in pregnancy and lactation. Identifying women vulnerable to HIV and eligible for pre-exposure prophylaxis is challenging in light of the myriad of individual, community, and structural forces impacting HIV acquisition. Validated risk calculators exist for specific populations but have not been used to screen and offer HIV prevention methods. Partner testing and engagement of men living with HIV are additional means of reaching at-risk women. However, women's vulnerabilities to HIV change over time. Combining screening for HIV vulnerability with HIV and/or STI testing at standard intervals during pregnancy is a practical way to prompt providers to incorporate HIV screening and prevention counselling. We suggest using shared decision-making to offer women pre-exposure prophylaxis as one of multiple HIV prevention strategies during pregnancy and postpartum, facilitating open conversations about HIV vulnerabilities, preferences about HIV prevention strategies, and choosing a method that best meets the needs of each woman. Growing evidence suggests that pre-exposure prophylaxis with tenofovir
Smit, G Suzanne A; Vu, Thi Lam Binh; Do, Trung Dung; Speybroeck, Niko; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Padalko, Elizaveta; Roets, Ellen; Dorny, Pierre
In Vietnam, no systematic prenatal toxoplasmosis screening is in place, and only few studies have assessed the prevalence and importance of this zoonotic parasite infection. In addition, no studies have been conducted to assess the risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis. This study protocol was developed to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Hanoi and Thai Binh, Northern Vietnam, and to evaluate the association with risk factors and congenital toxoplasmosis. The protocol was developed in a way that it could potentially evolve into a countrywide prenatal diagnosis and prevention program, with the main focus on primary prevention. The collaborating gynaecologists will invite eligible pregnant women attending antenatal care for the first time to participate in the study. At first consult, information about toxoplasmosis and its prevention will be provided. All participants will be asked to fill in a questionnaire, which is designed to analyse socio-demographic and biologically plausible risk factors associated with toxoplasmosis, and blood samples will be collected to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women. In case there is suspicion of a primary infection during pregnancy, the concerned women will be followed-up by the gynaecologists according to a predefined protocol. Every participant will be informed on her serological status, risk factors and prevention measures and is offered appropriate medical information and medical follow-up if required. The hypothesis is that congenital toxoplasmosis is an important but currently under-diagnosed public health problem in Vietnam. This study can strengthen sustainable control of toxoplasmosis in Vietnam, provide a protocol for prenatal diagnosis, boost overall awareness, improve the knowledge about toxoplasmosis prevention and can be essential for evidence-based health policy.
Tevdorashvili, G; Tevdorashvili, D; Andghuladze, M; Tevdorashvili, M
Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are encapsulated gram-positive cocci belonging to Lancefield group B, that frequently colonizes the human genital and gastrointestinal tracts. It is an important cause of illness in three categories of population: infants, pregnant women, and adults with underlying medical conditions. In pregnant women and postpartum women, GBS is a frequent cause of asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary tract infection, upper genital tract infection (i.e. intraamniotic infection or chorioamnionitis), postpartum endometritis (8%), pneumonia (2%), puerperal sepsis (2%), and bacteremia without a focal site (31%). It also can cause focal infections such as pneumonia, meningitis, and endocarditis, albeit rarely. Invasive maternal infection with GBS is associated with pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. Prior to the widespread use of maternal intrapartum chemoprophylaxis, maternal colonization with GBS conferred an increased risk of chorioamnionitis, and early postpartum infection. The serotype distribution of invasive GBS infection in pregnant women is similar to that of early-onset neonatal disease. The most common GBS serotypes causing invasive disease in adults and neonates are Ia, Ib, III, and V. Vaccination of adolescent women is considered an ideal solution. However, recent reports (April 2015) have shown that serotype IV GBS is emerging in pregnant carriers and causing infections in neonates and adults. This emergence is of concern because GBS conjugate vaccines that are being developed to prevent invasive disease may protect only against serotypes Ia, Ib, II, III, and V, or combinations thereof. Though research for the development of such a vaccine is underway, a good candidate vaccine has yet to surface.
Nurhan Aytug Kanber
Full Text Available Aim: Anemia seen during the period of gestation affects the health of the mother as well fetus. Nutrition education which given in pregnancy may prevent the development of anemia. Our research was carried out to determine the effect of nutritional training for the prevention of anemia due to iron defiency. Method: The training and the control group each having 30 people in our research received a total of 60 pregnant women. All of the pragnant women was administered questionnaire during the 3rd and 9th month of pregnancy to ascertain the participants sociodemographik features and level of knowledge and hemoglobin values were recorded. A nutritional training were given to the pregnant women in the Training group when they are in the 3rd months of their pregnancy and this pregnant women were reminded that they should pay attention to nutrition subjects them once a month by telephone until 9th months of pregnancy. To analyze the data chi-square, Mann- Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used. Results: During the 3rd month of gestation, the mean values for Hb was 12.5±1,6gr/dL in Training group and 12,6±1,0gr/dL in Control Group (P=0,893. It was also seen an increase in the level of nutritional knowledge for the women in the Training group (P<0,001, while there was not any significant difference in the other group (Control Group with a P value of (P=0,850. When the decrease in the Hb is considered during the 9th month of pregnancy, 0,6±1,1g/dL reduction was observed in group Training group and 0,8±1,5g/dL in Control Group group on average. However, there was not any XI significant difference in terms of decrease in Hb level in group Training group versus group Training group (P=0,387. Conclusion: It was observed that the training given to the pregnant women had a positive effect on their level of knowledge, whereas it was not sufficient to prevent Anemia in our research. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 45-52
Catallozzi, Marina; Fraiz, Lauren Dapena; Hargreaves, Katharine M; Zimet, Gregory D; Stanberry, Lawrence R; Ratner, Adam J; Gelber, Shari E; Rosenthal, Susan L
We sought to understand pregnant women's product preference and likelihood of use of topical microbicides for bacterial vaginosis (BV) prevention and treatment. Pregnant women (N = 196) in a obstetrics clinic completed a survey between June 2014 and January 2015 about vaginal product use for BV. This cross-sectional study explored product preferences, likelihood of product use for BV management and father of the baby (FOB) involvement. Most participants were under 30 (68%) and underrepresented minorities (47% Hispanic, 21% African-American). Most women preferred the gel (69%). Only 30% were likely to use either product for prevention of BV; 76% if high risk for BV; 83% treatment of BV. Anticipated FOB involvement in decision-making included that 46% would ask his opinion, 38% would inform him of the decision and 7% would need approval. Most (87%) would ask the FOB for reminders and 66% for insertion help. Those under 30 were more likely to agree to ask the FOB for reminders (p Product preferences may be less critical than risk perception. Involvement of the FOB in decision-making may be vital.
... and General Public. Contact Us Parasites Home Pregnant Women Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... my unborn child against toxoplasmosis? Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow the ...
McFarlane, J; Wiist, W
Abuse to pregnant women is common and can result in complications to maternal and child health. Although screening and detection of abuse in primary health care settings is becoming more commonplace, intervention models that include community outreach have not been developed or tested. An advocacy model was developed and tested for pregnant abused women by melding research on advocacy programs for abused women exiting shelters with the principles of home visitation used to improve outcomes to pregnant women. Advocacy was offered by "mentor mothers," who were residents of the project's service area. The advocacy consisted of weekly social support, education, and assisted referrals to pregnant women identified as abused as part of routine screening offered at the first prenatal visit to a public health clinic. Effectiveness of the advocacy intervention was measured as contact success rate, number and type of advocacy contacts, and number and type of referrals made to the first 100 women to complete the advocacy program. The mentor mother advocates were successful in contacting the abused woman 33% of the time, regardless of whether a telephone call, home visitation, or in-person meeting was attempted. The average number of advocacy contacts was 9.2 (SD = 7.6) with the majority (74%) being via the telephone. The average number of referrals per woman was 8.6 (SD = 7.6) with the largest percentage (38%) being for medical services. Outreach advocacy as an intervention model for pregnant abused women is recommended.
Janet M. Turan
Full Text Available Objective. Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to adverse outcomes related to HIV infection and gender-based violence (GBV. We aimed at developing a program for prevention and mitigation of the effects of GBV among pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in rural Kenya. Methods. Based on formative research with pregnant women, male partners, and service providers, we developed a GBV program including comprehensive clinic training, risk assessments in the clinic, referrals supported by community volunteers, and community mobilization. To evaluate the program, we analyzed data from risk assessment forms and conducted focus groups (n=2 groups and in-depth interviews (n=25 with healthcare workers and community members. Results. A total of 134 pregnant women were assessed during a 5-month period: 49 (37% reported violence and of those 53% accepted referrals to local support resources. Qualitative findings suggested that the program was acceptable and feasible, as it aided pregnant women in accessing GBV services and raised awareness of GBV. Community collaboration was crucial in this low-resource setting. Conclusion. Integrating GBV programs into rural antenatal clinics has potential to contribute to both primary and secondary GBV prevention. Following further evaluation, this model may be deemed applicable for rural communities in Kenya and elsewhere in East Africa.
Justyna Magdalena Skolarczyk
Full Text Available A vaccine is a formulation of biological origin that contains substances capable of inducing immune processes without the ability to cause a disease. Vaccination is considered the best mean to prevent infectious diseases and their serious complications. Vaccination of a pregnant women can provide protection against severe infectious diseases of both pregnant women and their children. The aim of the study is to present currently available types of vaccines recommended for pregnant women and indications for their use by analyzing the data available in the PubMed, and Medline electronic databases. In the United States, vaccination recommendations for pregnant women include inactivated influenza vaccine and tetanus and diphtheria toxoid vaccine (Tdap. In some countries, pregnant women also receive a vaccine against hepatitis B as well as anti hepatitis A and E. There are also studies on vaccines against the RSV virus and pneumococci. Vaccination is the most effective form of prevention of infectious diseases and their use during pregnancy does not entail any additional risk to the mother or her baby. The benefits of vaccination are huge, so pregnant women should take recommended vaccination and shouldn’t be afraid of using them.
Levis, Denise M; Hillard, Christina L; Price, Simani M; Reed-Gross, Erika; Bonilla, Erika; Amin, Minal; Stowell, Jennifer D; Clark, Rebekah; Johnson, Delaney; Mask, Karen; Carpentieri, Cynthia; Cannon, Michael J
An estimated 1 in 150 infants is born each year with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV); nearly 1 in 750 suffers permanent disabilities. Congenital CMV is the result of a pregnant woman becoming infected with CMV. Educating pregnant women about CMV is currently the best approach to prevention. Limited research is available on how to effectively communicate with women about CMV. We conducted formative research on fear appeals theory-based messages about CMV and prevention with U.S. women. Fear appeal theories suggest that message recipients will take action if they feel fear. First, we conducted in-depth interviews (N = 32) with women who had young children who tested positive for CMV. Second, we conducted eight focus groups (N = 70) in two phases and two cities (Phase 2: Atlanta, GA; Phase 3: San Diego, CA) with pregnant women and non-pregnant women who had young children. Few participants knew about CMV before the focus groups. Participants reviewed and gave feedback on messages created around fear appeals theory-based communication concepts. The following concepts were tested in one or more of the three phases of research: CMV is severe, CMV is common, CMV is preventable, CMV preventive strategies are similar to other behavior changes women make during pregnancy, CMV preventive strategies can be incorporated in moderation to reduce exposure, and CMV is severe but preventable. Participants recommended communicating that CMV is common by using prevalence ratios (e.g., 1 in 150) or comparing CMV to other well-known disabilities. To convey the severity of CMV, participants preferred stories about CMV along with prevention strategies. Participants also welcomed prevention strategies when it included a message about risk reduction. In general, participants said messages were motivating, even if they felt that it could be difficult to make certain behavior changes. Findings from this research can contribute to future efforts to educate pregnant women about CMV
Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I.; Hamel, Mary J.; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Webster, Jayne
Background Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women's access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated
Marina de Deus Moura de Lima
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the gingival health of children who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies and correlate theresults obtained with the assiduousness of attending the consultations offered by the program, oral hygiene habits, mother’s educational level, family income, child’s age and the number of carious surfaces. Methods: Three hundred and forty-one patients were selected, and divided into two groups for comparative purposes. Group 1 (experimental was composed of 262 children of both sexes, between the ages of three and six, who attended the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies; Group 2 (control consisted of 79 children in the same age group, who did not attend the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies, but who were attended at the Social Perinatological Institute of Piaui by other health professionals. The exams were performed in dental offices to determine the Gingival Bleeding Index. Results: It was noted that 74.8% of the children from experimental group and 82.3% of control group presented gingival bleeding in one of the sites assessed. Lower Gingival Bleeding Index values were related to the higher educational level of the mothers, supervision or brushing by adults and increase in the number of daily brushings. The Chi-square test showed that the variables are dependent (p<0.001, that is, Gingival Bleeding Index is subject to the number of consultations attended at the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies. Spearman’s Coefficient (= -0.292 proved that the higher the number of consultations attended at the program, the lower was the Gingival Bleeding Index (p<0.001. Conclusion: The children who presented the lowest gingival bleeding indexes were those who most assiduously attended the preventive maintenanceconsultations of the Preventive Program for pregnant women and babies.
Full Text Available Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women's access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp, long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage.Focus group discussions (FGDs were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15-49 years, pregnant women or mothers of children aged <1 year, adolescent women, and men. Content analysis was used to develop themes and sub-themes from the data.Women and men's perceptions of the benefits of antenatal care were generally positive; motivation among women consisted of maintaining a healthy pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy.Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable
Hill, Jenny; Kayentao, Kassoum; Achieng, Florence; Diarra, Samba; Dellicour, Stephanie; Diawara, Sory I; Hamel, Mary J; Ouma, Peter; Desai, Meghna; Doumbo, Ogobara K; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Webster, Jayne
Coverage of malaria in pregnancy interventions in sub-Saharan Africa is suboptimal. We undertook a systematic examination of the operational, socio-economic and cultural constraints to pregnant women's access to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp), long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) and case management in Kenya and Mali to provide empirical evidence for strategies to improve coverage. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were held as part of a programme of research to explore the delivery, access and use of interventions to control malaria in pregnancy. FGDs were held with four sub-groups: non-pregnant women of child bearing age (aged 15-49 years), pregnant women or mothers of children aged pregnancy, disease prevention in mother and foetus, checking the position of the baby in preparation for delivery, and ensuring admission to a facility in case of complications. Barriers to accessing care related to the quality of the health provider-client interaction, perceived health provider skills and malpractice, drug availability, and cost of services. Pregnant women perceived themselves and their babies at particular risk from malaria, and valued diagnosis and treatment from a health professional, but cost of treatment at health facilities drove women to use herbal remedies or drugs bought from shops. Women lacked information on the safety, efficacy and side effects of antimalarial use in pregnancy. Women in these settings appreciated the benefits of antenatal care and yet health services in both countries are losing women to follow-up due to factors that can be improved with greater political will. Antenatal services need to be patient-centred, free-of-charge or highly affordable and accountable to the women they serve.
Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Middleton, Philippa; Esposito, Marco; Glenny, Anne-Marie
Periodontal disease has been linked with a number of conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes and adverse pregnancy outcomes, all likely through systemic inflammatory pathways. It is common in women of reproductive age and gum conditions tend to worsen during pregnancy. Some evidence from observational studies suggests that periodontal intervention may reduce adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is need for a comprehensive Cochrane review of randomised trials to assess the effect of periodontal treatment on perinatal and maternal health. To assess the effects of treating periodontal disease in pregnant women in order to prevent or reduce perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 6 October 2016), Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (to 7 October 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 9) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 6 October 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 6 October 2016), and LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 6 October 2016). ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials on 6 October 2016. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of periodontal treatment in preventing or reducing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. We excluded studies where obstetric outcomes were not reported. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts and extracted data using a prepiloted data extraction form. Missing data were obtained by contacting authors and risk of bias was assessed using Cochrane's 'Risk of bias' tool. Where appropriate
Güler, Eda; Köprülü, Hülya
Background/purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the transfer of Streptococcus mutans to babies from prospective mothers in whom protective measures were carried out and who were trained in dental health care. Materials and methods: Pregnant women were given fluoride varnish and restoration of active caries once during their pregnancy. No application of fluoride or restoration was given to the control group. Microbiological samples were taken after delivery of the babies in the...
Kramek, J; Grzymała-Krzyzostaniak, A; Celewicz, Z; Ronin-Walknowska, E
The aim of this work was the evaluation of the scale of violence towards pregnant women in the westpomeranian province, the definition of the social-biological profile of women exposed to violence and social-biological profile of their partners. The evaluation of the influence of violence on pregnant women's ending term and the weight of the newborns. 481 women were enrolled and an anonymous study was used in the form of questionnaires. A questionnaire was a modified form of a query-sheet proposed by WHO. 25% of the enrolled women were exposed to physical and psychological (emotional) abuse, 7.1% to psychical violence, women and men exposed to violence in their childhood more often become violent in their adult life. Men that physically abuse pregnant women are often of primary school education, are unemployed, drink alcohol and smoke. Physical abuse by a partner during pregnancy usually experience women with primary school education, who drink and smoke. Violence during pregnancy is usually associated with premature delivery as well as low birth weight of the newborns.
Ayodeji M. Adebayo
Full Text Available Introduction. The morbidity and mortality from malaria are still unacceptably high in the developing countries, especially among the vulnerable groups like pregnant women and under-five children, despite all control efforts. The knowledge about the preventive measures of malaria is an important preceding factor for the acceptance and use of malaria preventive measures like Insecticide Treated Nets (ITN by community members. Therefore, this study assessed the knowledge of malaria prevention among caregivers of under-five children and pregnant women in a rural community in Southwest Nigeria.Methodology. This is part of a larger malaria prevention study in rural Southwest Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among pregnant women and caregivers of under-five children in Igbo-Ora, a rural town in Southwest Nigeria using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire. Information was obtained on knowledge of malaria prevention, and overall composite scores were computed for knowledge of malaria prevention and ITN use. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Associations between variables were tested using a Chi-square with the level of statistical significance set at 5%.Results. Of the 631 respondents, 84.9% were caregivers of under-five children and 67.7% were married. Mean age was 27.7 ± 6.3 years with 53.4% aged between 20 and 29 years. Majority (91.1% had at least primary school education and 60.2% were traders. Overall, 57.7% had poor knowledge of malaria prevention. A good proportion (83.5% were aware of the use of ITN for malaria prevention while 30.6% had poor knowledge of its use. Respondents who were younger (<30 years, had at least primary education and earn <10,000/per month had significantly poor knowledge of ITN use in malaria prevention. Majority (60.0% respondents had poor attitude regarding use of ITNs.Conclusion. This study showed that the knowledge of malaria prevention is still low among under
Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa, Richard Gordian, Ritah F Mutagonda Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania Background: In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed. Aim: To assess the implementation of malaria-preventive therapy policy among HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology: The study was conducted in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from January 2015 to July 2015. Three hundred and fifty-three HIV-infected pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics (ANCs and using co-trimoxazole for prevention of malaria were interviewed. Twenty-six health care workers working at the ANCs were also interviewed regarding provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to pregnant women. A knowledge scale was used to grade the level of knowledge of health care providers. Focus group discussions were also conducted with 18 health care workers to assess the level of implementation of the policy and the challenges encountered. Results: Twenty-three (6.5% pregnant women with known HIV serostatus were using co-trimoxazole for prevention of opportunistic infections even before they became pregnant. Out of the 353 HIV-infected pregnant women, eight (2.5% were coadministered with both SP and co-trimoxazole. Sixty (16.7% pregnant women had poor adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Out of the 26 interviewed health care providers, 20 had high
Kamuhabwa, Appolinary Ar; Gordian, Richard; Mutagonda, Ritah F
In 2011, Tanzania adopted a policy for provision of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to HIV-infected pregnant women for prevention of malaria and other opportunistic infections. As per the policy, HIV-infected pregnant women should not be given sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive therapy. The challenges associated with this policy change and the extent to which the new policy for prevention of malaria in pregnant women coinfected with HIV was implemented need to be assessed. To assess the implementation of malaria-preventive therapy policy among HIV-infected pregnant women in the public health facilities in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study was conducted in Kinondoni Municipality, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, from January 2015 to July 2015. Three hundred and fifty-three HIV-infected pregnant women who were attending antenatal clinics (ANCs) and using co-trimoxazole for prevention of malaria were interviewed. Twenty-six health care workers working at the ANCs were also interviewed regarding provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis to pregnant women. A knowledge scale was used to grade the level of knowledge of health care providers. Focus group discussions were also conducted with 18 health care workers to assess the level of implementation of the policy and the challenges encountered. Twenty-three (6.5%) pregnant women with known HIV serostatus were using co-trimoxazole for prevention of opportunistic infections even before they became pregnant. Out of the 353 HIV-infected pregnant women, eight (2.5%) were coadministered with both SP and co-trimoxazole. Sixty (16.7%) pregnant women had poor adherence to co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. Out of the 26 interviewed health care providers, 20 had high level of knowledge regarding malaria-preventive therapy in HIV-infected pregnant women. Lack of adequate supply of co-trimoxazole in health facilities and inadequate training of health care providers were among the factors causing poor implementation of co
Choi, Sung Eun; Brandeau, Margaret L; Bendavid, Eran
Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: at least 1 million pregnancies among HIV-infected women are complicated by co-infection with malaria annually, leading to increased risk of premature delivery, severe anaemia, delivery of low birth weight infants, and maternal death. Current guidelines recommend either daily cotrimoxazole (CTX) or intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) for HIV-infected pregnant women to prevent malaria and its complications. The cost-effectiveness of CTX compared to IPTp-SP among HIV-infected pregnant women was assessed. A microsimulation model of malaria and HIV among pregnant women in five malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa was constructed. Four strategies were compared: (1) 2-dose IPTp-SP at current IPTp-SP coverage of the country ("2-IPT Low"); (2) 3-dose IPTp-SP at current coverage ("3-IPT Low"); (3) 3-dose IPTp-SP at the same coverage as antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the country ("3-IPT High"); and (4) daily CTX at ART coverage. Outcomes measured include maternal malaria, anaemia, low birth weight (LBW), and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Sensitivity analyses assessed the effect of adherence to CTX. Compared with the 2-IPT Low Strategy, women receiving CTX had 22.5% fewer LBW infants (95% CI 22.3-22.7), 13.5% fewer anaemia cases (95% CI 13.4-13.5), and 13.6% fewer maternal malaria cases (95% CI 13.6-13.7). In all simulated countries, CTX was the preferred strategy, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios ranging from cost-saving to $3.9 per DALY averted from a societal perspective. CTX was less effective than the 3-IPT High Strategy when more than 18% of women stopped taking CTX during the pregnancy. In malarious regions of sub-Saharan Africa, daily CTX for HIV-infected pregnant women regardless of CD4 cell count is cost-effective compared with 3-dose IPTp-SP as long as more than 82% of women adhere to
Habib, Sadia; Abbasi, Nasreen; Khan, Bushra; Danish, Nargis; Nazir, Quratulain
Domestic violence during pregnancy is an important social & health issue in all societies. In Muslim world and particularly underdeveloped countries, domestic violence is often under reported. It is the need of hour to encourage reporting of such events & implementation of research-based policies for prevention of women abuse & support of the victims of domestic violence (DV). The objective of this study was to highlight this neglected social problem of our society & to identify at risk population. This is a cross sectional study conducted at Ayub Teaching Hospital & Benazir Bhutto Shaheed Teaching Hospital, Abbottabad (January 2014 to December. 2016). Pregnant women were inquired regarding history of abuse by husband and sociodemographic characteristics were noted in a Performa to analyse the risk factors for domestic violence. The overall prevalence was found to be 35%. Out of 1000 pregnant women, 270 (27%) suffered from simple violence and 60 (6%) were victims of grievous assault. Violence among pregnant women is found to be more prevalent among residents of urban areas, women of older age being uneducated & belonging to poor socioeconomic status. Domestic violence during pregnancy is a common & often neglected psychosocial health problem. High risk population needs to be identified so that preventive strategies can be planned & implemented.
Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Zegeye, Amtatachew Moges; Mengistu, Agmas Dessalegn
Helminth infections have a terrible impact on child growth and development, and harm pregnant women. Regular treatment and long term preventive interventions are important measures to break the transmission routes. Hence, identifying the status of helminth infection and practices of prevention and control measures among pregnant women is important in different geographical areas of Ethiopia including our setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 180 pregnant women from March to June, 2015. About 2 g of stool was collected and examined to identify helminth infections. Proportions and risk factors of helminth infections were calculated using SPSS version 20. Among the total 180 study participants, 38 (21.1% [95% CI 15.2-27.0%]) pregnant women had helminth infections. Hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni were the only identified helminth species. Thirty-six (20.0% [95% CI 14.3-25.7%]) and 4 (2.2% [95% CI 0.2-4.2%]) pregnant women had hookworm and S. mansoni infections, respectively. Of which, double infection (hookworm and S. mansoni) was found in two pregnant women. Only 32 (17.8%) pregnant women had proper hand wash practice after toilet, 48 (26.7%) drank treated water, and 40 (22.2%) wore shoes regularly. Those pregnant women who did not take albendazole or mebendazole dewormers (AOR 3.57; 95% CI 1.19-10.69; P 0.023) were more infected from helminth infections. This study showed that there was a high intestinal helminth infection among pregnant women, and low practice of prevention and control measures. Thus, prevention and control measures should be strengthened in the setting.
Myer, Landon; Kamkuemah, Monika; Kaplan, Richard; Bekker, Linda-Gail
Emerging international guidelines for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection across sub-Saharan Africa call for the initiation of a triple-drug antiretroviral regimen containing tenofovir, a potentially nephrotoxic agent, in all HIV-infected pregnant women at the first antenatal clinic visit. While there are significant benefits to the rapid initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy, there are few data on the prevalence of pre-existing renal disease in HIV-infected pregnant women and in turn, the potential risks of this approach are not well understood. We analysed data on renal function in consecutive patients eligible for ART at a large primary healthcare clinic in Cape Town. All individuals were screened for renal dysfunction via serum creatinine and estimation of creatinine clearance via the Cockroft-Gault equation. Over a 2-year period, 238 pregnant women, 1014 non-pregnant women and 609 men were screened to initiate ART. Pregnant women eligible were significantly younger, in earlier stages of HIV disease, had higher CD4 cell counts and lower HIV viral loads, than non-pregnant adults. The median serum creatinine in pregnant women (46 µmol/L) was significantly lower and the median creatinine clearance (163 ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) was significantly higher than other groups (P pregnant women had moderate renal dysfunction before ART initiation, with no instances of severe dysfunction observed, compared to 7% moderate or severe renal dysfunction in non-pregnant women or men (P HIV-infected pregnant women is significantly less common than in other HIV-infected adults eligible for ART. The risks associated with initiating tenofovir immediately in pregnant women before reviewing serum creatinine results may be limited, and the benefits of rapid ART initiation in pregnancy may outweigh possible risks of nephrotoxicity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muhammad, Hamzat U; Giwa, Fatima J; Olayinka, Adebola T; Balogun, Shakir M; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Nguku, Patrick
Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in Nigeria. It causes maternal anaemia and adversely affects birth outcome leading to low birth weight, abortions and still births. Nigeria has made great strides in addressing the prevention and control of malaria in pregnancy. However, recent demographic survey shows wide disparities in malaria control activities across the geopolitical zones. This situation has been compounded by the political unrest and population displacement especially in the Northeastern zone leaving a significant proportion of pregnant women at risk of diseases, including malaria. The use of malaria preventive measures during pregnancy and the risk of malaria parasitaemia, anaemia and low birth weight babies were assessed among parturient women in an insurgent area. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 184 parturient women at Federal Medical Centre, Nguru in Yobe state, between July and November 2014. Information on demographics, antenatal care and prevention practices was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Maternal peripheral and the cord blood samples were screened for malaria parasitaemia by microscopy of Giemsa-stained blood films. The presence of anaemia was also determined by microhaemocrit method using the peripheral blood samples. Data was analysed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, anaemia and low birth weight babies was 40.0, 41.0 and 37.0 %, respectively, and mothers aged younger than 25 years were mostly affected. Eighty (43.0 %) of the women received up to two doses of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp-SP) during pregnancy and most, 63 (83.0 %) of those tested malaria positive received less than these. Presence of malaria infection at antenatal clinic enrollment (OR: 6.6; 95 % CI: 3.4-13.0), non-adherence to direct observation therapy for administration of IPTp-SP (OR: 4.6; 95 % CI: 2.2-9.5) and receiving
Charles Okot Odongo
Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP-IPTp is widely used to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes. As a monitor for continued effectiveness of this intervention amidst SP resistance, we aimed to assess malaria burden among pregnant women who use or do not use SP-IPTp. In a descriptive cohort study at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, 87 women who received two supervised doses of SP-IPTp were followed up until delivery. Controls were pregnant women presenting in early labour without history of SP-IPTp. Histopathological investigation for placental malaria (PM was performed using the Bulmer classification criterion. Thirty-eight of the 87 women returned for delivery and 33 placentas were successfully collected and processed along with 33 placentas from SP nonusers. Overall, 12% (4/33 of the users had evidence of PM compared to 48% (16/33 of nonusers. Among nonusers, 17/33, 8/33, 2/33, and 6/33 had no placental infection, active infection, active-chronic infection, and past-chronic infection, respectively. Among users, respective proportions were 29/33, 2/33, 0/33, and 2/33. No difference in birth weights was apparent between the two groups, probably due to a higher proportion of infections occurring later in pregnancy. Histological evidence here suggests that SP continues to offer substantial benefit as IPTp.
Gross, Rachel S; Mendelsohn, Alan L; Gross, Michelle B; Scheinmann, Roberta; Messito, Mary Jo
To determine the relations between household material hardships and having a low internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity in low-income Hispanic pregnant women. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected during a third trimester prenatal visit from women participating in the Starting Early Study, a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of a primary care-based family-centered early child obesity prevention intervention. Using multiple logistic regression analyses, we determined whether 4 domains of material hardship (food insecurity, difficulty paying bills, housing disrepair, neighborhood stress), considered individually and also cumulatively, were associated with having a low internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity. The sample included 559 low-income Hispanic pregnant women, with 60% having experienced at least 1 hardship. Food insecurity was independently associated with a low internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 2.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.50-3.77), controlling for other hardships and confounders. Experiencing a greater number of material hardships was associated in a dose-dependent relationship with an increased odds of having a low internal locus of control. Prenatal material hardships, in particular food insecurity, were associated with having a lower prenatal internal locus of control over the prevention of child obesity. Longitudinal follow-up of this cohort is needed to determine how relations between material hardships and having a low internal locus of control will ultimately affect infant feeding practices and child weight trajectories. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Johri, M; Morales, R E; Hoch, J S; Samayoa, B E; Sommen, C; Grazioso, C F; Boivin, J-F; Barrios Matta, I J; Baide Diaz, E L; Arathoon, E G
Although the Central American HIV epidemic is concentrated in high-risk groups, HIV incidence is increasing in young women. From 2005 to 2007, we conducted a cross-sectional study of pregnant women in a large public hospital and an HIV clinic in Guatemala City to describe risk factors for HIV infection and inform prevention strategies. For 4629 consenting patients, HIV status was laboratory-confirmed and participant characteristics were assessed by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Lifetime number of sexual partners ranged from 1 to 99, with a median (interquartile range) of 1 (1, 2). 2.6% (120) reported exchanging sex for benefits; 0.1% (3) were sex workers, 2.3% (106) had used illegal drugs, 31.1% (1421) planned their pregnancy and 31.8% (1455) experienced abuse. In logistic regression analyses, HIV status was predicted by one variable describing women's behaviour (lifetime sexual partners) and three variables describing partner risks (partner HIV+, migrant worker or suspected unfaithful). Women in our sample exhibited few behavioural risks for HIV but significant vulnerability via partner behaviours. To stem feminization of the epidemic, health authorities should complement existing prevention interventions in high-risk populations with directed efforts towards bridging populations such as migrant workers. We identify four locally adapted HIV prevention strategies.
Full Text Available Introduction: Prolongation of QT interval might result in dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including Torsades de Pointes (TdP, consequently leading to syncope or death. A limited number of studies carried out in this respect to date have shown that QT interval might increase during pregnancy. On the other hand, it has been shown that each pregnancy might result in an increase in the risk of cardiac accidents in patients with long QT interval. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to compare QT intervals in pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods: Pregnant women group consisted of 40 women in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy and the non-pregnant control group consisted of healthy women 18-35 years of age. All the patients underwent standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG. The QT interval was measured for each patient at lead II. The mean corrected QT interval (QTc and QT dispersions (QTd were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean heart rates in the pregnant and non-pregnant groups were 98.55±14.09 and 72.53±13.17 beats/minutes (P<0.001. QTd and QTc means were in the normal range in both groups; however, these variables were 49.50±12.80 and 43.03±18.47 milliseconds in the pregnant group and 39.5±9.59 and 40.38±17.20 milliseconds in the control group, respectively (P<0.001. Conclusion: The QT interval was longer in pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women; however, it was in the normal range in both groups. Therefore, it is important to monitor and manage risk factors involved in prolongation of QT interval and prevent concurrence of these factors with pregnancy.
N. B. Gordovskaya; I. V. Korotchaeva
In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.
N. B. Gordovskaya
Full Text Available In this article, the questions of screening, diagnostics and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women are considered. AB is found in 2-13% of pregnant women and it is a risk factor of gestational pyelonephritis development in 30-40% of pregnant women. Timely antibacterial therapy of AB prevents development of pyelonephritis in 70-80% of cases.
Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa; Kayentao, Kassoum; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul
Background Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. To reduce these effects, the World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas sleep under insecticide-treated bednets, are treated for malaria illness and anaemia, and receive chemoprevention with an effective antimalarial drug during the second and third trimesters. Objectives To assess the effects of malaria chemoprevention given to pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas on substantive maternal and infant health outcomes. We also summarised the effects of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) alone, and preventive regimens for Plasmodium vivax. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and reference lists up to 1 June 2014. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs of any antimalarial drug regimen for preventing malaria in pregnant women living in malaria-endemic areas compared to placebo or no intervention. In the mother, we sought outcomes that included mortality, severe anaemia, and severe malaria; anaemia, haemoglobin values, and malaria episodes; indicators of malaria infection, and adverse events. In the baby, we sought foetal loss, perinatal, neonatal and infant mortality; preterm birth and birthweight measures; and indicators of malaria infection. We included regimens that were known to be effective against the malaria parasite at the time but may no longer be used because of parasite drug resistance. Data collection and analysis Two review authors applied inclusion criteria, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Dichotomous outcomes were compared using risk ratios (RR), and continuous outcomes using mean differences (MD); both are presented with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We
Urinary tract infection (UTI) constitutes a major health problem in pregnant women due to their relatively short urethra, which ... the urine samples of pregnant women prior to treatment. ... Of 500 asymptomatic pregnant women screened, 433.
Osma, Jorge; Barrera, Alinne Z; Ramphos, Eleni
Recent studies have shown that women are more likely than men to use the Internet to seek health information and that the use of technology is common among perinatal women. Access to the Internet is growing through the global use of mobile phones and apps, in both developed and less developed countries. This pattern is particularly relevant for clinicians and researchers who are interested in the use of technologies to disseminate perinatal depression interventions. In a cross-sectional anonymous online survey for English and Spanish-speaking perinatal women, 509 pregnant (77.6 percent) and postpartum (22.4 percent) women provided demographic and Information and Communication Technologies data. Results indicated that the single device with greatest access was the mobile phone (47.5 percent). The majority of the sample had Internet access through mobile phones, computers, or both. Significant differences in socioeconomic status were found for Internet seeking behavior of health-related information and downloading apps between those with and without Internet access. Ninety percent of respondents (n = 267) searched for health-related information and 72.3 percent had downloaded any kind of app. More than half of respondents (57 percent, n = 188) downloaded a health-related app and 26.9 percent reported having paid for the apps. This study shows preliminary evidence to suggest the need to design, develop, and test apps that aim to disseminate prevention programs for perinatal depression.
... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State who... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131...
McDonough, Brianna; Felter, Elizabeth; Downes, Amia; Trauth, Jeanette
Pregnant and postpartum women have special needs during public health emergencies but often have inadequate levels of disaster preparedness. Thus, improving maternal emergency preparedness is a public health priority. More research is needed to identify the strengths and weaknesses of various approaches to how preparedness information is communicated to these women. A sample of web pages from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention intended to address the preparedness needs of pregnant and postpartum populations was examined for suitability for this audience. Five of the 7 web pages examined were considered adequate. One web page was considered not suitable and one the raters split between not suitable and adequate. None of the resources examined were considered superior. If these resources are considered some of the best available to pregnant and postpartum women, more work is needed to improve the suitability of educational resources, especially for audiences with low literacy and low incomes.
... risk of serious flu complications, such as pregnant women. Treatment should begin as soon as possible because antiviral drugs work best when started early (within 48 hours after symptoms start). Antiviral drugs can make your ...
Shreela V. Sharma
Full Text Available Instituting interventions during the prenatal period is optimal for early obesity prevention in the child. Healthy Eating Active Living (HEAL is a six-week, multi-component program to promote breastfeeding, healthy dietary habits, cooking skills and physical activity among Medicaid-eligible pregnant-women in Texas. HEAL is integrated into the healthcare system and offered as a standard-of-care for eligible patients. Methods: Preliminary evaluation of this natural experiment conducted from March 2015 through October 2016 informs the initial feasibility, acceptability and effects of the program on participant diet, home nutrition environment, physical activity, and breastfeeding self-efficacy and intentions measured using self-report surveys. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was conducted to evaluate pre- and post-intervention changes, controlling for participants' ethnicity, age, and income level. Interaction effects of session attendance on the outcomes were further assessed. Results: Of the 329 women who enrolled in HEAL, 210 women completed the pre-post assessment (64% retention rate. Pre-to-post intervention, there were significant increases in availability and intake of fruits and vegetables, self-efficacy towards consuming more fruits and vegetables, and cooking frequency and skills (p < 0.05, and decreased frequency of eating heat and serve foods (p < 0.05. Significant improvements in physical activity, duration of breastfeeding, perceived benefits and intentions to breastfeed were also observed (p < 0.05. Higher attendance of HEAL sessions was associated with better outcomes. Process evaluation demonstrated 95% fidelity of program implementation. Conclusion: HEAL operationalizes clinic-community linkages and shows promise in improving behaviors during pregnancy. Future research warrants the use of a stringent study design with a control group to determine program efficacy. Keywords: Pregnancy, Obesity prevention, Nutrition
Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa; Kayentao, Kassoum; ter Kuile, Feiko O.; Sinclair, David; Garner, Paul
Background Pregnancy increases the risk of malaria and this is associated with poor health outcomes for both the mother and the infant, especially during the first or second pregnancy. To reduce these effects, the World Health Organization recommends that pregnant women living in malaria endemic
Ellencweig, A Y; Ritter, M; Peleg-Olavsky, E; Tamir, D
A study was made of health service utilization patterns during pregnancy of 279 young mothers, a representative sample of the Jewish population in Jerusalem. Only 47% reported that they used the municipal family health centers (FHCs) for prenatal care. Some 82% reported that they had resorted to more than one source of care during pregnancy. Sources other than the FHC were: regular Sick Fund doctor service (33%); private practitioners (25%); hospital-based services (25%). Among the FHC users, there was an unexpectedly high percentage of women of Asian-African origin and of those living in remote neighborhoods. Under-utilization was frequent among wealthy women, those with higher education and members of the Orthodox religious sector. While there was general satisfaction with the service, lower gratification was associated with higher utilization. This phenomenon may intimate that there may be a process of negative selection among women who use the service, when other alternatives are not readily available.
May 1, 2018 ... RESULT: Pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant had significantly increased .... addition, study participants who were smokers, drinkers and chewers of ..... physiology. a clinical perspective 4th ed. Maryland Heights ...
Full Text Available Uptake of intermittent preventive therapy in pregnancy (IPTp with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP is a clinically-proven method to prevent the adverse outcomes of malaria in pregnancy (MiP for the mother, her foetus, and the neonates. The majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa have introduced IPTp policies for pregnant women during the past decade. Nonetheless, progress towards improving IPTp coverage remains dismal, with widespread regional and socioeconomic disparities in the utilisation of this highly cost-effective service. In the present study, our main objective was to measure the prevalence of IPTp uptake in selected malaria-endemic countries in sub-Saharan Africa, and to investigate the patterns of IPTp uptake among different educational and wealth categories adjusted for relevant sociodemographic factors. For this study, cross-sectional data on 18,603 women aged between 15 and 49 years were collected from the Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS conducted in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Malawi, Kenya, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, and Uganda. The outcome variable was taking three doses of IPTp-SP in the last pregnancy, defined as adequate by the WHO. According to the analysis, the overall prevalence of taking three doses of IPTp-SP in the latest pregnancy was 29.5% (95% CI = 28.2–30.5, with the prevalence being highest for Ghana (60%, 95% CI = 57.1–62.8, followed by Kenya (37%, 95% CI = 35.3–39.2 and Sierra Leone (31%, 95% CI = 29.2–33.4. Women from non-poor households (richer—20.7%, middle—21.2%, richest—18.1% had a slightly higher proportion of taking three doses of IPTp-SP compared with those from poorest (19.0% and poorer (21.1% households. Regression analysis revealed an inverse association between uptake of IPTp-SP and educational level. With regard to wealth status, compared with women living in the richest households, those in the poorest, poorer, middle, and richer households had significantly higher odds of not taking
for overweight pregnant women. Methods: The theory of social construction and the concept of governmentality are applied in a discourse analysis on the prevention of overweight among pregnant women in Denmark. This study draws on a documentary analysis of the discourse in central governmental documents...
Salomon, Jérôme; Schnitzler, Alexis; Ville, Yves; Laffont, Isabelle; Perronne, Christian; Denys, Pierre; Bernard, Louis
Pregnancies in spinal cord-injured (SCI) patients present unique clinical challenges. Because of the neurogenic bladder and the use of intermittent catheterization, chronic bacteriuria and recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) is common. During pregnancy the prevalence of UTI increases dramatically. Recurrent UTI requires multiple courses of antibiotics and increases the risks of abortion, prematurity, and low birth weight. A weekly oral cyclic antibiotic (WOCA) program was recently described for the prevention of UTI in SCI patients. To test the impact of WOCA in six SCI pregnant women (four paraplegic, two tetraplegic). This was a prospective observational study. WOCA consists of the alternate administration of one of two antibiotics once per week. We observed a significant reduction of UTI (6 UTI/patient/year before pregnancy to 0.4 during pregnancy and under WOCA; pUTI prophylaxis in SCI pregnant women.
Full Text Available The effects of pregnancy on the Oral Mucosa Disorder (OMD have been sporadically documented in some developed countries. Less known is the status of OMD during pregnancy in less developed/developing countries. Iran is no exception. This study assesses the prevalence of OMD in 200 pregnant women and compares the findings with the findings from a 200 non-pregnant woman of similar age distribution in Iran. The participants had been referred to a clinic to receive reproductive age-related services. Participants suffering from systemic chronic diseases, those on medications/drugs, smokers, needing biopsies, and those with urgent Oral Mucosal Lesion (OML treatments were excluded from the study. Oral mucosal of all 400 participants were examined. The participants’ age ranges were from 17 to 47; with the average age of 33.14 for one group; and 30.23 for the other group. Both groups had the same level of formal education. Out of 400 examined women; 62 had lesions, including 47 pregnant (23.5%; and 15 non-pregnant (7.5% women. This result shows that the OMD rate of occurrence was significantly higher among the pregnant women. Higher OML prevalence in pregnant women, as compared to the non-pregnant women, indicates the importance of timely oral examination of pregnant women and subsequent treatment plans for them.
Mbonye, Anthony K; Birungi, Josephine; Yanow, Stephanie K
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) genes among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as an intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp). A molecular epidemiological...... in the Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes that are associated with SP resistance. The prevalence of the single-nucleotide mutations in Pfdhfr at codons 51I, 59R, and 108N and in Pfdhps at codons 437G and 540E was high (>98%), reaching 100% fixation after one dose of SP, while the prevalence of 581G was 3.3% at baseline...... and anemia. However, women infected with P. falciparum had 1.3-g/dl-lower hemoglobin levels (P = 0.001) and delivered babies with a 400-g-lower birth weight (P = 0.001) compared to nonparasitemic women. Despite this, 44 women who were P. falciparum positive at baseline became negative after one or two doses...
Secher, A L; Stage, E; Ringholm, Lene
AIMS: Among women with Type 1 diabetes who have had severe hypoglycaemia the year before pregnancy, 70% also experience this complication in pregnancy, and particularly in the first half of pregnancy. We evaluated whether routine use of real-time continuous glucose monitoring from early pregnancy...... onwards could prevent severe hypoglycaemia in these women. METHODS: All 136 consecutive pregnant women with Type 1 diabetes referred to our centre were asked about severe hypoglycaemic events in the year before pregnancy and early in pregnancy at their first antenatal visit. Women with a relevant recent...... history were informed about their additional high risk of severe hypoglycaemia, their treatment was focused on restricted insulin doses during the first 16 gestational weeks, and they were offered real-time continuous glucose monitoring on top of self-monitored plasma glucose measurements. RESULTS: Among...
Willcox, Jane C.; Campbell, Karen J.; McCarthy, Elizabeth A.; Lappas, Martha; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Shub, Alexis; Wilkinson, Shelley A.
Background Promoting healthy gestational weight gain (GWG) is important for preventing obstetric and perinatal morbidity, along with obesity in both mother and child. Provision of GWG guidelines by health professionals predicts women meeting GWG guidelines. Research concerning women?s GWG information sources is limited. This study assessed pregnant women?s sources of GWG information and how, where and which women seek GWG information. Methods Consecutive women (n?=?1032) received a mailed que...
Full Text Available Ekpereonne Esu,1,2 Emmanuel Effa,1,2 Ekong Udoh,1,2 Olabisi Oduwole,1,2 Friday Odey,1,2 Moriam Chibuzor,1 Angela Oyo-Ita,1,2 Martin Meremikwu1,2 1Calabar Institute of Tropical Diseases Research and Prevention, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria; 2College of Medical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria Objective: This study assessed the utilization of intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine for the prevention of malaria in pregnancy against the national treatment policy among women attending health care facilities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Methods: A clinical audit was carried out between January 2012 and March 2012 using case records of pregnant women who received antenatal care in health facilities in the state. Facilities were selected by simple random sampling. Information on the frequency of antenatal clinic (ANC visits by the women, as well as parity, age, and adherence to intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp doses was obtained using an audit checklist. Results: A total of 322 pregnant women were assessed across 36 health care facilities. In addition, 246 (76% of them attended the ANC in public health facilities. Age, parity, and gestational age at booking were recorded in more than 95% of the cases evaluated. The audit showed that 13.7% of the women did not utilize IPTp, 53.1% had one dose of IPTp (IPTp1, 24.2% had two doses of IPTp (IPTp2, while 3.1% had three doses of IPTp (IPTp3. The overall utilization of two doses or more of IPTp (IPTp2+ was 30.7%. Conclusion: There was good documentation of the basic obstetric information of pregnant women in the health care facilities examined in this study, but the overall utilization of IPTp was very low. Efforts at ensuring early ANC booking and regular visits may be a potential means of increasing IPTp utilization in health care facilities in the state. Keywords: intermittent preventive treatment, malaria, pregnancy, clinical
Full Text Available Introduction: Urinary tract infection is considered as one of the most common complications of pregnancy, which can be avoided via adopting preventive behaviors. Hence, the present study aimed to investigate determinants of preventive behaviors of urinary tract infection in pregnant women based on the constructs of Health Belief Model in Yazd. Methods: This descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted on 160 pregnant women referred to health centers of Yazd, suffering from urinary tract infection, who were selected via purposive sampling method. In order to glean the study data, a questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model construct was applid and then the study data were analyzed using SPSS Software (ver.18 via frequency tables and t-test. Results: Among the pregnant women, 63.1% (101 patients demonstrated average score of knowledge and 36.9% (59 patients had good knowledge. Regarding the constructs of Health Belief Model, 73.1% (117 had good score of perceived barriers, 95% (152 demonstraded good perceived benefits, 95% (152 reported good perceived susceptibility, and 81.3% (130 scored a good level of perceived severity. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between the total score of knowledge and attitude (p=0.02, though the correlation between the behavior and knowledge (p=0.08 as well as attitude and behavior (p=0.09 were not proved to be significant. Conclusions: According to the results, further structural intervention needs to focus on perceived barriers in order to prevent the urinary tract infections. Furthermore, behaviors related to eating and hygiene habits should be considered further and the importance of family, wife and the media involvement seem to be essential in designing the training programs.
May 1, 2018 ... sample was collected from 139 pregnant and 139 age matched ... have major consequences for fetal growth. ... metabolic disorder in pregnancy is gestational ... expected to be 23.4 %, and the child mortality rate ... diabetic pregnant women and her unborn infant ... hemorrhage, fetal obesity, miscarriage,.
Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection is the second most common complication of pregnancy, maternal and fetal complications and serious consequences will follow. So, the purpose of this study is comparison of education effect between attend and non-attend methods on promotion prevailing behavior from urinary tract infection in pregnant women based on the health belief model. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial, 140 pregnant women coming to Bushehr medical center, in two group (70 people each were studied. In attend group, two education meetings, including 1.5 hour were hold based on the health belief model with an interval of a week. Non-attend education group, just received a booklet arranged based on health belief model. The information about awareness, structures model and function were collected before, one week and three months later via questionnaire. The urinary test results were collected before and three months after the intervention. After getting information, data were analyzed by software SPSS version 20 via perfect tests. Results: Before educational intervention, knowledge, preventive behaviors of urinary infection and all structures model were same in both groups. After the intervention, average of perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly in attend education group (P≤0/001, and in non-attend education group, awareness score and perceived susceptibility, benefit and self-efficacy increased and average of perceived barrier decreased significantly. Average of perceived susceptibility, barrier, self-efficacy, awareness, and mean of preventive behaviors of urinary infection between two groups were different significantly (P≤0/001. Conclusion: Regarding to changes in health belief model constructs, knowledge and function in two groups after education, using booklets based on health belief model for pregnant women can be useful due to their
Pereboom, M.T.R.; Manniën, J.; Spelten, E.R.; Schellevis, F.G.; Hutton, E.K.
