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Sommarin, Clara; Kilbane, Theresa; Mercy, James A.; Moloney-Kitts, Michele; Ligiero, Daniela P.
Background Evidence linking violence against women and HIV has grown, including on the cycle of violence and the links between violence against children and women. To create an effective response to the HIV epidemic, it is key to prevent sexual violence against children and intimate partner violence (IPV) against adolescent girls. Methods Authors analyzed data from national household surveys on violence against children undertaken by governments in Swaziland, Tanzania, Kenya, and Zimbabwe, with support of the Together for Girls initiative, as well as an analysis of evidence on effective programmes. Results Data show that sexual and physical violence in childhood are linked to negative health outcomes, including increased sexual risk taking (eg, inconsistent condom use and increased number of sexual partners), and that girls begin experiencing IPV (emotional, physical, and sexual) during adolescence. Evidence on effective programmes addressing childhood sexual violence is growing. Key interventions focus on increasing knowledge among children and caregivers by addressing attitudes and practices around violence, including dating relationships. Programmes also seek to build awareness of services available for children who experience violence. Discussion Findings include incorporating attention to children into HIV and violence programmes directed to adults; increased coordination and leveraging of resources between these programmes; test transferability of programmes in low- and middle-income countries; and invest in data collection and robust evaluations of interventions to prevent sexual violence and IPV among children. Conclusions This article contributes to a growing body of evidence on the prevention of sexual violence and HIV in children. PMID:24918598
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors.
Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah
Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447
Dickson, Sandra; Willis, Gwenda M
The extensive and sometimes profoundly damaging effects of sexual violence and large numbers of victims necessitate dedicated attention to primary prevention efforts. Few studies have examined the scope of current prevention activities or their fit with empirical research into effective prevention strategies. The current article presents findings from a survey of primary prevention activities in non-Māori and bicultural communities within Aotearoa New Zealand. Forty-four respondents representing 42 agencies responded to a comprehensive survey that canvased types of sexual violence primary prevention activities undertaken, sexual violence primary prevention programs, and barriers and supports to sexual violence prevention work. Consistent with findings from previous international surveys, the focus of primary prevention work in New Zealand was on sexual violence education and increasing awareness. Findings are discussed in the context of the sexual violence prevention literature and what works in prevention more broadly to help identify promising initiatives as well as gaps in current practices. Recommendations for advancing sexual violence primary prevention research are also provided.
Miller, Elizabeth; Jones, Kelley A; McCauley, Heather L
Dating and sexual violence victimization are not uncommon in early adolescence and increase in prevalence throughout adolescence into young adulthood with profound health and social consequences. Greater attention to what works in prevention is needed to inform current policies and practices. Adolescent dating violence (ADV) and sexual violence victimization, including cyber dating abuse, are highly prevalent among adolescents. Studies have found sex category differences, with adolescent girls reporting more victimization than boys, particularly sexual violence. Sexual and gender minority youth also experience a higher prevalence of violence victimization than their heterosexual counterparts. Studies on risk factors include examinations of childhood adversities, exposure to sexually explicit material and substance use as well as the role of gender inequitable attitudes on violence perpetration. Recent prevention research includes examining the impact of bystander interventions and transforming gender norms. Recent ADV/ sexual violence research highlights both prevalence and modifiable risk and protective factors that may help reduce such violence. Practitioners caring for youth should consider ADV/ sexual violence when seeing patients (including those struggling with substance use and other behaviours that contribute to poor health) and not simply rely on screening tools to identify those suffering from ADV/ sexual violence.
Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Plante, Elizabethe G.
The current study used an experimental design to evaluate a sexual violence prevention program based on a community of responsibility model that teaches women and men how to intervene safely and effectively in cases of sexual violence before, during, and after incidents with strangers, acquaintances, or friends. It approaches both women and men as…
Iverson, Susan V.; Issadore, Michelle N.
Policy can and should be used as a tool of sexual violence prevention and response. In this chapter, we explore the historical, social justice, compliance, and best practice rationales for approaching policy development and revision differently.
Cierniak, Katie; Heiman, Julia R.; Plucker, Jonathan A.
For roughly three decades, policymakers have sought to reduce sexual violence by reliance on a criminal justice approach in which sexually violent acts are dealt with after they occur. Recognizing that prevention efforts could be more valuable, as they work to stop the problem before it begins, researchers have begun to implement a primary…
The article is devoted to the sources of legal regulation of sexual violence prevention as a kind of domestic violence. Analyzed the legal provisions regulating the concept, types, measures of prevention of domestic violence, the activities of the competent authorities.
Jaime, M. C. D.; Stocking, M.; Freire, K.; Perkinson, L.; Ciaravino, S.; Miller, E.
"Coaching Boys into Men" is an evidence-based dating violence prevention program for coaches to implement with male athletes. A common adaptation of this program is delivery by domestic violence and sexual violence prevention advocates instead of coaches. We explored how this implementer adaptation may influence athlete uptake of program…
McMahon, Sarah; Banyard, Victoria L.; McMahon, Sheila M.
Evaluations of bystander intervention education programs demonstrate that this approach results in students' increased willingness to intervene in prosocial ways to prevent sexual violence (e.g., Moynihan, Banyard, Arnold, Eckstein, & Stapleton, 2010). These programs often focus on first-year college students, though theories and research on…
Banyard, Victoria L.; Eckstein, Robert P.; Moynihan, Mary M.
Increasing numbers of empirical studies and theoretical frameworks for preventing sexual violence are appearing in the research- and practice-based literatures. The consensus of this work is that although important lessons have been learned, the field is still in the early stages of developing and fully researching effective models, particularly…
This podcast discusses sexual violence - what it is, the long-term health problems it can contribute to, and tips to stop it before it begins. Created: 4/4/2011 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Date Released: 4/4/2011.
Sexual Violence Facts at a Glance 2012 Adults In a nationally representative survey of adults: 1 • Nearly 1 in ... 5.6% and 5.3%, respectively) experienced sexual violence other than rape, such as being made to ...
Wazlawik, Martin; Christmann, Bernd; Dekker, Arne
Prevention of sexual violence against children and adolescents obtains high priority in educational contexts. This is due to the massive (possible) psychosocial impacts of sexual victimization as well as to the considerable prevalence rates that are reported in current studies. Preventive approaches are predominantly native to violence prevention and sex education where they are characterized by independent lines of tradition and positions. This contribution outlines their empirically largely unexplained relation with a focus on the history and development of the discourses of sex education. Diverging disciplinary attempts of positioning towards the prevention of sexual violence reveal an area of conflict between sex-positive and preventive educational objectives. A primacy of preventive contents is seen to be threatening a comprehensive sex education that emphasizes the positive aspects of sexuality. On the other hand, its standards are opposed to excluding and to tabooing sexual violence as a topic. Yet unfinished is therefore the search for a "third way" that might transfer the opposites of both approaches into integrative educational concepts. Unsettled questions about possible contributions of sex education to the prevention of sexual violence, and especially to which extent they are sensitive to difference are discussed based on international research and the theory of sex education.
Wooten, Sara Carrigan
This article aims to challenge the framework by which rape and sexual assault prevention in higher education are being constituted by centring Black women's experiences of sexual violence within a prevention and response policy framework. Numerous research studies exist in the literature regarding the specific experience of sexual violence for…
Noonan, Rita K; Gibbs, Deborah
This special issue captures several threads in the ongoing evolution of sexual violence prevention. The articles that follow examine an empowerment evaluation process with four promising programs dedicated to preventing first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, as well as evaluation findings. Both the evaluation approach and the programs examined shed light on how sexual violence prevention can continue to be improved in the future.
Sales, Jessica; Krause, Kathleen
Creating a normative campus environment intolerant to sexual violence is important for prevention. While prevention initiatives focusing on students are vital, faculty and staff have a central role in supporting and sustaining a comprehensive strategy for preventing campus sexual violence. Nationwide, colleges and universities recently implemented…
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander intervention offers promise as a sexual violence prevention tool for student affairs administrators on college campuses, but the conceptualization and definition of the approach is in its infancy and needs further development. In an effort to emphasize the potential role of bystanders in the primary prevention of sexual violence, we put…
Schneider, Madeline; Hirsch, Jennifer S
Sexual violence (SV) represents a serious public health problem with high rates and numerous health consequences. Current primary prevention strategies to reduce SV perpetration have been shown to be largely ineffective-not surprisingly, since as others have pointed out current prevention largely fails to draw on existing knowledge about the characteristics of effective prevention. In this article, we examine the potential of K-12 comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), guided by the National Sexuality Education Standards (NSES), to be an effective strategy. Our discussion uses socioecological and feminist theories as a guide, examines the extent to which NSES-guided CSE could both meet the qualities of effective prevention programs and mitigate the risk factors that are most implicated in perpetration behavior, and considers the potential limitations of this approach. We suggest that sequential, K-12 program has potential to prevent the emergence of risk factors associated with SV perpetration by starting prevention early on in the life course. CSE has not yet been evaluated with SV perpetration behavior as an outcome, and this article synthesizes what is known about drivers of SV perpetration and the potential impacts of CSE to argue for the importance of future research in this area. The primary recommendation is for longitudinal research to examine the impact of CSE on SV perpetration as well as on other sexual and reproductive health outcomes.
DeGue, Sarah; Valle, Linda Anne; Holt, Melissa K; Massetti, Greta M; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Tharp, Andra Teten
This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates (Foshee et al., 2004); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003).
DeGue, Sarah; Valle, Linda Anne; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Tharp, Andra Teten
This systematic review examined 140 outcome evaluations of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence perpetration. The review had two goals: 1) to describe and assess the breadth, quality, and evolution of evaluation research in this area; and 2) to summarize the best available research evidence for sexual violence prevention practitioners by categorizing programs with regard to their evidence of effectiveness on sexual violence behavioral outcomes in a rigorous evaluation. The majority of sexual violence prevention strategies in the evaluation literature are brief, psycho-educational programs focused on increasing knowledge or changing attitudes, none of which have shown evidence of effectiveness on sexually violent behavior using a rigorous evaluation design. Based on evaluation studies included in the current review, only three primary prevention strategies have demonstrated significant effects on sexually violent behavior in a rigorous outcome evaluation: Safe Dates (Foshee et al., 2004); Shifting Boundaries (building-level intervention only, Taylor, Stein, Woods, Mumford, & Forum, 2011); and funding associated with the 1994 U.S. Violence Against Women Act (VAWA; Boba & Lilley, 2009). The dearth of effective prevention strategies available to date may reflect a lack of fit between the design of many of the existing programs and the principles of effective prevention identified by Nation et al. (2003). PMID:29606897
Hawkins, Stephanie R; Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Irvin, Neil; Hart, Laurie; Russell, Sarah Jane
Sexual violence is a growing public health problem, and there is an urgent need to develop sexual violence prevention programs. Logic models have emerged as a vital tool in program development. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded an empowerment evaluation designed to work with programs focused on the prevention of first-time male perpetration of sexual violence, and it included as one of its goals, the development of program logic models. Two case studies are presented that describe how significant positive changes can be made to programs as a result of their developing logic models that accurately describe desired outcomes. The first case study describes how the logic model development process made an organization aware of the importance of a program's environmental context for program success; the second case study demonstrates how developing a program logic model can elucidate gaps in organizational programming and suggest ways to close those gaps.
Christensen, M. Candace
This study explores the experiences of male college students who participated in a theatre-based, peer-education, sexual assault prevention presentation. The program was established through the use of Pedagogy of the Oppressed and Theatre of the Oppressed, as well as multicultural feminist theory and approaches. These models emphasize subverting…
Black, Beverly M.; Weisz, Arlene N.; Jayasundara, Dheeshana S.
A dating violence and sexual assault prevention program was presented to 396, predominately African American, middle schoolers in two inner city schools in the United States. In one school the program was offered with a same-gender group composition; in the other school, the same program was offered with mixed-gender group composition. A…
Tharp, Andra Teten; DeGue, Sarah; Lang, Karen; Valle, Linda Anne; Massetti, Greta; Holt, Melissa; Matjasko, Jennifer
Foubert, Godin, and Tatum describe qualitative effects among college men of The Men's Program, a one-session sexual violence prevention program. This article and the program it describes are representative of many sexual violence prevention programs that are in practice and provide an opportunity for a brief discussion of the development and…
Hines, Denise A; Palm Reed, Kathleen M
Although evidence suggests that bystander prevention programs are promising interventions for decreasing sexual violence and dating violence on college campuses, there have been no studies to date evaluating moderators of bystander program effectiveness. The current study evaluates whether different demographic characteristics, attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors at pretest predict change over a 6-month follow-up for students who participated in a bystander prevention program. Participants in the three assessments (pretest, posttest, 6-month follow-up) included 296 college students who were mandated to attend a bystander program during their first year orientation. Analyses showed that with few exceptions, the bystander program worked best for students who were most at risk given their pretest demographics and levels of attitudes condoning dating violence and sexual violence, bystander efficacy, and bystander behaviors. Results are discussed in terms of suggestions for future research. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha
Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.
Moynihan, Mary M; Banyard, Victoria L; Cares, Alison C; Potter, Sharyn J; Williams, Linda M; Stapleton, Jane G
Colleges and universities are high-risk settings for sexual and relationship violence. To address these problems, institutions of higher education have implemented prevention programs, many of which train students as potential bystanders who can step in to help diffuse risky situations, identify and challenge perpetrators, and assist victims. The impact of bystander sexual and relationship violence prevention programs on long-term behavior of bystanders has remained a key unanswered question for those who seek to offer the most effective programs as well as for policy makers. In this study, the researchers experimentally evaluated the effectiveness of the Bringing in the Bystander® in-person program. Participants were 948 1st-year college students of whom 47.8% were women and 85.2% identified as White (15% also identified as Hispanic in a separate question) between the ages of 18 and 24 at two universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, highly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. To date, this is the first study to have found positive behavior changes as long-lasting as 1 year following an educational workshop focusing on engaging bystanders in preventing sexual and relationship violence. Even so, many questions remain to be answered about prevention and intervention of this type. More prospective research is needed on bystander-focused prevention of these forms of violence to help understand and better predict the complicated relationships both between and among the attitudes and behaviors related to preventing sexual and relationship violence. In this regard, we make specific recommendations for designing and evaluating programs based on our findings relating to the importance of moderators, especially two key understudied ones, readiness to help and opportunity to intervene. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gevers, Aník; Dartnall, Elizabeth
In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV). However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Full Text Available In this short communication, we assert that mental health has a crucial role in the primary prevention of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV. However, we found that most research and practice to date has focused on the role of mental health post-violence, and SGBV primary prevention is relying on public health models that do not explicitly include mental health. Yet, key concepts, processes, and competencies in the mental health field appear essential to successful SGBV primary prevention. For example, empathy, self-esteem, compassion, emotional regulation and resilience, stress management, relationship building, and challenging problematic social norms are crucial. Furthermore, competencies such as rapport building, group processing, emotional nurturing, modelling, and the prevention of vicarious trauma among staff are important for the successful implementation of SGBV primary prevention programmes. SGBV primary prevention work would benefit from increased collaboration with mental health professionals and integration of key mental health concepts, processes, and skills in SGBV research.
Kleinsasser, Anne; Jouriles, Ernest N; McDonald, Renee; Rosenfield, David
Because of its high prevalence and serious consequences for victims, sexual violence is a significant problem on college campuses. Sexual assault prevention programs based on the bystander intervention model have been shown to be effective; however, current programs are limited in terms of ease of distribution. To address this issue, we developed and evaluated "Take Care," an online bystander intervention program. To our knowledge, this is the first empirical evaluation of an online bystander intervention program designed to prevent sexual violence. Ninety-three participants (80.6% female, 19.4% male) recruited from social psychology classes at a mid-size university were randomly assigned to view one of two online programs: Take Care or a control program on study skills. Before viewing the programs, participants completed measures of bystander behaviors and feelings of efficacy for performing such behaviors. Measures were administered again post-intervention and at a two-month follow-up assessment. Participants who viewed Take Care reported greater efficacy for engaging in bystander behaviors at post-treatment and two months following treatment, compared to those who viewed the control program. In addition, participants who viewed Take Care reported performing relatively more bystander behaviors for friends at the two-month follow-up assessment, compared to participants who viewed the control program. These results suggest that sexual violence prevention programs may be effectively adapted to an online format.
Miedema, Stephanie S; Yount, Kathryn M; Chirwa, Esnat; Dunkle, Kristin; Fulu, Emma
Men's perpetration of gender-based violence remains a global public health issue. Violence prevention experts call for engagement of boys and men to change social norms around masculinity in order to prevent gender-based violence. Yet, men do not comprise a homogenous category. Drawing on probability estimates of men who report same-sex practices and preferences captured in a multi-country gender-based violence prevention survey in the Asia-Pacific region, we test the effects of sexuality-related factors on men's adverse life experiences. We find that sexual minority men face statistically higher risk of lifetime adversity related to gender-based violence, stemming from gender inequitable norms in society. Sexuality is thus a key axis of differentiation among men in the Asia-Pacific region, influencing health and wellbeing and reflecting men's differential engagement with dominant norms of masculinity. Integrating awareness of male sexual diversity into gender-based violence prevention interventions, particularly those that work with boys and men, and bridging violence prevention programming between sexual minority communities and women, are essential to tackle the root drivers of violence.
DeGue, Sarah; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.; Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Tharp, Andra Teten; Valle, Linda Anne
The Division of Violence Prevention within CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control recently undertook a systematic review of primary prevention strategies for sexual violence (SV) perpetration. This review identified the lack of community-level strategies to prevent SV as a critical gap in the literature. Community-level strategies function by modifying the characteristics of settings (e.g., schools, workplaces, neighborhoods) that increase the risk for violence victimization and perpetration. Identification of evidence-based strategies at the community level would allow implementation of ecologic approaches to SV prevention with a greater potential for reducing the prevalence of SV perpetration. The field will face several challenges in identifying and evaluating the effectiveness of promising community-level strategies to prevent SV. These challenges include limited knowledge of community-level and societal-level risk factors for SV, a lack of theoretical or empirical guidance in the SV literature for identification of promising community-level approaches, and challenges in evaluating SV outcomes at the community level. Recognition of these challenges should guide future research and foster dialogue within the SV prevention field. The development and evaluation of community-level approaches to SV prevention represent a vital and logical next step toward the implementation of effective, multilevel prevention efforts and a population-level reduction in the prevalence of SV. PMID:22185587
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) defines intimate partner violence (IPV) as violence between two people in a close relationship, including current and former spouses and dating partners. IPV occurs on a continuum from a single episode to ongoing battering and can include physical violence, sexual violence, threats, emotional…
Sexual violence is a common human rights violation among campus students. Students within the university, faculty committees, and members of staff are not only involved in sexual violence, but also in addressing its causes. This thesis describes sexual violence victimization and perpetration awareness, its relationship with human right and punitive measures accorded to it in a sample of 150-university students. A cross sectional survey design was used to contact students through voluntary gat...
Weingarten, Christine; Rabago, Jina; Reynolds, Jasmine; Gates, Kalani; Yanagida, Evie; Baker, Charlene
Rates of childhood sexual abuse are unacceptably high, with potentially long-lasting consequences for those who have been victimized. Currently, there are a number of sexual violence prevention programs that have been developed to lower rates of victimization, increase awareness, and connect victims with resources. Within this area of research, there has been less focus on effective methods of program dissemination. For example, school-based sexual violence prevention programs have had positive outcomes; however, little is known about how these programs are disseminated. The train-the-trainer model of dissemination utilizes master trainers to equip others to implement programs, thereby allowing more adults to teach and subsequently more children to receive the program. This study used survey data from teachers and other school personnel (n = 127) to analyze the utility of a train-the-trainer model of dissemination for a sexual violence prevention program in the state of Hawai'i. Through responses of people who were trained to implement the program (59.8% of whom did implement), aspects of the training, the program itself, and factors affecting whether a person implemented the program were explored. Results suggest that time spent in training, job position, and time in that position predicted whether a person trained to implement the sexual violence prevention program followed through with teaching the program to students. Additionally, 54.7% of people who did implement the program had at least one student disclose sexual violence to them, indicating the importance of sexual violence prevention programming and dissemination of these programs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Glenn, Lily; Fidler, Laura; O'Connor, Meghan; Haviland, Mary; Fry, Deborah; Pollak, Tamara; Frye, Victoria
Sexual violence is a public health problem associated with short- and long-term physical and mental health consequences. Most interventions that aim to prevent sexual violence before it occurs target individual-level change or promote bystander training. Community-level interventions, while increasingly recommended in the sexual violence prevention field, are rarely documented in peer-reviewed literature. This paper is a targeted process evaluation of Project Envision, a 6-year pilot initiative to address social norms at the root of sexual violence through coalition building and community mobilization in three New York City neighborhoods, and reflects the perspectives of those charged with designing and implementing the program. Evaluation methods included a systematic literature review, archival source document review, and key informant interviews. Three themes emerged from the results: community identity and implications for engagement; capacity and readiness for community mobilization and consequences for implementation; and impacts on participants. Lessons learned include the limitations of using geographic boundaries to structure community interventions in urban settings; carefully considering whether communities should be mobilized around an externally-identified issue; translating theoretical frameworks into concrete tasks; assessing all coalition partners and organizations for readiness; critically evaluating available resources; and recognizing that community organizing is a skill that requires investment from funders. We conclude that Project Envision showed promise for shifting institutional norms towards addressing root causes of sexual violence in addition to providing victim services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Intan Noor Khalifah; Argyo Demartoto; Harsono Salimo
Background: Street children are at high risk of sexual violence. Necessary measures should be undertaken to address deleterious biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence. This study aimed to analyze the preventive behaviors to address biopsychosocial impacts of sexual violence among street children in Yogyakarta using Health Belief Model and Labelling Theory.Subjects and Method: This study was qualitative descriptive with phenomenology approach. The key informants for this study included Hea...
Arbeit, Miriam R.
The United States Military Academy at West Point develops cadets into "leaders of character" who will become Army officers. This focus on character presents an opportunity for the prevention of sexual violence through an emphasis on military values. Using constructivist grounded theory, this study examined how cadets experience their own…
Banyard, Victoria L; Rizzo, Andrew J; Bencosme, Yamilex; Cares, Alison C; Moynihan, Mary M
The prevalence of sexual violence crimes on U.S. college campuses is prompting institutions of higher education to increasingly invest in centers to support survivors and programs to prevent the violence before it happens. Understanding bystanders to sexual violence and what may motivate them to step in and help is a promising prevention strategy. The purpose of this study was to understand how potential active bystanders' (first-year college students) perceptions of community (including a sense of one's influence in the community and positive peer norms for helping) and individual beliefs about self (including sense of responsibility and self-efficacy) affect their self-reports of performing bystander behavior to address sexual violence risks. Participants were 948 students at two different universities (one a rural, primarily residential campus and the other an urban, mostly commuter campus) in the northeastern United States. Regression and path analysis quantitative results suggest that individual-level characteristics may mediate some of the impact that community-level norms and perceptions have on bystander outcomes, explaining some of the mixed findings in previous research. Prevention strategies should work to change community norms and perceptions of mattering and perceptions of community influence in addition to the more traditional focus on individual-level violence specific attitudes.
Collazo-Vargas, Erika M; Dodge, Brian; Herbenick, Debby; Guerra-Reyes, Lucia; Mowatt, Rasul; Otero-Cruz, Ilia M; Rodríguez-Díaz, Carlos
People who inject drugs (PWID) face numerous gender-specific health risks, which increase their susceptibility to adverse outcomes, including violence. There is a need for research on female PWID to capture their unique experiences and understand behavioral and gender-based differences. This study aimed to understand which drug use and sexual behaviors are the most prevalent among female PWID accessing health services in Puerto Rico and to gather preliminary information on those individuals' experiences of sexual violence. Utilizing a transformative theoretical perspective, a mixed-methods study was conducted with a sample of 90 Puerto Rican women who reported recent (past 12 months) injection drug use (IDU) This manuscript focused on Phase 1, in which participants completed an interviewer-administered survey eliciting information about sexual behaviors, drug use, experiences of sexual violence, and access to healthcare services. Phase 2 involved an in-depth interview focused on sexual health and access to healthcare services. Female PWID were found to engage in a variety of sexual behaviors throughout their lifespans and at their most recent sexual events. There were significant differences across age groups for participants, those being time of most recent sexual event (p = 0.007), partner's sex (p = 0.039), relationship with partner (p = 0.023), contraception method used (p = 0.057), and reports of partner orgasm (p = 0.055). Over half of all participants reported having experienced sexual violence in their lifetime. This study extends the literature on PWID in Puerto Rico by underscoring the diversity of female PWID sexual experiences and needs while illustrating how those experiences are often mediated by drug use. The findings highlight the need for further research on female PWID in Puerto Rico to better develop programs that include sexual violence prevention as part of future interventions for this population.
Kania, Rachel; Cale, Jesse
The concept of bystander intervention is gaining popularity in universities as a mechanism to prevent sexual violence. Prior research has focused on correlates of bystanders' intentions to intervene and intervention behaviors in situations where there is a risk of sexual violence. The current study builds on this literature by exploring the nature of missed opportunities, including perceived barriers to intervention. In all, 380 Australian undergraduate university students completed an online survey. Measures included a rape myth acceptance scale, bystander intentions to intervene, actual intervention behaviors, missed opportunities for intervention, and perceived barriers for missed opportunities. Promisingly, students reported high levels of intentions to intervene in situations where there was a risk of sexual violence and reported relatively few missed opportunities to do so when these situations did occur. Intervention behaviors varied by important demographic characteristics such as gender, age, attitudes toward sexual violence, and the nature of the situation. Younger female students, with lower levels of rape myth acceptance, who had previously engaged in bystander intervention behaviors were more likely to report intentions to intervene in future risky situations, and female international students reported fewer missed opportunities for intervention. The most common barrier to intervention for identified missed opportunities was a failure to recognize situations as having a potential risk for sexual violence, and students were most likely to intervene in situations when the opportunity to help a friend in distress arose. This study provides some preliminary empirical evidence about bystander intervention against sexual violence among Australian university students, and identifies unique contexts for intervention and what current barriers to intervention may be.
Landreman, Lisa M.; Williamsen, Kaaren M.
In this chapter, we outline the challenges campuses face in addressing sexual violence and Title IX compliance. We argue that there are critical roles for student affairs professionals in Title IX work in developing effective campus sexual violence prevention and response strategies.
... in adulthood. 1 Perpetrating bullying in early middle school is associated with sexual harassment perpetration in adolescence. 5 How can we stop sexual violence before it starts? CDC developed a technical package to help ... family, school, community, and societal factors that influence risk and ...
Simon, Thomas R.; Basile, Kathleen C.; Yee, Sue Lin; Lang, Karen; Spivak, Howard
Abstract In 2011, the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) within CDC's Injury Center engaged an external panel of experts to review and evaluate its research and programmatic portfolio for sexual violence (SV) prevention from 2000 to 2010. This article summarizes findings from the review by highlighting DVP's key activities and accomplishments during this period and identifying remaining gaps in the field and future directions for SV prevention. DVP's SV prevention work in the 2000s included (1) raising the profile of SV as a public health problem, (2) shifting the field toward a focus on the primary prevention of SV perpetration, and (3) applying the public health model to SV research and programmatic activities. The panel recommended that DVP continue to draw attention to the importance of sexual violence prevention as a public health issue, build on prior investments in the Rape Prevention and Education Program, support high-quality surveillance and research activities, and enhance communication to improve the link between research and practice. Current DVP projects and priorities provide a foundation to actively address these recommendations. In addition, DVP continues to provide leadership and guidance to the research and practice fields, with the goal of achieving significant reductions in SV perpetration and allowing individuals to live to their full potential. PMID:23140201
DeGue, Sarah; Simon, Thomas R; Basile, Kathleen C; Yee, Sue Lin; Lang, Karen; Spivak, Howard
In 2011, the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) within CDC's Injury Center engaged an external panel of experts to review and evaluate its research and programmatic portfolio for sexual violence (SV) prevention from 2000 to 2010. This article summarizes findings from the review by highlighting DVP's key activities and accomplishments during this period and identifying remaining gaps in the field and future directions for SV prevention. DVP's SV prevention work in the 2000s included (1) raising the profile of SV as a public health problem, (2) shifting the field toward a focus on the primary prevention of SV perpetration, and (3) applying the public health model to SV research and programmatic activities. The panel recommended that DVP continue to draw attention to the importance of sexual violence prevention as a public health issue, build on prior investments in the Rape Prevention and Education Program, support high-quality surveillance and research activities, and enhance communication to improve the link between research and practice. Current DVP projects and priorities provide a foundation to actively address these recommendations. In addition, DVP continues to provide leadership and guidance to the research and practice fields, with the goal of achieving significant reductions in SV perpetration and allowing individuals to live to their full potential.
Abebe, Kaleab Z; Jones, Kelley A; Culyba, Alison J; Feliz, Nayck B; Anderson, Heather; Torres, Irving; Zelazny, Sarah; Bamwine, Patricia; Boateng, Adwoa; Cirba, Benjamin; Detchon, Autumn; Devine, Danielle; Feinstein, Zoe; Macak, Justin; Massof, Michael; Miller-Walfish, Summer; Morrow, Sarah Elizabeth; Mulbah, Paul; Mulwa, Zabi; Paglisotti, Taylor; Ripper, Lisa; Ports, Katie A; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Garg, Aapta; Kato-Wallace, Jane; Pulerwitz, Julie; Miller, Elizabeth
Violence against women and girls is an important global health concern. Numerous health organizations highlight engaging men and boys in preventing violence against women as a potentially impactful public health prevention strategy. Adapted from an international setting for use in the US, "Manhood 2.0" is a "gender transformative" program that involves challenging harmful gender and sexuality norms that foster violence against women while promoting bystander intervention (i.e., giving boys skills to interrupt abusive behaviors they witness among peers) to reduce the perpetration of sexual violence (SV) and adolescent relationship abuse (ARA). Manhood 2.0 is being rigorously evaluated in a community-based cluster-randomized trial in 21 lower resource Pittsburgh neighborhoods with 866 adolescent males ages 13-19. The comparison intervention is a job readiness training program which focuses on the skills needed to prepare youth for entering the workforce, including goal setting, accountability, resume building, and interview preparation. This study will provide urgently needed information about the effectiveness of a gender transformative program, which combines healthy sexuality education, gender norms change, and bystander skills to interrupt peers' disrespectful and harmful behaviors to reduce SV/ARA perpetration among adolescent males. In this manuscript, we outline the rationale for and evaluation design of Manhood 2.0. Clinical Trials #: NCT02427061. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grimmett, Marc A; Conley, Abigail H; Foster, Dominique; Clark, Cory W
The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of an educational documentary, MY MASCULINITY HELPS ( MMH), as a sexual violence prevention tool. MMH is a short (i.e., 31 min) educational documentary that explores the role of African American men and boys in the prevention of sexual violence. Participants ( N = 88) completed an electronic, qualitative questionnaire after viewing the documentary and data collected were analyzed and interpreted using thematic analysis. Findings from the study highlighted the power of documentary film to impact knowledge, beliefs, social norms related to masculinity and the role of African American men as allies, empowerment, and commitment to action. Implications of MMH as a prosocial bystander behavior intervention and educational tool are discussed.
Full Text Available Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?
Reporting on sexual violence is a challenge even for seasoned war journalists. How should correspondents, news editors and producers report the impact of sexual violence on individuals and communities without causing further distress or danger?
Foster, Jill; Núñez, Ana; Spencer, Susan; Wolf, Judith; Robertson-James, Candace
Victims of domestic violence (DV) are not only subject to physical and emotional abuse but may also be at increased risk for less recognized dangers from infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted pathogens. Because of the close link between DV and sexual risk, women need to be educated about the consequences of acquiring a life-threatening sexually transmitted infection, risk reduction measures, and how to access appropriate HIV services for diagnosis and treatment. It is therefore critical for DV workers to receive sufficient training about the link between DV and HIV risk so that sexual safety planning can be incorporated into activities with their clients in the same way as physical safety plans. In this article, we discuss how the Many Hands Working Together project provides interactive training for workers in DV and DV-affiliated agencies to increase their knowledge about HIV and teach sexual safety planning skills to achieve HIV risk reduction.
Hsieh, Hsiu-Fen; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chang, Shu-Chen
Forensic nursing is a new nursing specialty that provides forensic nursing service to domestic violence victims and offenders. Development of the role of forensic nurses has become urgent and necessary. The high rates of domestic violence and sexual assault in Taiwan suggest that forensic nurses have an important role to play in domestic healthcare. This article highlights the significance of forensic nursing in Taiwan in the future in terms of its origin, definitions, models, roles and functions, training and education, and previous studies. Through cooperation among academia, government, industry, and law enforcement agencies, it is expected that forensic nursing will be a positive and important area of expansion for professional nursing.
Butchart, A.; Mikton, C.
The Global status report on violence prevention 2014, which reflects data from 133 countries, is the first report of its kind to assess national efforts to address interpersonal violence, namely child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner and sexual violence, and elder abuse.\\ud \\ud Jointly published by WHO, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, the report reviews the current status of violence prevention efforts in countries, and...
Arbeit, Miriam R
Sexual violence continues to present a problem on college campuses nationwide and among members of the U.S. military. This study attended to patterns of response in how students (cadets) at the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) discussed sexual and romantic relationships, both potential and actual, in order to examine how, if at all, they enact their sexuality-related values. Constructivist grounded theory was used to analyze semistructured interviews with three male and three female cadets from each of the 4 years of the undergraduate program, in which they are intended to become "leaders of character" who will serve as Army officers. Findings indicated limitations in cadets' access to developing and implementing sexuality-related skills within this context. Cadets' fear and distrust erected barriers to their pursuing their desires; the ways in which cadets avoided getting in trouble for sexual harassment or sexual assault shifted responsibility from a potential perpetrator onto a potential victim; and cadets were caught in dilemmas regarding romantic relationships as sources of both emotional support and social stigma. These findings have implications for promoting gender equity and for preventing sexual violence at this institution and at others like it, including both university campuses and other military settings.