Background: Toxoplasmosis, listeriosis and cytomegalovirus (CMV) can negatively affect pregnancy outcomes, but can be prevented by simple precautions of pregnant women. Literature suggests that pregnant women are not always adequately informed by their care provider about preventable infectious
Full Text Available Sedentary behavior has been associated with adverse health outcomes among pregnant women; however, few studies have characterized sedentary behavior patterns in this population. We described patterns of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior among a national sample of US pregnant (n = 234 women and non-pregnant (n = 1146 women participating in the NHANES 2003-06 cycles. We included women with ≥4 days of accelerometer wear of ≥10 h/day. A count threshold of <100 cpm was used to describe sedentary behavior as: 1 total accumulated sedentary time by bout length categories; 2 accumulated sedentary time within discrete bout length categories; 3 mean, median, and usual bout length; and 4 and bout frequency. Both non-pregnant and pregnant women spent up to 60% of their accelerometer wear time in sedentary behavior depending on the minimum bout threshold applied. Sedentary time was higher among pregnant women compared to non-pregnant women when lower bout thresholds (i.e. 10 min or less were applied. The majority of total sedentary time was accumulated in bouts lasting <10 min. The women averaged less than two prolonged sedentary bouts (i.e., ≥30 min per day, which accounted for nearly 20% of total accumulated sedentary time. When applying a minimum threshold of at least 15 min, sedentary time increased across pregnancy trimesters, while sedentary time was similar across trimesters when using lower thresholds. These findings provide the first characterization of accelerometer-determined indicators of sedentary behavior in pregnant women. The minimum bout threshold applied influenced estimates of sedentary time and patterns sedentary time accumulation across pregnancy trimesters.
Skolarczyk, Justyna; Łabądź, Dawid; Pekar, Joanna; Nieradko-Iwanicka, Barbara
Skolarczyk Justyna, Łabądź Dawid, Pekar Joanna, Nieradko-Iwanicka Barbara. Vaccination recommended for pregnant women. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(4):682-688. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.569050 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4423 The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 1223 (26.01.2017). 1223 Journal of Education, Health and Sport eI...
McMahon, Michelle A.; Fenwick, Alison; Banks, Amelia; Dineen, Robert A.
Aim: Supine hypotensive syndrome (SHS) can occur in women in the second half of pregnancy due to compression of the aorta and inferior vena cava by the gravid uterus. This results in a decrease in cardiac output with effects ranging from transient asymptomatic hypotension to cardiovascular collapse. SHS can be easily avoided by left lateral tilt positioning. We undertook a nationwide survey to assess the awareness amongst senior computed tomography (CT) radiographers of the potential risk of SHS in women in this patient group, and to identify the extent to which preventative practices and protocols are in place. Methods and materials: A questionnaire was sent to superintendent CT radiographers at all acute NHS Trusts in England and Wales examining awareness of the risk of SHS and the preventative practices and protocols currently used. Results: Completed questionnaires were received from 64% institutions. Of respondents who scan women in this patient group, only 44% were aware of the risk of SHS. No institution had a written protocol specifying positioning of women in this patient group. Seventy-five percent of institutions never employed oblique positioning. Eighty-five percent felt that specific guidelines from the Society of Radiographers or Royal College of Radiologists would be helpful. Conclusion: Current awareness and practices for preventing this easily avoidable but potentially harmful condition are inadequate. Central guidance would be welcomed by a large majority of respondents.
McMahon, Michelle A.; Fenwick, Alison [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Queen' s Medical Centre Campus, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Derby Road, Nottingham, NG7 2UH (United Kingdom); Banks, Amelia [Department of Anaesthesia, City Hospital Campus, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Hucknall Road, Nottingham, NG5 1PB (United Kingdom); Dineen, Robert A. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Queen' s Medical Centre Campus, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, Derby Road, Nottingham, NG7 2UH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Robert.firstname.lastname@example.org
Aim: Supine hypotensive syndrome (SHS) can occur in women in the second half of pregnancy due to compression of the aorta and inferior vena cava by the gravid uterus. This results in a decrease in cardiac output with effects ranging from transient asymptomatic hypotension to cardiovascular collapse. SHS can be easily avoided by left lateral tilt positioning. We undertook a nationwide survey to assess the awareness amongst senior computed tomography (CT) radiographers of the potential risk of SHS in women in this patient group, and to identify the extent to which preventative practices and protocols are in place. Methods and materials: A questionnaire was sent to superintendent CT radiographers at all acute NHS Trusts in England and Wales examining awareness of the risk of SHS and the preventative practices and protocols currently used. Results: Completed questionnaires were received from 64% institutions. Of respondents who scan women in this patient group, only 44% were aware of the risk of SHS. No institution had a written protocol specifying positioning of women in this patient group. Seventy-five percent of institutions never employed oblique positioning. Eighty-five percent felt that specific guidelines from the Society of Radiographers or Royal College of Radiologists would be helpful. Conclusion: Current awareness and practices for preventing this easily avoidable but potentially harmful condition are inadequate. Central guidance would be welcomed by a large majority of respondents.
Krubiner, Carleigh B; Faden, Ruth R; Cadigan, R Jean; Gilbert, Sappho Z; Henry, Leslie M; Little, Margaret O; Mastroianni, Anna C; Namey, Emily E; Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D
Concerns about including pregnant women in research have led to a dearth of evidence to guide safe and effective treatment and prevention of HIV in pregnancy. To better understand why these evidence gaps persist and inform guidance for responsible inclusion of pregnant women in the HIV research agenda, we aimed to learn what HIV experts perceive as barriers and constraints to conducting this research. We conducted a series of group and one-on-one consultations with 62 HIV investigators and clinicians to elicit their views and experiences conducting HIV research involving pregnant women. Thematic analysis was used to identify priorities and perceived barriers to HIV research with pregnant women. Experts discussed a breadth of needed research, including safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosing of: newer antiretrovirals for pregnant women, emerging preventive strategies, and treatment for coinfections. Challenges to conducting research on pregnancy and HIV included ethical concerns, such as how to weigh risks and benefits in pregnancy; legal concerns, such as restrictive interpretations of current regulations and liability issues; financial and professional disincentives, including misaligned funder priorities and fear of reputational damage; and analytical and logistical complexities, such as challenges recruiting and retaining pregnant women to sufficiently power analyses. Investigators face numerous challenges to conducting needed HIV research with pregnant women. Advancing such research will require clearer guidance regarding ethical and legal uncertainties; incentives that encourage rather than discourage investigators to undertake such research; and a commitment to earlier development of safety and efficacy data through creative trial designs.
Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto
Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a sonographic short cervix is an efficacious and safe intervention used to prevent preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The clinical and public health implications of this approach in the United States have been critically appraised and compared to other therapeutic interventions in obstetrics. Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a transvaginal sonographic cervical length (CL) ≤25 mm before 25 weeks of gestation is associated with a significant and substantial reduction of the risk for preterm birth from effects have been achieved in women with a singleton gestation, with or without a history of spontaneous preterm birth, and did not differ significantly as a function of CL (effectiveness and decision analyses have shown that the combination of universal transvaginal CL screening and vaginal progesterone administration to women with a short cervix is a cost-effective intervention that prevents preterm birth and associated perinatal morbidity and mortality. Universal assessment of CL and treatment with vaginal progesterone for singleton gestations in the United States would result in an annual reduction of approximately 30,000 preterm births before 34 weeks of gestation and of 17,500 cases of major neonatal morbidity or neonatal mortality. In summary, there is compelling evidence to recommend universal transvaginal CL screening at 18-24 weeks of gestation in women with a singleton gestation and to offer vaginal progesterone to those with a CL ≤25 mm, regardless of the history of spontaneous preterm birth, with the goal of preventing preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Green, Michael; Otieno, Kephas; Katana, Abraham; Slutsker, Laurence; Kariuki, Simon; Ouma, Peter; González, Raquel; Menendez, Clara; ter Kuile, Feiko; Desai, Meghna
Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine is contra-indicated in HIV-positive pregnant women receiving sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis. Since mefloquine is being considered as a replacement for sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine in this vulnerable population, an investigation on the pharmacokinetic interactions of mefloquine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim in pregnant, HIV-infected women was performed. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 124 HIV-infected, pregnant women on a standard regimen of sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis. Seventy-two subjects received three doses of mefloquine (15 mg/kg) at monthly intervals. Dried blood spots were collected from both placebo and mefloquine arms four to 672 h post-administration and on day 7 following a second monthly dose of mefloquine. A novel high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to simultaneously measure mefloquine, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim from each blood spot. Non-compartmental methods using a naïve-pooled data approach were used to determine mefloquine pharmacokinetic parameters. Sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim prophylaxis did not noticeably influence mefloquine pharmacokinetics relative to reported values. The mefloquine half-life, observed clearance (CL/f), and area-under-the-curve (AUC0→∞) were 12.0 days, 0.035 l/h/kg and 431 µg-h/ml, respectively. Although trimethoprim steady-state levels were not significantly different between arms, sulfamethoxazole levels showed a significant 53% decrease after mefloquine administration relative to the placebo group and returning to pre-dose levels at 28 days. Although a transient decrease in sulfamethoxazole levels was observed, there was no change in hospital admissions due to secondary bacterial infections, implying that mefloquine may have provided antimicrobial protection.
Aydin, Y; Atis, A; Tutuman, T; Goker, N
We aimed to find a prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in order to define the 100 genotypes and subset of 14 oncogenic genotypes in pregnant Turkish women and to compare these with non-pregnant women. Cervical thin-prep specimens were obtained from 164 women in the first trimester pregnancy and 153 non pregnant women. 29.2% of pregnant versus 19.6% of non-pregnant Turkish women had at least one of the 100 types of HPV infection--a statistically significant difference. The rate of 14 high-risk HPV genotype infections was significantly higher in pregnant (14.6) compared to non-pregnant Turkish women (9.6%). Pregnant Turkish women are at higher risk for all HPV infections including high-risk cervical cancer genotypes.
Full Text Available This study was aimed at investigating the knowledge of pregnant women on food safety with particular attention to the effectiveness of the informative material (pamphlet and poster prepared in a previous study. To this scope, a questionnaire composed by 8 questions (Likert scaled was used except for one which was a Y/N question. Themes of the questionnaire were: level of concerns on food safety, and knowledge on foodborne diseases (salomonellosis, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis, risk factors and preventive measures. Results indicate that knowledge increased in respect to that of the previous study, but in relation to informative material previously distributed.
Thorne, Claire; Semenenko, Igor; Malyuta, Ruslan
Aims To compare clinical status, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates, use of prevention of (PMTCT) interventions and pregnancy outcomes between HIV-infected injecting drug users (IDUs) and non-IDUs. Design and setting Prospective cohort study conducted in seven human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Centres in Ukraine, 2000–10. Participants Pregnant HIV-infected women, identified before/during pregnancy or intrapartum, and their live-born infants (n = 6200); 1028 women followed post-partum. Measurements Maternal and delivery characteristics, PMTCT prophylaxis, MTCT rates, preterm delivery (PTD) and low birth weight (LBW). Findings Of 6200 women, 1111 (18%) reported current/previous IDU. The proportion of IDUs diagnosed with HIV before conception increased from 31% in 2000/01 to 60% in 2008/09 (P Ukraine have worse clinical status, poorer access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission prophylaxis and highly active antiretroviral therapy, more adverse pregnancy outcomes and higher risk of mother-to-child transmission than non-injecting drug user women. PMID:21819473
Nduka, F O; Nwosu, E; Oguariri, R M
Controlling malaria in pregnancy has been an important component of the millennium development goal and intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) is considered an important tool in controlling malaria among pregnant women. In this study, we evaluated the level of compliance to IPT use as well as its effect on malaria infection among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in south eastern Nigeria. Peripheral blood smears and placental histology were used as diagnostic tools to determine infection rate. Our data show that compliance to IPT use was poor (33%) when compared with non-compliance (67%). Infection rate was significantly lower among IPT users (39%) than in non-users (71%) (X2 = 39.95; P<0.05). Maternal anaemia was also lower in IPT users (4%) than in non-users (18%). Taken together, IPT use appears to be important in reducing infection rate and maternal anaemia. Therefore, its adoption is highly recommended and this could be improved through public enlightenment campaign and adequate funding. PMID:22325819
Improving working conditions for pregnant women can boost their feeling of wellbeing in their job. As a result of its innovative work in this area, Seclin general hospital, in the north of France, has received special recognition for its policy in supporting pregnant women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The study's population encompassed of 1900 pregnant women in selected hospitals. Proportional ... Internet, friends/relatives, persons at the workplace or professional advisors. Despite the ... city is an important trade and educational centre. It also houses one of .... This study was restricted to pregnant women registered for ...
The apparent decline in immunity of pregnant women appears to promote the growth of both com-mensal and non-commensal microorganisms. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women visiting the University hospital, Ku-masi. This prospective ...
The present report clearly states that radiosensitivity is highest during intrauterine development and that the possibility of different types of effects depends on the state of pregnancy and on the dose. The decision whether an examination of the abdomen or pelvis of pregnant or potentiably pregnant women should be carried out is made clear that a delay of examinations due to dose reduction is only warranted if no danger to the patient and/or the unborn child is involved. (orig.) [de
Male Partner Risk Behaviors Are Associated With Reactive Rapid HIV Antibody Tests Among Pregnant Mexican Women: Implications for Prevention of Vertical and Sexual HIV Transmission in Concentrated HIV Epidemics.
Rivero, Estela; Kendall, Tamil
Mexico's policies on antenatal HIV testing are contradictory, and little is known about social and behavioral characteristics that increase pregnant Mexican women's risks of acquiring HIV. We analyzed the association between risk behaviors reported by pregnant women for themselves and their male partners, and women's rapid HIV antibody test results from a large national sample. Three quarters of pregnant women with a reactive test did not report risk behaviors for themselves and one third did not report risk behaviors for themselves or their male partners. In the retrospective case-control analysis, other than reporting multiple sexual partners, reactive pregnant women reported risk behaviors did not differ from nonreactive women's behaviors. However, reactive pregnant women were significantly more likely to have reported risk behaviors for male partners. Our findings support universal offer of antenatal HIV testing and suggest that HIV prevention for women should focus on reducing risk of HIV acquisition within stable relationships. Copyright © 2015 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
María José Aguilar-Cordero
Full Text Available Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. Aim: To analyze the main studies on the level of oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Method: The systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have selected 18 studies that analyze the subject matter. Results: The studies reviewed did not present similar samples at the time of assessing the level of knowledge of the oral health of pregnant women. This can create problems comparing studies with each other. The issue addressed to measure the knowledge of pregnant women served to determine this discernment, and thus orient the research towards those aspects that presented difficulties. Conclusions: All of the studies reviewed show that the level of knowledge of pregnant women about their oral health is regular. This result that the surveys show, is not validated by a unified protocol, this means that there is no unanimity when verifying the knowledge of pregnant women, in relation to their oral health, as a health problem in general.
Full Text Available All pregnant women need easy access to pregnancy-related personalized information, on-time quality healthcare services and effective communication links with healthcare providers. Smartphone-based devices, communication systems and eHealth applications can play an important role in facilitating some of these services to pregnant women in a fast and efficient way and can thus prevent most of the pregnancy-related complications. The objective of this work is to propose and design a pregnancy care network for pregnant women and healthcare providers. The network model, an eHealth application based on smartphone-based devices and communication systems, is designed to strengthen communication links between health professionals and pregnant women and increase education, awareness and quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth.
A survey of pregnant and postnatal women, clinic attendees and maternity staff regarding the presence of birth companions during labour and delivery. ... Conclusion: The involvement of birth companions supporting women during childbirth could be promoted as a low cost preventive intervention to improve maternal and ...
Full Text Available Objectives of this study were to assess diastolic function in pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT, compared with normal glucose tolerance (NGT women, and to evaluate the insulin resistance status and its association with Doppler-echocardiographic indexes. Echocardiograms of 108 consecutive Caucasian women with singleton pregnancies were performed. Insulin resistance status was estimated by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI. All the studied women showed normal diastolic patterns. Patients with AGT (50.9%, as compared with NGT women, had higher HOMA-IR (1.70±1.30 versus 1.01±0.81, P=0.003, lower QUICKI (0.36±0.005 versus 0.40±0.06, P=0.004, higher lateral mitral annulus late diastolic velocity (13.6±4.9 versus 11.9±4.9, P=0.03, and higher A-wave velocity, the wave responsible for the active atrial contraction component (75.2±14.2 versus 67.7±16.2, P=0.01. At multivariate regression analysis HOMA-IR was the only parameter associated with A-wave velocity. In conclusion, women with AGT had an increased subclinical diastolic active participation, which is associated with higher levels of insulin resistance. For the increased risk of deterioration of cardiac diastolic function, earlier and more seriously than normal pregnancy, AGT women may have a careful followup to detect the early signs of cardiac alteration and to prevent cardiovascular diseases.
Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U
Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....
Full Text Available Current recommendations to prevent malaria in African pregnant women rely on insecticide treated nets (ITNs and intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp. However, there is no information on the safety and efficacy of their combined use.1030 pregnant Mozambican women of all gravidities received a long-lasting ITN during antenatal clinic (ANC visits and, irrespective of HIV status, were enrolled in a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, to assess the safety and efficacy of 2-dose sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP. The main outcome was the reduction in low birth weight.Two-dose SP was safe and well tolerated, but was not associated with reductions in anaemia prevalence at delivery (RR, 0.92 [95% CI, 0.79-1.08], low birth weight (RR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.70-1.39], or overall placental infection (p = 0.964. However, the SP group showed a 40% reduction (95% CI, 7.40-61.20]; p = 0.020 in the incidence of clinical malaria during pregnancy, and reductions in the prevalence of peripheral parasitaemia (7.10% vs 15.15% (p<0.001, and of actively infected placentas (7.04% vs 13.60% (p = 0.002. There was a reduction in severe anaemia at delivery of borderline statistical significance (p = 0.055. These effects were not modified by gravidity or HIV status. Reported ITN's use was more than 90% in both groups.Two-dose SP was associated with a reduction in some indicators, but these were not translated to significant improvement in other maternal or birth outcomes. The use of ITNs during pregnancy may reduce the need to administer IPTp. ITNs should be part of the ANC package in sub-Saharan Africa.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00209781.
E. S. Mikhaylin
Full Text Available The paper presents an assessment of the effectiveness of the method proposed by the authors for the prevention of iron deficiency anemia in minor pregnant women. In the first stage, 593 histories of childbirth were retrospectively analyzed (group 1 — minors 13-15 years (n = 49, 2 group — minors 16-17 (n = 434, 3rd group — middle reproductive age (n = 110 . In the second stage, a prospective study of the frequency and structure of anemia of pregnant women was carried out (group 1 — minors aged 13-15 years (n = 17, group 2 — minors 16-17 (n = 127, 3rd group — women of middle reproductive age (n = 110. At the III stage, minor pregnant women were divided into two groups: in 1 (main group (n = 144, iron deficiency anemia was prevented according to the method we proposed; in the 2nd group (comparison group traditional therapy with iron preparations was carried out at the appearance of signs of anemia. The essence of the proposed method is that an minor pregnant woman, without waiting for laboratory signs of anemia, is examined for ferritin in venous blood, and at a value below 35 ng/ml, oral iron preparations are prescribed in conventional preventive doses for a period of 3 months, and if through three months the content of ferritin in the venous blood is again below 35 ng/ml — the intake of iron-containing preparations continues for another 3 months. The use of the proposed method contributed to a significant decrease in the incidence of anemia in minor pregnant women. The proposed method of preventing iron deficiency anemia in minor pregnant women helps to reduce the frequency and severity of anemia in this complex category of patients.
Takahashi, Rena; Ota, Erika; Hoshi, Keika; Naito, Toru; Toyoshima, Yoshihiro; Yuasa, Hidemichi; Mori, Rintaro; Nango, Eishu
Dental caries (tooth decay) is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases. Caries prevalence in most industrialised countries has declined among children over the past few decades. The probable reasons for the decline are the widespread use of fluoride toothpaste, followed by artificial water fluoridation, oral health education and a slight decrease in sugar consumption overall. However, in regions without water fluoridation, fluoride supplementation for pregnant women may be an effective way to increase fluoride intake during pregnancy. If fluoride supplements taken by pregnant women improve neonatal outcomes, pregnant women with no access to a fluoridated drinking water supply can obtain the benefits of systemic fluoridation. To evaluate the effects of women taking fluoride supplements (tablets, drops, lozenges or chewing gum) compared with no fluoride supplementation during pregnancy to prevent caries in the primary teeth of their children. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 25 January 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 11) in the Cochrane Library (searched 25 January 2017); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 25 January 2017); Embase Ovid (1980 to 25 January 2017); LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information database; 1982 to 25 January 2017); and CINAHL EBSCO (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; 1937 to 25 January 2017). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 25 January 2017. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of fluoride supplements (tablets, drops, lozenges or chewing gum) administered to women during
Full Text Available Background: Women’s empowerment programs during pregnancy focus primarily on increasing women’s health goals and psychological empowerment has been considered important in most issues related to pregnant mothers’ mental health. Using path analysis, this study aims to examine the direct and indirect components of psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers. Methods: This model-testing study was conducted in Gorgan, northwest of Iran during three months in spring of 2015. Through random cluster sampling, a total number of 160 pregnant women were selected from 10 urban medical centers and clinics as primary centers. We used Spritzer’s Psychological empowerment scale. Suitable sampling based on Nunally and Bernstein was followed in the model. The relationships between the dependent variables were then examined by means of path analysis using Amos 18. Results: The psychological empowerment of pregnant mothers (PEPW model is impacted by individual factors, such as marriage age and employment, including some subjectively rated factors such as marital satisfaction and experience of violence. The PEPW model was deemed appropriate as optimum conditions indicators of goodness of fit; low index of χ2/df shows little difference between the conceptual model and observed data, while RMSEA value indicated the goodness of fit. Other indicators such as CMIN=0.957, CMIN/DF=0.957, P-CLOSE=0.418, χ2=0.957 and probability level=0.328 the fact that the model is ideal. The mothers’ employment had the highest coefficient in the PEPW path model .731 (0.443, 0.965 bootstrap confidence intervals by 95%, and with a p-value of less than 0.05. Conclusions: The mothers’ employment is the most important factor in psychological empowerment, but it cannot be addressed quickly. Programming to increase marital satisfaction followed by a decrease in family violence and prevention of early marriage are necessary for promotion of psychological empowerment during
María José Aguilar-Cordero; Tania Rivero-Blanco; Norma Mur-Villar; Raquel Rodríguez-Blanque; María Dolores Moraleda-Hurtado; Luis Emilio Fernández-Curbero; Antonio Manuel Sánchez-López
Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth...
Marked reduction in prevalence of malaria parasitemia and anemia in HIV-infected pregnant women taking cotrimoxazole with or without sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine intermittent preventive therapy during pregnancy in Malawi
Kapito-Tembo, Atupele; Meshnick, Steven R.; van Hensbroek, Michaël Boele; Phiri, Kamija; Fitzgerald, Margaret; Mwapasa, Victor
Effectiveness of cotrimoxazole (CTX) compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) intermittent-preventive-therapy (IPTp) for malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women is unknown. We examined effectiveness of CTX with or without SP-IPTp versus SP-IPTp at reducing malaria parasitemia and anemia. From
Maral G. Nogayeva
Full Text Available Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s. Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117
... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Zika Virus Protecting Pregnant Women and Babies Language: English (US) ... Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy can cause damage to ...
Becka, Chandra M; Chacón-Cruz, Enrique; Araneta, Maria Rosario; Viani, Rolando M
The objective of this study was to identify determinants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) knowledge regarding mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) among pregnant women at Tijuana General Hospital, Baja California, Mexico. Between March and November 2003, patients from the prenatal care (n = 1294) and labor and delivery (L&D) units (n = 495) participated in a cross-sectional study to measure HIV knowledge. Less than one-third (30%) knew that HIV could be transmitted to a child during delivery, and 36% knew that HIV could be transmitted by breast-feeding. Only 27% knew that an MTCT could be prevented. Prenatal patients were more likely to know that MTCT was preventable (prenatal: 31% versus L&D 25%; P = .02). Logistic regression indicated that prenatal patients (odds ratio = 1.49, confidence interval 1.07-2.07) were more likely to know that HIV could be transmitted through breast-feeding. Overall, both groups had poor knowledge regarding MTCT of HIV. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving.
the frequency of periodontitis among pregnant women, ranging from 35% to ... Department of Preventive Dentistry, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Abstract .... by the stress and anxiety during pregnancy, which may lead to a neglect of .... Khader YA, Al‑shishani L, Obeidat B, Khassawneh M,.
Malaria parasitaemia among pregnant women in a rural community of ... ours, it is a common cause of anaemia in pregnancy in both immune and non-immune ... Apart from the use of nets, drugs and vector control, the prevention of malaria in ...
Many women suffer psychological symptoms during pregnancy but few studies have examined anxiety among pregnant ladies in relation to the level of education, previous bad obstetrical history and female circumcision. Aims: To determine frequency of anxiety among Sudanese women as related to pregnancy and ...
Blood was collected by venipuncture from 180 women attending the antenatal clinic in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Sera samples were screened in a qualitative study using CMV IgG ELISA kit (Dialab, Austria). Results: Out of 180 pregnant women, 164 (91.1%) were seropositive.
2016 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - ... Background: Food taboos among rural women have been identified as one of the factors .... items and incorrect knowledge regarding their benefits can ..... 2003;28:183‑9. 33. Ngozi PO. Pica practices of pregnant women in Nairobi,.
Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of telbivudine given from the 12th week of gestation in preventing mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV in pregnant women with high HBV DNA load. MethodsEighty pregnant women (at 12 weeks of gestation with chronic hepatitis B, who had a HBV DNA load higher than 1.0×107 copies/ml, were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according to their personal preferences: treatment group (n=38 and control group (n=42. The treatment group received oral telbivudine (600 mg once daily until 12 weeks after delivery and was administered compound glycyrrhizin for liver protection, while the control group was given compound glycyrrhizin for liver protection alone. All infants in both groups were vaccinated with hepatitis B immunoglobulin (200 IU and HBV vaccine (20 μg after birth. The mother-to-infant transmission of HBV was indicated by the presence of HBsAg and HBV DNA in infants at 7 months after birth. The HBV DNA levels in these women were measured, and the positive rate of HBsAg in infants was determined. The difference in positive rate of HBsAg was analyzed by chi-square test; the between-group comparison was analyzed by group t(t′-test, and the before-after comparison was analyzed by paired t-test. ResultsThe treatment group showed significantly decreased HBV DNA and alanine aminotransferase levels before delivery. The HBV DNA load of treatment group dropped rapidly after 2 weeks of treatment and then decreased slowly until delivery. The treatment group had significantly decreased HBV DNA levels beforedelivery and at 12 weeks after delivery (t=29.15, P＜0.01; t=40.06, P＜0.01, but the control group showed no significant changes (P＞0.05. The treatment group had significantly lower HBV DNA levels than the control group before delivery and at 12 weeks after delivery (P＜0.01. No infants in the treatment group were HBV-positive, versus a positive rate of 14.3% in the
Zołnierczuk-Kieliszek, Dorota; Chemperek, Ewa; Koza, Matylda
The aim of the paper was to determine the frequency and intensity of tobacco smoking by pregnant women as well as to find out the relationship between tobacco smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic variables (education, marital status, professional career, smoking partner, number of children) as well as health variables (severe ailments during pregnancy period, taking medicines, using medical care). The research was carried out at the department of gynecology and obstetrics of the Specialist Hospital in Jasło as well as at the Women's Outpatient Clinic of the Public Independent Health Service Institution in Skołyszyn (Podkarpackie Voivodship). The research was conducted by means of the questionnaire distributed from July to September 2002 among 100 pregnant women. The results of the analysis indicate that 18% of the women under survey smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, including 6% daily smokers and 12% occasional smokers. 18% of women quitted smoking when they found out that they were pregnant, and 18% of them limited smoking. Exposure to passive smoking at their family home was declared by more than a half of the pregnant women, while 14% of the surveyed women mentioned passive exposure to smoke at their workplace. The socioeconomic variables that most clearly showed positive correlation with active smoking by pregnant women were: smoking tobacco by a husband or steady partner, smoking tobacco in the presence of a pregnant woman in her workplace and at home, as well as taking advantage of a family doctor's advice. Smoking tobacco during pregnancy was also enhanced by: the lower level of education, extramarital pregnancy, permanent residence in a town or a city, poor living conditions, not working professionally during pregnancy, having two or more children, abnormal course of pregnancy, suffering from such ailments as: weepiness, problems with relaxation, lack of appetite and taking no medicines during pregnancy.
Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa records each year about thirty-two million pregnant women living in areas of high transmission of Plasmodium falciparum causing malaria. The aim of this study was to carve out the prevalence of asymptomatic malaria among pregnant women and to emphasize its influence on haematological markers. The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum asymptomatic infection among pregnant women was 30% and 24% with rapid detection test (RDT and microscopy, respectively. The prevalence of P. falciparum asymptomatic malaria was reduced among pregnant women using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine's intermittent preventive treatment and 61% of them were anaemic. Anaemia was significantly more common in women infected with P. falciparum compared with the uninfected pregnant women. Most of the women had normal levels of homocysteine and low levels of folate, respectively. Therefore, the systematic diagnosis of malaria should be introduced to pregnant women as a part of the antenatal care.
Tayyari Dehbarez, Nasrin; Lou, Stina; Uldbjerg, Niels
design was used and women were recruited during their first pregnancy-related visit to a general practitioner. The interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide, and a thematic analysis of the data was carried out. RESULTS: Women made their hospital choice decision independently......OBJECTIVE: To investigate pregnant women's decision making in relation to their choice of birthing hospital and, in particular, their priorities regarding hospital characteristics. METHODS: The focus of this study was the choice of birthing hospital among pregnant women. A qualitative interview...... and they relied extensively on their own or peers' experiences. Travel distance played a role, but some women were willing to incur longer travel times to give birth at a specialized hospital in order to try to reduce the risks (in case of unexpected events). The women associated the presence of specialized...
Jayasvasti, Kanthika; Kanchanatawan, Buranee
Pregnancy is a crisis in the human life cycle as an important turning point in aspects of anatomical, physiological and psychosocial changes. An unhappy pregnanus could influence the fetal growth and development and sense of maternal competence as well as bonding with the fetus which profoundly affect the nurture of the infant after delivery. The authors'purposes were to study happiness and related factors in pregnant women having antenatal care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Four hundred and thirty-eight pregnant women from the antenatal clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital were randomly selected to complete a set of questionnaires that consisted of personal information, pregnant information, The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), The Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and The Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS). Prevalence of happiness level was classified by descriptive analysis. Unpaired t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation analyzed related factors to happiness in pregnant woman. Also Stepwise Multiple Regression Analysis was used to define predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women. The sample had a high level of happiness of 57.3%. Significant related factors to happiness were age between 31-35 years, high education level, high individual and family income, having saving deposition, no drug abuse, improved marital relationship, no conflict with relatives, extrovert and stable personality types and no concerns about post-partum body image. Four predictive factors for happiness in pregnant women were extrovert personality, stable personality, high family income and improved marital relationship. Level of happiness in pregnant women could be predicted by type of personality, family income and marital relationship.
Mbule, Marjorie A; Byaruhanga, Yusuf B; Kabahenda, Magaret; Lubowa, Abdulrahman
In spite of intervention efforts, in Uganda, as in other developing countries, high levels of anaemia among pregnant women continue. Anaemia among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) is a matter of national concern. This study was carried out to assess determinants of anaemia in Kiboga district. This was a single cross-sectional, descriptive survey. The anaemia status of the pregnant women was determined by measuring their haemoglobin levels. Possible determinant factors including socio-economic characteristics, knowledge, attitudes, practices and food intake were assessed using a structured questionnaire. Results showed that the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Kiboga district was high enough (63.1%) to be described as a severe public health problem. The uptake and utilisation of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy was low, with iron/folic acid supplementation at 13.2%, use of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria 45.4%, and use of de-worming medicines 14.5%. Women from households without a functional radio were 2.07 times more likely be anaemic (95%CI, 1.08-3.00) compared with women from households where there was a functional radio. There was little awareness and functional knowledge about anaemia among pregnant women. The high prevalence of anaemia observed in Kiboga district can be attributed to poverty and limited access to nutrition and health education information which lead to low uptake and utilization of the public-health intervention package to combat anaemia in pregnancy.
Nybo, Mads; Friis-Hansen, Lennart; Felding, Peter
The aim of the study was to investigate whether the well-known high anemia prevalence in pregnant women from the eastern Mediterranean and Asian regions decreased when the women immigrated to a low-frequency region (Denmark). During 70 months, 1,741 pregnant immigrant women referred from primary...... status parameters were examined in the two groups. The prevalence of anemia was higher in the immigrant group (20.0%) compared to the Danish women (4.9%) (P ... indicated iron deficiency. Conclusively, the pregnant immigrant women had significantly higher prevalence of anemia compared to pregnant women of Danish origin. It indicates the need for an alternative routine screening procedure for this population group, which should also include nutritional counselling....
Muhammad, Hamzat U.; Giwa, Fatima J.; Olayinka, Adebola T.; Balogun, Shakir M.; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo; Ajumobi, Olufemi; Nguku, Patrick
Background Malaria in pregnancy remains a public health problem in Nigeria. It causes maternal anaemia and adversely affects birth outcome leading to low birth weight, abortions and still births. Nigeria has made great strides in addressing the prevention and control of malaria in pregnancy. However, recent demographic survey shows wide disparities in malaria control activities across the geopolitical zones. This situation has been compounded by the political unrest and population displacemen...
A study was carried out on the prevalence of malaria among pregnant women in Owerri Municipal council area in Imo State, Nigeria between December 2001 and October 2002. Of 250 women examined, 200 women were pregnant. Of the 200 pregnant women examined, 22 (11.0%) had malaria parasitaemia. Prevalence ...
Adriella Silva Oliveira
Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.
Adriella Silva Oliveira
Full Text Available This study aimed to perform an integrative review of the epidemiology and the main risk factors for infection with human T lymphotropic to cells (HTLV in pregnant women from the Brazilian scientific production. The articles were extracted from databases: Literature Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO, with nine selected articles published between the years 2000-2012. Upon review of the studies it was observed that Brazil has significant prevalence of HTLV in pregnant women, demonstrating the need for adequate attention to this indicator. Some risk factors indicated by the studies analyzed were: low education, criterion race/color (infected pregnant women were mostly black, brown or indigenous majority, vertical transmission, sexual transmission, multiple pregnancies and premature sexual activity. Therefore, it is Epidemiologia e fatores de risco da infecção do vírus HTLV em gestantes important serologic screening to prevent congenital infections, as well as the introduction of new studies on the infection in Brazil. Thus, it becomes evident the need for planning and implementation of prevention and control of HTLV in the prenatal for structuring measures that minimize the appearance of new infections in pregnant women and children due to vertical transmission, the main route of transmission.
Ergönen, Akça Toprak; Ozdemir, M Hakan; Can, Ismail Ozgür; Sönmez, Ersel; Salaçin, Serpil; Berberoğlu, Evrim; Demir, Namik
Domestic violence is accepted worldwide as an important health problem. Besides diagnosis and treatment process, there are difficulties when considering of medico-legal evaluation of pregnant women subjected to domestic violence. As a signatory of the ''Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)'' Turkey has certain commitments regarding domestic violence and made regulations on national law. The purpose of the present study is to demonstrate the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy among the women who applied to obstetrics clinics and evaluating of the participants' knowledge level about the legal legislation concerning domestic violence. Pregnant women attending for antenatal care to department of Gynecology and Obstetrics were interviewed using an anonymous and confidential questionnaire. The questionnaire used was a version of Abuse Assessment Screen with guidance of references. 28 (13.4%) women stated that they had been subjected to violence before pregnancy. Only 10 (4.67%) women had stated experience of violence during pregnancy. 148 (69.2%) of them had stated that they had no knowledge about any legislation concerning domestic violence in our country. We believe that society awareness should be increased and the health workers should be informed about their ethical and legal responsibilities concerning domestic violence during pregnancy. The knowledge and sensitivity of health care personnel in Prenatal Clinics and Family Planning Services should be increased and examination protocols should be provided about domestic violence against pregnant women.
Brown, Qiana L; Hasin, Deborah S; Keyes, Katherine M; Fink, David S; Ravenell, Orson; Martins, Silvia S
Understanding the relationship between health insurance coverage and tobacco and alcohol use among reproductive age women can provide important insight into the role of access to care in preventing tobacco and alcohol use among pregnant women and women planning to become pregnant. We examined the association between health insurance coverage and both past month alcohol use and past month tobacco use in a nationally representative sample of women age 12-44 years old, by pregnancy status. The women (n=97,788) were participants in the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) in 2010-2013. Logistic regression models assessed the association between health insurance (insured versus uninsured), past month tobacco and alcohol use, and whether this was modified by pregnancy status. Pregnancy status significantly moderated the relationship between health insurance and tobacco use (p-value≤0.01) and alcohol use (p-value≤0.01). Among pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.27-0.82), but not associated with tobacco use (AOR=1.14; 95% CI=0.73-1.76). Among non-pregnant women, being insured was associated with lower odds of tobacco use (AOR=0.67; 95% CI=0.63-0.72), but higher odds of alcohol use (AOR=1.23; 95% CI=1.15-1.32). Access to health care, via health insurance coverage is a promising method to help reduce alcohol use during pregnancy. However, despite health insurance coverage, tobacco use persists during pregnancy, suggesting missed opportunities for prevention during prenatal visits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: A good proportion of pregnant women patronize traditional birth homes in Nigeria for ante-natal care. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors, and susceptibility profile of etiologic agents of urinary tract infection among ante-natal attendees in a traditional birth home in Benin City, Nigeria.
... Ante-Natal Clinic at Military Hospital Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria using the Standard parasitological technique. Venous blood was collected from 200 pregnant women, both thick and thin blood films were made on clean greese-free glass slide and stained with 10% Giemsa stains diluted with 7.2 buffered water for ...
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminth infections in pregnant Cameroonian women and assess their anaemic status. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: Buea Integrated Health Centre, Muea Health Centre, Mutengene Integrated Health Centre and the University of Buea Life Sciences ...
A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...
Introduction: iron deficiency anemia is the leading cause of anemia worldwide. It may also be the leading cause of anemia in pregnancy, although this has not yet been demonstrated in our country. The aim of the study was to describe hematologic features of Cameroonian anemic pregnant women. Methods: this cross ...
. There are insufficient data to quantify the benefits of deworming, and further studies are warranted. Given that between a quarter and a third of pregnant women in SSA are infected with hookworm and at risk of preventable hookworm-related anaemia, efforts should be made to increase the coverage of anthelmintic treatment among pregnant women.
Wang, Xiaowen; Guo, Guangping; Liang, Xiumin; Zhou, Ling; Zheng, Jiarui; Li, Shaoqin; Luo, Hongzhuan; Yang, Yuyan; Yang, Liyuan; Tan, Ting; Yu, Jun; Lu, Lin
Health utility (HU) is essential to understanding the effects of HIV infection as a chronic disease. No HU data on pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Yunnan Province are available. This study aims to construct a database on HU and explore factors associated with HU by pregnant women living with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who were enrolled in the Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programs in Yunnan Province. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Yunnan Province on pregnant women living with HIV who were selected by convenience sampling. Sociodemographic, HIV-related, social support, and HU data were collected through face-to-face interviews. The European quality of life five-dimensional three-level (EQ-5D-3L) questionnaire and the social support rate scale (SSRS) were applied. One hundred and one pregnant women (mean age of 30.4 ± 5.1 years) participated in the survey. The mean EQ-5D index score and the EQ visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) score of participants were 0.77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-0.79) and 75.77 (95% CI 75.00-80.00), respectively. The effect of social support on HU was maintained significant difference even after adjusting for such factors as education level, household income per year, and HIV disclosure, demonstrating a significant difference within EQ-5D index scores and EQ-VAS scores. Pregnant women living with HIV/AIDS who were enrolled in PMTCT programs reported the same level of HU as other patients living with HIV/AIDS. Integrating measurements of HU by using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire could be helpful for economic evaluation of the PMTCT program. This study also suggests a potential benefit of appropriate social support. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Beliefs, perceptions, and views of pregnant women about Caesarean section and ... decision‑making in a specialist health facility in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. ... was administered to 200 pregnant women, following an oral informed consent.
Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Agudelo, Olga M; Arango, Eliana M
Information about asymptomatic plasmodial infection is scarce in the world, and the current antimalarial program goals (control, elimination, and eradication) demand this evidence to be well documented in different populations and malaria transmission settings. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women at delivery. A retrospective prevalence survey was used. Women were recruited at hospital obstetric facility in each of the municipalities of Turbo, Necoclí in Antioquia department, and Puerto Libertador in Córdoba department. Malaria infection was tested by thick blood smear (TBS) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Ninety-six pregnant women at delivery were studied: 95% were asymptomatic (91/96), 45% had asymptomatic plasmodial infection (API) by qPCR (41/91), and only 8% (7/91) had API by microscopy. The prevalence of submicroscopic infections (TBS negative and qPCR positive) was very high, 37% (34/91) in asymptomatic women and 41% (39/96) in total women studied (91 asymptomatic and 5 symptomatic). The prevalence of API in Colombian pregnant women is much higher than which is expected for a country that does not have the level of malaria transmission as Sub-Saharan African countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
tobacco use during their pregnancy. Of the pregnant women, 70% lived with at least one smoker in the house. Conclusions. Few black and Indian pregnant women in. South Africa smoke, while coloured pregnant women smoke heavily. QUitting programmes should be targeted at them when they attend antenatal services.
Valladares, Guillermo; Chacaltana, Alfonso; Sjogren, Maria H
Hepatitis C is, at present, a worldwide health problem and is the most common cause of liver transplantation. Its prevalence in pregnant women is similar to that of the general population. In the absence of cirrhosis and portal hypertension, most HCV-infected pregnant women do not have obstetric complications. Screening of pregnant women that are asymptomatic and do not have risk factors is not cost effective. A high hepatitis C viral load reportedly increases vertical transmission and is higher in women who are coinfected with HIV or who are intravenous drug users. Prolonged rupture of the membrane for more than 6 h, amniocentesis, and perineal lacerations increase the potential risk of perinatal transmission. Although the hepatitis C virus can be transmitted intrapartum, prevention by caesarean delivery is not generally indicated. The HCV virus can be found in maternal milk; however, breast feeding is not contraindicated. In conclusion, there are no antiviral treatment recommendations for HCV-infected women during pregnancy, or guidelines for the prevention of vertical transmission.
Samandari, Ghazaleh; Martin, Sandra L; Kupper, Lawrence L; Schiro, Sharon; Norwood, Tammy; Avery, Matt
The purpose of this study is to estimate rates of suicide and homicide death among pregnant, postpartum and non-pregnant/non-postpartum women ages 14-44, and to determine comparative rates of violent death for pregnant and/or postpartum women compared to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. North Carolina surveillance and vital statistics data from 2004 to 2006 were used to examine whether pregnant or postpartum women have higher (or lower) rates of suicide and homicide compared to other reproductive-aged women. The suicide rate for pregnant women was 27% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio= 0.27, 95% CI = 0.11-0.66), and the suicide rate for postpartum women was 54% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.31-0.95). Homicide rates also were lower for pregnant and postpartum women, with the homicide rate for pregnant women being 73% of the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.39-1.37), and the homicide rate for postpartum women being half the rate for non-pregnant/non-postpartum women (rate ratio = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.26-0.98). Although pregnant and postpartum women are at risk for homicide and suicide death, the highest risk group is non-pregnant/non-postpartum women. Violence prevention efforts should target all women of reproductive age, and pay particular attention to non-pregnant/non-postpartum women, who may have less access to health care services than pregnant and postpartum women.
孕产妇感染寨卡病毒可增加小头症和格林-巴利综合征发病率.目前尚无有效的寨卡病毒疫苗及特异性治疗药物,做好孕产妇预防控制工作具有重要意义.本文就寨卡病毒的暴发流行与孕产妇预防控制措施的研究进展作一综述.%Zika virus infection in pregnant women may increase the incidence of microcephaly in newborns and GuillainBarré syndrome in children.There is no vaccine or specific drug for Zika virus,therefore the effective prevention and control measures are critical,especially for pregnant women.This paper reviews the prevalence of Zika virus outbreak and the prevention and control measures against the infection in pregnant women.
Andersen, Stine Linding
Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormones, which are crucial regulator of early brain development. The source of iodine in the fetus and the breastfed infant is maternal iodine, and adequate iodine intake in pregnant and breastfeeding is of major concern. Severe iodine deficiency can...... cause irreversible brain damage, whereas the consequences of mild to moderate iodine deficiency are less clear. Denmark was previously iodine deficient with regional differences (mild iodine deficiency in East Denmark and moderate iodine deficiency in West Denmark), and also pregnant and breastfeeding...... women suffered from iodine deficiency. A mandatory iodine fortification of household salt and salt used for commercial production of bread was introduced in Denmark in the year 2000. The PhD thesis investigates intake of iodine supplements and urinary iodine status in Danish pregnant and breastfeeding...
Medication interest is comparable to literature data: relatively high for acute problems, relatively low for iron supplementation and extremely low for preventative folic acid intake. As to our knowledge, we were the ones to introduce the term »medication interest« into professional literature in Slovenia.
Full Text Available Pregnancy is a very important period in a woman's life, but it is often associated not only with positive emotions, but also with negative emotions such as anxiety, stress or depression. Women most often fear birth and various medical complications during pregnancy. Very often their unpleasant experiences at the beginning such as nausea, fatigue and strong anxiety cause them to give up their physical activity. Numerous studies show that the physical activity of pregnant women has a positive impact on mother and child health. First and foremost, it is a powerful preventive agent in cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, but also has a beneficial effect on the well-being of future mothers, including lowering anxiety and lowering the incidence of postpartum depression. That is why it is so important to educate pregnant women what exercises are most beneficial for them.
H. Ben Nasr
Full Text Available Scorpion envenomation is common in many countries; however, its effects on pregnancy are still unclear. In the present paper, we described the effects of scorpion envenomation on pregnant patients. A retrospective study was carried out considering the clinical and laboratory exams of patients admitted to the emergency room of Habib Bourguiba Hospital, Sfax, Tunisia, from 1990 to 2004. Variability of these clinical and laboratory profiles according to maternal age, gestational age and number of previous parities was also discussed. Among 167 scorpion-envenomed women, age ranged from 17 to 42 years, 7.18% were pregnant. These presented symptoms similar to those of non-pregnant women envenomed by scorpions. Two pregnant patients developed intense pelvic pain and one manifested vaginal bleeding. Although the studied parameters showed non-significant differences, we could conclude that scorpion envenomation may lead to abnormal uterine contraction probably causing preterm delivery. Maternal disturbances induced by scorpion envenomation may influence the fetus development. The effects were more severe in the second trimester of pregnancy.
Desjardins, Michaël; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Paquet, Caroline; Laferrière, Céline; Gosselin-Brisson, Anne; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Martel-Laferrière, Valérie
Serological testing guidelines for vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in pregnant women are heterogeneous. It is unclear how vaccination history influences health care workers' (HCWs) attitudes about testing. The aim of this study was to describe current practices in screening for rubella, hepatitis B, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in pregnant women in the province of Québec. In 2015, an electronic survey was distributed to HCWs who followed the case of at least one pregnant woman in the previous year and who could be contacted by email by their professional association. A total of 363 of 1084 (33%) participants were included in the analysis: general practitioners (57%), obstetrician-gynaecologists (20%), midwives (41%), and nurse practitioners (31%). For rubella, 48% of participants inquired about vaccination status, and of these, 98% offered serological testing for unvaccinated women versus 44% for vaccinated women. Similarly, of the 48% of participants who asked about hepatitis B vaccination status before offering testing, 96% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antigen, 28% ordered testing for hepatitis B surface antibody, and 1% ordered no serological testing to unvaccinated women versus 72%, 46%, and 8%, respectively, for vaccinated women. Among the 81% of respondents who discussed VZV during prenatal care, 13% ordered serological testing if patients had a history of VZV infection, 87% if the VZV history was uncertain, and 19% if patients had a positive history of vaccination. Asking about vaccination status influences HCWs' attitudes about serological testing for rubella, hepatitis B, and VZV. In the context of increasing vaccination coverage in women of child-bearing age, it is important to clarify the impact of vaccination status in serological screening guidelines in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Dental caries is a common problem in pregnant women which has negative impacts on their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate pregnant women’s dental caries status and its associated risk factors in Shiraz, Iran, in 2014. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we selected 423 pregnant women attending Shiraz governmental health centers for routine obstetric examinations by randomized cluster sampling. The women's dental caries status was assessed using decayed, missed, and filled tooth (DMFT index. The women’s demographic characteristics and their oral hygiene habits were evaluated using a valid and reliable questionnaire. The relationship between women's DMFT index and their demographic and oral hygiene characteristics was evaluated using Pearson correlation, analysis of variance, independent sample t-tests, and multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: The mean DMFT index was 5.8 ± 3.6. We found lower scores of DMFT index in women who were younger (P < 0.001, brushed their teeth more (P = 0.014, and used home preventive measures such as mouthwash (P = 0.003 and toothpick (P = 0.006. CONCLUSION: Dental caries status of the pregnant women was unacceptably lower than optimal. Interventions focusing on holding educational programs and taking office-based preventive measures for pregnant women or women who intend to be pregnant are recommended. The interventions are more necessary for older pregnant women and those who use fewer home preventive measures.
Assessment of coverage of preventive treatment and insecticide-treated mosquito nets in pregnant women attending antenatal care services in 11 districts in Mozambique in 2011: the critical role of supply chain.
Salomão, Cristolde; Sacarlal, Jahit; Gudo, Eduardo Samo
Malaria during pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and pregnancy outcome and the World Health Organization recommends the administration of intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and distribution of insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) to all pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) services. This study was conducted with the aim to assess the uptake of IPTp and ITNs in pregnant women attending ANC services and correlate with ANC attendance and frequency of stock-outs in 22 health facilities Mozambique. A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and December 2011 in 22 health units in 11 districts situated in 11 provinces in Mozambique. Two health facilities were selected per district (one urban and one rural). Data were collected by reviewing logbooks of antenatal consultations as well as from monthly district reports. During the period under investigation, a total of 23,524 pregnant women attended their 1st antenatal care visits, of which 12,775 (54.3%) and 7581 (32.2%) received one and two doses of IPTp, respectively. In regard to ITNs, a total of 16,436 (69.9%) pregnant women received ITNs. Uptake of IPTp and ITNs by pregnant women at ANC services was higher in southern Mozambique and lower in districts situated in the northern part of the country. Stock-outs of SP and ITNs were reported in 50.0% (11/22) and 54.5% (12/22) of the health facilities, respectively. Coverage of IPTp and ITN in health facilities with stock-outs of SP and ITNs was much lower as compared to health facilities with no stock-outs. Altogether, data from this study shows that coverage of the 2nd dose of IPTp, as well as ITNs, was low in pregnant women attending ANC services in Mozambique. In addition, this data also shows that stock-outs of SP and ITNs were frequent and led to lower coverage of IPTp and ITN, representing a serious barrier for the accomplishment of targets. In conclusion, this study recommends that
Hotelling, Barbara A.
Pregnant prisoners have health-care needs that are minimally met by prison systems. Many of these mothers have high-risk pregnancies due to the economic and social problems that led them to be incarcerated: poverty, lack of education, inadequate health care, and substance abuse. Lamaze educators and doulas have the opportunity to replicate model programs that provide these women and their children with support, information, and empowering affirmation that improve parenting outcomes and decrease recidivism. PMID:19252687
Bombard, Jennifer M.; Farr, Sherry L.; Dietz, Patricia M.; Tong, Van T.; Zhang, Lei; Rabius, Vance
To describe characteristics, referrals, service utilization, and self-reported quit rates among pregnant and non-pregnant women enrolled in a smoking cessation quitline. This information can be used to improve strategies to increase pregnant and non-pregnant smokers’ use of quitlines. We examined tobacco use characteristics, referral sources, and use of services among 1,718 pregnant and 24,321 non-pregnant women aged 18–44 years enrolled in quitline services in 10 states during 2006–2008. We ...
Kocaöz, Semra; Talas, Melek S; Atabekoğlu, Cem S
The aim was to investigate the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and the related risk factors as well as to assess its influence on the quality of life. Although urinary incontinence is common during pregnancy and can have a substantial impact on quality of life, women rarely seek help for this symptom. This study was designed as a cross-sectional and descriptive survey. A total of 393 pregnant women participated in the study between March and June 2007. The data was collected using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Short Form and Wagner's quality of life scale. Potential risk factors were investigated through logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 27% (106/393). Factors significantly associated with urinary incontinence included age group, parity, previous urinary incontinence, constipation, urinary incontinence in mother and sister, previous urinary incontinence during pregnancy and postpartum. According to the results of our study, urinary incontinence is common in women during pregnancy. The quality of life of pregnant women was found to be either unaffected or affected very little by urinary incontinence. This study reveals that the prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy is very high. The findings will help increase the awareness of health care workers involved in the care of pregnant women about urinary incontinence and aid the design of more intensive education programmes directed towards the prevention of urinary incontinence during pregnancy. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which can infect human and animals. Acquired toxoplasmosis during pregnancy can lead to fetal infection, which may ultimately result in loss of fetus or lesion in brain and eyes. This study was performed to evaluate the seroepidemiological status of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women in Ilam City, western Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 553 blood samples were collected from pregnant women. Sera were separated by blood centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 5 min and frozen at -20 °C until use. The samples were tested for IgG antibody by Indirect Immunoflourecence antibody test (IFA. Results: Out of the 553 pregnant women, 247 were positive for T. gondii IgG antibodies and 306 were negative. The mean age of women was 21 and the seropositive rate of latent T. gondii infection was 44.8%. Conclusion: About half of the married women in the present study were at risk of infection with T.gondii, so preventive method should be considered. Keywords: Seroepidemiology, Toxoplasmosis, IFA, Iran.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for pregnant women (IPTp-SP is currently being scaled up in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite high antenatal clinic (ANC attendance, coverage with the required two doses of SP remains low. The study investigated whether a targeted community-based promotion campaign to increase ANC attendance and SP uptake could effectively improve pregnancy outcomes in the community. Methods Between 2004 and 2006 twelve health centres in Boromo Health District, Burkina Faso were involved in this study. Four were strategically assigned to community promotion in addition to IPTp-SP (Intervention A and eight were randomly allocated to either IPTp-SP (Intervention B or weekly chloroquine (Control. Primi- and secundigravidae were enrolled at village level and thick films and packed cell volume (PCV taken at 32 weeks gestation and at delivery. Placental smears were prepared and newborns weighed. Primary outcomes were peripheral parasitaemia during pregnancy and at delivery, placental malaria, maternal anaemia, mean and low birth weight. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of women with ≥ 3 ANC visits and ≥ 2 doses of SP. Intervention groups were compared using logistic and linear regression with linearized variance estimations to correct for the cluster-randomized design. Results SP uptake (≥ 2 doses was higher with (Intervention A: 70% than without promotion (Intervention B: 49% (OR 2.45 95%CI 1.25–4.82 p = 0.014. Peripheral (33.3% and placental (30.3% parasite rates were significantly higher in the control arm compared to Intervention B (peripheral: 20.1% OR 0.50 95%CI 0.37–0.69 p = 0.001; placental: 20.5% OR 0.59 95%CI 0.44–0.78 p = 0.002 but did not differ between Intervention A (17.4%; 18.1% and Intervention B (20.1; 20.5% (peripheral: OR 0.84 95%CI 0.60–1.18 p = 0.280; placental: OR 0.86 95%CI 0.58–1.29 p = 0.430. Mean PCV and birth weight and
Myer, Landon; Essajee, Shaffiq; Broyles, Laura N; Watts, D Heather; Lesosky, Maia; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Abrams, Elaine J
Landon Myer and colleagues discuss viral load monitoring for pregnant HIV-positive women and those breastfeeding; ART treatments can suppress viral load and are key to preventing transmission to the child.
Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique
During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpartum women, and 23 healthy nonpregnant women (control group) performed gait trials on an electronic walkway at preferred speeds. The results for the three groups were compared using analysis of variance. During pregnancy, peak pressure and contact area decreased for the forefoot and rearfoot. These parameters increased significantly for the midfoot. The gait strategy seemed to be lateralization of gait with an increased contact area of the lateral midfoot and both reduced pressure and a later peak time on the medial forefoot. In the postpartum group, footprint parameters were modified compared with the pregnant group, indicating a trend toward partial return to control values, although differences persisted between the postpartum and control groups. Pregnant women had altered plantar pressures during gait. These findings could define a specific pattern of gait footprints in late pregnancy because plantar pressures had characteristics that could maintain a stable and safe gait.
Full Text Available Background: Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women. Objective: This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function Results: The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1% had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5, while only 52 (20.9% had normal sexual function (FSFI score ≥26.5. The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy
Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in South African pregnant women under Option B+: an exploratory study
Nachega, Jean B; Skinner, Donald; Jennings, Larissa; Magidson, Jessica F; Altice, Frederick L; Burke, Jessica G; Lester, Richard T; Uthman, Olalekan A; Knowlton, Amy R; Cotton, Mark F; Anderson, Jean R; Theron, Gerhard B
Objective To examine the acceptability and feasibility of mobile health (mHealth)/short message service (SMS) and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy (cDOT) as interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence for preventing mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission (PMTCT). Design and methods A mixed-method approach was used. Two qualitative focus group discussions with HIV-infected pregnant women (n=20) examined the acceptability and feasibility of two ART adherence interventions for PMTCT: 1) SMS text messaging and 2) patient-nominated cDOT supporters. Additionally, 109 HIV-infected, pregnant South African women (18–30 years old) receiving PMTCT services under single-tablet antiretroviral therapy regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding and continuing for life (“Option B+”) were interviewed about mobile phone access, SMS use, and potential treatment supporters. Setting A community primary care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants HIV-infected pregnant women. Main outcomes Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and cDOT interventions. Results Among the 109 women interviewed, individual mobile phone access and SMS use were high (>90%), and 88.1% of women were interested in receiving SMS ART adherence support messages such as reminders, motivation, and medication updates. Nearly all women (95%) identified at least one person close to them to whom they had disclosed their HIV status and would nominate as a cDOT supporter. Focus group discussions revealed that cDOT supporters and adherence text messages were valued, but some concerns regarding supporter time availability and risk of unintended HIV status disclosure were expressed. Conclusion mHealth and/or cDOT supporter as interventions to improve ART adherence are feasible in this setting. However, safe HIV status disclosure to treatment supporters and confidentiality of text messaging content about HIV and ART were deemed crucial. PMID
Salih Joelsson, L; Tydén, T; Wanggren, K; Georgakis, M K; Stern, J; Berglund, A; Skalkidou, A
Infertility has been associated with psychological distress, but whether these symptoms persist after achieving pregnancy via assisted reproductive technology (ART) remains unclear. We compared the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms between women seeking for infertility treatment and women who conceived after ART or naturally. Four hundred and sixty-eight sub-fertile non-pregnant women, 2972 naturally pregnant women and 143 women pregnant after ART completed a questionnaire in this cross-sectional study. The Anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS-A≥8) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS≥12) were used for assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms, respectively. Multivariate Poisson regression models with robust variance were applied to explore associations with anxiety and depressive symptoms. The prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among sub-fertile, non-pregnant women (57.6% and 15.7%, respectively) were significantly higher compared to women pregnant after ART (21.1% and 8.5%, respectively) and naturally pregnant women (18.8% and 10.3%, respectively). History of psychiatric diagnosis was identified as an independent risk factor for both anxiety and depressive symptoms. The presence of at least one unhealthy lifestyle behavior (daily tobacco smoking, weekly alcohol consumption, BMI≥25, and regular physical exercise<2h/week) was also associated with anxiety (Prevalence Ratio, PR: 1.24; 95%CI: 1.09-1.40) and depressive symptoms (PR: 1.25; 95%CI: 1.04-1.49). Women pregnant after ART showed no difference in anxiety and depressive symptoms compared to naturally pregnant women. However, early psychological counseling and management of unhealthy lifestyle behaviors for sub-fertile women may be advisable, particularly for women with a previous history of psychiatric diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Farmakidis, Constantine; Dayal, Ashlesha K.; Lipton, Richard B.
Objective: To characterize demographic and clinical features in pregnant women presenting with acute headache, and to identify clinical features associated with secondary headache. Methods: We conducted a 5-year, single-center, retrospective study of consecutive pregnant women presenting to acute care with headache receiving neurologic consultation. Results: The 140 women had a mean age of 29 ± 6.4 years and often presented in the third trimester (56.4%). Diagnoses were divided into primary (65.0%) and secondary (35.0%) disorders. The most common primary headache disorder was migraine (91.2%) and secondary headache disorders were hypertensive disorders (51.0%). The groups were similar in demographics, gestational ages, and most headache features. In univariate analysis, secondary headaches were associated with a lack of headache history (36.7% vs 13.2%, p = 0.0012), seizures (12.2% vs 0.0%, p = 0.0015), elevated blood pressure (55.1% vs 8.8%, p headache history (OR 4.9, 95% CI 1.7–14.5) had an increased association with secondary headache, while psychiatric comorbidity (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.021–0.78) and phonophobia (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.09–0.91) had a reduced association with secondary headache. Conclusions: Among pregnant women receiving inpatient neurologic consultation, more than one-third have secondary headache. Diagnostic vigilance should be heightened in the absence of a headache history and if seizures, hypertension, or fever are present. Attack features may not adequately distinguish primary vs secondary disorders, and low thresholds for neuroimaging and monitoring for preeclampsia are justified. PMID:26291282
Assessment of utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling as an intervention for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and associated factors among pregnant women in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of maternal HIV infection early in pregnancy is critical for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Most efforts have focused on VCT as the primary means of encouraging people to become aware of their HIV status. However, its uptake is low in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Ethiopia. Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling provides a critical opportunity to diagnose HIV infection, to begin chronic care, and to prevent mother to child transmission. However, little is known about its acceptance and associated factors among pregnant women in the country and particularly in the present study area. Methods Health institution based cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted in Gondar town from July 22-August 18, 2010. A total of 400 pregnant women were involved in the study using stratified sampling technique and multiple logistic regression analysis was employed using SPSS version 16. Results A total of 400 pregnant women actively participated in this study and 330 (82.5% of them accepted provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling to be tested for HIV and 70(17.5% of them refused. Acceptance of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling was positively associated with greater number of antenatal care visits [Adj. OR (95%CI=2.64(1.17, 5.95], residing in the urban areas[Adj. OR (95%CI=2.85(1.10, 7.41], having comprehensive knowledge on HIV [Adj. OR (95%CI=4.30(1.72, 10.73], positive partners reaction for HIV positive result [Adj. OR (95%CI=8.19(3.57, 18.80] and having knowledge on prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV[Adj. OR (95%CI=3.27(1.34, 7.94], but negatively associated with increased maternal age and education level. Conclusion Utilization of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling during antenatal care was relatively high among pregnant women in Gondar town. Couple counseling and HIV testing should be strengthened to promote provider-initiated HIV
Shan, Duo; Wang, Juan; Sun, Jiangping; Duan, Song; Guo, Yunsong
To demonstrate the effectiveness of prevention of mother-to-child HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B transmission among pregnant women in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, China from 2011 to 2013. Data were collected mainly from the continuous HIV surveillance system and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) reporting system of Dehong prefecture, and supplemented by annual reported data on HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B PMTCT to know the general demographic characteristics, HIV testing and counseling service, PMTCT service, and other medical services. Data were presented as absolute numbers and proportions. From 2011 to 2013, the number of pregnant women participating in HIV, syphilis, and hepatitis B testing in Dehong prefecture increased and the HIV testing rates were 99.2% (18 694/18 854), 99.9% (22 047/22 060) and 99.9% (21 751/21 756), the syphilis testing rates were 56.0% (10 550/18 854), 99.6% (21 980/22 060) and 99.9% (21 751/21 756), and the hepatitis B testing rates were 60.2% (11 358/18 854), 99.6% (21 974/22 060) and 99.9% (21 751/21 756). From 2011 to 2013, the HIV positive rates were 0.87% (327/37 787),0.82% (319/38 817) and 0.85% (315/37 261), the syphilis positive rates were 0.05% (10/18 520),0.12% (43/36 817) and 0.11% (40/35 888), the hepatitis B positive rates were 2.46% (456/18 520), 2.23% (794/35 547) and 2.14% (739/34 468), respectively. The rates of HIV-positive pregnant women giving birth in hospitals were 99.2% (128/129), 100.0% (141/141) and 100.0% (141/141). From 2011 to 2013, the proportions of HIV-positive pregnant women receiving antiretroviral therapy were 99.2% (128/129), 99.3% (140/141) and 99.3% (140/141), respectively. And the treatment rate of syphilis-positive pregnant women were 71% (5/7), 89% (16/18) and 97% (32/33). The rates of hepatitis B immunoglobulin injection among new-borns of hepatitis B-positive pregnant women were 92.9% (263/283), 99.7% (612/614) and 99.4% (629/633). The estimated rates of mother
Shah, Ira; Lala, Mamatha; Damania, Kaizad
Aim: Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother–to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women referr...
Melo, D.R.; Lipsztein, J.L.; Oliveira, C.A.N.; Bertelli, L.
Data from two pregnant women contaminated with 137 Cs, body burdens of 0.2 and 300 MBq, respectively at the time of the Goiania accident, were compared. The first one, with lower body burden was exposed during the fourth month of pregnancy, while the second became pregnant three years and eight months after 137 Cs intake. For the first woman 137 Cs concentrations were equal for the mother, infant and placenta, indicating an easy and homogeneous transport of 137 Cs from mother to foetus. The whole body monitoring data from the second woman, who became pregnant four years after intake, did not show a reduction in biological half-life during the pregnancy. Cs concentration in the mother was found to be 13 times higher than in the infant. One possible reason for this result is that four years after intake, Cs is supposed to be concentrated mainly in skeletal muscle tissue. During the pregnancy the blood flux becomes higher in most of the organs and tissues except brain, liver and skeletal muscle tissue. (author)
Rasmussen, Mette; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; Tønnesen, Hanne
Smoking is considered the most important preventable risk factor in relation to the development of complications during pregnancy and delivery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive 6-week gold standard programme (GSP) on pregnant women in real life....
Nnaji, G A; Ikechebelu, J I; Okafor, C I
To compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and the mean parasite density in pregnant women at first antenatal visit with those of the control subjects at Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi. A case control prospective survey using a structured questionnaire to collect data from pregnant women attending antenatal clinic between 1 April and 30 September 2001 and matched controls at the GOPD during the same period. Peripheral blood smears were examined in 420 pregnant women at their first antenatal visit and 200 control subjects to compare the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women and controls. The prevalence of parasitaemia was 79.3 percent (i.e. 333 of 420) for pregnant women and 31.5 percent (or 63 of 200) for the control. For both pregnant women and controls, an overall prevalence of 63.1 percent was observed. The study found the mean parasite density for the pregnant women to be 1978 +/- 1531 (Mean +/- SD), while that of the controls was 766 +/- 1923. This study demonstrates the higher prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and mean parasite density in pregnant women when compared with the matched controls.
Volpato, Flavia Cristina; Jeremias, Fabiano; Spolidório, Denise Madalena Palomari; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Valsecki Junior, Aylton; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oral environment stabilization (OES) on the counting of Streptococcus mutans in high-caries-risk pregnant women participants of a prevention program in a public teaching institution. The sample was composed of 30 pregnant women aged 18 to 43 years, who looked for treatment at the Preventive Dentistry Clinic of the Araraquara Dental School, UNESP. Saliva samples were collected before and after the OES procedures and were forwarded to the pathology for observation and quantification of S. mutans CFU. There was a decrease in the number of S. mutans CFU, which was significantly different (pmutans CFU in the saliva of high-caries-risk pregnant women. This management is simple and effective, corresponding to the basic treatment needs of pregnant women that search dental care in this public service.
Shields, Kristine E; Lyerly, Anne Drapkin
The lack of human data available to inform evidence-based treatment for illness during pregnancy has led to calls for greater inclusion of pregnant women in research, but the extent of their current representation is poorly characterized. Our objective was to measure the current exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials as a baseline for future comparison. We compiled data from studies enrolling women of childbearing potential posted on www.ClinicalTrials.gov between 1 October 2011 and 31 January 2012. The review was limited to open United States-based phase IV interventional studies sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry evaluating treatment of conditions that may be experienced by but are not limited to pregnant women and did not involve a medication classified as potentially teratogenic. If there was no mention of pregnancy in the inclusion or exclusion criteria, we contacted a study representative to confirm that pregnant women could be enrolled. Of 558 qualifying industry-sponsored studies, five (1%) were designed specifically for pregnant women. Of 367 phase IV clinical trials with verified inclusion and exclusion criteria, 348 (95%) excluded pregnant women and 19 (5%) did not. We found the exclusion of pregnant women from industry-sponsored clinical trials to be common practice. Moving beyond reflexive exclusion and developing thoughtful criteria for inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research would likely advance the evidence base to inform treatment decisions during pregnancy and lead to better health outcomes for women and children.
Niţulescu, Adina; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara; Bernad, Elena
The paper presents an integrated monitoring system for pregnant women in the third trimester using a mobile cardiotocograph and body sensors. The medical staff has a useful tool to detect abnormalities and prevent unfortunate events in time. The mobile cardiotocograph sends data in real time to a Smartphone that communicates the information in a cloud. The physician accesses the data using the hospital ObgGyn application. The advantage of using this system is that the pregnant woman can follow her pregnancy status evolution from home, and the physician receives alarms from the system if the data is not in normal range and has available information about the health status at any time and location.
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic elements of a healthy lifestyle is regular physical activity. Nowadays, more and more women during pregnancy take up the topic of the impact of physical activity and diet on the child developing in the womb. The existence of birth schools allows you to prepare for delivery, obtain information on acceptable safe activity adapted to the health of the future mother and ways of rational nutrition. The silhouette of women during pregnancyis constantly changing. Literature often shows the subject of a decrease in self-esteem during this period, associated with hormonal changes, appearance, fatigue and limitation of time for self-development. In the literature, we find two different positions of women about the subject of physical activity during pregnancy. The first position speaks of virtually complete limitation of activity, the second is about taking minimal activity such as before pregnancy. The aim of the study: 1 What impact on physical well-being in pregnant women and postpartum is having, 2 Is there a relationship between physical activity and pregnancy? 3 Is there a relationship between physical activity and postpartum period?, 4 What is the most common motivation to undertake physical activity after delivery? Material and methods:57 women aged 18 to 47 participated in the study. The study used an original anonymous survey of 28 questions. The questions concerned, among others: pregnancy, postnatal period, physical activity during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions: Taking physical activity during pregnancy and after childbirth influences the increase of self-esteem and well-being of women. About 25% of women surveyed did not return to physical activity a year after delivery. The basic factors influencing the activity after childbirth are the desire to improve the appearance, well-being and return to fitness which they presented before delivery.
N. V. Shperling
Full Text Available Goal. To assess the efficacy and safety of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration for the treatment of chloasma in pregnant women. Materials and methods. The study involved 28 pregnant women aged 18-36 (mean age: 24.7 with a normal course of pregnancy. The patients consulted a doctor in the spring, summer or fall complaining of focal skin hyperpigmentation on the face, chin and chest area. Ten patients (35.7% developed hyperpigmentation prior to their pregnancy and 18 women (64.3% - during the pregnancy. As of the consultation date, the pregnancy terms in all of the patients were 18-20 weeks. Chloasma was diagnosed by using dermatoscopy and skin examination with the Wood’s lamp. The patients were informed about the content and procedure of the study and gave their consent to take part in the study. Thin layers of Azelic (15% gel of azelaic acid for topical administration were applied to the hyperpigmented skin of the patients and gently rubbed twice a day (in the morning and evening as topical treatment for four months. The treatment results were assessed taking into consideration the patient’s subjective assessment, study group structure depending on the clinical efficacy, percentage of adverse events, and survey results based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire. To reveal any potential general toxicological effects of the treatment, hepatic samples, total blood count and coagulogram results were analyzed as a part of obstetrical and gynecologic care for pregnant women. Key findings. Positive dynamics of the following characteristics was revealed: subjective assessment of treatment results by the patients, clinical efficacy of treatment and life quality index. Therapeutic results were observed as early as after one month but not later than three months after the treatment began. The therapeutic efficacy was recorded in 92.9-96.4% of all cases after four months of treatment: pigment spots disappeared or
Karanci, Gülsah; Yenal, Kerziban
The purpose of this study was to examine the breastfeeding knowledge of pregnant working women and explore factors that affected their knowledge. This Turkish study included 260 healthy, working women in the last trimester of pregnancy. Two separate questionnaires developed by the researcher were used to collect data. The average knowledge score of pregnant women respondents for all questions were 6.03 ± 2.99 (range: 0 to 14). Pregnant women had the least knowledge about duration of expressing breast milk (21.9%) and safe storage conditions for breast milk (27.2%). They knew the most about methods to express breast milk (87.3%) and features of containers used to store expressed milk (80%). Study results indicated that working pregnant women need better prenatal education to continue safe breastfeeding after returning to work. Occupational health nurses should inform working pregnant women about expression and storage of breast milk during prenatal education. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Jessica R. Gorman
Conclusions: Pregnant women and postpartum women who are breastfeeding could benefit from receiving information and recommendations specific to vaccination from their healthcare providers, with a focus on discussing known risks and benefits to the baby's health.
The primary aim of this study was to explore pregnant women`s knowledge ... A qualitative, exploratory approach was used. ... Trustworthiness was ensured by considering the criteria of credibility, dependability, applicability and transferability.
Gutman, Julie; Kalilani, Linda; Taylor, Steve; Zhou, Zhiyong; Wiegand, Ryan E; Thwai, Kyaw L; Mwandama, Dyson; Khairallah, Carole; Madanitsa, Mwayi; Chaluluka, Ebbie; Dzinjalamala, Fraction; Ali, Doreen; Mathanga, Don P; Skarbinski, Jacek; Shi, Ya Ping; Meshnick, Steve; ter Kuile, Feiko O
The A581 G: mutation in the gene encoding Plasmodium falciparum dihydropteroate synthase (dhps), in combination with the quintuple mutant involving mutations in both dhps and the gene encoding dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), the so-called sextuple mutant, has been associated with increased placental inflammation and decreased infant birth weight among women receiving intermittent preventive treatment with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP) during pregnancy. Between 2009 and 2011, delivering women without human immunodeficiency virus infection were enrolled in an observational study of IPTp-SP effectiveness in Malawi. Parasites were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR); positive samples were sequenced to genotype the dhfr and dhps loci. The presence of K540 E: in dhps was used as a marker for the quintuple mutant. Samples from 1809 women were analyzed by PCR; 220 (12%) were positive for P. falciparum. A total of 202 specimens were genotyped at codon 581 of dhps; 17 (8.4%) harbored the sextuple mutant. The sextuple mutant was associated with higher risks of patent infection in peripheral blood (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82-4.18) and placental blood (aPR 3.28; 95% CI, 1.88-5.78) and higher parasite densities. Recent SP use was not associated with increased parasite densities or placental pathology overall and among women with parasites carrying dhps A581 G: . IPTp-SP failed to inhibit parasite growth but did not exacerbate pathology among women infected with sextuple-mutant parasites. New interventions to prevent malaria during pregnancy are needed urgently. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Aim: The present study was carried out to assess the level of oral health knowledge, behavior, experience and sources of oral health knowledge among pregnant women attending Kyela district hospital. Study participants and Methods: This was a hospital based Cross-sectional study among 380 pregnant women attending ...
Objective: This study evaluates the oral health knowledge and practise among pregnant women in a Nigerian population. Consecutive pregnant women attending three tertiary level of care were recruited. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to assessing socio-demographic variables, dental visiting habits, ...
Aim. To estimate the exposure to active and passive smoking of pregnant women in South Africa and to determine their knowledge and behaviour with regard to smoking during pregnancy. Methods. A questionnaire was completed by pregnant women attending antenatal services in four South African cities. Questions were ...
Objectives: To investigate Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in relation to exposure to infection risk, age and pregnancy-related risk factors. Design and Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 294 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Accra who consented to participate. Personal and Toxoplasma ...
Introduction: vitamin D insufficiency to pregnant women has been associated with a number of adverse consequences, and has been recognized as a public health concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of Morrocan pregnant women and their newborns. Our study is being the first of its kind in ...
Abstract. Background and objectives: The need to attain and maintain good oral hygiene among pregnant women cannot be over emphasized as periodontal diseases in pregnancy have been linked with poor pregnancy outcomes. This study assessed the variables that affect oral hygiene status among pregnant women in ...
van der Zande, I.S.E.
Background: There has always been a reluctance to include pregnant women in clinical research, due to a fear of harm to the foetus. At the same time, there is a need for evidence-based information on medications and treatments for pregnant women who are or become ill during their pregnancy, which
Syphilis and HIV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Republic of Congo. ... Introduction: HIV and syphilis during pregnancy remain a public health concern especially in developing countries. Pregnant women ... Marital status and sentinel site location were a risk factor associated with. HIV and ...
Urinary tract infections are the first infections in pregnant women and can cause serious complications during pregnancy. In order to improve its management in low income country like Burkina Faso, we conducted a prospect cross-sectional study, to describe its epidemiological and biological aspects in pregnant women at ...
Krishna Bahadur Raut
Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed
Knowledge and utilization of intermittent preventive treatment for malaria among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in primary health care centers in rural southwest, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study.
Akinleye, Stella O; Falade, Catherine O; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O
Intermittent preventive treatment for prevention of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) is a key component of malaria control strategy in Nigeria and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is the drug of choice. Despite the evidence of the effectiveness of IPTp strategy using SP in reducing the adverse effects of malaria during pregnancy the uptake and coverage in Nigeria is low. This study set out to assess the use of IPTp among pregnant women attending primary health centres in the rural area and determine factors that influence the uptake. A cross-sectional study was carried out between July and August 2007 among 209 pregnant women selected by systematic random sampling from antenatal care attendees at primary health care in a rural Local Government Area of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Information on knowledge of IPT, delivery, adherence and acceptability was obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as means, range, proportions were used. Chi-square test was used to examine association between categorical variables. All analyses were performed at 5% level of significance. One hundred and nine of 209 (52.2%) respondents have heard about IPTp but only 26 (23.9%) were able to define it. Fifty seven (27.3%) reported to have received at least one dose of IPTp during the index pregnancy and all were among those who have heard of IPTp (52.3%). Twenty one of the 57 (36.8%) took the SP in the clinic. Only three of the twenty-one (14.3%) were supervised by a health worker. Twenty two of the 36 women (61.1%) who did not take their drugs in the clinic would have liked to do so if allowed to bring their own drinking cups. Almost half (43.9%) of those who had used IPTp during the index pregnancy expressed concern about possible adverse effect of SP on their pregnancies. Periodic shortages of SP in the clinics were also reported. In this study, IPTp use among pregnant women was very low and there was poor adherence to the Directly Observed Therapy (DOT
Schirm, Eric; Meijer, W.M.; Tobi, H; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje Theodora Wilhelmina
Objective: To describe drug use in pregnancy, and compare drug use of pregnant women with non-pregnant women with respect to possible teratogenicity. Study design: A cross-sectional study based on pharmacy records from 1997 to 2001 was performed. Pregnant women and matched non-pregnant women (same
Sousa, Jayra Adrianna da Silva; Corrêa, Rita da Graça Carvalhal Frazão; Aquino, Dorlene Maria Cardoso de; Coutinho, Nair Portela Silva; Silva, Marcos Antonio Custódio Neto da; Nascimento, Maria do Desterro Soares Brandão
Toxoplasmosis is an infection that affects almost a third of the world population. In adults, it is often asymptomatic, although having important manifestation in children- infected by placental transmission. The prenatal is an important moment, requiring actions in women's care during pregnancy, in order to prevent diseases that could compromise the mother and the child's life. This is a descriptive study of qualitative approach aimed to understand the perception of nurses and pregnant women about toxoplasmosis during primary - prenatal care. The study was conducted in five selected primary health care units, in the municipality of São Luis - MA. The sample consisted of 15 nurses working in nursing consultation and 15 pregnant women attended in prenatal care. For data collection, a semi-structured questionnaire and an interview guide covering issues related to knowledge and conduct on toxoplasmosis were used. For analysis, the content analysis technique was used. The answers were transcribed, organized and grouped thematically, where the following categories emerged: knowledge about examination requests; knowledge about toxoplasmosis; guidance during prenatal consultation; knowledge of nurses about the avidity test; procedures and guidelines on reagent cases. Pregnant women showed unawareness about toxoplasmosis and its effects. Nurses, although having basic knowledge about the subject, showed little applicability regarding pregnant women's guidance. The nurse plays an important role in educational activities regarding pregnant women, contributing to the quality of prenatal care. Pregnant women were shown to have some knowledge about toxoplasmosis, although they said they did not have assurance about prevention.
Minkoff, Howard; Paltrow, Lynn M
At times, obstetricians are called upon to assist pregnant women in making clinical choices between options that may selectively disadvantage either the mother or the fetus. If a mother chooses a therapeutic course that disadvantages the fetus the physician may feel distressed. In this paper we argue that the choices made by mothers are almost always in the interests of the fetus, and supported by physicians. When there is disagreement it is often due to poor communication. While acknowledging that the rare circumstances in which the physician and patient wish to pursue different clinical paths can be stressful for the provider, we explain why obstetricians should accept the judgment of their patient in all instances. Finally, we will maintain that positing a choice between maternal and fetal interests is, in fact, creating a false choice, in as much as options are presented as being exclusive, when in fact that is not the case.
Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Mbonigaba, Josue; Kaye, Sylvia Blanche
HIV/AIDS impacts significantly on pregnant women and on children in Ethiopia. This impact has a multiplier effect on household economies and on productivity losses, and is expected to vary across rural and urban settings. Applying the human capital approach to data collected from 131 respondents, this study estimated productivity losses per HIV-positive pregnant woman-infant pair across urban and rural health facilities in Ethiopia, which in turn were used to estimate the national productivity loss. The study found that the annual productivity loss per woman-infant pair was Ethiopian birr (ETB) 7,433 or United States dollar (US$) 378 and ETB 625 (US$ 32) in urban and rural settings, respectively. The mean patient days lost per year due to inpatient admission at hospitals/health centres was 11 in urban and 22 in rural health facilities. On average, urban home care-givers spent 20 (SD = 21) days annually providing home care services, while their rural counterparts spent 23 days (SD = 26). The productivity loss accounted for 16% and 7% of household income in urban and rural settings, respectively. These high and varying productivity losses require preventive interventions that are appropriate to each setting to ensure the welfare of women and children in Ethiopia.
Lima E Silva, Janiny; Ferreira, Elizângela da Fonseca; Medeiros, Marcielle; Araújo, Maristela Lopes; Silva, Ana Gabriela Câmara Batista da; Viana, Elizabel de Souza Ramalho
to evaluate psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy by translating and cross-culturally adapting a specific assessment instrument to be used with Brazilian women. this was a cross-sectional observational study. the translation and cross-cultural adaptation and of the Prenatal Self-evaluation Questionnaire (PSeQ) was performed following all the required methodological steps. another questionnaire was applied to characterize the sociodemographic and clinical status of the pregnant women (n=36). Statistical analysis consisted of the determination of the mean and standard deviation (SD) and of absolute and relative frequency. the statistical test used for the analysis of internal consistency was Cronbach's alpha coefficient, using SPSS version 17.0. the volunteers were of low socioeconomic status, aged on average 25.1 years ( 5.5), and had an average gestational age of 25.9 weeks ( 8.1). 58.3% of these volunteers had not planned their current pregnancy. the pretest showed that 75% of the pregnant women found the questionnaire easy to understand. Regarding the PSeQ instrument, the identification with the maternal role was the subcategory which showed the highest average, 24.8 ( 5.6), while the relationship with the mother had the lowest average 15.4 ( 7.7). the internal consistency ranged from 0.52 to 0.89. the assessment of psychosocial adaptation to pregnancy in pregnant women is very important during the progress of pregnancy and permits intervention through obstetric-neonatal actions of promotion and prevention regarding the well-being of mother and child.
Li, Chunrong; Yang, Liu; Kong, Jinwang
The spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in the worldwide trend is not contained effectively. The pregnant women infected HIV seriously in the high HIV epidemic areas in China. The transmission of HIV to child may be cut off if HIV positive mother was found early by HIV testing. Pregnant women mandatorily received the HIV counseling and testing services. Most of them did not know the knowledge about HIV prevention and were not willing to receive HIV testing actively. Willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women was investigated, which can help to promote them to take up HIV testing actively. This study assessed the prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing and cognitive factors associated with it. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to 500 pregnant women via face-to-face interviews with anonymous structured questionnaire guided by the Health Belief Model (HBM). The prevalence of the willingness for HIV testing was 58.60%. Perceived higher susceptibility to HIV (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (ORm) = 2.02, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-5.06), more knowledge for HIV (ORm = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.11-3.87) and perceived less social stigma (ORm = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.34-0.91) were associated with higher willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women. To prevent HIV mother to children transmission, it is necessary to enhance knowledge for HIV, change cognitive factors and increase willingness for HIV testing among pregnant women.
Green, Michael D.; van Eijk, Annemieke M.; ter Kuile, Feiko O. van; Ayisi, John G.; Parise, Monica E.; Kager, Piet A.; Nahlen, Bernard L.; Steketee, Richard; Nettey, Henry
BACKGROUND: Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) is among the most commonly used antimalarial drugs during pregnancy, yet the pharmacokinetics of SP are unknown in pregnant women. HIV-infected (HIV(+)) women require more frequent doses of intermittent preventive therapy with SP than do HIV-uninfected
Frederick Olusegun Akinbo
Full Text Available Background: Trichomonas vaginalis has been recognized as a cosmopolitan parasite of male and female genital tract. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic trichomoniasis among pregnant women in Benin City, Edo State. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 patients and subjects consisting of 250 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics and 50 non-pregnant apparently healthy subjects who served as controls were recruited in this study. The age ranged from 20 to 40 years. High vaginal swab was collected from each participant and T. vaginalis was diagnosed by microscopy. Results: An overall prevalence of 2.8% of trichomoniasis was observed among pregnant women. Gestational age and educational status of pregnant women were significantly associated with the prevalence of trichomoniasis. Conclusion: Asymptomatic T. vaginalis infection is common in pregnancy. We recommend routine screening for this infection in order to reduce the potential adverse pregnancy outcomes.
Kuizon, M D; Natera, M G; Ancheta, L P; Platon, T P; Reyes, G D; Macapinlac, M P
The hemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy in Filipinos belonging to the upper income group, who were prescribed 105 mg elemental iron daily, and who had acceptable levels of transferrin saturation, were examined in an attempt to define normal levels. The hemoglobin concentrations for each trimester followed a Gaussian distribution. The hemoglobin values equal to the mean minus one standard deviation were 11.4 gm/dl for the first trimester and 10.4 gm/dl for the second and third trimesters. Using these values as the lower limits of normal, in one group of pregnant women the prevalence of anemia during the last two trimesters was found lower than that obtained when WHO levels for normal were used. Groups of women with hemoglobin of 10.4 to 10.9 gm/dl (classified anemic by WHO criteria but normal in the present study) and those with 11.0 gm/dl and above could not be distinguished on the basis of their serum ferritin levels nor on the degree of decrease in their hemoglobin concentration during pregnancy. Many subjects in both groups, however, had serum ferritin levels less than 12 ng/ml which indicate poor iron stores. It might be desirable in future studies to determine the hemoglobin cut-off point that will delineate subjects who are both non-anemic and adequate in iron stores using serum ferritin levels as criterion for the latter.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity may reduce the risk of adverse maternal outcomes, yet there are very few studies that have examined the correlates of exercise amongst obese women during pregnancy. We examined which relevant sociodemographic, obstetric, and health behaviour variables and pregnancy symptoms were associated with exercise in a small sample of obese pregnant women. Methods This was a secondary analysis using data from an exercise intervention for the prevention of gestational diabetes in obese pregnant women. Using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ, 50 obese pregnant women were classified as "Exercisers" if they achieved ≥900 kcal/wk of exercise and "Non-Exercisers" if they did not meet this criterion. Analyses examined which relevant variables were associated with exercise status at 12, 20, 28 and 36 weeks gestation. Results Obese pregnant women with a history of miscarriage; who had children living at home; who had a lower pre-pregnancy weight; reported no nausea and vomiting; and who had no lower back pain, were those women who were most likely to have exercised in early pregnancy. Exercise in late pregnancy was most common among tertiary educated women. Conclusions Offering greater support to women from disadvantaged backgrounds and closely monitoring women who report persistent nausea and vomiting or lower back pain in early pregnancy may be important. The findings may be particularly useful for other interventions aimed at reducing or controlling weight gain in obese pregnant women.
Fitch, W.L.; King, J.C.
Protein turnover was studied in nine non-pregnant (NP) women, eight pregnant (P) and two gestational diabetic (GDM) women. Whole body protein turnover, synthesis and catabolism rates were measured using a single oral dose of 15 N-glycine followed by measurement of enrichment of urinary ammonia. Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion was measured for three consecutive days, including the day of the protein turnover study. Whole body protein turnover and synthesis rates did not differ between the P and NP women, although the synthesis rates tended to be higher in the P group. Gestational diabetic women appeared to have considerably higher rates of both turnover and synthesis. Pregnant women excreted significantly more urinary 3MH than did non-pregnant women. GDM women appeared to have lower 3MH excretion than the P women. Correlation between 3MH excretion and protein turnover rates was nearly significant (p = .06) in the NP women, but was poorly correlated (p = .43) in the P women, suggesting that muscles may be a less important site of whole body protein turnover in pregnancy than in the non-pregnant state
Lopez, Elena N.; Simmons, Vani Nath; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Meade, Cathy D.; Chirikos, Thomas N.; Brandon, Thomas H.
The development of smoking cessation and relapse-prevention interventions for pregnant and postpartum women is a public health priority. However, researchers have consistently reported substantial difficulty in accruing this population into clinical trials. The problem is particularly acute for relapse-prevention studies, which must recruit women who have already quit smoking because of their pregnancy. Although an important target for tobacco control efforts, these individuals represent an e...
Elsafi, Salah H; Al-Mutairi, Wasaef F; Al-Jubran, Khalid M; Abu Hassan, Mohamed M; Al Zahrani, Eidan M
The epidemiological importance of the different routes of Toxoplasma gondii transmission is not known and depends largely on population behaviour and knowledge. This study was conducted to assess toxoplasmosis seropositivity and the related knowledge and preventive practices that are necessary for the prevention of the disease among pregnant women. All pregnant women attending antenatal clinic were tested for T. gondii immunoglobulins followed by a survey questionnaire that tested their knowledge and preventive practice. Statistical comparisons were made between the seropositive and negative ones. We determined a low to moderate seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis among pregnant women in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia as compared to many other parts of the world. The overall positivity rates of IgG and IgM against T. gondii among 400 pregnant women were 28.5 and 3%, respectively. 75.5% of the participants had never heard about toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors. Lack of knowledge was associated with the higher risk of infection (OR = 4.04, p restaurants was reported for the first time to be related to a higher risk of infection (OR = 2.69, p < 0.001). Several possible risk factors were suggested through odds ratios calculation and overall knowledge of toxoplasmosis by pregnant women was poor. It is therefore vital to provide a formal education about toxoplasmosis risk factors to women of childbearing age.
Numanović, Fatima; Smajlović, Jasmina; Gegić, Merima; Delibegović, Zineta; Bektaš, Sabaheta; Halilović, Emir; Nurkić, Jasmina
Aim To determine the prevalence rate and resistance profile of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in vaginal swabs of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women in the Tuzla region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H), as well as its association with other aerobic bacteria. Methods This prospective study included 200 women, 100 pregnant and 100 adult non-pregnant. The research was conducted at the Institute of Microbiology, University Clinical Center Tuzla from October to December 2015. Standard aerobic microbiological techniques were used for isolation and identification of S. agalactiae and other aerobic bacteria. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk diffusion and microdilution method(VITEK 2/AES instrument). Results Among 200 vaginal swabs, 17 (8.50%) were positive for S. agalactiae, e. g., 7% (7/100) of pregnant and 10% (10/100) of adult non-pregnant women. In the pregnant group, 71.4% (5/7) of S. agalactiae isolates were susceptible to clindamycin and 85.7%(6/7) to erythromycin. In the adult non-pregnant group, only resistance to clindamycin was observed in one patient (1/10; 10%). S. agalactiae as single pathogen was isolated in 57.14% (4/7) of pregnant and 60% (6/10) of adult non-pregnant S. agalactiae positive women. In mixed microbial cultures S. agalactiae was most frequently associated with Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. Conclusion The rate of S. agalactiae positive women in the population of pregnant and adult non-pregnant women of Tuzla Canton, B&H is comparable with other European countries. Large studies are needed to develop a common national strategy for the prevention of S. agalactiae infection in B&H, especially during pregnancy. Copyright© by the Medical Assotiation of Zenica-Doboj Canton.
Hiro M. Obaid
Cytomegalovirus, Rubella and Toxoplasma are prevalent among pregnant women in Kirkuk city and probably they are the causative agents of abortion and infertility found among them, therefore it's better for pregnant woman or those planning to become pregnant to be tested for TORCH infections, and vaccinated against Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, Herpes simplex virus and Toxoplasma to grantee her health as well as her baby.
Renault, Kristina M; Nørgaard, Kirsten; Nilas, Lisbeth
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess physical activity intervention assessed by a pedometer with or without dietary intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) in obese pregnant women by comparing with a control group. STUDY DESIGN: This study was a randomized controlled trial...... of 425 obese pregnant women comparing 3 groups: (1) PA plus D, physical activity and dietary intervention (n = 142); (2) PA, physical activity intervention (n = 142); and (3) C, a control group receiving standard care (n = 141). All participants routinely in gestational weeks 11-14 had an initial dietary......-up reduced GWG compared with controls in obese pregnant women....
Dufloth, Rozany Mucha; Vieira, Luiz Fernando Fonseca; Xavier Júnior, José Candido Caldeira; Vale, Diama Bhadra; Zeferino, Luiz Carlos
To compare the frequency of an ASCUS Pap Smear result in pregnant and non-pregnant women, stratified by age group. We analyzed the results of 1,336,180 cytopathologyc exams of Pap smears performed between 2000 and 2009 (ten years) with the purpose of screening for cervical carcinoma. Comparisons were made between pregnant and non-pregnant women, and the sample was stratified into three age groups (20-24, 25-29 and 30-34 years). The χ2 test was used and the magnitude of association was determined by the by Odds Ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95%CI). A Total of 447,489 samples were excluded on the basis of the criteria adopted, for a total final sample of 37,137 pregnant women and 851,554 non-pregnant women. An ASCUS result was detected in 1.2% of cases, with a significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant women in the age groups of 20-24 years (OR=0.85; 95%CI 0.75-0.97) and 25-29 years (OR=0.78; 95%CI 0.63-0.96). There was no difference in the group between 30-34 years (OR=0.76; 95%CI 0.57-1.03). This study suggested that non-pregnant women have a higher frequency of ASCUS, most evident in the age group of 20 to 29 years. The collection of cervical cancer screening should not be a compulsory part of the prenatal routine.
Ailes, Elizabeth C; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Gill, Simerpal K; Broussard, Cheryl S; Crider, Krista S; Berry, Robert J; Carter, Tonia C; Hobbs, Charlotte A; Interrante, Julia D; Reefhuis, Jennita
Previous studies noted associations between birth defects and some antibiotics (e.g., nitrofurantoin, sulfonamides) but not others (e.g., penicillins). It is unclear if previous findings were due to antibiotic use, infections, or chance. To control for potential confounding by indication, we examined associations between antibiotic use and birth defects, among women reporting urinary tract infections (UTIs). The National Birth Defects Prevention Study is a multi-site, population-based case-control study. Case infants/fetuses have any of over 30 major birth defects and controls are live-born infants without major birth defects. We analyzed pregnancies from 1997 to 2011 to estimate the association between maternally reported periconceptional (month before conception through the third month of pregnancy) use of nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, or cephalosporins and specific birth defects, among women with periconceptional UTIs. Women with periconceptional UTIs who reported penicillin use served as the comparator. Periconceptional UTIs were reported by 7.8% (2029/26,068) of case and 6.7% (686/10,198) of control mothers. Most (68.2% of case, 66.6% of control mothers) also reported antibiotic use. Among 608 case and 231 control mothers reporting at least one periconceptional UTI and certain antibiotic use, compared with penicillin, nitrofurantoin use was associated with oral clefts in the offspring (adjusted odds ratio, 1.97 [95% confidence interval, 1.10-3.53]), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use with esophageal atresia (5.31 [1.39-20.24]) and diaphragmatic hernia (5.09 [1.20-21.69]), and cephalosporin use with anorectal atresia/stenosis (5.01 [1.34-18.76]). Periconceptional exposure to some antibiotics might increase the risk for certain birth defects. However, because individual birth defects are rare, absolute risks should drive treatment decisions.Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:940-949, 2016.© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals
Sande, John Hafu; Kaseje, Dan; Nyapada, Linet; Owino, Victor O
Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in tropical and subtropical regions, affecting mostly the impoverished sections of the population. Pregnant women living in malaria-endemic areas are at higher risk of malaria infection with higher density of parasitaemia than non-pregnant women. The aim of this study was to assess factors affecting the uptake of IPT among women attending antenatal clinics at Bondo District Hospital, Western Kenya. This study was a hospital-based cross-sectional survey among pregnant women attending clinics. Malaria is endemic in Bondo district. Both women from Bondo town (urban) and greater Bondo District (rural) who had been pregnant for at least 35 weeks or had delivered not more than 6 weeks prior to the survey), and had ANC cards were included in the study. The main outcomes were ANC attendance, IPT doses received and client and provider factors. Results showed that women's knowledge on ANC and IPT was high. The uptake of IPT was low among pregnant women with those from urban areas more likely to make more ANC visits and to get more IPT doses than women from the rural areas. ANC attendance was hampered by the fear of being tested for HIV at the clinic. Perceived side effects associated with IPT-SP hindered IPT uptake and were linked to HIV-related symptoms. Negative attitude among health workers towards pregnant women also adversely impacted IPT uptake. Women suggested that IPT drugs be distributed through community health workers instead of the health facility for improved uptake. Retraining of health workers on the administration of IPT, harmonization of health messages, and assessment of alternative community-based IPT distribution channels ought to be urgently considered. More evidence on the influence of HIV pandemic on perceptions and attitudes toward and uptake of other health interventions is urgently needed.
Full Text Available Introduction. Monitoring of the environmental differences in the mode of nutrition is especially important in pregnant women, for whom normal body weight gain is especially important for both the course of pregnancy and the normal development of the foetus, and is inseparably associated with rational nutrition. Objective. The objective of the study was evaluation of the mode of nutrition of pregnant women according to the place of residence. Materials and methods. The investigation comprised 704 women. Information was collected by means of an anonymous survey concerning place of residence, consumption of selected products and beverages, and taking folic acid and other vitamin and/or mineral dietary supplements. Results. In the urban environment, pregnant women more frequently consumed vegetables, milk and dairy products, sea fish and wholemeal cereal products, drank more liquids, as well as more fruit and/or vegetable juices, and more often used the supplementation with folic acid, even before becoming pregnant. No significant differences were found in the consumption of fruits, pulses, products which are the source of complete proteins, confectionery products and sweets, according to the place of residence. Conclusions. The diet of pregnant women from the rural environment compared to that of women from urban areas, was characterized by worse quality. It is necessary to carry out health education in the area of adequate nutrition among pregnant women, and those who plan pregnancy, directed primarily to all women from the rural environment.
Wang, Chen; Wei, Yumei; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yue; Xu, Qianqian; Sun, Yiying; Su, Shiping; Zhang, Li; Liu, Chunhong; Feng, Yaru; Shou, Chong; Guelfi, Kym J; Newnham, John P; Yang, Huixia
Obesity and being overweight are becoming epidemic, and indeed, the proportion of such women of reproductive age has increased in recent times. Being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy is a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus, and increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome for both mothers and their offspring. Furthermore, the combination of gestational diabetes mellitus with obesity/overweight status may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to either factor alone. Regular exercise has the potential to reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus and can be used during pregnancy; however, its efficacy remain controversial. At present, most exercise training interventions are implemented on Caucasian women and in the second trimester, and there is a paucity of studies focusing on overweight/obese pregnant women. We sought to test the efficacy of regular exercise in early pregnancy to prevent gestational diabetes mellitus in Chinese overweight/obese pregnant women. This was a prospective randomized clinical trial in which nonsmoking women age >18 years with a singleton pregnancy who met the criteria for overweight/obese status (body mass index 24≤28 kg/m 2 ) and had an uncomplicated pregnancy at exercise or a control group. Patients did not have contraindications to physical activity. Patients allocated to the exercise group were assigned to exercise 3 times per week (at least 30 min/session with a rating of perceived exertion between 12-14) via a cycling program begun within 3 days of randomization until 37 weeks of gestation. Those in the control group continued their usual daily activities. Both groups received standard prenatal care, albeit without special dietary recommendations. The primary outcome was incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. From December 2014 through July 2016, 300 singleton women at 10 weeks' gestational age and with a mean prepregnancy body mass index of 26.78 ± 2.75 kg/m 2 were
As a pregnant woman, you may have questions about Zika. Learn more about what Zika is, what it means for pregnant women, and how you can protect your pregnancy. Created: 6/13/2016 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD). Date Released: 6/13/2016.
Objective: To assess the knowledge and use of herbal medicines among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at Kiryandongo general hospital. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: Kiryandongo general hospital in Masindi District, mid-western Uganda. Subjects: Four hundred (400) pregnant ...