Willie, Tiara C; Callands, Tamora A; Kershaw, Trace S
The transition to parenthood is a stressful time for young couples and can put them at risk for acquiring STDs. Mechanisms underlying this risk-particularly, intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual autonomy-have not been well studied. Between 2007 and 2011, a prospective cohort study of the relationships and health of pregnant adolescents and their male partners recruited 296 couples at four hospital-based obstetrics and gynecology clinics in the U.S. Northeast; participants were followed up six and 12 months after the birth. Structural equation modeling identified associations among IPV at baseline and six months, sexual autonomy at six months and STD acquisition at 12 months. Mediating effects of sexual autonomy were tested via bootstrapping. Females were aged 14-21, and male partners were 14 or older. For females, IPV victimization at baseline was positively associated with the likelihood of acquiring a postpartum STD (coefficient, 0.4); level of sexual autonomy was inversely associated with the likelihood of acquiring an STD and of having a male partner who acquired one by the 12-month follow-up (-0.4 for each). For males, IPV victimization at baseline was negatively correlated with a female partner's sexual autonomy (-0.3) and likelihood of acquiring an STD (-0.7); victimization at six months was positively related to a partner's sexual autonomy (0.2). Sexual autonomy did not mediate these relationships. Females' sexual autonomy appears to protect against postpartum STDs for both partners. Future research should explore the efficacy of IPV-informed approaches to improving women's sexual and reproductive health. Copyright © 2018 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Rizzo, Christie J; Joppa, Meredith; Barker, David; Collibee, Charlene; Zlotnick, Caron; Brown, Larry K
This study assessed the initial feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an intervention aimed at reducing dating violence and sexual risk behavior in a sample of adolescent girls (ages 14-17) with prior exposure to physical dating violence (DV). One hundred and nine girls were randomly assigned to Date SMART (Skills to Manage Aggression in Relationships for Teens) or a Knowledge-only (KO) comparison group. Both intervention arms consisted of six, weekly 2-h sessions and one "booster" session 6 weeks later. Based on principles of cognitive behavioral therapy, the Date SMART intervention was designed to target common underlying skills deficits linked to both DV and sexual risk behavior in adolescent females: depression, self-regulation deficits, and interpersonal skills deficits. Assessments were administered at four time points (baseline, 3, 6, and 9 months). The Date SMART group was effective as reducing sexual DV involvement across the 9-month follow-up period. Both groups evidenced clinically meaningful reductions in physical, emotional, and digital DV involvement, total time in dating relationships, as well as reductions in depression. Findings indicate that delivering a DV and sexual risk prevention intervention to DV-affected adolescent girls is feasible and well-received. Furthermore, a skills-based approach that addresses the co-occurrence of DV and sexual risk behavior may be particularly useful for promoting reductions of sexual DV among high-risk adolescent girls. A future, large-scale trial with an inactive comparison condition is needed to evaluate the efficacy of Date SMART further. Clinical Trials, NCT01326195, and http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.
Robbers, Gianna Maxi Leila; Morgan, Alison
Continuing international conflict has resulted in several million people seeking asylum in other countries each year, over half of whom are women. Their reception and security in overburdened camps, combined with limited information and protection, increases their risk and exposure to sexual violence (SV). This literature review explores the opportunities to address SV against female refugees, with a particular focus on low-resource settings. A systematic literature review of articles published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Databases including Medline (Ovid), PubMed, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. Grey literature from key refugee websites were searched. Studies were reviewed for quality and analysed according to the framework outlined in the UNHCR Guidelines on Prevention and Response of Sexual Violence against Refugees. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 studies addressed prevention, 14 studies response and 8 addressed both. There are limited numbers of rigorously evaluated SV prevention and response interventions available, especially in the context of displacement. However, emerging evidence shows that placing a stronger emphasis on programmes in the category of engagement/participation and training/education has the potential to target underlying causes of SV. SV against female refugees is caused by factors including lack of information and gender inequality. This review suggests that SV interventions that engage community members in their design and delivery, address harmful gender norms through education and advocacy, and facilitate strong cooperation between stakeholders, could maximise the efficient use of limited resources.
McMahon, Sarah; Postmus, Judy L.; Warrener, Corinne; Koenick, Ruth Anne
To address the widespread problem of sexual assault, many colleges and universities are providing primary prevention education programs. Although a number of such programs exist and appear in the literature (for review see Vladutiu, Martin, & Macy, 2011), the role of peer education theater offers a unique approach. Peer education has been…
McMahon, Sarah; Hoffman, Melanie Lowe; McMahon, Sheila M.; Zucker, Sharon; Koenick, Ruth Anne
Bystander education is an increasingly utilized strategy for addressing sexual assault prevention and intervention on U.S. college campuses. Given the paramount importance of peers among college students, what types of pro-social bystander interventions do students themselves deem feasible in the campus context? Drawing on self-reports from…
Nelson, Deborah B; Zhao, Huaqing; Corrado, Rachel; Mastrogiannnis, Dimitrios M; Lepore, Stephen J
Ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women is extremely prevalent and poses a significant risk for unintended pregnancy (UP). Ineffective contraception involves the use of the withdrawal method or the inconsistent use of other types of contraception (i.e., condoms and birth control pills). This investigation examined violence exposure and psychological factors related to ineffective contraceptive use among young sexually active women. Young, nonpregnant sexually active women (n = 315) were recruited from an urban family planning clinic in 2013 to participate in a longitudinal study. Tablet-based surveys measured childhood violence, community-level violence, intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem. Follow-up surveys measured type and consistency of contraception used 9 months later. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed violence and psychological risk factors as main effects and moderators related to ineffective compared with effective use of contraception. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that childhood sexual violence and low self-esteem were significantly related to ineffective use of contraception (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.69, confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.18-6.17, and aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28-0.93; respectively), although self-esteem did not moderate the relationship between childhood sexual violence and ineffective use of contraception (aOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.08-1.84). Depressive symptoms were not related to ineffective use of contraception in the multivariate model. Interventions to reduce UP should recognize the long-term effects of childhood sexual violence and address the role of low self-esteem on the ability of young sexually active women to effectively and consistently use contraception to prevent UP.
Vanderwoerd, James R.; Cheng, Albert
Religious colleges and universities make up a substantial segment of the higher education landscape in North America, but the incidence of sexual violence on these campuses remains understudied. This study estimates the incidence of sexual violence on independent Christian campuses using a sample of part-time and full-time undergraduate students…
Oliveira, Charlotte; Keygnaert, Ines; Oliveira Martins, Maria do Rosário; Dias, Sónia
Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is a widespread public health problem and a violation of human rights rooted in gender and power inequities. Refugees, asylum-seekers and migrants living in European asylum reception facilities (EARF) are especially vulnerable to SGBV. To contribute to closing the gap on systematic and accurate evidence on SGBV, we aim to explore reported cases of SGBV, causes and preventable measures described by residents and professionals from EARF. We developed a cross-sectional study using the Senperforto project database. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with residents (refugees, asylum-seekers and unaccompanied minors) and professionals (service and health care providers) at EARF, in 7 European countries. We used IBM® SPSS software to analyze our data. Further, statistical tests - Chi-square Test and Fisher's exact test (5% significance level) were conducted. In total 562 respondents: 375 residents (R) and 187 professionals (P) participated in the study. The majority of respondents were male (56.9%), aged 19 to 39 years (67.3%). Respondents described 698 cases of SGBV (R 328, P 370), comprising 1110 acts of multi-types of violence. Respondents from Malta (160) and Belgium (143) reported the highest number of SGBV cases. The main reported causes were frustration and stress (R 23.6%, P 37.6%, p 0.008) and differences related with cultural background (R 19.3%, P 20.3%, p 0.884). Respondents assumed that these acts of violence could be prevented by SGBV prevention interventions (R 31.5%, P 24.7%, p 0.293); improving living conditions (R 21.7%, P 15.3%, p 0.232); and promoting communication (R 16.1%, P 28.2%, p 0.042). The majority of R were not aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or host country. While the majority of P were aware of existing preventable measures in the asylum facility or country. Proposed SGBV prevention strategies in EARF included SGBV sensitization and awareness, improving living
This study assesses the correlations of participation in a prevention program, Men Creating Attitudes for Rape-free Environments (Men CARE), and participants' attitudes and behavior toward sexual violence. The t-tests were used to determine the association, either by the intervention or the cohort, on attitudes and behaviors between the groups,…
Chamroonsawasdi, Kanittha; Suparp, Jarueyporn; Kittipichai, Wirin; Khajornchaikul, Piyathida
To enhance positive attitude and life skills on gender roles to prevent physical and sexual violence. A whole school-based participatory learning program using a quasi-experimental study with pre and post test design was conducted among 2 schools during June-September, 2005. The experimental group, were 134 students in a primary school and 179 students in a secondary school. While the control group, were 122 students in a primary school and 95 students in a secondary school. Means score of attitude toward gender roles before implementation in the experimental group was significantly lower than the control group (p 0.05). Means paired different score (after-before) between the two groups was significantly different (p = 0.002). A whole school-based program on gender roles and violence prevention is suitable for youths and should be merged as school curricula and expanded as a nationwide program at all level of education. Gender equity should be taught at an early childhood. Parental involvement in school-based activities should be negotiated.
Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena
School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…
This special issue brings together emerging research concerning the issue of Sexual Violence and Abuse from around the world. The importance of pulling together research that explores the central topic of sexual violence and abuse is more pressing than ever and having a collection of work using different methodological approaches to unique samples previously unexplored contributes significantly to our understanding towards this type of offence.
The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khair...
Cares, Alison C; Banyard, Victoria L; Moynihan, Mary M; Williams, Linda M; Potter, Sharyn J; Stapleton, Jane G
Bystander approaches to reducing sexual violence train community members in prosocial roles to interrupt situations with risk of sexual violence and be supportive community allies after an assault. This study employs a true experimental design to evaluate the effectiveness of Bringing in the Bystander™ through 1-year post-implementation with first-year students from two universities (one rural, primarily residential; one urban, heavily commuter). We found significant change in bystander attitudes for male and female student program participants compared with the control group on both campuses, although the pattern of change depended on the combination of gender and campus. © The Author(s) 2014.
Merrick, Melissa T; Basile, Kathleen C; Zhang, Xinjian; Smith, Sharon G; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo
Youth sexual violence victimization is an urgent public health concern that can lead to a variety of health problems and increased risk for victimization during adulthood. Examining the characteristics of early victimization and their association with subsequent victimization during adulthood may help strengthen primary prevention efforts. Data are from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey. Prevalence estimates were computed in 2017 for rape and made to sexually penetrate, their subtypes, as well as proportions among victims by type of perpetrator. Chi-square tests of association were conducted between youth sexual violence victimization and the same experiences in adulthood. Approximately 10 million U.S. females (8.4%) experienced completed or attempted rape and 1.9 million U.S. males (1.6%) were made to penetrate someone during youth. Most victims knew their perpetrators. Being raped or made to penetrate during youth was associated with increased likelihood of such victimization in adulthood. Females and males experience youth sexual violence victimization at alarming rates. Primary prevention efforts with youth are critical to prevent early victimization, subsequent victimization in adulthood, and the mental and physical health consequences associated with sexual violence victimization. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Depression and guilt were the major health consequences reported. Sexual violence is high at the University of Port Harcourt, which warrants targeted preventive action. Keywords: Sexual violence, epidemiology, health consequences, females, University. Nous avons menée une étude sur la prévalence, la configuration, ...
Hong, Luoluo; Marine, Susan B.
In this chapter, we explore the factors that support the occurrence of sexual violence, including the role of interlocking systems of oppression. Traditional conceptions of "prevention" are deconstructed, a social justice paradigm for addressing sexual violence is advanced, and examples of how the paradigm can be applied to practice are…
Royster, Leigh-Anne A.
Gender based violence is experienced at higher rates on college campuses than in other communities. One in five women experience acquaintance rape during their academic career and less than 5% of college women who have experienced sexual assault report their victimization (Fisher, Cullen, & Turner, 2000). Recent federal guidance is meant to…
Sexual violence (SV) negatively impacts women with disabilities disproportionately, especially those with intellectual and/or developmental disabilities (IDD). The 2 populations are included in this article as there are overlaps in diagnostic criteria as well as similar risk factors associated with the experience of SV. Despite lacking…
Naved, Ruchira Tabassum
This article explored the magnitude and nature of within marriage sexual violence against women and factors associated with physically forced sex by husbands in urban and rural Bangladesh using population-based survey data from 2001 (n = 2,702). Results showed high prevalence of lifetime sexual violence: 37 % in urban and 50 % in rural areas. An overwhelming majority of the women reported being sexually abused by husbands more than once. Logistic regression analyses revealed that six out of ten independent variables included in the models were significant. The factors positively associated with physically forced sex by husbands during the last 12 months were: history of physical abuse of husband's mother by his father; level of controlling behavior by husband; and forced or coerced first sex. Women's age (20-24 compared to 15-19) and dowry demand at marriage increased the likelihood of this violence in the rural area. Urban women in the second and third income quartiles were more likely to be exposed to this violence compared to women in the first quartile. Results highlight the need for prevention programs targeting men, which would help at the same time to break the cycle of intergenerational exposure and thereby transmission of violence. Notions of gender equality; women's sexual rights; and women's right to consent and choice need to be widely promoted particularly among men.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Paquette, Geneviève; Bergeron, Manon; Dion, Jacinthe; Daigneault, Isabelle; Hébert, Martine; Ricci, Sandrine
Sexual violence is a pervasive problem on university campuses. Although previous work has documented greater vulnerability for sexual violence among sexual and gender minority students, little is known about contextual variation in vulnerability to this kind of violence. The goals of the current study were (1) to identify vulnerability among sexual and gender minority students with regard to sexual violence, and (2) to explore if the context of this violence differs across sexual and gender minority status. Undergraduate students (ages 18-24) from six francophone universities in Quebec, Canada (N = 4,264) completed online questionnaires regarding their experience of sexual violence, as well as the context of these acts (e.g., the gender of the perpetrator, the status of the perpetrator, and the location of the violence). They also provided information regarding their sexual and gender minority status. Binary logistic regressions were conducted to assess for variation in experiencing sexual violence across sexual and gender minority status. Transgender/nonbinary students generally reported higher levels of sexual violence than their cisgender peers, while variation occurred with regard to vulnerability across sexual identity subgroups. Few differences in context were observed across sexual minority identity. Transgender/nonbinary students were significantly more likely to report sexual violence in athletic contexts and during volunteering activities compared to their cisgender peers. Findings highlight the higher levels of vulnerability for sexual violence among gender minority and some sexual minority university students. They also point to the contexts in which such violence occurs, suggesting specific strategies for prevention. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Sexual Violence Resource Center (NSVRC) is a national information and resource hub relating to all aspects of sexual violence. NSVRC staff collect and...
Full Text Available The paper attempts to understand narratives of sexual violence anchored within the dynamics of social location of caste and gender. Apparent caste-patriarchy and gender hierarchies which are at play in cases of sexual violence against lower-caste and dalit women speak about differential experiences of rape and sexual abuse that women have in India. The paper endeavours to establish that sexual violence is also a form of caste violence by rereading the unfortunate cases of Bhanwari Devi, Khairlanji, Lalasa Devi and Delta Meghwal Keywords: caste-patriarchy, Dalit women, POA Act, rape, sexual violence
violent acts of a sexual nature, including rape, sexual slavery, enforced prostitution , forced pregnancy, enforced sterilization, mutilation, indecent...marginalization, barriers to economic and political participation, forced prostitution , indentured status, genital mutilation, forced marriages...a sustainable economy . Regardless of their primary intended purpose, patrols and other operations should reduce vulnerabilities and threats related
Dartnall, Elizabeth; Jewkes, Rachel
Rape and sexual violence occur in all societies, and cut across all social classes. Prevalence estimates of rape victimisation range between 6 and 59% of women having experienced sexual abuse from their husbands or boyfriends in their lifetime. Two population-based studies from South Africa have found that 28% and 37% of men, respectively, have perpetrated rape. Estimates of rape perpetration from high-income countries seem to be lower than those from low- and middle-income countries; however, current data make it impossible to confirm this. Women and girls are much more likely to be the victims and men the perpetrators and, in most instances, the perpetrator is known to the victim. Children are particularly vulnerable to sexual abuse, with girls being at greater risk, especially while at school and at home. High rates of child sexual abuse are emerging from the research, with an increasing understanding of the effect of child sexual abuse on later perpetration and victimisation, highlighting the importance of primary prevention for sexual violence to address childhood exposures to violence. Much of our knowledge about sexual violence has historically been based on research undertaken in high-income countries. This, however, is changing with the emergence of good-quality studies from other settings, particularly in Africa, alongside an increasing number of multi-country studies looking at interpersonal and sexual violence. Most countries lack population data on perpetration of sexual violence, across all categories, including children, and a major gap exists in research on sexual violence among sub-groups and populations. Much of the existing research has limitations that affect cross-study comparability, owing to differences in definitions, research tools, methods and sampling used. Improved research is essential. Research priorities for understanding the magnitude of sexual violence prevalence include assessment of the prevalence and patterns of sexual violence
Full Text Available The sexual violence laws introduced in DRC in 2006 have had only limited impact. A much louder condemnation of rape and a far more proactive approach to prevention are urgently needed.
Adinew, Yohannes Mehretie; Hagos, Mihiret Abreham
Though many women are suffering the consequences of sexual violence, only few victims speak out as it is sensitive and prone to stigma. This lack of data made it difficult to get full picture of the problem and design proper interventions. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and factors associated with sexual violence among female students of Wolaita Sodo University, south Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 462 regular female Wolaita Sodo University students on April 7/2015. Participants were selected by simple random sampling. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. Data entry and analysis was done by EPI info and SPSS statistical packages respectively. Descriptive statistics were done. Moreover, bivariate and multivariate analyses were also carried out to identify predictors of sexual violence. The age of respondents ranged from 18 to 26 years. Lifetime sexual violence was found to be 45.4%. However, 36.1% and 24.4% of respondents reported experiencing sexual violence since entering university and in the current academic year respectively. Life time sexual violence was positively associated with witnessing inter-parental violence as a child, rural childhood residence, having regular boyfriend, alcohol consumption and having friends who drink regularly; while it was negatively associated with discussing sexual issues with parents. Sexual violence is a common phenomenon among the students. More detailed research has to be conducted to develop prevention and intervention strategies.
Twenty years after Rodrigo Guerrero-Velasco treated violence like a disease, using epidemiology to find the causes, his approach to violence prevention has been taken up across the Americas. He talks to Alyssa Greenhouse.
Allen, Christopher T.; Wheeler, Joshua A.
Violence prevention groups on college campuses, in schools, and in communities are increasingly aware that violence against women cannot end unless men take an active role in stopping it, and the failure of many men to take the issue of violence against women seriously cannot be overlooked. At the University of South Carolina (USC), collaboration…
Sexual violence in the United States continues to be a growing problem. Collegiate women face some of the highest rates of sexual violence, with statistics estimating one in four women will have this unwanted experience sometime during their college career. With Title IX administrators required to provide sexual violence awareness, more colleges…
Using a qualitative research approach, this study examines gender norms and pressures that shape gender roles, rights, responsibilities and sexual relationships in post-conflict situations. Evidence on the nature and extent of sexual violence and challenges and barriers to prevention responses were elicited through the ...
Muck, Christoph; Schiller, Eva-Maria; Zimmermann, Maria; Kärtner, Joscha
Numerous school-based prevention programs have been developed by scientists and practitioners to address sexual violence in adolescence. However, such programs struggle with two major challenges. First, the effectiveness of many well-established practitioner programs has not been rigorously evaluated. Second, effective scientific programs may be hard to implement into everyday school practice. Combining the knowledge of scientists and practitioners in a scientist-practitioner program could be a helpful compromise. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of a scientist-practitioner program and a practitioner program using a cluster-randomized experimental design. Twenty-seven school classes were randomly assigned to either one of two programs or a control group. Outcome variables (knowledge, attitudes, behavior, and iatrogenic effects) were assessed at pretest, posttest, and a 6-month follow-up for 453 adolescents (55% female, Mage = 14.18). Short-term effects were found in both programs regarding general knowledge, knowledge of professional help, and victim-blaming attitudes. Long-term effects were found in both programs regarding general knowledge and knowledge of professional help and, in the practitioner program, in a reduction of victimization. No other effects were found on attitudes and behavior. No iatrogenic effects in the form of increased anxiety were found. Both the scientist-practitioner and the practitioner program show promise for the prevention of sexual violence in adolescence; in particular, the practitioner program may be a more cost-effective method.
Messerschmidt, James W.
In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as "wimps" and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are--if at all--discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the…
Bertelsen, Eva; Østerby Sørensen, William; Jensen, Mathilde Worch
Even though Denmark in many respects shows some of the most gender equality rates in the world, the rates of physical and/or sexual violence against women in Denmark are among the highest in Europe. In this article we seek to describe state responses to these figures. We do so by investigating...... the symbolic representations of sexual violence in intimate relationships, framing contemporary political/societal developments of the Danish field of welfare work addressing violence in intimate relationships as well as the dominating knowledge production substantiating these. Theoretically, Slavoj Zizek...... and his concept objective violence inform the paper, in order to analyze authoritative representations of ‘sexual violence in intimate relationships’ in three areas: Danish legislation and legal practices, Danish research on sexual violence, and policy-papers. Thus the Danish Criminal Code, selected...
Hilinski-Rosick, Carly M; Freiburger, Tina L
Inmate misconduct has been a widely studied topic for many decades. General studies of misconduct have found that there are certain factors that contribute to misconduct, including age, gender, sentence length, and facility type. Few studies, however, have examined the factors predicting sexual offenses in a prison conduct. Although many studies of victims of sexual offenses in prison have been conducted, there is a lack of studies examining the perpetrators of prison sexual violence. The current study attempted to expand this body of literature by examining the correlates of sexual misconduct among a sample of male inmates incarcerated in the state of North Carolina during 2010. Deprivation and importation theories of inmate behavior were used to guide the analysis, and measures of deprivation and importation factors were both included in the analytical models. Findings indicate that Black, nonmarried, younger inmates, who had more previous incarcerations and had been incarcerated longer, had greater odds of having a sexual infraction. Additional findings, as well as policy implications, are discussed.
International agreements recognizing different forms of violence as violations of human rights and the definition provided by the 1993 UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women are taken as a starting point and its implications analyzed, emphasizing gender roles and stereotypes. Violence against women is related to violence in general, to the so-called culture of violence. Factors influencing a culture of violence are discussed, as well as the differences between public and private violence, emphasizing the need to understand their interaction to be effective in preventing violence against women. It is concluded that all violence stems from unbalanced exercise of power, creating injustice and lack of real democratic interaction. When left unchallenged such situations become part of the culture of individuals and societies, reinforcing the use of violence to solve conflicts. Hence, preventing violence against women requires cultural, social, economic, and political changes that are only possible by mobilizing society as a whole.
David-Ferdon, Corinne; Simon, Thomas R.
All forms of violence, including youth violence, suicidal behavior, child maltreatment, sexual violence, intimate partner violence, and elder abuse, negatively affect the health and well-being of this country. Youth violence, in particular, is a significant public health problem. Many young people and communities view the grim facts about youth…
Nelson, Atiba; Lewy, Robin; Ricardo, Francine; Dovydaitis, Tiffany; Hunter, Amber; Mitchell, Ashley; Loe, Claire; Kugel, Candace
Designed by Migrant Clinicians Network, the Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar (Men United Against Family Violence) Project used facilitated discussion groups as the method to encourage self-reflection and behavior change. Male participants were not taught to rectify any past sexual or intimate partner violence (SV/IPV) 'tendencies', rather the discussion facilitation allowed them to reflect on the SV/IPV that was present in their lives and in the Hispanic community. Subsequently, the sessions and self-reflection, coupled with the discussions with other participating males, empowered several participants to have further interactions about SV/IPV with individuals in their community. The discussions led participants to realize that SV/IPV existed in their community, but that there were males within their community that wanted to change. The Hombres Unidos Contra La Violencia Familiar project demonstrated that behavior change does not need to be actively persuaded, but that self-reflection, which elicits behavior change, can be achieved through facilitated discussion and by permitting the facilitators to become participants. By creating sessions that allow participants to construct their own understanding of the perceived problem while reflecting on their past behavior, true behavior change that is initiated by the participant can be achieved. Through discussion facilitation, a targeted and structured behavior change intervention can assist participants in realizing that their past actions were damaging to themselves and their community, while aiding the participant in employing self-initiated responses, learned within the discussions, to alter their behaviors.
This paper will analyze the domestic violence prevention problems and perspectives. The goal of this work is to discuss the main domestic violence characteristics, analyze Lithuanian and international prevention means and offer suggestions to improve Lithuanian domestic violence prevention. This work consentrates on mens violence over women. The conseption of violence is analyzed – the general violence features in criminology and law literature are discussed, the main domestic violence forms ...
Reidy, Dennis E; Smith-Darden, Joanne P; Cortina, Kai S; Kernsmith, Roger M; Kernsmith, Poco D
Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Boys who experience stress about being perceived as "sub-masculine" may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential "threats" to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young
This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level…
Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley
Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.
Banyard, Victoria L.; Moynihan, Mary M.; Crossman, Maria T.
Sexual violence is a widespread problem for college communities. Students, faculty, and staff are increasingly involved in prevention efforts. To date, however, evaluation of sexual violence prevention programs has shown mixed results. One promising new practice teaches segments of college communities to be engaged, positive bystanders. It aims to…
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p sexually abused in childhood (8...
Sumner, Steven A.; Mercy, James A.; Buluma, Robert; Mwangi, Mary W.; Marcelin, Louis H.; Kheam, They; Lea, Veronica; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Kress, Howard; Hillis, Susan D.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Globally, little evidence exists on sexual violence against boys. We sought to produce the first internationally comparable estimates of the magnitude, characteristics, risk factors, and consequences of sexual violence against boys in 3 diverse countries. METHODS We conducted nationally representative, multistage cluster Violence Against Children Surveys in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia among males aged 13 to 24 years. Differences between countries for boys experiencing sexual violence (including sexual touching, attempted sex, and forced/coerced sex) before age 18 years were examined by using χ2 and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS In Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, 1459, 1456, and 1255 males completed surveys. The prevalence of experiencing any form of sexual violence ranged from 23.1% (95% confidence Interval [CI]: 20.0–26.2) in Haiti to 14.8% (95% CI: 12.0–17.7) in Kenya, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.0–7.2) in Cambodia. The largest share of perpetrators in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia, respectively, were friends/neighbors (64.7%), romantic partners (37.2%), and relatives (37.0%). Most episodes occurred inside perpetrators’ or victims’ homes in Haiti (60.4%), contrasted with outside the home in Kenya (65.3%) and Cambodia (52.1%). The most common time period for violence in Haiti, Kenya, and Cambodia was the afternoon (55.0%), evening (41.3%), and morning (38.2%), respectively. Adverse health effects associated with violence were common, including increased odds of transactional sex, alcohol abuse, sexually transmitted infections, anxiety/depression, suicidal ideation/ attempts, and violent gender attitudes. CONCLUSIONS Differences were noted between countries in the prevalence, characteristics, and risk factors of sexual violence, yet associations with adverse health effects were pervasive. Prevention strategies tailored to individual locales are needed. PMID:27244799
James W. Messerschmidt
Full Text Available In this paper the author summarizes several life history case studies of adolescent boys who were identified at school as “wimps” and who eventually engaged in various forms of sexual violence. Such boys rarely are— if at all—discussed in the childhood, education and feminist literatures on sexual violence. The life stories reveal the interrelationship among inschool bullying, reflexivity, embodied structured action, and the social construction of heteromasculinities in the commission of sexual violence by subordinated boys. The author concludes by considering the implications the research has to the evolving discourses on social scientific conceptualizations of reflexive embodiment and heteromasculinities.
CONCLUSION: Community surveys can play an important role to better understand the scale and risk factors of different types of interpersonal violence. Readers are called upon to support a coordinated public health response to prevent this societal and health threat.
Nelson, Deborah B; Lepore, Stephen J; Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S
Unintended pregnancy (UP) is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem) and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.
Deborah B. Nelson
Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy (UP is a significant public health problem. The consistent use of effective contraception is the primary method to prevent UP. We examined the role of childhood sexual and physical violence and current interpersonal violence on the risk of unintended pregnancy among young, urban, sexually active women. In particular, we were interested in examining the role of childhood violence and interpersonal violence while recognizing the psychological correlates of experiencing violence (i.e., high depressive symptoms and low self-esteem and consistent use of contraception. For this assessment, 315 sexually active women living in Philadelphia PA were recruited from family planning clinics in 2013. A self-administered, computer-assisted interview was used to collect data on method of contraception use in the past month, consistency of use, experiences with violence, levels of depressive symptoms, self-esteem and sexual self-efficacy, substance use and health services utilization. Fifty percent of young sexually active women reported inconsistent or no contraception use in the past month. Inconsistent users were significantly more likely to report at least one prior episode of childhood sexual violence and were significantly less likely to have received a prescription for contraception from a health care provider. Inconsistent contraception users also reported significantly higher levels of depressive symptoms and significantly lower levels of self-esteem. The relation between childhood sexual violence and UP remained unchanged in the multivariate models adjusting for self-esteem or depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the long-term consequences of childhood sexual violence, independent of current depressive symptoms and low self-esteem, on consistent use of contraception.
Roper, Larry D.
Legislation and initiatives at the state and federal levels are challenging colleges and universities to review their approach to issues of sexual violence. This article addresses issues of compliance and beyond.
Jessup-Anger, Jody; Lopez, Elise; Koss, Mary P.
In this chapter, we describe the history of sexual violence as it pertains to postsecondary institutions, focusing on social movements, research, and policy, and their implications for higher education.
Curtis, Tine; Larsen, Finn B; Helweg-Larsen, Karin
The purposes of the study were to analyse the lifetime prevalence of violence and sexual abuse among the Inuit in Greenland and to study the associations between health and having been the victim of violence or sexual abuse. Associations were studied with specific attention to possible differences...... between women and men. Further, response rates were analysed specifically in order to understand consequences of including questions on violence and sexual abuse in the questionnaire survey. The analyses were based on material from a cross-sectional health interview survey conducted during 1993......-94 with participation from a random sample of the Inuit population in Greenland (N = 1393). The prevalence of ever having been a victim of violence was 47% among women and 48% among men. Women had more often than men been sexually abused (25% and 6%) (p abused in childhood (8...
Trindade,Luciana C; Linhares,Silvana M. G. M.; Vanrell,Jorge; Godoy,Danilo; C. A. Martins,José; Barbas,Stela M. A. N.
Objective To analyze the demographic and epidemiological profile of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence treated in a Unit of Forensic Medicine and the relationship between victims and perpetrators. Methods A descriptive study, with data collection from information gathered from sex abuse reports performed in 2009 on victims of sexual violence aged less than 18 years. The data collection tool was a form filled out with demographic information about the victim – gender a...
Trindade, Luciana C; Linhares, Silvana M. G. M.; Vanrell, Jorge; Godoy, Danilo; C. A. Martins, José; Barbas, Stela M. A. N.
Objective To analyze the demographic and epidemiological profile of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence treated in a Unit of Forensic Medicine and the relationship between victims and perpetrators. Methods A descriptive study, with data collection from information gathered from sex abuse reports performed in 2009 on victims of sexual violence aged less than 18 years. The data collection tool was a form filled out with demographic information about the victim – gender and age...
Honda, Tomoko; Wynter, Karen; Yokota, Jinko; Tran, Thach; Ujiie, Yuri; Niwa, Madoka; Nakayama, Michi; Ito, Fumie; Kim, Yoshiharu; Fisher, Jane; Kamo, Toshiko
The aim of this study was to examine the impact of sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health among Japanese women and to explore to what extent sexual IPV is an important contributor to the severity of mental health problems in comparison with physical and psychological IPV. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of the medical records of participants during psychiatric consultation at the Institute of Women's Health, Tokyo Women's Medical University, including 62 women who experienced IPV without sexual violence and 83 women who experienced IPV with sexual violence. Mental health problems were compared, including anxiety, depression, suicidality, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dissociative experiences. The results demonstrated a higher incidence and severity of somatic symptoms, insomnia, social dysfunction, severe depression and suicidality, PTSD, and dissociative experiences among women in the sexual IPV group than in the women who experienced IPV without sexual violence. In analyzing the relative contribution of sexual, physical, and psychological violence to the severity of mental health problems of the survivors, results indicated that sexual violence was an independent predictor of both PTSD and dissociative experiences. The present research showed that significant adverse effects on mental health were observed among women who experienced IPV with sexual violence compared with the ones without. These findings provide important implications for considering the specific approaches to meet the needs of those women experiencing sexual IPV and the need for timely and effective interventions, including healthcare, social services, and primary prevention.