Full Text Available Sleep problems are common complaints among pregnant women. This study was designed to compare subjective sleep problems in non-pregnancy condition, healthy and preeclamptic pregnancy as a major complication of pregnancy. We hypothesized that some sleep problems are more prevalent in females with preeclampsia.In this cross-sectional study, 102 women with preeclampsia, 106 healthy pregnant women in the third trimester and 103 healthy non-pregnant women were selected through random sampling. Age and parity were matched in the three groups. We used Global sleep assessment questionnaire (GSAQ to check the subjective sleep problems, and then we performed statistical analysis using Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Pearson Chi-square tests.Our findings revealed significant differences in initial insomnia (p = 0.034, fragmented sleep (p = 0.022, snoring (p<0.001, non-idiopathic insomnia (p = 0.045 and sadness and anxiety (p = 0.001 between the three groups. Some sleep problems were more common in preeclampctic compared to healthy pregnant women including initial insomnia, fragmented sleep, snoring, sleep apnea and non-idiopathic insomnia. Moreover, the subjects with preeclampsia revealed more fragmented sleep, snoring, sadness and anxiety and lack of getting enough sleep due to other activities compared to non-pregnant women.Different kinds of sleep problems can occur in subjects with preeclampsia in comparison with the non-pregnant and healthy pregnant subjects. Sleep problems should be evaluated during pregnancy, particularly in pregnant women with preeclampsia, and suitable treatment should be provided for any specific sleep problem.
Full Text Available The research goal is to study clinical and immunological features of parodentium and cytokine profile in oral cavity of pregnant women. The condition of parodentium tissues was studied at 200 women with physiological pregnancy and 300 women with pregnancy complicated by gestosis. According to the results of examination 50 women with gestosis and 50 women with physiological pregnancy had inflammatory periodontal diseases. Phenotyping of lymphocytes by immunofluorescence method, investigation of necrosis containing factor of tumour-a, interleukin-8, interleukin-4 and transforming growth factor beta-1 in oral cavity by immunofermental analysis were performed. Frequency and character of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnancy were defined. Correlation of gingivitis and periodontitis at pregnancy with extragenital pathology was demonstrated. Immune and cytokine disbalance contributed greatly to pathogenesis of inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women. Thus pathogenesis of oral hygiene, smoking, gestosis, immunosuppression and cytokine disbalance affects inflammatory periodontal diseases at pregnant women
Agnes O Umoh
Full Text Available Background: Pregnant women seek preventive, interventional and rehabilitative oral health-care for their oral health and protection of their fetus and babies after delivery. The objective of the study was to determine the Nigerian Dentist′s knowledge, attitude and belief pertaining to the oral health-care of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional of Nigerian dentist was conducted between June and December, 2011 using Huebner et al., modified dentist′s attitude to the pregnant women questionnaire Results: The overall response rate of 92.5% (149/160. Receipt of continuing medical education (CME was reported among the participants on periodontal disease of pregnant patients (22.1%, oral hygiene of pregnant patients (20.1%, early childhood caries (35.6% and general dental problem (51.0%. The majority (92.6% agreed that Dentists have the skill to counsel pregnant patients, But only 73.8% of them provided oral hygiene instruction frequently to pregnant patients and even fewer (6.0% were involved in educational advice on oral health for young women. Many of the participants agreed that counseling pregnant patients about periodontal disease and its effect on the developing baby is of utmost importance. Participants also dominantly agreed that dental treatment should be part of prenatal care and 97.3% of them opined that physician recommendation will increase the likelihood of pregnant seeking dental care. More than half (56.4% of the participants reported that Dentists should be concerned about being sued if something goes wrong with the pregnancy. The recommended ways to improve oral health-care of pregnant women among the participants were through CME (92.6%, provision of educational materials on oral health-care of pregnant women (93.3% and information on ways to counsel pregnant women (98.0%. Conclusion: Data from this study revealed high preparedness, positive attitude and favorable disposition in dental care provision for
Full Text Available Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Results: Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Conclusions: Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory.
Gaszyńska, Ewelina; Klepacz-Szewczyk, Justyna; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Garus-Pakowska, Anna; Szatko, Franciszek
The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Determinants, financed by the Ministry of Health. This socio-epidemiological study assessed oral health status and dental health awareness, which affects that status. Study subjects included 1380 pregnant women at the age ranging from 15 to 44, randomly-selected from urban and rural environments. Dental health status was recorded in the clinical examination sheets supplied by the World Health Organization, and the socio-medical data were recorded in the questionnaire interview sheets. Almost 3/4 of the pregnant women evaluated their dental health as unsatisfactory or poor. Over 60% of the pregnant women rated their knowledge and practical skills concerning care of their own teeth and of the child to be born as limited, inadequate or none. Only 40% of the pregnant women provided right answers to the questions about dental issues. Low oral health awareness results in poor oral health status of the study subjects. A statistical pregnant woman has a total of 13 teeth showing the symptoms of tooth decay or caries. Over 70% of the pregnant women developed gingivitis or periodontitis. There is an urgent need in Poland to make the European principle of treating pregnant women as a dentally vulnerable group obligatory. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. “Cariogram” takes into account interactions between caries-related factors and expresses a graphic assessment of the caries risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between caries risk and different variables of Cariogram in pregnant women. Methods. This study included 96 pregnant women. At baseline, data on general health, diet, oral hygiene, and fluoride exposure were obtained. DMFT (decayed, missing, and filled teeth index was calculated by clinical examination. Saliva analyses included mutans streptococci and lactobacilli counts, buffer capacity, and secretion rate. Scores were entered and caries risk was assessed. The women were divided into five groups according to their Cariogram caries risk. Results. The results of the study showed that 29.17% (28 of the pregnant women had high caries risk, 21.88% (21 – medium, 17.71% (17 – low, 16.67% (16 – very high, and 14.58% (14 – very low caries risk. In an average caries risk profile of pregnant women, the dominant sector was “Bacteria” (18.85% of the risk structure profile, followed by “Diet” (17.97%, “Circumstances” (15.68%, and “Susceptibility” sector (14.65%. Conclusion. Cariogram shows that pregnant women in Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina, had 46.14% chance of avoiding caries in the future. The Cariogram model can successfully determine caries risk profiles for pregnant women.
Käser, Annina K.; Arguin, Paul M.; Chiodini, Peter L.; Smith, Valerie; Delmont, Jean; Jiménez, Beatriz C.; Färnert, Anna; Kimura, Mikio; Ramharter, Michael; Grobusch, Martin P.; Schlagenhauf, Patricia
Summary Background Data on imported malaria in pregnant women are scarce. Method A retrospective, descriptive study of pooled data on imported malaria in pregnancy was done, using data from 1977 to 2014 from 8 different collaborators in Europe, the United States and Japan. Most cases were from the period 1991–2014. National malaria reference centresas well as specialists on this topic were asked to search their archives for cases of imported malaria in pregnancy. A total of 632 cases were collated, providing information on Plasmodium species, region of acquisition, nationality, country of residence, reason for travel, age, gestational age, prophylactic measures and treatment used, as well as on complications and outcomes in mother and child. Results Datasets from some sources were incomplete. The predominant Plasmodium species was P. falciparum in 72% of cases. Among the 543 cases where information on the use of chemoprophylaxis was known, 471 (74.5%) did not use chemoprophylaxis or used incorrect or incomplete chemoprophylaxis. The main reason for travelling was “visiting friends and relatives” VFR (48.6%) and overall, most cases of malaria were imported from West Africa (85.9%). Severe anaemia was the most frequent complication in the mother. Data on offspring outcome was limited, but spontaneous abortion was a frequently reported foetal outcome (n = 14). A total of 50 different variants of malaria treatment regimens were reported. Conclusion Imported cases of malaria in pregnancy are mainly P. falciparum acquired in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria prevention and treatment in pregnant travellers is a challenge for travel medicine due to few data on medication safety and maternal and foetal outcomes. International, collaborative efforts are needed to capture standardized data on imported malaria cases in pregnant women. PMID:26227740
I. R. Gaisin
Full Text Available Aim. To assess the efficacy of specialized management of pregnant women with cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the Udmurt Republic (UR of Russia.Material and methods. In prospective and retrospective study we investigated pregnancy outcomes in all 17948 women in management system created for pregnant patients with CVD in the UR from 2000 to 2007. The system comprises specialized outpatient and inpatient departments and an obstetric hospital within the regional cardiological centre. Pregnant women had different CVD including hypertension, congenital and rheumatic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, noncoronary myocardial disease, disorders and autoimmune diseases of connective tissue, etc.Results. Perinatal mortality decreased by 41,1% from 11,2‰ in 2000 to 6,6‰ in 2007. During 8 years, no one woman died.Conclusion. The management system for pregnant women with CVD within the regional cardiological clinic makes it possible to reduce of maternal and perinatal mortality rates significantly.
Keyword: Prevalence, Malarial Parasite, Pregnant Women, Kano. INTRODUCTION ... protective semi-immunity against plasmodium falciparum is acquired during the first 10-. 15 years of life and .... hiding place for the mosquito? It is therefore ...
Dec 2, 2012 ... of pregnant women in General Hospital Kiru, Kiru. Local Government .... AACC, American Association for Clinical Chemistry,. 2012. ... Animal. Reproductive Science. 72: pp. 235. Das, S. C. and Isechei, U. P. (1996). Serum ...
Malaria is still a major health problem during pregnancy in Ihiala Local Government Area ... Knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of pregnant women on malaria, ... Oral interviews and observations were used to retrieve information from the ...
making, and practices among HIV-positive pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at ... HIV/AIDS continues to be a major public health challenge, as it directly and ..... Community groups conduct nutrition education for HIV- positive people.
Oct 4, 2013 ... Key words: Enugu, falls, Nigeria, pregnant women, prevalence, risk factors .... in which someone is paid some wages (salary) at specific intervals, for example .... initiated the process of filling the existing gap on falls during.
Prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen among pregnant women attending antenatal ... Majigo Mtebe, Nyambura Moremi, Jeremiah Seni, Stephen E. Mshana. Abstract. In developing countries there is no routine screening of hepatitis B virus ...
Sep 1, 2014 ... Subjects: Four hundred and seventeen (417) pregnant women attending antenatal care ... convenience of opening hours at ANC facility, commuting distance from home to ... identifying maternal education, employment, age,.
Perceived stress and anxiety among Ghanaian pregnant women. ... Abstract. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of stress and anxiety, as well as the association that exists between stress/anxiety and ... from 32 Countries:.
bacterial infections in the elderly but also the most common and ... For pregnant women, urinary tract infection is the most common ... causing arthropathy in children. Urinary tract ... resistance in our environment, resistance such as β-. Urinary ...
Decline in the prevalence HIV among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Tanzania, 2001-2011. ... Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (2017) > ... as age, marital status, parity, education level and duration of stay at present residence.
Perinatal outcomes in pregnant women presenting with preterm premature rupture of membranes at a ... Journal Home > Vol 23, No 2 (2017) > ... in sepsis rates, the need for ventilation and the duration of hospital stay between the two groups.
Buchanan House, Glasgow Caledonian University Email: Caroline. ... exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's perceptions of ..... sometimes you stay for the whole day.
used to manage anaemia and for child development and good health among the pregnant women. ... Keywords: Medicinal Plants, Antenatal, Traditional Birth Attendants, Uganda. Résumé ..... phenomenon, possibly due to their availability and.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Engeland, Christopher G; Garfield, Lindsey; Templin, Thomas N
African American women are more likely to be exposed to racial discrimination and to experience psychological distress compared with white women. Although studies have shown that social support is positively related to psychological wellbeing, little is known about the potential buffering effect of social support on the relationship between racial discrimination and psychological wellbeing of pregnant women. The purpose of this study was to determine if social support moderates effects of racial discrimination on psychological wellbeing among pregnant African American women. Using a cross-sectional design, 107 African American women between 15 and 26 weeks gestation from an urban university-based midwifery practice completed questionnaires. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also reported lower levels of social support and psychological wellbeing (p discrimination have negative effects on psychological wellbeing of pregnant African American women regardless of their levels of social support. However, social support can reduce psychological distress and improve wellbeing of pregnant women. Therefore, nurses need to provide pregnant women with positive and supportive experiences that may improve their psychological wellbeing.
Dangor, Ziyaad; Nunes, Marta C; Kwatra, Gaurav; Lala, Sanjay G; Madhi, Shabir A
The prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV has resulted in reduced burden of pediatric HIV-infection, but the prevalence of maternal HIV infection remains high in sub-Saharan African countries. HIV-exposed-uninfected infants have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases than HIV-unexposed infants, particularly during the first six months of life, which in part might be due to lower levels of pathogen-specific protective antibodies acquired transplacentally from their mothers. This could be mitigated by vaccinating pregnant women to boost antibody levels; although vaccine responses among HIV-infected pregnant women might differ compared to HIV-uninfected women. We reviewed studies that compared natural and vaccine-induced antibody levels to different epitopes between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Most studies reported lower baseline/pre-vaccination antibody levels in HIV-infected pregnant women, which may not be reversed by antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy. There were only few studies on vaccination of HIV-infected pregnant women, mainly on influenza virus and group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaccines. Immunogenicity studies on influenza vaccines indicated that HIV-infected pregnant women had lower vaccine induced hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers and a decreased likelihood of seroconversion compared to HIV-uninfected women; and while higher CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels were associated with better immune responses to vaccination, HIV viral load was not associated with responses. Furthermore, infants born to influenza vaccinated HIV-infected pregnant women also had lower antibody levels and a lower proportion of HIV-exposed infants had titers above the putative correlate of protection compared to HIV-unexposed infants. The immunogenicity of a CRM 197 -conjugated trivalent GBS vaccine was also lower in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to HIV-uninfected women, irrespective of CD4+ T
Occupational health physicians often face the problem of whether to keep pregnant women at work in hospitals where they risk exposure to ionizing radiation. Current legislation requires that doctors ensure a certain level of safety for the embryo and the fetus. The current rules are unsatisfactory, however, because women are not obliged to declare that they are pregnant until the third month, which is one month past the period when he fetus is most sensitive to ionizing radiation. (author). 15 refs
Flynn, Angela C; Dalrymple, Kathryn; Barr, Suzanne
: A systematic review of the literature, consistent with PRISMA guidelines, was performed as part of the International Weight Management in Pregnancy collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Thirteen randomized controlled trials, which aimed to modify diet and physical activity in overweight and obese pregnant women...... gestational weight gain. CONCLUSION: This review reveals large methodological variability in dietary interventions to control gestational weight gain and improve clinical outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women. This lack of consensus limits the ability to develop clinical guidelines and apply...
Lawrence, Herenia P; Cidro, Jaime; Isaac-Mann, Sonia; Peressini, Sabrina; Maar, Marion; Schroth, Robert J; Gordon, Janet N; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie; Broughton, John R; Jamieson, Lisa
This study assessed links between racism and oral health outcomes among pregnant Canadian Aboriginal women. Baseline data were analyzed for 541 First Nations (94.6%) and Métis (5.4%) women in an early childhood caries preventive trial conducted in urban and on-reserve communities in Ontario and Manitoba. One-third of participants experienced racism in the past year determined by the Measure of Indigenous Racism Experience. In logistic regressions, outcomes significantly associated with incidents of racism included: wearing dentures, off-reserve dental care, asked to pay for dental services, perceived need for preventive care, flossing more than once daily, having fewer than 21 natural teeth, fear of going to dentist, never received orthodontic treatment and perceived impact of oral conditions on quality of life. In the context of dental care, racism experienced by Aboriginal women can be a barrier to accessing services. Programs and policies should address racism's insidious effects on both mothers' and children's oral health outcomes.
Interventions to significantly improve service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant women and HIV-exposed infants along the prevention of mother-to-child transmission continuum of care: systematic review.
Vrazo, Alexandra C; Firth, Jacqueline; Amzel, Anouk; Sedillo, Rebecca; Ryan, Julia; Phelps, B Ryan
Despite the success of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programmes, low uptake of services and poor retention pose a formidable challenge to achieving the elimination of vertical HIV transmission in low- and middle-income countries. This systematic review summarises interventions that demonstrate statistically significant improvements in service uptake and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants along the PMTCT cascade. Databases were systematically searched for peer-reviewed studies. Outcomes of interest included uptake of services, such as antiretroviral therapy (ART) such as initiation, early infant diagnostic testing, and retention of HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women and their infants. Interventions that led to statistically significant outcomes were included and mapped to the PMTCT cascade. An eight-item assessment tool assessed study rigour. CRD42017063816. Of 686 citations reviewed, 11 articles met inclusion criteria. Ten studies detailed maternal outcomes and seven studies detailed infant outcomes in PMTCT programmes. Interventions to increase access to antenatal care (ANC) and ART services (n = 4) and those using lay cadres (n = 3) were most common. Other interventions included quality improvement (n = 2), mHealth (n = 1), and counselling (n = 1). One study described interventions in an Option B+ programme. Limitations included lack of HIV testing and counselling and viral load monitoring outcomes, small sample size, geographical location, and non-randomized assignment and selection of participants. Interventions including ANC/ART integration, family-centred approaches, and the use of lay healthcare providers are demonstrably effective in increasing service uptake and retention of HIV-positive mothers and their infants in PMTCT programmes. Future studies should include control groups and assess whether interventions developed in the context of earlier 'Options' are
Nasir, J.A.; Zaidi, S.A.A.
Vitamin D deficiency is an emerging health concern around the world, highly prevalent in south Asian population, despite abundant sunlight. In Pakistan, all age groups are vulnerable to Vitamin D deficiency including pregnant women. This systematic review aimed to determine the pattern of Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women as well as exploring the causes and possible interventions that have had a substantial effect on improving the vitamin D level. Three databases (PubMed, Pub Get and Google Scholar), for the present review up to 2016, were used for the identification of published peer reviewed original relevant studies regarding Vitamin D deficiency among Pakistani pregnant women with the keywords Vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D or 25(OH)D in combination with pregnant women. Five studies were included for the final analysis. Vitamin D deficiency was common and highly prevalent among Pakistani pregnant women and their neonates. The main reasons for this were found to be avoiding sun exposure, quality of diet, and lower intake of calcium. Maternal vitamin D supplementation was found to be a key intervention to improve the maternal and neonatal vitamin D status. These review findings can be emerging in ensuring the adequate vitamin D level for Pakistani pregnant women during pregnancy, ultimately to achieve positive maternal and neonate's health outcomes. (author)
Fazzi, Caterina; Mohd-Shukri, Nor; Denison, Fiona C; Saunders, David H; Norman, Jane E; Reynolds, Rebecca M
Interventions to increase physical activity in pregnancy are challenging for morbidly obese women. Targeting sedentary behaviours may be a suitable alternative to increase energy expenditure. We aimed to determine total energy expenditure, and energy expended in sedentary activities in morbidly obese and lean pregnant women. We administered the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire PPAQ (non-objective) and the Actical accelerometer (objective) to morbidly obese (BMI≥40kg/m²) and lean (BMI≤25Kg/M²) pregnant women recruited in early (lean pregnant women. No differences were observed in the proportion of energy expended sedentary between lean and morbidly obese pregnant women. The greater total energy expenditure in morbidly obese pregnant women was corroborated by Actical accelerometer in early (n=14 per group, obese 1167.7 (313.6) Kcal; lean 781.1 (210.1) Kcal, plean 893.7 (175.9) Kcal, plean pregnant. Further studies are needed to determine whether sedentary behaviours are a suitable target for intervention in morbidly obese pregnancy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Dong, C X; Yin, S A
Improvement of the nutrition and health status of pregnant women should be one of the top priority strategies of improving the physical fitness of next generation and reserve of talented person for national sustainable development. This paper reviews the nutrition and health status of pregnant women in China over the recent ten years and discusses the underlying factors and changing trends. The most popular nutrition-related problem is dietary imbalance, and many micronutrient intakes are lower than the recommended dietary intakes or adequate intakes, and some of nutrient intakes are still at a very low level for a long time such as vitamin D and calcium. The nutrition-related health problems are mainly anemia, vitamin D and vitamin A deficiencies; iodine intake is not in optimal state with a large proportion of inadequate and individual cases facing excessive intake risk. Overweight and obesity, pregnancy complications such as gastrocnemius muscle spasms, pregnancy hypertensive disorders and gestational diabetes were prevalent among pregnant women. We should address both malnutrition and nutrition imbalance in the same time in order to improve the nutrition and health status of pregnant women, by developing and implementing relevant laws and regulations, giving higher attention to pregnant women with advanced age, which in turns prevent a variety of micronutrient deficiencies, reduce adverse pregnant outcomes, and improve nutrition and health status of maternal and child.
Y. Y. Nikulina
Full Text Available The biological properties of the vaginosis pathogens isolated from 255 pregnant patients of the Pregnancy Pathology Department of the Mechnikov Dnipropetrovsk Region Clinical Hospital were studied. It was found that all investigated microflora was represented by the Candida yeasts, Trichomonas vaginalis, Toxoplasma gondii, Chlamidia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis and Leptotrix vaginalis. The yeasts of genus Candida were the most common isolated pathogens of the vaginosis in pregnant women. The presence of Candida sp., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamidia trachomatis and Toxoplasma gondii in the vaginal smears taken from pregnant women was accompanied by changes of the immunity cell parameters and concentration of circulating immune complexes.
Full Text Available Background: Our understanding of pathogenesis of periodontal disease has changed remarkably over a few decades. Rather than being confined to periodontium, periodontal disease may have a wide ranging systemic effects. It is now recognized that it shares most of the common risk factors for diabetes, coronary heart disease preterm low birth weight, miscarriage or early pregnancy loss and preeclampsia. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 400 women (200 pregnant women and 200 non-pregnant with an age range of 18-40 years. Maternal demographic and medical data were collected. Periodontal examinations included: Oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival index (GI, pocket probing depth and clinical attachment loss (CAL. Results: The results were analyzed using test of proportion when OHI-S was compared in pregnant women with that of non-pregnant individuals, there was no significant difference in good oral hygiene group (P = 0.187, Z = 1.32. When the GI index was evaluated, a definite statistical difference was noted in mild, moderate and severe gingivitis (P - 0.000, Z = 0.365; P - 0.00, Z = 4.17; P - 0.000, Z = 0.75. CAL index revealed a statistical difference was observed healthy periodontium, mild, moderate and severe periodontitis in both pregnant and non-pregnant women (P = −0.000, Z = 3.65; P - 0.000, Z = 5.83; P - 0.001, Z - 3.24; P - 0.000, Z - 6.47. Conclusion: The present study conducted supports the hypothesis that there is a definite correlation between the pregnant women and poor oral hygiene (gingivitis and periodontitis as compared with the non-pregnant controls.
Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Balzan, S.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Fruzzetti, F.; Bernardini, G.; Fioretti, P.
Elevated plasma levels of an endogenous factor with digoxin-like immunoreactivity (DLIS) was recently found in pregnant women, and it has been postulated to play a role in the regulation of fluids and electrolytes, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. The authors have studied the plasma levels of DLIS in normal women (before and after treatment with contraceptive pills) and in pregnant women (either normotensive or hypertensive), during the gestional and the post-partum period using a sensitive RIA method. In addition, the authors have measured the inhibition of binding activity of 3 H-ouabain to intact erythrocytes in 7 plasma samples collected from healthy adults and in 5 plasma samples of women in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. In 8 normal cycling women DLIS levels were similar during the follicular phase (24.9±6.2 pg/ml d.e.) and the luteal phase (22.6±4.7 pg/ml d.e.9. Six months treatment with different preparations of contraceptive pills did not affect the concentrations of DLIS. In a cross-sectional study performed on 171 healthy pregnant women a significant increase (p 3 Houbain extracts of pregnant women as compared to normal adults, with a significant correlation between the data obtained with RIA and RRA method. On the other hand, no significant differences in DLIS levels were found between singleton and 9 twin pregnancies, and also between non-hypertensive and 8 hypertensive pregnant women. This data confirm that the plasma concentration of an endogenous factor (or a group of substances) with cardiac glycoside-like activity is significantly increased in pregnant women. However, further studies are necessary to well charcterize the possible role of DLIS in the pathphysiology of hypertension in pregnancy
Santosh R Patil
Full Text Available Aim: The numerous changes occurring during pregnancy affect every body system, resulting in localized physical alterations in almost all parts of the body, including the oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to find the incidence of oral conditions seen particularly in the pregnant women than in the nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: The oral health condition of 120 pregnant women referred to the outpatient department of Jodhpur Dental College General Hospital from a gynecology clinic were examined and compared with 120 nonpregnant women. The pregnant women were divided in a 3 groups of 40 each, according to the stage of pregnancy. The common oral conditions seen during pregnancy were assessed. Results: Pregnant women had a higher incidence of gingivitis and pyogenic granuloma. Gingivitis and erosion of teeth due to vomiting was seen commonly in the 3 rd trimester. The results indicated that pregnancy had an effect on the oral condition, which was mainly due to the hormonal changes seen during this period rather than other factors. Conclusion: Women planning a pregnancy or those already pregnant should be informed about the role of oral health during pregnancy and the possible outcomes of these conditions for the welfare of their foetus. They should be referred to the dental clinician for necessary counselling for preventive oral self-care and treatment, if required.
Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu
Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.
M. P. Kostinov
Full Text Available Recent epidemiological events showed that pregnant women are the most vulnerable part of population if there is the flu in the country and they die much more often than the rest part of people. That is why influenza vaccination of population including pregnant women is one of the priorities of public health service in our state. Worldwide experience of influenza vaccination of either adults or children by new adjuvant vaccine has caused our research of its efficiency among pregnant women. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of antibodies to influenza virus strain A/H1N1/v, A/H3N2 and B in pregnant women vaccinated adjuvant trivalent subunit vaccine. Our research is randomized and comparative on parallel groups. It was carried out within the demands of Russian Federation and International ethic norms adapted to such kind of researches. Evaluation of the immunogenicity of the vaccine was conducted in 27 pregnant women in the II trimester of gestation, and in 23 pregnant women in the III trimester of gestation, 19 non-pregnant women was in the control group. The level of antibodies in the serum was determined using a reaction of hemagglutination inhibition before and 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the vaccination. Revealed that influenza vaccination of pregnant women in the II and III trimester, causes the increase in titers of antibodies to vaccine influenza strains A and B, to fully meet the required criteria CPMP, and does not differ from the nonpregnant group. In a month after vaccination the level of seroprotective against A/H1N1/v was 77.0%, A/H3N2 — 88.9%, B — 85.2% after vaccination in II trimester, and 87.0; 87.0; 91.35% in III trimester of gestation. The factor of seroconversion after vaccination in II trimester for A/H1N1/v was equal to 6.5, A/H3N2 — 7.2, B — 6.5, after vaccination in III trimester of pregnancy: 7.1, 6.5 and 5.1 correspondingly. At the same time revealed accelerated decline in antibody titer against
... Adults Moms/ Moms-to-Be Print Share Health & Nutrition Information When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ... Story Last Updated: Apr 27, 2018 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables ...
Emília de Carvalho Coutinho
Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the care received and the barriers faced by immigrants and Portuguese pregnant women in Portugal. This is an exploratory qualitative study, resorting to applying semi-structured interviews to 60 immigrant and 22 Portuguese women. Content analysis supported by QSR Nvivo10 program was used. The study was approved by an Ethics Committee. The results showed four categories related to affective dimensions-relational, cognitive, technical-instrumental and health care policy for pregnant women. As for the barriers in health care, these were mentioned by some of the expectant mothers, especially immigrant women. Almost all, both immigrant and Portuguese, pregnant women were satisfied with the health care.
Full Text Available Background/aim: Ureaplasma urealyticum, a common commensal of the female lower genital tract, has been observed as an important opportunistic pathogen during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of cervical colonization with U. urealyticum in pregnant women with risk pregnancy and in pregnant women with normal term delivery and to evaluate the correlation between high-density cervical U. urealyticum colonization and premature rupture of membranes (PROM as well. Methods. This research was conducted on the samples comprising 130 hospitalized pregnant women with threatening preterm delivery and premature rupture of membranes. The control group consisted of 39 pregnant women with term delivery without PROM. In addition to standard bacteriological examination and performing direct immunofluorescence test to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, cervical swabs were also examined for the presence of U. urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis by commercially available Mycofast Evolution 2 test (International Microbio, France. Results. The number of findings with isolated high-density U. urealyticum in the target group was 69 (53.08%, while in the control group was 14 (35.90%. Premature rupture of membranes (PROM occurred in 43 (33.08% examinees: 29 were pPROM, and 14 were PROM. The finding of U.urealyticum ≥104 was determined in 25 (58.14% pregnant women with rupture, 17 were pPROM, and 8 were PROM. There was statistically significant difference in the finding of high-density U. urealyticum between the pregnant women with PROM and the control group (χ² = 4.06, p < 0.05. U. urealyticum was predominant bacterial species found in 62.79% of isolates in the PROM cases, while in 32.56% it was isolated alone. Among the 49 pregnant women with preterm delivery, pPROM occurred in 29 (59.18% examinees, and in 70.83% of pregnant women with findings of high-density U. urealyticum pPROM was observed. Conclusion. Cervical colonization with U
Chiga, Sakura; Ohba, Takashi; Tanoue, Daisuke; Kawase, Hiromi; Katoh, Takahiko; Katabuchi, Hidetaka
As part of the Kumamoto RAINBOW Project, a multifaceted implementation of the prevention of premature labor, we investigated pregnant women's oral health status and assessed the validity of a self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire. We examined the oral health status of pregnant women and asked them for subjective descriptions of symptoms of periodontitis both in the first and the second half of their pregnancy in Kumamoto Prefecture from August 2012 to January 2014. The Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was used to assess the periodontal condition, and women having periodontal pockets with depths of ≥4 mm were catecogorized as having periodontitis. The results were the scores of the self-questionnaire for periodontal disease prepared by the Japan Dental Association. Of the 9,527 pregnant women who received periodontal check- ups during the first half of pregnancy, 32 percent were diagnosed as having periodontitis. The self-questionnaire had a sensitivity of 51.2% and a specificity of 62.9% for pregnant women to predict their periodontal disease. Then, we evaluated the importance of each question by logistic regression analysis and extracted the useful items. An increased sensitivity (79.9%) was obtained with the best of the modified questionnaire. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the evaluation of the usefulness of the self-reported periodontal disease questionnaire for pregnant women. The current self-questonnaire used for the general adult population was less sensitive for pregnant women. Our modified questionnaire showed an improved sensitivity for diagnosing periodontitis, but its specificity remained low. A specialized self-questionnaire for periodontal disease in pregnant women should be designed.
Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Maccabruni, Anna; Mariani, Bianca; Panzeri, Lucia; Zara, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal secretions of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant HIV-seropositive women. We compared 43 known HIV seropositive pregnant patients versus 241 age-matched (± 2 years) control non-pregnant HIV-seropositive subjects. In pregnant patients blood and cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during each trimester of pregnancy. In control subjects the same samples were obtained at enrolment. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma; proviral HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervico-vaginal secretion by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genital shedding of HIV-DNA (22/43 as compared to 79/241, p = 0.02), and cell-free HIV-RNA detection (26/43 as compared to 72/241, p pregnant than in non pregnant women. Pregnancy correlated with a significant positive trend in the cervico-vaginal load of HIV-DNA (Spearman Rho= 0.149, p= 0.012), and cell-free HIV-RNA (Spearman Rho= 0.253, p HIV-RNA transcripts (Spearman Rho = 0.06, p= 0.31). After correction for potential confounders, first trimester pregnant women had increased rates of genital HIV- DNA (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 3.78) and cell-free HIV-RNA (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.97 8.41) detection compared to nonpregnant controls. The shedding of genital HIV was increased in pregnant compared to non pregnant subjects, even in patients with undetectable viremia. In this low-risk HIV-positive population the risks of vertical or horizontal transmissions should not be underestimated.
Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission in South African pregnant women under Option B+: an exploratory study
University, Cape Town, South Africa Objective: To examine the acceptability and feasibility of mobile health (mHealth/short message service (SMS and community-based directly observed antiretroviral therapy (cDOT as interventions to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART adherence for preventing mother-to-child human immunodeficiency virus (HIV transmission (PMTCT. Design and methods: A mixed-method approach was used. Two qualitative focus group discussions with HIV-infected pregnant women (n=20 examined the acceptability and feasibility of two ART adherence interventions for PMTCT: 1 SMS text messaging and 2 patient-nominated cDOT supporters. Additionally, 109 HIV-infected, pregnant South African women (18–30 years old receiving PMTCT services under single-tablet antiretroviral therapy regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding and continuing for life (“Option B+” were interviewed about mobile phone access, SMS use, and potential treatment supporters. Setting: A community primary care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants: HIV-infected pregnant women. Main outcomes: Acceptability and feasibility of mHealth and cDOT interventions. Results: Among the 109 women interviewed, individual mobile phone access and SMS use were high (>90%, and 88.1% of women were interested in receiving SMS ART adherence support messages such as reminders, motivation, and medication updates. Nearly all women (95% identified at least one person close to them to whom they had disclosed their HIV status and would nominate as a cDOT supporter. Focus group discussions revealed that cDOT supporters and adherence text messages were valued, but some concerns regarding supporter time availability and risk of unintended HIV status disclosure were expressed. Conclusion: mHealth and/or cDOT supporter as interventions to improve ART adherence are feasible in this setting. However, safe HIV status disclosure to treatment supporters and confidentiality of text messaging content about HIV and ART were
Mutagoma, Mwumvaneza; Balisanga, Helene; Malamba, Samuel S; Sebuhoro, Dieudonné; Remera, Eric; Riedel, David J; Kanters, Steve; Nsanzimana, Sabin
residences will help inform and strengthen HBV prevention and treatment programmes among HIV-infected pregnant women, which is crucial to this population.
Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D
Though many women in need of access to HIV preventive regimes are pregnant, there is a dearth of data to guide these care decisions. While oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to prevent HIV infection in numerous high-risk populations, pregnant women have been excluded from all major prospective trials. We propose for ethical examination a theoretical trial-a prospective, observational study of PrEP for pregnant women at risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-highlighting an ethical tradeoff that characterizes issues faced for advancing research in pregnancy. On the one hand, an "opportunistic" study design has certain ethical advantages: as formally construed, the research activity usually begins after decisions to use PrEP during pregnancy are made in the clinical setting. This minimizes research risks and avoids ethical problems that a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing PrEP to placebo would entail, particularly withholding care proven beneficial in other populations. On the other hand, observational studies yield less precise information than RCTs. This raises a broader question about the pace of research with pregnant women, as it typically takes many years after a drug's approval for use in the general population to determine safety of the medication in pregnancy. Such delays can have the effect of making it impossible to ethically conduct an RCT with pregnant women, reducing the likelihood that the research community is able to obtain robust, pregnancy-specific evidence. While an observational cohort is potentially the most ethically and scientifically justified research design to study PrEP in pregnancy, earlier involvement of pregnant women in studies of newer preventives may lead to evidence that is more timely and robust.
Nguyen, Hang Thanh; Pandolfini, Chiara; Chiodini, Peter; Bonati, Maurizio
Tuberculosis (TB) during pregnancy may lead to severe consequences affecting both mother and child. Prenatal care could be a very good opportunity for TB care, especially for women who have limited access to health services. The aim of this review was to gather and evaluate studies on TB care for pregnant women. We used a combination of the terms "tuberculosis" and "pregnancy", limited to human, to search for published articles. Studies reflecting original data and focusing on TB care for pregnant women were included. All references retrieved were collected using the Reference Manager software (Version 11). Thirty five studies were selected for review and their data showed that diagnosis was often delayed because TB symptoms during pregnancy were not typical. TB prophylaxis and anti-TB therapy appeared to be safe and effective for pregnant women and their babies when suitable follow up and early initiation were present, but the compliance rate to TB prophylaxis is still low due to lack of follow up and referral services. TB care practices in the reviewed studies were in line in principle with the WHO International Standards for Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). Integration of TB care within prenatal care would improve TB diagnosis and treatment for pregnant women. To improve the quality of TB care, it is necessary to develop national level guidelines based on the ISTC with detailed guidelines for pregnant women.
Vanessa Marcon de Oliveira
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to determine the frequency of serum markers for hereditary and acquired thrombophilia and their association with pregnancy in women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE. Methods: a case-control study was conducted among 25 pregnant women with SLE (study group and 32 pregnant women without known disease and with at least one previous pregnancy (control group. The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and hereditary thrombophilia were examined in both groups. We used the y2 Test with Yates correction or Fisher's Exact Test to verify the associations and calculate the relative risk. Results: thrombophilia was present in 72.0% of pregnant women with SLE and in 6.0% of patients in the control group. A significant association was found between the presence of SLE and serum markers for hereditary thrombophilia / antiphospholipid antibodies (p<0.05. The relative risks for antiphospholipid antibodies were 13.20 (ICR95%= 1.81 - 96.46 in pregnant women with SLE, 7.26 (CI95%= 1.77 - 29.86 for the presence of serum markers of hereditary thrombophilia and 7.92 (CI95%= 2.62 - 3.94 for the presence of hereditary thrombophilia and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. Conclusions: the identification of markers for hereditary and/or acquired thrombophilia in pregnant women with lupus may be clinically useful to determine which patients have a higher risk of obstetric complications.
A. A. Volynkin
Full Text Available Objective: to investigate emotional disturbances in pregnant women with sequels of brain injury (BI.Patients and methods. A total of 47 pregnant women with a history of BI, who had been admitted to the Department of Obstetric Physiology, Moscow Regional Research Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in 2013-2015, were examined. All the patients underwent a comprehensive neurological and neuropsychological examination using the Miltidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 (MFI-20, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Spielberg-Hanin Situational and Personal Anxiety Scale.Results. The pregnant women with BI sequels were found to have emotional changes involving asthenic, anxiety, and depressive components. In these women, anxiety symptoms were most common (53.3%; psychoemotional disturbance and asthenic and depressive manifestations were identified in 23.4 and 14.9% of cases. This investigation first verified the structural (situational and personal components of post-traumatic anxiety syndrome in the pregnant women. It revealed that an increased level of situational anxiety and physical symptoms of fatigue was observed in brain concussion sequels; and after brain contusion (BC, alarm acquired personality traits, asthenia was of a mental nature. In the pregnant women with BI sequels, depression was diagnosed only at the subclinical level and more often noted after BC (p=0.0473.
Kuizon, M D; Tajaon, R T; Madriaga, J R; Perlas, L A; Desnacido, J A
Plasma ferritin (PF), erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) and hemoglobin (Hb) were used to assess the iron status of 158 Filipino pregnant women included as subjects in the third national nutrition survey conducted by the Food and Nutrition Research Institute in 1987. The prevalence of iron depletion was 39.9% based on PF (less than 12 ng/ml). Iron deficient erythropoiesis was present in 36.1% based on EP of greater than 28 micrograms/dl whole blood and 40.5% based on EP/Hb ratio of greater than 2.4. When the criterion of iron deficiency was that both PF and EP were abnormal, the prevalence of deficiency was lower and only 16.4%. Iron deficiency anemia was present in 14.6% based on Hb less than 11 g/dl in addition to abnormal PF and EP. Significantly lower mean values for PF were obtained in women on the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy indicating decreasing iron stores and the need for iron therapy to prevent anemia during those periods. The iron status of 38 women who reported taking iron supplements was not significantly different from those who did not take supplements.
Nguyen, Huong T T; Tran, Cuc H; Dang, Anh D; Tran, Huong G T; Vu, Thiem D; Pham, Thach N; Nguyen, Hoang V; Nguyen, Anh N K; Pieracci, Emily G; Tran, Duong N
Human rabies deaths are preventable through prompt administration of postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) with rabies immune globulin and rabies vaccine after exposure to a rabid animal (1); there are no known contraindications to receiving PEP (1,2). Despite widespread availability of PEP in Vietnam, in 2015 the Ministry of Health (MoH) received reports of pregnant and breastfeeding women with clinically diagnosed rabies. MoH investigated factors associated with these rabies cases. MoH found that, during 2015-2016, among 169 cases reported in Vietnam, two probable cases of rabies were reported in breastfeeding mothers and four in pregnant women, all of whom had been bitten by dogs. All six patients died. Three of the four pregnant women had cesarean deliveries. One of the three newborns died from complications believed to be unrelated to rabies; the fourth pregnant woman contracted rabies too early in pregnancy for the fetus to be viable. Two of the patients sought care from a medical provider or traditional healer; however, none sought PEP after being bitten. In each case, families reported the patient's fear of risk to the fetus or breastfed child as the primary barrier to receiving PEP. These findings highlight the need for public health messaging about the safety and effectiveness of PEP in preventing rabies among all persons with exposures, including pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.
RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy
Swahn, M.L.; Wang, G.; Aedo, A.R.; Cekan, S.Z.; Bygdeman, M.
RU 486 is a synthetic steroid which acts as an antiprogestin at the receptor level. The clinical usefulness of the compound for menstrual regulation and termination of early pregnancy is currently being evaluated. The aim of the present study was to determine the plasma levels of RU 486 following the oral administration of the compound to 42 pregnant and 10 non-pregnant women. The levels of RU 486 were measured by a radioimmunoassay method which uses chromatography on Sephadex LH 20 columns. The identity of the compound assayed as RU 486 was confirmed, but the presence of small amounts of two highly cross-reacting metabolites (monodemethyl and didemethyl RU 486) in the analyzed fractions could not be excluded. Following the ingestion of a single tablet containing 25 and 50 mg of the compound, a peak plasma value of approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mumol/l in both the pregnant and non-pregnant subjects was reached one to two hours later. The half-lives of elimination were about 20 hours in both the pregnant and the non-pregnant women. Following the repeated oral administration of 50, 100 or 200 mg of RU 486 daily for four days, maximum plasma levels of 2.9, 4.5 and 5.4 mumol/l, respectively, were found. Thus, the increase in plasma levels was not directly proportional to the increase in the dose. No accumulation of RU 486 in the plasma was found, even when the duration of treatment was prolonged to six days. The data partly explain the reported lack of relation between ingested dose and frequency of induced abortion and they may be useful for designing future studies on the use of compound to prevent implantation, induce menstruation or terminate an early pregnancy.
Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier and infectivity status among women delivering at Harare Maternity Hospital. Design: A serological survey study of pregnant women admitted for labour and delivery. Setting: Harare Maternity Hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe between June 1996 and June ...
98) and gentamicin 100% (98/98) for HbAS and HbAA women respectively. Conclusions: The prevalence of ASB in pregnant women with HbAS in Enugu, Nigeria was high and did not vary significantly from that of woman with HbAA.
Background: Anaemia in pregnancy remains a common problem affecting women in northern Nigeria. It is associated with several adverse consequences. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and its associated factors among pregnant women in Koko/Besse local government area of ...
HIV infected women commenced on nevirapine-based regimen in the current pregnancy with CD4 counts up to. 3. 350 cells/mm at the University Teaching Hospital,. Lusaka, Zambia. Design: Longitudinal observational study with 2 arms. Group 1 (low CD4 count arm): HIV infected pregnant. 3 women with CD4 counts less ...
Methos: Glucose, insulin and lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoproteins) were measured at 26 to 32 weeks of pregnancy in fasting blood samples obtained from 75 pregnant non diabetic women (Twenty five with a history of first degree relative with DM and fifty women without ...
Fujimori, E; de Cassana, L M; Szarfarc, S C; de Oliveira, I M; Guerra-Shinohara, E M
Nutritional conditions in the pre-gestacional period and during pregnancy were evaluated in 372 pregnant women based on the body mass index and Rosso's Graph. Approximately half (51%) the pregnant women presented normal pre-gestacional weight; however, 17.7% were underweight and 31.3% overweight. In the third trimester, 18.8% were underweight and 28.2% overweight. The weight at birth increased as nutritional conditions during pregnancy improved. These results show the importance of appropriate anthropometric control in order to prevent a bad neonatal prognosis and reaffirms the importance of such activity during the whole routine of pre-natal control.
Conclusions: Zambia has increased IPTp uptake through ANC for all women. The malaria control program has contributed to increasing access to health services and reducing demographic and socioeconomic disparities.
Vasquez, S.; Garcia, B.; Torres, R.; Larrabure, G.; Lucen, A.; Pernaz, G.; Gonzales, L.; Miranda, G.; Davalos, E.; Galarza, C.; Camasca, N.; Jara, R.
The present study was performed to estimate the prevalence of HBV in pregnant women (mean age among groups 25,0 ± 6,9) who live in areas of different endemicity, and located in the Department of Lima, Junin, Apurimac, and Ayacucho in Peru. All studies were carried out using radioimmunological techniques. In the Instituto Materno Perinatal in Lima, located in a low endemic area, 2086 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 44 years old were evaluated (for laboratory tests) at their first prenatal examination. A prevalence of 0,38% (HBsAg+), 0,38% (Ratio), and 3,18% (HBsAg+, anti-HBsAg+) was found, corresponding to 107 HBsAg+ pregnant women whose treated newborn would prevent the HBV chronic infection of approximate 21 newborn each year. 63% HBsAg+ pregnant women were born in Departments other than Lima. In the Hospital de Apoyo La Merced, located in Chanchamayo, Junin, which is a medium endemic area, 217 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 14 and 48 years old were evaluated. T he prevalence found in this hospital was of 1,38% (HBsAg+), 1,2% (Ratio), and 17,*% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+). All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. The projection of results corresponded to a total of 9 HbsAg+ pregnant women and 2 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. In the Guillermo Diaz de la Vega Hospital in Abancay, Apurimac, located in a medium to high endemic area, 221 pregnant women whose ages ranged between 15 and 46 years old were evaluated. A prevalence of 1,36% (HBsAg+), 1,0% (Ratio), and 36.16% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) was found. All positive HBsAg were negative for HBeAg. Projected results corresponded to a total of 37 HBsAg+ pregnant carriers and 7 newborn preventive of chronic disease per year. The Hospital General de Huanta, in Ayacucho, located in a high endemicity area, presented a prevalence of 3,2% (HBsAg+), 1,9% (Ratio), and 76, 2% (HBsAg+, anti-HBs+) from 126 pregnant women evaluated with ages between 15 and 48 years old. These results gave a total
Anaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women receiving triple antiretroviral combination therapy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a secondary analysis of the Kisumu breastfeeding study (KiBS).
Odhiambo, Collins; Zeh, Clement; Angira, Frank; Opollo, Valarie; Akinyi, Brenda; Masaba, Rose; Williamson, John M; Otieno, Juliana; Mills, Lisa A; Lecher, Shirley Lee; Thomas, Timothy K
The prevalence of anaemia during pregnancy is estimated to be 35-75% in sub-Saharan Africa and is associated with an increased risk of maternal mortality. We evaluated the frequency and factors associated with anaemia in HIV-infected women undergoing antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) enrolled in The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study 2003-2009. Maternal haematological parameters were monitored from 32 to 34 weeks of gestation to 2 years post-delivery among 522 enrolled women. Clinical and laboratory assessments for causes of anaemia were performed, and appropriate management was initiated. Anaemia was graded using the National Institutes of Health Division of AIDS 1994 Adult Toxicity Tables. Data were analysed using SAS software, v 9.2. The Wilcoxon two-sample rank test was used to compare groups. A logistic regression model was fitted to describe the trend in anaemia over time. At enrolment, the prevalence of any grade anaemia (Hb anaemia (Hb anaemia events occurred around delivery (48.8%; n = 20). Anaemia (Hb ≥ 7 and anaemia at delivery (OR 5.87; 95% CI: 4.48, 7.68, P anaemia coincided with clinical malaria (24.4%; n = 10) and helminth (7.3%; n = 3) infections. Resolution of anaemia among most participants during study follow-up was likely related to receipt of ARV therapy. Efforts should be geared towards addressing common causes of anaemia in HIV-infected pregnant women, prioritising initiation of ARV therapy and management of peripartum blood loss. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 ( P<.01 . Discussion. Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered.
Full Text Available To understand the prevalence of functional constipation in pregnant women and to analyze the impact of its risk factors.We searched hospital databases for women who were 37-41 weeks pregnant (1698 cases from July 2012 to January 2014 in four hospitals in Shanghai. We reviewed factors including general data, living and eating habits, psychological history, past history of defecation in the 6 months before pregnancy and defecation after pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.Pregnant women who were more than 35 years old, with a pre-pregnancy body mass index >24, who were highly educated and employed in a sedentary occupation, showed a higher prevalence of functional constipation. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the prevalence of functional constipation among pregnant women was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index, diet, exercise, occupation, psychological factors, threatened abortion in early pregnancy and constipation history.The prevalence rate of functional constipation in pregnant women was significantly higher than in the general population.
Lívia de Castro Crivellenti
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate food and dietary folate inadequacies in the diets of adult pregnant women. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted with 103 healthy pregnant adult users of the Public Health Care System of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. The present study included the 82 women with complete food intake data during pregnancy, which were collected by three 24-hour dietary recalls. Food folate (folate naturally present in foods and dietary folate (food folate plus folate from fortified wheat flour and cornmeal inadequacies were determined, using the Estimated Average Requirement as cutoff. RESULTS: The diets of 100% and 94% of the pregnant women were inadequate in food folate and dietary folate, respectively. However, fortified foods increased the medium availability of the nutrient by 87%. CONCLUSION: The large number of pregnant women consuming low-folate diets was alarming. Nationwide population studies are needed to confirm the hypothesized high prevalence of low-folate diets among pregnant women.
Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J.; Barbella, Rosa A.; Case, Cynthia; Arria, Melissa; Ravelo, Marisela; Perez, Henry; Urdaneta, Oscar; Gervasio, Gloria; Rubio, Nestor; Maldonado, Andrea; Aguilera, Ymora; Viloria, Anna; Blanco, Juan J.; Colina, Magdary; Hernández, Elizabeth; Araujo, Elianet; Cabaniel, Gilberto; Benitez, Jesús; Rifakis, Pedro
Introduction. Intestinal parasitic infections, especially due to helminths, increase anemia in pregnant women. The results of this are low pregnancy weight gain and IUGR, followed by LBW, with its associated greater risks of infection and higher perinatal mortality rates. For these reasons, in the setting of no large previous studies in Venezuela about this problem, a national multicentric study was conducted. Methods. Pregnant women from nine states were studied, a prenatal evaluation with a coproparasitological study. Univariated and multivariated analyses were made to determine risk factors for intestinal parasitosis and related anemia. Results. During 19 months, 1038 pregnant women were included and evaluated. Intestinal parasitosis was evidenced in 73.9%: A lumbricoides 57.0%, T trichiura 36.0%, G lamblia 14.1%, E hystolitica 12.0%, N americanus 8.1%, E vermicularis 6.3%, S stercoralis 3.3%. Relative risk for anemia in those women with intestinal parasitosis was 2.56 (P Intestinal parasitoses could be associated with conditions for development of anemia at pregnancy. These features reflect the need of routine coproparasitological study among pregnant women in rural and endemic zones for intestinal parasites. Further therapeutic and prophylactic protocols are needed. Additional research on pregnant intestinal parasitic infection impact on newborn health is also considered. PMID:17093349
Full Text Available Urinary system stones can be classified according to size, location, X-ray characteristics, aetiology of formation, composition, and risk of recurrence. Especially urolithiasis during pregnancy is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. In most cases, it becomes symptomatic in the second or third trimester. Diagnostic options in pregnant women are limited due to the possible teratogenic, carcinogenic, and mutagenic risk of foetal radiation exposure. Clinical management of a pregnant urolithiasis patient is complex and demands close collaboration between patient, obstetrician and urologist. We would like to review current diagnosis and treatment modalities of stone disease of pregnant woman.
Full Text Available Background and Design: Stria gravidarum is a cosmetically disfiguring condition that is commonly seen in pregnancy. Various parameters such as age of mother, genetical factors like family history, skin colour, various hormonal changes seen in pregnancy, weight gain and physical features of newborn are accused in the development. The studies reported primarily include primigravidas. In this study, the presence of stria gravidarum and associated risk factors are aimed to be investigated. Materials and methods: All attenders' gestastional week, prepregnancy and delivery weights, height, family history of stria, smoking habits and/or alcohol use during pregnancy, any use of cream and/or oil for preventing stria, delivery way, newborn's gender, height, weight and head circumference were recorded. In both primigravidas and multigravidas, factors that could be associated with stria gravidarum were investigated by Spearman'scorrelation analysis and risk factors in the development of stria gravidarum by logistic regression analysis. Results: Fifty of 128 pregnant women were primigravidas and 78 were multigravidas. In primigravidas, a correlation was detected between family history of stria, non-usage of cream and/or oil during pregnancy,head circumference of newborn and development of stria gravidarum while in multigravidas, a correlation is detected between prepregnancy weight, delivery weight, smoking during pregnancy, not using of any cream and/or oil during pregnancy, family history of stria, head circumference of newborn, weight of newborn and stria gravidarum development. Presence of family history of stria and not using of any cream and/or oil were found to be risk factors in development of stria gravidarum in all pregnant women by logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: Both genetical and physical factors are thought to play a role in development of stria gravidarum; however, further broad scale studies with larger samples including both
Brites, Carlos; Nóbrega, Isabella; Luz, Estela; Travassos, Ana Gabriela; Lorenzo, Cynthia; Netto, Eduardo M
Background Late-presenting pregnant women pose a challenge in the prevention of HIV-1 mother-to-child-transmission. We compared the safety and efficacy of raltegravir and lopinavir/ritonavir for this population. Methods We did a single-center, pilot, open-label, randomized trial in Brazil (N = 44). We randomly allocated late-presenting HIV-infected pregnant women (older than 18 years with a plasma HIV-1 RNA >1000 copies/mL) to receive raltegravir 400 mg twice a day or lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice a day plus zidovudine and lamivudine (1:1). The primary endpoint was virological suppression at delivery (HIV-1 RNA HIV-infected late-presenting pregnant women.
Goñi, L; Cuervo, M; Santiago, S; Zazpe, I; Martínez, J A
Maintaining an adequate health status and appropriate lifestyles during pregnancy is of great importance to prevent adverse outcomes for both mother and baby. The present study aimed to assess the nutritional status, socio-demographic features, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits of pregnant women in Spain, and to identify the influence of parity on these profiles. This cross-sectional study included pregnant women from regions all over Spain. The information was collected through a 40 item questionnaire, previously validated by community health professionals. The 5,087 pregnant women analyzed had an average age of 31.9 years with an adequate nutritional status. The distribution of the sample was 56% nulliparous and 44% multiparous. The nulliparous reported a better self-perceived health status and nutritional balance, and a lower incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. However, the multiparous showed healthier lifestyle habits (lower rates of smoking and alcohol consumption) and more physically active patterns. Regarding diet, nulliparous pregnant women consumed more dairy products, fresh fruit and nuts, and less bread, rice/pasta/potatoes, meat, sausage and buns/pastries than multiparous pregnant women. Differences between analyzed patterns were observed in anthropometrical variables, lifestyle behaviors and dietary habits, which may require different nutritional messages to nulliparous as compared to multiparous from a public health point of view.
Akbarinejad, Farideh; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Shahrzadi, Leila
The ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and convey information in various forms of media including print and nonprint requires media literacy, but the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic information and services needed for appropriate decisions regarding health, considered an important element in a woman's ability to participate in health promotion and prevention activities for herself and her children, is needed to a level of health literacy. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women in health centers in Isfahan. This study used a descriptive correlation study. Data collection tools include Shahin media literacy and functional health literacy in adults' questionnaires. The population include pregnant women in health centers of Isfahan (4080 people). Ten out of the 351 health centers in Isfahan were selected as cluster. Data were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Media literacy of respondents in the five dimensions was significantly lower than average 61.5% of pregnant women have inadequate health literacy, 18.8% had marginal health literacy, and only 19.7% of them have had adequate health literacy. There was a significant positive relationship between media literacy and health literacy among pregnant women. This study showed that the majority of pregnant women covered by health centers had limited health literacy and media literacy. Since one of the basic requirements for the utilization of health information is needed for adequate media literacy, promotion of media literacy is necessary for the respondents.
Asa'ad, Farah A; Rahman, Ghousia; Al Mahmoud, Noura; Al Shamasi, Ebtehaj; Al Khuwaileidi, Abrar
The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness regarding periodontal disease and its effects on pregnancy among pregnant women in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional survey, self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to 300 pregnant women who were chosen randomly from attendees of maternity health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. The questions were developed from literature reviews of articles. The questionnaire addressed personal and sociodemographic variables, periodontal health awareness, and knowledge of pregnant women. The questionnaire was translated into Arabic and was pretested during the pilot study on a random sample of 50 pregnant women. Data were analyzed by χ(2) -tests, with the level of significance set at P disease could be prevented through toothbrushing and flossing. Approximately 97% of the respondents knew the negative effect of smoking, while only 12% knew there was a possible relationship between periodontal disease and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The results of this cross-sectional study found that there is limited knowledge and awareness about periodontal disease and its possible effects on pregnancy among pregnant women attending maternal health care centers in the central and eastern regions of Saudi Arabia. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
M. L. Drewery
Full Text Available Background. The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend that pregnant women and women of childbearing ages consume 8–12 oz. of seafood per week. Fish are the major dietary source of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which have benefits for the mother and fetus. Methods. In this observational study, we investigated dietary habits of pregnant women in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA, to determine if they achieve recommended seafood intake. A print survey, which included commonly consumed foods from protein sources (beef, chicken, pork, and fish, was completed by pregnant women at a single-day hospital convention for expecting families in October 2015. Women (n=221 chose from six predefined responses to answer how frequently they were consuming each food. Results. Chicken was consumed most frequently (75% of women, followed by beef (71%, pork (65%, and fish (22%, respectively. Consumption frequency for the most consumed fish (catfish, once per month was similar to or lower than that of the least consumed beef, chicken, and pork foods. Consumption frequency for the most consumed chicken and beef foods was at least once per week. Conclusion. Our data indicate that pregnant women in Louisiana often consume protein sources other than fish and likely fail to meet dietary seafood recommendations.
Z Rostamzadeh Khameneh
Full Text Available Introduction: Although the hepatitis E virus mostly causes a self-limited disease in general population, but the disease is more severe in pregnant women. Hepatitis E accounts for about 10% of pregnancy associated deaths in southern Asia. But the prevalence in Iran is almost unclear, so this study is aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG among a population of pregnant women in West Azerbaijan of Iran. Materials and Methods: 136 pregnant women who referred to an urban health centers of Urmia for pursuing pregnancy-related health services were selected randomly and enrolled in a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Each subject was tested for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibody using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, Dia.Pro; Diagnostic Bioprobes, Italy. Results: The mean age among 136 pregnant women was 25.12±4.91 years old (range of 14-39 years. Only five cases (3.6% among all 136 subjects were demonstrated to be seropositive for anti-HEV IgG using ELISA method. There was no significant difference between age (P=0.88, income level (P=0.19 of two seropositive and seronegative groups. All seropositive cases were from urban areas. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG is low in the population of pregnant women in Urmia, Iran. Because of limited sample size in this study, we recommend to perform further studies with larger sample size in other regions of Iran in order to be able to systematically generalize the findings of studies to the population of Iranian pregnant women. Keywords: Pregnancy, Hepatitis E, women ELISA
Nielsen, Tore; Paquette, Tyna
Study objectives: Evaluate the prevalence and phenomenology of dream-associated behaviors affecting pregnant and postpartum mothers. Episodes consist of anxious dreams and nightmares about the new infant that are accompanied by complex behaviors (motor activity, speaking, expressing emotion). Design: Three-group design (postpartum, pregnant, null gravida), self-report, and repeated measures. Setting: Pregnancy and postpartum groups: completion of questionnaires in hospital room within 48 hours of giving birth and home telephone interviews; null gravida group: completion of questionnaires and interview in person or by telephone. Participants: Two hundred seventy-three women in 3 groups: postpartum: n = 202 (mean age = 29.7 ± 4.94 years; 95 primiparas, 107 multiparas); pregnant: n = 50 (mean age = 31.1 ± 5.44 years); null gravida: n = 21 (mean age = 28.5 ± 6.34 years). Interventions: Subjects completed questionnaires about pregnancy and birth factors, personality, and sleep and participated in interviews concerning the prevalence of recent infant dreams and nightmares, associated behaviors, anxiety, depression, and other psychopathologic factors. Measurements and Results: Most women in all groups recalled dreams (88%-91%). Postpartum and pregnant women recalled infant dreams and nightmares with equal prevalence, but more postpartum women reported they contained anxiety (75%) and the infant in peril (73%) than did pregnant women (59%, P dream-associated behaviors (P dream anxiety and, among postpartum women, post-awakening anxiety (41%), confusion (51%), and a need to check on the infant (60%). Primiparas and multiparas differed in dream and nightmare recall but not in prevalence of dream-associated behaviors. Conclusion: The prevalent occurrence of pregnancy and postpartum infant dreams and associated behaviors may reflect the pervasive emotional influence of maternal concerns or changes instigated by severe sleep disruption, rapid eye movement sleep deprivation
Conclusions: These data suggest that the prenatal and postnatal supplementation of bifidobacteria is effective in primary preventing allergic diseases. Some limited changes in the composition of fecal microbiota by the bifidobacterial supplementation were observed.
Sharif, S.; Farasat, T.; Fazal, S.
Objective: To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Study Design: Case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. Methodology: A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. Results: The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 +- 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 +- 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 +- 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 +- 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 +- 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 +- 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 +- 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 +- 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Conclusion: Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group. (author)
Sharif, Saima; Farasat, Tasnim; Shoaib, Hamna; Saqib, Muhammad; Fazal, Sabiha
To assess the serum level of vitamin D in pregnant and lactating women. Case-control study. Gynaecological Unit 1 of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2010 to May 2011. A total of 100 women comprised of three groups: pregnant (n = 40), lactating (n = 40) and control (n = 20) groups. The information regarding age, educational level, socioeconomic status, exposure to sunlight and dietary vitamin D intake were collected through self-structured questionnaire. Serum concentration of vitamin D was measured by ELISA and serum calcium and phosphate levels were measured by chemistry analyzer. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS (version 13). The values were considered significant at 0.05 level of significance. The mean serum vitamin D level in the pregnant and lactating mothers was 26.5 ± 17.1 nmol/L and 21.4 ± 16.3 nmol/L respectively and in control group was 33.8 ± 21.1 nmol/L. The mean calcium level in the pregnant, lactating and control group was 10.3 ± 1.2 mg/dL, 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL and 9.7 ± 1.3 mg/dL respectively. The mean phosphate in pregnant was 3.2 ± 0.76 mg/dl, in lactating was 3.3 ± 0.76 mg/dl and in control was 3.5 ± 0.92 mg/dl. Significant difference (p = 0.041 and p = 0.037 respectively) in the serum levels of vitamin D and calcium was observed among the pregnant and lactating women as compared to control group. Low serum vitamin D concentration was observed in lactating women and pregnant women as compared to control group.
Shieh, Carol; Draucker, Claire Burke
Excessive maternal gestational weight gain increases pregnancy and infant complications. Self-monitoring has been shown to be an effective strategy in weight management. Literature, however, is limited in describing pregnant women's engagement in self-monitoring. This qualitative study explored the experiences of overweight and obese pregnant women who self-monitored their eating, walking, and weight as participants in an intervention for excessive gestational weight gain prevention. Thirteen overweight and obese pregnant women participated in semistructured interviews. Reflexive iteration data analysis was conducted. Five themes were identified: making self-monitoring a habit, strategies for self-monitoring, barriers to self-monitoring, benefits of self-monitoring, and drawbacks of self-monitoring. The women viewed self-monitoring as a "habit" that could foster a sense of self-control and mindfulness. Visual or tracing aids were used to maintain the self-monitoring habit. Forgetting, defective tracking aids, complexities of food monitoring, and life events could impede self-monitoring. Being unable to keep up with self-monitoring or to achieve goals created stress. Self-monitoring is a promising approach to weight management for overweight and obese pregnant women. However, healthcare providers should be aware that, although women may identify several benefits to self-monitoring, for some women, consistently trying to track their behaviors is stressful.
Nwonwu, E U; Ibekwe, P C; Ugwu, J I; Obarezi, H C; Nwagbara, O C
Malaria currently is regarded as the most common and potentially the most serious infection occurring in pregnancy in many sub Saharan African countries. This study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and malaria related anaemia among pregnant women in Abakaliki, South East, Nigeria. This is a cross sectional, descriptive study conducted in two tertiary health institutions in Abakaliki, South East, Nigeria (Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital And Federal Medical Centre). Using systematic sampling method, 193 pregnant women were selected from the health institutions for the study. Their blood were analysed for haemoglobin status and malaria parasite. Data were also collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. All the data were analysed using Epi info version 6 statistical software. Response rate was 100%. Twenty nine percent prevalence of malaria parasitaemia was detected, more common among primigravidae. Women with higher parity had higher frequency of anaemia in pregnancy. More than half of the pregnant women (51%) were in their second trimester at the time of booking. There was no case of severe anaemia requiring blood transfusion. Our pregnant women register late for antenatal care. Prevalence of malaria parasitaemia is high in our environment as well as anaemia in pregnancy, using the standard WHO definition. It is suggested that effort should be intensified to make our women register early for antenatal care in order to identify complications early. Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria should be incorporated into routine drugs for antenatal women.
Khamis Amar H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria, which is associated with serious adverse effects on pregnancy. The presentation of malaria during pregnancy varies according to the level of transmission in the area. Our study aimed to demonstrate the prevalence and risk factors for malaria (age, parity and gestational age among pregnant women of eastern Sudan, which is characterized by unstable malaria transmission. Methods The prevalence and possible risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria were investigated in 744 pregnant Sudanese women attending the antenatal clinic of New Haifa Teaching Hospital, eastern Sudan, during October 2003-April 2004. Results A total 102 (13.7% had P. falciparum malaria, 18(17.6% of these were severe cases (jaundice and severe anaemia. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that, age and parity were not associated with malaria. Women who attended the antenatal clinic in the third trimester were at highest risk for malaria (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.02–2.4; P Women with malaria had significantly lower mean haemoglobin (9.4 g/dl, 95% CI 9.1–9.7 versus 10.7, CI 10.6–10.8, P Conclusion The results suggest that P. falciparum malaria is common in pregnant women attending antenatal care and that anaemia is an important complication. Preventive measures (chemoprophylaxis and insecticide-treated bednets may be beneficial in this area for all women irrespective of age or parity.
Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV infection causes severe disabilities and developmental delays. Women's awareness of CMV is low. Only about half of healthcare providers report counseling women about behaviors to reduce CMV risk and public health education is limited. Routine CMV counseling is not recommend. Providers may lack time to counsel women; other conditions may take priority for counseling; there may be a perception that women are reluctant to follow advice. This cross-sectional descriptive study examined women's attitudes toward CMV prevention behaviors. Data were collected from an online panel of 840 U.S. women 18–40 years of age, who had a child <5 years of age, and were pregnant or planning a pregnancy in the next 12 months. Questions assessed CMV awareness, frequency of past behaviors that transmit CMV, and attitudes toward eight CMV prevention behaviors. Only 15.5% of women were somewhat or very familiar with CMV. Very few women (6.1% reported hearing from their provider about CMV. Women held positive attitudes toward the CMV prevention behaviors and perceived them as feasible. Least positive attitudes were toward not kissing a child on the lips and not sharing foods. Predictors of positive attitudes were CMV awareness, past behavior, talking to a healthcare provider, and perceived risk reduction. Healthcare providers and public health practitioners should collaborate to increase CMV awareness. Encouraging behaviors to reduce saliva sharing may result in greater gains in reducing CMV infection.
This study aims to evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises for a decreasing pain in pregnant women. A total of 40 pregnant women were divided into two groups, a control group (followed a standard pregnancy exercise regimen) and a Pilates group (completed a Pilates exercise regimen). A pain assessment was carried out after exercise, using a visual analog scale. The Pilates group workout program lasted 70-80 min per day, once a week, for 8 weeks. The reduction in the level of pain was found to be significantly greater in the group of pregnant women who completed the Pilates workout (p Pilates is an effective, healthy, and feasible method of reducing pain in pregnancy, and is therefore a beneficial alternative workout for the suppression of pain in the third trimester of pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agnieszka Maria Bień
Full Text Available Introduction. The healthy and unhealthy behaviors of a pregnant woman influence both her own health and that of her unborn child, affecting its future development. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension. Material i method. The study was performed between November 2011 and February 2012 and included 80 hypertensive pregnant women hospitalized in a high risk pregnancy ward. The study used a diagnostic survey with questionnaires. Results. Statistical analyses showed a correlation between the respondents’ health-related behaviors and their socio-demographic characteristics: exercise was correlated with age (p=0.01, and rest during the day was correlated with support in everyday responsibilities (p<0.00001, and with the respondents’ socio-economic standing (p=0.03. Correlations were also found between healthy eating habits and residence (0.006, education (p=0.05, and sodium intake (p=0.0003, as well as between education and substance use (p=0.0003. Conclusion. Health-related behaviors of pregnant women with hypertension are influenced by their education, support they receive in daily responsibilities, and their socio-economic standing. The diagnosis of hypertension in pregnant women does not necessarily prompt them to discontinue all unhealthy behaviors.
Msuya, Sia E; Hussein, Tamara H; Uriyo, Jacqueline; Sam, Noel E; Stray-Pedersen, Babill
Anaemia during pregnancy is associated with negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, there is limited data regarding prevalence and effects of anaemia during pregnancy in northern Tanzania. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible risk factors for anaemia and its effect on perinatal outcomes among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality in northern Tanzania. A cohort of pregnant women aged 14-43 years and in their 3rd trimester, was recruited from two primary health care clinics between June 2002 and March 2004. Interviews, anthropometric measurements and haematological examinations were conducted on 2654 consenting women. Perinatal outcomes were recorded during delivery and at 1 week after delivery. Of the 2654 participants, 47.4% had anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] anaemia (Hb= 9-10.9g/dl), 9.9% had moderate anaemia (Hb =7- 8.9g/dl), and 2.1% had severe anaemia (Hb Anaemia was significantly more prevalent in HIV-positive (56.4%) than in HIV-negative women (46.7%), (P = 0.01). In logistic regression anaemia was independently associated with maternal HIV (OR= 1.5), malaria (OR= 5.2), clinic of recruitment (OR= 1.5) and low income (OR= 1.9). Pregnant women with anaemia were more likely to have low birth weight (LBW) infants. Compared with non-anaemic women, the risk of LBW was 1.6 times and 4.8 times higher for children born to women with moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. In conclusion, anaemia in pregnancy is a severe public health problem in northern Tanzania. Control of maternal anaemia may be one important strategy to prevent LBW in this setting. Measures to prevent malaria and to control anaemia among all pregnant women irrespective of HIV status, should be strengthened. Outside of the health sector broader approaches for anaemia prevention targeting women of lower income, are required.
Llenas-García, Jara; Wikman-Jorgensen, Philip; Hobbins, Michael; Mussa, Manuel Aly; Ehmer, Jochen; Keiser, Olivia; Mbofana, Francisco; Wandeler, Gilles
In 2013, Mozambique adopted Option B+, universal lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all pregnant and lactating women, as national strategy for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. We analysed retention in care of pregnant and lactating women starting Option B+ in rural northern Mozambique. We compared ART outcomes in pregnant ('B+ pregnant'), lactating ('B+ lactating') and non-pregnant non-lactating women of childbearing age starting ART according to clinical and/or immunological criteria ('own health') between July 2013 and June 2014. Lost to follow-up was defined as no contact >180 days after the last visit. Multivariable competing risk models were adjusted for type of facility (type 1 vs. peripheral type 2 health centre), age, WHO stage and time from HIV diagnosis to ART. Over 333 person-years of follow-up (243 'B+ pregnant', 65'B+ lactating' and 317 'own health' women), 3.7% of women died and 48.5% were lost to follow-up. 'B+ pregnant' and 'B+ lactating' women were more likely to be lost in the first year (57% vs. 56.9% vs. 31.6%; P pregnant' (adjusted subhazard ratio [asHR]: 2.77; 95% CI: 2.18-3.50; P HIV in rural settings with weak health systems will depend on specific improvements in counselling and retention measures, especially at the beginning of treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H
OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous...... abortion, women with ectopic pregnancies, women attending antenatal care and women with induced abortion. They were divided into four groups: women with planned and accepted pregnancies (accepting planners, n=2137), women who accepted an initially unplanned pregnancy (accepting non-planners, n=1006), women...... who rejected an initially planned pregnancy (rejecting planners, n=31), and women with unplanned and rejected pregnancies (rejecting non-planners, n=342). The association between socio-economic characteristics and pregnancy planning and acceptance was evaluated by comparing accepting non...
Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako
Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Gomes, Caroline de Barros; Malta, Maíra Barreto; Martiniano, Ana Carolina de Almeida; Di Bonifácio, Luiza Pereira; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite
To determine the eating behavior of pregnant women assisted by primary health care and to compare it with women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals. A cross-sectional study conducted on 256 pregnant women in the second trimester of gestation, selected by drawing lots from those assisted by primary health care units of a municipality in the state of São Paulo in 2009/2010. Eating habits were investigated via a questionnaire adapted from the VIGITEL system, consisting of questions about eating habits in general and the frequency and consumption characteristics of food groups/specific foods. For tis comparison, we used the indicators reported by the VIGITEL system for women at childbearing age in Brazilian capitals in 2010. The analyses involved the presentation of frequency distribution and descriptive statistics with comparisons according to the age group. Most patients had breakfast every day (86.7%) and 45.7% habitually exchanged a main meal for a snack once or twice a week. A daily consumption of fruit, raw salad and vegetables was not reported by 48.8%, 41.8% and 55.1% of the women, respectively. Fish was reported to never or almost never be consumed by 64.4% of the pregnant women. At least once a week, 69.9% of them reported the consumption of soda, and 86.4% of wafers/cookies. The comparison between the pregnant women and women at childbearing age in capitals showed a close similar prevalence of overweight, and no difference in the regular consumption of fruit and vegetables. Meat containing excess of fat and whole milk were more consumed by pregnant women, with differences reported in all the age groups analyzed. On the other hand, the pregnant women reported a less regular intake of soft drinks. The actions that need to be performed in prenatal care are various and very important, promoting the consumption of specific foods and providing guidelines about eating behavior, while reinforcing healthy eating habits already present.
Mahmud, Ghazala; Abbas, Shazra
HIV is an epidemic quite unlike any other, combining the problems of a lifelong medical disease with immense social, psychological, economic and public health consequences. Since we are living in a global village where human interactions has become fast and frequent, diseases like HIV are no more alien to us. HIV/AIDS in Pakistan is slowly gaining recognition as a public health issue of great importance. Objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of HIV in pregnant women identified with a high risk factor/behaviour at a tertiary care hospital. It is a Descriptive study. All pregnant women attending antenatal booking clinic were assessed via a pre-designed 'Risk assessment questionnaire'. Women identified with a risk factor were offered HIV Rapid screening test (Capillus HIV1/2). Positive (reactive) results on screening test were confirmed with ELISA. During the study period (March 2007-May 2008), out of 5263 antenatal bookings 785 (14%) women were identified with a risk factor. HIV screening test was done in 779 (99%), and 6 women refused testing. Three women (0.3%) were found positive (reactive) on screening. Two out of 3 women were confirmed positive (0.2%) on ELISA. Husbands of both women were tested and one found positive (migrant from Dubai). Second women had history of blood transfusion. Her husband was HIV negative. During the study period, in addition to 2 pregnant women diagnosed as HIV positive through ANC risk screening, 6 confirmed HIV positive women, found pregnant were referred from 'HIV Treatment Centre', Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS) to Prevention of Parent to Child Transmission (PPTCT) centre for obstetric care. Spouses of 5 out of 6 had history of working abroad and extramarital sexual relationships. All positive (8) women were referred to PPTCT centre for further management. A simple 'Risk Assessment Questionnaire' can help us in identifying women who need HIV screening. Sexual transmission still remains the
Michalowicz, Bryan S; DiAngelis, Anthony J; Novak, M John; Buchanan, William; Papapanou, Panos N; Mitchell, Dennis A; Curran, Alice E; Lupo, Virginia R; Ferguson, James E; Bofill, James; Matseoane, Stephen; Deinard, Amos S; Rogers, Tyson B
Although clinicians generally consider it safe to provide dental care for pregnant women, supporting clinical trial evidence is lacking. This study compares safety outcomes from a trial in which pregnant women received scaling and root planing and other dental treatments. The authors randomly assigned 823 women with periodontitis to receive scaling and root planing, either at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation or up to three months after delivery. They evaluated all subjects for essential dental treatment (EDT) needs, defined as the presence of moderate-to-severe caries or fractured or abscessed teeth; 351 women received complete EDT at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation. The authors used Fisher exact test and a propensity-score adjustment to compare rates of serious adverse events, spontaneous abortions/stillbirths, fetal/congenital anomalies and preterm deliveries ( .05) between women who received EDT and those who did not require this treatment, or between groups that received both EDT and periodontal treatment, either EDT or periodontal treatment alone, or no treatment. Use of topical or local anesthetics during root planing also was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes. EDT in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation was not associated with an increased risk of experiencing serious medical adverse events or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Data from larger studies and from groups with other treatment needs are needed to confirm the safety of dental care in pregnant women. This study provides evidence that EDT and use of topical and local anesthetics are safe in pregnant women at 13 to 21 weeks' gestation.
Full Text Available Objective — to study the effectiveness and safety of the use of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy in pregnant women with cholestatic hepatosis. Patients and methods. A total of 42 pregnant women, who were under outpatient and inpatient treatment in the department of obstetric problems of extragenital pathology for the period of 2013–2015 years were comprehensively examined. All pregnant at the time of observation were at the end of the II and III trimester of pregnancy. All 42 pregnant were divided into three groups. Results. For the end of the treatment by Ursonost preparation in the first and second group of pregnant was marked a general improvement of well-being such as reduction of fatigue, weakness, dyspepsia and pruritus. Also, was noted a normalization of blood biochemical parameters. Conclusions. As a result of the inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy was observed a significant improvement in overall well-being and normalization of blood biochemical parameters in women of the first and second test groups. Application of the proposed medical complex in the present groups of pregnant women allowed to seize the results of the pregnancy outcomes and almost avoiding premature delivery. Effectiveness and safety of the use of preparation during the pregnancy allow recommend inclusion of Ursonost preparation of Organosin Company, produced by Francia Farmaceutici Industria Farmaco Biologica S.r.l. (Italy to the treatment regimen of cholestatic hepatosis in pregnant.
Albrecht, M; Bánóczy, J; Baranyi, E; Tamás, G; Szalay, J; Egyed, J; Simon, G; Ember, G
The longitudinal examination of 132 pregnant diabetic women under care showed a 96.2% prevalence of gingivitis. The intensity of gingivitis was most marked in weeks 11 to 15, and 24 to 26 of pregnancy, and the correlation with changes in oral hygiene was statistically significant (p less than 0.001). On the other hand, the severity of diabetes had no effect on the degree of gingival inflammation. As for caries, the mean DMF values increased during diabetic pregnancy, the number of carious (D) and filled (F) teeth to a higher, that of extracted (M) teeth to a lesser degree, than in diabetic non-pregnant women.
Husak, V.; Ryznar, V.; Klener, V.
Based on a critical analysis of a large amount of data from the literature, a table was prepared of radiation loads of the fetus after administration of radiopharmaceuticals to pregnant women. Briefly mentioned are recent findings on the biological effects of ionizing radiation on the fetus and the radiation risk was evaluated of radiopharmaceuticals administered during the third trimester of pregnancy. The possibility is discussed to evaluate the benefit of radionuclide examinations of pregnant women in relation to the radiation risk. (author). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 31 refs
Benjamin A I
Full Text Available The role of immunization in reducing childhood mortality cannot be over-emphasised, yet many opportunities for immunization are missed when children and pregnant women visit a health facility. Reducing missed opportunities is the cheapest way to increase immunization coverage. The present study discusses the extent of the problem of missed opportunities for immunization in children and pregnant women and the factors contributing to the problem, in spatiality and community outreach clinics of Christian Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana. Recommendations are made regarding ways and means of reducing missed opportunities.
Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...
Dahl, Katja; Hvidman, Lone; Jørgensen, Finn Stener
OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this study was to assess pregnant women's knowledge of first trimester combined Down's syndrome screening in a setting of required informed consent. Secondary, we wanted to identify relevant differences in knowledge level among subgroups of pregnant women, including...... of adverse findings other than Down's syndrome. Knowledge level was positively associated with length of education (adjusted ORs 1.0 (0.8-1.4) to 3.9 (2.4-6.4)) and participation in the screening programme (adjusted OR 0.9 (0.6-1.3) to 5.9 (3.9-8.8)). Participation in an individual information session...
Because of the rapid proliferation of the use of video display units for data processing, we have investigated the levels of the personnel exposure to parasit X-rays emission from these devices. The case of pregnant women was investigated because the greater part of the staff involved is female. In the worst case, the dose equivalent received by the foetus at the most exposed point is estimated at 0,01 μSv. This level is too low to cause any pathology. There is, therefore, no reason to discard pregnant women from the use of video display units [fr
Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infection, as a risk factor for adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes, is one of the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. The objective of this study was to determine prevalence of urinary tract infection and its associated risk factors in pregnant women. Material and Methods: In a cross-sectional analytical study a total 2496 pregnant women who were underwent prenatal care through July 2011 in three rural and six urban health centers of Ardabil city, were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was performed using a self designed questionnaire from women's prenatal care records, 240 pregnant women with positive urine culture were considered as a case group and the remaining as a control group. Data were analyzed through Kruskal – Wallis, Chi-square and Stepwise Logistic Regression statistical tests using SPSS version 16. Results: The incidence of urinary tract infection was 9.7%. Low socioeconomic status ( p=0.021, OR= 2/338, CI= 1/138-4/766,distance between pregnancies less than 3 years( p=0.026, OR= 2/137, CI= 1/093-4/141,and hyperemesis gravidarum( p=0.039, OR=2/06, CI= 1/038-4/098were determined as risk factors that significantly contribute to urinary tract infection in pregnant women. Conclusion: We conclude that appropriate distance between pregnancies, intensive care of pregnant women with low socioeconomic status and hyperemesis gravidarum may significantly prevent urinary tract infection and its related adverse health effects among pregnant women. K
Habibzadeh, Shahram; Peeri-Doghaheh, Hadi; Mohammad-Shahi, Jafar; Mobini, Elham; Shahbazzadegan, Samira
Trans-placental transmission of parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can causes adverse outcomes. Regarding its importance in prenatal care, we decided to study prevalence of parvovirus B19 infection among pregnant woman in Ardabil, Iran. In a community based study with a cluster sampling, 350 pregnant women that attended in health care centers in Ardabil were selected. Serum samples were collected and Anti-B19 specific IgG was detected using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Euroimmune Elisa kit, Germany). Furthermore, a questionnaire filled for all participants during samples collection. 64.6% (226/350) of participants were Ardabil citizen and the rest were from rural area (124/350). Anti-B19-specific IgG antibody was detected in 69.1% of pregnant women (242/350). Participants' ages ranged from 15 to 34 years with average of 23 years. According to our study, seroprevalence of IgG antibodies had positive significant correlation with the participants' age (r=0.268) but there were no significant relations between B19 seropositivity and living area, family member, number of commensals, number of living children, and the amount of hemoglobin (p>0.05). Approximately, one-third of the participants were at risk of primary B19 infection. Therefore, health education of pregnant women and screening of infected pregnant women is recommended to prevent fetal complications.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization endorses the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy for treatment of acute uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. However, the effects of pregnancy on the pharmacokinetics of artemisinin derivatives, such as artesunate (AS, are poorly understood. In this analysis, the population pharmacokinetics of oral AS, and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA, were studied in pregnant and non-pregnant women at the Kingasani Maternity Clinic in the DRC. Methods Data were obtained from 26 pregnant women in the second (22 - 26 weeks or the third (32 - 36 weeks trimester of pregnancy and from 25 non-pregnant female controls. All subjects received 200 mg AS. Plasma AS and DHA were measured using a validated LC-MS method. Estimates for pharmacokinetic and variability parameters were obtained through nonlinear mixed effects modelling. Results A simultaneous parent-metabolite model was developed consisting of mixed zero-order, lagged first-order absorption of AS, a one-compartment model for AS, and a one-compartment model for DHA. Complete conversion of AS to DHA was assumed. The model displayed satisfactory goodness-of-fit, stability, and predictive ability. Apparent clearance (CL/F and volume of distribution (V/F estimates, with 95% bootstrap confidence intervals, were as follows: 195 L (139-285 L for AS V/F, 895 L/h (788-1045 L/h for AS CL/F, 91.4 L (78.5-109 L for DHA V/F, and 64.0 L/h (55.1-75.2 L/h for DHA CL/F. The effect of pregnancy on DHA CL/F was determined to be significant, with a pregnancy-associated increase in DHA CL/F of 42.3% (19.7 - 72.3%. Conclusions In this analysis, pharmacokinetic modelling suggests that pregnant women have accelerated DHA clearance compared to non-pregnant women receiving orally administered AS. These findings, in conjunction with a previous non-compartmental analysis of the modelled data, provide further evidence that
Full Text Available
Research Goal was to study features of psychoemotional status of pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency. Materials. 112 pregnant women with chronic fetoplacental insuffciency; 73 women with physiological course of pregnancy and delivery. Research of personal psychological characteristics was carried out by Minnesota multidimensional personal index (MMPI, adapted by F. B. Berezina and V. P Miroshnikova (1989. Personal and reactive anxiety was defned by method of self-appraisal according to D. Spilberger and Yu. L. Khalin. Results. Psychoveg-etative changes lead to unequal mobilization of various visceral systems, which can promote development of different complications of pregnancy course along with other factors, including fetoplacental insuffciency. Pregnant women with increased level of reactive anxiety more often have isolated decrease of uteroplacental blood fow; at hyperdepression combined disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was revealed; at hypochondria disturbance of uteroplacental and fetoplacental blood fow was also marked. Conclusion. Pregnant women with fetoplacental insuf-fciency demonstrated increase of anxiety and psychasthenia. As gestation period extended, patients with fetoplacental insuffciency marked high level of lability and reactivity of vegetative nervous system in combination with increased anxiety and presence of depression. Taking into consideration psychovegetative basis of occurrence of functional disturbances in the system mother-placenta-fetus, determination of personal psychoemotional features and state of vegetative nervous system, with future correction of reveled disturbances, should be obligatory.
Nana Philip N
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To compare the prevalence of gynaecological conditions among HIV infected and non-infected pregnant women. Methods Two thousand and eight (2008 pregnant women were screened for HIV, lower genital tract infections and lower genital tract neoplasia at booking antenatal visit. Results About 10% (198/2008 were HIV positive. All lower genital tract infections except candidiasis were more prevalent among HIV positive compared to HIV negative women: vaginal candidiasis (36.9% vs 35.4%; p = 0.678, Trichomoniasis (21.2% vs 10.6%; p p p = 0.026, syphilis (35.9% vs 10.6%; p Chlamydia trachomatis (38.4% vs 7.1%; p p p Conclusion We conclude that (i sexually transmitted infections (STIs are common in both HIV positive and HIV negative pregnant women in Cameroon, and (ii STIs and preinvasive cervical lesions are more prevalent in HIV-infected pregnant women compared to their non-infected compatriots. We recommend routine screening and treatment of STIs during antenatal care in Cameroon and other countries with similar social profiles.
Batool, K.; Bano, K.A.; Sherwani, M.I.K.
Background: Syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease which seemed to have disappeared or had been controlled over the years, has now been re-emerged as a major public health problem in many communities. It can complicate the pregnancies with serious consequences. Appropriate treatment of pregnant women often prevents such complications. Aims: To study the frequency of syphilis in pregnant women attending a tertiary care public sector hospital, and see the positivity for HIV/AIDS among syphilis positive women. Patients and Methods: This cross sectional and interventional study was conducted among pregnant women attending Sir Ganga Ram hospital for antenatal care at PMRC Research Centre, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore. Blood samples from 2000 women were collected after taking consent. The blood was tested for syphilis by Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination. History of the subjects for risks factors was also taken. Syphilis positive women were further screened for human immunodeficiency virus positivity. Results: The treponemal antibodies were detected in less than one percent (9) pregnant women. The highest positivity was observed among age group of 21-26 years. Women in third trimester were significantly more infected with syphilis. Risk factors included husband's history with frequent traveling and drug abuse. All husbands of syphilis positive women were also positive. All syphilis positive women and their husbands were negative for Human immunodeficiency virus /Acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Conclusions: Less than 1% of pregnant women were infected with syphilis, and most of the spouses of these positive women were either travelers or drug addicts.(author)
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing the utilisation of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT in a resource poor setting in South Africa. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om faktore te identifiseer wat die benutting van die Voorkoming van Moeder-tot-Kind Oordrag (VMTKO beïnvloed in ‘n omgewing in Suid-Afrika wat arm is aan hulpbronne. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.
Shah, Ira; Lala, Mamatha; Damania, Kaizad
Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. All pregnant women referred to the antenatal clinic from 1993 onward were tested for HIV infection by ELISA test after pretest counseling. A woman was diagnosed to be HIV infected if she tested positive on more than two HIV ELISA tests. Prevalence of HIV infection in them was calculated and also whether there was an increasing trend was determined. A total of 123,439 pregnant women were tested for HIV from 1993 to 2004, of which 1797 women were HIV infected. Overall, the prevalence rate was found to be 1.4%. Prevalence rose from 0.76% in 1993 to 2.37% in 1998. However, from 2004, the prevalence has decreased to 0.6%. Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in Mumbai is decreasing.
Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother–to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women referred to the antenatal clinic from 1993 onward were tested for HIV infection by ELISA test after pretest counseling. A woman was diagnosed to be HIV infected if she tested positive on more than two HIV ELISA tests. Prevalence of HIV infection in them was calculated and also whether there was an increasing trend was determined. Results: A total of 123,439 pregnant women were tested for HIV from 1993 to 2004, of which 1797 women were HIV infected. Overall, the prevalence rate was found to be 1.4%. Prevalence rose from 0.76% in 1993 to 2.37% in 1998. However, from 2004, the prevalence has decreased to 0.6%. Conclusion: Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in Mumbai is decreasing.
Shah, Ira; Lala, Mamatha; Damania, Kaizad
Aim: Prevalence of HIV among pregnant women in India is of great concern, especially to prevent HIV in children. Mother–to-child transmission of HIV is the most common cause of transmission of HIV in children. Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in India has ranged from 0.7% to 1.2%. Thus, estimating prevalence of HIV in pregnant women would aid in developing and prioritizing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV programs. Materials and Methods: All pregnant women referred to the antenatal clinic from 1993 onward were tested for HIV infection by ELISA test after pretest counseling. A woman was diagnosed to be HIV infected if she tested positive on more than two HIV ELISA tests. Prevalence of HIV infection in them was calculated and also whether there was an increasing trend was determined. Results: A total of 123,439 pregnant women were tested for HIV from 1993 to 2004, of which 1797 women were HIV infected. Overall, the prevalence rate was found to be 1.4%. Prevalence rose from 0.76% in 1993 to 2.37% in 1998. However, from 2004, the prevalence has decreased to 0.6%. Conclusion: Prevalence of HIV in pregnant women in Mumbai is decreasing. PMID:29302524
Orchard, Elizabeth; Dix, Sarah; Wilson, Neil; Mackillop, Lucy; Ormerod, Oliver
There is concern over ionizing radiation exposure in women who are pregnant or of child-bearing age. Due to the increasing prevalence of congenital and acquired heart disease, the number of women who require cardiac interventions during pregnancy has increased. We have developed protocols for cardiac interventions in pregnant women and women of child-bearing age, aimed at substantially reducing both fluoroscopy duration and radiation doses. Over five years, we performed cardiac interventions on 15 pregnant women, nine postpartum women and four as part of prepregnancy assessment. Fluoroscopy times were minimized by simultaneous use of intracardiac echocardiography, and by using very low frame rates (2/second) during fluoroscopy. The procedures most commonly undertaken were closure of atrial septal defect (ASD) or patent foramen ovale (PFO) in 16 women, coronary angiograms in seven, right and left heart catheters in three and two stent placements. The mean screening time for all patients was 2.38 minutes (range 0.48-13.7), the median radiation dose was 66 (8.9-1501) Gy/cm(2). The median radiation dose to uterus was 1.92 (0.59-5.47) μGy, and the patient estimated dose was 0.24 (0.095-0.80) mSv. Ionizing radiation can be used safely in the management of severe cardiac structural disease in pregnancy, with very low ionizing radiation dose to the mother and extremely low exposure to the fetus. With experience, ionizing radiation doses at our institution have been reduced.
Afzali, Hasan; Momen Heravi, Mansooreh; Moravveji, Seyyed Alireza; Poorrahnama, Maryam
The transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is parenteral, sexual and prenatal. Prevention of vertical transmission of HBV is extremely important, because HBV infection in early life usually results in a chronic carrier state. There has been so much debate about hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening in pregnant women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBsAg+ among pregnant women referred to Beheshti hospital in Kashan in 2012. This descriptive study was carried out on 768 pregnant women, hospitalized in Beheshti Hospital of Kashan in 2012. After obtaining consent forms, the questionnaires including demographic and HBV infection-associated risk factors were filled through interview and then 5 mL blood was taken from each patient and HBsAg was examined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. These data were analyzed by statistical package for the social science (SPSS) software. A total of 12 (1.56%) out of 768 pregnant women were HBsAg+. The mean age of HBsAg+ cases was 24.5 ± 4 years. Most of the HBsAg+ cases (66.6%) were uneducated; 17.7% of the pregnant women were not Iranian, of which 7.4% were HBsAg+. There was no high-risk job, recent dentistry interruption or skin tattoo among the HBsAg+ cases. In this study, 1.56% of pregnant women were HBsAg+, which was higher than the previous studies. This increasing prevalence may be due to the increase of non-Iranians' migrations to Iran. Control of migration and screening and vaccination of these groups should be considered by health policy makers.
Blood concentration profiles for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, chorionic gonadotropin, testosterone, estradiol, estriol, progesterone, cortisol and sex hormonebinding globulin throughout a menstrual cycle were derived from measurements by radioimmunoassay and related procedures on serial blood samples from 16 normal women as controls. Similar studies were then performed on 9 normal women receiving a low-dose oral contraceptive combination of D-norgestrel and ethynlestradiol. Further studies were performed on 9 out of 16 normal women in whom progestational contraception was carried out with orally administered lynestrenol or intramuscularly administered norethindrone enathate and on 12 normal pregnant women from the 28th to the 38th week of pregnancy. Additional studies embracing chorionic gonadotropin progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone were performed on 10 normal pregnant women from the 6th to the 12th week of pregnancy. Detailed results are presented and their significance discussed
Espana, M.L.; Prieto, C.; Perez, L.; Tomasi, L.; Lopez Franco, P.
The decrease in the limits of dose equivalent at the entry of the abdomen of occupationally exposed pregnant women, as recommended by ICRP-60, necessitates to evaluate with dosimeter the various professional positions in different services existing in a health care centre, to guarantee that such limits cannot be exceeded, and thus ensure the protection of the foetus. The results obtained in this work, related exclusively to external radiation dose, show that the radiation protection system currently in force is in compliance with the regulation in the majority of the professional positions evaluated, though stricter criteria for pregnant women workers must be established with the aim of obtaining a better dose optimization. The fact that pregnant operators are working in Nuclear Medicine requires an additional effort to ensure that doses in excess of the limits stated are prevented
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of pregnant women about benefits and doses of folic acid consumption during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: A simple randomized study has been done with 300 pregnant women in (Mahdied, Shohada, Shariati hospital. Women were asked about their information and about consumption of folic acid in order to prevent nural tube defect and reasons for not taking it. Results: There were 300 women, 150 (50% had been recommended before to consume folic acid but only 46 (31% of them used it during pregnancy. There were 37 (12% who aware about taking it. Conclusion: Although 50% of women had been recommended to consume of folic acid, less than 50% of the women who were surveyed have been taking it. Strategies are required to increase folate intake among pregnant women and inform of the benefits of folate supplementation by the health eduction.
Yeruva, Thirupathaiah; Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Donugama, Vasundhara
Lactobacilli species that are better adapted to vaginal environment of women may colonize better and offer protection against vaginal pathogenic bacteria. In this study, the distribution of common Lactobacillus species was investigated in pregnant women. Sixty seven pregnant women were included in the study and vaginal samples were collected for Gram staining. Women were classified as normal vaginal flora, intermediate flora and bacterial vaginosis (BV) based on Nugent's score. Vaginal samples were also collected for the identification of Lactobacillus spp. by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) profiling of 16S rDNA amplification method. Lactobacillus crispatus (100%) was the most predominant Lactobacillus spp. present in pregnant women with normal flora, followed by L. iners (77%), L. jensenii (74%) and L. helveticus (60%). While, L. iners was commonly present across groups in women with normal, intermediate or BV flora, L. crispatus, L. jensenii and L. helveticus decreased significantly as the vaginal flora changed to intermediate and BV. In women with BV, except L. iners other species of lactobacilli was less frequently prevalent. Species such as L. rhamnosus, L. fermentum, L. paracasei and L. casei were not detected in any vaginal sample. L. crispatus, L. jensinii and L. helveticus were predominant species in women with normal flora. L. crispatus alone or in combination with L. jensinii and L. helveticus may be evaluated for probiotic properties for the prevention and treatment of BV.
Butchon, Rukmanee; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; McNeil, Edward; Suchonwanich, Yolsilp
To determine the rates of births in adolescent pregnant women in diferent regions of Thailand and assess the rates of complications occurring at pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum in women admitted in the hospitals ofThailand. The secondary analysis of data from pregnant women aged 10 to 49 years, who were admitted to hospitals and recorded in the National Health Security Office database between October 2010 and September 2011 was carried out. Adolescent birth rate by the regions and rate of complications ofpregnancy, delivery, and postpartum by age groups were analyzed. Highest birth rate was found among women aged 19 years (58.3 per 1, 000 population). The distribution of adolescent births varied across regions of Thailand, which was high in central region. Rate of preterm delivery was highest (10%) in adolescent aged 10 to 14 years. Rate of diabetes mellitus (6%), preeclampsia (4%), and postpartum hemorrhage (3%) among women aged 35 to 49 years were substantially higher than those among women aged 34 years or less. Adolescent birth rate varied across regions of Thailand. Complications occurred differently by ages of women. Holistic policy and planning strategies for proper prevention and management among pregnant women in different age groups are needed
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria leading to increase in the risk of maternal mortality, low birth weight and infant mortality. This paper is aimed at highlighting key predictors of the ownership of insecticide treated nets (ITNs and its use among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods A total of 2348 pregnant women were selected by a multi-stage probability sampling technique. Structured interview schedule was used to elicit information on socio-demographic characteristics, ITN ownership, use, knowledge, behaviour and practices. Logistic regression was used to detect predictors of two indicators: ITN ownership, and ITN use in pregnancy among those who owned ITNs. Results ITN ownership was low; only 28.8% owned ITNs. Key predictors of ITN ownership included women who knew that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 3.85; p p = 0.003. The use of ITNs was equally low with only 7.5% of all pregnant women, and 25.7% of all pregnant women who owned ITNs sleeping under a net. The predictors of ITN use in pregnancy among women who owned ITNs (N = 677 identified by logistic regression were: urban residence (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001; knowledge that ITNs prevent malaria (OR = 2.93; p p = 0.036. Educational level was not significantly related to any of the two outcome variables. Although registration at ANC is significantly associated with ownership of a bednet (perhaps through free ITN distribution this does not translate to significant use of ITNs. Conclusions ITN use lagged well behind ITN ownership. This seems to suggest that the current mass distribution of ITNs at antenatal facilities and community levels may not necessarily lead to use unless it is accompanied by behaviour change interventions that address the community level perceptions, misconceptions and positively position ITN as an effective prevention device to prevent malaria
Jin, Lei; Yeung, Lorraine F; Cogswell, Mary E; Ye, Rongwei; Berry, Robert J; Liu, Jianmeng; Hu, Dale J; Zhu, Li
To report the prevalence of anaemia by demographic characteristics and its secular trend over 13 years for south-east Chinese pregnant women, and to determine the focus of anaemia prevention in Chinese pregnant women. Prospective study of the data on Hb concentration and other demographic information from a large-scale population-based perinatal health surveillance system in south-east China. Fourteen cities or counties in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces. A total of 467 057 prenatal women who had participated in the perinatal health-care surveillance system and delivered babies from 1 January 1993 to 31 December 2005 and had a record of Hb in all three pregnancy trimesters. The overall prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women was 39.6 % from 1993 to 2005. Anaemia prevalence increased from the first (29.6 %) to the second (33.0 %) and third (56.2 %) trimesters. The prevalence of anaemia was higher in villagers, in women with less education and in women with higher gravidity or parity. The prevalence of anaemia in all of the trimesters was higher in the spring, summer and autumn and lower in the winter. The prevalence decreased from 1993 to 2005, from 53.3 % to 11.4 % for the first trimester, 45.6 % to 22.8 % for the second trimester and 64.6 % to 44.6 % for the third trimester. The prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women in Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces decreased substantially from 1993 to 2005. However, anaemia in the third trimester is still a severe public health problem among pregnant women in these areas.