Collibee, Charlene; Rizzo, Christie J; Kemp, Kathleen; Hood, Erik; Doucette, Hannah; Gittins Stone, Daniel I; DeJesus, Brett
Few dating violence prevention programs assess how variations in initial violence risk affects responsiveness. This study examines the efficacy of Date SMART, a dating violence and sexual risk prevention program designed to target high-risk adolescent girls, in preventing dating violence in the context of varying initial levels of depressive symptoms. A diverse sample of N = 109 female adolescents with a history of physical dating violence participated in a randomized controlled trial of the Date SMART program and a knowledge only (KO) comparison. Using baseline depression level as a primary risk factor, a series of multilevel models revealed significant main effects of baseline depression such that higher baseline depression was associated with greater physical dating violence perpetration and victimization. Results also showed a three-way interaction for assessment point, depressive symptoms, and condition for physical dating violence perpetration. Specifically, those with higher baseline depression in Date SMART showed significantly less physical dating violence perpetration at follow-ups compared with those with higher baseline depression in the KO group. This difference in violence reduction between conditions was not observed for those with lower baseline depression. Date SMART appears to effectively reduce physical dating violence perpetration in those with higher levels of initial risk. Current findings support that adolescents with different risk profiles respond differently to violence prevention programs.
Full Text Available Sexual violence is used to maintain what Dr. Riane Eisler (1990 conceptualizes as the dominator model of society. The early days of the feminist anti-violence movement focused on changing the dominator model, but, in part, this focus was co-opted by seeking criminal justice solutions, contributing to punitive responses and mass incarceration that have been ineffective in ending sexual violence. The racist history of the rape charge and its disproportionate effect on people of color, an effect that continues today. Legislators have passed draconian laws that uniquely apply to anyone convicted of a sex offense, the definition of which has been broadened to encompass harmless behavior. A separate legal regime for sex offenders that isolates them from society and marks them for life as monsters obfuscates the causes of sexual violence and contributes to the problem. The feminist anti-violence movement remains influential, though little recognized, in today’s efforts to respond to sexual violence through restorative justice and transformative justice. A number of groups have adopted the RJ/TJ model, in particular women of color. The article provides examples of successful and unsuccessful implementation of RJ/TJ and discusses impediments to wider adoption of this approach. RJ/TJ is a promising alternative to the current criminal justice response to sexual assault, one that will bring us closer to a partnership culture.
Stevanović Ivana M.
Full Text Available The paper considers the situation of children-victims of severe sexual violence in the criminal substantive and proceedings law of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the Republic of Serbia. Through the analysis of specific incriminations sanctioning the worst forms of sexual violence against children as well as the analysis of their proceedings situation, the paper presents necessary amendments in this domain and compliance of our criminal legal system with the contemporary comparative law solutions. At the same time, the paper offers suggestions of possible new solutions in this domain, in accordance with the right of the child to comprehensive protection of his/her sexual integrity.
Hughes, Jan N.; Hasbrouck, Jan E.
Reviews the scientific and public-opinion debate on the impact television violence in America has on aggression and violence. Research supports the view that television violence contributes to children's level of aggressiveness and subsequent violence and criminality. Describes attempts to improve the quality of television programming for children…
Chiang, Laura F; Chen, Jieru; Gladden, Matthew R; Mercy, James A; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Mrisho, Fatma; Dahlberg, Linda L; Nyunt, Myo Zin; Brookmeyer, Kate A; Vagi, Kevin
Prior research has established an association between sexual violence and HIV. Exposure to sexual violence during childhood can profoundly impact brain architecture and stress regulatory response. As a result, individuals who have experienced such trauma may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior and could benefit from targeted interventions. In 2009, nationally representative data were collected on violence against children in Tanzania from 13-24 year old respondents (n=3,739). Analyses show that females aged 19-24 (n=579) who experienced childhood sexual violence, were more likely to report no/infrequent condom use in the past 12 months (AOR=3.0, CI [1.5, 6.1], p=0.0017) and multiple sex partners in the past 12 months (AOR=2.3, CI [1.0, 5.1], p=0.0491), but no more likely to know where to get HIV testing or to have ever been tested. Victims of childhood sexual violence could benefit from targeted interventions to mitigate impacts of violence and prevent HIV.
Sexual harassment and sexual violence are complex social issues and a prevalent problem on college and university campuses. College students are an "at risk" population because of their age, developmental stage, proximity to one another, and their access to social activities influenced by peer pressure, alcohol, and other drugs. In this…
electoral violence in Kenya since the 1990s, the fact that a considerable part of that violence was gender and sexual in nature has gone largely unnoticed. The Nairobi Women's Hospital Gender Violence Recovery Center reports that between ...
... one in four teens report being the victim of verbal, physical, emotional, or sexual violence. Abusive... National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation National Teen Dating Violence Awareness and Prevention Month reflects our Nation's...
Coker, Ann L; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Swan, Suzanne C; Williams, Corrine M; Clear, Emily R; DeGue, Sarah
The 2013 Campus Sexual Violence Elimination Act requires U.S. colleges to provide bystander-based training to reduce sexual violence, but little is known about the efficacy of such programs for preventing violent behavior. This study provides the first multiyear evaluation of a bystander intervention's campus-level impact on reducing interpersonal violence victimization and perpetration behavior on college campuses. First-year students attending three similarly sized public university campuses were randomly selected and invited to complete online surveys in the spring terms of 2010-2013. On one campus, the Green Dot bystander intervention was implemented in 2008 (Intervention, n=2,979) and two comparison campuses had no bystander programming at baseline (Comparison, n=4,132). Data analyses conducted in 2014-2015 compared violence rates by condition over the four survey periods. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate violence risk on Intervention relative to Comparison campuses, adjusting for demographic factors and time (2010-2013). Interpersonal violence victimization rates (measured in the past academic year) were 17% lower among students attending the Intervention (46.4%) relative to Comparison (55.7%) campuses (adjusted rate ratio=0.83; 95% CI=0.79, 0.88); a similar pattern held for interpersonal violence perpetration (25.5% in Intervention; 32.2% in Comparison; adjusted rate ratio=0.79; 95% CI=0.71, 0.86). Violence rates were lower on Intervention versus Comparison campuses for unwanted sexual victimization, sexual harassment, stalking, and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration (pSexual Violence Elimination Act bystander training requirements. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.
National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey CDC’s National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally-representative telephone survey that collects detailed ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydatidiform mole (HM is characterized by abnormal proliferation of human trophoblast with producers functioning tissues of human chorionic gonadotropin. It can evolve with ovarian cysts tecaluteínicos, hypertension of pregnancy or hyperthyroidism. The incidence of HM is variable and its etiology poorly known, associated with nutritional factors, environmental, age, parity, history of HM, oral contraceptives, smoking, consanguinity or defects in germ cells. There is no reference in literature on HM resulting from sexual violence, objective of this report. Method Description of two cases of HM among 1146 patients with pregnancy resulting from sexual violence treated at Hospital Pérola Byington, São Paulo, from July 1994 to August 2011. Results The cases affected young, white, unmarried, low educated and low parity women. Sexual violence was perpetrated by known offenders unrelated to the victims, under death threat. Ultrasound and CT of the pelvis showed bulky uterus compatible with HM without myometrial invasion. One case was associated with theca lutein cysts. The two cases were diagnosed in the second trimester of pregnancy and evolved with hyperthyroidism. There was no hypertension, disease recurrence, metastasis or sexually transmitted infection. Conclusion The incidence of HM was 1:573 pregnancies resulting from rape, within the range estimated for Latin American countries. Trophoblastic material can be preserved to identify the violence perpetrator, considering only the paternal HM chromosomes. History of sexual violence should be investigated in cases of HM in the first half of adolescence and women in a vulnerable condition.
In the bivariate analysis, low self-esteem, lack of partner risk self-efficacy, having had sexually transmitted infections in a life-time, early sexual debut, not being employed and medium to high sexually permissive attitudes were associated with having experienced sexual violence. Programmes in combating sexual violence ...
Gilliam, Melissa; Jagoda, Patrick; Jaworski, Erin; Hebert, Luciana E.; Lyman, Phoebe; Wilson, M. Claire
This paper describes the development and evaluation of an interactive, narrative-based, multimedia game to promote learning and communication about sexual violence and health topics. High school-aged participants created the game concept in a three-week workshop, after which assets were assembled and refined by a university-based game design lab.…
Reidy, Dennis E.; Smith-Darden, Joanne P.; Cortina, Kai S.; Kernsmith, Roger M.; Kernsmith, Poco D.
Purpose Addressing gender norms is integral to understanding and ultimately preventing violence in both adolescent and adult intimate relationships. Males are affected by gender role expectations which require them to demonstrate attributes of strength, toughness, and dominance. Discrepancy stress is a form of gender role stress that occurs when boys and men fail to live up to the traditional gender norms set by society. Failure to live up to these gender role expectations may precipitate this experience of psychological distress in some males which, in turn, may increase the risk to engage in physically and sexually violent behaviors as a means of demonstrating masculinity. Methods Five-hundred eighty-nine adolescent males from schools in Wayne County, Michigan completed a survey assessing self-perceptions of gender role discrepancy, the experience of discrepancy stress, and history of physical and sexual dating violence. Results Logistic regression analyses indicated boys who endorsed gender role discrepancy and associated discrepancy stress were generally at greater risk to engage in acts of sexual violence but not necessarily physical violence. Conclusions Boys who experience stress about being perceived as “sub-masculine” may be more likely to engage in sexual violence as a means of demonstrating their masculinity to self and/or others and thwarting potential “threats” to their masculinity by dating partners. Efforts to prevent sexual violence perpetration among male adolescents should perhaps consider the influence of gender socialization in this population and include efforts to reduce distress about masculine socialization in primary prevention strategies. PMID:26003576
Smothers, Melissa Kraemer; Smothers, D. Brian
In this study, a nonprofit community mental health clinic developed a socioecological model of sexual abuse prevention that was implemented in a public school. The goal of the program was to promote and create community change within individuals and the school community by reducing tolerance of sexual violence and sexual harassment. Participants…
Karaoglu, Leyla; Celbis, Osman; Ercan, Cihan; Ilgar, Mehtap; Pehlivan, Erkan; Gunes, Gulsen; Genc, Metin F; Egri, Mucahit
In Turkey, violence against women was established as a critical area of concern related to women and various prevention strategies have been developed since 1980. There are limited numbers of studies on violence during pregnancy in the country. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of physical, emotional and sexual violence during pregnancy in Malatya province and the associated factors. A cross-sectional interview survey was conducted among pregnant women living in Malatya province between October 2003 and May 2004. Stratified probability-proportional-to-size sampling methodology was used for selecting the study population. A total of 824 pregnant women from 60 clusters were studied. Association between violence prevalences and womens' sociodemographic, fertility and behavioural characteristics were evaluated. During pregnancy 31.7% of women were exposed to any form of violence. Emotional violence was the most frequently reported form (26.7%), followed by sexual (9.7%) and physical violence (8.1%). Regular smoking [odds ratio (OR) 1.6], unwanted pregnancy (OR 1.8), living in urban area (OR 1.5), low education level of husband (OR 1.7), low family income (OR 1.9) and being in second trimester (OR 1.4) were determined to be the main predictors of overall violence during pregnancy. Violence during pregnancy is a common public health problem in Malatya. Low education level in partners, low family income, husband's unemployment, urban settlement, unwanted pregnancy and smoking should alert health staff towards violence at pregnancy and training of health personnel on the subject is recommended.
von Sternberg, Kirk; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Jun, Jina; Learman, Joy; Velasquez, Mary M
Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are among the most common infections in the United States and are particularly prevalent in survivors of sexual violence. The purpose of this study is to examine co-occurring risk factors for sexual violence and STIs including mental health, alcohol use, drug use, and multiple partners as intersecting pathways to STIs for women who experienced sexual abuse in the past year. Secondary analyses were conducted on cross-sectional data from women originally recruited as respondents for an epidemiologic survey funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Project CHOICES. The survey was administered to 2,672 women in six settings: A large, urban jail and residential alcohol and drug treatment facilities (Texas); a gynecology clinic (Virginia); two primary care clinics (Virginia and Florida); and media solicitation (Florida). Women were included in the current study if they were fertile, sexually active, and not pregnant or trying to get pregnant (n = 1,183). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the conceptual path model between sexual violence and STI occurrence. In the SEM, there were no significant paths from mental health, alcohol severity, or drug use to STI occurrence contrary to the results of the initial bivariate analyses. Multiple sexual partners significantly mediated the relationship between sexual violence and STIs and between mental health and drug use and STIs. This study highlights the importance of providing effective treatment to survivors of sexual violence, which includes addressing risky sexual behaviors to reduce STI occurrence. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Semple, Shirley J; Stockman, Jamila K; Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Chavarin, Claudia V; Rangel, Gudelia; Torres, Karla; Patterson, Thomas L
Sexual violence among men who have sex with men (MSM) is prevalent in developing countries and is associated with increased HIV/STI risk. Despite high HIV prevalence (20 %) among MSM in Tijuana, Mexico, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of sexual violence in this high-risk group. The present study used a syndemic conditions framework to examine correlates of sexual violence victimization in a sample of 201 MSM surveyed in Tijuana, Mexico during 2012 and 2013. Participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling and underwent a 2-h baseline interview and testing for HIV and syphilis. Sexual violence was defined as any incident during the past year in which the participant had been raped, sexually molested, or sexually harassed. The majority of participants self-identified as gay or bisexual, had never married, were employed, and had a high school education or greater. The average age was 29.7 years. Thirty-nine percent reported sexual violence in the past year. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model predicting more experiences of sexual violence was tested. In a final model, a higher number of experiences of sexual violence was associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse, more adult experiences of homophobia, more depression and hostility symptoms, and not living with a spouse or steady partner. The findings from this study support a model of co-occurring psychosocial factors that increase the likelihood of sexual violence experiences among MSM. Multi-level approaches to the prevention of childhood and adult experiences of sexual violence and homophobia are needed to avert the development of adverse mental and physical health outcomes associated with sexual violence victimization.
Semple, Shirley J.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Goodman-Meza, David; Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Rangel, Gudelia; Torres, Karla; Patterson, Thomas L.
Sexual violence against men who have sex with men (MSM) is prevalent in developing countries and is associated with increased HIV/STI risk. Despite high HIV prevalence (20%) among MSM in Tijuana, Mexico, little attention has been paid to the occurrence of sexual violence in this high-risk group. The present study used a syndemic conditions framework to examine correlates of sexual violence victimization in a sample of 201 MSM surveyed in Tijuana, Mexico during 2012 and 2013. Participants were recruited through respondent-driven sampling (RDS) and underwent a two-hour baseline interview and testing for HIV and syphilis. Sexual violence was defined as any incident during the past year in which the participant had been raped, sexually molested, or sexually harassed. The majority of participants self-identified as gay or bisexual, had never married, were employed, and had a high school education or greater. The average age was 29.7 years. Thirty-nine percent reported sexual violence in the past year. A hierarchical multiple linear regression model predicting more experiences of sexual violence was tested. In a final model, a higher number of experiences of sexual violence was associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse, more adult experiences of homophobia, more depression and hostility symptoms, and not living with a spouse or steady partner. The findings from this study support a model of co-occurring psychosocial factors that increase the likelihood of sexual violence experiences among MSM. Multi-level approaches to the prevention of childhood and adult experiences of sexual violence and homophobia are needed to avert the development of adverse mental and physical health outcomes associated with sexual violence victimization. PMID:27178173
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012
This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…
Trindade, Luciana C; Linhares, Silvana M G M; Vanrell, Jorge; Godoy, Danilo; Martins, José C A; Barbas, Stela M A N
To analyze the demographic and epidemiological profile of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence treated in a Unit of Forensic Medicine and the relationship between victims and perpetrators. A descriptive study, with data collection from information gathered from sex abuse reports performed in 2009 on victims of sexual violence aged less than 18 years. The data collection tool was a form filled out with demographic information about the victim - gender and age - and information regarding the sexual violence -, location of the occurrence, time elapsed between abuse and expert report, complaints reported, sexological examination findings, description of lesions outside the genital region, and aggressor's relationship to victim. In 2009, 421 individuals victim of sexual violence were assisted. Of those, 379 (90%) were younger than 18 years, and 66 cases were excluded from these reports. Most were female (81.2%). The most affected age group was 10 to 13 years old (36.7%), followed by 5 to 9 year-olds (30.7%). In most cases (86.3%), there were family or friendship ties between victims and perpetrators, being most frequently accused an acquaintance or friend of the family (42.3%), followed by the stepfather (16.6%) and the father (10.9%). The results are similar to other studies conducted in the country. This work aims at filling a gap caused by the lack of research on this topic in the State, hoping to collaborate to improve public policies against child sexual abuse.
Rumble, Lauren; Febrianto, Ryan Fajar; Larasati, Melania Niken; Hamilton, Carolyn; Mathews, Ben; Dunne, Michael P
There has been relatively little research into the prevalence of childhood sexual violence (CSV) as well as the risk and protective factors for CSV in low- and middle-income countries including Indonesia. Systematic searches conducted in English and Bahasa Indonesia in this review identified 594 records published between 2006 and 2016 in peer-reviewed journals and other literature including 299 Indonesian records. Fifteen studies, including nine prevalence studies, met the quality appraisal criteria developed for this review. The review found that CSV research is scarce: Only one study included nationally representative prevalence estimates. Varying definitions for CSV, survey methods, and sample characteristics limited the generalizability of the data. The available evidence points to significant risk of sexual violence affecting both girls and boys across many geographical and institutional settings. Married adolescent girls are vulnerable to sexual violence by partners in their homes. Children in schools are vulnerable to CSV by peers and adults. Victims seldom disclose incidents and rarely seek support. In addition, early childhood experiences of trauma were strongly associated with later perpetration of sexual violence and revictimization. Limited information is available about protective factors. This review synthesizes evidence about what is currently known about CSV in Indonesia and identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the existing research. A more robust evidence base regarding CSV is required to better inform policy and justify investment into prevention programs.
Luo, Feijun; Tharp, Andra T.
Objectives. We examined (1) whether sexual minority youths (SMYs) are at increased risk for physical dating violence victimization (PDVV) compared with non-SMYs, (2) whether bisexual youths have greater risk of PDVV than lesbian or gay youths, (3) whether youths who have had sexual contact with both sexes are more susceptible to PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact, and (4) patterns of PDVV among SMYs across demographic groups. Methods. Using 2 measures of sexual orientation, sexual identity and sexual behavior, and compiling data from 9 urban areas that administered the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys from 2001 to 2011, we conducted logistic regression analyses to calculate odds of PDVV among SMYs across demographic sub-samples. Results. SMYs have significantly increased odds of PDVV compared with non-SMYs. Bisexual youths do not have significantly higher odds of PDVV than gay or lesbian youths, but youths who had sexual contact with both-sexes possess significantly higher odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. These patterns hold for most gender, grade, and racial/ethnic subgroups. Conclusions. Overall, SMYs have greater odds of PDVV versus non-SMYs. Among SMYs, youths who had sexual contact with both sexes have greater odds of PDVV than youths with same sex–only sexual contact. Prevention programs that consider sexual orientation, support tolerance, and teach coping and conflict resolution skills could reduce PDVV among SMYs. PMID:25121813
Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose
The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…
Holen, Sine Vorland; Vermeij, Lotte
To mark the 17th anniversary of United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security, two experts look at how far we have come in the fight to eradicate sexual violence in conflict and at how NATO operations can be supported to enhance these efforts.
Full Text Available In hundreds of refugee and IDP settings throughout the world, women and girls are made more vulnerable to sexual violence because of the almost daily need to leave camps in search of firewood. More can and must be done to reduce this risk.
Sexual violence in conflict is high on the agenda of the international humanitarian community. Despite commendable advances in both policy and practice, there continues to be a gap between what is recommended, and the reality on the ground. This paper argues that notwithstanding the profound
Geffner, Robert, Ed.
These two Bulletins contain selected articles that highlight research and treatment issues in child abuse and child sexual abuse. The first issue includes the following featured articles: (1) "The Relationships between Animal Abuse and Other Forms of Family Violence" (Phil Arkow), which addresses animal cruelty as a harbinger of…
Situations of chronic conflict across the globe make it imperative to draw attention to its gendered health consequences, particularly the violation of women's reproductive and sexual rights. Since early 2002 in Gujarat, western India, the worst kind of state-sponsored violence against Muslims has been perpetrated, which continues to this day. This paper describes the history of that violence and highlights the mental and physical consequences of sexual and gender-based violence and the issues that need to be addressed by the police, the health care system and civil society. It draws upon several reports, including from the International Initiative for Justice and the Medico Friend Circle, which documented the reproductive, sexual and mental health consequences of the violence in Gujarat, and the lacunae in the responses of the health system. The paper calls for non-discrimination to be demonstrated by health personnel in the context of conflict and social unrest. Their training should include conflict as a public health problem, their roles and responsibilities in prevention, treatment and documentation of this "disease", and focus on relevant medico-legal methodology and principles, the psychological impact of sexual assault on victims, and the legal significance of medical evidence in these cases.
Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010
Violence is a serious problem on college campuses. The literature on primary prevention of violence does not call for the adoption of specific programs or policies but rather suggests a paradigm shift in the way practitioners approach violence. Primary prevention means asking the question, "Why is violence happening in the first place?" in order…
... a national level focusing on these types of interpersonal violence based on the sexual orientation of U.S. ... field, additional efforts could be made to enhance training for domestic violence and sexual assault service providers. ...
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva
Full Text Available Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consisting of 82 mothers of non-sexually abused children. History of exposure to CSA was evaluated by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire - Short Form (CTQ and we used a logistic regression model to estimate the prediction values regarding having or not a child exposed to sexual violence. Results: Mothers of sexually abused children had significantly higher scores on CTQ, especially on the sexual abuse subscale (SA. According to our logistic regression model, higher scores on the CTQ significantly predicted the status of being a mother of children exposed to sexual violence in our sample (Wald = 7.074; p = 0.008; Exp(B = 1.681. Years of formal education reduced the likelihood of having a child victim of sexual violence (Wald = 18.994; p = 0.001; Exp(B = 0.497. Conclusion: Our findings highlight the importance of a possible intergenerational effect of sexual abuse. Family intervention and prevention against childhood maltreatment should take this issue in account.
Robertson, Carrie A; Knight, Raymond A
Sexual sadism and psychopathy have been theoretically, clinically, and empirically linked to violence. Although both constructs are linked to predatory violence, few studies have sought to explore the covariation of the two constructs, and even fewer have sought to conceptualize the similarities of violence prediction in each. The current study considered all four Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) facets and employed well-defined, validated measures of sadism to elucidate the relation between sadism and psychopathy, as well as to determine the role of each in the prediction of non-sexual violence and sexual crime behaviors. Study 1 assessed 314 adult, male sex offenders using archival ratings, as well as the self-report Multidimensional Inventory of Development, Sex, and Aggression (the MIDSA). Study 2 used archival ratings to assess 599 adult, male sex offenders. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of crime scene descriptions yielded four sexual crime behavior factors: Violence, Physical Control, Sexual Behavior, and Paraphilic. Sadism and psychopathy covaried, but were not coextensive; sadism correlated with Total PCL-R, Facet 1, and Facet 4 scores. The constructs predicted all non-sexual violence measures, but predicted different sexual crime behavior factors. The PCL-R facets collectively predicted the Violence and Paraphilic factors, whereas sadism only predicted the Violence factor. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Luciana C Trindade
Full Text Available Objective To analyze the demographic and epidemiological profile of children and adolescents victims of sexual violence treated in a Unit of Forensic Medicine and the relationship between victims and perpetrators. Methods A descriptive study, with data collection from information gathered from sex abuse reports performed in 2009 on victims of sexual violence aged less than 18 years. The data collection tool was a form filled out with demographic information about the victim – gender and age - and information regarding the sexual violence –, location of the occurrence, time elapsed between abuse and expert report, complaints reported, sexological examination findings, description of lesions outside the genital region, and aggressor’s relationship to victim. Results In 2009, 421 individuals victim of sexual violence were assisted. Of those, 379 (90% were younger than 18 years, and 66 cases were excluded from these reports. Most were female (81.2%. The most affected age group was 10 to 13 years old (36.7%, followed by 5 to 9 year-olds (30.7%. In most cases (86.3%, there were family or friendship ties between victims and perpetrators, being most frequently accused an acquaintance or friend of the family (42.3%, followed by the stepfather (16.6% and the father (10.9%. Conclusion The results are similar to other studies conducted in the country. This work aims at filling a gap caused by the lack of research on this topic in the State, hoping to collaborate to improve public policies against child sexual abuse.
Shorey, Ryan C.; Fite, Paula J.; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Temple, Jeff R.
Objective To examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents’ risky sexual behavior across one year, and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents’ gender and ethnicity. Methods A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from 7 public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Results Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Conclusions Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior. PMID:25797949
Shorey, Ryan C; Fite, Paula J; Choi, HyeJeong; Cohen, Joseph R; Stuart, Gregory L; Temple, Jeff R
The objectives of this study is to examine dating violence perpetration and victimization (physical, psychological, and sexual) and lifetime substance use (alcohol, marijuana, and hard drugs) as longitudinal predictors of adolescents' risky sexual behavior across 1 year and to determine whether predictors varied across adolescents' gender and ethnicity. A sample of Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic male and female adolescents from seven public high schools in Texas (N = 882) participated. Adolescents completed self-report measures of dating violence, lifetime substance use, and risky sexual behavior at baseline and, 1-year later, completed a second assessment of their risky sexual behavior. Path analysis demonstrated that greater physical dating violence victimization, lifetime alcohol use, lifetime marijuana use, and age (being older) were all significant predictors of risky sexual behavior at the 1-year follow-up. These results did not vary across gender or the three ethnic groups (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic). Overall, substance use was a longitudinal predictor of risky sexual behavior across the three ethnic groups, with physical dating violence victimization being the only type of dating violence longitudinally predicting risky sexual behavior. Prevention efforts should consider the roles of physical dating violence and substance use in preventing risky sexual behavior.
de Heer, Brooke; Jones, Lynn
Since the 2014 "Not Alone" report on campus sexual assault, the use of climate surveys to measure sexual violence on campuses across the United States has increased considerably. The current study utilizes a quasi meta-analysis approach to examine the utility of general campus climate surveys, which include a measure of sexual violence,…
This article explores sexual violence in male prisons in South Africa. It focuses on the social meanings and identities that surround sexual violence, particularly the ideas of manhood that shape both the perpetration of sexual abuses and how it is dealt with – or not. The dominant inmate culture endorses prison rape and ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) is an ongoing, nationally representative survey to assess experiences of intimate partner violence,...
Full Text Available The prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy varies widely in different societies. To assess the incidence of self-reported physical, emotional and sexual violence in pregnancy and describe the association with maternal complication and birth outcomes, 3275 women who gave birth to live-born infants from October 2002 to November 2003 were assessed for self-reported violence in postpartum units of Obstetrics Department of Babol university of Medical Sciences. Outcome data included maternal antenatal hospitalizations, labor and delivery complications and low birth weights and preterm births. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to measure the association between violence, maternal morbidity and birth outcomes. The prevalence of physical, sexual and emotional domestic violence was respectively 9.1%, 30.8% and 19.2%. Compared with those not reporting physical, sexual and emotional violence, women who did were more likely to deliver by cesarean and to have abnormal progress of labor, premature rupture of membranes, low birth weight, preterm birth and any hospitalization before delivery. Prevalence of physical, emotional or sexual violence during pregnancy was high and was associated with adverse fetal and maternal conditions. These findings support routine screening for physical, emotional and sexual violence in pregnancy and postpartum period to prevent consequences of domestic violence.
Anand, Mallika; Redding, Colleen A.; Peipert, Jeffrey F.
Abstract Objective To investigate whether women aged 13–35 who were victims of interpersonal violence were more likely than nonvictims to experience incident sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Methods We examined 542 women aged 13–35 enrolled in Project PROTECT, a randomized clinical trial that compared two different methods of computer-based intervention to promote the use of dual methods of contraception. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire that included questions about their history of interpersonal violence and were followed for incident STIs over the 2-year study period. We compared the incidence of STIs in women with and without a history of interpersonal violence using bivariate analyses and multiple logistic regression. Results In the bivariate analyses, STI incidence was found to be significantly associated with African American race/ethnicity, a higher number of sexual partners in the past month, and a lower likelihood of avoidance of sexual partners who pressure to have sex without a condom. In both crude and adjusted regression analyses, time to STI incidence was faster among women who reported physical or sexual abuse in the year before study enrollment (HRRadj = 1.68, 95% CI 1.06, 2.65). Conclusions Women with a recent history of abuse are at significantly increased risk of STI incidence than are nonvictims. PMID:19245303
Lees, Shelley; Devries, Karen
Understandings of violence, and especially sexual violence against children, must be situated within the local context. The 2009 Violence against Children Survey in Zanzibar indicated that 6% of girls and 9% of boys reported having experienced sexual violence before the age of 18 years. This paper reports on an in-depth qualitative study conducted in Zanzibar to provide further insights to these findings by examining the circumstances for sexual and other violence against children in Zanzibar. Twenty-four in-depth interviews with young people and 18 focus-group discussions with young people and adults were conducted in rural and urban Zanzibar. A further 8 interviews were conducted with parents and key stakeholders in government and NGO offices that provide services for children. The findings revealed that religious and cultural practices, which form the foundation of Swahili culture in Zanzibar, provide a moral frame for childhood development, but structural factors make children vulnerable to sexual violence. Both boys and girls are vulnerable to sexual violence in the home, neighbourhood, at school and, in particular, at madrasa or Qur'anic schools. As religion and culture are strong influences on childhood, preventing sexual violence at madrasa schools would strengthen the positive aspects of religious teachings for ensuring a safe childhood.
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Abstract: Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier Gender and Development approach and the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda, analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, gender often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs...
Violence against children is not a new phenomenon. In this regard, the forms in which it occurs as well as methods that allow it to have taken on an astonishing scale worldwide. Certainly, in this sense, sexual violence leaves the hardest and most complicated effects on the victim. Bearing in mind the complexity of sexual violence against children in the work we are going through an analysis of the criminalization of certain creatures that protect the sexual integrity of children from v...
Kelly-Hanku, A; Aeno, H; Wilson, L; Eves, R; Mek, A; Nake Trumb, R; Whittaker, M; Fitzgerald, L; Kaldor, J M; Vallely, A
Sexual violence against women and girls is commonplace in Papua New Guinea (PNG). While the experiences of women are rightly given central place in institutional responses to sexual violence, the men who perpetrate violence are often overlooked, an oversight that undermines the effectiveness of prevention efforts. This paper draws on interviews conducted with young men as part of a qualitative longitudinal study of masculinity and male sexuality in a rural highland area of PNG. It explores one aspect of male sexuality: men's narratives of sexual violence. Most striking from the data is that the collective enactment of sexual violence against women and girls is reported as an everyday and accepted practice amongst young men. However, not all women and girls were described as equally at risk, with those who transgress gender roles and roles inscribed and reinforced by patriarchal structures, at greater risk. To address this situation, efforts to reduce sexual violence against women and girls require an increased focus on male-centred intervention to critically engage with the forms of patriarchal authority that give license to sexual violence. Understanding the perceptions and experiences of men as perpetrators of sexual violence is a critical first step in the process of changing normative perceptions of gender, a task crucial to reducing sexual violence in countries such as PNG.
Mathews, Catherine; Eggers, Sander M; Townsend, Loraine; Aarø, Leif E; de Vries, Petrus J; Mason-Jones, Amanda J; De Koker, Petra; McClinton Appollis, Tracy; Mtshizana, Yolisa; Koech, Joy; Wubs, Annegreet; De Vries, Hein
Young South Africans, especially women, are at high risk of HIV. We evaluated the effects of PREPARE, a multi-component, school-based HIV prevention intervention to delay sexual debut, increase condom use and decrease intimate partner violence (IPV) among young adolescents. We conducted a cluster RCT among Grade eights in 42 high schools. The intervention comprised education sessions, a school health service and a school sexual violence prevention programme. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Regression was undertaken to provide ORs or coefficients adjusted for clustering. Of 6244 sampled adolescents, 55.3 % participated. At 12 months there were no differences between intervention and control arms in sexual risk behaviours. Participants in the intervention arm were less likely to report IPV victimisation (35.1 vs. 40.9 %; OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.61-0.99; t(40) = 2.14) suggesting the intervention shaped intimate partnerships into safer ones, potentially lowering the risk for HIV.
Sisneros, Kathy; Rivera, Monica
Using an institutional example, this chapter offers strategies to effectively navigate institutional culture, processes, and structures to engage the entire campus community in addressing sexual violence.
Szalacha, Laura A; Hughes, Tonda L; McNair, Ruth; Loxton, Deborah
We examined the relationships among experiences of interpersonal violence, mental health, and sexual identity in a national sample of young adult women in Australia. We used existing data from the third (2003) wave of young adult women (aged 25-30) in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH). We conducted bivariate analyses and fit multiple and logistic regression models to test experiences of six types of interpersonal violence (physical abuse, severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, harassment, and being in a violent relationship), and the number of types of violence experienced, as predictors of mental health. We compared types and number of types of violence across sexual identity subgroups. Experiences of interpersonal violence varied significantly by sexual identity. Controlling for demographic characteristics, compared to exclusively heterosexual women, mainly heterosexual and bisexual women were significantly more likely to report physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. Mainly heterosexual and lesbian women were more likely to report severe physical abuse. Mainly heterosexual women were more than three times as likely to have been in a violent relationship in the past three years, and all three sexual minority subgroups were two to three times as likely to have experienced harassment. Bisexual women reported significantly higher levels of depression than any of the other sexual identity groups and scored lower on mental health than did exclusively heterosexual women. In linear regression models, interpersonal violence strongly predicted poorer mental health for lesbian and bisexual women. Notably, mental health indicators were similar for exclusively heterosexual and sexual minority women who did not report interpersonal violence. Experiencing multiple types of interpersonal violence was the strongest predictor of stress, anxiety and depression. Interpersonal violence is a key contributor to mental health disparities
Pfaus, J G; Myronuk, L D; Jacobs, W J
Male undergraduates were exposed to a videotaped depiction of heterosexual rape accompanied by one of three soundtracks: the original soundtrack (featuring dialogue and background rock music), relaxing music, or no sound. Subjective reports of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, perceived erotic content, and perceived pornographic content of the sequence were then provided by each subject. Results indicated that males exposed to the videotape accompanied by the original soundtrack found the sequence significantly more pornographic than males exposed to the sequence accompanied by either relaxing background music or no sound. Ratings of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, and the perceived erotic content, however, did not differ significantly across soundtrack conditions. These results are compatible with the assertion that the content of a video soundtrack may influence the impact of depicted sexual violence.
Hagan, John; Rymond-Richmond, Wenona; Palloni, Alberto
We used the Atrocities Documentation Survey to determine whether Sudanese government forces were involved in racially targeting sexual victimization toward ethnically African women in the Darfur region of western Sudan. The US State Department conducted the survey by interviewing a randomized multistage probability sample of 1136 Darfur refugees at 20 sites in Chad in 2004. For a subset of 932 respondents who had fled from village clusters that accounted for 15 or more respondents per cluster, we used hierarchical linear models to analyze village-level patterns of reported sexual violence. We statistically controlled for individual sexual victimization to remove bias. Respondents reported being subjected to racial epithets associated with sexual victimization significantly more often during combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces than during separate attacks by either force. Combined attacks by Sudanese government forces and Janjaweed militia forces led to racial epithets being used more often during sexual victimization in Darfur. Our results suggest that the Sudanese government is participating in the use of sexual assault as a racially targeted weapon against ethnically African civilians.
McNaughton Reyes, H. Luz; Chen, May S.; Ennett, Susan T.; Basile, Kathleen C.; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M.; Moracco, Kathryn E.; Bowling, J. Michael
The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother–adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother–adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study’s implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed. PMID:26746242
Foshee, Vangie A; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T; Basile, Kathleen C; DeGue, Sarah; Vivolo-Kantor, Alana M; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael
The high risk of perpetrating physical dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment by adolescents exposed to domestic violence points to the need for programs to prevent these types of aggression among this group. This study of adolescents exposed to domestic violence examined whether these forms of aggression share risk factors that could be targeted for change in single programs designed to prevent all three types of aggression. Analyses were conducted on 399 mother victims of domestic violence and their adolescents, recruited through community advertising. The adolescents ranged in age from 12 to 16 years; 64 % were female. Generalized estimating equations was used to control for the covariation among the aggression types when testing for shared risk factors. Approximately 70 % of the adolescents reported perpetrating at least one of the three forms of aggression. In models examining one risk factor at a time, but controlling for demographics, adolescent acceptance of sexual violence, mother-adolescent discord, family conflict, low maternal monitoring, low mother-adolescent closeness, low family cohesion, depressed affect, feelings of anger, and anger reactivity were shared across all three aggression types. In multivariable models, which included all of the risk factors examined and the demographic variables, low maternal monitoring, depressed affect and anger reactivity remained significant shared risk factors. Our findings suggest that programs targeting these risk factors for change have the potential to prevent all three forms of aggression. In multivariable models, poor conflict management skills was a risk for bullying and sexual harassment, but not dating violence; acceptance of dating violence was a risk for dating violence and bullying, but not sexual harassment; and none of the examined risk factors were unique to aggression type. The study's implications for the development of interventions and future research are discussed.
Gonçalves, Rui Abrunhosa; Vieira, Sandra
No ficheiro onde se lê: "PSICOLOGIA: TEORIA, INVESTIGAÇÃO E PRÁTICA, 2004, 2, 065-080" deverá ler-se: "Psicologia : teoria, investigação e prática". ISSN 0873-4976. 10:1 (2005) 65-80". Tendo em conta a importância de que se reveste a avaliação do risco de violência em geral e o risco de violência sexual em particular, na prevenção da criminalidade, apresentam-se as características, o modo de utilização, as aplicações e as limitações de uma checklist (o SVR-20), concebida para identificar o...
Russell, Tiffany D; King, Alan R
Psychopathy and narcissism are known predictors of sexual violence, but they are broad personality constructs with limited utility in intervention and prevention efforts. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) assesses 25 specific personality facets residing in five higher order domains. The goal of this research was to test the PID-5 in a sexual aggression model, which also included hostile masculinity, juvenile delinquency, and five sexual assault indices. A nationwide sample of adult men ( N = 512) completed the online survey. Hostile masculinity and juvenile delinquency were expected to have direct paths to sexual violence in a structural equation model. Hostile masculinity was also hypothesized as a mediator between sexual violence and PID-5 facets related to narcissism and psychopathy. These hypotheses were largely supported. Overall, 29.5% of men reported perpetrating sexual violence at least once, and 24.2% reported multiple assaults. In the sexually violent sample, 45.7% endorsed completed rape as their most severe act. PID-5 Suspiciousness, Cognitive and Perceptual Dysregulation, Grandiosity, and a lack of Eccentricity emerged as indirect predictors of sexual violence. These PID-5 facets were mediated by hostile masculinity, which had a reliable path to sexual violence. Juvenile delinquency had a direct and indirect path to sexual assault. The model accounted for 48% of the variance in latent sexual violence, and the five sexual violence index R 2 s ranged from .53 to .82. This research adds specificity to sexual violence models by demonstrating the underlying maladaptive personality trait structures associated with sexual assault. It also provides a more precise personality profile for clinical use and prevention programs.
Despite the undeniable, experiential reality of sexual violence in women's lives, sexual violence as a "public reality", and subsequently as a viable topic for social scientific and historical inquiry, did not emerge until this time. The women's liberation movement created the conditions that made possible--and salient--the articulation of the…
MA Bekele, A.B.
The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the determinants of sexual violence among Eastern Ethiopia secondary school students. To this end, we studied risk and protective factors for both sexual violence perpetration and victimization, and the moderating role of protective factors on the
As sexual violence against schoolgirls is pervasive, efforts must be done to tackle the problem and promote harassment-free environment for young girls. Especially, improvement of law enforcement related to sexual violence or harassment and awareness promotion of the problem and women\\'s rights are very essential.
Macy, Rebecca J.; Johns, Natalie; Rizo, Cynthia F.; Martin, Sandra L.; Giattina, Mary
We investigated agency directors' perspectives about how service goals should be prioritized for domestic violence and sexual assault service subtypes, including crisis, legal advocacy, medical advocacy, counseling, support group, and shelter services. A sample of 97 (94% response rate) North Carolina domestic violence and/or sexual assault agency…
Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Strickland, Karen D.
This study focuses on what aspects of attributes of spirituality as defined by Martsolf and Mickley (1998) are most salient for female and male survivors of sexual violence. Content analysis of secondary narrative data, provided by 50 participants in a study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence, was coded to the five attributes of…
Draucker, Claire; Martsolf, Donna
Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life-course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women's and men's responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and…
McGee, Hannah; Garavan, Rebecca; Byrne, Joanne; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Conroy, Ronán M
Sexual violence is a worldwide problem affecting children and adults. Knowledge of trends in prevalence is essential to inform the design and evaluation of preventive and intervention programmes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence for both sexes and to document the prevalence of adult and child abuse by birth year in the general population. National cluster-randomized telephone interview study of 3120 adults in Ireland was done. Child sexual abuse involving physical contact was reported by 20% of women and 16% of men. In adulthood, figures were 20% and 10% for women and men, respectively. Prevalence of any form of sexual violence across the lifespan was 42% (women) and 38% (men). Analysis by year of birth indicated a curvilinear pattern for child sexual abuse with lower prevalence in the oldest and youngest participants. Sexual violence in young adulthood showed a linear pattern with higher prevalence in the youngest participants. The trend of lower rates of experience of child sexual abuse in younger adults in the sample is in keeping with findings from other countries. The trend of higher rates of adult sexual violence in younger adults is worrying, particularly since the same participants reported less experience of child sexual abuse than the preceding generations. There is a paucity of international data addressing the issue of cohort differences in exposure to sexual violence. Within-study analysis, and follow-up studies designed to maximize replicability, are needed to inform discussion about societal trends in different types of sexual violence.
Efforts to prevent and reduce men's violence against women increasingly include an emphasis on engaging men and boys in primary prevention. Boys and men have been addressed as participants in education programs in schools and universities, as community leaders, as activists, and as policy makers. There is a substantial body of evidence that violence prevention interventions focused on men and boys, if done well, can change the attitudes and behaviours associated with perpetration. Efforts to ...
Knapik, Gregory P.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.
A theoretical framework explaining how survivors of sexual violence use spirituality to respond to or recover from sexual violence is presented. Data were drawn from open-ended interviews of 27 women and 23 men who participated in a larger, ongoing study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence. Grounded theory methodology was used to develop the core category of Being Delivered, reflecting the participants’ experiences of being rescued, saved, or set free from the effects of sexual violence by a spiritual being or power. The theoretical framework describing Being Delivered is composed of three dimensions: Spiritual Connection, Spiritual Journey, and Spiritual Transformation. The framework can be used by clinicians to guide discussions of spirituality and healing with survivors of sexual violence. PMID:18382913
... before it starts and ensuring victims get the support they need. Sexual violence is an affront to human... sexual assault nurse examiner programs and sexual assault response teams, helping States deliver justice... Sexual Assault Awareness and Prevention Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A...
Responses to this violence take many forms, including various violence prevention and ... 2 SCRATCHMAPS: Spiritual Capacity and Religious Assets for Transforming Community Health by Mobilising Males for Peace and. Safety .... The asset mapping methodology and toolset were designed by the collaborative research.
Smith, M; Martin, F
Domestic violence is a significant social and health problem that has received intensive recent publicity in the lay media. Nurses should play a major role in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions. Intensified health promotion and public policy initiatives can reduce the incidence of domestic violence in the future.
Solutions to empower women, reduce violence Researchers will identify and analyze interventions in Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, and Peru. They will assess the impact of efforts on: -preventing violence against women -reducing victimization -improving women's access to justice The results will guide governments, civil ...
Breiding, Matthew J; Basile, Kathleen C; Klevens, Joanne; Smith, Sharon G
Previous research has consistently found that low SES is associated with higher levels of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual violence (SV) victimization. Though associated with poverty, two indicators of economic insecurity, food and housing insecurity, have been identified as conceptually distinct social determinants of health. This study examined the relationship between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV victimization experienced in the preceding 12 months, after controlling for SES and other demographic variables. Data were from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally representative telephone survey of U.S. adults. In 2016, multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to examine the association between food and housing insecurity and multiple forms of IPV and SV victimization. Robust associations were found between food and housing insecurity experienced in the preceding 12 months and IPV and SV experienced in the preceding 12 months, for women and men, even after controlling for age, family income, race/ethnicity, education, and marital status. Food and housing insecurity may be important considerations for the prevention of SV and IPV or the reductions of their consequences, although future research is needed to disentangle the direction of the association. Strategies aimed at buffering economic insecurity may reduce vulnerability to IPV and SV victimization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chibber, Karuna S.; Krupp, Karl; Padian, Nancy; Madhivanan, Purnima
The prevalence of sexual violence is increasingly being studied in India. Yet the determinants of sexual violence, irrespective of physical violence, remain largely unexplored. Here the authors identify the determinants of sexual violence, and additionally, explore how the presence of physical violence modifies these determinants. A…
Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan
Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…
Ipekten Alaman, Mehtap; Yıldız, Hatice
Domestic violence is a universal problem, and sexual violence in marriage, in particular, is a hidden form of it. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to determine to the prevalence of domestic sexual violence by husbands, the prevalence of sexual problems, and the relation of these among married women attending a gynecology outpatient clinic. This study was performed in a university hospital in Turkey and data were collected February-April 2009. The study sample consisted of 200 married women, 53% of whom reported having been exposed to at least one type of domestic sexual violence behaviors by their husbands. Among those behaviors, the rate of marital rape was 33%. The frequency of experiencing any sexual problem was 82%. Women expressed that they mostly had orgasmic problems, and their husbands had premature ejaculation problems. The majority of women who reported sexual violence reported experiencing sexual problems; the frequency of sexual problems was higher in the participants who did (94.3%) than in those who did not report (68.1%) sexual violence (p violence in marriage. The results also revealed that the prevalence of sexual violence and sexual problems among those married women who attended gynecology clinics was considerable, even though they did not report this to the health care provider as a problem.
Blondeel, Karel; de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor
To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities.
de Vasconcelos, Sofia; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stephenson, Rob; Temmerman, Marleen; Toskin, Igor
Abstract Objective To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities. Methods We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis. Findings We included 76 articles from 50 countries. These covered 74 studies conducted between 1995 and 2014, including a total of 202 607 sexual and gender minority participants. The quality of data was relatively poor due to a lack of standardized measures and sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110). Conclusion More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity in different geographical and cultural settings. National violence prevention policies and interventions should include sexual and gender minorities. PMID:29403098
Simon, Thomas R; Hurvitz, Kimberly
Violence, including child maltreatment, youth violence, intimate partner violence, and sexual violence, is a significant public health problem in the United States. A public health approach can help providers understand the health burden from violence, evaluate evidence for prevention strategies, and learn where to turn for information about planning and implementing prevention strategies for this preventable problem. For the past three decades, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has published "Healthy People" objectives for the next decade. The Healthy People 2020 initiative includes 13 measurable objectives related to violence prevention, one of which was selected as a Healthy People 2020 Leading Health Indicator. Progress to achieve these objectives can save thousands of lives, reduce the suffering of victims and their families, and decrease financial cost to the law enforcement and healthcare systems. The role that nurses can and do play in violence prevention is critical and extends beyond just caring for victims to also include preventing violence before it happens. This article summarizes the violence prevention objectives in Healthy People 2020 and the resources for prevention available to support nurses and others as they move prevention efforts forward in communities to stop violence before it starts.
Kandakai, Tina L; King, Keith A
To examine preservice teachers' perceived confidence in teaching violence prevention and the potential effect of violence-prevention training on preservice teachers' confidence in teaching violence prevention. Six Ohio universities participated in the study. More than 800 undergraduate and graduate students completed surveys. Violence-prevention training, area of certification, and location of student- teaching placement significantly influenced preservice teachers' perceived confidence in teaching violence prevention. Violence-prevention training positively influences preservice teachers' confidence in teaching violence prevention. The results suggest that such training should be considered as a requirement for teacher preparation programs.
Stephens-Stidham, Shelli; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Bou-Saada, Ingrid; Hunter, Wanda; Lindemer, Kristen; Runyan, Carol
Efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence require a workforce that is knowledgeable and skilled in prevention. However, there has been no systematic process to ensure that professionals possess the necessary competencies. To address this deficiency, we developed a set of core competencies for public health practitioners in injury and violence prevention programs. The core competencies address domains including public health significance, data, the design and implementation of prevention activities, evaluation, program management, communication, stimulating change, and continuing education. Specific learning objectives establish goals for training in each domain. The competencies assist in efforts to reduce the burden of injury and violence and can provide benchmarks against which to assess progress in professional capacity for injury and violence prevention. PMID:19197083
Wilkinson, C W
The risk of workplace violence varies depending on the type and location of the business. Business managers should assess violence risk and develop a program based on the level of risk faced by their employees. This assessment should include: (1) a review of workplace security and identification of positions with increased risk of exposure to violence, (2) risk reduction through environmental design and employee training, (3) development of a plan and identification of professional resources to respond to incidents should they occur, and (4) communication of the employer's commitment to providing a safe work environment for employees. For most businesses, threat assessment and management comprise the cornerstone of a workplace violence-prevention program. Planning and preparation are key to workplace violence prevention.
Santaularia, Jeanie; Johnson, Monica; Hart, Laurie; Haskett, Lori; Welsh, Ericka; Faseru, Babalola
Sexual assault is a traumatic event with potentially devastating lifelong effects on physical and mental health. Research has demonstrated that individuals who experience sexual assault during childhood are more likely to engage in risky behaviors later in life, such as smoking, alcohol and drug use, and disordered eating habits, which may increase the risk of developing a chronic disease. Despite the high prevalence and economic burden of sexual assault, few studies have investigated the associations between sexual violence and chronic health conditions in the US. The purpose of this study is to identify associations between sexual violence and health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions and mental health conditions utilizing population based data in Kansas. Secondary analysis was done using data from the 2011 Kansas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System sexual violence module (N = 4,886). Crude and adjusted prevalence rate ratios were computed to examine associations between sexual assault and health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions and mental health conditions, overall and after adjusting for social demographic characteristics. Additional logistic regression models were implemented to examine the association between sexual assault and health risk behaviors with further adjustment for history of anxiety or depression. There was a significantly higher prevalence of health risk behaviors (heavy drinking, binge drinking and current smoking), chronic health conditions (disability, and current asthma) and mental health conditions (depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation) among women who ever experienced sexual assault compared to women who did not, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Study findings highlight the need for chronic disease prevention services for victims of sexual violence. There are important implications for policies and practices related to primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention, as well as collaborations
Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes
Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
... An Overview of 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation About NISVS NISVS is an ongoing, nationally representative ... Violence Survey (NISVS): 2010 Findings on Victimization by Sexual Orientation is the first of its kind to present ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women, a public health and human rights problem, evaluated by the case of Bosnia War. METHODS: Bosnia War, United Nations resolutions, International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY cases, activities of NGOs, approaches of WHO, Dayton Peace Agreement, current health programs were evaluated with the health effects and human rights dimensions of sexual violence against women. RESULTS: Sexual violence against women and systematic rapes were used as an “ethnic cleaning” tool and war weapon during Bosnia War, estimated 20.000-60.000 women and girls were raped systematically, captivated in rape camps, exposed to sexual violence. Medical care following the sexual violence against women and rape should include; Determination and teatment of injuries, forensic notice and documentation, preventive and curative services for Sexually Transmitted Diseases including HIV/AIDS, emergency contraceptive services, safe medical abortus, follow up of pregnancies, psychosocial support and services and training of health care professionals. Mental Health Reform became a priority health topic for Bosnia Herzegovina aftermath of the Bosnia War. Taking measures to prevent social stigmatism of the victims, economic support and implementation of rehabilitation programs, punishment of the perpetrators to repair social and community bonds are important. ICTY investigates and punishes the crimes of rapes and sexual violence against women. CONCLUSION: UN defines the violence against women and rapes during wars as “crime against humanity”. Besides improving the status of women, comprehensive approaches with the cooperation of medical, legal and social organisations are needed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(1.000: 119-126
Khalifeh, H; Moran, P; Borschmann, R; Dean, K; Hart, C; Hogg, J; Osborn, D; Johnson, S; Howard, L M
Domestic and sexual violence are significant public health problems but little is known about the extent to which men and women with severe mental illness (SMI) are at risk compared with the general population. We aimed to compare the prevalence and impact of violence against SMI patients and the general population. Three hundred and three randomly recruited psychiatric patients, in contact with community services for ⩾ 1 year, were interviewed using the British Crime Survey domestic/sexual violence questionnaire. Prevalence and correlates of violence in this sample were compared with those from 22 606 general population controls participating in the contemporaneous 2011/12 national crime survey. Past-year domestic violence was reported by 27% v. 9% of SMI and control women, respectively [odds ratio (OR) adjusted for socio-demographics, aOR 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-4.0], and by 13% v. 5% of SMI and control men, respectively (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.8). Past-year sexual violence was reported by 10% v. 2.0% of SMI and control women respectively (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.4-5.8). Family (non-partner) violence comprised a greater proportion of overall domestic violence among SMI than control victims (63% v. 35%, p < 0.01). Adulthood serious sexual assault led to attempted suicide more often among SMI than control female victims (53% v. 3.4%, p < 0.001). Compared to the general population, patients with SMI are at substantially increased risk of domestic and sexual violence, with a relative excess of family violence and adverse health impact following victimization. Psychiatric services, and public health and criminal justice policies, need to address domestic and sexual violence in this at-risk group.
Reischl, Thomas M; Zimmerman, Marc A; Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Franzen, Susan P; Faulk, Monique; Eisman, Andria B; Roberts, Everett
The limited success of youth violence prevention interventions suggests that effective prevention needs to address causes at multiple levels of analysis and empower youth in developing and implementing prevention programs. In this article, we review published studies of youth violence prevention efforts that engage youth in developing or implementing violence prevention activities. The reviewed studies suggest the promise of youth empowerment strategies and the need for systematic outcome studies of empowerment programs. After reviewing empowerment theory applied to youth violence prevention programs, we present a case study of the Youth Empowerment Solutions (YES) for Peaceful Communities program. YES engages middle-school youth in an after-school and summer program that includes a culturally tailored character development curriculum and empowers the youth to plan and implement community improvement projects with assistance from adult neighborhood advocates. The case study focuses on outcome evaluation results and presents evidence of the YES program effects on community-level outcomes (eg, property improvements, violent crime incidents) and on individual-level outcomes (eg, conflict avoidance, victimization). The literature review and the case study suggest the promise of engaging and empowering youth to plan and implement youth violence prevention programs.
Peterman, Amber; Johnson, Kiersten
Obstetric fistula, characterized by urinary or fecal incontinence via the vagina, has begun to receive attention on the international public health agenda, however less attention has been given to traumatic fistula. Field reports indicate that trauma contributes to the burden of vaginal fistula, especially in regions wrought by civil unrest, however evidence is largely anecdotal or facility-based. This paper specifically examines the co-occurrence of incontinence and two potential sources of trauma: sexual violence and female genital cutting using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys in Malawi, Rwanda, Uganda and Ethiopia. Multivariate selection models are used to control for sampling differences by country. Results indicate that sexual violence is a significant determinant of incontinence in Rwanda and Malawi, however not in Uganda. Simulations predict that elimination of sexual violence would result in from a 7 to a 40% reduction of the total burden of incontinence. In contrast, no evidence is found that female genital cutting contributes to incontinence and this finding is robust for types of cutting and high risk samples. Results point to the importance of reinforcing prevention programs which seek to address prevention of sexual violence and for the integration of services to better serve women experiencing both sexual violence and incontinence.
Hilhorst, Dorothea; Porter, Holly; Gordon, Rachel
Gender, sexuality, and violence have attracted significant attention in the sphere of humanitarianism in recent years. While this shift builds on the earlier 'Gender and Development' approach and the 'Women, Peace, and Security Agenda', analytical depth is lacking in practice. Notably, 'gender' often means a singular concern for women, neglecting questions of agency and the dynamic and changing realities of gendered power relations. This introductory paper examines why this neglect occurs and proposes a more relational approach to gender. It explores how the contributions to this special issue of Disasters revisit classic gender issues pertaining to violence, livelihoods, and institutions in different settings of humanitarian emergencies, while expanding one's vision beyond them. It draws from the seven papers a number of lessons for humanitarianism, concerning the entangled nature of gender relations, the risks of the unintended effects of gender programming, and the importance of paying sustained attention to how gender relations unfold in a time of crisis. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Andrade, E L; Evans, W D; Barrett, N D; Cleary, S D; Edberg, M C; Alvayero, R D; Kierstead, E C; Beltran, A
Immigrant Latino youth represent a high-risk subgroup that should be targeted with health promotion efforts. However, there are considerable barriers to engagement in health-related programming. Little is known about the engagement possibilities of social marketing campaigns and digital strategies for traditionally 'hard-to-reach' immigrants, underscoring the importance of testing these techniques with immigrant Latino adolescents. We developed and piloted a place-based social marketing campaign in coordination with the branded, Positive Youth Development-based (PYD) Adelante intervention targeting risk factors for co-occurring youth substance abuse, sexual risk and violence. Building on prior research, we conducted a four-phase formative research process, and planned the Adelante social marketing campaign based on findings from one group interview and ongoing consultation with Adelante staff (n=8) and four focus groups with youth (n=35). Participants identified four overarching campaign themes, and suggested portrayal of resilient, proud youth who achieved goals despite adversity. Youth guided selection of campaign features and engagement strategies, including message/visual content, stylistic elements, and a mixed language approach. We developed a 12-month campaign to be delivered via print ads, multi-platform social media promotion, contests, youth-generated videos, blog posts, and text messaging. We describe the process and outcome of campaign development and make recommendations for future campaigns.
Full Text Available Violence against children is not a new phenomenon. In this regard, the forms in which it occurs as well as methods that allow it to have taken on an astonishing scale worldwide. Certainly, in this sense, sexual violence leaves the hardest and most complicated effects on the victim. Bearing in mind the complexity of sexual violence against children in the work we are going through an analysis of the criminalization of certain creatures that protect the sexual integrity of children from various forms of sexual violence, and analysis of his position of criminal attempt to answer the question of how the criminal justice system of protection that exists in our country can respond to this case.
The Bangladesh War Crimes Tribunal of 2009 makes no mention of rape, ... Elsewhere in the world, rape is increasingly being discussed and accepted not only ... A second element will consist in oral histories with survivors of sexual violence.
Hipwell, A E; Stepp, S D; Keenan, K; Allen, A; Hoffmann, A; Rottingen, L; McAloon, R
To examine the association between dating violence perpetration and victimization and sexually risky behaviors among sexual minority and heterosexual adolescent girls. Adolescent girls reported on sexual orientation, sexual behaviors, and risk-taking, and their use of, and experience with, dating violence in the past year. Data were analyzed using multinomial regression adjusted for race, poverty, living in a single parent household, and gender of current partner to examine (1) whether sexual minority status was associated with sexual risk behaviors after sociodemographic correlates of sexual risk were controlled; and (2) whether dating violence context accounted for elevated risk. Urban, population-based sample of girls interviewed in the home. 1,647 adolescent girls (38% European American, 57% African American, and 5% other) aged 17 years. Over one-third of the sample lived in poverty. None. Sexual risk-taking. Sexual minority status differentiated girls engaging in high sexual risk-taking from those reporting none, after controlling for sociodemographic and relationship characteristics. Dating violence perpetration and victimization made unique additional contributions to this model and did not account for the elevated risk conferred by sexual minority status. Sexual minority girls (SMGs) were more likely than heterosexual girls to report high sexual risk-taking and teen dating violence victimization. As with heterosexual girls, sexual risk-taking among SMGs was compounded by dating violence, which was not explained by partner gender. Adolescent girls' risky sexual behavior may be reduced by interventions for teen dating violence regardless of sexual minority status. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Girls' vulnerability to sexual violence and harassment is a recurrent theme in much of the literature on schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. Within this research, girls are often framed as passive victims of violence. By drawing on a case study, this paper focuses on 12 to 13-year-old South African school girls as they mediate and participate in…
Villaseñor-Farías, Martha; Castañeda-Torres, Jorge D
To analyze perceived meanings of masculinity and power related to sexual violence among adolescents. A qualitative study was carried out between 1998 and 2000 in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico, among 155 junior high and high school male/female students. Information was collected from 12 focal groups in two-hour sessions. Data collection instruments included: interviews, observation, and instruction guides. Data were recorded using notes and tape recordings. Oral and written information was transcribed, categorized, and coded, in order to construct matrixes and interpret results. Symbolic explanatory concepts related with rape included: constructivism vs. naturalism, heteronomous moral posture, and early exchange towards respect and human rights. Females were perceived as the real and potential victims. Males were perceived as violent by nature or under challenge, and prone to be victimized only if they were children, unmanly, or homosexual. Analysis objects included motives, power, female refusal, accusation, consequences, management, and prevention. Sexual violence is symbolized within the realm of explanatory and moral controversy. The ideological values of masculinity legitimate both legal and judiciary impunity. Social meanings and adolescent participation should be considered in research and interventions.
Peterson, Cora; Liu, Yang; Kresnow, Marcie-Jo; Florence, Curtis; Merrick, Melissa T; DeGue, Sarah; Lokey, Colby N
The purpose of this study is to estimate victims' lifetime short-term lost productivity because of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking. U.S. nationally representative data from the 2012 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey were used to estimate a regression-adjusted average per victim (female and male) and total population number of cumulative short-term lost work and school days (or lost productivity) because of victimizations over victims' lifetimes. Victims' lost productivity was valued using a U.S. daily production estimate. Analysis was conducted in 2017. Non-institutionalized adults with some lifetime exposure to intimate partner violence, sexual violence, or stalking (n=6,718 respondents; survey-weighted n=130,795,789) reported nearly 741 million lost productive days because of victimizations by an average of 2.5 perpetrators per victim. The adjusted per victim average was 4.9 (95% CI=3.9, 5.9) days, controlling for victim, perpetrator, and violence type factors. The estimated societal cost of this short-term lost productivity was $730 per victim, or $110 billion across the lifetimes of all victims (2016 USD). Factors associated with victims having a higher number of lost days included a higher number of perpetrators and being female, as well as sexual violence, physical violence, or stalking victimization by an intimate partner perpetrator, stalking victimization by an acquaintance perpetrator, and sexual violence or stalking victimization by a family member perpetrator. Short-term lost productivity represents a minimum economic valuation of the immediate negative effects of intimate partner violence, sexual violence, and stalking. Victims' lost productivity affects family members, colleagues, and employers. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Nyokangi, Doris; Phasha, Nareadi
This paper reports part of the findings of a study which exposed sexual violence in schools for learners with mild intellectual disability in South Africa. Special attention was paid on factors contributing to such a problem. Data were collected using focus groups and individual interviews with 16 learners with mild intellectual disability at two special schools in South Africa. This was followed by individual interviews with the school nurse and social worker, and an analysis of schools' books of incidents. Factors contributing to sexual violence at schools for learners with mild intellectual disability included: (i) peer pressure, (ii) concealment of reported incidents of sexual violence, (iii) unsupervised areas linked to schools and (iv) arranged relationships. The following suggestions are put forth: (i) awareness programmes, (ii) sensitization of teachers about the consequences and prevention of sexual violence, (iii) boundaries within which the arranged relationship occurs, (iv) intensification of sexuality education and (v) supervision around the school premises. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keygnaert, Ines; Guieu, Aurore
In Europe, refugees, asylum seekers and undocumented migrants are more vulnerable to sexual victimisation than European citizens. They face more challenges when seeking care. This literature review examines how legal and policy frameworks at national, European and international levels condition the prevention of and response to sexual violence affecting these vulnerable migrant communities living in the European Union (EU). Applying the Critical Interpretive Synthesis method, we reviewed 187 legal and policy documents and 80 peer-reviewed articles on migrant sexual health for elements on sexual violence and further analysed the 37 legal and 12 peer-reviewed articles among them that specifically focused on sexual violence in vulnerable migrants in the EU-27 States. Legal and policy documents dealing with sexual violence, particularly but not exclusively in vulnerable migrants, apply 'tunnel vision'. They ignore: a) frequently occurring types of sexual violence, b) victimisation rates across genders and c) specific risk factors within the EU such as migrants' legal status, gender orientation and living conditions. The current EU policy-making paradigm relegates sexual violence in vulnerable migrants as an 'outsider' and 'female only' issue while EU migration and asylum policies reinforce its invisibility. Effective response must be guided by participatory rights- and evidence-based policies and a public health approach, acknowledging the occurrence and multiplicity of sexual victimisation of vulnerable migrants of all genders within EU borders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sales, Jessica McDermott; Salazar, Laura F; Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Rose, Eve; Crosby, Richard A
To examine the prevalence of sexual violence among young African American females and to explore the mediating role that partner communication plays on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted disease-associated risk behaviors among youth with a history of sexual violence relative to those without. Only data from baseline, before randomization, were used for this analysis. A clinic-based sample of young females enrolled in a randomized trial of an HIV-prevention program in Atlanta, Georgia, from March 2002 to August 2004. African American females aged 15 to 21 years who reported sexual activity in the previous 60 days. Of 1558 screened, 874 females were eligible and 82% (n = 715) participated at baseline. History of sexual violence as well as (1) sexual partner communication skills, (2) current sexual behaviors, and (3) psychological well-being. Lifetime prevalence of sexual violence was 26%. Communication skills partially mediated the relationship between sexual violence and psychological well-being and sexual behavior outcomes. Given the lifetime prevalence of sexual violence and its adverse sexual, psychological, and relational sequelae, it is paramount that effective interventions are developed. Based on our findings, improving partner communications skills is one particularly important area for HIV/sexually transmitted disease risk-reduction interventions for youths with a history of sexual violence.
This article evaluates whether the concerns expressed by feminist authors in the 1990s that the traditional construction of torture articulated in Article 1 of the Convention against Torture may prevent the Committee against Torture from adequately responding to sexual violence against women, in
Sharp, Adam L; Prosser, Lisa A; Walton, Maureen; Blow, Frederic C; Chermack, Stephen T; Zimmerman, Marc A; Cunningham, Rebecca
Effective violence interventions are not widely implemented, and there is little information about the cost of violence interventions. Our goal is to report the cost of a brief intervention delivered in the emergency department that reduces violence among 14- to 18-year-olds. Primary outcomes were total costs of implementation and the cost per violent event or violence consequence averted. We used primary and secondary data sources to derive the costs to implement a brief motivational interviewing intervention and to identify the number of self-reported violent events (eg, severe peer aggression, peer victimization) or violence consequences averted. One-way and multi-way sensitivity analyses were performed. Total fixed and variable annual costs were estimated at $71,784. If implemented, 4208 violent events or consequences could be prevented, costing $17.06 per event or consequence averted. Multi-way sensitivity analysis accounting for variable intervention efficacy and different cost estimates resulted in a range of $3.63 to $54.96 per event or consequence averted. Our estimates show that the cost to prevent an episode of youth violence or its consequences is less than the cost of placing an intravenous line and should not present a significant barrier to implementation.