Jun, I J; Jun, J; Kim, E M; Lee, K Y; Kim, N; Chung, M H; Choi, Y R; Choi, E M
This study set out to compare the onset and duration of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in second trimester pregnant women and non-pregnant women receiving general anesthesia. Forty-seven pregnant (Group P) and forty-seven non-pregnant (Group C) women were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2.0 mg/kg and rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, and neuromuscular blockade was assessed with an accelerometric sensor using train-of-four stimulation (TOF-Watch® SX). Tracheal intubation was performed at maximum depression of the first twitch (T1) and anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane 1.5-2.5% and 50% oxygen in air. We recorded the times to maximum T1 depression and 5% and 25% T1 recovery, as well as the mean arterial pressure and heart rate at baseline, injection of rocuronium, intubation, and 5% and 25% T1 recovery. The onset of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (time to maximum T1 depression) did not differ significantly between the groups. The duration (time to 25% T1 recovery) was significantly longer in Group P than in Group C (45.7 ± 12.9 min vs 40.6 ± 10.4 min, P rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade did not significantly differ in onset but lasted significantly longer in second trimester pregnant women compared with non-pregnant women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nora A. Al-Faris
Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OHD was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OHD < 50 nmol/L and insufficiency (25(OHD = 50–74 nmol/L were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OHD concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
Sato, Ana Paula Sayuri; Fujimori, Elizabeth
This study described the nutritional status of 228 pregnant women and the influence of this on birth weight. This is a retrospective study, developed in a health center in the municipality of São Paulo, with data obtained from medical records. Linear regression analysis was carried out. An association was verified between the initial and final nutritional status (ppregnancy underweight was higher compared those who started overweight/obese (p=0.005). Weight gain was insufficient for 43.4% of the pregnant women with adequate initial weight and for 36.4% of all the pregnant women studied. However, 37.1% of those who began the pregnancy overweight/obese finished with excessive weight gain, a condition that ultimately affected almost a quarter of the pregnant women. Anemia and low birth weight were uncommon, however, in the linear regression analysis, birth weight was associated with weight gain (pimportance of nutritional care before and during pregnancy to promote maternal-infant health.
Background: The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection and ... Conclusion: A significant proportion of pregnant women have been exposed to Toxoplasma gondii, with the ..... observation that food-borne transmission of T. gondii is increasingly recognized as a potentially.
Quiroga-Feuchter, Germán; Robles-Torres, Rosa Evangelina; Ruelas-Morán, Andrés; Gómez-Alcalá, Alejandro V
Urinary tract infection is a common pregnancy complication. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) can trigger the development of serious complications affecting both the mother and the fetus. Determine the frequency of AB among pregnant women attending to antenatal care at the family medicine clinic number 1 of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, located in Ciudad Obregón, Sonora. A longitudinal study was carried out from September to December 2004. Seventy-two 72 pregnant women with gestational age of 24 weeks or less were followed up during four months. All pregnant women were selected by a non-probabilistic method. Every patient had a monthly urine culture during the follow up period. Among the 72 pregnant women, 16.7% developed symptomatic urinary infections during the follow-up and 25% had at least one positive urine culture without urinary symptoms, being classified as AB, thus receiving treatment. Frequency of positive urine cultures was common at first and fourth months of follow-up. Urine culture is an important component of prenatal care, and helps in identifying a significant number of urinary tract infections that would go otherwise undetected.
Knudsen, Ane-Kersti Skaarup; Long, Manhai; Pedersen, Henning S
in Disko Bay had the lowest intake of terrestrial species. No significant geographical differences were found for intake of marine mammals or seabirds. CONCLUSIONS: The present study found relatively high BMI level and high smoking frequency in Greenlandic pregnant women. Age and region differences were...
Results: 35% of pregnant women (95% CI 31% - 38%) had utilised ITNs. Factors that promoted ... 0.050) and being single/widow/divorced (AOR 0.22, p-value 0.000). Conclusion: .... being engaged in business (OR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.08. - 2.26 ...
Dr S.B. OLALEYE
Back pain is (BP) is recognized as an important problem in pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence and pattern of back pain. (BP) in pregnancy. A survey of 2,187 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinics in selected Medical facilities in Ibadan and Ogbomoso, Nigeria was carried out ...
Having not being informed and helped adequately, a significant percentage of pregnant women continued to smoke throughout their pregnancy. The failure in imposing the clean indoor air law in public places in Greece has also contributed to the increased passive smoking exposure.
Positive findings on ultrasound were significantly greater in the group with specific indications for scanning, P< 0.001. Conclusion: Our suggestion is that ultrasound examination in pregnant women should be performed only when there are clear obstetric reasons, established clinically. Key Words: obstetric ultrasound scan, ...
Toxoplasmosis is a neglected tropical protozoan disease of public health importance. This study estimated the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis and the associated risk factors among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria. Two hundred and ...
The patterns and predictors of physical activity (PA) in pregnant women is poorly understood. This study described the patterns of physical activity (PA) in specific domains (home, occupation, transport and exercise/sport) and intensities (light, moderate and vigorous), and determined the factors associated with achieving ...
Background: Geophagy, a regular and deliberate habit of eating non-food substances is practiced worldwide and in sub-Saharan Africa. ... was not associated with parasitic infections in pregnant women, geophagy was found to have a significant association with education, history of geophagy and the feeding problems.
This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only.
Three hundred pregnant women between ages 15-60 years and attending antenatal clinics in Lagos State, Nigeria were screened for trichomoniasis in 2015. High vaginal swab samples obtained from the participants were examined by direct wet mount microscopy to determine prevalence of infection. Questionnaires were ...
Apr 2, 2014 ... Ordinioha and Brisibe: Alcohol consumption by pregnant women in South‑South Nigeria. 14. Nigerian Journal ... that they may have, and social and family supports for .... through the mass media, 21 (18.42%) read it in the internet, while 13 .... while all the Muslim respondents and Christians of the. 7th Day ...
In a survey of 200 pregnant women (mean age 24 years) attending a traditional birth home (TBH) in Abeokuta, Nigeria, 19 (9.5%) were found to be rhesus negative, 8 (42.1%) of which were primigravidae while 11 (57.9%) were multigravidae. 87.5% of the Rhesus negative primigravidae delivered at the TBH without being ...
Malaria is a chronic parasitic disease that affects everybody but with pregnant women and children under the age of 5 years as its main target. The adverse complications of malaria in pregnancy makes it of immense public health importance. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of malaria among antenatal ...
Toxic metals are part of the most important groups of environmental pollutants that can bind to vital cellular components and interfere with their functions via inhalation, foods, water etc. The serum levels of toxic metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic) in pregnant women with history of pregnancy complications, ...
Malaria during pregnancy poses a substantial risk to mother and foetus especially an infection with Plasmodium falciparum. This study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of falciparum malaria among pregnant women in Aba South Local Government Area, Abia State, south-east Nigeria. Blood samples from 432 ...
Al-Faris, Nora A
Vitamin D deficiency has emerged as a public health problem worldwide due to its important role in health and disease. The present work is intended to examine prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among pregnant Saudi women and related risk factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out at King Fahad Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 160 pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and maternal characteristics were collected and vitamin D intake was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. Weight and height were measured using standardized methods. Vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D L) and insufficiency (25(OH)D = 50-74 nmol/L) were reported in 50% and 43.8% of the study sample, respectively. Median serum 25(OH)D concentration was 49.9 nmol/L. Adequate vitamin D intake (≥600 IU/day) was reported among only 8.1% of pregnant women. Age group, educational level, sun exposure frequency and daytime and daily practice of exercise were significantly associated with vitamin D status. Overall, vitamin D deficiency was common among pregnant Saudi women in Riyadh. Steps should be taken to address the current situation, including increased sunlight exposure, consumption of fatty fish, and vitamin D supplements.
A study on the prevalence of malaria parasitaemia and anaemia among pregnant women attending Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Umuahia and Nwachinemere Maternity and Child-Care (NMCCD) Ihie in Umuahia metropolis in Abia State Nigeria was carried out between April and October 2010. Blood samples were ...
... prophylaxis against pregnancy loss in 58 pregnant Sudanese women with recurrent (>3) miscarriages associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Three (5.1%) patients had early miscarriages, three (5.1%) patients developed pre-eclamptic toxaemia and forty-seven (81%) of the 58 patients had cesarean delivery.
HIV prevalence and trends among pregnant women in Abuja, Nigeria: a 5-year ... trends in HIV prevalence to ascertain the current course of the HIV epidemic in ... Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV and its ...
Objective: This study determined the prevalence and socio‑demographic characteristics of bacterial vaginosis (BV) among pregnant women with abnormal vaginal discharge. Study Design: Descriptive cross‑sectional study. Setting: University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Vaginal swab samples ...
60.4%) were asymptomatic. There were 92 out of 250 pregnant women (36.8%) that had three or more of the Amsel's criteria for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis. The associated risk factors for developing bacterial vaginosis in the study ...
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy represents a risk factor in the occurrence of vaginal candidiasis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical features associated with abnormal vaginal discharge and C. albicans infection in pregnant women. METHODS: High vaginal swab samples and data on epidemiological ...
This study reports the incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) among 80 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Oluyoro Catholic Hospital (OCH), Ibadan, Nigeria, as well as the isolation and identification of the pathogens responsible for the infection. A total of 80 clean voided mid-stream urine samples were ...
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy and these infections. Untreated UTI can be associated with serious obstetric complications. This cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of UTI among symptomatic and asymptomatic pregnant women ...
Molatelo Elisa Shikwane
Jan 3, 2014 ... To cite this article: Molatelo Elisa Shikwane, Olga M. Villar-Loubet, Stephen M. Weiss, Karl Peltzer & Deborah L. Jones. (2013) HIV knowledge, disclosure and sexual risk among pregnant women and their partners in rural South Africa, SAHARA-. J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: An Open Access ...
To date, studies have sought cause and effect and have neglected the opinion of the people about what they perceive to be problematic and what they believe constitutes satisfactory maternity service provision. An exploratory qualitative study was carried out to identify pregnant women in a rural Niger Delta community's ...
The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia in 200 pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic (ANC) of Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) between April and June 2003 was determined. Geimsa-stained thick and thin blood films were examined microscopically for malaria parasites; the parasite densities were ...
Boggess, Kim A; Urlaub, Diana M; Massey, Katie E; Moos, Merry-K; Matheson, Matthew B; Lorenz, Carol
Daily oral hygiene and regular dental visits are important components of oral health care. The authors' objective in this study was to examine women's oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. The authors developed a written oral health questionnaire and administered it to 599 pregnant women. They collected demographic information, as well as data on oral hygiene practices and use of dental services during pregnancy. They used chi2 and multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between oral hygiene practice and dental service use during pregnancy and to identify maternal predictor variables. Of the 599 participants, 83 percent (n=497) reported brushing once or twice per day. Twenty-four percent (n=141) reported flossing at least once daily; Hispanic women were more likely to floss than were white or African American women (28 percent [52 of 183] versus 22 percent [54 of 248] versus 19 percent [23 of 121], respectively, Pdental care during pregnancy. Hispanic women were significantly less likely than were black or white women to receive routine dental care during pregnancy (13 percent versus 21 percent versus 36 percent, respectively, Pdental care when not pregnant were significantly associated with lack of routine dental care during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratios, 95 percent confidence intervals: 2.56 [1.33-4.92]; 2.19 [1.11-4.29]; 2.02 [1.12-3.65]; 1.86 [1.13-3.07]; and 4.35 [2.5-7.69], respectively). A woman's lack of receiving routine dental care when not pregnant was the most significant predictor of lack of receiving dental care during pregnancy. Racial, ethnic and economic disparities related to oral hygiene practices and dental service utilization during pregnancy exist. Medical and dental care providers who treat women of reproductive age and pregnant women need to develop policy strategies to address this population's access barriers to, and use of, dental care services.
van der Graaf, Rieke; van der Zande, Indira S E; den Ruijter, Hester M; Oudijk, Martijn A; van Delden, Johannes J M; Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Groenwold, Rolf H H
Since pregnant women are severely underrepresented in clinical research, many take the position that the exclusion of pregnant women from research must be justified unless there are compelling "scientific reasons" for their exclusion. However, it is questionable whether this approach renders research with pregnant women fair. This paper analyzes and evaluates when research with pregnant women can be considered as fair and what constitutes scientific reasons for exclusion. Conceptual ethical and methodological analysis and evaluation of fair inclusion. Fair inclusion of pregnant women means (1) that pregnant women who are eligible are not excluded solely for being pregnant and (2) that the research interests of pregnant women are prioritized, meaning that they ought to receive substantially more attention. Fairness does not imply that pregnant women should be included in virtually every research project, as including only a few pregnant women in a population consisting only of women will not help to determine the effectiveness and safety of a treatment in pregnant women. Separate trials in pregnant women may be preferable once we assume, or know, that effects of interventions in pregnant women differ from the effects in other subpopulations, or when we assume, or know, that there are no differences. In the latter case, it may be preferable to conduct post-marketing studies or establish registries. If there is no conclusive evidence indicating either differences or equivalence of effects between pregnant and non-pregnant women, yet it seems unlikely that major differences or exact equivalence exist, the inclusion of pregnant women should be sufficient. Depending on the research question, this boils down to representativeness in terms of the proportion of pregnant and non-pregnant women, or to oversampling pregnant women. Fair inclusion of pregnant women in research implies that separate trials in pregnant women should be promoted. Inclusion of pregnant women has to
Identifying pregnant women who would adhere to food taboos in a rural ... Poor maternal nutrition, especially in rural settings, adversely affects pregnancy and ... Data was collected from 405 pregnant women that attended antenatal care at ...
pregnant blackAfrican women. Uric acid levels for the pregnant women were significantly raised, and the relationship between uric acid elevation and gestational proteinuric hypertensionwas discussed. In conclusion, we recommend that uric acid ...
... contaminate. For example, after cutting meat, wash the knife before using it to cut vegetables. COOK: Cook ... Adults Men and Women Moms/ Moms-to-Be Making Healthy Choices in Each Food Group MyPlate Plan ...
Anwar, N; Zaman, N; Nimmi, N; Chowdhury, T A; Khan, M H
There have been an association between systemic diseases and hormonal changes particularly diabetes which has been cited as a risk factor in the progression of periodontitis in pregnant women. The incidence and severity of periodontal diseases are increasing at a higher rate and a common condition in pregnant diabetic women among Bangladeshi population. This cross sectional study included 200 pregnant women who were selected from gynecological department and examined at the dental unit. The clinical parameters used were the Silness and Loe plaque index (PI), gingival scores and periodontal status and any relationship to socio demographic variables (age, occupation, level of education and urban or rural residence) and clinical variables (gestation period, previous pregnancy, type of diabetes and periodontal maintenance) were evaluated. The results showed that these clinical parameters increased concomitantly with an increase in the stage of pregnancy and in women with multiple pregnancies. Increased age, lower level of education, unemployment and patients residing in rural areas were associated with significantly higher gingival scores and periodontal measures. Women with increased age and multiple pregnancies usually have less interest to frequent periodontal maintenance showing a significant statistical relation between an increased age and changes in gingival and periodontal status; however no significant association was found between increased age and plaque index. It is concluded that gingival inflammatory symptoms are aggravated during pregnancy in diabetic women and are related to different clinical and demographic variables.
Deren, Sherry; And Others
Compared high-risk pregnant (n=55) and nonpregnant (n=598) women from Harlem on human immunodeficiency virus-related drug and sexual risk behaviors. Found higher percentage of intravenous drug users (IVDUs) among nonpregnant women and no significant differences between pregnant and nonpregnant IVDUs in terms of needle risk behaviors. Pregnant…
Bertuit, Jeanne; Leyh, Clara; Rooze, Marcel; Feipel, Véronique
Background: During pregnancy, physical and hormonal modifications occur. Morphologic alterations of the feet are found. These observations can induce alterations in plantar pressure. This study sought to investigate plantar pressures during gait in the last 4 months of pregnancy and in the postpartum period. A comparison with nulliparous women was conducted to investigate plantar pressure modifications during pregnancy. Methods: Fifty-eight women in the last 4 months of pregnancy, nine postpa...
Szilagyi, A; Szabo, I
Obstetrical and perinatal outcomes in newborns of diabetic pregnant women depend on metabolic control and fetal surveillance during pregnancy. The effects of fetal surveillance on perinatal mortality and morbidity was analyzed in diabetic pregnant women with appropriate glucose control in our regional center for diabetes and pregnancy. 480 deliveries complicated by frank or gestational diabetes occurred in our Department in the period of 1988-1999. Perinatal mortality and morbidity, prevalence of premature deliveries, methods of fetal surveillance, options for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) profilaxis, cesarean section rate, timing of delivery and its indications and occurrence of malformations have been analyzed. It was found that malformation rate and perinatal mortality may be reduced to even lower level than that of in healthy pregnant women by appropriate glucose control and by using the latest methods of intrauterine fetal surveillance including cardiotocography (non stress test and oxytocin challenge test), doppler fetal artery velocimetry and fetal pulse oximetry. Timing of delivery was needed in 35% of the cases with IDDM and 15% of gestational diabetes due to chronic placental insufficiency. If labour induction was needed before the 38 weeks, amniocentesis was performed to test fetal lung maturity. Direct fetal glucocorticoid administration was used to enhance fetal lung maturation in 14 cases. C-section rate was slightly higher than that of in non diabetic pregnant women. Our perinatal morbidity data (macrosomia, hyperbilirubinemia, hypoglycemia, injuries, infections) are comparable with the data from the literature. Although perinatal mortality with the help of thorough fetal surveillance is even better in diabetic pregnant women than in non diabetic patients, future eye should be focused on factors affecting perinatal morbidity, because it is still higher than in newborns of healthy mothers.
Full Text Available Pregnancy is a special physiological condition in a woman’s life. It usually involves a substantial change in health behaviour and lifestyle. The aim of rational nutrition among pregnant women is to prevent complications during pregnancy and ensure normal development of the foetus. Practical realisation of the principles of rational nutrition involves the application of a balanced diet. It limits both shortages and excessive amount of nutrients in the body. The aim of the paper was to evaluate health behaviour of pregnant women with secondary and higher education and the level of knowledge about healthy lifestyle and its impact on child development. The study included 43 pregnant women aged 20–40 years from Gdańsk birth schools of higher and secondary education. The study based on questionnaire provided information about the current state of knowledge about nutrition while pregnant and assessed the health behaviour of women: nutrition, substance abuse and physical activity. A pilot study reported that 84% of pregnant women were interested in proper nutrition while pregnant. An increased amount of food consumed per day (69% and portions of fruit and vegetables (98% was noticed. Also, it was noted that 58.1% of the respondents did not increase the consumption of sweets. Good appetite was observed only in the case of 53% of studied women, 47% presented loss of appetite; 19% of the respondents occasionally consumed alcohol, 30% drank coffee once per day and 9% several times a day. There was no woman smoking tobacco. Among the respondents, physically active ones included 51.2% and 39.5% did physical activity occasionally. The studied group of pregnant women with secondary and higher education changed their eating habits during pregnancy. Preliminary analysis of the results indicates the validity of conducting nutrition education in antenatal classes, which raises the nutritional knowledge and
Willcox, Jane Catherine; Ball, Kylie; Campbell, Karen Jane; Crawford, David Andrew; Wilkinson, Shelley Ann
to investigate correlates of pregnant women's gestational weight gain (GWG) knowledge commensurate with GWG guidelines. cross sectional quantitative study. an Australian tertiary level maternity hospital. pregnant women (n=1032) following their first antenatal visit. survey to assess GWG knowledge and a range of potential correlates of knowledge including socio-economic characteristics, pregnancy characteristics (parity, gestation, pre-pregnancy BMI) and GWG information procurement and GWG attitudinal variables. participants (n=366; 35.4% response) averaged 32.5 years of age with 33% speaking a language other than English. One third of women reported GWG knowledge consistent with guidelines. Women overweight prior to pregnancy were less likely to underestimate appropriate GWG (RRR 0.23, 95% CI=0.09-0.59). Conversely, women in the overweight (RRR 8.80, 95% CI=4.02-19.25) and obese (RRR 19.62, 95% CI=8.03-48.00) categories were more likely to overestimate GWG recommendations, while tertiary educated women were less likely to overestimate GWG (RRR 0.28, 95% CI=0.10-0.79). No associations were found between GWG knowledge and pregnancy, GWG information source or attitudinal variables. the findings highlight women's lack of GWG knowledge and the role of pre-pregnancy body mass index and women's education as correlates of GWG knowledge. Women susceptible to poor GWG knowledge should be a priority target for individual and community-based education. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santiago, Sarah E; Park, Grace H; Huffman, Kelly J
Healthy post-pregnancy outcomes are contingent upon an informed regimen of prenatal care encouraging healthy maternal consumption habits. In this article, we describe aspects of maternal intake of food, drink, and medication in a population of predominantly Hispanic women in Southern California. Potential implications for unhealthy prenatal dietary choices are discussed. The Food, Beverage, and Medication Intake Questionnaire (FBMIQ) measures common practices of maternal consumption during pregnancy. The FBMIQ was administered to English and Spanish speaking pregnant and recently pregnant (36 weeks pregnant - 8 weeks post-partum) women over the age of 18 who were receiving care from a private medical group in Downey CA. A total of 200 women completed the FBMIQ. Consumption habits of healthy foods and beverages, unhealthy foods, unhealthy beverages, and medication are characterized in this article. Data indicate widespread consumption of fresh fruit, meats, milk and juice and indicate most women used prenatal vitamin supplements. Studies in developmental neuroscience have shown that certain substances may cause teratogenic effects on the fetus when ingested by the mother during pregnancy. Those potentially harmful substances included in our study were Bisphenol-A (BPA), methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol and certain medications. Our results show that a proportion of the women surveyed in our study consumed BPA, methylmercury, caffeine, alcohol, and certain medications at varied levels during pregnancy. This represents an interesting finding and suggests a disconnect between scientific data and general recommendations provided to pregnant mothers by obstetricians. The results of our study demonstrate that a proportion of pregnant women consume substances that are potentially teratogenic and may impact the health and well being of the offspring. It is important to appraise healthy and unhealthy consumption habits in order to encourage healthy practices and alleviate
Shah, Megha K.; Kieffer, Edith C.; Choi, Hwajung; Schumann, Christina; Heisler, Michele
Background. Pregnancy is an opportune time to initiate diabetes prevention strategies for minority and underserved women, using culturally tailored interventions delivered by community health workers. A community-partnered randomized controlled trial (RCT) with pregnant Latino women resulted in significantly improved vegetable, fiber, added sugar,…
Zhong, Qiu-Yue; Gelaye, Bizu; Miller, Matthew; Fricchione, Gregory L; Cai, Tianxi; Johnson, Paula A; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A
Suicide is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in many countries, but little is known about the epidemiology of suicide and suicidal behavior among pregnant women in the USA. We sought to examine trends and provide nationally representative estimates for suicidal behavior (including suicidal ideation and suicide and self-inflicted injury) among pregnant women from 2006 to 2012 in the USA. Pregnant women aged 12-55 years were identified through pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalization records from the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample. Suicidal behavior was identified by the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual, nationwide estimates and trends were determined using discharge and hospital weights. The prevalence of suicidal ideation more than doubled from 2006 to 2012 (47.5 to 115.0 per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations), whereas the prevalence of suicide and self-inflicted injury remained stable. Nearly 10 % of suicidal behavior occurred in the 12-18-year group, showing the highest prevalence per 100,000 pregnancy- and delivery-related hospitalizations (158.8 in 2006 and 308.7 in 2012) over the study period. For suicidal ideation, blacks had higher prevalence than whites; women in the lowest income quartile had the highest prevalence. Although the prevalence of suicidal behavior was higher among hospitalizations with depression diagnoses, more than 30 % of hospitalizations were for suicidal behavior without depression diagnoses. Our findings highlight the increasing burden and racial differences in suicidal ideation among US pregnant women. Targeted suicide prevention efforts are needed for high-risk pregnant women including teens, blacks, and low-income women.
Walcott, Melonie M; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kwena, Zachary; Turan, Janet M
Women's ability to safely disclose their HIV-positive status to male partners is essential for uptake and continued use of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. However, little is known about the acceptability of potential approaches for facilitating partner disclosure. To lay the groundwork for developing an intervention, we conducted formative qualitative research to elicit feedback on three approaches for safe HIV disclosure for pregnant women and male partners in rural Kenya. This qualitative acceptability research included in-depth interviews with HIV-infected pregnant women (n = 20) and male partners of HIV-infected women (n = 20) as well as two focus groups with service providers (n = 16). The participants were recruited at health care facilities in two communities in rural Nyanza Province, Kenya, during the period June to November 2011. Data were managed in NVivo 9 and analyzed using a framework approach, drawing on grounded theory. We found that facilitating HIV disclosure is acceptable in this context, but that individual participants have varying expectations depending on their personal situation. Many participants displayed a strong preference for couples HIV counseling and testing (CHCT) with mutual disclosure facilitated by a trained health worker. Home-based approaches and programs in which pregnant women are asked to bring their partners to the healthcare facility were equally favored. Participants felt that home-based CHCT would be acceptable for this rural setting, but special attention must be paid to how this service is introduced in the community, training of the health workers who will conduct the home visits, and confidentiality. Pregnant couples should be given different options for assistance with HIV disclosure. Home-based CHCT could serve as an acceptable method to assist women and men with safe disclosure of HIV status. These findings can inform the design and implementation of programs geared at promoting HIV
Evelise Rigoni de Faria
Full Text Available Pregnant women living with HIV (PWLH face tremendous challenges in order to prevent their babies’ infection. Coping is a potential buffer against negative outcomes from these challenges. This study aims to describe coping strategies of PWLH. This cross-sectional survey involved 77 PWLH from a public health care center in Brazil. Coping was measured for three types of strategies: Problem-focused, Emotion-focused, and Relationship support. Multivariate analyses identified some coping predictors. Being employed, reporting religious practice and higher CD4/immunity were associated with Problem-focused coping. Lower educational level was associated with Emotion-focused strategies. Relationship support strategies were more likely to be reported by PWLH who had good social support, who had disclosed HIV status to the baby’s father, and who knew their infection before pregnancy. Findings underline the need for HIV interventions focused on social support and participation by the baby’s father, with particular attention to those PWLH who were recently diagnosed and economically vulnerable.
Rupérez, María; Noguera-Julian, Marc; González, Raquel; Maculuve, Sonia; Bellido, Rocío; Vala, Anifa; Rodríguez, Cristina; Sevene, Esperança; Paredes, Roger; Menéndez, Clara
Few data on HIV resistance in pregnancy are available from Mozambique, one of the countries with the highest HIV toll worldwide. Understanding the patterns of HIV drug resistance in pregnant women might help in tailoring optimal regimens for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (pMTCT) and antenatal care. To describe the frequency and characteristics of HIV drug resistance mutations (HIVDRM) in pregnant women with virological failure at delivery, despite pMTCT or antiretroviral therapy (ART). Samples from HIV-infected pregnant women from a rural area in southern Mozambique were analysed. Only women with HIV-1 RNA >400c/mL at delivery were included in the analysis. HIVDRM were determined using MiSeq® (detection threshold 1%) at the first antenatal care (ANC) visit and at the time of delivery. Ninety and 60 samples were available at the first ANC visit and delivery, respectively. At first ANC, 97% of the women had HIV-1 RNA>400c/mL, 39% had CD4+ counts HIV-1 genotyping, less than 20% of women with detectable viremia at delivery had HIVDRM before initiating pMTCT or ART. This suggests that factors other than pre-existing resistance, such as lack of adherence or interruptions of the ANC chain, are also relevant to explain lack of virological suppression at the time of delivery in women receiving antiretrovirals drugs during pregnancy.
Ewelina Gaszyńska; Justyna Klepacz-Szewczyk; Elżbieta Trafalska; Anna Garus-Pakowska; Franciszek Szatko
Objectives: The level of dental awareness of a pregnant woman affects the sanitary condition of her own teeth and the health of the child to be born. Poor oral health is considered to be a probable risk factor for the pre-term birth or low birth weight. The aim of this work was to assess the level of oral health knowledge that determines oral health condition of pregnant women in Poland. Material and Methods: Empirical data were obtained from the National Monitoring of Oral Health and Its Det...
Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared......, particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers....... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...
Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Mol, Ben Willem
Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific enrolment
Conclusions: As observed in this study, most pregnant women with previous caesarean delivery prefer repeated caesarean delivery rather than VD in their subsequent pregnancy and educational level of pregnant women and doctor′s advice were important factors that influenced this preference. This subject suggests the need to counsel pregnant women with an obstetrician before select delivery type.
Oude Rengerink, Katrien; Logtenberg, Sabine; Hooft, Lotty; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Mol, Ben Willem; Oude Rengerink, K
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women were excluded from clinical trials until the 1990s, but the Food and Drug Administration nowadays allows--and even encourages--responsible inclusion of pregnant women in trials with adequate safety monitoring. Still, randomized trials in pregnant women face specific
Olesen, Charlotte; Søndergaard, Charlotte; Thrane, Nana
Surveillance of drug safety in pregnancy often draws on administrative prescription registries. Noncompliance in the use of prescribed medication may be frequent among pregnant women owing to their fear of fetotoxic side effects. To estimate compliance in the use of prescription drugs dispensed...... during pregnancy, we compared prescription data from the North Jutland Prescription Database with information on drug use provided by pregnant women to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which is a health interview survey. We used the North Jutland Prescription Database to identify all prescription...... drugs dispensed during pregnancy for the 2,041 women who were enrolled in the DNBC in the County of North Jutland, Denmark. Compliance was defined as the probability of reporting drug use in DNBC after purchasing a dispensed prescription drug. The overall compliance to drugs purchased within 120 days...
Sommer, Janine; Daus, Mariana; Smith, María; Luna, Daniel
Today, health information technologies are constantly expanding and changing, allowing more and more people to use different mobile applications to receive information and control their health condition. Based on the need to implement an application for pregnant women in the Personal Health Record (PHR) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (HIBA), an Australian survey was carried out to measure the use and utility of a pregnancy application (pregnancy app). Our results were broadly in agreement with the reference values. The survey was distributed through social networks (Facebook and Twitter) during September 2016. We obtained 235 responses from Spanish-speaking women, mostly Argentinian. In conclusion, it could be observed that a pregnancy app offers the possibility of a greater follow-up and provides reassurance to the pregnant women who use it.
Boggess, Kim A; Espinola, Janice A; Moss, Kevin; Beck, Jim; Offenbacher, Steven; Camargo, Carlos A
Maternal periodontal disease is found in pregnancy outcomes. Vitamin D deficiency may play a role in periodontal disease and tooth loss, and insufficient vitamin D status is common among pregnant women. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and periodontal disease. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were defined as pregnant women with clinical moderate to severe periodontal disease; controls were pregnant women who were periodontally healthy. Maternal data were chart abstracted and serum was collected between 14 and 26 weeks of gestation. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Median serum 25(OH)D levels and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (defined as periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was calculated using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for maternal race, season of blood draw, and other potential confounders. A total of 117 cases were compared to 118 controls. Cases had lower median 25(OH)D levels than controls (59 versus 100 nmol/l; P periodontal disease among women with vitamin D insufficiency was 2.1 (0.99 to 4.5). Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D periodontal disease during pregnancy. Vitamin D supplementation represents a potential therapeutic strategy to improve maternal oral health.
Anna L. Njunda
Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by an intracellular protozoan, Toxoplasma gondii, which has a wide geographical distribution. The congenital form results in a gestational form that can present a temporary parasiteamia that will infect the fetus. For this reason early diagnosis in pregnancy is highly desirable, allowing prompt intervention in cases of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital. The study was carried out between March and July 2009, whereby 110 pregnant women were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies and information about eating habits and hygienic conditions was collected using a questionnaire. These women’s ages ranged from 20-44 years old with an average of 29.9 years; the overall IgG and IgM seroprevalence was 70% and 2.73 % respectively. Seroprevalence was significantly high amongst women who ate raw vegetables (76.39%, P<0.05 and there was a significant trend towards a higher seroprevalence in women who did not have a good source of water (75.58%, P<0.05. This research showed that consumption raw vegetables and poor quality drinking water are two risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii infection amongst pregnant women attending the Douala General Hospital in Cameroon.
Full Text Available The cause of neural tube defects (NTDs is multifactorial and in this case folic acid has an important role. Since the neural tube is closed during 21-28 days of pregnancy, most of women are not informed about their pregnancy at this time, and as a result the golden time of folic acid consumption is missed. The aim of this study was evaluating the performance of pregnant women attending to Tehran Women's Hospital in regard to folic acid intake during pre-conceptional period between 2011 and 2012. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 370 pregnant women attending the prenatal clinic of a hospital affiliate to Tehran University of Medical Sciences between 2011 and 2012. Data were collected through interview using a questionnaire. Although 70% of the pregnancies were planned, but 70.5% of pregnant women had not taken folic acid before conception or in necessary time. There was found a significant relationship between level of education, history of abnormalities in children and the number of abortions and taking folic acid before pregnancy (P=0.005, P=0.000 and P=0.000, respectively.
Hamid, K M; Onoja, A B; Tofa, U A; Garba, K N
Primary Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy is a frequent and serious threat to the fetus. As there is no vaccine alternative measures are needed to prevent congenital CMV infection. This study determined CMV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody among pregnant women in order to ascertain the immune status of mothers to guide policy makers. A semi-structured questionnaire was initially administered to obtain information on demographic details, stage of pregnancy and risk factors. Blood was collected by venipuncture from 180 women attending the antenatal clinic in Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. Sera samples were screened using CMV IgG ELISA kit (Dialab, Austria). Out of 180 pregnant women, 164 (91.1%) were seropositive. Based on stages of pregnancy 6/6(100%), 52/60(86.7%) and 106/114(93.0%) were seropositive among women in the first, second and third trimesters respectively. Seroprevalence of pregnant women to CMV Ig G is high, hence the need for CMV - IgM screening to know the extent of active infection. There is also need for public enlightenment on the methods of transmission, effective prevention and control strategies.
Leila Graziele Dias de Almeida
Full Text Available This research had how his objectives to investigate if there is difference between the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant women and no-pregnant women of period different of pregnancy. To get the informations necessary, we use the machine manuvacuômetro MVD 500 Mycrohard Globalmed , how the instrument to have the insp. and exp. pressure maxim of pregnant and no- pregnant women that have similar age. We use how criterion to select the informer this research to be pregnant in one group and not to be pregnant in another group. The women that participate of this research were choose aleatorialy through of the indications of the another persons. We went to their houses to collect data of the insp. and exp. maxim pressure and afterward, we organize, understand, pass to the category and, finely, to find the medium of the value. The value of the insp. and exp. maxim pressures that were found in the pregnant group was the follow: PE Max= 51,3 cm H20 and PIMax= 48,3 cm H20; the averages found in the not- pregnant were: PEMax= 73 cm H20, PIMax = 69,2 cm H20. The pregnants that were in the subgroup of the 1o to 5o month had a average of PE= 56 cm H20 and PI= 60 cm H20, while the pregnant of subgroup above the 6o month had the averages of PE and PI = 56 cm H20 and 43 cm H20, respective. Based in the results we conclude that have difference between the insp. and exp. pressures between pregnant and no-pregnant women, as well as in the pregnant of different period of pregnance.
Yadav R. J
Full Text Available Research Question: What is the coverage level of immunization and other maternal services by a modified technique developed by IRMS (ICMR Delhi in comparison to standard WHO technique. Objectives: To study the â€"Coverage level for immunization, antenatal care and IFA tablets â€"Relationship of caste and education with the coverage levels. â€"Place and persons conducting deliveries. Study design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Both in rural and urban areas of Bihar. Participants: 375 mothers having children up to one year of age selected by a stratified random sampling technique developed by IRMS Delhi. Study variables: Immunisation status, antenatal care, Use of IFA tabs, Education of the female, Education of husband, place and person conducting the delivery. Statistical analysis: Proportions. Results: Overall immunization coverage was 42% for pregnant females. Coverage was high (60% in urban areas compared to rural areas (40%. Coverage was low among females from SC/ST category, also when females and their husbands were illiterates. Similar trend was observed for antenatal care and IFA tabs. 90% deliveries took place at home and were mainly attended by village dais. Majority of mothers received immunization from some. Govt. agency lack of, awareness and lack of motivation were more commonly found as reasons for non-immunisation among SC/ST as compared to others. Lack of awareness was also found as a common reason for non-immunisation among illiterate females.
Mar 3, 2014 ... and 106/114(93.0%) were seropositive among women in the first, second and third trimesters respectively. .... transient depression of CMV- specific cellular immu- nity can be .... Malaysian Journal of Microbiology. 2007;3:23–8 ...
Cook, Rebecca J; Dickens, Bernard M
Recent decisions of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, and the High Court of Delhi have shown how the pregnancy-related deaths of individual women have been bases on which these authoritative tribunals have held Brazil, Paraguay, and India respectively accountable for avoidable maternal mortality not only in these cases, but also among their populations more generally. The right to life is the most fundamental of women's human rights, recognized in international human rights treaties and national laws. Failure of governments to apply their resources adequately to address, respect, and protect this right violates the law of human rights. These cases show, however, that governments may fail to allocate adequate resources to women's survival of pregnancy. Tribunals can build on the failures in individual cases to set standards of performance to which governments will legally be held to achieve safe motherhood. Copyright Â© 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV, defined as actual or threatened physical, sexual, psychological, and emotional abuse by current or former partners is a global public health concern. The prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence (IPV against pregnant women has not been described in Rwanda. A study was conducted to identify variables associated with IPV among Rwandan pregnant women. Methods A convenient sample of 600 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics were administered a questionnaire which included items on demographics, HIV status, IPV, and alcohol use by the male partner. Mean age and proportions of IPV in different groups were assessed. Odds of IPV were estimated using logistic regression analysis. Results Of the 600 respondents, 35.1% reported IPV in the last 12 months. HIV+ pregnant women had higher rates of all forms of IVP violence than HIV- pregnant women: pulling hair (44.3% vs. 20.3%, slapping (32.0% vs. 15.3%, kicking with fists (36.3% vs. 19.7%, throwing to the ground and kicking with feet (23.3% vs. 12.7%, and burning with hot liquid (4.1% vs. 3.5%. HIV positive participants were more than twice likely to report physical IPV than those who were HIV negative (OR = 2.38; 95% CI [1.59, 3.57]. Other factors positively associated with physical IPV included sexual abuse before the age of 14 years (OR = 2.69; 95% CI [1.69, 4.29], having an alcohol drinking male partner (OR = 4.10; 95% CI [2.48, 6.77] for occasional drinkers and OR = 3.37; 95% CI [2.05, 5.54] for heavy drinkers, and having a male partner with other sexual partners (OR = 1.53; 95% CI [1.15, 2.20]. Education was negatively associated with lifetime IPV. Conclusion We have reported on prevalence of IPV violence among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Rwanda, Central Africa. We advocate that screening for IPV be an integral part of HIV and AIDS care, as well as routine antenatal care. Services for battered women should also be
Nucci Luciana Bertoldi
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although obesity is well recognized as a current public health problem, its prevalence and impact among pregnant women have been less investigated in Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of pre-obesity and obesity among pregnant women, describing its prevalence and risk factors, and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: A cohort of 5,564 pregnant women, aged 20 years or more, enrolled at aproximately 20 to 28 weeks of pregnancy, seen in prenatal public clinics of six state capitals in Brazil were followed up, between 1991 and 1995. Prepregnancy weight, age, educational level and parity were obtained from a standard questionnaire. Height was measured in duplicate and the interviewer assigned the skin color. Nutritional status was defined using body mass index (BMI, according to World Health Organization (WHO criteria. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Age-adjusted prevalences (and 95% CI based on prepregnancy weight were: underweight 5.7% (5.1%-6.3%, overweight 19.2% (18.1%-20.3%, and obesity 5.5% (4.9%-6.2%. Obesity was more frequently observed in older black women, with a lower educational level and multiparous. Obese women had higher frequencies of gestational diabetes, macrosomia, hypertensive disorders, and lower risk of microsomia. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight nutritional status (obesity and pre-obesity was seen in 25% of adult pregnant women and it was associated with increased risk for several adverse pregnancy outcomes, such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia.
Kingston, Dawn E; Biringer, Anne; McDonald, Sheila W; Heaman, Maureen I; Lasiuk, Gerri C; Hegadoren, Kathy M; McDonald, Sarah D; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Sword, Wendy; Kingston, Joshua J; Jarema, Karly M; Vermeyden, Lydia; Austin, Marie-Paule
The process of mental health screening can influence disclosure, uptake of referral, and treatment; however, no studies have explored pregnant women's views of methods of mental health screening. The objectives of this study are to determine pregnant women's comfort and preferences regarding mental health screening. Pregnant women were recruited (May-December 2013) for this cross-sectional descriptive survey from prenatal classes and maternity clinics in Alberta, Canada, if they were aged >16 years and spoke/read English. Descriptive statistics summarized acceptability of screening, and multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with women's comfort with screening methods. Analysis was conducted in January-December 2014. The participation rate was 92% (N=460/500). Overall, 97.6% of women reported that they were very (74.8%) or somewhat (22.8%) comfortable with mental health screening in pregnancy. Women were most comfortable with completing paper- (>90%) and computer-based (>82%) screening in a clinic or at home, with fewest reporting comfort with telephone-based screening (62%). The majority of women were very/somewhat comfortable with provider-initiated (97.4%) versus self-initiated (68.7%) approaches. Women's ability to be honest with their provider about emotional health was most strongly associated with comfort with each method of screening. The majority of pregnant women viewed prenatal mental health screening favorably and were comfortable with a variety of screening methods. These findings provide evidence of high acceptability of screening--a key criterion for implementation of universal screening--and suggest that providers can select from a variety of screening methods best suited for their clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.
Fallin, Amanda; Miller, Alana; Assef, Sara; Ashford, Kristin
To describe perceptions and beliefs about electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use during pregnancy among pregnant and newly postpartum women. An exploratory, qualitative descriptive study. University-affiliated prenatal clinics. Twelve pregnant or recently postpartum women who reported use of tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Semistructured focus groups were audio recorded and professionally transcribed. The transcripts were coded to consensus and analyzed with MAXQDA software (version 11) using content analysis. Four overarching themes emerged: (a) Attraction to E-Cigarettes as a Harm Reduction Strategy, (b) Uncertainty Regarding the Health Effects of E-Cigarettes; (c) Ambivalence Regarding Novel Product Characteristics; and (d) Behaviors Reflected Dual Use and Often Complete Relapse to Traditional Cigarettes. Pregnant women are initially attracted to e-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy, but they often return to traditional cigarettes in the postpartum period. Nurses should counsel pregnant women on the adverse effects of fetal exposure to nicotine. Evidence-based nursing interventions are needed to prevent relapse during the postpartum period. Copyright © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tMETHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases.\tRESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 27.5±4.08. When they were asked about contraceptive methods, 61.2 % had knowledge about oral contraceptives, 78.7 % about preservatives, and 38 % had knowledge about tube ligation. 96.1 % of patients cited AIDS, 39.2 % hepatitis B and C, 29.4 % gonorrhea, 3.9 % chlamydia, 9.8 % herpes virus, 11.8 % HPV (genital wart and 27.5 % syphilisis as sexually transmitted diseases.\tCONCLUSION: The reason why this study is performed with pregnant women is that they have a sexual life, they are under the risk of sexually transmitted diseases and they need contraception. Finding out that pregnant women don’t have enough knowledge is important in regard to education of the population and preventive medicine.
Dee, Jacob; Garcia Calleja, Jesus M; Marsh, Kimberly; Zaidi, Irum; Murrill, Christopher; Swaminathan, Mahesh
Since the late 1980s, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sentinel serosurveillance among pregnant women attending select antenatal clinics (ANCs) based on unlinked anonymous testing (UAT) has provided invaluable information for tracking HIV prevalence and trends and informing global and national HIV models in most countries with generalized HIV epidemics. However, increased coverage of HIV testing, prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT), and antiretroviral therapy has heightened ethical concerns about UAT. PMTCT programs now routinely collect demographic and HIV testing information from the same pregnant women as serosurveillance and therefore present an alternative to UAT-based ANC serosurveillance. This paper reports on the evolution and current direction of the global approach to HIV surveillance among pregnant women attending ANCs, including the transition away from traditional UAT-based serosurveillance and toward new guidance from the World Health Organization and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS on the implementation of surveillance among pregnant women attending ANCs based on routine PMTCT program data. ©Jacob Dee, Jesus M Garcia Calleja, Kimberly Marsh, Irum Zaidi, Christopher Murrill, Mahesh Swaminathan. Originally published in JMIR Public Health and Surveillance (http://publichealth.jmir.org), 05.12.2017.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Routine antenatal screening for HIV combined with advances in highly active antiretroviral therapy has led to increased detection and effective treatment in pregnancy. AIM To know effectiveness of screening in antenatal mother and their husband for HIV status, seroprevalence rate among them and among their infants from a tertiary care hospital. We aim to outline key interventions which can influence the rate of mother to child transmission and how these are best incorporated into care of pregnant women and her baby including antenatal testing use of antiretroviral medication, management of labour and of breast-feeding. METHOD Retrospective analysis of Data over a period of six years available in Integrated counselling and Testing centre attached to Tertiary Care Government Medical College and Hospital Trichy, from 1 Jan 2010 to 31 Dec 2015. Data of Antenatal mothers screened and diagnosed as HIV Seropositive and its various outcomes related to these pregnancies were analysed. RESULTS Among 29215 women who were screened, 104 were found to be HIV seropositive. Declining seroprevalence rate from 0.66% in 2010 to 0.16% in 2015 noted. Among seropositive mothers, majority were in 25-34 years of age. Maximum incidence was in second gravida during initial years followed by primigravida, In subsequent years, declining seroprevalence rate in spouse and declining mother to child transmission rate were analysed. CONCLUSION Decreasing seroprevalence rate indicates effective counselling and intensive screening of HIV status of Antenatal mothers and their Husbands & their infants with effective Implementation of prevention of mother to child transmission programme and also effective treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy.
Romero, Roberto; Hassan, Sonia S; Gajer, Pawel
was higher than that of non-pregnant women; however, during normal pregnancy, bacterial communities shift almost exclusively from one CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. to another CST dominated by Lactobacillus spp. CONCLUSION: We report the first longitudinal study of the vaginal microbiota in normal......BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to characterize the vaginal microbiota throughout normal human pregnancy using sequence-based techniques. We compared the vaginal microbial composition of non-pregnant patients with a group of pregnant women who delivered at term. RESULTS: A retrospective case......-control longitudinal study was designed and included non-pregnant women (n = 32) and pregnant women who delivered at term (38 to 42 weeks) without complications (n = 22). Serial samples of vaginal fluid were collected from both non-pregnant and pregnant patients. A 16S rRNA gene sequence-based survey was conducted...
Chantacha Sitticharoon, M.D., Ph.D.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin between non-pregnant and pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese subjects. Methods: There were 40 pregnant and 33 non-pregnant women classified by body mass index (BMI into non-obese or obese subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in the morning for the non-pregnant group and before delivery for the pregnant group. Results: Plasma glucose levels were significantly lower, but plasma insulin levels were significantly higher in pregnant when compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese women (p<0.05 all. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was significantly higher, but the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI was significantly lower only in obese pregnant when compared to obese non-pregnant women (p<0.01 all. However, in non-obese women, HOMA-IR and QUICKI were comparable between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin were significantly lower in pregnant compared to non-pregnant women in overall, non-obese, and obese groups (p<0.05 all. In pregnant women, serum adiponectin and omentin levels were significantly lower in obese compared to non-obese pregnant women while serum visfatin levels were comparable in both groups. Serum adiponectin levels were highest followed by omentin and visfatin, respectively in both non-obese and obese pregnant groups. These results indicated that lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might contribute to higher insulin resistance in pregnancy. Furthermore, serum adiponectin and omentin were reduced in increasing adiposity similarly to non-pregnant women. Conclusion: Lower serum adiponectin, visfatin, and omentin in pregnant women might lead to decreased insulin sensitivity in these women.
Petersen, Kathrine Birch; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Rosthoj, Susanne
the Clinical Microbiology Database. Maternal data were obtained from a local database at the RH. RESULTS: In our cohort, a total of 638 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with GBS, 517 (81%) from urine, 92 (14%) from vaginal swabs and 29 (5%) from both. The overall rate of women colonised with GBS rose from 3......INTRODUCTION: Group B streptococci (GBS) can cause preterm delivery for women and sepsis and meningitis in infants younger than 90 days of age. The present retrospective cohort study determines the trend over time in the rates of GBS and in demographic risk factors for GBS among pregnant women...... delivering at Rigshospitalet (RH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period from 2002 to 2010, a total of 33,616 women gave birth at the RH. Our cohort was defined as 16,587 (49%) women examined by 24,724 cultures. All microbiological requisitions from the Department of Obstetrics at RH were extracted from...
Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, Henrik Segelcke; Astrup, Arne
therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...... were offered MRI scanning in gestational week (GW) 15, 64 in GW 32, and 45 in GW 40. Results: Of 106 women offered MRI scans 102 completed (96%) at least one scan. In total 177 out of 210 possible scans were completed. The proportion of women who completed first, second and third MRI scans were 96%, 83...
McGowan, C A
Vitamin D has an important role in pregnancy in promoting fetal skeletal health. Maternal dietary intake is a key factor influencing both maternal and fetal status. There are limited data available on food groups contributing to vitamin D intake in pregnancy. The aim of this study was to determine dietary intakes of vitamin D throughout pregnancy in 64 women and to determine the main food groups contributing to vitamin D intake. Results showed that median dietary intakes of vitamin D ranged from 1.9-2.1 μg\\/d during pregnancy, and were 80% below the current recommendation. The principal food groups contributing to vitamin D intake were meat, egg and breakfast cereal groups. Oily fish, the best dietary source of vitamin D, was consumed by <25% of women. These data call for more education; they question the role of vitamin D supplementation and highlight the contribution of other food groups more frequently consumed, namely, breakfast cereals, meat and eggs.
... Reports Slide Sets Infographics/Posters Dear Colleague Letters Social Media Videos Software Syndicated Content HIV Service Locators Hotlines and Referrals About the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Perinatal HIV ...
Greene, Saara; Ion, Allyson; Kwaramba, Gladys; Lazarus, Lisa; Loutfy, Mona
Pregnant women and mothers living with HIV are under surveillance of service providers, family members, and the community at large. Surveillance occurs throughout the medical management of their HIV during pregnancy, preventing HIV transmission to their baby, infant feeding practices, and as part of assessments related to their ability to mother. Enacted and anticipatory HIV-related stigma can exacerbate the negative impact that being under surveillance has on mothers living with HIV as they move through their pregnancy, birthing, and mothering experiences. In response, women living with HIV find ways to manage their experiences of surveillance through engaging in acts of distancing, planning, and resisting at different points in time, and sometimes enacting all three practices at once. Positioning the narratives of pregnant women and mothers living with HIV in relation to their experiences of surveillance illuminates the relationship between the surveillance of mothers living with HIV and HIV-related stigma.