Gust, Deborah A; Pan, Yi; Otieno, Fred; Hayes, Tameka; Omoro, Tereza; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Odongo, Fred; Otieno, George O
Intimate partner physical violence increases women's risk for negative health outcomes and is an important public health concern. The purpose of the present study was to determine 1) the proportion of girls (≤18 years) and women (>18 years) who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner, and 2) factors (including self-reported HIV infection) associated with girls and women who experienced physical violence by a sexual partner. Cross-sectional surveys conducted in the Gem Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) area in Siaya County, western Kenya in 2011-2012 (Round 1) and 2013-2014 (Round 2). Among 8003 unique participants (582 girls and 7421 women), 11.6% reported physical violence by a sexual partner in the last 12 months (girls: 8.4%, women: 11.8%). Three factors were associated with physical violence by a sexual partner among girls: being married or cohabiting (nearly 5-fold higher risk), low education, and reporting forced sex in the last 12 months (both with an approximate 2-fold higher risk). Predictive factors were similar for women, with the addition of partner alcohol/drug use and deliberately terminating a pregnancy. Self-reported HIV status was not associated with recent physical violence by a sexual partner among girls or women. Gender-based physical violence is prevalent in this rural setting and has a strong relationship with marital status, low education level, and forced sex among girls and women. Concerted efforts to prevent child marriage and retain girls in school as well as implementation of school and community-based anti-violence programs may help mitigate this risk.
McGee, Hannah; Garavan, Rebecca; Byrne, Joanne; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Conroy, Ronán M
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is a worldwide problem affecting children and adults. Knowledge of trends in prevalence is essential to inform the design and evaluation of preventive and intervention programmes. We aimed to assess the prevalence of lifetime sexual violence for both sexes and to document the prevalence of adult and child abuse by birth year in the general population. METHODS: National cluster-randomized telephone interview study of 3120 adults in Ireland was done. RESULTS: C...
Hamburg, David A
Since his presidency of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and co-chairmanship of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict, David Hamburg has been actively engaged in projects related to the prevention of genocide and other mass violence. In these remarks to the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, he describes the significance of preventing mass violence in the 21st century. In particular, he discusses the danger of nuclear and other highly lethal weapons, emphasizing examples of prevention drawn from the Cold War and subsequent period. He delineates practical steps that can be taken to prevent war and genocide, including restraints on weaponry, preventive diplomacy, fostering indigenous democracy, fostering equitable socioeconomic development, education for human survival, and international justice in relation to human rights. Training and support in preventive diplomacy are highlighted as crucially important, particularly in the context of the United Nations, using the novel Mediation Support Unit based out of the Department of Political Affairs as a key example. He concludes that the creation of international centers for the prevention of mass atrocities could provide a crucial resource in preventing mass violence. © 2010 Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease.
Full Text Available The familial violence is any violent action based on sexual dispute that result in somatic, sexual or psychiatric hurts or pain. One of the familial violence is child and spouse abuse that result in depression, anxiety and PTSD. The aim of this article is study of familial violence phenomena from different psychiatric and social views and the rate of appearance and epidemiology and clinical character of PTSD as the result of sexual rape. This study is based on review of literature and antecedent & internal and external investigations from 1989 to 2004 from internet sites like NC PTSD psychilt – psych Info. Conclusions of different accidental and nonaccidental studies sign the rate of 25 – 30% psychiatric side effects as the result of somatic and sexual abuse and appearance of PTSD-Depression and Anxiety. Because the phenomena of familial and sexual violence has social and psychiatric nature, It is necessary to take health care and educative and preventive methods for prevention of appearance of such injuries in society and support from familial and social network.
oust the Idi Amin regime); the Uganda People's Democratic Army (UPDA) led by the late ..... The narratives of survivors of sexual violence and rape and other forms of sexual .... We have no money for food, school fees … And the ..... Lederach, John-Paul 2005. The moral ... 85–121. Schaffer, Kay and Sidonie Smith 2004.
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health issue that is associated with adverse sexual and reproductive health outcomes including sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STIs have recently gained more recognition worldwide because they increase the risk forHIV infection. However, there is ...
Tadayon, Mitra; Hatami-Manesh, Zahra; Sharifi, Nasibeh; Najar, Shahnaz; Saki, Azadeh; Pajohideh, Zahra
One of the forms of violence that receives less attention due to cultural and social issues is sexual violence against women, which is a hidden and a constant epidemic and impact on their health. This study aimed to determine the relationship between function and sexual satisfaction in women who have experienced sexual violence in Ahvaz-Iran. This study was a case-control study which was conducted on 105 women (cases=35 and control=70) referred to one forensic center and seventeen Shahrivar health centers during 2013-2014 in Ahwaz-Iran. The data collection tools included questionnaires for evaluating demographic characteristics and sexual satisfaction, sexual female function index and sexual violence. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics (Chi-square, Fisher's exact, and independent-samples t-test) in SPSS, version 19. P-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Two groups of women were matched according to age and education. Mean ± SD sexual satisfaction was (71.4±15.84) in the case group and (99.44±15.68) in the control group (p<0.001). The mean ± SD of sexual function was (17.1±4.94) in the case group and (26.37±5.27) in the control group. The groups had a statistically significant difference in terms of sexual arousal, sexual orgasm, sexual lubrication, pain and sexual satisfaction (p<0.001). Sexual dysfunction and dissatisfaction have a relation with sexual violence, and a major concern is that the sexual violence in most cases is hidden and can seriously affect the general health condition of women.
Ybarra, Michele L; Strasburger, Victor C; Mitchell, Kimberly J
Emerging research suggests sexual media affects sexual behavior, but most studies are based on regional samples and few include measures of newer mediums. Furthermore, little is known about how sexual media relates to sexual violence victimization. Data are from 1058 youth 14 to 21 years of age in the national, online Growing up with Media study. Forty-seven percent reported that many or almost all/all of at least one type of media they consumed depicted sexual situations. Exposure to sexual media in television and movies, and music was greater than online and in games. All other things equal, more frequent exposure to sexual media was related to ever having had sex, coercive sex victimization, and attempted/completed rape but not risky sexual behavior. Longer standing mediums such as television and movies appear to be associated with greater amounts of sexual media consumption than newer ones, such as the Internet. A nuanced view of how sexual media content may and may not be affecting today's youth is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ybarra, Michele L; Thompson, Richard E
This study aims to report the epidemiology of sexual violence (SV) perpetration for both female and male youth across a broad age spectrum. Additionally, the etiology of SV perpetration is examined by identifying prior exposures that predict a first SV perpetration. Six waves of data were collected nationally online, between 2006 and 2012, from 1586 youth between 10 and 21 years of age. Five types of SV were assessed: sexual harassment, sexual assault, coercive sex, attempted rape, and rape. To identify how prior exposures may predict the emergence of SV in adolescence, parsimonious lagged multivariable logistic regression models estimated the odds of first perpetrating each of the five types of SV within the context of other variables (e.g., rape attitudes). Average age at first perpetration was between 15 and 16 years of age, depending on SV type. Several characteristics were more commonly reported by perpetrators than non-perpetrators (e.g., alcohol use, other types of SV perpetration and victimization). After adjusting for potentially influential characteristics, prior exposure to parental spousal abuse and current exposure to violent pornography were each strongly associated with the emergence of SV perpetration-attempted rape being the exception for violent pornography. Current aggressive behavior was also significantly implicated in all types of first SV perpetration except rape. Previous victimization of sexual harassment and current victimization of psychological abuse in relationships were additionally predictive of one's first SV perpetration, albeit in various patterns. In this national longitudinal study of different types of SV perpetration among adolescent men and women, findings suggest several malleable factors that need to be targeted, especially scripts of inter-personal violence that are being modeled by abusive parents in youths' homes and also reinforced by violent pornography. The predictive value of victimization for a subsequent first SV
Donne, Martina Delle; DeLuca, Joseph; Pleskach, Pavel; Bromson, Christopher; Mosley, Marcus P; Perez, Edward T; Mathews, Shibin G; Stephenson, Rob; Frye, Victoria
Research on sexual violence and related support services access has mainly focused on female victims; there is still a remarkable lack of research on men who experience sexual violence. Research demonstrates that people who both self-identify as men and are members of sexual-orientation minority populations are at higher risk of sexual violence. They are also less likely to either report or seek support services related to such experiences. The present study is an exploratory one aimed at filling the gap in the literature and better understanding how men, both straight and gay as well as cisgender and transgender, conceptualize, understand, and seek help related to sexual violence. A sample of 32 men was recruited on-line and participated in either a one-on-one in-depth interview ( N = 19) or one of two focus group discussions ( N = 13). All interviews and groups were audiotaped, professionally transcribed and coded using NVivo 9 qualitative software. The present analysis focused on barriers to and facilitators of support service access. Emergent and cross-cutting themes were identified and presented, with an emphasis on understanding what factors may prevent disclosure of a sexual violence experience and facilitate seeking support services and/or professional help. Through this analysis, the research team aims to add knowledge to inform the development of tools to increase service access and receipt, for use by both researchers and service professionals. Although this study contributes to the understanding of the issue of men's experiences of sexual violence, more research with diverse populations is needed.
Martin, J L; O'Shea, M L; Romans, S E; Anderson, J C; Mullen, P E
To investigate the attitudes of abused and nonabused women to reducing physical and sexual violence in the community. A random community sample of 3000 women was surveyed by postal questionnaire as part of the Otago Women's Health Survey. Seventy three percent (n = 1663) of those under 65 replied. As well as demographic, mental health and abuse information, responses to the question "what steps would you like to see taken to reduce the incidence of sexual and physical harm to women and children?" were analysed. Education was the most favoured approach to reducing violence in the community, followed by increased punishment of the offender. Women who had experienced sexual abuse, particularly as children, were more likely to advocate measures other than punishment. Rural women, those without formal qualifications and those who were not abused were more likely to advocate increased punishment, or made no comment. The finding that victims of sexual assault were likely to report a preference for prevention over punishment highlights the importance of representing the views of the community which appear to be at variance with more extreme views publicized in the media.
Dating violence during adolescence negatively influences concurrent psychosocial functioning, and has been linked with an increased likelihood of later intimate partner violence. Identifying who is most vulnerable for this negative outcome can inform the development of intervention practices addressing this problem. The two goals of this study were to assess variations in the prevalence of dating violence across different measures of sexual minority status (e.g., sexual minority identity or same-sex sexual behavior), and to assess whether this association was mediated by bullying, the number of sexual partners, binge drinking or aggressive behaviors. These goals were assessed by employing the Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey (N = 12,984), a regionally representative sample of youth ages 14-18. In this sample, a total of 540 girls and 323 boys reported a non-heterosexual identity, and 429 girls and 230 boys reported having had one or more same-sex sexual partners. The results generally supported a higher prevalence of dating violence among sexual minority youth. This vulnerability varied considerably across gender, sexual minority identity and the gender of sexual partners, but generally persisted when accounting for the mediating variables. The findings support investigating dating violence as a mechanism in the disparities between sexual minority and heterosexual youth, and the importance of addressing sexual minority youth specifically in interventions targeting dating violence.
Boudreau, Courtney L; Kress, Howard; Rochat, Roger W; Yount, Kathryn M
Sexual violence (SV) against children is a global health and human rights issue that can have short and long-term consequences for health and wellbeing. Disclosing SV increases the likelihood that children can access health and protective services and receive psychosocial support. Research in high-income countries has found that child SV survivors are more likely to disclose when they are girls/women, experience fewer SV events, and experience SV perpetrated by a stranger. No studies have examined correlates of SV disclosure in Kenya. The objective of this research was to assess the correlates of disclosing SV among Kenyan youth ages 13-24 who reported an SV experience before age 18. In 2010, the Kenya Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Division of Violence Prevention, the UNICEF Kenya Country Office, and the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) conducted a national survey of violence against children. These data were used to conduct weighted logistic regression analyses to determine which factors were correlated with reporting SV disclosure. Among the 27.8% of girls/women and 14.5% of boys/men who reported SV before age 18, 44.6% of girls/women and 28.2% of boys/men reported to have disclosed the experience. In weighted logistic regression analysis, the odds of disclosure were lower among survivors who were boys/men and among survivors who reported more SV events, and higher when any perpetrator was a family member. More context-specific research on SV disclosure among young people is needed globally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blom, Helena; Högberg, Ulf; Olofsson, Niclas; Danielsson, Ingela
To address the associations between emotional, physical and sexual violence, specifically multiple violence victimisation, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours in youth, as well as possible gender differences. A cross-sectional population-based survey among sexually experienced youth using a questionnaire with validated questions on emotional, physical, and sexual violence victimisation, sociodemographics, health risk behaviours, and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours. Proportions, unadjusted/adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The participants comprised 1192 female and 1021 male students aged 15 to 22 years. The females had experienced multiple violence (victimisation with two or three types of violence) more often than the males (21% vs. 16%). The associations between multiple violence victimisation and sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours were consistent for both genders. Experience of/involvement in pregnancy yielded adjusted ORs of 2.4 (95% CI 1.5-3.7) for females and 2.1 (95% CI 1.3-3.4) for males, and early age at first intercourse 2.2 (95% CI 1.6-3.1) for females and 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0) for males. No significantly raised adjusted ORs were found for non-use of contraceptives in young men or young women, or for chlamydia infection in young men. Several types of sexual ill health and sexual risk behaviours are strongly associated with multiple violence victimisation in both genders. This should be taken into consideration when counselling young people and addressing their sexual and reproductive health.
Full Text Available To study visual representations of sexual violence, photographs accompanying German Internet news articles that appeared between January 2013 and March 2015 (N = 42 were subjected to thematic analysis. Two main themes, consisting of several sub-themes, emerged from the data. The first theme was “rape myths,” illustrating a stereotypical view of sexual violence. It consisted of three sub-themes: “beauty standards,” referring to the fact that all women in our sample fit western beauty standards, “physical violence,” as most images implied some form of physical violence, and finally “location,” suggesting that rape only happens in secluded outdoor areas. These findings suggest that the images from our sample perpetuate certain rape myths. The second theme was “portrayal of victimhood,” referring to the way victims of sexual violence were portrayed in photographs. The analysis of the sub-theme “passivity” showed that these portrayals fit a certain stereotype: the women were shown to be weak and helpless rather than individuals with agency and able to leave their status as a victim. Further sub-themes were “background,” “organization of space,” “camera perspective,” and “lighting.” We discuss these findings in relation to possibly reinforcing rape myths in society and as an issue in creating a biased perception of women who have experienced sexual violence.
Nov 10, 2015 ... ... and girls experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime. ... IDRC's Governance and Justice program supports innovative research to ... with a national study on the different dimensions of sexual violence in Senegal.
Ledesma Narváez, Marianella
In this article, the author describes the importance of protection orders issued in domestic violence processes, in relation to Law 30364. In addition, she points out its difference with interim orders, that protection orders offer preventive protection to the victims of domestic violence. She concludes that protection orders must been interpreted according to certain principles and its validity must continue through a non-contentious process. En este artículo, la autora describe la impor...
Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; Leemis, Ruth W; Hipp, Tracy N; Davis, Jordan P
The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory has indicated that bullying perpetration predicts sexual violence perpetration among males and females over time in middle school, and that homophobic name-calling perpetration moderates that association among males. In this study, the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory was tested across early to late adolescence. Participants included 3549 students from four Midwestern middle schools and six high schools. Surveys were administered across six time points from Spring 2008 to Spring 2013. At baseline, the sample was 32.2% White, 46.2% African American, 5.4% Hispanic, and 10.2% other. The sample was 50.2% female. The findings reveal that late middle school homophobic name-calling perpetration increased the odds of perpetrating sexual violence in high school among early middle school bullying male and female perpetrators, while homophobic name-calling victimization decreased the odds of high school sexual violence perpetration among females. The prevention of bullying and homophobic name-calling in middle school may prevent later sexual violence perpetration.
David A. Wolfe
Full Text Available This paper presents a school-based primary prevention program (The Fourth R to prevent adolescent dating violence, and related risk behaviors. The cornerstone of The Fourth R is a 21-lesson skillbased curriculum delivered by teachers who receive specialized training, that promotes healthy relationships, and targets violence, high-risk sexual behavior, and substance use among adolescents. The Fourth R was evaluated in a cluster randomized trial in 20 schools. Results indicated that teaching youth healthy relationships and skills as part of their curriculum reduced physical dating violence, and increased condom use 2.5 years later.
Espelage, Dorothy L.; Basile, Kathleen C.; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E.
Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully–Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th–7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully–Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets. PMID:25315484
Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; De La Rue, Lisa; Hamburger, Merle E
Bullying perpetration and sexual harassment perpetration among adolescents are major public health issues. However, few studies have addressed the empirical link between being a perpetrator of bullying and subsequent sexual harassment perpetration among early adolescents in the literature. Homophobic teasing has been shown to be common among middle school youth and was tested as a moderator of the link between bullying and sexual harassment perpetration in this 2-year longitudinal study. More specifically, the present study tests the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory, which posits that adolescent bullies who also participate in homophobic name-calling toward peers are more likely to perpetrate sexual harassment over time. Findings from logistical regression analyses (n = 979, 5th-7th graders) reveal an association between bullying in early middle school and sexual harassment in later middle school, and results support the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway model, with homophobic teasing as a moderator, for boys only. Results suggest that to prevent bully perpetration and its later association with sexual harassment perpetration, prevention programs should address the use of homophobic epithets. © The Author(s) 2014.
Nov 18, 2014 ... In no way should gender-based violence and sexual harassment be ... against women are men, any long-term solution to prevent violence and harassment ... roles in both preventing and condemning violence against women.
Veselinović Nataša I.
Full Text Available Results of researches on biological, psychological and sociological characteristics of sexual offenders show etiological and phenomenological differences, while, on the other side, treatment programs show tendency toward unification. Unification that works contains behavioural learning victim empathy work and work on one’s own trauma. In this paper the author looks for an answer to the question who is the sexual offender and how he became that. In theory rapists and paedophiles are similar as much as their victims are, and they are often victims of some traumatic experience which seeks for satisfaction in inappropriate but well-known way. Sexual violence can be stopped by breaking the circle of its beginning and development by helping sexual perpetrator to find the way out from sexual violence circle and healthier behavioural patterns.
Dantas-Berger, Sônia Maria; Giffin, Karen
This article presents the results of a qualitative study of women who had filed complaints of domestic violence, situating gender relations in a broader context. The authors focus on the meaning ascribed to sexual coercion in violent relations, suggesting that conjugal sexual violence is related to the perverse effects of changes in the sexual division of labor and the aggravated double demands on women from housework and the workplace, in relation to the dismantling of the male's role as provider in situations of poverty. In this context, women's refusal to engage in sex (a form of resistance which expresses their desire to be sexual protagonists and communicates disappointment with their partners) can be seen as contributing to the exacerbation of conjugal violence. In their partial position of "subjects of resistance", these women reveal a situation of oppression which is rarely referred to as violence: feelings of disgust and repulsion following sexual relations conceded as "conjugal rights" are similar to those manifested by victims of rape by strangers (which, in contrast, is generally recognized as "sexual violence").
Bittner, Martin; Wittfeld, Meike
The article takes its starting point from the current debate on sexual violence in educational institutions. It follows an ethnographic perspective without observing sexual violence directly, arguing that doing so is ethically impossible. Instead it suggests deducing risks for sexual violence through the limits of pedagogical practices. Discussing…
Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.
This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…
Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
Coerced or forced sexual initiation and sexual intimate partner violence (sexual IPV) contribute significantly to a woman’s risk for HIV infection. This review systematically examines global research (n=21 studies) published since 2000 on the role of coerced/forced sexual initiation and sexual IPV on HIV risk in women. In predominantly low- and middle-income countries, coerced/forced sexual initiation was associated with HIV/STIs, multiple and high-risk sex partners, and no condom use. Most studies using behaviorally specific terms for sexual IPV found strong associations between sexual IPV and HIV risk behaviors. In contrast, studies using less specific definitions often failed to find these significant associations. To develop more comprehensive HIV prevention programs, future efforts should integrate behaviorally specific terms into assessing prevalence of sexual IPV and its association with HIV risk, consider cultural differences, and identify causal pathways between coerced or forced sexual initiation, HIV risk behaviors and HIV/STI infection. PMID:23143750
The Violence Prevention through Urban Upgrading (VPUU) project, funded jointly by the German Development Bank and the City of Cape Town in South Africa, is a prime example of an evidence-based intervention for violence prevention that was designed to address all urban violence determining factors. The VPUU ...
Simonds, Thomas Andrew
Using data from a representative number of Society of Jesus secondary schools, the researcher reports what these schools are doing to prevent violence, and tests an explanatory model of school violence he created. The researcher proposes that this model can be used to explain and prevent school violence by identifying and addressing the…
Leclerc, Benoit; Chiu, Yi-Ning; Cale, Jesse
Most criminal justice responses to address sexual violence and abuse against children are aimed at identifying and incarcerating offenders or at best, trying to prevent them from reoffending. This policy situation, primarily characterized by tertiary intervention strategies, is exacerbated by a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the circumstances in which this phenomenon occurs. This specific information can inform certain types of primary and secondary prevention strategies. In this study, we are taking the first steps to address this situation by (a) organising and reviewing for the first time the empirical knowledge on this phenomenon according to questions asked by environmental criminologists and crime analysts, that is, the who, what, where, when, and how this phenomenon occurs, and (b) discussing directions for future research. By engaging in this exercise, we argue that environmental criminology can substantially contribute to understanding and informing prevention practices in the field of sexual violence and abuse against children. © The Author(s) 2014.
POSMONTIER, BOBBIE; DOVYDAITIS, TIFFANY; LIPMAN, KENNETH
Sexual violence, which affects one in three women worldwide, can result in significant psychiatric morbidity and suicide. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) offers health care providers the option of a brief psychiatric intervention that can result in psychiatric healing in as few as four sessions. Because health care providers often hear stories of sexual violence from their patients, they are in an ideal position to make recommendations for treatment. The purpose of this article is to introduce health care providers to the technique of EMDR, review safety and appropriateness, and discuss clinical and research implications. PMID:20623397
Le Mat, M.L.J.
It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa,
Le Mat, Marielle L. J.
It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and considers from their perspectives, how…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a history of conflicts and widespread human rights violation in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the prevalence of interpersonal violence among the population in this region. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that exposure to violence has mental health consequences and violence also has associations with experiences of sexual coercion. AIMS: This study sought to investigate the prevalence of physical and perceived threats of violence among university students in Uganda and to assess the possible relationship between such violence, sexual coercion, and symptoms of anxiety, depression, and psychoticism, respectively. METHOD: In 2005, 980 Ugandan university students responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 80% that assessed socio-demographic factors, social capital, importance of religion, mental health, experience of violence and sexual coercion, and sexual behaviour factors. Logistic regression analysis was applied as the main analytical tool. RESULTS: Of those who responded, 28% reported perceived threats/threats of violence and 10% exposure to actual physical violence over the previous 12 months, with no significant gender differences in exposure history. Exposure to violence was significantly associated with the experience of sexual coercion among both males and females. Sexual coercion and threats/threats of violence were both significantly associated with poor mental health in males and females, but only males showed a strong association between exposure to physical violence and poor mental health. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that in terms of general exposure, both males and females in the study population are equally exposed to sexual coercion and interpersonal violence, and both male and female students show generally similar mental health effects of exposure to such violence. The prevalence of interpersonal violence found in our study population may have long
Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.
This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…
Vivolo, Alana M; Matjasko, Jennifer L; Massetti, Greta M
Violence, including its occurrence among youth, results in considerable physical, emotional, social, and economic consequences in the US. Youth violence prevention work at the Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasizes preventing youth violence-related behaviors, injuries, and deaths by collaborating with academic and community partners and stakeholders. In 2000 and 2005, DVP funded the National Academic Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Youth Violence Prevention. Most ACE Centers focus on building community capacity and competence so that evidence-based programs for youth violence prevention can be successfully implemented through effective and supportive research-community partnerships. This commentary provides historical information about the ACE Program, including the development, goals, accomplishments of the Centers, and the utilization of a community-based participatory research approach to prevent youth violence.
Background Indonesia has the fourth largest population in the world. Few studies have identified the risk factors of Indonesian women for domestic violence. Such research will be useful for the development of prevention programs aiming at reducing domestic violence. Our study examines associations between physical and sexual violence among rural Javanese Indonesian women and sociodemographic factors, husband's psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and attitudes toward violence and gender roles. Methods A cohort of pregnant women within the Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS) in Purworejo district, Central Java, Indonesia, was enrolled in a longitudinal study between 1996 and 1998. In the following year (1999), a cross-sectional domestic violence household survey was conducted with 765 consenting women from that cohort. Female field workers, trained using the WHO Multi-Country study instrument on domestic violence, conducted interviews. Crude and adjusted odds ratios at 95% CI were applied for analysis. Results Lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence was 22% and 11%. Sexual violence was associated with husbands' demographic characteristics (less than 35 years and educated less than 9 years) and women's economic independence. Exposure to physical violence among a small group of women (2-6%) was strongly associated with husbands' personal characteristics; being unfaithful, using alcohol, fighting with other men and having witnessed domestic violence as a child. The attitudes and norms expressed by the women confirm that unequal gender relationships are more common among women living in the highlands and being married to poorly educated men. Slightly more than half of the women (59%) considered it justifiable to refuse coercive sex. This attitude was also more common among financially independent women (71%), who also had a higher risk of exposure to sexual violence. Conclusions Women who did not support the right of women to refuse sex were more likely
Hayati Elli N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Indonesia has the fourth largest population in the world. Few studies have identified the risk factors of Indonesian women for domestic violence. Such research will be useful for the development of prevention programs aiming at reducing domestic violence. Our study examines associations between physical and sexual violence among rural Javanese Indonesian women and sociodemographic factors, husband's psychosocial and behavioral characteristics and attitudes toward violence and gender roles. Methods A cohort of pregnant women within the Demographic Surveillance Site (DSS in Purworejo district, Central Java, Indonesia, was enrolled in a longitudinal study between 1996 and 1998. In the following year (1999, a cross-sectional domestic violence household survey was conducted with 765 consenting women from that cohort. Female field workers, trained using the WHO Multi-Country study instrument on domestic violence, conducted interviews. Crude and adjusted odds ratios at 95% CI were applied for analysis. Results Lifetime exposure to sexual and physical violence was 22% and 11%. Sexual violence was associated with husbands' demographic characteristics (less than 35 years and educated less than 9 years and women's economic independence. Exposure to physical violence among a small group of women (2-6% was strongly associated with husbands' personal characteristics; being unfaithful, using alcohol, fighting with other men and having witnessed domestic violence as a child. The attitudes and norms expressed by the women confirm that unequal gender relationships are more common among women living in the highlands and being married to poorly educated men. Slightly more than half of the women (59% considered it justifiable to refuse coercive sex. This attitude was also more common among financially independent women (71%, who also had a higher risk of exposure to sexual violence. Conclusions Women who did not support the right of women to
Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P
Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective.
Birch, Sarah; Muchlinski, David
Elections are in theory democratic means of resolving disputes and making collective decisions, yet too often force is employed to distort the electoral process. The post-Cold War increase in the number of electoral authoritarian and hybrid states has brought this problem into relief. In recent years the prevention of electoral violence has played an increasingly large role in the democratic assistance activities undertaken by international agencies, following increased awareness within the i...
Bullying in schools, aggression in the workplace, violence against women -- all are complex problems. On Nov. 12 and 13, Virginia Tech hosts a gathering to make recommendations about violence prevention.
Much of the work in youth violence prevention has been based in a public health model and guided by a developmental-ecological perspective on risk and prevention (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1988). A central tenet of developmental-ecological theory is that individual development is influenced by the ongoing qualities of the social settings in which the…
Lee, Sara H; Stark, Amrita K; O'Riordan, Mary Ann; Lazebnik, Rina
This study examined awareness among adolescents of a local rape crisis center as well as their knowledge about sexual violence. The Cleveland Rape Crisis Center (CRCC) conducts sexual violence prevention programs for high school students. A written, anonymous survey was distributed to students prior to the start of the program. Students were asked if they had heard of the CRCC; knowledge about sexual violence was assessed with a series of 7 statements (rape myths) that participants identified as true or false. Surveys were reviewed retrospectively. Analyses were carried out for individual questions and frequencies compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 1633 surveys were collected; 1118 (68.5%) participants were female and 514 (31.5%) were male; ages ranged from 12 to 19 years. Respondents described themselves as being of European descent (45.9%), African descent (26.2%), or mixed race (17.7%). Just over half (863, 52.9%) of survey respondents had heard of the CRCC. Over half (950, 58.2%) of participants answered 5 or more questions correctly (range of correct answers 0 to 7). In general, more participants who were aware of the CRCC were able to identify statements about rape correctly (P rape. Females were consistently more likely to get an answer correct, as were participants of European descent. Awareness of the CRCC was associated with increased knowledge about sexual violence. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Er, Yuliang; Gao, Xin; Duan, Leilei; Wang, Yuan; Deng, Xiao; Ji, Cuirong; Ye, Pengpeng; Jin, Ye; Wang, Linhong
To understand the incidence of violence injury and its prevention in China, and provide reference for the prevention and control of violence injury. The violence injury data in China were collected from national death surveillance data set (2006-2013) and national injury surveillance system (2013) for the descriptive epidemiological analysis on the incidence of violence injury and related death. The laws and policies about violence injury prevention, related data collection capacity and violence injury prevention programs in China were described. The violence injury mortality declined by 46.3% during 2006-2013 from 1.21/100000 to 0.65/100000. The incidence of violence injury death in males peaked in age group 30-34 years (1.42/100000), and it was low in age groupviolence injury death were found in females, i.e. 0.84/100000 in infants, 0.72/100000 in age group 30-34 years and 1.18/100000 in age group≥85 years. The laws and policies about violence injury prevention were imperfect, and the data about violence injury were limited. Most prevention programs were limited in scale and duration. The crude and standardized violence injury mortality declined in China during 2006-2013. It is necessary to conduct gender specific prevention strategies and improve the related law and policy development, data collection and prevention service.
Elena Hernández González
Full Text Available This study analyzes the tactics of sexual coercion among university couples, and their association with the type of commitment with the relationship and experienced physical and sexual violence. Participants were 175 college students,79 women and 96 men. A new sexual coercion scale was developed, based on the DeGue and DiLillo´s (2005 proposal. The exploratory factor analyses showed three components: Insistence, Emotional Manipulation, and Blame. Sexual assault was measured with a single item. Commitment and experienced Physical Violence were measured using existing scales. Discriminant analysis confirmed that participants from the victimized group significantly differedfrom those of the non-victimized group. The variables that significantly contributed to the classification were Negative Commitment and Insistence for the victimized group and Positive Commitment for the non-victimized group. We discuss the implications of the results to prevent partner violence.
unsuccessful. Almost all women experiencing SVWM were socially isolated and did not turn to institutions, relatives or friends for advice and support. Conclusions Sexual violence within marriage is common in Nepal. Findings provide circumstantial evidence of links between sexual violence and negative general and reproductive health outcomes for women. Various actions are required to prevent SVWM and provide immediate support to the victims.
Gómez, Anu Manchikanti; Speizer, Ilene S.; Beauvais, Harry
We examine sexual violence and reproductive health outcomes among sexually experienced youth in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, using the Priorities for Local AIDS Control methodology to identify participants in locations where sexual partnerships are formed. Sexual violence is common and is significantly associated with condom use, pregnancy experience and recent STI symptoms. PMID:19380102
Double, Katelin B.
A mixed methodological approach was used to examine the impact of disclosure characteristics on mental health among individuals who have experienced campus sexual violence occurring at Christian and non-religiously affiliated universities. After completing an online survey, a sample of 97 participants qualified for the study. No disclosure and…
Sexual violence in various forms is a particular brand of evil that women have endured during armed conflicts, from time immemorial. It is a problem that has continued to task the conscience of humanity, especially in our times. There has been no shortage of basic laws at the international level
DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Ukubhinya: Gender and Sexual Violence in Bulawayo, Colonial Zimbabwe, 1946-1956. Koni Benson, Joyce Chadya. Abstract. No Abstract Available Zambezia (2003), XXX (i): 108-133. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL ...
recognition worldwide because they increase the risk for HIVinfection. ... any form of IPV were found to be more likely to report STI than women who did ... correlate of a wide range of adverse reproductive ..... studies that demonstrated sexual violence as the form ... that sociocultural and economic distinctions between.
Of the 19 (8.8%) who reported rape being performed on them, unwanted pregnancy, suicide attempt, vaginal discharge and abortion were the consequences in 21%, 15.8%, 10.5% and 5.3%, respectively. Conclusion: Sexual violence is a major public health problem with high rates of underreporting .Sex education should ...
The aim of the study is to investigate sexual abuse, violence and HIV risk among a sample of South African adolescents. The sample included 400 male and 400 female 16 or 17 year-olds; 400 were from rural and 400 from urban areas, and almost all from African descent. Participants were chosen by multi-stage cluster and ...
Delziovo, Carmem Regina; Bolsoni, Carolina Carvalho; Nazário, Nazaré Otília; Coelho, Elza Berger Salema
Sexual violence against women is a form of gender violence and both a severe human rights violation and public health problem. This ecological, descriptive, and temporal series study aims to analyze sexual violence against pre-adolescent, adolescent, and adult females in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, based on data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases, in order to describe the characteristics of cases of sexual violence perpetrated against women, reported by health professionals from 2008 a 2013. A total of 15,508 cases of violence were reported, including 2,010 cases of sexual violence (12.9%). Cases of violence totaled 950 reports in the 10 to 14 year bracket (47.3%), 450 in the 15 to 19 year bracket (22.4%), and 610 (30.3%) in women 20 years or older (adults). Adolescent females suffered violence by a single aggressor, at home, at night, with vaginal penetration, and with greater tendency to repeated assault and pregnancy as a result. For females 10 to 14 and 15 to 19 years of age, the aggressors were unknown in 32.9% and 33.1% of the reports, respectively. Adult women were sexually assaulted either at home or on public byways, at night or in the early morning hours, by a single aggressor, with vaginal penetration in more than half of the cases, with more physical injuries, and with more subsequent suicide attempts. The information should contribute to awareness-raising of policymakers, health professionals, researchers, and health field professors concerning the importance of reporting violence in order to help develop interventions to prevent such violence against women.
Baniel, Alice; Cowlishaw, Guy; Huchard, Elise
Sexual violence occurring in the context of long-term heterosexual relationships, such as sexual intimidation, is widespread across human populations [1-3]. However, its evolutionary origins remain speculative because few studies have investigated the existence of comparable forms of sexual coercion in animals [4, 5], in which repeated male aggression toward a female provides the aggressor with delayed mating benefits . Here, we test whether male aggression toward females functions as sexual coercion in wild chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). We found support for all three main predictions of the sexual coercion hypothesis : male aggression (1) is greatest against cycling females, (2) is costly and represents the main source of injuries for cycling females, and (3) increases male mating success with their victims in the future. Detailed analysis of chronological sequences between aggression and matings ruled out other coercive mechanisms, such as short-term harassment and punishment, by showing that aggression and matings are temporally decoupled. This decoupling may explain why some forms of sexual violence have been largely overlooked in well-studied animal populations despite their likely impact on the fitness of both sexes. Finally, we found no support for alternative hypotheses such as a female preference for aggressive males [8, 9]. This new, detailed study of the forms and intensity of sexual intimidation in a wild primate suggests that it may be widespread across mammalian societies, with important implications for understanding the evolution of mate choice and sexual conflict in mammals, as well as the origins of human sexual violence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
.... OSHA s new violence prevention guidelines provide the agency s recommendations for reducing workplace violence developed following a careful review of workplace violence studies, public and private...
Williams, M F
This study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of violence and sexual harassment experienced by registered nurses (RNs) in their workplaces in Illinois. A random sample of 1,130 RNs were selected to participate in the mail survey. The instrument used was the Nurse Assault Survey originally developed by the Nurse Assault Project Team in Ontario, Canada, and modified by the author. Three hundred forty-five subjects completed the survey (response rate: 30%). Fifty-seven percent of those responding reported personal experience with some aspect of sexual harassment, and 26% reported being victimized by physical assault while on the job. About one third of those who indicated they had been sexually harassed also had been physically assaulted. Patients/clients were the most frequent perpetrators of sexual harassment and physical assault, while physicians committed over half of the sexual assaults. Bivariate analysis showed a significant relationship between physical assault and levels of job satisfaction. A significant relationship also was found between sexual harassment and levels of job satisfaction. Results demonstrate that nurses need to take and active role in fostering a work environment free from violence and sexual harassment. They should be knowledgeable about institutional policies and, where none exist, they should work with administrators to develop them. Prevention and intervention programs should be developed for both student and registered nurses.
Reidy, Dennis E; Holland, Kristin M; Cortina, Kai; Ball, Barbara; Rosenbluth, Barri
In the present study, we assess the effects of the Expect Respect Support Groups (ERSG) on frequency of teen dating violence (TDV) and general youth violence. ERSG is a school-based violence prevention program for youth who have been exposed to violence in their home, school, or community. Boys and girls (N=1,678, M age =14.3, S.D.=1.7, Range=11-17) from 36 schools in Texas participated in this accelerated longitudinal (7-year trajectory) study beginning in 2011. Latent growth curve analyses were conducted using three waves of data from three cross-sectional cohorts of adolescents. Among boys, the number of ERSG sessions attended related to incremental declines in psychological TDV perpetration and victimization, physical TDV victimization, sexual TDV perpetration and victimization, reactive aggression, and proactive aggression. Girls attending ERSG demonstrated reductions in reactive and proactive aggression. The present findings suggest ERSG may be an effective cross-cutting strategy to reduce TDV and other forms of violence among high-risk boys and possibly girls. This information provides valuable understanding of TDV and youth violence in high-risk populations and may be useful in tailoring future prevention efforts to different groups of teens. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Stetkevich, Nicholas; Miller, Elizabeth
Adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) is a significant public health problem. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based ARA prevention program that trains coaches to deliver violence prevention messages to male athletes. Assessing acceptability and impact of CBIM on coaches may inform prevention efforts that involve these important adults in health promotion among youth. As part of a two-armed cluster-randomized controlled trial of CBIM in 16 high schools in Northern California, coaches completed baseline and postseason surveys (n = 176) to assess their attitudes and confidence delivering the program. Coaches in the intervention arm also participated in interviews (n = 36) that explored program acceptability, feasibility, and impact. Relative to controls, intervention coaches showed increases in confidence intervening when witnessing abusive behaviors among their athletes, greater bystander intervention, and greater frequency of violence-related discussions with athletes and other coaches. Coaches reported the program was easy to implement and valuable for their athletes. Findings illustrate the value of exploring attitudinal and behavioral changes among ARA prevention implementers, and suggest that coaches can gain confidence and enact behaviors to discourage ARA among male athletes. Coaches found the program to be feasible and valuable, which suggests potential for long-term uptake and sustainability. © The Author(s) 2014.
Barbosa, Jaqueline Almeida Guimarães; de Souza, Marina Celly Martins Ribeiro; Freitas, Maria Imaculada de Fátima
To understand the impact of sexual violence suffered by women with mental disorders based on self-reports of these experiences. The reports emerged from open interviews with women receiving care at public mental health services in the states of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These interviews were part of a larger research project that had the overall objective of investigating how this population group lives and thinks sexuality, in order to contribute to actions to promote sexual health. Data collection took place in 2008. Seventeen women with age between 18 and 68 years were interviewed. Fourteen reported having had stable relationships, but only three were still in these relationships. Most of the stable relationships had not been formalized into marriage. Two participants were widows and 13 had children. All the participants reported difficulties in living with their partners and children and having few friends and little family support. The instability of relationships was attributed to situations of aggression, infidelity, and use of drugs and alcohol. Seven women reported having been victims of physical violence within the family, mostly from partners. Two participants reported never having had sexual relations. Health care professionals must be trained to encourage the report of sexual violence by women and adequately handle the situation. Intersectoral actions to deal with this issue are also essential.
KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill
Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…
Logan, T K; Walker, Robert; Cole, Jennifer
This article has two overall goals. First, to examine the current state of sexual violence research to highlight several shortcomings in the knowledge on partner sexual violence. Second, to describe several factors to consider in future research to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual violence. Shortcomings of the research on partner sexual violence include (1) overreliance on dichotomous yes/no representations of sexual violence experiences; (2) lack of, or inadequate documentation of the scope and nature of partner sexual violence; (3) inadequate ways to account for impairment of consent under different circumstances; (4) difficulties in discriminating unwanted from nonconsensual sexual activities; and (5) limited information about the role sexual violence plays in the larger context of coercive control. In order to facilitate a more in-depth understanding of partner sexual assault, there is a need (1) to better understand the scope and nature of partner sexual assault and (2) to better understand the role partner sexual violence plays in coercive control. By improving the measurement of this phenomenon, victims, researchers, practitioners, and those involved in the justice system might be better equipped to respond to sexual violence among intimate partners. © The Author(s) 2013.
Kuwert, Philipp; Glaesmer, Heide; Eichhorn, Svenja; Grundke, Elena; Pietrzak, Robert H; Freyberger, Harald J; Klauer, Thomas
The aim of the study was to compare the long-term effects of conflict-related sexual violence experienced at the end of World War II (WWII) with non-sexual WWII trauma (e.g., being exposed to shell shock or physical violence). A total of 27 elderly wartime rape survivors were compared to age- and gender-matched control subjects who were drawn from a larger sample of subjects over 70 years of age who had experienced WWII-related trauma. A modified version of the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale was used to assess trauma characteristics and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 was used to assess current psychopathology. Additionally, measures of posttraumatic growth (Posttraumatic Growth Inventory) and social acknowledgement as a trauma survivor (Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire) were used to assess two mediating variables in post-trauma conditions of rape victims. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence reported greater severity of PTSD-related avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms, as well as anxiety, compared with female long-term survivors of non-sexual WWII trauma. The vast majority (80.9 %) of these women also reported severe sexual problems during their lifetimes relative to 19.0 % of women who experienced non-sexual war trauma. Women exposed to conflict-related sexual violence also reported greater posttraumatic growth, but less social acknowledgement as trauma survivors, compared to survivors of non-sexual war trauma. The results were consistent with emerging neurobiological research, which suggests that different traumas may be differentially associated with long-term posttraumatic sequelae in sexual assault survivors than in other survivor groups and highlights the need to treat (or better prevent) deleterious effects of conflict-related sexual violence in current worldwide crisis zones.
Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Silva, Raimunda Magalhães da; Cavalcanti, Ludmila Fontenele; Deslandes, Suely Ferreira
This article analyzes the training offered to municipal public employees to confront sexual violence against children and adolescents in four Brazilian capitals. Based on a multiple case study, it focuses on the training programs offered in the 2010-2011 biennium by the municipal government for professionals and managers in the public health network. We analyzed 66 semi-structured interviews and written documents pertaining to the training actions. We observed an unequal investment among the capitals and a lack of specificity in the treatment of the themes. There is a considerable lack of institutional memory which complicates the analysis of professional training strategies. Healthcare was the field which trained their professionals the most, including the subject of notification in training content. We noted little investment in training oriented toward the prevention of violence and the promotion of protective relationships and links. We emphasized the inductive role of federal and state programs in the areas of Tourism and Education. Few initiatives included the participation of more than one public sector. We suggest the creation of a training plan about violence and the sexual rights of children and adolescents, and in particular about sexual violence.
Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Tucker, Christine M; Bengtson, Angela; Kupper, Lawrence L; McLean, Samuel A; Martin, Sandra L
The objective of this study is to examine the association between physical and sexual violence exposure and somatic symptoms among female adolescents. We studied a nationally representative sample of 8,531 females, aged 11-21 years, who participated in the 1994-1995 Wave I of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Female adolescents were asked how often they had experienced 16 specific somatic symptoms during the past 12 months. Two summary categorical measures were constructed based on tertiles of the distributions for the entire female sample: (a) total number of different types of symptoms experienced, and (b) number of frequent (once a week or more often) different symptoms experienced. Groups were mutually exclusive. We examined associations between adolescents' violence exposure and somatic symptoms using multinomial logistic regression analyses. About 5 % of adolescent females reported both sexual and non-sexual violence, 3 % reported sexual violence only, 36 % reported non-sexual violence only, and 57 % reported no violence. Adolescents who experienced both sexual and non-sexual violence were the most likely to report many different symptoms and to experience very frequent or chronic symptoms. Likelihood of high symptomatology was next highest among adolescents who experienced sexual violence only, followed by females who experienced non-sexual violence only. Findings support an exposure-response association between violence exposure and somatic symptoms, suggesting that symptoms can be markers of victimization. Treating symptoms alone, without addressing the potential violence experienced, may not adequately improve adolescents' somatic complaints and well-being.
Pöllänen, Katri; de Vries, Hein; Mathews, Catherine; Schneider, Francine; de Vries, Petrus J
Sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem worldwide. Research regarding beliefs about perpetrating sexual IPV is, however, limited. This study investigated attitudes, social influence, and self-efficacy beliefs and intentions toward perpetrating sexual IPV among Grade 8 adolescents ( M age = 13.73, SD = 1.04) in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The study sample was taken from the baseline data of the Promoting sexual and reproductive health among adolescents in Southern and Eastern Africa (PREPARE) study, a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Young adolescents ( N = 2,199), from 42 randomly selected high schools, participated in the study and answered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Multivariate ANOVA were conducted to assess differences in beliefs and intention toward perpetrating sexual IPV between boys and girls, and between perpetrators and nonperpetrators. Results showed that boys were more frequently perpetrators (11.3% vs. 3.2%) and victims (13.6% vs. 6.4%) of sexual IPV than girls. Boys' attitudes toward perpetrating sexual IPV were more supportive than girls'. Boys perceived their social network to be more likely to think that putting pressure on a boyfriend or girlfriend to have sex is okay, and boys had a lower self-efficacy to refrain from pressuring a boyfriend or girlfriend to have sex compared with girls. Both boys and girls, who have perpetrated sexual IPV, had more tolerant attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy beliefs toward sexual IPV perpetration, compared with nonperpetrators. Intention not to perpetrate sexual IPV did not differ between boys and girls, or between perpetrators and nonperpetrators. Our findings suggest that interventions should address attitude and social influence beliefs regarding sexual IPV perpetration. More attention should be given to sexual IPV perpetration among boys. Given that sexual IPV victimization and perpetration are significantly linked, prevention of sexual IPV
Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John
The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…
This article presents information on the rape of women in the former Yugoslavia, focusing more on Muslim women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and examines the evolutionary, sociological, psychological, and feminist theories of this form of sexual violence. Using a case study approach, through documentation from newspapers and other media accounts, this paper investigated the sexual violence that featured strongly in the campaign of ethnic cleansing or genocide of Muslims in Bosnia-Herzegovina. It was noted that the variables of power, sex, and aggression in the context of war seem to be linked. This is particularly evident when authority legitimates sexual aggression. Without the backing of authority, some rape is expected, but not of such proportion or brutality. In terms of the theories, the evolutionary perspective appears to have limited applicability in explaining rape as an act of war. However, the feminist and macrosociological multivariate theories that focus on heterogeneity of the population, a cultural foundation of very traditional gender roles, and a historical tradition that legitimates sexual violence by armies in war-time, provide more persuasive insights.
Mikton, Christopher R; Tanaka, Masako; Tomlinson, Mark; Streiner, David L; Tonmyr, Lil; Lee, Bandy X; Fisher, Jane; Hegadoren, Kathy; Pim, Joam Evans; Wang, Shr-Jie Sharlenna; MacMillan, Harriet L
To establish global research priorities for interpersonal violence prevention using a systematic approach. Research priorities were identified in a three-round process involving two surveys. In round 1, 95 global experts in violence prevention proposed research questions to be ranked in round 2. Questions were collated and organized according to the four-step public health approach to violence prevention. In round 2, 280 international experts ranked the importance of research in the four steps, and the various substeps, of the public health approach. In round 3, 131 international experts ranked the importance of detailed research questions on the public health step awarded the highest priority in round 2. In round 2, "developing, implementing and evaluating interventions" was the step of the public health approach awarded the highest priority for four of the six types of violence considered (i.e. child maltreatment, intimate partner violence, armed violence and sexual violence) but not for youth violence or elder abuse. In contrast, "scaling up interventions and evaluating their cost-effectiveness" was ranked lowest for all types of violence. In round 3, research into "developing, implementing and evaluating interventions" that addressed parenting or laws to regulate the use of firearms was awarded the highest priority. The key limitations of the study were response and attrition rates among survey respondents. However, these rates were in line with similar priority-setting exercises. These findings suggest it is premature to scale up violence prevention interventions. Developing and evaluating smaller-scale interventions should be the funding priority.
Berry, Vashti Louise; Stanley, Nicky; Radford, Lorraine; McCarry, Melanie; Larkins, Cath
Independent researchers from the Connect Centre for International Research on Interpersonal Violence based in the School of Social Work at the University of Central Lancashire were commissioned by the Welsh Government in 2013 to conduct research into violence against women, domestic abuse and sexual violence services in Wales. The research aimed to inform the forthcoming Ending Violence Against Women and Domestic Abuse (Wales) Bill, implementation of the legislation and future policy more gen...
Bjørnseth, Ingunn; Szabo, Attila
Sexual violence against children in sports receives little research attention. The aim of this Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-based systematic literature review was to synthesize the up-to-date knowledge and identify the already known and the still unknown information in this area. The literature search yielded seven eligible studies for inclusion. Their key outcomes suggest that sexual violence against children in sports is prevalent. Girls are more often the victims than boys, but gender appears to mediate the disclosure. Minority groups are at higher risk for sexual violence, and athletes at higher levels of competition seem to be more vulnerable for grooming. While the coach is often seen as the perpetrator, new research suggests that peer-athletes may precede the coach. Disclosure is a problem, due to personal and interpersonal concerns, which deters scholastic research in this area. In the final section of the review, a "what we know" and "what we need to know" list of highlights is offered as the concluding summary of the review. These factual points could raise the awareness of parents and/or guardians about the vulnerability of their children to sexual abuse if they are involved in sports. They could also attract the attention of the policy makers to the urgent need of developing and implementing preventive measures to make sports and exercise environments pleasurable and safe for children.
Mikton, Christopher R; Butchart, Alexander; Dahlberg, Linda L; Krug, Etienne G
Interpersonal violence affects millions of people worldwide, often has lifelong consequences, and is gaining recognition as an important global public health problem. There has been no assessment of measures countries are taking to address it. This report aims to assess such measures and provide a baseline against which to track future progress. In each country, with help from a government-appointed National Data Coordinator, representatives from six to ten sectors completed a questionnaire before convening in a consensus meeting to decide on final country data; 133 of 194 (69%) WHO Member States participated. The questionnaire covered data, plans, prevention measures, and victim services. Data were collected between November 2012 and June 2014, and analyzed between June and October 2014. Global and country-level homicides for 2000-2012 were also calculated for all 194 Members. Worldwide, 475,000 people were homicide victims in 2012 and homicide rates declined by 16% from 2000 to 2012. Data on fatal and, in particular, non-fatal forms of violence are lacking in many countries. Each of the 18 types of surveyed prevention programs was reported to be implemented in a third of the 133 participating countries; each law was reported to exist in 80% of countries, but fully enforced in just 57%; and each victim service was reported to be in place in just more than half of the countries. Although many countries have begun to tackle violence, serious gaps remain, and public health researchers have a critical role to play in addressing them. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mikton, Christopher R.; Butchart, Alexander; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Krug, Etienne G.
Introduction Interpersonal violence affects millions of people worldwide, often has lifelong consequences, and is gaining recognition as an important global public health problem. There has been no assessment of measures countries are taking to address it. This report aims to assess such measures and provide a baseline against which to track future progress. Methods In each country, with help from a government-appointed National Data Coordinator, representatives from six to ten sectors completed a questionnaire before convening in a consensus meeting to decide on final country data; 133 of 194 (69%) WHO Member States participated. The questionnaire covered data, plans, prevention measures, and victim services. Data were collected between November 2012 and June 2014, and analyzed between June and October 2014. Global and country-level homicides for 2000–2012 were also calculated for all 194 Members. Results Worldwide, 475,000 people were homicide victims in 2012 and homicide rates declined by 16% from 2000 to 2012. Data on fatal and, in particular, non-fatal forms of violence are lacking in many countries. Each of the 18 types of surveyed prevention programs was reported to be implemented in a third of the 133 participating countries; each law was reported to exist in 80% of countries, but fully enforced in just 57%; and each victim service was reported to be in place in just more than half of the countries. Conclusions Although many countries have begun to tackle violence, serious gaps remain, and public health researchers have a critical role to play in addressing them. PMID:26689979
Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I; Degutis, Linda C
In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haegerich, Tamara M; Dahlberg, Linda L; Simon, Thomas R; Baldwin, Grant T; Sleet, David A; Greenspan, Arlene I
In the first three decades of life, more individuals in the USA die from injuries and violence than from any other cause. Millions more people survive and are left with physical, emotional, and financial problems. Injuries and violence are not accidents; they are preventable. Prevention has a strong scientific foundation, yet efforts are not fully implemented or integrated into clinical and community settings. In this Series paper, we review the burden of injuries and violence in the USA, note effective interventions, and discuss methods to bring interventions into practice. Alliances between the public health community and medical care organisations, health-care providers, states, and communities can reduce injuries and violence. We encourage partnerships between medical and public health communities to consistently frame injuries and violence as preventable, identify evidence-based interventions, provide scientific information to decision makers, and strengthen the capacity of an integrated health system to prevent injuries and violence. PMID:24996591
Clinton-Sherrod, A Monique; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A; Gibbs, Deborah; Hawkins, Stephanie R; Hart, Laurie; Ball, Barbara; Irvin, Neil; Littler, Nicole
This study extends past research by examining factors associated with changes in attitudes, knowledge, and intended behaviors related to sexual assault. This study included 1,182 participants from four unique multiple-session school-based sexual violence interventions. Implementation and participant factors examined include single- versus mixed-gender groups, group setting versus classroom lecture setting, and participant gender. Participants completed self-administered, paper-and-pencil pre- and postsurveys. A significant desired overall effect was found on participants' reports of positive attitudes, beliefs, and behavior regarding sexual harassment and personal boundaries and positive dating relationship norms (from pretest to posttest). There were steeper increases over time in both measures, with larger mixed-gender/single-gender differences among boys than among girls. Differences in the impact of participating in mixed- versus single-gender groups depended on classroom versus small group settings. The implications of these findings are discussed for sexual assault prevention programs.
Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…
Pawils, Silke; Metzner, Franka
Aggressive and violent behaviour in children and adolescents can be associated with physical and psychological health effects continuing into adulthood. Early programs for violence prevention in childhood and adolescence are intended to prevent or reduce aggressive behaviour in order to decrease the risk for short- and long-term developmental impairments. In a literature review, research findings on prevalence, typical courses of development, and predictors of violent behavior in childhood are first summarized and compared with findings on the frequency, developmental course, and consequences of youth violence. International and German programs for violence prevention in children and adolescents are presented in the context of various settings (family, school, community), target groups (primary vs. secondary prevention) as well as target variables (universal vs. specific). Empirical findings on efficacy testing of violence prevention programs are described and discussed. The presented findings stress the relevance and potential of services for violence prevention for children and adolescents, but also demonstrate the challenges and gaps.
María Elena Meza-de-Luna
Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men as the most violent and evaluated the other groups with different degrees of IPV. Physical violence is regarded as natural in men, both gay and heterosexual. To conclude, the results suggest that IPV stereotypes are affected by the sex of the evaluators and by their sexual orientation. It is relevant to expand the scope of prevention programs.
Cale, Jesse; Lussier, Patrick
Very little is understood about the developmental antecedents of sexual behaviour prior to adolescence. Our aim was to examine the impact of different forms of intimate partner violence on early childhood sexual development. We used data from an ongoing prospective longitudinal cohort study of Canadian families. Intimate partner violence of various kinds was measured using a modified version of the Conflict Tactics Scale. Measures of child sexual development were based on the Child Sexual Behavior Inventory. Both measures relied on parental report. Sexual coercion between parental figures, but not physical violence or emotional aggression, was significantly associated with intrusive sexual behaviours shown by 3- to 5-year-old children. It may seem unlikely that 3- to 5- year-old children can understand that their parents are in a sexually coercive relationship, but our findings suggest that they are sufficiently aware of such behaviours when they occur that they may start to model their own behaviour on them. Clinicians and social workers may need to be more aware of this possibility. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Abstract Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT. Methods The study consisted of a household survey of rural and urban women with infants in Mbale district, complemented with focus group discussions with women and men. Women were interviewed on socio-demographic characteristics of the woman and her husband, antenatal and postnatal experience related to the youngest child, antenatal HIV testing, perceptions regarding the marital relationship, and intimate partner violence. We obtained ethical approval from Makerere University and informed consent from all participants in the study. Results During November and December 2003, we interviewed 457 women in Mbale District. A further 96 women and men participated in the focus group discussions. The prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 54% and physical violence in the past year was 14%. Higher education of women (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 and marriage satisfaction (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 were associated with lower risk of intimate partner violence, while rural residence (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.2 and the husband having another partner (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.02–5.7 were associated with higher risk of intimate partner violence. There was a strong association between sexual coercion and lifetime physical violence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5–5.7. Multiple partners and consumption of alcohol were major reasons for intimate partner violence. According to the focus group discussions, women fear to test for HIV, disclose HIV results, and request to use condoms
Weist, Mark D.; Bryant, Yaphet U.; Dantzler, Joyce; Martin, Saran; D'Amico, Marie; Griffith, Brian; Gallun, Betsy
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify best practices in the implementation of school-based sexual violence prevention education. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase plan was implemented to evaluate the Sexual Harassment/Assault Prevention Project (SHAPP) in one state in the USA. First, a structured review of the prevention…
Do, Vinh Thi; Ho, Hien Thi; Nguyen, Tri Manh; Do, Huynh Khac
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9.24 times higher HIV risk than those who did not have sexual violence.
Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha W; Speckhard, Anne; Brightup, Jennie E
From the perspective of peace psychology, the role of abortion in acts of violence against women is explored, with a focus on violence-prevention strategies. Setting aside the political debate, this task force report takes the conflict-transformation approach of considering all perspectives that have concern for the right of women to avoid being victims of violence. The evidence that victims of Intimate Partner Violence are disproportionately represented in women presenting for abortion suggests a need for screening at clinics. Coerced abortion is a form of violence and has occurred by government policy in China and as a result of other violence against women: sex trafficking and war situations. Sex-selection abortion of female fetuses, referred to as "gendercide," has reached pandemic proportions and caused a gender imbalance in some countries. Psychology, through empirical research, can make unique contributions to understanding the relationship between abortion and violence and in developing prevention strategies.
Full Text Available The increased active participation of individuals in the creation of sexual violence narratives online, as opposed to the previously passive consumption of news stories offline, could prove problematic in ensuring justice is served. Social media allows for circumvention of the criminal justice system in response to its perceived inadequacies. With the 24-hour news cycle, the ease with which media consumers can interact with the story as it breaks online, and the manner in which social media has been used by laypersons and secondary bystanders to target victims or perpetrators before a case ever makes it to court, raises questions about how narrative construction online possibly influences people’s beliefs and understandings about sexual violence and the effect this may have for the justice system.
Black, Beverly M.; Hawley, Alicia; Hoefer, Richard; Barnett, Tracey M.
The Children's Safety Network has identified teenage dating violence (TDV) as a public health problem and called for effective prevention programs to address the issue. This study used resource dependence theory to examine factors that relate to domestic violence shelters' in-school efforts to prevent TDV. A national survey was sent to domestic…
De La Rue, Lisa; Polanin, Joshua R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Pigott, Terri D.
Background: The incidence of psychological, physical, and sexual violence in intimate dating relationships has a significant impact on young people. These issues are of great concern to researchers, educators, and administrators who strive to help youth be happy and healthy. This review focused on prevention and intervention efforts implemented in…
Susan Nicole Rayment-McHugh
Full Text Available Endemic sexual violence and abuse has been observed in a number of specific circumstances, most notably conflict zones, remote and marginalised communities, and religious and state institutions. In this article we examine several documented examples and argue that a similar set of causal processes are at work in all of these otherwise apparently disparate circumstances. Rather than construing the problem as ‘organised’ sexual abuse, we present the problem in terms of the breakdown (or disorganisation of usual individual, situational and ecological constraints.
Sharkey, Jill D; Reed, Lauren A; Felix, Erika D
Rigorous research and program evaluation are needed to understand the experience of dating and sexual violence among youth and the impact of prevention and intervention efforts. Our dilemma in doing this work occurred when youth disclosed dating and sexual violence on a research survey. What responsibility do researchers have to protect survivors' confidentiality as a research participant versus taking steps to ensure the student has the opportunity to access help? In our evaluation of a pilot dating violence prevention program, our protocols employed widely used procedures for providing resources to participants upon their completion of the survey and de-identifying survey data. Upon reviewing preliminary survey results, we became concerned that these established procedures were not sufficient to support research participants who were adolescent survivors of dating and sexual violence. We followed a structured ethical decision-making process to examine legal and ethical considerations, consult with colleagues, consider impacts and alternative solutions, and ultimately find a solution. Through this process, we developed procedures that balance participant confidentiality and the desire to support the welfare of survivors, which other researchers may want to employ when conducting youth sexual and dating violence research in school and community settings. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.
Two qualitative methodologies were used to develop a life course typology of individuals who had been exposed to sexual violence. Interview narratives of 121 adult women and men who participated in qualitative study of women’s and men’s responses to sexual violence provided the data. The authors combined a narrative approach (holistic-content and holistic-form analysis) to describe the life courses of the participants and a qualitative person-oriented approach (cross-case analysis) to identify meaningful sub-groups within the total sample. The six groups are: (a) life of turmoil, (b) life of struggles, (c) diminished life, (d) taking control of life, (e), finding peace in life, and (f) getting life back to normal. This work exemplifies a promising strategy for identifying sub-groups of violence-exposed individuals within a heterogeneous sample. Such a typology could aid the development of treatment approaches that consider both the substance and the structure of an individual’s life course, rather than target one specific type of violence. PMID:19762554
Reported sexual violence among women and children seen at the gynaecological emergency unit of a rural tertiary health facility, northwest Nigeria. ... were known in 83.3% (20/24) of the cases; of which 45.8% (11/24) were neighbors, 29.2% (7/24) were buyers of snacks and drinks while 8.3% (2/24) were family members.
Knaap, L.M. van der; Nijssen, L.T.J.; Bogaerts, S.
This report provides a synthesis of 48 studies of the effects of the prevention of violence in the public and semi-public domain. The following research questions were states for this study:What measures for the prevention of violence in the public and semi-public domain are known and have been
This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.
According to part 3 of British Columbia's Workers Compensation Act, employers must ensure the health and safety of their employees and any other workers present at their worksite. Workers are also responsible for following established safe work procedures and protecting their own health and safety. This handbook was designed for service station employers who do not already have adequate violence-prevention procedures. In addition to providing guidelines, it describes employment standards for workplace health and safety. It describes general duties of supervisors, owners and suppliers and includes the forms needed to fill out, notably an inspection list; an action plan; a violent incident report for workers to fill out in the event of a violent incident; a suspect and vehicle identification form; an employer incident investigation report; and a safety and security feedback report for workers. Regulations that relate to young and new worker orientation and training were also provided along with regulations for working alone or in isolation, violence in the workplace, and high-visibility apparel.
Ellsberg, Mary; Arango, Diana J; Morton, Matthew; Gennari, Floriza; Kiplesund, Sveinung; Contreras, Manuel; Watts, Charlotte
In this Series paper, we review evidence for interventions to reduce the prevalence and incidence of violence against women and girls. Our reviewed studies cover a broad range of intervention models, and many forms of violence--ie, intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual assault, female genital mutilation, and child marriage. Evidence is highly skewed towards that from studies from high-income countries, with these evaluations mainly focusing on responses to violence. This evidence suggests that women-centred, advocacy, and home-visitation programmes can reduce a woman's risk of further victimisation, with less conclusive evidence for the preventive effect of programmes for perpetrators. In low-income and middle-income countries, there is a greater research focus on violence prevention, with promising evidence on the effect of group training for women and men, community mobilisation interventions, and combined livelihood and training interventions for women. Despite shortcomings in the evidence base, several studies show large effects in programmatic timeframes. Across different forms of violence, effective programmes are commonly participatory, engage multiple stakeholders, support critical discussion about gender relationships and the acceptability of violence, and support greater communication and shared decision making among family members, as well as non-violent behaviour. Further investment in intervention design and assessment is needed to address evidence gaps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sena, Cláudia Alves de; Silva, Maria Arleide da; Falbo Neto, Gilliatt Hanois
The scope of this study was to establish the incidence of sexual violence against children and adolescents in Recife, State of Pernambuco (Brazil) between 2012 and 2013. Data was collected from the records of rape examination reports carried out at the Recife Institute of Forensic Medicine. Of the 867 cases recorded, 328 of the victims were children and adolescents. An incidence of 3.67 cases per 10,000 inhabitants in the 0 to 18 age range was identified. The majority of the victims were female (92.1%) between 10 and 14 years of age (59.2%). In two thirds of the cases, rape was the most frequent type of sexual abuse and the majority of perpetrators were known to the victim (57.8%). An association between the type of sexual violence and the age and sex of the victim and perpetrator (p < 0.001) was determined. The most common type of sexual violence was rape among adolescents and sexual abuse not involving rape among children. The cases of sexual violence against children and adolescents shown in this study increase the visibility of this serious health problem and the need for preventive public policies.
Darmedru, C; Demily, C; Franck, N
The association between schizophrenia and violence represents an important issue in psychiatry. Often highly publicized, violent acts raise the question of their detection, prevention, management and treatment. There is no single, direct and exclusive link between aggressiveness and the underlying psychiatric disorder. On the contrary, the processes underlying this violence are multiple and interlinked. In addition to static and dynamic risk factors, cognitive deficits play an important role in the genesis and maintenance of violent and aggressive behavior. Using recent data from the international literature and the main databases, we first clarify the role played by cognitive deficits in the violence of patients with schizophrenia. We then evaluate the place of psychosocial interventions such as cognitive remediation and social cognitive training in managing the violent and aggressive behavior of these patients. Executive functions and working memory are the most studied neurocognitive functions in the field of violence in schizophrenia. Impulsivity, lack of cognitive flexibility, lack of adaptation and inhibition of automatic motor responses, and altered anger regulation may explain this relationship. Three main components of social cognition are associated with violent behaviors in schizophrenia: (1) the recognition of facial emotions through the inoperability of systems of "emotional monitoring", violent inhibition and recognition of informative facial zones; (2) the theory of the mind through the erroneous interpretation of the intentions of others; (3) the attributional style through the preferentially aggressive over interpretation of social situations and weak capacities of introspection. Overall, cognitive biases inhibit response in a socially acceptable manner and increase the risk of responding impulsively and aggressively to a stressful or provocative situation. In this context, we studied the place held by psychosocial interventions in the management
Pihl, Patricia; Grytnes, Regine; Andersen, Lars Peter S
Research has shown that employees in special education settings are at high risk for work-related threats and violence. Previous research has not yet been able to identify the essential components of training programs that offer protection from work-related threats and violence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore how employees in special education schools deal with prevention of work-related threats and violence. Group interviews were conducted with 14 employees working at 5 special education schools. Results show that employees use a wide range of prevention strategies drawing on specific violence prevention techniques as well as professional pedagogical approaches. We propose that the prevention of threats and violence in special education schools can be understood as an integrated pedagogical practice operating on three interrelated levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spivak, Howard R; Jenkins, Lynn; VanAudenhove, Kristi; Lee, Debbie; Kelly, Mim; Iskander, John
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, and preventable, public health problem in the United States. IPV can involve physical and sexual violence, threats of physical or sexual violence, and psychological abuse, including stalking. It can occur within opposite-sex or same-sex couples and can range from one incident to an ongoing pattern of violence. On average, 24 persons per minute are victims of rape, physical violence, or stalking by an intimate partner in the United States. These numbers underestimate the problem because many victims do not report IPV to police, friends, or families. In 2010, IPV contributed to 1,295 deaths, accounting for 10% of all homicides for that year. The combined medical, mental health, and lost productivity costs of IPV against women are estimated to exceed $8.3 billion per year. In addition to the economic burden of IPV, victims are more likely to experience adverse health outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, suicidal behavior, sexually transmitted infections, and unintended pregnancy.