Duffy, Emeir M; Bonham, Maxine P; Wallace, Julie M W; Chang, Chin-Kuo; Robson, Paula J; Myers, Gary J; Davidson, Philip W; Clarkson, Thomas W; Shamlaye, Conrad F; Strain, J J
To establish the Fe status of pregnant women and their neonates in the Republic of Seychelles. A prospective study. Republic of Seychelles. Pregnant women were recruited and blood samples taken at enrolment and post-delivery along with cord blood samples. Ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) were measured in maternal (n 220) and cord blood (n 123) samples. Maternal Fe deficiency (ferritin 28 nmol/l) was present in 6 % of subjects at enrolment and in 20 % at delivery. There was no significant decrease in maternal ferritin. A significant increase in sTfR was observed between enrolment and delivery (P < 0.001). Maternal BMI and use of Fe supplements at 28 weeks' gestation were associated with improved maternal Fe status at delivery, whereas parity had a negative effect on sTfR and ferritin at delivery. Fe status of pregnant Seychellois women was, on average, within normal ranges. The incidence of Fe deficiency throughout pregnancy in this population was similar to that in a Westernised population. Increased awareness of the importance of adequate Fe intake during pregnancy, particularly in multiparous women, is warranted.
Rodrigo Batista Souza
Full Text Available The aim this study was to determine the in vitro susceptibility to fosfomycin of bacteria isolated from urine samples of pregnant women with urinary tract infection. Samples of urine culture with bacterial growth of pregnant women were collected from clinical laboratories in Tubarão, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, between September 2012 and May 2013. In the experimental stage, the colonies were tested for sensitivity to fosfomycin by using the Kirby–Bauer method. The following information relating to the samples was also collected: patients’ age, colony count, type(s of identified bacterial(s and result of the antimicrobial sensitivity test. Student's t-test was used for mean comparison. A total of 134 samples were selected for the study. The age of the subjects ranged from 15 to 40 years (mean 26.7. Escherichia coli (Gram-negative and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive were the most commonly identified species. In 89% of cases, the microorganisms were sensitive to fosfomycin. E. coli and S. aureus were the main species of bacteria responsible for urinary tract infections in women in the study area. The most prevalent microorganisms in pregnant women with urinary tract infection were susceptible to fosfomycin.
To determine the frequency pattern of presentation and causative agents of lower urinary tract symptoms in pregnant females. One thousand consecutive pregnant women, attending the antenatal clinics of Fatima Memorial Hospital, were included in the study. Women with renal pathology, postrenal transplant and those on immunosuppressive agents were excluded. All women underwent complete examination of urine. Those who had one or more urinary complaints had culture and sensitivity test of urine. Other variables studied were the symptomatology. Out of one thousand pregnant women, 426 (42.6%) complained of one or more urinary symptoms. Diurnal and nocturnal frequency was the most commonly encountered symptom (87.32%), followed by irritative symptoms and voiding difficulties. Complete urine examination of symptomatic patients revealed < 5 pus cells /HPF (high power field) in 322 cases and 6-20 pus cell/HPF in the remaining 104 cases. The urine culture of the symptomatic patients (426 cases) showed growth in only 37 cases (8.69%). Escherichia (E.) coli was the commonest organism (89.1%) followed by Staphylococcus (S.) aureus (8.1%) and candidiasis (2.7%). (author)
Duria Abdulwhab Rayis
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.
Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Abel, Marianne Hope; Haugen, Margaretha; Meltzer, Helle Margrete
Pregnant women and infants are exceptionally vulnerable to iodine deficiency. The aims of the present study were to estimate iodine intake, to investigate sources of iodine, to identify predictors of low or suboptimal iodine intake (defined as intakes below 100 μg/day and 150 μg/day) in a large population of pregnant Norwegian women and to evaluate iodine status in a sub-population. Iodine intake was calculated based on a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort. The median iodine intake was 141 μg/day from food and 166 μg/day from food and supplements. Use of iodine-containing supplements was reported by 31.6%. The main source of iodine from food was dairy products, contributing 67% and 43% in non-supplement and iodine-supplement users, respectively. Of 61,904 women, 16.1% had iodine intake below 100 μg/day, 42.0% had iodine intake below 150 μg/day and only 21.7% reached the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD recommendation of 250 μg/day. Dietary behaviors associated with increased risk of low and suboptimal iodine intake were: no use of iodine-containing supplements and low intake of milk/yogurt, seafood and eggs. The median urinary iodine concentration measured in 119 participants (69 μg/L) confirmed insufficient iodine intake. Public health strategies are needed to improve and secure the iodine status of pregnant women in Norway.
I. A. Lyoshenko
Abstract Purpose. To determine the state of various stages of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion as a risk factor for premature detachment of the placenta. Results. There was investigated the state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion by low piezoelectric thromboelastography (LPTEG and standard coagulogram. According to the LPTEG results this group of women was found to have increased plasma coagulation potential manifested in elevated constant thrombin activity (TAC by 76.8%, the intensity of coagulation drive (ICD by 74.9%, maximum clot density (MA by 16.8%, shortening of coagulation time (T3 by 7.8% and inhibition of fibrinolysis manifested by decrease in retraction intensity and clot lysis (RICL by 67.7% (p<0.05. Conclusions. The state of hemostasis in pregnant women with hydramnion is characterized by increased plasma coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis potential that are factors of preparing the woman’s body for the upcoming birth to control and minimize blood loss. Keywords: pregnancy, hydramnion, hemostasis, thromboelastography.
This outline review concludes that pregnancy is a major contra-indication for any diagnostic procedures. The only exception is a perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs, when a pulmonary embolism is suspected. Accidental exposures of the embryo should be guarded against by implementing the ten day rule for diagnostic examinations of fertile women at risk of pregnancy. In the event of clinical emergencies resulting in radiation of an early developing embryo, reconstruction of the received dose is essential. A foetal dose of 10 rads or more is usually considered as an indication of a therapeutic abortion, while doses below 1 rad can probably be neglected. (U.K.)
Full Text Available Global coverage of prevention of mother-to-child (PMTCT services reached 53% in 2009. However the number of pregnant women who test positive for HIV in antenatal clinics and who link into long-term HIV care is not known in many resource-poor countries. We measured the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in Mwanza city, Tanzania, who completed the cascade of care from antenatal HIV diagnosis to assessment and engagement in care in adult HIV clinics.Thirty antenatal and maternity ward health workers were interviewed about PMTCT activities. Nine antenatal HIV education sessions were observed. A prospective cohort of 403 HIV-positive women was enrolled by specially-trained clinicians and nurses on admission to delivery and followed for four months post-partum. Information was collected on referral and attendance at adult HIV clinics, eligibility for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and reasons for lack of attendance.Overall, 70% of PMTCT health workers referred HIV-positive pregnant women to the HIV clinic for assessment and care. Antenatal HIV education sessions did not cover on-going care for HIV-infected women. Of 310 cohort participants tested in pregnancy, 51% had received an HIV clinic referral pre-delivery. Only 32% of 244 women followed to four months post-partum had attended an HIV clinic and been assessed for HAART eligibility. Non-attendance for HIV care was independently associated with fewer antenatal visits, poor PMTCT prophylaxis compliance, non-disclosure of HIV status, and non-Sukuma ethnicity.Most women identified as HIV-positive during pregnancy were not assessed for HAART eligibility during pregnancy or in the first four months post-partum. Initiating HAART at the antenatal clinic, improved counselling and linkages to care between PMTCT and adult HIV treatment services and reducing stigma surrounding disclosure of HIV results would benefit on-going care of HIV-positive pregnant women.
T. A. Melikova
Full Text Available Some kind of specific system: placenta - thyroid gland - is said to be formed during pregnancy. Regulation of thyroid hormone metabolism depends on the state of the fetoplacental complex (FPC. The nature of the relationship of thyroid gland (TG with the FPC affects the course of pregnancy, fetal growth and the formation of his own pituitary-thyroid system. Goal. To study the characteristics of the hormonal function of fetoplacental complex in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease. Materials and methods. The study included 102 pregnant women: group I – 29 women with euthyroid as the outcome of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT, 25 women with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism as a form of AIT were included into the second group, in III group – 23 women with autoimmune hyperthyroidism. The control group consisted of 25 healthy women. Hypophysial and thyroid system hormonal profile and FPK of pregnant women were detected in dynamics. Results. It is revealed that reliable change of hormonal indexes of function of hypophysial and thyroid system leads to weighable changes of indexes of FPK and the AFP level in mother's blood, i.e. to a placentary failure, are result of it: early and late gestosis (54.5 %, chronic fetal hypoxia (21.7 %, discoordination of patrimonial activity (5.2 %, premature births (17.2 %, threat of an abortion (7.4 %. Conclusions. According to our data the most accurate diagnostic criterion for the development of primary placental insufficiency in pregnant women with thyroid conditions can be considered the change in the level of estriol, progesterone, placental lactogen and AFP in the dynamics of gestation. Their determination can be considered as predictor for early treatment and prevention of placental insufficiency.
Olén, Ola; Montgomery, Scott M; Ekbom, Anders; Bollgren, Ingela; Ludvigsson, Jonas F
Previous research has indicated a link between coeliac disease (CD) and urinary tract infection (UTI). The objective of this study was to assess the risk of UTI and repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy in women with diagnosed or undiagnosed CD. A national registry-based cohort study restricted to pregnant women was used in this investigation, with linkage between the Swedish National Medical Birth Registry and the National Inpatient Registry. We analysed the risk of UTI during pregnancy from 1973 to 1989 in 212 pregnancies to women who had received a diagnosis of CD prior to giving birth and in 786 pregnancies to women diagnosed after giving birth. We also assessed the risk of repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy according to data in the national birth records of 1990-2001 in 617 women with CD diagnosed prior to giving birth and 109 women diagnosed after giving birth. UTI during pregnancy: UTI occurred during 19,139/1,678,304 pregnancies to women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, compared with in 12/786 pregnancies to women with undiagnosed CD (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.37; 95% CI=0.78-2.43; p=0.276) and in 0/212 pregnancies to women with diagnosed CD (AOR=0.06; 95% CI=0.00-8.94; p=0.277) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality and calendar period). Repeated episodes of UTI before the current pregnancy: among 692,991 women who had never had a diagnosis of CD, 74,776 reported repeated episodes of UTI, compared with 14/101 women with undiagnosed CD (AOR=1.39; 95% CI=0.79-2.45; p=0.255) and 69/566 women with diagnosed CD (AOR=1.02; 95% CI=0.79-1.32; p=0.864) (ORs adjusted for maternal age, parity, nationality, calendar period and civil status). Adjustment for smoking in a subset of patients with available data did not change the risk estimates. It cannot be ruled out that undiagnosed CD in pregnant women is associated with a small, increased risk of UTI. In pregnant women with diagnosed CD, there seems to be no
Shrestha, S; Thapa, P; Saleh, F; Thapa, N; Stray, B Pedersen; Khanom, K
Diabetes mellitus is an emerging health problem in developing world with the consumption of energy dense diet and inactive lifestyle. The problem of diabetes is further expanded due to ignorance and lack of knowledge. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of diabetes among pregnant women in three districts of Nepal. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in three districts in mountain, hilly and plain areas of Nepal. A total of 590 pregnant women were interviewed during the period of July 2009 to June 2010. A knowledge score system was applied. Poor score was 60%) of the total score. Statistical software SPSS 11.5 was used for data entry, data management and analysis. Out of 590 pregnant women, only 41% had heard about diabetes mellitus. Majority of the participants (75%) from age group >30 years had not heard about diabetes. Among the 241 with some knowledge, the knowledge score median percent(range) on the meaning, symptoms, risk factors, treatment, prevention, complications and overall knowledge were 50%(0-100), 25% (0-75), 20% (0-60), 20% (0-100), 25% (0-100), 20% (0-60) and 26% (0- 58) respectively. According to defined category, majority of those who ever heard about diabetes had poor knowledge (95%). Knowledge among literate women (p=.001), women residing in Kailali district (plain region) (p=.003) and those with positive family history of diabetes (p=.003) was found to be significant. As large proportions of Nepalese pregnant women do not have any knowledge or have poor knowledge regarding diabetes, extensive health education and health promotion programs are urgently recommended to prevent diabetes in Nepal.
Full Text Available Pregnancy causes significant haemodynamic changes and imposes stress on the cardiovascular system. Many healthy women develop signs and symptoms of cardiovascular overload during pregnancy. Knowledge of established normal changes in EKG during normal pregnancy is important. The aim of our study was to detect any early damage to myocardium during pregnancy with the help of electrocardiography. Total of 20 pregnant and 20 non pregnant women were studied. The most significant change observed in ECG was T wave inversion with odds ratio 7.43 (95%. Cl = 1.49 to 41.00. P= 0.005. Stratified analysis showed that there was no confounding role of age in the relationship of T wave inversion and ECG findings. Moreover, a significant relationship between anaemia and T wave inversion was also observed. (0=1.74 ■ 1101.06; P= 0.007.
de Aguiar, M M; da Silva, H J; Rizzo, J Â; Leite, D F B; Silva Lima, M E P L; Sarinho, E S C
The aim of this study was to systematically review the safety and efficacy of inhaled beclomethasone for asthma treatment in pregnant women. We performed a systematic review in Medline, LILACS and SciELO electronic databases in December 2012. A total of 3433 articles were found by using the keywords asthma, pregnancy and beclomethasone. Among these, 1666 were from Medline, via PubMed, and 1767 were from LILACS and SciELO. Nine of these articles were selected. Only one paper suggested an increased foetal risk for congenital malformations, and one other for offspring endocrine and metabolic disturbances. Data are mostly reassuring, supporting the use of glucocorticoid inhalants during pregnancy, and we found no evidence of inferiority in relation to efficacy and safety of beclomethasone compared to other drugs used in pregnant asthmatic women. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although pregnancy was once thought to protect against psychiatric disorders, gravid and non gravid women have similar risks for major depression, at 10% to 15%. Both depression and antidepressant treatment during pregnancy have been associated with risks. Few medications have been proved unequivocally safe during pregnancy. Although certain antidepressants have not been linked with an increased risk of birth defects or impaired development including bupropion, citalopram, escitalopram and venlafaxine, the latest studies aren't necessarily reassuring. As researchers continue to learn more about antidepressants, the risks and benefits of taking the drugs during pregnancy must be weighed carefully on a case-by-case basis. This review discusses about the use of new generation of antidepressants in pregnancy
Auriault, F; Thollon, L; Peres, J; Delotte, J; Kayvantash, K; Brunet, C; Behr, M
This study report documents the development of a finite element (FE) model for analyzing trauma in pregnant women involved in road accidents and help the design of a specific safety device. The model is representative of a 50th percentile pregnant woman at 26 weeks of pregnancy in sitting position. To achieve this, the HUMOS 2 model, which has been validated in a wide range of dynamic tests, was scaled to the morphology of a woman in the 50th percentile and coupled with a model of gravid uterus. During scaling, special attention was paid to the pelvic region which is known to differ considerably in morphological terms between men and women. The gravid uterus model includes a placenta, a fetus, uterosacral ligaments and the amniotic fluid by means of fluid structure interaction formulation. The uterus and the female model were coupled using an original method whereby the growth of an uterus was simulated to compress the abdominal organs in a realistic manner. The model was validated based on experimental tests described in the literature. Additional tests based on abdominal loadings with a seatbelt on Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) coupled to silicone uterus were also performed. Results highlighted the role of the possible interaction of the fetus in the pregnant woman abdominal response. Experimental corridors taking into account the presence of this fetus could therefore be proposed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karaduman, Mevlüt; Sarı, Oktay; Aydoğan, Umit; Akpak, Yaşam Kemal; Semiz, Altuğ; Yılanlıoğlu, Necip Cihangir; Keskin, Uğur
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disease which is estimated to be undiagnosed to a large extent. Hence, the prevalence of OSAS in pregnant women is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea in pregnant women with chronic diseases. In the study, 97 pregnant women with chronic diseases and 160 healthy pregnant women were included. A form questioning socio-demographic characteristics and pregnancy characteristics, Epworth scale and the Berlin questionnaire to evaluate the risk of OSAS were applied to participants. It has been determined that 10-12.5% of healthy pregnant women, 34-45.4% of pregnants with chronic diseases and 20.6-23.3% of all pregnant women had a high risk of OSAS, the pregnants with chronic disease compared to healthy pregnant women had statistically significant higher risk of OSAS. The risk of OSAS was found to be significantly higher especially in pregnant women with hypertension and diabetes. OSAS can lead to the adverse consequences in pregnancy, should be questioned for all pregnants especially those with chronic diseases. Pregnant women with OSAS should be monitored more carefully in terms of diabetes and hypertension in antenatal care.
Carriero, Carmine; Fascilla, Fabiana Divina; Cramarossa, Paola; Lepera, Achiropita; Bettocchi, Stefano; Vimercati, Antonella
In this retrospective case-control study, we analyse data of 48 HIV-positive pregnant patients, versus a control group of 99 HIV-negative pregnant women, followed as outpatients by our department from 2009 to 2014. The aims of the study were to investigate the prevalence, persistence and progression of cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) in each group and to correlate colpo-cytological lesions to the socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory findings in the HIV + pregnant women. In our study we observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions. Pap smear and colposcopy should be part of routine care for HIV-infected pregnant women because these lesions behave aggressively in these patients. Success of prevention depends on massive access of patients to screening. HAART reduces viral load and maintains CD4 count and can affect progression of SIL. Multidisciplinary services on the same site appear to be one promising strategy to improve compliance in patients. Impact Statement What is already known on this subject: Our study provided novel information on a highly vulnerable population of young HIV + pregnant women. What the results of this study add: We observed that immunosuppression, HPV infection and vaginal coinfections were predictive of cervical lesions remarkable with colposcopy. We could consider these important risk factors to evaluate to establish an appropriate strategy of management for these patients. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Association of the risk between SIL presence and HIV and HPV infection also deserves additional investigation. We believe that Pap smears and colposcopies should be part of the routine care for HIV-infected women because these lesions behave particularly aggressively in these patients.
This podcast is targeted to pregnant women and explains 1) the signs and symptoms of the flu, and 2) what to do if you experience and signs and symptoms. This podcast is NOT a substitute for the advice of your doctor or health care provider. It is intended for educational purposes only. Created: 11/17/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Office of the Director (OD). Date Released: 11/17/2010.
Fan, Ling; Zou, Li-ying; Wu, Yu-mei; Zhang, Wei-yuan
To investigate the risk factors associated with abnormal cervical cytology findings in pregnant women. From Sep. 2007 to Sep. 2008, 12,112 pregnant women who underwent their antenatal examinations at 12-36 gestational weeks in Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital were enrolled in this study. They were all excluded from the following pathologic obstetrics factors including threatened abortion, premature rupture of membranes or placental previa. Thinprep cytology test (TCT) were given at their first examination, meanwhile, a personal clinic file was established to record her occupation, education, address, family income, nationality, age of first intercourse, number of sex partners, contraception, marriage and pregnancy, current gynecologic diseases, family history of gynecologic tumors, history of gynecologic diseases and smoking and result of pelvic examination. Those risk factors leading to abnormal cervical cytology were analyzed. The complete clinical data were collected from 11 906 cases (98.30%, 11,906/12,112). It was found that 10,354 women were shown with normal TCT result, however, 1134 women (9.52%, 1134/11,906) with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 112 women (0.94%, 112/11,906) with atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), 229 women (1.92%, 229/11,906) with low grade squamous intraepithelial (LSIL), 74 women (0.62%, 74/11,906) with high grade squamous intraepithelial (HSIL). Multiple factorial non-conditioned logistic regression analysis showed that age of first sexual intercourse (OR(ASCUS) = 2.90, OR(AGUS) = 7.32), number of sex partners (OR(ASCUS) = 1.49, OR(AGUS) = 2.02), number of abortion (OR(ASCUS) = 1.68, OR(AGUS) = 3.50) were correlated with ASCUS and AGUS. In LSIL group and HSIL group, age of first sexual intercourse (OR(LSIL) = 6.34, OR(HSIL) = 9.26), number of sex partners (OR(LSIL) = 1.69, OR(HSIL) = 1.65), number of abortion (OR(LSIL) = 1.53, OR(HSIL) = 5.33), smoking (OR(LSIL) = 1
Full Text Available Background & aim: Care provision is one of the most important factors in preventing and reducing mortality among pregnant mothers. Despite availability, the uptake of health services in health centers is undesirable. This study aimed to investigate the factors influencing the behavior of pregnant women towards using prenatal care services based on health belief model in healthcare centers of Tuyserkan, Hamadan Province, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study, 165 mothers visiting the health care centers of Tuyserkan, Hamadan Province, Iran, 1-15 days postpartum were chosen using the convenient sampling method during 2015. A self-structured questionnaire comprising items on demographics, knowledge, and health belief model constructs was employed for data collection. The data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, independent t-test, and logistic regression. Results: The study revealed that 72.1% of the pregnant women had regular visits, while 27.9% had irregular visits. Logistic regression reflected that knowledge (OR=0.929 and self-efficacy (OR= 0.976 were effective variables on regular prenatal visits. Conclusion: Considering pregnant women's physiological and anatomical conditions, prenatal care and regular visits are essential; thus, effective interventions in this area should be planned and implemented.
Adhikari, A.; Biswas, S.; Chattopadhyay, J.C.
Objective: To evaluate the drug use habit of pregnant women in villages of central India. Methods: An observational, cross sectional study was conducted among six hundred fifty pregnant women from different randomly selected villages of Wardha district of central India through interviews on medicine use behaviour and evaluation of prescriptions. Results: Pregnant women of younger age group from lower socio economic status constituted the majority of the study population. Major portion (97.7) of this socio economically backward population followed the doctor's advice as far as dose, frequency and duration of the drug was concerned. The antenatal mothers were of the opinion that, if the instructions on the drug envelop or foil was in written in the local language, it could be more helpful for them. Conclusion: Majority of the study population used drugs or medicines regularly but some mothers were reluctant. This indicated that even in this age of advancement of scientific knowledge, all antenatal mothers were not conversant with the advantages of drug use. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND A prospective clinical study to know the various types of congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies on obstetric Ultrasound, in rural pregnant women. To reduce the maternal morbidity and mortality by early detection of these Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies. To calculate the incidence and prevalence of different types of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies, in these rural pregnant women. To assist the obstetrician in taking decisions regarding the termination or continuation of the pregnancy in relation to the type of malformation and its prognosis. METHODS A prospective clinical study of Congenital Neuroectodermal Anomalies in 22,000 rural pregnant women coming to the Santhiram Medical College, Radiology Department for a routine obstetric scan. 44 cases of neuroectodermal anomalies were detected out of the 22000 cases, within an incidence of 2 per 1000 cases. Approximately 1 in every 500 cases showed an anomaly. RESULTS The most common lesions detected were hydrocephalus, and spina bifida followed by anencephaly. Association of these lesions with consanguinity, previous history of similar anomaly and intake of iron and folic acid tablets was noted. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is an excellent modality for the diagnosis and characterisation of the neuroectodermal anomalies. Its multiplanar imaging property along with real time image visualisation make it an excellent tool for the diagnosis and characterisation of these anomalies
Ali, Shahzad; Akhter, Shamim; Neubauer, Heinrich; Scherag, André; Kesselmeier, Miriam; Melzer, Falk; Khan, Iahtasham; El-Adawy, Hosny; Azam, Asima; Qadeer, Saima; Ali, Qurban
Brucella species occasionally cause spontaneous human abortion. Brucella can be transmitted commonly through the ingestion of raw milk or milk products. The objective of this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of and to identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in pregnant women from Rawalpindi, Pakistan. We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Gynecology Outdoor Patient department of the Benazir Bhutto Hospital, Rawalpindi, Pakistan from March to June 2013. Data related to potential risk factors and clinical history was collected by individual interviews on the blood sampling day. The 429 serum samples collected were initially screened by Rose Bengal Plate Agglutination test for the detection of Brucella antibodies. We applied standard descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. Twenty five (5.8 %; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 3.8 % -8.5 %) serum samples were found to be seropositive. Brucellosis-related clinical symptoms were recorded in various seropositive cases. Animal contact, raw milk consumption, having an abortion history and the experience of an intrauterine fetal death were associated with seropositivity for brucellosis in univariate analyses (all p Brucellosis is a serious threat for pregnant women and their unborn children in Pakistan. Pregnant women having brucellosis-related symptoms or previous history of abortions, miscarriages, intrauterine fetal death and other brucellosis-related manifestations should be screened for brucellosis - especially those exposed to animals given the increased risk - and medication should be administered according to state of the art.
McLaughlin, Kelsey; Baczyk, Dora; Potts, Audrey; Hladunewich, Michelle; Parker, John D; Kingdom, John C P
Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) has been investigated for the prevention of severe preeclampsia, although the mechanisms of action are unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of LMWH in pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia. Pregnant women at high risk of preeclampsia (n=25) and low-risk pregnant controls (n=20) at 22 to 26 weeks' gestation underwent baseline cardiovascular assessments. High-risk women were then randomized to LMWH or saline placebo (30 mg IV bolus and 1 mg/kg subcutaneous dose). Cardiovascular function was assessed 1 and 3 hours post randomization. The in vitro endothelial effects of patient serum and exogenous LMWH on human umbilical venous endothelial cells were determined. High-risk women demonstrated a reduced cardiac output, high resistance hemodynamic profile with impaired radial artery flow-mediated dilation compared with controls. LMWH increased flow-mediated dilation in high-risk women 3 hours after randomization compared with baseline and increased plasma levels of placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and myeloperoxidase. Serum from high-risk women impaired endothelial cell angiogenesis and increased PlGF-1 and PlGF-2 transcription compared with serum from low-risk controls. Coexposure of high-risk serum with LMWH improved the in vitro angiogenic response such that it was equivalent to that of low-risk serum and promoted placental growth factor secretion. LMWH improves maternal endothelial function in pregnant women at high risk of developing preeclampsia, possibly mediated through increased placental growth factor bioavailability. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Idoko, Patrick; Ogbe, Emmanuel; Jallow, Oley; Ocheke, Amaka
Intimate partner violence is an important public health problem that cuts across geographic and cultural barriers. Intimate partner violence refers to the range of sexually, psychologically and physically coercive acts used against women by current or former male intimate partners. The frequency and severity of violence varies greatly but the main goal is usually to control the victims through fear and intimidation. About 80% of Gambian women believe it is acceptable for a man to beat his wife thus encouraging the perpetuation of violence against women. The objective was to ascertain the burden of intimate partner violence amongst pregnant women in Gambia. A cross sectional survey was carried out at Edward Francis Small Teaching Hospital, Banjul, The Gambia, on antenatal clinic attendees between October and December 2012, using a pre-tested structured interviewer administered questionnaire. All pregnant women were informed about the study at the antenatal booking clinic. Of the 161 pregnant women informed, 136 (84.5%) consented to take part and were recruited in the study. Descriptive analysis was done using the Epi info statistical software. Any pregnant woman booking for the first time during the period of the study was eligible to be recruited into the study. Majority of enrolled participants (61.8%) reported intimate partner violence. Verbal forms of intimate partner violence were the commonest forms, with 12% requiring medical care on account of intimate partner violence and 3% prevented from seeking healthcare as a result of such violence. Intimate partner violence is common in The Gambia, West Africa and is a threat to women's health.
Vera A. Yakupova
Full Text Available Nowadays in vitro fertilization procedure is widespread. Due to improvements in medical technology parenting has become possible for couples who were doomed to childlessness. Practical request for psychological support couples who have decided to take part in the IVF program has been raised. Shaping the internal position of the IVF parent takes place in special psychological conditions. The IVF procedure is preceded by a period of infertility, the procedure is often the last chance to have a baby alone. Participation in the IVF program involves regular contact with doctors, medical personnel access to the intimate sphere of life couples. The paper analyzes the attitude of women participating in the IVF pregnancy program, the unborn baby and parenting - the elements constituting the parent position. The study which was attended by 224 pregnant women, 62 participants of IVF program and 162 women with physiological pregnancy was carried out on the basis of Kulakov Scientific Centre for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology. When analyzing the data obtained we were able to identify features of the internal position of women who became pregnant using IVF. In comparison with a group of women with physiological pregnancy, the IVF program participants tend to romanticize the role of parent and child. IVF program participants demonstrate unwillingness to take on the role of parent. The main motivation of mothers in the IVF group concentrated on the very fact of pregnancy and childbirth, proper parenting, while care and support for children is not appealing to women who became pregnant using IVF. Important conditions for becoming a parent are the experience of motherhood and the time of pregnancy expectation.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In areas where malaria is endemic, pregnancy is associated with increased susceptibility to malaria. It is generally agreed that this risk ends with delivery and decreases with the number of pregnancies. Our study aimed to demonstrate relationships between malarial parasitaemia and age, gravidity and anaemia in pregnant women in Libreville, the capital city of Gabon. Methods Peripheral blood was collected from 311 primigravidae and women in their second pregnancy. Thick blood smears were checked, as were the results of haemoglobin electrophoresis. We also looked for the presence of anaemia, fever, and checked whether the volunteers had had chemoprophylaxis. The study was performed in Gabon where malaria transmission is intense and perennial. Results A total of 177 women (57% had microscopic parasitaemia; 139 (64%of them were primigravidae, 38 (40% in their second pregnancy and 180 (64% were teenagers. The parasites densities were also higher in primigravidae and teenagers. The prevalence of anaemia was 71% and was associated with microscopic Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia: women with moderate or severe anaemia had higher parasite prevalences and densities. However, the sickle cell trait, fever and the use of chemoprophylaxis did not have a significant association with the presence of P. falciparum. Conclusions These results suggest that the prevalence of malaria and the prevalence of anaemia, whether associated with malaria or not, are higher in pregnant women in Gabon. Primigravidae and young pregnant women are the most susceptible to infection. It is, therefore, urgent to design an effective regimen of malaria prophylaxis for this high risk population.
Haq, A.N.; Ahsan, S.; Sher, Z.
Objective: To differentiate the effect of gestation on the mode of delivery by analysing the difference in the mode of induction, length of labour and the difference in parity or Bishop score and their effect on the mode of delivery of postdates women. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study: PAEC General Hospital, Islamabad, from July 2006 to July 2008. Methodology:Patients were induced at 41 weeks (Group B) and > 40 weeks (Group A) of gestation. Tab misoprostol and PGE2 tablets were administered according to amniotic fluid index (AFI) and parity . Study variables included duration of gestation, mode of induction, length of labour, difference in parity and Bishop score assessed before induction in each group. The outcome was assessed by applying Chi-square test by comparing mode of delivery with the study variables in both groups. Results: A total of 78 patients were inducted in the study. They were divided in group B (n = 39) induced 41 weeks and group A (n = 39) induced at 40 weeks. Eighty four percent (n = 35) patients in group B delivered vaginally as compared to 71% (n = 28) in the 40 weeks group (p < 0.0001). The higher number of vaginal deliveries in 41 weeks group was independent of association between the induction agent, parity and mode of delivery. Conclusion: The mean length of gestation was the single most important factor among the studied variables in predicting a vaginal delivery. (author)
Full Text Available Background Infection with rubella virus can be disastrous in early gestation. Rubella is a major cause of birth defects in infants and the risk of having congenital rubella in seronegative pregnant women is more in developing countries. Aim This study was carried to determine the seroprevalence of rubella antibodies in pregnant women. Setting and Design Three years retrospective study in the department of Microbiology, PIMS, Jalandhar. Material and method This study comprised of 250 pregnant women, whose blood samples were collected, sera were screened for rubella specific IgM and IgG antibodies by RecomLine ToRCH Result Out of 250 samples (Study group, 53% (n=132 were seropositive for IgG antibodies and 4.5% (n=9 were seropositive for IgM antibodies. Conclusion Our study demonstrates a strong association between rubella infection and BOH in women. Serosurveillance of Rubella among adolescent girls and women of child bearing age should be considered at a national level to prevent innumerable abortions, stillbirth and congenital anomalies due to rubella.
T. S. Krivonogova
Full Text Available Our research is aimed to investigate the influence of breathing exercises and aqua-gymnastics on the adaptive capabilities of pregnant women in different trimesters of gestation.The estimation of adaptive capabilities of the pregnant women organism was carried out on the basis of functional tests on breath-holding duration – Stange’s test (for inhalation and Ghencea’s test (for exhalation in the initial period, 11–19, 21–29 and 31–39 weeks periods of pregnancy.To identify the adaptation strategies for pregnant women the method proposed by Ya.S. Pekker and A. Rotov was used, namely, the consideration of information measure as a measure of biological object preference behavior. Analysis of the results with information criterion of curve types using cluster analysis allowed to identify 4 standard types of adaptation strategies for pregnant women: adaptive, compensatory, compensatory-adaptive and maladaptive compensatory type of response. To estimate the adaptive capabilities of the respiratory system the ratio between the level of respiratory system functioning, its functional reserve and the degree of stress regulation mechanisms was considered.The intensity of lipid peroxidation processes (LPO in the blood serum of pregnant women was assessed by determining malondialdehyde (MDA in the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid. Determination of vitamin D content in blood serum was estimated by fluorimetric method using spectrophotometer «Hitachi-85» (Japan at an excitation wavelength of 295 nm and 320 nm fluorescence. Determination of the level of stress hormones (cortisol, insulin in the blood serum of pregnant women was performed by radio ligand assay.The following somatic diseases were registered among pregnant women applying to hospital: chronic tonsillitis, sinusitis, vasomotor rhinitis, bronchitis, bronchial asthma, hay fever, chronic pyelonephritis, atopic dermatitis. The next prenatal risks were revealed: morning sickness in I
Sahin, H A; Sahin, H G
The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and type of domestic violence during pregnancy in Turkey and to compare socioeconomic background factors. A survey was carried out among a representative sample of 475 pregnant women. Data were collected on the incidence and the nature of domestic violence perpetrated by the woman's spouse or other family members during her current pregnancy and before. Sociodemographic characteristics such as age, duration of marriage, number of children, monthly income, education, occupation of the husband, domestic violence towards children, contribution to family decisions, smoking habits, sexual relations and whether the pregnancy was planned or not, were also recorded. Of the 475 women screened for domestic violence during pregnancy, 158 (33.3%) reported physical or sexual abuse since they had become pregnant. The source of the domestic violence was mainly the husband in 105 (66.5%) women. Types of abuse were psychological in 71 (44.9%) and physical in 87 (55.1%) women. The rate of women's satisfaction with their sexual life among abused women was 43.67% compared to 61.2% among non-abused women. Abused pregnant women were less educated, had lower income, had more children, had a longer duration of marriage, were applying violence towards their children, were not contributing to family decisions, were less satisfied with their sexual life and were more likely to have unplanned pregnancies when compared to non-abused women. Antenatal care protocols should be modified to address domestic violence and contributing factors during pregnancy so that identified women can be counseled appropriately and attempts can be made to intervene to prevent further episodes of domestic violence in primary care settings.
Full Text Available The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.
Yao, Wang; Gan, Yu; Myers, Kristin M; Vink, Joy Y; Wapner, Ronald J; Hendon, Christine P
The structural integrity of the cervix in pregnancy is necessary for carrying a pregnancy until term, and the organization of human cervical tissue collagen likely plays an important role in the tissue's structural function. Collagen fibers in the cervical extracellular matrix exhibit preferential directionality, and this collagen network ultrastructure is hypothesized to reorient and remodel during cervical softening and dilation at time of parturition. Within the cervix, the upper half is substantially loaded during pregnancy and is where the premature funneling starts to happen. To characterize the cervical collagen ultrastructure for the upper half of the human cervix, we imaged whole axial tissue slices from non-pregnant and pregnant women undergoing hysterectomy or cesarean hysterectomy respectively using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and implemented a pixel-wise fiber orientation tracking method to measure the distribution of fiber orientation. The collagen fiber orientation maps show that there are two radial zones and the preferential fiber direction is circumferential in a dominant outer radial zone. The OCT data also reveal that there are two anatomic regions with distinct fiber orientation and dispersion properties. These regions are labeled: Region 1-the posterior and anterior quadrants in the outer radial zone and Region 2-the left and right quadrants in the outer radial zone and all quadrants in the inner radial zone. When comparing samples from nulliparous vs multiparous women, no differences in these fiber properties were noted. Pregnant tissue samples exhibit an overall higher fiber dispersion and more heterogeneous fiber properties within the sample than non-pregnant tissue. Collectively, these OCT data suggest that collagen fiber dispersion and directionality may play a role in cervical remodeling during pregnancy, where distinct remodeling properties exist according to anatomical quadrant.
Leal, Claudio A M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Leal, Daniela B R; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Rezer, João F P; de Bairros, André Valle; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos
Oxidative stress (OS) is defined as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and the capacity of antioxidant defenses. The objective of this work was to investigate OS and antioxidant capacity in pregnant women. Parameters of the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity in serum and whole blood were evaluated in thirty-nine women with normal pregnancy. The assessment of antioxidants indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P0.05) in protein carbonylation. This study demonstrates that there is a change in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant defenses associated with body and circulation changes that are inherent to the pregnancy process.
Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J
Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank.
Azizeh Farshbaf Khalili
Full Text Available Introduction: Down syndrome is one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. Screening methods for this syndrome are easy and safe and are recommended to all pregnant wom-en particularly mothers over 35 years of age. This study aimed to review the status of Down syndrome screening and related factors in Iranian pregnant women. Methods: This descriptive analytical study was carried out in 2011. It included 400 women who were randomly selected from those referring to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran during their third trimester of pregnancy. Data was collected through a question-naire whose reliability and validity have been approved. The data was analyzed by chi-square test in SPSS13. Results: The results showed that while 28 and 26 women imple-mented screening tests during the first and second trimesters, respectively, only 5 sub-jects benefited from both (integrated test. Chi-square test showed significant correla-tions between the implementation of screening methods and age, education level, in-come, and the location of prenatal care (p < 0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed women to poorly implement Down syndrome screening methods. Therefore, the necessity of providing appropriate educational programs for health staff and mothers seems undeniable. Moreover, paying attention to the related factors such as income, educational level, and adequate training of mothers during pregnancy is essential.
R. N. Bogdanovich
Full Text Available Abstract. The level of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein (SP–1 was determined in the blood sera of 200 healthy pregnant women and 184 women with threatened abortions in term till 20 weeks of pregnancy. In group of women experiencing recurrent abortions in 38 % cases antibodies to chorionic gonadotropin, in 39,5 % cases antibodies to phospholipids, in 25,5 % – antibodies to tireoglobulin were revealed in significant amounts. In 20,65 % lupus anticoagulant was found. The majority of women in this group had changes in homeostasis. The presence of autoantibodies during pregnancy is the unfavourable factor in the development of placental insufficiency. This is proved by the decreased secretion of trophoblastic β1 – glycoprotein – a marker of the fetal part of placenta. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 1, pp. 85588
Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie
Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. 2008. International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual (Technical Report A-8). University of Florida, Gainseville, FL.) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women are at an increased risk for HIV infection due to unknown biological causes. Given the strong effect of sex-hormones on the expression of immunomuodulatory factors, the central role of mucosal immunity in HIV pathogenesis and the lack of previous studies, we here tested for differences in immunomuodulatory factors in cervico-vaginal secretions between pregnant and non-pregnant women. Methods We compared concentrations of 39 immunomodulatory factors in cervicovaginal lavages (CVL from 21 pregnant women to those of 24 non-pregnant healthy women from the US. We used Bonferroni correction to correct for multiple testing and linear regression modeling to adjust for possible confounding by plasma cytokine concentration, cervical ectopy, total protein concentration, and other possible confounders. Cervical ectopy was determined by planimetry. Concentration of immunomodulatory factors were measured by a multiplex assay, protein concentration by the Bradford Method. Results Twenty six (66% of the 39 measured immunomodulatory factors were detectable in at least half of the CVL samples included in the study. Pregnant women had threefold lower CVL concentration of CCL22 (geometric mean: 29.6 pg/ml versus 89.7 pg/ml, p = 0.0011 than non-pregnant women. CVL CCL22 concentration additionally correlated negatively with gestational age (Spearman correlation coefficient [RS]: -0.49, p = 0.0006. These associations remained significant when corrected for multiple testing. CCL22 concentration in CVL was positively correlated with age and negatively correlated with time since last coitus and the size of cervical ectopy. However, none of these associations could explain the difference of CCL22 concentration between pregnant and non-pregnant women in this study, which remained significant in adjusted analysis. Conclusions In this study population, pregnancy is associated with reduced concentrations of CCL22 in cervicovaginal secretions
Ohagwu, Cc; Eze, Cu; Eze, Jc; Odo, Mc; Abu, Po; Ohagwu, Ci
Male gender preference is a dominant feature of Igbo culture and could be the reason behind women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound. The aim of this study is to investigate the perception of prenatal ultrasound patients of male gender preference in a patriarchal and gender sensitive society. The study was a cross-sectional survey, which targeted pregnant women who presented for prenatal ultrasound at four selected hospitals in Anambra State. A convenience sample size of 790 pregnant women constituted the respondents. The data collection instrument was a 13-item semi-structured self-completion questionnaire designed in line with the purpose of the study. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were carried out with statistical significance being considered at P < 0.05. Most of the women (88.4%, 698/790) were aware that fetal gender can be determined during the prenatal ultrasound while just over half of them (61.0%, 482/790) wanted fetal gender disclosed to them during prenatal ultrasound. More than half (58.6%, 463/790) of the women desired to have male babies in their present pregnancies while 20.1% (159/790) desired female babies and 21.3% (168/790) did not care if the baby was male or female. Some of the women (22.2%, 175/790) wanted to have male babies in their present pregnancies for various reasons predominant of which was protecting their marriages and cementing their places in their husbands' hearts. Male gender preference was strongly perceived. There was considerable anxiety associated with prenatal gender determination and moderate loss of interest in the pregnancy associated with disclosure of undesired fetal gender. Socio-demographic factors had significant influence on perception of male gender preference. Male gender preference is strongly perceived among Igbo women and its perception is significantly influenced by socio-demographic factors. Male gender preference may be responsible for Igbo women seeking fetal gender at ultrasound.
Sagay, A S; Onakewhor, J; Galadanci, H; Emuveyan, E E
This study was conducted to determine the pattern of HIV sero-status of Partners of HIV Positive Pregnant Women in three different regions of Nigeria and to explore the implications for HIV prevention interventions. The Site Coordinators of PMTCT programs in three Nigerian cities obtained data of the HIV status of the partners of HIV positive pregnant women. The selection of Benin City, Jos and Kano was made after consideration of their ethnic, religious and cultural representation of Nigeria. Benin City represents a traditional southern Nigeria city, Kano a traditional northern city and Jos, a middle-belt, ethnically diverse cosmopolitan setting. The data were analyzed using frequencies. A total of 500 partners of HIV infected pregnant women were tested for HIV using Determine Abbott test kits. Positive results were confirmed using Western blot or a second rapid test kit. The city-by-city results showed that in Benin City (Southern Nigeria), 78.8% (104/132) of the partners were HIV negative (sero-discordant), Jos (Middle-Belt) had 48.4% (103/213) sero-discordance while Kano (Northern Nigeria) recorded a sero-discordance rate of only 7.7% (12/155). These results indicate that the dynamics of HIV transmission in marital settings in Nigeria are different in the various regions of the country. Socio-cultural and religious settings play a significant role in HIV transmission among couples. These findings should guide prevention interventions in order to achieve maximal impact.
Frickmann, Hagen; Schwarz, Norbert G; Girmann, Mirko; Hagen, Ralf M; Poppert, Sven; Crusius, Sabine; Podbielski, Andreas; Heriniaina, Jean N; Razafindrabe, Tsiriniaina; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean P; May, Jürgen; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphaël
Peripartal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, leads to severe consequences for newborns. Preventive measures require awareness of the maternal infection. Although HIV and syphilis testing in Madagascar could be theoretically carried out within the framework of the national pregnancy follow-up scheme, the required test kits are rarely available at peripheral health centres. In this study, we screened blood samples of pregnant Madagascan women for HIV and syphilis seroprevalence to estimate the demand for systemic screening in pregnancy. Retrospective anonymous serological analysis for HIV and syphilis was performed in plasma samples from 1232 pregnant women that were taken between May and July 2010 in Ambositra, Ifanadiana, Manakara, Mananjary, Moramanga and Tsiroanomandidy (Madagascar) during pregnancy follow-up. Screening was based on Treponema pallidum haemagglutination tests for syphilis and rapid tests for HIV, with confirmation of positive screening results on line assays. Out of 1232 pregnant women, none were seropositive for HIV and 37 (3%) were seropositive for Treponema pallidum. Our findings are in line with previous studies that describe considerable syphilis prevalence in the rural Madagascan population. The results suggest a need for screening to prevent peripartal Treponema pallidum transmission, while HIV is still rare. If they are known, Treponema pallidum infections can be easily, safely and inexpensively treated even in pregnancy to reduce the risk of transmission. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Khan, S.; Butt, R.W.; Masoud, R; Umar, M.; Shakil, U.
To investigate whether normal pregnancy has a significant effect on intrarenal venous blood flow and to assess whether the physiological maternal pyelocaliectasis causes a measurable change in venous impedance indices in pregnant women. Study Design: Cross sectional comparative study. Place and duration of study: Radiology Departments, KRL Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Lahore from Jan 2010 to Jul 2010 Patients and Methods: A total of 50 normal pregnant women in their second and third trimester and 50 controls, i.e. normal non-pregnant married healthy women of childbearing age were included in the study. Confounding variables were controlled by excluding subjects having recent or previous renal calculi, pathological renal conditions or congenital renal anomalies or generalized disorders affecting haemodynamics ruled out by history, clinical examination and ultrasound examination in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Results: After grading the degree of hydronephrosis, venous impedance index was obtained from the interlobar veins. Overall the collecting system dilatation was present in 60 % of 50 right kidneys and 42 % of 50 left kidneys in the pregnant women. The venous impedance indices were significantly lower in 50 pregnant women than the values in non-pregnant subjects (p< 0.001 for the right and the left kidney). The overall difference in venous impedance indices between right and left kidneys was not significant in pregnant women (p = 0.11). There was an inverse correlation between the grade of pelvicalyceal dilatation and the venous impedance indices in both kidneys in 50 pregnant women. Conclusion: Normal pregnancy causes dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system and significant reduction in renal venous impedance index values in second and third trimesters. Therefore one should be careful in interpretation of an abnormally reduced venous impedance index and hydronephrosis as a sign of pathological ureteral obstruction in pregnant women
Fernanda Torres de Carvalho
Full Text Available The present study investigated the feelings of HIV seropositive pregnant women, concerning their own infection, motherhood and the baby. Six pregnant women, aged between 26 and 35 years old, from low socioeconomic status, took part in the study. They were interviewed and their answers were examined through qualitative content analysis, divided in three categories: Experience concerning the HIV/Aids infection, Feelings about pregnancy and HIV/Aids and Family relations and HIV/Aids. The results revealed sexual risk behaviors, difficulty in accepting diagnosis and the need to justify the origin of their infection. Fears, guilty, prejudices, frustration with their own mother, loss of the maternal figure, lack of family support and instability in the relationship with the baby’s father were also revealed. The importance of psychological interventions aiming to treatment´s adherence and prevention of the mother-child transmission of HIV/Aids are discussed. Keywords: HIV/Aids; pregnancy; motherhood; feelings.
Coyne, Sarah M; Liechty, Toni; Collier, Kevin M; Sharp, Aubrey D; Davis, Emilie J; Kroff, Savannah L
Much research has found that exposure to certain types of media portrayals of women can be related to body image concerns among women. The current paper focuses on the impact of certain messages on pregnant and postpartum women. These women are rarely examined in a media research context but are particularly vulnerable to body image concerns. This experimental study involved 192 pregnant or postpartum women who read a magazine containing glamorized media portrayals of pregnant/postpartum women or a control magazine. Pregnant women reported lower body image after only five minutes of exposure to the magazine with pregnant/postpartum women compared to the control group. There was no immediate effect on postpartum women. Implications for the media industry, health professionals, and women are discussed.
Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the vaginas of pregnant women may occasionally cause neonatal infections. It is one of the most common causes of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and of invasive diseases in pregnant women. It can also cause infectious disease among immunocompromised individuals. The distribution of capsular serotypes and genotypes varies over time and by geographic era. The serotyping and genotyping data of GBS in Iranian pregna...
Okeke, T C; Ugwu, E O; Ikeako, L C; Adiri, C O; Ezenyeaku, C C T; Ekwuazi, K E; Okoro, O S
Falls during pregnancy are major public health issues and a common cause of maternal injury during pregnancy. There is paucity of data on prevalence and risk factors of falls during pregnancy in African population including Nigeria. To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with falls during pregnancy in Enugu, Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study of 332 consecutive pregnant women presenting in labor for delivery at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria between 1(st) May and 31(st) December, 2012. The mean age of the women was 32.2 ± 2.7 (range: 20-42) years. One hundred and eight women (32.5%) reported falling at least once during the index pregnancy. Women aged ≤ 30 years had twofold risk of falling during pregnancy than women aged > 30 years [41.1% (69/168) vs. 23.8% (39/164); odds ratio (OR): 2.23; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.39-3.58; P women ≥ 160 cm in height had significantly higher risk of falling during pregnancy than women risk of falling during pregnancy than multigravidae [45.3% (63/139) vs. 23.3% (45/193); OR: 2.73; 95% CI: 1.70-4.37; P Falls during pregnancy is common in Enugu, Nigeria. It is, therefore, recommended that women should be counseled during pregnancy on this public health problem and the above-identified risk factors emphasized in order to reduce the prevalence and morbidity.
Ewing, Alexander C; Datwani, Hema M; Flowers, Lisa M; Ellington, Sascha R; Jamieson, Denise J; Kourtis, Athena P
With the development and widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV-infected women live longer, healthier lives. Previous research has shown that, since the adoption of combination antiretroviral therapy in the United States, rates of morbidity and adverse obstetric outcomes remained higher for HIV-infected pregnant women compared with HIV-uninfected pregnant women. Monitoring trends in the outcomes these women experience is essential, as recommendations for this special population continue to evolve with the progress of HIV treatment and prevention options. We conducted an analysis comparing rates of hospitalizations and associated outcomes among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in the United States from 2004 through 2011. We used cross-sectional hospital discharge data for girls and women age 15-49 from the 2004, 2007, and 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a nationally representative sample of US hospital discharges. Demographic characteristics, morbidity outcomes, and time trends were compared using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regression. Analyses were weighted to produce national estimates. In 2011, there were 4751 estimated pregnancy hospitalizations and 3855 delivery hospitalizations for HIV-infected pregnant women; neither increased since 2004. Compared with those of HIV-uninfected women, pregnancy hospitalizations of HIV-infected women were more likely to be longer, be in the South and Northeast, be covered by public insurance, and incur higher charges (all P pregnant women with HIV infection had higher rates for many adverse outcomes. Compared to 2004, hospitalizations of HIV-infected pregnant women in 2011 had higher odds of gestational diabetes (adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-2.84), preeclampsia/hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-2.24), viral/mycotic/parasitic infections (adjusted odds ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1
Schönfeld, Andreas; Feldt, Torsten; Tufa, Tafese B; Orth, Hans M; Fuchs, André; Mesfun, Million G; Pfäfflin, Frieder; Nordmann, Tamara; Breuer, Matthias; Hampl, Monika; Häussinger, Dieter
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a major global public health issue and omnipresent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) increase the risk of HIV acquisition. Moreover, STIs and HIV in pregnant women can harm the unborn child. In this study, we systematically investigated the prevalence of HIV, relevant STIs and vaginal group B streptococcus colonization among pregnant women presenting at Asella Teaching Hospital in central Ethiopia and their effect on perinatal mortality. A follow-up was performed six weeks after delivery. A total of 580 women were included, of which 26.6% tested positive for at least one pathogen ( Chlamydia trachomatis 9.8%, trichomoniasis 5.3%, hepatitis B 5.3%, gonorrhoea 4.3%, group B streptococcus 2.4%, syphilis 2.2%, HIV 2.1%). None of the HIV infections were previously undiagnosed, indicating effective HIV screening activities in the region. Follow-up data were available for 473 (81.6%) children, of which 37 (7.8%) were stillborn or died within the first six weeks of life. Infection with Trichomonas vaginalis and recruitment at obstetric ward (versus antenatal care) were associated with mortality. High prevalence of STIs in pregnant women and their impact on the unborn child demonstrate the need for screening and treatment programmes in order to prevent perinatal mortality.
Vázquez-Lara, Juana María; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos; Rodríguez-Díaz, Luciano; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen; Torres-Luque, Gema
To evaluate the effect of a physical activity programme in the aquatic environment with immersion up to the neck, of six weeks duration, on haemodynamic constants in pregnant women. A six-week physical activity programme in the aquatic environment was carried out with a total of 46 pregnant women, who were distributed into an experimental group (n = 18), which participated in the programme, and a control group (n = 28), which followed routine care. In both groups different haemodynamic measurements were evaluated before and after the program. At the beginning of the programme the mean systolic blood pressure was similar between groups, but diastolic blood pressure was slightly higher in the experimental group. When the measurements at the last session were compared, arterial pressures (systolic, diastolic and mean) were significantly higher in the control group (p <.050). Similarly, the initial plasma volume values did not differ between groups, but after the intervention, the control group women showed a higher mean (p <.010). The fraction of sodium excretion (FENa) increased significantly in the experimental group, after the programme, with a mean three times higher (p <.050). Aldosterone plasma levels did not show significant differences between the groups in the different measurements. A programme of swimming and immersion exercises in pregnant women contributes to hydrosaline balance, preventing an excessive increase in usual plasma volume during pregnancy and in the activity of the renin-aldosterone axis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Ana Paula B. de Borborema-Alfaia
Full Text Available There are limited data regarding prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection among northern Brazilian pregnant women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of chlamydial infection among pregnant women in their third trimester and to determine the repercussion of this infection on their offspring. METHODS: In the first phase of this study 100 pregnant women receiving prenatal care in a local public university hospital were examined to assess the prevalence of genital C. trachomatis infection by polymerase chain reaction technique. In the second phase, 88 pregnant women were prospectively evaluated for premature rupture of membranes, puerperal consequences associated with chlamydial infection, and neonates were checked for low-birth weight. RESULTS: The prevalence rate of chlamydial infection was 11%, and 72.7% of the positive participants were predominantly less than 30 years of age (p = 0.1319. A total of 36.4% of the participants had premature rupture of membranes (p = 0.9998. Neither low-birth weight infants nor preterm delivery were observed. A cohort of 16 newborn babies were followedup up to 60 days of life to ascertain outcome: 50% had respiratory symptoms. Neonates born to infected mothers had a higher risk to develop respiratory symptoms in the first 60 days of life. CONCLUSION: The scarcity of data about the effects of chlamydial infection on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes justified this study. Diagnosing and treating chlamydial infection during the third trimester of pregnancy may prevent neonate infection. Therefore, preventive screening should be seen as a priority for early detection of asymptomatic C. trachomatis infection as part of local public health strategies.
Danny F. Yeboah
Full Text Available The use of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP as an intermittent preventive treatment (IPT against malaria during pregnancy has become a policy in most sub-Sahara African countries and crucially depends on the efficacy of SP. This study sets out to evaluate the effectiveness of the SP given to the pregnant women in some selected health facilities in the Central Region of Ghana to prevent maternal malaria in pregnant women. A total of 543 pregnant women recruited from 7 selected health centres in Central Region of Ghana participated in the study. Parasite density of Plasmodium falciparum was determined from peripheral blood of the pregnant women using microscopy. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and dissolution tester were used to determine the quality of the SP. Malaria infection was recorded in 11.2% of pregnant women who had a history of SP consumption. SP failed the dissolution test. Pregnant women who did not receive IPT-SP were 44%. Low haemoglobin level was recorded in 73.5% of the pregnant women. The results indicated that SP was substandard. IPT-SP is ineffective in preventing malaria infection.
Full Text Available Although acute leukaemia is rare in pregnancy its importance lies in its life-threatening potential, both to the child and the mother. The possibility of vertical transmission of leukemic cells increases the attention devoted to these patients and their offspring. Three cases of pregnant young women (15-17 years of age with AML are presented. This series of cases is the first report where gene abnormalities such as ITD mutations of the FLT3 gene and AML1/ETO fusion genes were screened in pregnant AML patients and their babies, so far. Unfortunately, very poor outcomes have been associated to similar cases described in literature, and the same was true to the patients described herein. Although very speculative, we think that the timing and possible similar exposures would be involved in all cases.
Full Text Available Objectives: The gingival and periodontal changes during pregnancy are well known. Gingivitis is the most prevalent oral manifestations associated with pregnancy. The hormonal and vascular changes that accompany pregnancy are known to exaggerate the inflammatory response to the local irritants. Hence, a study was designed to assess oral hygiene status, gingival status, periodontal status, and treatment needs (TNs among pregnant and nonpregnant women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 120 pregnant and 120 nonpregnant women of 18–44 years age attending the Outpatient Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Government Hospital of Belgaum city, Karnataka, India. The study consisted of an interview and oral examination. Type 3 examination was followed. Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S, Gingival Index, and Community Periodontal Index and TNs Index were used to assess “oral hygiene status,” “gingival status,” and “periodontal status and TNs,” respectively. Results: The pregnant women showed poor oral hygiene with the mean OHI-S score as 2.68. Gingivitis was prevalent in almost all the pregnant and nonpregnant women. However, it was found more severe in pregnant women with mean gingival score as 1.25. A definite increase in gingivitis was found from Trimester II to Trimester III. The mean number of sextants showing healthy gingiva was significantly (P < 0.01 lower among pregnant women. Conclusions: Pregnant women showed poor oral hygiene, more gingival inflammation, and more periodontal disease as compared to nonpregnant women. The severity of gingivitis increased in Trimester III. Proper oral hygiene practice can prevent these diseases and further complications.
Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.
Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity
Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: email@example.com [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A. C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J. Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)
Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity
Full Text Available Background: Worldwide there is a high prevalence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD deficiency and has been associated with adverse outcomes during pregnancy. Objective: This is a nested, case–control study in a longitudinal cohort to compare the serum 25OHD levels and other biomarkers throughout pregnancy in a group of 20 preeclamptic women and 61 healthy pregnant women. An additional group of 29 healthy non-pregnant women were also studied during the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Results: Mean 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were 31.9 ng/mL and 34.9 ng/mL during follicular and luteal phase, respectively (P < 0.01. Mean serum 25OHD levels in healthy pregnant women were 26.5, 30.1 and 31.9 ng/mL, at first, second and third trimester, respectively (P < 0.001. The first trimester levels of 25OHD were lower than those of healthy non-pregnant women (P < 0.001, showing a significant recovery at third trimester. In the group of healthy pregnant women, the 25OHD levels were 25.7 ng/mL and 27.2 ng/mL at 3 and 6 months postpartum, respectively; both values were lower than those observed in the non-pregnant women (P < 0.001. In preeclamptic women, 25OHD serum levels were similar to those of healthy pregnant women; nevertheless, they remained almost unchanged throughout pregnancy. Conclusion: There were no significant differences between healthy and preeclamptic pregnant women in terms of 25OHD levels throughout the pregnancy. Serum 25OHD levels in non-pregnant women were higher during luteal phase compared with follicular phase. The 25OHD levels of non-pregnant women tended to be higher than those of pregnant women.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between seropositivity for IgG and IgM anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and socio-economic and environmental variables in pregnant women of Londrina, state of Paraná, Brazil. We interviewed 492 pregnant women, each of whom answered an epidemiological questionnaire, and collected blood samples for measurement of IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies by chemiluminescence. A confirmatory diagnosis of acute infection was made by an IgG avidity test. Titres of specific IgG anti-T. gondii were obtained by IFAT. Seropositivity for IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies was observed in 242 women (49.2% and, of these, six pregnant women (1.2% showed seropositivity for IgM. Age group, level of education, per capita income, presence of a cat in the house and a habit of eating green vegetables were all factors associated with a greater chance of infection with T. gondii. This study showed that 250 (50.8% pregnant women were susceptible to T. gondii and considered to be at high risk for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy. Based on the results obtained, is critical to establish a program of health surveillance for toxoplasmosis, in order to contribute to diagnosis and early treatment during the prenatal period. It is also necessary to introduce measures to prevent the Toxoplasma infection in seronegative pregnant women.
Ameh, N; Shittu, S O; Abdul, M A
To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship to adverse obstetric outcomes amongst pregnant women who deliver at a tertiary level hospital in Zaria, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study involving 310 women who delivered at the labour ward. Questionnaires were administered to parturient women. Details of their socio-demographic characteristics and obstetric outcome were compiled and the relationship to experiences of domestic violence studied. The prevalence of domestic violence was 28.4%. There was positive relationship between domestic violence during pregnancy, non-supervision of pregnancy and poor attendances to antenatal clinic (pviolence, and complications of labour and neonatal outcome (p>0.05). The prevalence of domestic violence in pregnancy is high in this environment. Poor attendances to the antenatal clinic is a significant association.
Law, Graham R; Ellison, George T H; Secher, Anna L
with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Functional data analysis (FDA) was applied to 1.68 million glucose measurements from 759 measurement episodes, obtained from two previously published randomized controlled trials of CGM in pregnant women with diabetes. A total of 117 women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89...... developed LGA. LGA was associated with lower mean glucose (7.0 vs. 7.1 mmol/L; P FDA showed that glucose was significantly lower midmorning (0900-1100 h) and early...... evening (1900-2130 h) in trimester 1, significantly higher early morning (0330-0630 h) and throughout the afternoon (1130-1700 h) in trimester 2, and significantly higher during the evening (2030-2330 h) in trimester 3 in women whose infants were LGA. CONCLUSIONS: FDA of CGM data identified specific times...
Rasch, V; Knudsen, L B; Wielandt, H
OBJECTIVE: To study how living conditions influence pregnancy planning and acceptance among Danish women. METHOD: A cross-sectional questionnaire study performed among 3516 pregnant women attending Odense University Hospital, Denmark. The study population consisted of women with spontaneous......-planners with accepting planners and by comparing rejecting planners with rejecting non-planners. The variables studied comprise age, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economic situation and contraceptives. RESULTS: The characteristics of accepting non-planners and accepting planners were...... in accordance and in contrast to those of rejecting planners and in particular of rejecting non-planners. The contraceptive prevalence rate among accepting non-planners was 15%. Among rejecting non-planners the same figure was 51%. CONCLUSION: Accepting non-planners seemed to be in a situation which could...
Full Text Available Fidelis Agwu Onu,1 Leonard Ogbonna Ajah,1 Paul Olisaemeka Ezeonu,1 Odidika Ugochukwu Joannes Umeora,1 Perpetus Chudi Ibekwe,1 Monique Iheoma Ajah2 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, 2Department of Microbiology, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Detecting and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB prevents urinary tract infection and its consequences. The cost-effectiveness of routine screening for ASB in pregnancy is controversial. In populations with high prevalence, however, it is worthwhile and justifiable. Aim: To determine the profile, prevalence, microbiological isolates, and risk factors of ASB among booking antenatal clinic attendees in Abakaliki, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving booking antenatal clinic attendees at the Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, who met the inclusion criteria. This study occurred between January and December, 2012. The midstream urine samples of these women were subjected to microscopy, culture, and sensitivity. Results: A total of 300 randomly selected booking antenatal clinic attendees participated in the study; 74 of them had ASB, giving a prevalence of 24.7%. With the exception of rural residence, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not influence the risk of ASB among the participants in this study. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest organism isolated. The majority of the organisms were sensitive to ofloxacin and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of ASB among pregnant women in Abakaliki. With the exception of rural dwelling, sociodemographic and obstetric characteristics did not significantly influence the risk of ASB among these pregnant women. Therefore, routine ASB screening of pregnant women is recommended in our environment. Keywords: asymptomatic bacteriuria, pregnant women, Abakaliki
Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Britton, John; Venn, Andrea
To determine the risk of adverse fetal outcomes of secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmoking pregnant women. This was a systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. We searched Medline and Embase (to March 2009) and reference lists for eligible studies; no language restrictions were imposed. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by using random-effect models. Our search was for epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy in nonsmoking pregnant women. The main outcome measures were spontaneous abortion, perinatal and neonatal death, stillbirth, and congenital malformations. We identified 19 studies that assessed the effects of secondhand smoke exposure in nonsmoking pregnant women. We found no evidence of a statistically significant effect of secondhand smoke exposure on the risk of spontaneous abortion (OR: 1.17 [95% CI: 0.88-1.54]; 6 studies). However, secondhand smoke exposure significantly increased the risk of stillbirth (OR: 1.23 [95% CI: 1.09-1.38]; 4 studies) and congenital malformation (OR: 1.13 [95% CI: 1.01-1.26]; 7 studies), although none of the associations with specific congenital abnormalities were individually significant. Secondhand smoke exposure had no significant effect on perinatal or neonatal death. Pregnant women who are exposed to secondhand smoke are estimated to be 23% more likely to experience stillbirth and 13% more likely give birth to a child with a congenital malformation. Because the timing and mechanism of this effect is not clear, it is important to prevent secondhand smoke exposure in women before and during pregnancy.
Reyes, Laura; Garcia, Ronald; Ruiz, Silvia; Dehghan, Mahshid; López-Jaramillo, Patricio
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. It has been proposed that, among other risk factors, the nutritional status of women can lead to the endothelial dysfunction that characterizes this entity. The aim of the present study was to compare the nutritional status of women with PE with healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women. A multicenter case-control study was carried out. Between September 2006 and July 2009, 201 women with PE were compared with 201 pregnant, and 201 non-pregnant aged-matched women without cardiovascular or endocrine diseases. A clinical history and physical examination was performed. Fasting blood samples were drawn to measure serum glucose and lipid profile. The nutritional status of participants was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. The average age of women was 26.6 ± 7.2 years. Compared to healthy pregnant controls, women with PE had a higher body mass index, higher fasting blood glucose levels, higher triglycerides, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Women with PE had a higher intake of carbohydrates, energy intake and cereal compared to healthy pregnant and non-pregnant controls. A conditional logistic regression demonstrated that carbohydrate and sodium intake are associated with PE development. Diets of women with PE were characterized by higher energy and carbohydrate intake compared to normal pregnant and non-pregnant women. This suggests that higher carbohydrate and sodium intake increases the risk of PE among women in Colombia. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Brzeźnicki, Sławomir; Ligocka, Danuta
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are compounds that are formed as a result of incomplete combustion of organic matter. The most common sources of PAHs are cigarette smoke, coal-fired utilities, steel plants, coke-oven plants, graphite electrode manufacturing plant, Söderberg aluminum electrolysis plant, vehicle exhaust, wood-burning ovens and fireplaces, and charcoal-grilled and smoked food. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure of smoking pregnant women to PAHs. The study population consisted of 189 pregnant women from the Lódź voivodeship (province). Smoking status was assessed based on saliva cotinine level analyzed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The cutoff point 10 ng/ml was adopted for saliva cotinine level. 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HP) concentration in urine sample was chosen as the biomarker of exposure to PAHs. The mean concentration of 1-HP in urine of nonsmoking woman was 0.60 microg/g creatinine, whereas in smoking one 1.35 microg/g creatinine. Among the women with saliva cotinine level higher than 10 ng/ml, the mean concentration of 1-HP in urine was over twofold higher than that in women with cotinine level lower than 10 ng/ml after adjustment for the day of urine ample collection (ratio of geometric mean 2.3; 95% CI 1.7-3.0). The study confirmed a higher risk of exposure to PAHs in the group of women who smoke cigarettes during pregnancy as compared to nonsmoking women. It should be stressed that cigarette smoking is not the only source of exposure to PAHs.
Newman, Diane K; Cardozo, Linda; Sievert, Karl-Dietrich
This review examines the evidence to date, analyzes specific risk factors and assesses the ability to prevent urinary incontinence in women, while providing clinical recommendations. More extraordinary risk factors such as ethnicity and race, mixed and fecal incontinence, iatrogenic and neurogenic factors should be discussed in a follow-up report. Studies have revealed that certain factors place women at risk for developing urinary incontinence, including age, obesity, diabetes, pregnancy and delivery, high-impact physical exercise factors and estrogen deficiency. Healthcare providers should screen women who are at risk for developing urinary incontinence and institute specific interventions, specifically behavioral and even rehabilitative techniques, to prevent this prevalent and distressing condition.
A new study called "Poor, propertyless, and pregnant" that classified the condition of women in 99 countries found women in Sweden, Finland, and the US to enjoy the best legal and social conditions and the greatest degree of equality with men. The worst discrimination against women occurred in Bangladesh, Mali, Afghanistan, North Yemen, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Saudi Arabia. Women do not have complete equality with men in any country. But over 60% of the world's female population lives in countries where extensive poverty and sexual discrimination have created conditions of deprivation. One of the principal mechanisms that negatively influences the condition of women is early procreation; early and frequent childbirth obliterates women's chances for education and paid employment. Feminization of poverty is becoming universal, largely because a growing proportion of households are headed by women with dependent children. In developed and developing countries alike, working women with families work a double day. Although the struggle for legal and social equality for women takes different forms in different countries, certain basic measures can be applied by all governments. Reforms are needed to give women access to more remunerative jobs, equal property rights, and access to credit. Greater investments are needed in reproductive health and in education and training for women. Governments, employers, and husbands should recognize the social value of childbirth and child rearing. The study is divided into 5 sections, each of which has 4 series of data, so that each country is evaluated on 20 variables. The 5 sections are health, nuptiality and children, education, economic participation, and social equality. In most developed countries women live an average of 7 years longer than men, but in developing countries the difference is only 2 years. Complications of pregnancy and childbirth cause the deaths of over 500,000 women each year and affect another 5 million, mostly
Kashshapova, E. V.
Full Text Available Fear of childbirth (FOC is an important psychological problem that is studied worldwide because it affects the well-being of pregnant women. However, in Russia, this problem does not receive adequate attention among researchers. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conditionality of fear of childbirth (FOC in pregnant women by external and internal factors, which we assumed were the reasons for this fear. As external factors, we considered socio-demographic indicators (e.g., age, marital status, level of education, housing, and the attitude of relatives towards pregnancy as well as indicators of gynecological history (e.g., the term of pregnancy, the outcome of previous pregnancies, and pregnancy complications. As internal (psychological factors of the fear of childbirth, we considered personal anxiety as well as general inclination towards and negative consequences of different fears (20 types of fears and phobias were examined. The study was conducted with a Russian sample of 76 women at different stages of pregnancy and with different socio-demographic indicators and gynecological histories. The analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences between women who were pregnant with FOC and those without this fear in terms of the external factors considered in this study. According to the study’s data, a general inclination of women to fear is associated with fear of childbirth. However, the findings for the women with FOC did not indicate significant positive correlations between the level of this fear and exposure to any of the 20 types of fear and phobias measured in the study. Furthermore, the results did not detect relationships between the FOC level and women’s personal anxiety. The results allow us to conclude that FOC is a separate phenomenon that is not dependent on other phobias and fears. Fear of childbirth has a subjective and highly individual genesis. It is not a direct consequence of
Simões, Mafalda; Marques, Catarina; Gonçalves, Ana; Pereira, Ana Paula; Correia, Joaquim; Castela, João; Guerreiro, Cristina
The iatrogenic risk of HIV vertical transmission, calculated in initial epidemiologic studies, seemed to counterindicate invasive prenatal diagnosis (PND) procedures. The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) represented a turning point in PND management, owing to a rapid and effective reduction of maternal viral load (VL). In the present study, we identified cases of vertical transmission in HIV-infected pregnant women who did amniocentesis in the second trimester of pregnancy (n = 27), from 1996 to 2011. We divided our sample into Group A—women under HAART when submitted to amniocentesis (n = 20) and Group B—women without antiretroviral therapy before amniocentesis (n = 7). We had 1 case of vertical transmission in Group B. Preconceptional or early first trimester HIV serology is essential to avoid performing an amniocentesis without antiretroviral therapy or viral suppression. When there is an indication for amniocentesis in an HIV-infected pregnant woman, it should be done if the patient is on HAART and, if possible, when VL is undetectable. Nowadays, with combined first trimester screening test to select pregnancies with high risk of aneuploidies, advanced maternal age is a less frequent indication to perform PND invasive procedures, representing an outstanding gain in prenatal diagnosis of this population. PMID:23970821
Maria Dilma Bezerra de Vasconcellos Piscoya
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with periodontitis in pregnant women. METHODS: This study was conducted in two stages. In Stage 1, a cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of periodontitis among 810 women treated at the maternity ward of a university hospital. In Stage 2, the factors associated with periodontitis were investigated in two groups of pregnant women: 90 with periodontitis and 720 without. A hierarchized approach to the evaluation of the risk factors was used in the analysis, and the independent variables related to periodontitis were grouped into two levels: 1 socio-demographic variables; 2a variables related to nutritional status, smoking, and number of pregnancies; and 2b variables related to oral hygiene. Periodontitis was defined as a probing depth > 4 mm and an attachment loss > 3 mm at the same site in four or more teeth. A logistic regression analysis was also performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of periodontitis in this sample was 11%. The variables that remained in the final multivariate model with the hierarchized approach were schooling, family income, smoking, body mass index, and bacterial plaque. CONCLUSION: The factors identified underscore the social nature of the disease, as periodontitis was associated with socioeconomic, demographic status, and poor oral hygiene.
Oliveira, Tenilson Amaral; Bersusa, Ana Aparecida Sanches; Santos, Tatiana Fiorelli Dos; Aquino, Márcia Maria Auxiliadora de; Mariani Neto, Corintio
Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perinatal outcomes in pregnant women who use illicit drugs. Methods A retrospective observational study of patients who, at the time of delivery, were sent to or who spontaneously sought a public maternity hospital in the eastern area of São Paulo city. We compared the perinatal outcomes of two distinct groups of pregnant women - illicit drugs users and non-users - that gave birth in the same period and analyzed the obstetric and neonatal variables. We used Student's t-test to calculate the averages among the groups, and the Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test to compare categorical data from each group. Results We analyzed 166 women (83 users and 83 non-users) in both groups with a mean of age of 26 years. Ninety-five percent of the drug users would use crack or pure cocaine alone or associated with other psychoactive substances during pregnancy. Approximately half of the users group made no prenatal visit, compared with 2.4% in the non-users group (p illicit drugs. Conclusions The use of illicit drugs, mainly crack cocaine, represents an important perinatal risk. Any medical intervention in this population should combine adherence to prenatal care with strategies for reducing maternal exposure to illicit drugs. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Karakoc, Gulbin Bingol; Altintas, Derya Ufuk; Kilinc, Banu; Karabay, Aysun; Mungan, Neslihan Onenli; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Evliyaoglu, Nurdan
Many studies have been assigned to investigate the surveillance of congenital rubella syndrome, acquired rubella and seroprevalence in different countries to determine the new vaccination program and national vaccination schedules. Seroprevalence of rubella in Turkey is still insufficient and national immunization schedules do not include routine rubella vaccination. In this study we aimed to investigate the seroprevalence of rubella at child bearing age in an unvaccinated population in Adana, southern Turkey, to help determine whether routine rubella vaccination is necessary, if so when it should be administered. Ninety-four school girls aged 12-18 years living in Adana were selected for the study and stratified according to the socioeconomic status of their parents and evaluated for rubella antibodies. One hundred pregnant women aged 18-25 years and 100 pregnant women aged 26-35 years were sampled rubella antibodies. Rubella specific IgG antibody was measured qualitatively and quantitatively by using microparticule enzyme immune assay technology. Rubella specific IgG antibody was positive in 87-94 school girls (92.5%). The geometric mean rubella specific IgG antibody value was found be 148.14 IU/ml. No correlation was found between socioeconomic status and rubella seropositivity (p = 0.6521). In all pregnant women rubella specific IgG antibody was found to be positive. In conclusion rubella vaccination should be considered carefully in developing countries. Because of the high seropositivity to rubella in our region we do not recommend rubella vaccination in early childhood. Yet this is a preliminary study and further studies with larger population size are needed to determine the national immunization policy for rubella.
Laboudi, Majda; Sadak, Abderrahim
The diagnosis of Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women during the early first trimester of pregnancy is very important for preventing congenital infection of the fetus; it will not only prevent the risk of transmitting the infection to the fetus but it will also enable to give these women a preventive treatment. In this study, the avidity test was performed on pregnant women during their first prenatal visit at the National Institute of Hygiene in Rabat, Morocco. One hundred and twenty-eight sera samples were collected from 128 pregnant women between August 2015 and June 2016; these women were chosen retrospectively and were in their first four months of pregnancy. The samples were screened using the specific anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies and were subjected to an IgG avidity test. After the serological screening, only 54 women (42.4%) were tested positive for IgG antibodies and five women (3.9%) were tested positive for both anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Four IgM-negative women had low-avidity antibodies. However, none of the IgG-avidity test had detected low-avidity antibodies in the five IgM-positive women; three women (60%) had high-avidity antibodies, indicating that the infection was acquired in the distant past. The avidity test is a helpful tool to exclude a recently acquired toxoplasmosis infection within IgM-positive serum samples in pregnant women during their first trimester of pregnancy. Thus, allowing to perform an appropriate therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khaironisak, H; Zaridah, S; Hasanain, F G; Zaleha, M I
Violence against women is a worldwide public health problem and becomes more crucial when it involves pregnant women. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of violence against pregnant women (VAPW), while the secondary aim was to identify the factors associated with violence and complications of violence during pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 1,200 postnatal women from March 1, 2015 through August 31, 2015 using a validated Malay Version of the WHO Women's Health and Life Experiences Questionnaire. Data on pregnancy complications were obtained from antenatal records and discharge summaries. The prevalence of any form of VAPW was 35.9%, consisting of: any psychological (29.8%); any physical (12.9%); and any sexual (9.8%) violence. VAPW was significantly associated with: (1) women's use of drugs, having had exposure to violence during childhood, having a violence-supporting attitude, having two or more children; and (2) having partners who were smokers, alcohol drinkers, or had controlling behavior. VAPW was significantly associated with anemia, urinary tract infection, premature rupture of membranes, antepartum hemorrhage, poor weight gain during pregnancy, low birth weight, and prematurity. In conclusion, the high prevalence of violence requires further research on preventive strategies for VAPW.
Marijke M Faas
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Pregnant individuals of many species, including humans, are more sensitive to various bacteria or their products as compared with non-pregnant individuals. Pregnant individuals also respond differently to different bacteria or their products. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated whether the increased sensitivity of pregnant women to bacterial products and their heterogeneous response to different bacteria was associated with differences in whole blood cytokine production upon stimulation with bacteria or their products. METHODS: Blood samples were taken from healthy pregnant and age-matched non-pregnant women and ex vivo stimulated with bacteria or LPS from Porphyromonas Gingivalis (Pg or E-coli for 24 hrs. TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-10 were measured using a multiplex Luminex system. RESULTS: We observed a generally lower cytokine production after stimulation with Pg bacteria or it's LPS as compared with E-coli bacteria. However, there was also an effect of pregnancy upon cytokine production: in pregnant women the production of IL-6 upon Pg stimulation was decreased as compared with non-pregnant women. After stimulation with E-coli, the production of IL-12 and TNFα was decreased in pregnant women as compared with non-pregnant women. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that cytokine production upon bacterial stimulation of whole blood differed between pregnant and non-pregnant women, showing that the increased sensitivity of pregnant women may be due to differences in cytokine production. Moreover, pregnancy also affected whole blood cytokine production upon Pg or E-coli stimulation differently. Thus, the different responses of pregnant women to different bacteria or their products may result from variations in cytokine production.
Full Text Available Introduction: Physical, hormonal and psychological changes during pregnancy can affect a woman’s sexuality as well as a couple’s sexual relationship. The aim of this study was to examine sexual function of pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Methods: The data of descriptive and cross-sectional study was collected via a questionnaire form and Female Sexual Function Index. A score ≤ 26.55 is classified as female sexual dysfunction. A total of 125 volunteer healthy and married pregnant women in third trimester of pregnancy who admitted to the antenatal policlinics were included in this study. Results: The determined that 92% of participants had sexual dysfunction. The Female Sexual Function Index and domains scores in the 28th-31st, 32nd-35th and 36th and higher gestational weeks of pregnancy were as follows: sexual desire scores, 2.50, 2.77 and 2.40; sexual arousal scores, 2.26, 2.72 and 1.69; lubrication scores, 2.61, 3.42 and 1.97; orgasm scores, 2.51, 2.85 and 1.78; sexual satisfaction scores, 3.17, 3.77 and 2.66; pain scores, 2.44, 2.72 and 1.66, and total Female Sexual Function Index scores were 15.51, 18.29, 12.26, respectively. Sexual arousal (p = 0.008, lubrication (p = 0.001, orgasm (p = 0.031, sexual satisfaction (p = 0.005, pain (p = 0.049 and total Female Sexual Function Index score (p = 0.004 were the lowest in 36th and higher gestational weeks, and only sexual desire did not differ (p = 0.191. Conclusions: Sexual function of pregnant women in the third trimester were negatively effected. Health professionals should be trained to evaluate sexual difficulties in pregnant women and to recommend possible solutions. Keywords: Pregnancy, Sexuality, Third trimester, Female sexual function index
Acharya, S; Bhat, P V; Acharya, S
To assess oral health status and to describe the possible factors that could affect the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among a group of pregnant rural women in South India. A total of 259 pregnant women (mean age 26 +/- 5.5 years) who participated in the cross-sectional study were administered the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) questionnaire and were clinically examined for caries and periodontal status. The highest oral impact on quality of life was reported for 'painful mouth' (mean: 1.7) and 'difficulty in eating' (mean: 1.1). On comparing the mean OHIP-14 scores against the various self-reported oral problems, it was seen that the mean OHIP-14 scores were significantly higher among those who reported various oral problems than those who did not. Those with previous history of pregnancies had more severe levels of gingivitis than those who were pregnant for the first time. Also gingival index scores, community periodontal index of treatment needs scores and previous pregnancies was associated with poorer OHRQoL scores. Increased health promotion interventions and simple educational preventive programmes on oral self-care and disease prevention during pregnancy can go a long way in improving oral health and lessening its impact on the quality of life in this important population.
Geiker, Nina Rica Wium; Thomsen, H; Astrup, Arne
therefore undertook a study of the willingness of obese women to undergo MRI during pregnancy. Method: Obese pregnant women, body mass index (BMI) 30-45 kg/m2, participating in a weight management intervention study, were offered three MRI scans to be performed during pregnancy. One hundred and one women......Background/Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered safe to perform during pregnancy. In spite of this many women are reluctant to undergo the examination. Weight gain is to be expected during pregnancy, but little is known about changes in the compartmentalization of abdominal fat. We...... were offered MRI scanning in gestational week (GW) 15, 64 in GW 32, and 45 in GW 40. Results: Of 106 women offered MRI scans 102 completed (96%) at least one scan. In total 177 out of 210 possible scans were completed. The proportion of women who completed first, second and third MRI scans were 96%, 83% and 61...
Hirooka-Nakama, Junko; Enomoto, Kimiko; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Kurasawa, Kentaro; Miyagi, Etsuko; Aoki, Shigeru
We aimed to determine the optimal gestational weight gain (GWG) in Japanese women with a Body Mass Index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m 2 . The present retrospective study investigated singleton pregnancies in 6,781 Japanese women registered in the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology system in 2013. We divided overweight and obese women into four GWG categories based on the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommended: weight loss, small weight gain, within IOM criteria, and above IOM criteria. The adjusted odds ratios and predicted probabilities of maternal and neonatal outcomes of interest with weight change were calculated. In overweight women, GWG was associated with neonatal birth weight. In the loss and small gain subgroups, there was a significant increase in small for gestational age (SGA) and low birth weight neonates (LBW). Predicted probabilities showed the lowest risk was observed in a weight gain of 0 kg; the risk sharply increased at a gain of 11.5 kg. In obese women, weight gain increased the prevalence of large for gestational age (LGA) neonates; however; SGA was not associated with GWG. Predicted probabilities showed an increase in the risk with weight gain. The observed optimal GWG was 0 to 11.5 kg in overweight, and weight loss in obese, pregnant Japanese women.
Melo, Victor Hugo; Botelho, Ana Paula Machado; Maia, Marcelle Marie Martins; Correa, Mário Dias; Pinto, Jorge Andrade
To determine if illicit drug use increases the vertical transmission of HIV, to identify the risk factors involved in mother and child health and the prevalence of illicit drug use among these pregnant women. Sixty-four (7.6%) of 845 pregnant women from the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, attended in the service between October 1997 and February 2012 reported the use of illicit drugs. Cases were HIV-positive drug users (n=64) and controls were women who did not use drugs (n=192). Three controls were selected for each case. Several conditions of exposure were considered in the control group such as tobacco use, alcohol use, alcohol and tobacco use, maternal age, educational level, ethnicity, and marital status. Problems during the prenatal period, delivery and postpartum, vertical HIV transmission and neonatal outcomes were also investigated. Univariate analysis showed as significant variables: maternal age, tobacco use, number of prenatal care visits, antiretroviral therapy, mode of infection, and viral load at delivery. Logistic regression revealed as significant variables: maternal age (less than 25 years); tobacco use, and number of prenatal care visits (less than 6). The vertical transmission of HIV was 4,8% (95%CI 1.7-13.3) among drug users and 2,1% (95%CI 0.8-5.2) in the control group, with no statistically significant difference between groups. Neonatal complications were more frequent among drug users, but also with no statistically significant difference between groups. The use of illicit drug is frequent during pregnancy among HIV-infected women. The approach to illicit drug use should be routine during prenatal care visits. These women are more discriminated against and tend to deny their habits or do not seek prenatal care. There was no difference in vertical virus transmission between groups, probably indicating adherence to antiretroviral use for antiretroviral therapies during pregnancy.
Bayisa, Bodena; Tatiparthi, Ramanjireddy; Mulisa, Eshetu
Background: Investigations across the world confirm dramatic increment in the use of complementary and alternative medicine in pregnant women. The most important aspect is lack of awareness of pregnant women about potential effects of using traditional medicine on fetus; some herbal products may be teratogenic in human and animal models. In this area, so far, no research has been conducted in Ethiopia to assess traditional medicine use in pregnant women. Objectives: Therefore, the main object...
Pregnant women living at northerly latitudes are at risk of suboptimal vitamin D status. There is a paucity of studies correlating knowledge, attitudes and practices of vitamin D with serum levels amongst pregnant women. We aimed to determine the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant women of various ethnicities attending two Dublin maternity hospitals and to assess levels of knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning vitamin D.
Khoshdel, Abolfazl; Kheiri, Soleiman; Nasiri, Jafar; Tehran, Hoda Ahmari; Heidarian, Esfandiar
Background: Many pregnant Muslim women choose to fast during Ramadan every year worldwide. This study aimed to examine the effect of Ramadan fasting on serum leptin, neuropeptide Y and insulin in pregnant women and find whether fasting during pregnancy could have a negative effect on the health of mothers and fetuses. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 39 healthy volunteer fasting pregnant women. Serum leptin, neuropeptide Y, insulin levels, body mass index and weight were m...
Tarning, Joel; Rijken, Marcus J.; McGready, Rose; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Hanpithakpong, Warunee; Day, Nicholas P. J.; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François; Lindegardh, Niklas
Pregnant women are particularly vulnerable to malaria. The pharmacokinetic properties of antimalarial drugs are often affected by pregnancy, resulting in lower drug concentrations and a consequently higher risk of treatment failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the population pharmacokinetic properties of piperaquine and dihydroartemisinin in pregnant and nonpregnant women with uncomplicated malaria. Twenty-four pregnant and 24 matched nonpregnant women on the Thai-Myanmar boar...
Larisa Vasylivna Rynzhuk
Full Text Available The investigation deals with studying of species content and population level of the colon microflora in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in comparison with practically healthy pregnant women. A significant disorder of the qualitative and quantitative composition of the colon microflora content has been found to occur in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria, which in combination with physiological factors associated with pregnancy may result in the development of asymptomatic bacteriuria.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.
Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803
Pleural effusions are very common in general population. There are more than 50 reasons for the etiology. There is limited data on the prevalence of pleural effusions in a population of pregnant women. We prospectively screened 45 pregnant women between May and October 2006. All the pregnant women underwent thoracic ultrasonography during their routine check. Five out of 45 subjects (11%) had minimal and bilateral pleural effusion. None of the subjects was symptomatic. All of the effusions re...
Abdalla Ali Mohammed
Full Text Available Summary: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV among pregnant women attending a major hospital in Kassala state, eastern Sudan. Unlinked anonymous testing of residual blood specimens, which were originally collected for other routine clinical purposes, was performed using rapid immunochromatographic assays. In total, 430 residual blood specimens were consecutively collected over a 6-week period (April–May 2010. Specimens from the antenatal clinic (ANC constituted 50.7% (218/430 of the total whereas specimens from the labour ward accounted for the remaining 49.3% (212/430. The median age of pregnant women was 29 years (range 16–40. The prevalence of HIV-1 infection was 0.23% (1/430 [95% confidence interval = 0.01–1.29%]. The only reactive specimen came from a 20-year-old ANC attendee. We report low HIV prevalence among pregnant women in eastern Sudan but further research is needed to confirm our findings. An integrated framework to diagnose and treat maternal HIV infection should be developed in order to prevent transmission to infants. Keywords: HIV, Prevalence, Pregnancy, Eastern Sudan
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Anaemia is a serious and prominent problem in the developing countries. This study evaluates the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women attending the outpatient clinic in a semi-urban hospital for a period of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from a sample of 500 pregnant women was collected and the patients were screened for anaemia on their booking visit in KFMS&R for a period of six months from March-August 2015. Haemoglobin was estimated by cyanmethaemoglobin method using Systronic photocolorimeter on their first antenatal visit. The degree of anaemia was categorised according to ICMR datamild (10-10.99 g/dL, moderate (7-9.99 g/dL, severe (<7 g/dL. RESULTS It was observed that the prevalence of anaemia was 51.8% in the population under study. The prevalence of mild anaemia was 18.53%, that of moderate anaemia was 63.70% and that of severe anaemia was 17.76%. It was also noticed that the prevalence of anaemia was higher in young pregnant women between 17-21 years of age (63.26%. CONCLUSION Anaemia continues to be a major health problem in India and prevention and early diagnosis will significantly reduce maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaemia in pregnancy has serious adverse effects on the health of the mother and the developing foetus. OBJECTIVES The study aims to estimate the prevalence of anaemia in pregnant woman attending the Nagaon Primary Health Centre (PHC in Barpeta district, Assam. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out from 1 April, 2014 to 1 May, 2014. 100 pregnant women attending Nagaon PHC were interviewed using a predesigned and pretested interview schedule followed by a short clinical examination for pallor and laboratory estimation of haemoglobin. Sahli’s (Acid Haematin method was used for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin level below the cut-off 11 g/dL was used to label a pregnant woman as anaemic and further classified as mild (10-10.9 g/dL, moderate anaemia (7-9.9 g/dL and severe anaemia (<7 g/dL. RESULTS 77% women were suffering from anaemia. Out of these, 57 %were mildly anaemic and 20% were moderately anaemic. Women of younger age groups, greater parity, a gap less than 3 years between subsequent pregnancies, less education and practising Hinduism had a greater prevalence of anaemia. CONCLUSION Awareness about the serious consequences that anaemia can lead to and advocacy of a proper iron-rich diet, regular intake of IFA tablets and purification of water to prevent infestation by parasites can help in reduction of anaemia.
Tran, Tran H; Griffin, Brooke L; Stone, Rebecca H; Vest, Kathleen M; Todd, Timothy J
Pregnant women with opioid use disorder can be treated with methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone to reduce opioid use and improve retention to treatment. In this review, we compare the pregnancy outcomes of methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone in clinical trials and discuss the potential behavioral and developmental effects of these agents seen in offspring in animal studies. Important clinical considerations in the management of opioid use disorder in pregnant women and their infants are also discussed. Outside of pregnancy, buprenorphine is used in combination with naloxone to reduce opioid abuse and diversion. During pregnancy, however, the use of buprenorphine as a single agent is preferred to prevent prenatal naloxone exposure. Both methadone and buprenorphine are widely used to treat opioid use disorder; however, compared with methadone, buprenorphine is associated with shorter treatment duration, less medication needed to treat neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) symptoms, and shorter hospitalizations for neonates. Despite being the standard of care, medication-assisted treatment with methadone or buprenorphine is still underused, making it apparent that more options are necessary. Naltrexone is not a first-line treatment primarily because both detoxification and an opioid-free period are required. More research is needed to determine naltrexone safety and benefits in pregnant women. Animal studies suggest that changes in pain sensitivity, developmental processes, and behavioral responses may occur in children born to mothers receiving methadone, buprenorphine, or naltrexone and is an area that warrants future studies. © 2017 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Food cravings, aversions and pica practices should be assessed in antenatal care of pregnant women. Attention should be paid to pregnant women who have had a history of child death and women with low education level.
Lehmann, Lis Maurente; Santos, Paula Costa; Scaini, Carlos James
Introduction Toxoplasmosis a parasitic zoonosis of global distribution, responsible for disorders during gestation can cause fetal death or congenital anomalies. Objective To evaluate the knowledge of toxoplasmosis among pregnant and postpartum women treated at the University Hospital of the city of Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 100 pregnant and postpartum women at the University Hospital. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire and gave consent for data relating to serological examinations to be abstracted from their medical records. Results The proportion of women who received information about toxoplasmosis was higher among those who received care in the private health care system (52.9%) than among those cared for in the public health care system (25.0%). Only 55.7% of women reported having some knowledge about toxoplasmosis. Of these, 53.7% received information during the prenatal period. However, most participants were unable to answer questions about preventive measures and modes of infection. Of the 100 patients in the study, only 46 underwent serologic testing for toxoplasmosis, 65.2% of whom tested negative (IgG). Conclusion Findings from this study are relevant to the training of health professionals regarding toxoplasmosis education and prevention. Improved education for health care providers and patients can lead to earlier diagnoses and reductions in adverse outcomes. Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Castro, Roberto; Peek-Asa, Corinne; García, Lorena; Ruiz, Agustín; Kraus, Jess F
Although violence against women is gaining international attention as a prevention priority, little is known about how risks differ across countries. A comparative study of violence against pregnant Mexican women in Morelos, Mexico, and Latina women in Los Angeles County, California, United States. In 1998 and 1999, women in prenatal clinics were interviewed about psychological abuse and sexual and physical violence by their partner, during and the 1 year prior to the index pregnancy. The overall response rate for Morelos was 99%, with a sample size of 914; Los Angeles County had a response rate of 96.9%, with a sample size of 219. Women in Morelos reported a higher prevalence of violence compared to women in the California (14.8% v 11.9%, respectively). A partner aged child were more than 25 times more likely to be abused during pregnancy than women not reporting this type of abuse. The identification of factors associated with violence against women, especially as they differ by culture and ethnicity, will help clinicians to better identify victims and to design and implement culturally appropriate prevention programs.
Full Text Available Context: Gingival changes in pregnancy have been attributed to changes in the subgingival biofilm related to hormonal variations. Aims: To evaluate the subgingival plaque microflora in pregnant and nonpregnant women to determine if pregnancy induces any alterations in the subgingival plaque and to associate these changes with changes in periodontal status. Settings and Design: Thirty pregnant and 10 nonpregnant women within the age group of 20-35 years having a probing pocket depth (PPD of 3-4 mm were included in the study. The pregnant women were equally divided into 3 groups of 10, each belonging to I, II, and III trimester. Materials and Methods: Plaque index, gingival index, PPD, and microbiologic evaluation for specific bacterial counts for Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Parvimonas micra, and Fusobacterium nucleatum were carried out for all subjects. Statistical Analysis: Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Increase in gingival inflammation was observed in II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and control. Plaque scores did not show any significant difference between pregnant and nonpregnant women. Specific bacterial examination revealed an increase in proportion of P. intermedia in pregnant women of both II and III trimester as compared with I trimester and nonpregnant women. Conclusions: A definite increase in proportions of P. intermedia occurs in subgingival plaque microflora in pregnancy that may be responsible for the exaggerated gingival response.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Violence against women during pregnancy is linked to poor outcome of pregnancy, which is reported to have widespread in Iran. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical violence against women by an intimate partner during pregnancy, and to assess the impact of this physical violence on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted on the characteristics of pregnant women in urban areas and related violence. The modified standard World Health Organization Domestic Violence Questionnaire was used to classify pregnant women and domestic violence. A total of 1461 pregnant women were selected using cluster sampling. The association between sociodemographic with intimate partner violence (IPV and IPV with pregnancy outcomes was determined using logistic regression. Results: Of these, 206 (14.1% (confidence interval = 12.3-15.9 reported physical IPV during pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio for IPV in illiterate women or those with primary level of education (0.001, secondary level education (0.003, and in low income households (0.0001 were significantly higher than in those women with university level education and in higher income households. After adjusting for suspected confounding factors, the women with a history of violence by partners had 1.9 fold risk of premature rupture of membranes, and a 2.9 fold risk of low birth weight compared to women who did not experience any violence from their partners. Conclusion: The results of this research indicated that the prevalence of IPV was high among pregnant women. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the screening of pregnant women at Primary Health Centers to prevent physical abuse.
Pharephan, Somphon; Sirivatanapa, Pannee; Makonkawkeyoon, Sanit; Tuntiwechapikul, Wirote; Makonkawkeyoon, Luksana
Background & objectives: Alpha-thalassaemias are genetic disorders with high prevalence in northern Thailand. However, common genotypes and current data on the prevalence of α-thalassaemias have not been reported in this region. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of α-thalassaemia genotypes in pregnant women in northern Thailand. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples of pregnant women who came to Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai University Hospital during July 2009 to 2010. The common deletion and point mutation genotypes of α-thalassaemia were evaluated by gap- polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and PCR with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Results: Genotypes of 638 pregnant women were: 409 samples (64.11%) being normal subjects (αα/αα) and 229 samples (35.89%) with α-thalassaemias. These 229 samples could be classified into deletional HbH disease (--SEA/-α3.7) for 18 samples (2.82%); heterozygous α0-thalassaemia --SEA type (--SEA/αα)) for 78 (12.23%); heterozygous α+-thalassaemia - α3.7 type (-α3.7/αα) for 99 (15.52%); homozygous α+-thalassaemia - α3.7 type (-α3.7/- α3.7) for five (0.78%); heterozygous α+-thalassaemia - α4.2 type (-α4.2/αα) for two (0.31%); and heterozygous HbCS (αCSα/αα) for 27 (4.23%) cases. Interpretation & conclusions: The prevalence of α-thalassaemias in pregnant women in northern Thailand was high. This finding supports the implementation of the prevention and control of this common genetic disorder by screening for α-thalassaemia genotypes. PMID:27241645
Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Igboama, Magdalene C; Ojo, Johnson Adeyemi; Odewale, Gbolabo
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major public health challenge especially in developing countries. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and Human T-cell lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic, in Ladoke Akintola University Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, and South-Western Nigeria. One hundred and eighty two randomly selected pregnant women were screened for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies using commercially available ELISA kit. Of the 182 blood samples of pregnant women screened whose age ranged from 15-49 years, 13 (7.1%), 5 (2.7%), 9 (4.9%), and 44 (24.2%) were positive for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV, and HTLV-1 IgM antibodies, respectively. The co-infection rate of 0.5% was obtained for HBV/HCV, HBV/HIV, HIV/HTLV-1, and HCV/HTLV-1 while 1.1% and 0% was recorded for HBV/HTLV-1 and HCV/HIV co-infections, respectively. Expected risk factors such as history of surgery, circumcision, tattooing and incision showed no significant association with any of the viral STIs (P > 0.05). This study shows that there is the need for a comprehensive screening of all pregnant women for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV and HTLV-1 to prevent mother to child transmission of these viral infections and its attending consequences.
Beeler, Jennifer A; Lambach, Philipp; Fulton, T Roice; Narayanan, Divya; Ortiz, Justin R; Omer, Saad B
Immunization during pregnancy can provide protection for mother and child. However, there have been only a limited number of studies documenting the efficacy and safety of this strategy. To determine the extent and nature of subject matter related to ethics in maternal immunization by systematically documenting the spectrum of ethical issues in vaccine studies involving pregnant women. We conducted a systematic literature review of published works pertaining to vaccine and therapeutic studies involving pregnant women through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We selected literature meeting the inclusion criteria published between 1988 and June 2014. We systematically abstracted subject matter pertaining to ethical issues in immunization studies during pregnancy. Immunization-specific ethical issues were matched and grouped into major categories and subcategories. Seventy-seven published articles met the inclusion criteria. Published articles reported findings on data that had been collected in 26 countries, the majority of which were classified as high-income or upper-middle-income nations according to World Bank criteria. Review of these publications produced 60 immunization-specific ethical issues, grouped into six major categories. Notably, many studies demonstrated limited acknowledgment of key ethical issues including the rights and welfare of participants. Additionally, there was no discussion pertaining to the ethics of program implementation, including integration of maternal immunization programs into existing routine immunization programs. This review of ethical issues in immunization studies of pregnant women can be used to help inform future vaccine trials in this important population. Consistent documentation of these ethical issues by investigators will facilitate a broader and more nuanced discussion of ethics in immunization of pregnant women - offering new and valuable insights for programs
Sadeh, Maryam; Firouzi, Roya; Derakhshandeh, Abdollah; Bagher Khalili, Mohammad; Kong, Fanrong; Kudinha, Timothy
Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) that colonize the