Complainants of sexual assault may disclose to different agencies, the police and health professionals being the most likely. It is possible for certain evidence types to be collected before a clinical forensic assessment takes place that do not require the need for a Forensic Medical Practitioner. If the time frames after the incident and the nature of assault warrant the need for a forensic medical examination of either a complainant or a suspect, this should only be conducted by doctors and nurses who have received relevant, up-to-date specialist theoretical and practical training. Clear evidence shows that few other criminal offences require as extensive an examination and collection of forensic evidence as that of a sexual assault. The forensic evidence in a case may identify an assailant, eliminate a nominated suspect(s), and assist in the prosecution of a case. The elements of forensic medical examination, reviewed in this chapter, are those that are the most varied across jurisdictions around the world currently. Key focus points of this chapter are considerations for early evidence collection, utilising dedicated medical examination facilities for sample collection, contamination issues associated with evidence collection and certain practical aspects of forensic sampling methods which have evolved given results identified by Forensic Scientists processing evidential samples in sexual assault cases, Some of the problems encountered by the forensic science provider will also be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although sexual violence in war is associated with long-term mental health problems, little is known about its association with general functioning and the factors that explain this association. This study aims to illuminate the path from sexual violence to poor functioning. The prevalence of sexual violence among formerly abducted girls in Northern Uganda was assessed as well as the extent to which stigma and community relations explain the association between sexual violence and general functioning. Method In a cross-sectional analysis using data from the WAYS study (N = 210, baseline age 22.06, SD = 2.06, minimum-maximum 18–25, the extent of mediation of the association between sexual violence and general functioning was assessed in multiple regression models. Results Sexual violence was found to be associated with increased stigma, poor community relations, and poor general functioning. The association between sexual violence and general functioning was mediated by stigma and community relations. The bootstrap results indicated significant mediation by stigma of 47 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 35 to 78 % and by community relations of 67 % (95 % CI: 52 to 78 % in the association between sexual violence and general functioning. Conclusion Thus, poor functioning among formerly abducted girls is largely mediated by stigma and poor community relations. However, due to the relatively small effect sizes of the associations, targeted interventions to prevent impaired functioning may have only modest benefits to the formerly abducted girls. Interventions to alleviate the toxic effects of sexual violence in formerly abducted girls would benefit from a holistic approach that targets stigma and poor relationships within communities.
Wilson, Helen W.; Woods, Briana A.; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.
Objective This study examined the relationship between violence exposure and sexual risk-taking among low-income, urban African American (AA) adolescent girls, considering overlap among different types and characteristics of violence. Methods AA adolescent girls were originally recruited from outpatient mental health clinics serving urban, mostly low-SES communities in Chicago, IL as part of a two-year longitudinal investigation of HIV-risk behavior. A subsequent follow-up was completed to assess lifetime history of trauma and violence exposure. The current study (N=177) included violence exposure and sexual risk behavior reported at the most recent interview (ages 14-22). Multiple regression was used to examine combined and unique contributions of different types, ages, settings, and perpetrators or victims of violence to variance in sexual risk. Results More extensive violence exposure and cumulative exposure to different kinds of violence were associated with overall unsafe sex, more partners, and inconsistent condom use. The most significant unique predictors, accounting for overlap among different forms of violence, were physical victimization, adolescent exposure, neighborhood violence, and violence involving dating partners. Conclusions These findings put sexual risk in the context of broad traumatic experiences but also suggest that the type and characteristics of violence exposure matter in terms of sexual health outcomes. Violence exposure should be addressed in efforts to reduce STIs among low-income, urban African American girls. PMID:24563808
Miller, Elizabeth; Das, Madhumita; Tancredi, Daniel J; McCauley, Heather L; Virata, Maria Catrina D; Nettiksimmons, Jasmine; O'Connor, Brian; Ghosh, Sancheeta; Verma, Ravi
Gender-based violence, which includes sexual and intimate partner violence against women, is prevalent worldwide, prompting calls for primary prevention programs which engage men and boys in changing social norms that condone violence against women. Bystander intervention efforts which encourage males to say something to stop peers from enacting disrespectful and abusive behaviors toward females are a promising strategy for promoting non-violent, gender-equitable attitudes and behaviors. An evaluation of "Parivartan"--a U.S. program called "Coaching Boys Into Men" adapted for urban India cricket teams--was conducted in Mumbai, India. Baseline and 12 month follow-up surveys were administered to 309 male cricket athletes aged 10 to 16 years in 46 urban middle schools in Mumbai, India (27 intervention, 19 control). Athletes whose coaches were trained in the program demonstrated greater improvements in gender-equitable attitudes compared to athletes whose coaches provided standard coaching only. Marginally significant improvements were seen in reduction of negative bystander behavior. Violence prevention programs which utilize coaches as positive messengers for respect and non-violence may be a useful addition to global prevention efforts to reduce violence against women.
Alsaker, Kjersti; Morken, Tone; Baste, Valborg; Campos-Serna, Javier; Moen, Bente E
To investigate whether sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of abuse rather than others in violent intimate relationships. Cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to all Norwegian women's shelters. Women seeking refuge at Norwegian women's shelters in 2002 and 2003. Sexual assault and experiences of intimate partner violence were measured using the Severity of Violence against Women Scale (SVAWS) and psychological violence was measured using the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (PMWI). Student's t-test analyses were performed between the mean values of the different acts of reported violence, and linear regression analyses were used to examine the association between sexual violence and the other forms of violence reported. Sexual violence correlated significantly with the other eight categories in SVAWS, and with violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen and psychological violence in PMWI. When we adjusted all categories for each other by linear regression analysis, sexual intimate partner violence was significantly associated with hair pulling, arm twisting, spanking or biting, dominance and isolation abuse and violence directed at the pregnant woman's abdomen. Sexual assaults are more likely to co-occur with some types of physical and psychological violence than with others. This knowledge may be important for improving our understanding of sexual violence in intimate partner relationships and in the efforts to detect intimate partner violence. Bruises, loss of hair and bite marks may suggest that sexual acts were committed against the victim's will. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M
This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles
Limback, E. Rebecca; Bland, Zinna
To prevent sexual harassment, schools should have a written policy and should educate students about it. Suggested teaching activities include using current court cases, examining and refining school policy, roleplaying on video, inviting speakers, and using an "Is This Sexual Harassment?" questionnaire describing various behaviors. (SK)
Pedersen, Bodil Maria; Sidenius, Katrine
Centre for Victims of Sexual Assault in Copenhagen is a centre for interdisciplinary research and practice. Goals of the centre are to contribute to the documentation of victimization and to prevent further victimization. Research at the centre aims at the examination of the diversity of conditions...... of women exposed to sexualized coercion and the diversity of perspectives on the events....
Tatiane Herreira Trigueiro
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To understand the daily actions of women who have experienced sexual violence. Method: A qualitative study was conducted with 11 women who suffered sexual violence in southern Brazil. Their testimonies were obtained through phenomenological interviews conducted between October 2014 and April 2015. Results: The daily lives of women after suffering sexual violence were permeated by mental distress, translated into fear. This impacted their mental health by limiting their daily lives, especially social activities (work, school, sentimental, and sexual relations. To overcome the consequences of sexual violence, women sought support from family and friends and reintegration into the labor market and course of studies. Conclusion and implications for practice: Individual and group actions providing psychosocial and social support to women in situations of sexual violence are essential to help victims cope with the consequences of this experience.
Decker, Michele R; Peitzmeier, Sarah; Olumide, Adesola; Acharya, Rajib; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Covarrubias, Laura; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Brahmbhatt, Heena
Globally, adolescent women are at risk for gender-based violence (GBV) including sexual violence and intimate partner violence (IPV). Those in economically distressed settings are considered uniquely vulnerable. Female adolescents aged 15-19 from Baltimore, Maryland, USA; New Delhi, India; Ibadan, Nigeria; Johannesburg, South Africa; and Shanghai, China (n = 1,112) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling to participate in a cross-sectional survey. We describe the prevalence of past-year physical and sexual IPV, and lifetime and past-year non-partner sexual violence. Logistic regression models evaluated associations of GBV with substance use, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, and self-rated health. Among ever-partnered women, past-year IPV prevalence ranged from 10.2% in Shanghai to 36.6% in Johannesburg. Lifetime non-partner sexual violence ranged from 1.2% in Shanghai to 12.6% in Johannesburg. Where sufficient cases allowed additional analyses (Baltimore and Johannesburg), both IPV and non-partner sexual violence were associated with poor health across domains of substance use, sexual and reproductive health, mental health, and self-rated health; associations varied across study sites. Significant heterogeneity was observed in the prevalence of IPV and non-partner sexual violence among adolescent women in economically distressed urban settings, with upwards of 25% of ever-partnered women experiencing past-year IPV in Baltimore, Ibadan, and Johannesburg, and more than 10% of adolescent women in Baltimore and Johannesburg reporting non-partner sexual violence. Findings affirm the negative health influence of GBV even in disadvantaged urban settings that present a range of competing health threats. A multisectoral response is needed to prevent GBV against young women, mitigate its health impact, and hold perpetrators accountable. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Patricia L.
School administrators should develop a clear policy statement prohibiting sexual harassment; create guidelines to implement the policy; and designate a key administrator to oversee and ensure compliance with laws related to sexual harassment. Lists steps for dealing with a claim, what teachers can do to protect themselves from claims, and what a…
Peitzmeier, Sarah M.; Yasin, Faiza; Stephenson, Rob; Wirtz, Andrea L.; Delegchoimbol, Altanchimeg; Dorjgotov, Myagmardorj; Baral, Stefan
The role of sexual violence in health and human rights-related outcomes, including HIV, is receiving increasing attention globally, yet the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of sexual violence have been little-studied among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women in low and middle income countries. A mixed-methods study with quantitative and qualitative phases was conducted among MSM and transgender women in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Methods included respondent-driven sampling (RDS) with structured socio-behavioral surveys (N = 313) as well as qualitative methods including 30 in-depth interviews and 2 focus group discussions. Forced sex in the last three years was reported by 14.7% of respondents (RDS-weighted estimate, 95%CI: 9.4–20.1; crude estimate 16.1%, 49/307) in the quantitative phase. A descriptive typology of common scenarios was constructed based on the specific incidents of sexual violence shared by respondents in the qualitative phase (37 incidents across 28 interviews and 2 focus groups). Eight major types of sexual violence were identified, most frequent of which were bias-motivated street violence and alcohol-involved party-related violence. Many vulnerabilities to and consequences of sexual violence described during the qualitative phase were also independently associated with forced sex, including alcohol use at least once per week (AOR = 3.39, 95% CI:1.69–6.81), and having received payment for sex (AOR = 2.77, 95% CI:1.14–6.75). Building on the promising strategies used in other settings to prevent and respond to sexual violence, similar strengthening of legal and social sector responses may provide much needed support to survivors and prevent future sexual violence. PMID:26431311
Full Text Available Child sexual abuse is a worldwide problem. Although most studies on the longterm consequences of child sexual abuse have focused on women, sexual abuse of both boys and girls is common. Peer sexual abuse in schools was an often overlooked problem that contributes to a hostile school environment: one major study found that 85% of girls and 76% of boys reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse in school. 85% of child sexual abuse is committed by relatives, close family friend or an adult that the child knows and trusts. The childhood sexual abuse variables taken into account are commonly age of onset, duration, abuse forms and relationship between the child and the perpetrator. The objective of this study was to gather information or opinion about sexual abuse concept, methods and media of the elementary students, parents, teachers and experts. A qualitative study, involving one to one interviews, was conducted with 7 experts, focus group discussion with 40 elementary students, and with 40 parents in Yogyakarta district about child sexual abuse issues. Data were analysed according to Miles and Huberman’s data reduction, data display and conclusion verification process. These findings strongly indicate that boys and girls are vulnerable to this form of childhood sexual abuse ; the similarity in the likelihood for multiple behavioral, mental and social outcomes among men and women suggest the need to identify and treat all adults affected by child sexual abuse. Themes related to the child sexual abuse were: paperwork design, good facilitator, guidelines for students, parents and teachers. Students prefer media that can help them understand concept with komik paperwork as media for early prevention. Parents, teachers and experts prefer that this prevention program can run as soon. With careful paperwork design and evaluation of prevention program, the success of program implementation can be enhanced.
Luis Eduardo Wearick-Silva; Saulo G. Tractenberg; Mateus L. Levandowski; Thiago W. Viola; Joelza M. A. Pires; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira
Introduction: Recurrent exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) seems to be higher among victims of sexual abuse. In this sense, experiences related to sexual violence can perpetuate within the family context itself in various ways. Here, we investigate the association between being exposed to CSA and having a child victim of sexual abuse. Method: We used a sample with 123 mothers, who were divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 41 mothers of sexually abused children and another consi...
Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Reischl, Thomas M.
Youth are in the cross-fire of gun violence, and the highest rate in the nation is in Flint, Michigan. This article highlights six innovative strategies that prepare youth to solve problems at home and in their communities in peaceful ways. The Michigan Youth Violence Prevention Center (MI-YVPC) works with community groups to strengthen…
This study analyzed the emergency protocol and violence prevention methods utilized at an American university. The four research questions were: (1) What are the sources of violence at the university? a. How has the university addressed these sources? (2) What constitutes an emergency in the eyes of the university? (3) How do emergency protocols…
Lormand, Donna K.; Markham, Christine M.; Peskin, Melissa F.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Addy, Robert C.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Tortolero, Susan R.
Background: Whereas dating violence among high school students has been linked with sexual risk-taking and substance use, this association has been understudied among early adolescents. We estimated the prevalence of physical and nonphysical dating violence in a sample of middle school students and examined associations between dating violence,…
This study has set out to investigate the legacy of post-genocide judicial institutions mandated to adjudicate cases of genocide and related offences vis-à-vis genocidal gender and sexual violence. The study takes the complex genocidal experience of victims of gender and sexual violence as the
Emusu, Donath; Ivankova, Nataliya; Jolly, Pauline; Kirby, Russell; Foushee, Herman; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Katongole, Drake; Ehiri, John
HIV-serodiscordant relationships are those in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. We investigated experiences of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions attending HIV post-test club services in Uganda. A volunteer sample of 26 women from three AIDS Information Centres in Uganda who reported having experienced sexual violence in a larger epidemiological study were interviewed, using the qualitative critical incident technique. Data were analysed using TEXTPACK, a software application for computer-assisted content analysis. Incidents of sexual violence narrated by the women included use of physical force and verbal threats. Overall, four themes that characterise the women’s experience of sexual violence emerged from the analysis: knowledge of HIV test results, prevalence of sexual violence, vulnerability and proprietary views and reactions to sexual violence. Alcohol abuse by the male partners was an important factor in the experience of sexual violence among the women. Their experiences evoked different reactions and feelings, including concern over the need to have children, fear of infection, desire to separate from their spouses/partners, helplessness, anger and suicidal tendencies. HIV counselling and testing centres should be supported with the capacity to address issues related to sexual violence for couples who are HIV discordant. PMID:20024712
Studies indicate that girls and women encounter sexual violence in their day-to-day social life in all cultures and societies. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of sexual violence against female students in Wolaita Sodo University; 374 female students provided responses to self-administered questionnaire. The study revealed 23.4% (95%…
Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Cook, Christina B.; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner; Mweemba, Prudencia
Sexual violence occurs at alarming rates in children and adults. Survivors experience myriad negative health outcomes and legal problems, which place them in need of professional services. A meta-summary was conducted of 31 published qualitative studies on adults' responses to sexual violence, with a focus on survivors' use of professional…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual violence within marriage is a public health and human rights issue; yet it remains a much neglected research area, especially in Nepal. This paper represents one of the first attempts to quantify the extent of sexual violence and its determinants among young married women in Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1,296 married women aged 15–24 years in four major ethnic groups in rural Nepal. The survey data were used to estimate the prevalence and identify determinants of sexual violence. The relative importance of different correlates of sexual violence in the past 12 months at the individual, household and community levels were examined by using a multi-level multivariate statistical approach. Results Of the young women surveyed 46% had experienced sexual violence at some point and 31% had experienced sexual violence in the past 12 months. Women’s autonomy was found to be particularly protective against sexual violence both at the individual and community level. Women’s educational level was not found to be protective, while the educational level of the husband was found to be highly protective. Conclusions The high prevalence of sexual violence against young women by husbands found in this study is a matter for serious concern and underscores the need for a comprehensive response by policymakers.
Macy, Rebecca J.; Giattina, Mary C.; Parish, Susan L.; Crosby, Carmen
More than 20 years ago, concerns were raised about whether domestic violence and sexual assault agencies need for stable funding would conflict with the values that initiated these respective movements. Since then, the movements have evolved considerably. Therefore, it is timely to investigate the challenges domestic violence and sexual assault…
... speak out and share common experiences had a significant impact on the psychological recovery and emotional well-being of these women. Read about what IDRC grantees are doing to challenge impunity against sexual violence in our brochure, Ending sexual and gender-based violence in English, French or Spanish ...
... announcements) still have some utility, social media (social networking, picture sharing, geo-mapping, blogs, games, microblogs, etc.) ... State University and the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. The team left the meeting with a clear ...
Zijlstra, E.; LoFoWong, S.; Hutschemaekers, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.
INTRODUCTION: Worldwide, sexual and family violence are highly prevalent problems. Victims of sexual and family violence often do not seek formal help in the acute phase. When they do seek help, they encounter a system of scattered care. For this reason, a centre for sexual and family violence was
Rouhani, Shada A; Scott, Jennifer; Greiner, Ashley; Albutt, Katherine; Hacker, Michele R; Kuwert, Philipp; VanRooyen, Michael; Bartels, Susan
Since armed conflict began in 1996, widespread sexual violence in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has resulted in many sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). However, there are limited data on the relationships between mothers and their children from sexual violence. This study aimed to evaluate the nature and determinants of these maternal-child relationships. Using respondent-driven sampling, 757 women raising children from SVRPs in South Kivu Province, Democratic Republic of Congo were interviewed. A parenting index was created from questions assessing the maternal-child relationship. The influences of social stigma, family and community acceptance, and maternal mental health on the parenting index were assessed in univariate and multivariable analyses. The majority of mothers reported positive attitudes toward their children from SVRPs. Prevalence of perceived family or community stigma toward the women or their children ranged from 31.8% to 42.9%, and prevalence of perceived family or community acceptance ranged from 45.2% to 73.5%. In multivariable analyses, stigma toward the child, as well as maternal anxiety and depression, were associated with lower parenting indexes, whereas acceptance of the mother or child and presence of a spouse were associated with higher parenting indexes (all P ≤ .01). In this study with a large sample size, stigma and mental health disorders negatively influenced parenting attitudes, whereas family and community acceptance were associated with adaptive parenting attitudes. Interventions to reduce stigmatization, augment acceptance, and improve maternal mental health may improve the long-term well-being of mothers and children from SVRPs. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Feinstein, Robert E
Approximately 40 % of psychiatrists and up to 64 % of psychiatric residents have been physically assaulted. Ranges of 72-96 % of psychiatric residents in various studies have been verbally threatened. As violence risk occurs in outpatient settings, our department developed a quality and safety curriculum designed to prepare psychiatric residents and staff to optimally respond to aggressive outpatients and violence threats or events. In 2011 and 2012, we offered an 8-part violence prevention performance improvement curriculum/program including (1) situational awareness/creating a safe environment; (2) violence de-escalation training; (3) violence risk assessment training, use of risk assessment tools, and medical record documentation; (4) violence safety discharge planning; (5) legal issues and violence; (6) "shots fired on campus" video/discussion; (7) "2011 violence threat simulation" video/discussion; and (8) violence threat simulation exercise. This program was offered to approximately 60 psychiatric residents/staff in each year. We obtained qualitative comments about the entire program and data from 2 years of post-event surveys on the usefulness of the "violence threat simulation exercise." The large majority of comments about program elements 1 to 7 were positive. In 2011 and 2012, respectively, 76 and 86 % of participants responded to a post-event survey of the violence threat simulation exercise; 90 and 88 % of participants, respectively, reported the simulation to be very helpful/somewhat helpful; and 86 and 82 % of participants, respectively, reported feeling much better/better prepared to deal with a violent event. Although some participants experienced anxiety, sleep disturbances, increase in work safety concerns, and/or traumatic memories, the majority reported no post-simulation symptoms (72 and 80 %, respectively). Although we are unable to demonstrate that this program effectively prevents violence, the overall positive response from participants
Henry, Nicola; Powell, Anastasia
Criminality in cyberspace has been the subject of much debate since the 1990s, yet comparatively little attention has been paid to technology-facilitated sexual violence and harassment (TFSV). The aim of this article is to explore the ways in which retraditionalized gender hierarchies and inequalities are manifested in online contexts, and to conceptualize the cause and effects of TFSV as "embodied harms." We argue that problematic mind/body and online/off-line dualisms result in a failure to grasp the unique nature of embodied harms, precluding an adequate understanding and theorization of TFSV. © The Author(s) 2015.
pedagogical goals. The incidents of school shootings on college campuses can be prevented through the collaboration and application of whole-of...interesting accompaniment to school violence. 26 Date Place Outcome May 16, 1986 Cokeville Elementary School, Sweetwater County, Wyoming
Edwards, Katie M; Rodenhizer, Kara Anne; Eckstein, Robert P
We examined school personnel's engagement in bystander action in situations of teen dating violence (DV), sexual violence (SV), and sexual harassment (SH). We conducted focus groups with 22 school personnel from three high schools in New Hampshire. School personnel identified their own barriers to intervening in situations of teen DV, SV, and SH (e.g., not having the time or ability to intervene). School personnel also discussed the ways in which they intervened before (e.g., talking with teens about healthy relationships), during (e.g., breaking up fights between dating partners) and after (e.g., comforting victims) instances of teen DV, SV, and SH. These data can be used to support the development of bystander training for school personnel as one component of comprehensive DV, SV, and SH prevention for teens. In addition, these data provide information that can be used to develop measures that assess school personnel bystander action barriers and behaviors in instances of teen DV, SV, and SH.
Wekerle, Christine; Vakili, Negar; Stewart, Sherry H; Black, Tara
Researchers in violence prevention areas seek to disseminate work for impact to practice and policy. Knowledge transfer, exchange, and mobilization are common terms for research knowledge utilization where public communication platforms are playing an increasing role, having unique capacity to connect stakeholders in advocacy and lived experience, academia, non-governmental organizations, government-supported organizations, such as child welfare, and research funding bodies. Social networking platforms provide a communication intervention opportunity to test the effectiveness of the research reach. A Canadian Institutes of Health Research- funded team grant in boys' and men's health, focusing on sexual violence (SV) victimization, health, and resilience undertook an evaluation to examine whether a strategic approach involving a cadre of SV experts (n = 46) and their research increased engagement. Using a unique identifier (#CIHRTeamSV) content was shared on social media (Twitter) within an ABABAB experimental monthly format (A = no sharing; B = sharing content), following a baseline entry of researchers. Active Twitter engagement lead to increases in the number of individuals' profile views, article downloads, and citations. These findings encourage further research into the utility of social media for disseminating sexual violence research, and that social media has developed as a forum for evidence-based conversation on sensitive topics of public health import. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.
This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…
Swartz, Marvin S; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W
Involuntary outpatient commitment (OPC)-also referred to as 'assisted outpatient treatment' or 'community treatment orders'-are civil court orders whereby persons with serious mental illness and repeated hospitalisations are ordered to adhere to community-based treatment. Increasingly, in the United States, OPC is promoted to policy makers as a means to prevent violence committed by persons with mental illness. This article reviews the background and context for promotion of OPC for violence prevention and the empirical evidence for the use of OPC for this goal. Relevant publications were identified for review in PubMed, Ovid Medline, PsycINFO, personal communications, and relevant Internet searches of advocacy and policy-related publications. Most research on OPC has focussed on outcomes such as community functioning and hospital recidivism and not on interpersonal violence. As a result, research on violence towards others has been limited but suggests that low-level acts of interpersonal violence such as minor, noninjurious altercations without weapon use and arrests can be reduced by OPC, but there is no evidence that OPC can reduce major acts of violence resulting in injury or weapon use. The impact of OPC on major violence, including mass shootings, is difficult to assess because of their low base rates. Effective implementation of OPC, when combined with intensive community services and applied for an adequate duration to take effect, can improve treatment adherence and related outcomes, but its promise as an effective means to reduce serious acts of violence is unknown.
Full Text Available Introduction: Domestic violence is one of the most important public health priorities that directly or indirectly impact on pregnancy outcomes. Given the importance of sexuality in pregnancy and its effect on marital relations, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between sexual satisfaction and violence against pregnant women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 430 pregnant women admitted to Fatemiyeh hospital in Shahroud during the first quarter of 2015, after obtaining informed consent, were selected to complete Larson Sexual Satisfaction Scale and ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale as well as Domestic Violence questionnaire. Relationships between variables were analyzed using structural equation modeling.Results: The mean age of mothers was 28±5.2 years. Prevalence of domestic violence was reported 84.4% in this study. The 81.2% of participants reported physical violence, 55.8% reported emotional violence and 25.3% reported sexual violence. The mean score of marital satisfaction in women with domestic violence (162.5 ± 28.9 was significantly lower than that in pregnant women without domestic violence (188.7 ± 31.4. A significant negative relationship was observed between sexual satisfaction and marital satisfaction with the domestic violence, --0.42 and –0.61, respectively.Conclusion: Considering the high prevalence of domestic violence and its significant relationship with marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction in this study, interventions and counseling are recommended to increase marital satisfaction and sexual satisfaction and to reduce domestic violence during pregnancy.
Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna L; Neilands, Torsten B
Exposure to community violence and HIV sexual risks are two major public health concerns among youth. This study tests various pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors among African American adolescents. Using a sample of 563 (61% females) African American youth attending high school we examined whether problematic psychological symptoms, low school engagement, and/or negative perceptions of peer norms about safer sex functioned as pathways linking exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors. Major findings indicated that, for boys, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début and sexual risk behaviors were linked by aggression. In addition, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual risk behaviors were linked by negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. For girls, the relationship between exposure to community violence and sexual début was linked by aggression and negative perceptions of peer attitudes about safer sex. These findings provide support for pathways linking exposure to community violence to sexual behaviors.
Kilonzo, Nduku; Ndung'u, Njoki; Nthamburi, Nerida; Ajema, Caroline; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Theobald, Sally; Tolhurst, Rachel
Six sub-Saharan African countries currently have laws on sexual violence, including Kenya, and eight others have provisions on sexual violence in other legislation. Effective legislation requires functioning medico-legal linkages to enable both justice to be done in cases of sexual violence and the provision of health services for survivors of sexual violence. The health sector also needs to provide post-rape care services and collect and deliver evidence to the criminal justice system. This paper reviews existing data on sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa, and summarises the content of sexual violence legislation in the region and the strengths and weaknesses of existing medico-legal linkages, using Kenya as a case study. Many sub-Saharan African countries do not yet have comprehensive post-rape care services, nor substantial co-ordination between HIV and sexual and reproductive health services, the legal and judicial systems, and sexual violence legislation. These need to be integrated by cross-referrals, using standardised referral guidelines and pathways, treatment protocols, and medico-legal procedures. Common training approaches and harmonised information across sectors, and common indicators, would facilitate government accountability. Joint and collaborative planning and working at country level, through sharing of information and data between the different systems remain key to achieving this.
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
from police was common in this cohort of Russian HIV-positive women who inject drugs. Our analyses found more frequent injection drug use among those affected, suggesting that the phenomenon represents an underappreciated human rights and public health problem. Addressing sexual violence from police against women in Russia will require addressing structural factors, raising social awareness and instituting police trainings that protect vulnerable women from violence and prevent HIV transmission. PMID:27435712
Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H
Russian HIV-positive women who inject drugs. Our analyses found more frequent injection drug use among those affected, suggesting that the phenomenon represents an underappreciated human rights and public health problem. Addressing sexual violence from police against women in Russia will require addressing structural factors, raising social awareness and instituting police trainings that protect vulnerable women from violence and prevent HIV transmission.
Dardis, Christina M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Iverson, Katherine M
National estimates suggest intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are equal or higher among lesbian, bisexual, or questioning (LBQ)-identified women than heterosexual-identified women. Women veterans are a population at high risk for IPV, yet the occurrence of lifetime and past-year IPV experiences by sexual orientation have not been examined in this population. Lifetime and past-year IPV experiences and current IPV-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were assessed with validated screening measures as part of a 2014 web-based national survey of women veterans. Among 403 respondents, 9.7% (n = 39) identified as LBQ, and 90.3% (n = 364) identified as heterosexual. When controlling for age, LBQ-identified women veterans were significantly more likely to report lifetime sexual and physical IPV and lifetime intimate partner stalking. In the past year, LBQ-identified veterans were twice as likely to endorse emotional mistreatment and physical IPV, and three times more likely to endorse sexual IPV, than were heterosexual-identified women veterans. However, sexual orientation was unrelated to IPV-related PTSD symptoms, when controlling for age, race, and number IPV forms experienced. IPV is prevalent among LBQ-identified women veterans, suggesting the need to understand the potentially unique contextual factors and health-care needs of this group.
de Oliveira, Jacqueline Reiter; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Santos, Clarice Alves; de Assis, Simone Gonçalves; do Nascimento, Ohana Cunha
The study analyzes the evolution of the incidence of sexual violence (SV) and co-occurrences between 2001 and 2010. The records of the Guardianship Councils in Feira de Santana, State of Bahia, Brazil were used and the incidence rates and graphs of the events during the period were calculated. Of the total of the different types of violence, 21.8 % involved co-occurrences, the majority being female, most frequently during adolescence. There was a high proportion of abuse in male children, with most offenders bring family members or acquaintances. The incidence of SV revealed an increasing trend in both sexes during the decade, more significantly in females in 2002 and 2009. The age groups indicated the same trend, with a higher proportion of cases in adolescence. The record of co-occurrences with SV was more pronounced in the second half of the decade, namely psychological violence in 2008, neglect in 2008 and physical violence in 2009. The conclusion is that the increase in the coefficients of sexual violence and co-occurrences may indicate an improvement of the reporting system of instances in reference, as well as greater citizen participation through the Dial 100 complaint hotline. The indicators help to prevent and control violence against children.
Rafaella Queiroga Souto
Full Text Available Objective: To describe the profile of people submitted to the Indecent Assault Evaluation (IAE at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brazil. Methods: This is a descriptive and documentary survey carried out with medical reports of incident assault performed against men and women of any age, who were evaluated at the Nucleus for Legal Medicine and Dentistry (NUMOL in Campina Grande - PB, Brasil, from 2005 to 2009. Data collection instrument was a specially designed form based on existing information in the IAE records. Data was recorded in SPSS, version 17, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Male individuals (n = 85; 62%, under the age of 20 (n = 112; 81.8% were the main victims. The notification of sexual violence was carried out by the parents (n = 34; 24.8%, mostly by the mother (n = 27; 19.7%, and the police stations were the most frequent location to express the complaint (n = 134; 97.8%. The violence was committed by a single perpetrator (n = 78; 56.9%, who was known by the victim (n = 88; 64.2%. The crime of rape was confirmed in (n = 48 35% of cases. Conclusion: The men, most of them young, are the main victims of indecent assault, and violence is committed by one individual, member of the victim’s social circle.
Axelsson, Jakob; Modén, Birgit; Rosvall, Maria; Lindström, Martin
To study the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health, including trust, offence, threat of violence, and violence. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS/MEASUREMENT: The 2008 Public Health Survey in Skåne is a cross-sectional postal questionnaire study. A total of 28,198 persons aged 18-80 years responded (55%). Logistic regressions analysed the association between sexual orientation and self-rated health. 27.4% of all men and 30.0% of all women rated their health as poor. Poor self-rated health was significantly more prevalent in higher age, among immigrants, people with lower education, low social support, low trust, experience of being offended, experience of threat of violence and violence, and bisexual and other orientation. Homosexual and bisexual men and women had higher age-adjusted odds ratios of having felt offended compared to heterosexual respondents. The odds ratios of low trust, threat of violence (men), and experience of violence (women) were significant for respondents with bisexual orientation but not for respondents with homosexual orientation. In the age-adjusted model, no significant association was observed between homosexual orientation and poor self-rated health among women. All other associations between sexual orientation and health were significant in the age-adjusted model but non-significant in the multiple models. Associations between sexual orientation and health disappear after multiple adjustments including trust and experience of offence, threat of violence, and violence. The study suggests that the group with bisexual orientation seems to be more exposed to low social capital (trust), threat of violence, and violence than the group with homosexual orientation.
Galarneau, Joy; O'Neill, Shannon
This article presents bystander intervention education as a best-practice approach to sexual violence prevention in college settings. It draws out a connection between mission-specific resources that can be used to advance the prevention agenda, while examining how bystander intervention education can deepen community engagement in collegiate…
Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children increased in many regions in Indonesia, both in cities and in desa. Keadaan is also happening in the city of Padang, where cases of sexual violence against children is increasing from year to year. Therefore, necessary one model to be able to do primary prevention. Aims & Objectives: The aim of this study is to establish a model of promotion and prevention interventions that can be used as primary prevention of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City. Material & Methods: The method was combining qualitative and quantitative research. The population of this study was the teachers and students within amount of ten elementary schools in the Padang City with 170 sample of people. Result: The model of intervention through Minangkabau language songs can enhance children's knowledge and assertiveness toward primary prevention of sexual violence. Conclusion: "Neherta" Model is a promotion and prevention interventions model of sexual violence against primary school children in Padang City.
Kazimierczak, Małgorzata; Sipiński, Adam
At work we took up the matter of sexual harassment of children in the family. We presented the history of incest contacts, reasons, conditions causing incest, the perpetrator, his methods and kinds of his actions.We took into consideration description of victims, physical and psychological symptoms of sexual harassment and its effects. We paid attention to effective methods of prevention of incest behavior, diagnostic actions taken in order to confirm any offence and therapy of victims emphasizing role of health service staff.
Nyamhanga, Tumaini M; Frumence, Gasto
There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances - ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.
Nov 5, 2015 ... ... are exploring the underlying dynamics of life in the capital city and analyzing how they ... poverty, and inequality that holds the key to understanding the links between ... Social cohesion: solution or driver of urban violence?
May 4, 2016 ... While several studies have been conducted on gender-based violence in ... Members of the GESTES research team present findings to Canadian ... women and girls experience sexual or physical violence in their lifetime.
Guilherme Vanoni Polanczyk
someone who had been a victim of sexual violence. RESULTS: There were 1,193 adolescents included in the study, representing 10.3% of all students enrolled on 8th grade classes in the city's public schools. Twenty-seven adolescents (2.3% reported being victims of sexual violence, 54 (4.5% reported witnessing some episode of sexual violence and 332 (27.9% reported knowing someone who was a victim of sexual violence. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to sexual violence in any of the three forms of contact was a common event among the studied adolescents. Studies focusing sexual violence as a broad social phenomenon with multiples associated factors are necessary to support preventive and treatment strategies at the community level.
Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth
Objectives Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women’s Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Methods Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Results Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical/sexual violence and 17% scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15% scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Conclusions Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725
Latimer, Jennifer; Fleckman, Julia; Wallace, Maeve; Rountree, Michele; Theall, Katherine
This study examines the implications of a history of personal violence on health and health behaviors. A secondary analysis of cross-sectional data involving adults (n = 214) from a semirural area in southern Louisiana between October 2008 and December 2010 was conducted to ascertain the association between a personal history of violence victimization and indicators of sexual health behaviors and outcomes: communication with sexual partners about HIV status, consistent condom use, and sexually transmitted infection (STI). While violence victimization is widely accepted as a risk factor for high-risk sex behavior, the mechanisms underlying violence victimization's influence on sexual health outcomes remain unclear. Bivariate analyses demonstrated a significant positive association between experience of physical abuse and lifetime history of STI. Surprisingly, respondents reporting lifetime physical violence were more than two times more likely to ask sexual partners about HIV status [odds ratio (OR) for physical attack = 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00-4.97; OR for physical injury = 4.60, 95% CI = 1.79-11.85]. Consistent condom use was not significantly associated with violence exposure in adjusted models. There was no evidence that communication with sexual partners mediated the relationship between experiences of violence and condom use. The link between personal history of violence and condom use may be mediated through alternative pathways beyond communication.
Spector, Paul E; Zhou, Zhiqing E; Che, Xin Xuan
This paper provides a quantitative review that estimates exposure rates by type of violence, setting, source, and world region. A quantitative review of the nursing violence literature was summarized. A literature search was conducted using the CINAHL, Medline and PsycInfo data bases. Studies included had to report empirical results using a nursing sample, and include data on bullying, sexual harassment, and/or violence exposure rates. A total of 136 articles provided data on 151,347 nurses from 160 samples. Articles were identified through a database search and by consulting reference lists of review articles that were located. Relevant data were coded by the three authors. Categories depended on the availability of at least five studies. Exposure rates were coded as percentages of nurses in the sample who reported a given type of violence. Five types of violence were physical, nonphysical, bullying, sexual harassment, and combined (type of violence was not indicated). Setting, timeframe, country, and source of violence were coded. Overall violence exposure rates were 36.4% for physical violence, 66.9% for nonphysical violence, 39.7% for bullying, and 25% for sexual harassment, with 32.7% of nurses reporting having been physically injured in an assault. Rates of exposure varied by world region (Anglo, Asia, Europe and Middle East), with the highest rates for physical violence and sexual harassment in the Anglo region, and the highest rates of nonphysical violence and bullying in the Middle East. Regions also varied in the source of violence, with patients accounting for most of it in Anglo and European regions, whereas patents' families/friends were the most common source in the Middle East. About a third of nurses worldwide indicated exposure to physical violence and bullying, about a third reported injury, about a quarter experienced sexual harassment, and about two-thirds indicated nonphysical violence. Physical violence was most prevalent in emergency
Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen
Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.
Mikhail, Judy Nanette; Nemeth, Lynne Sheri
Youth violence recidivism remains a significant public health crisis in the United States. Violence prevention is a requirement of all trauma centers, yet little is known about the effectiveness of these programs. Therefore, this systematic review summarizes the effectiveness of trauma center-based youth violence prevention programs. A systematic review of articles from MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsychINFO databases was performed to identify eligible control trials or observational studies. Included studies were from 1970 to 2013, describing and evaluating an intervention, were trauma center based, and targeted youth injured by violence (tertiary prevention). The social ecological model provided the guiding framework, and findings are summarized qualitatively. Ten studies met eligibility requirements. Case management and brief intervention were the primary strategies, and 90% of the studies showed some improvement in one or more outcome measures. These results held across both social ecological level and setting: both emergency department and inpatient unit settings. Brief intervention and case management are frequent and potentially effective trauma center-based violence prevention interventions. Case management initiated as an inpatient and continued beyond discharge was the most frequently used intervention and was associated with reduced rearrest or reinjury rates. Further research is needed, specifically longitudinal studies using experimental designs with high program fidelity incorporating uniform direct outcome measures. However, this review provides initial evidence that trauma centers can intervene with the highest of risk patients and break the youth violence recidivism cycle. © The Author(s) 2015.
Riazi, Hedyeh; Alaei, Shima; Emamhadi, Mohammadali; Nazparvar, Bashir; Salmani, Fatemeh
Sexual violence is a serious public health problem which is common around the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate spiritual health and self-esteem in sexual violence victims. This cross-sectional study was performed on 66 subjects in the group of sexual violence women and 147 subjects in the group of women with no experience of sexual violence who referred to Tehran Forensic Medical Center and the health centers of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences respectively, in 2015, in Tehran, Iran. Sexual violence was considered as vaginal or anal penetration. Paloutzian & Ellison spiritual health questionnaire and Rosenberg self-esteem scale were used for data collecting. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS version 21. The Kolmogorov Simonov test was used for normality distribution of variables. Descriptive and the Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was set to pself-esteem in the two groups (M1: 21.89, M2: 21.02; p=0.76) while a significant difference was seen between the mean scores of spiritual health, which indicates a lower level of spiritual health in women with sexual violence (M1: 74.59 (2.03), M2: 86.39 (3.12); pimportance of spirituality in sexual violence so policies to promote spiritual health are recommended to protect women.
Thakore, Rachel V; Apfeld, Jordan C; Johnson, Ronald K; Sathiyakumar, Vasanth; Jahangir, A Alex; Sethi, Manish K
Violence has recently been reported among a primarily young, minority population in Nashville, Tennessee. School-based programs have been proven as effective methods of reducing violent behavior, beliefs, and actions that lead to violence among adolescents. Investigators implemented a rigorous search for an appropriate school-based violence prevention program for Metropolitan Nashville middle school students utilizing a systematic review and discussion group with victims of violence. 27 programs nation-wide were reviewed and 2 discussion groups with African American males under the age of 25 admitted to a level 1 trauma center for assault-related injuries were conducted. Our findings led to a single, evidence-based conflict resolution program. In conjunction with educators, we evaluated the program's effectiveness in a pilot study in a Nashville middle school with high rates of violence. 122 students completed the conflict resolution program and described their behavior and experiences with violence in a pre-test/post-test self-rate questionnaire. Results showed a significant decrease in violent behavior and an increase in students' competencies to deal with violence (p less than 0.05). This study shows that a reduction in violent behavior and beliefs among middle school students can be achieved through the implementation of a targeted violence intervention program. A larger-scale intervention is needed to develop more conclusive evidence of effectiveness. © 2015 KUMS, All rights reserved.
Payton, Erica; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H
Firearm violence remains a significant problem in the US (with 2787 adolescents killed in 2015). However, the research on school firearm violence prevention practices and policies is scant. Parents are major stakeholders in relation to firearm violence by youths and school safety in general. The purpose of this study was to examine what parents thought schools should be doing to reduce the risk of firearm violence in schools. A valid and reliable questionnaire was mailed to a national random sample of 600 parents who had at least one child enrolled in a public secondary school (response rate = 47%). Parents perceived inadequate parental monitoring/rearing practices (73%), peer harassment and/or bullying (58%), inadequate mental health care services for youth (54%), and easy access to guns (51%) as major causes of firearm violence in schools. The school policies perceived to be most effective in reducing firearm violence were installing an alert system in schools (70%), working with law enforcement to design an emergency response plan (70%), creating a comprehensive security plan (68%), requiring criminal background checks for all school personnel prior to hiring (67%), and implementing an anonymous system for students to report peer concerns regarding potential violence (67%). Parents seem to have a limited grasp of potentially effective interventions to reduce firearm violence.
Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Ullman, Sarah E; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
Stressful life experiences, such as sexual abuse and family violence/conflict, relate to an increased risk of mental health problems. Religion and spirituality may prevent this negative impact, but religion and spirituality are lower among survivors of stressful life experiences. To explore this effect, we examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and family violence/conflict on anger and depressed mood. Survey data were collected from a large population-based sample of Icelandic adolescents ( N = 7,365) on their stressful life experiences, religion, spirituality, and mental health. Survivors of stressful life experiences (sexual abuse or family violence/conflict) were significantly lower on religion and spirituality than others. A hierarchical linear regression showed that stressful life experiences contributed uniquely to higher levels of anger and depressed mood. Spirituality was associated with decreased anger and depressed mood. The religion of parents and peers was also associated with decreased anger. Religious participation, on the contrary, did not have a relationship with mental health outcomes. In addition, the negative association between spirituality and anger was stronger among survivors of sexual abuse than nonabused individuals. These results confirm previous research, indicating that survivors of stressful life experiences may experience less religion and spirituality. The results also extend existing knowledge by showing that spirituality may be even more beneficial among sexual abuse survivors, as a protective factor against anger. These findings can help in the minimization of the negative mental health impact of stressful life experiences.
Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A
Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills.
Schulze, Corina; Perkins, Wendy
The sexual victimization of sexual minorities enrolled in college is not a topic that has been well researched. The present study examines the awareness that college minority students have of services they can access in the event they experience sexual violence. The results indicate that many students are unaware of specific services that they can…
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who…
Ihongbe, Timothy O.; Cha, Susan; Masho, Saba W.
Background: Research has shown that early age of sexual debut is associated with physical dating violence (PDV), but sex-specific associations are sparse. We estimated the prevalence of PDV victimization in high school students who have initiated sexual intercourse and examined sex-specific association between age of sexual debut and PDV…
McCartney, J R; Severson, K
Little is known of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in older people. No literature exists on this disorder in older women exposed to sexual assault. A case of apparent PTSD in a demented woman raises questions of the anatomy and phenomenology of this disorder. Difficulties in diagnosis in a demented population may cloud the issues or prevent a proper therapeutic outcome.
Webster, Daniel W
Gun violence is a major threat to the public's health and safety in the United States. The articles in this volume's symposium on gun violence reveal the scope of the problem and new trends in mortality rates from gunfire. Leading scholars synthesize research evidence that demonstrates the ability of numerous policies and programs-each consistent with lessons learned from successful efforts to combat public health problems-to prevent gun violence. Each approach presents challenges to successful implementation. Future research should inform efforts to assess which approaches are most effective and how to implement evidence-based interventions most effectively.
Duke, Naomi Nichele; Borowsky, Iris Wagman
Violence involvement remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for youth and young adults in the United States. The impact of adverse childhood experiences on violence involvement can be translated to the cellular level, including alterations in brain structure and function responsible for stress reactivity and coping. This knowledge is counterbalanced by a growing understanding of what works in the realm of youth violence prevention. Incorporating a resilience framework, with its focus on building developmental assets and resources at individual, family, and community levels, offers a renewed approach to fostering healthy behaviors and coping strategies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vera, Eduardo Gayón; Orozco, Hilda Hernández; Soto, Selene Sam; Aburto, Esther Lombardo
Sexual transmitted diseases (included HIV/AIDS) are a common and preventable cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. When used consistently and correctly, condoms are effective to prevent these diseases, however, its protection does not account for 100%. To know the effectiveness of male condom, through bibliographic evidence, to prevent sexual transmitted infections in heterosexual serodiscordant partners. A bibliographical review of Medline/Pubmed, LILACS and Cochrane databases, and publications of the National Health Institutes, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization, and WHO AIDS Global Program was done to analyze male condom effectiveness to prevent sexual transmitted diseases. Reports demonstrated that male condom protection against HIV/AIDS in heterosexual serodiscordant partners goes from 60 to 95%. Most recent information (2006) showed 80%. Two studies demonstrated no HPV protection with male condom, and another one 70% of protection. Male condom demonstrated no HPV-1 protection, but decrease of risk in HVS-2 transmission in women (0.85 of protection). Male condom protection against sexual transmitted diseases is not 100%. There must be used additional measures that have demonstrated its utility to decrease transmission risk.
Stueve, Ann; Dash, Kimberly; O'Donnell, Lydia; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wilson-Simmons, Renée; Slaby, Ronald G; Link, Bruce G
Public concerns about school shootings and safety draw attention to the role bystanders can play in preventing school violence. Although school violence prevention plans are often required, there is little guidance about whether these should address the roles of bystanders and what actions bystanders should take in different circumstances, from more common instances of bullying and fighting to rare, but potentially lethal, threats and use of weapons. Literature pertaining to bystanders is reviewed and applied to the school setting. The definition of bystander is expanded, including parents, teachers, and other school staff as well as youths and those who have information about potential violence as well as those who witness its occurrence. Barriers preventing bystanders from taking positive actions are discussed. The authors call on health promotion researchers and practitioners to work with school communities to identify norms, attitudes, and outcome expectancies that shape bystander behaviors to inform prevention efforts.
Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Shattuck, Anne; Hamby, Sherry
This paper assesses how many children and youth have had exposure to programs aimed at preventing various kinds of violence perpetration and victimization. Based on a national sample of children 5-17, 65% had ever been exposed to a violence prevention program, 55% in the past year. Most respondents (71%) rated the programs as very or somewhat helpful. Younger children (5-9) who had been exposed to higher quality prevention programs had lower levels of peer victimization and perpetration. But the association did not apply to older youth or youth exposed to lower quality programs. Disclosure to authorities was also more common for children with higher quality program exposure who had experienced peer victimizations or conventional crime victimizations. The findings are consistent with possible benefits from violence prevention education programs. However, they also suggest that too few programs currently include efficacious components. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tumaini M. Nyamhanga
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania
Full Text Available There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence.We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR. Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068. For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126 matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women. Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CI.Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79, prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88, antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07 and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34. Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21, except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93. Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates.Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.
Gisladottir, Agnes; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Harlow, Bernard L; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Jonsdottir, Eyrun; Bjarnadottir, Ragnheidur I; Hauksdottir, Arna; Aspelund, Thor; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A
There is a scarcity of data on the association of sexual violence and women's subsequent obstetric outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether women exposed to sexual violence as teenagers (12-19 years of age) or adults present with different obstetric outcomes than women with no record of such violence. We linked detailed prospectively collected information on women attending a Rape Trauma Service (RTS) to the Icelandic Medical Birth Registry (IBR). Women who attended the RTS in 1993-2010 and delivered (on average 5.8 years later) at least one singleton infant in Iceland through 2012 formed our exposed cohort (n = 1068). For each exposed woman's delivery, nine deliveries by women with no RTS attendance were randomly selected from the IBR (n = 9126) matched on age, parity, and year and season of delivery. Information on smoking and Body mass index (BMI) was available for a sub-sample (n = 792 exposed and n = 1416 non-exposed women). Poisson regression models were used to estimate Relative Risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared with non-exposed women, exposed women presented with increased risks of maternal distress during labor and delivery (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.01-2.79), prolonged first stage of labor (RR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.88), antepartum bleeding (RR 1.95, 95% CI 1.22-3.07) and emergency instrumental delivery (RR 1.16, 95% CI 1.00-1.34). Slightly higher risks were seen for women assaulted as teenagers. Overall, we did not observe differences between the groups regarding the risk of elective cesarean section (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.61-1.21), except for a reduced risk among those assaulted as teenagers (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.93). Adjusting for maternal smoking and BMI in a sub-sample did not substantially affect point estimates. Our prospective data suggest that women with a history of sexual assault, particularly as teenagers, are at increased risks of some adverse obstetric outcomes.
African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention (ASP) is a forum for discussion and debate among scholars, policy-makers and practitioners active in the field of injury prevention and safety promotion. ASP seeks to promote research and dialogue around a central public health issue that affects Africa, ...
Winskell, Kate; Sabben, Gaëlle
There is growing recognition of the health disparities faced by sexual minority populations and the critical role played by sexual stigma in increasing their vulnerability. Experienced, anticipated, and internalized, stigma based on sexual orientation reduces access to HIV/STI prevention and treatment services among African men who have sex with men and has been linked to compromised mental health, risk-taking, and HIV status. It is likely that similar processes undermine the health of sexual minority African women and transgender and non-binary people. There is a need for increased understanding of both the contextual factors and the cultural meanings, or symbolic violence, that inform sexual stigma and harmful stigma management strategies in contexts that are culturally and socio-politically oppressive for sexual and gender minorities. Using thematic data analysis and narrative-based methodologies, we analyzed narratives and essays on same-sex attraction contributed by young people aged 13-24 from ten African countries to a Spring 2013 scriptwriting competition on HIV, sexuality, and related themes. Submitted by 27 male and 29 female authors, the texts were written in response to a prompt inviting participants to "Tell a story about someone who is attracted to people of the same sex". We analyzed the ways in which sexual stigma and its effects are described, enacted, and counteracted in the texts. The data provide insights into the social and symbolic processes that create and sustain sexual stigma in the context of broader transnational discourses. The data shed light on psychosocial challenges faced by sexual minority youth and identify both rhetoric, stereotypes, and discourse that devalue them and representations that counteract this symbolic violence. We share our findings in the hope they may inform education and communication programming as part of multi-level efforts to improve the health and human rights of sexual minority populations in sub
Shuaib, Faisal M B; Ehiri, John E; Jolly, Pauline; Zhang, Qionghui; Emusu, Donath; Ngu, Julius; Foushee, Herman; Katongole, Drake; Kirby, Russell; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred
HIV serodiscordance is a sexual partnership in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. Managing emotional and sexual intimacy in HIV serodiscordant unions can be difficult due to concerns about HIV transmission and the challenge of initiating and maintaining safe sex. In situations where couples are jointly aware of their HIV status, women in serodiscordant unions may face increased risk of partner violence. We conducted an investigation to assess risk factors for HIV serodiscordance and determine if HIV serodiscordance is associated with incident sexual violence among a cohort of women attending HIV post-test club services at three AIDS Information Centers (AICs) in Uganda. Using a prospective study of 250 women, we elicited information about sexual violence using structured face-to-face interviews. Sexual violence and risk factors were assessed and compared among HIV positive women in HIV discordant unions, HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between participants' serostatus and sexual violence. HIV negative women in serodiscordant relationships (36.1±11.1 years, range: 19-65 years) were significantly older than either HIV positive women in serodiscordant relationships (32.2±9.0 years, range: 18-56 years), or HIV negative women in concordant relationships (32.3±11.0 years, range: 18-62), (p=0.033). Early age at sexual debut was associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk of experiencing sexual violence (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.27-4.65). Based on unadjusted analysis, HIV positive women in discordant relationship were at highest risk for sexual violence compared to HIV negative women in discordant unions, and HIV negative women in negative concordant unions. HIV negative women in discordant relationships and those in concordant negative relationships showed no increased risk for sexual violence. However, couples' HIV
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim
The purpose of this study was to examine how sexual minority status (as assessed using both identity and behavior) was associated with trajectories of dating violence. University students from a large Southwestern university completed questions on their sexual minority identity, the gender of their sexual partners, and about experiences of dating violence for six consecutive semesters (N = 1942). Latent growth curve modeling indicated that generally, trajectories of dating violence were stable across study participation. Sexual minority identity was associated with higher initial levels of dating violence at baseline, but also with greater decreases in dating violence across time. These differences were mediated by number of sexual partners. Having same and other-sex sexual partners was associated with higher levels of dating violence at baseline, and persisted in being associated with higher levels over time. No significant gender difference was observed regarding trajectories of dating violence. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Fromme, Kim
Dating violence presents a serious threat for individual health and well-being. A growing body of literature suggests that starting in adolescence, individuals with sexual minority identities (e.g., individuals who identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual) may be at an increased risk for dating violence compared with heterosexuals. Research has not, however, identified the mechanisms that explain this vulnerability. Using a diverse sample of young adults ( n = 2,474), the current study explored how minority stress theory, revictimization theory, sex of sexual partners, and risky sexual behavior explained differences in dating violence between sexual minority and heterosexual young adults. Initial analyses suggested higher rates of dating violence among individuals who identified as bisexual, and individuals who identified as gay or lesbian when compared with heterosexuals, and further found that these associations failed to differ across gender. When mediating and control variables were included in the analyses, however, the association between both sexual minority identities and higher levels of dating violence became nonsignificant. Of particular interest was the role of discrimination, which mediated the association between bisexual identity and dating violence. Other factors, including sex and number of sexual partners, alcohol use, and childhood maltreatment, were associated with higher rates of dating violence but did not significantly explain vulnerability among sexual minority individuals compared with their heterosexual peers. These findings suggest the importance of minority stress theory in explaining vulnerability to dating violence victimization among bisexuals in particular, and generally support the importance of sexual-minority specific variables in understanding risk for dating violence within this vulnerable population.
Thacker, Rebecca A.
Keeping sexual harassment incidents at bay in the workplace involves prevention training that teaches people how to identify harassment and how to respond, using such techniques as role play and discussion. Trainees should also be informed of the organization's policy and procedures for reporting complaints. (JOW)
that social workers in Zimbabwe have a role to play at all the three levels of intervention. KEY TERMS: Child sexual abuse (CSA), social work, prevention,. Meili's model. ..... network/2013/mar/19/world-social-work-day-fair-global- · economy1.
Lam, Steven; Zwart, Christine; Chahal, Inem; Lane, David; Cummings, Harry
Violence against children is a global public health issue with serious social, economic, physical, and emotional impacts. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a school-based program aimed to prevent and respond to physical, sexual, and psychological violence against children in Sri Lanka from the perspective of parents. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used. A total of 835 parents of children who participated in the program were surveyed across seven districts in Sri Lanka. Dose-response analyses were conducted to assess for correlations between program exposure and perceived prevention of violence against children. Low to moderate correlations were found between exposure to the program and perceived child safety in schools, school policies, and in the community. The findings provide preliminary evidence of program effectiveness; however, more efforts are needed to validate and sustain outcomes. Implications for future violence prevention programming, along with the use of dose-response evaluations, are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fitzgerald, L F
Sexual harassment has been a fixture of the workplace since women first began to work outside the home. Although true epidemiological studies do not exist, large-scale surveys of working women suggest that approximately 1 of every 2 women will be harassed at some point during their academic or working lives. The data indicate that harassment is degrading, frightening, and sometimes physically violent; frequently extends over a considerable period of time; and can result in profound job-related, psychological; and health-related consequences. This article provides a brief review of the prevalence and consequences of sexual harassment and outlines social policy implications for research, legislation, and primary prevention.
Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O
Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.
Using the empirical powers of theories of intersectionality, the study investigates the association between students' demographics (such as gender identity, race, ethnicity, age, and socioeconomic status) and sexual violence victimization. An anonymous survey was employed to collect data from a cluster random sample of 966 students attending face-to-face courses at a midsize urban nonresidential campus. The empirical findings suggest that being older and female are the only statistically significant factors in the analysis. As the first attempt to focus on students attending nonresidential programs in the United States, the study presents implications for policy and program implementation to include issues pertinent to students' diversity to better respond to students' risk of victimization.
Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S; Ross, Ratchneewan; Cook, Christina Benson; Stidham, Andrea Warner; Mweemba, Prudencia
A qualitative metasynthesis was conducted to identify the essence of healing from sexual violence, as described by adults who experienced it as children or as adults. Based on the findings of 51 reports, four domains of healing were identified: (a) managing memories, (b) relating to important others, (c) seeking safety, and (c) reevaluating self. The ways of healing within each domain reflected opposing responses. The dialectical process identified for each of the four domains include, respectively: (a) calling forth memories, (b) regulating relationships with others, (c) constructing an “as-safe-as-possible” lifeworld, and (d) restoring a sense of self. These complex processes resulted in a new reality for the participants that was based on a greater sense of agency and provided a more satisfying life course. PMID:19415681
Mumford, Elizabeth A; Okamoto, Janet; Taylor, Bruce G; Stein, Nan
To pilot a study of social networks informing contextual analyses of sexual harassment and peer violence (SH/PV). Seventh and 8th grade students (N = 113) in an urban middle school were surveyed via a Web-based instrument. Boys and girls reported SH/PV victimization and perpetration at comparable rates. The proportion of nominated friends who reported SH/ PV outcomes was greater in boys' than in girls' social networks. Structural descriptors of social networks were not significant predictors of SH/PV outcomes. Collection of sensitive relationship data via a school-based Web survey is feasible. Full-scale studies and greater flexibility regarding the number of friendship nominations are recommended for subsequent investigations of potential sex differences.
Abramsky, Tanya; Devries, Karen; Kiss, Ligia; Francisco, Leilani; Nakuti, Janet; Musuya, Tina; Kyegombe, Nambusi; Starmann, Elizabeth; Kaye, Dan; Michau, Lori; Watts, Charlotte
Abstract Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact ...
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Women and inequality in Latin America Women's economic empowerment and the reduction of violence against women have become urgent priorities in the political and social agendas of Latin American countries. This is particularly true given ... Equidad de Género: Ciudadanía, Trabajo y Familia, A.C.. Pays d' institution.
Walsh, Jennifer L.; Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.
Objective Diverse forms of violence, including childhood maltreatment (CM), intimate partner violence (IPV), and exposure to community violence (ECV), have been linked separately with sexual risk behaviors. However, few studies have explored multiple experiences of violence simultaneously in relation to sexual risk-taking, especially in women who are most vulnerable to violent experiences. Methods Participants were 481 women (66% African American, Mage = 27 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic who reported on their past and current experiences with violence and their current sexual risk behavior. We identified patterns of experience with violence using latent class analysis (LCA) and investigated which combinations of experiences were associated with the riskiest sexual outcomes. Results Four classes of women with different experiences of violence were identified: Low Violence (39%), Predominantly ECV (20%), Predominantly CM (23%), and Multiply Victimized (18%). Women in the Multiply Victimized and Predominantly ECV classes reported the highest levels of sexual risk behavior, including more lifetime sexual partners and a greater likelihood of receiving STD treatment and using substances before sex. Conclusions Women with different patterns of violent experiences differed in their sexual risk behavior. Interventions to reduce sexual risk should address violence against women, focusing on experiences with multiple types of violence and experiences specifically with ECV. Additional research is needed to determine the best ways to address violence in sexual risk reduction interventions. PMID:23626921
Voisin, Dexter R; Hotton, Anna; Neilands, Torsten
African American youth bear a disproportionate burden of sexually transmitted infections. A growing number of studies document that youth exposure to community violence and sexual behaviors are highly correlated. Despite such growing evidence, only a few studies have empirically tested conceptually driven pathways that may account for such relationships. This study seeks to address that gap by exploring multiple pathways linking exposure to community violence and youth sexual behaviors. Using an existing sample of 563 African American youth attending high school, we examined whether possible links between exposure to community violence and sexual activity, sexual risk behaviors were mediated by aggression, low student-teacher connectedness, and negative peer norms. Major findings indicated indirect relationships between exposures to community violence and both sexual activity and risky sex, mediated by aggression and negative peer norms with no significant differences based on gender or socioeconomic status. Overall findings also indicated a significant indirect effect of aggression to risky sex via negative peer norms and from community violence to risky peer norms via aggression. By illuminating ways that community violence, aggression, peer norms, and sexual behaviors are dynamically interrelated, these findings have significant implications for future research and intervention initiatives aimed at addressing the different pathways.
Full Text Available Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services.This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013-14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method.About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05 and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10 and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05.This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI prevention and care services
Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Feder, Kenneth A.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth’s first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense. The goal of this article is to examine how school-based universal prevention programs might be used to prevent CSA perpetrated by adolescents. We review the literature on risk and protective factors for CSA perpetration and identify several promising factors to target in an intervention. We also summarize the literature on programs that have been effective at preventing adolescent dating violence and other serious problem behaviors. Finally, we describe a new CSA prevention program under development and early evaluation and make recommendations for program design characteristics, including unambiguous messaging, parental involvement, multisession dosage, skills practice, and bystander considerations. PMID:28413921
Mercer, Dave; Perkins, Liz
This article reports findings from a discourse analytic study which critically explored the language of mental health nurses, and detained sexual offenders, in relation to pornography in one high-security hospital. It recognised previous empirical investigation, and pro-feminist theorising, into mediated representations and male sexual violence, but situated the research process in a forensic nursing context. Decision-making about access to, or restriction of, commercial sexual literature, as a component of therapeutic intervention and offender management, reveals tensions between service-user rights and treatment goals. The aim was to access nurse and patient talk in a specific culture. Semi-structured interviews with eighteen nursing staff, and nine patients, were used to co-construct accounts of pornography, sexual offending, and treatment. Analysis and data collection were undertaken concurrently. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Data was coded to identify theoretical/conceptual themes and sub-themes representing discursive repertoires. Attention was given to how textual variation positioned respondents in relation to each other and the institution. Findings suggested collective male talk textured the environment, promoted gendered inequality, marginalised female nurses, and undermined rehabilitation. Shared discourse enabled male staff and patients to relate to each other as men, while maintaining distance through constructions of otherness. Discussion focuses on discriminatory discursive-practices, where men's talk about pornography and sexual violence embodied gendered knowledge/experience and contributed to a toxic culture. Consideration is given to ways of resisting institutional impediments and promoting positive therapeutic relations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dos Reis, Maria José; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; Osis, Maria José Duarte
To describe the experiences of women who have suffered sexual violence and the impact and importance of that violence on their lives. Sexual violence against women is a serious problem worldwide. Studies need to investigate how women reorganise their lives after experiencing sexual violence. A qualitative design was used to explore women's experiences. This study analysed semistructured interviews of 11 women who had experienced a sexual assault. The interviews were performed at a specialised walk-in clinic at a university hospital in the interior of São Paulo State, Brazil. A thematic analysis of the content led to the identification of the following themes: (1) impact and meaning of the violence; (2) feelings; (3) overcoming the violence and (4) expectations for the future. Sexual violence had a devastating impact on the lives of these women. The women's postviolence experiences caused feelings of guilt, impotence, fragility and immobility. These experiences also instilled a belief that they may have 'provoked' the violence. Nevertheless, the women showed resilience, investing all of their energy in returning their lives to pre-violence conditions. Family, friends and other important people, as well as the care that the women received from health services, were cited as factors that sustained this attitude of resilience. Providing appropriate care to female victims of sexual assault requires not only treating the physical damage caused by the violence but also evaluating the particularities of the experience's emotional impact on each woman and the psychosocial repercussions of the experience. Health professionals should follow up with women during their recovery period. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Santos, Marconi de Jesus; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Rodrigues, Malvina Thaís Pacheco; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida
to describe the reports of sexual violence against children and adolescents at school, in Brazil, from 2010 to 2014. a descriptive study on the characteristics of the victims, the event, the aggressor and the attendance among the records of compulsory notification of sexual violence against children (0-9 years) and adolescents (10-19 years) at school; we used data from the Notification of Injury Information System (Sinan). 2,226 reports of sexual violence occurred at school, of which 1,546 (69.5%) were children and 680 (30.5%) were adolescents; the average age of the victims was 7.4 years and the median age was 6 years; prevalence of female victims (63.8%) and, most of the time, the aggressor was male (88.9%). children and adolescents are exposed to sexual violence at school, a place that supposedly should guarantee protection, healthy development and safety for schoolchildren.
Lina María Céspedes-Báez
Full Text Available This article reviews the evidence collected by diverse national and international organizations regarding the relationship between sexual violence against women, forced displacement, and dispossession in the context of the Colombian armed conflict. To this end, it uses the concept of “sexual violence regimes” to highlight that the endspursued by sexual violence are not always exhausted by simple consummation (that is, the act of sexual violence itself, but depending on the context, can be connected with broader strategic goals of armed actors. At the same time, this document admits the difficulty of proving this relationship with respect to judicial procedures, and thus sets out the possibility of creating a rebuttable presumption, in the framework of “unconstitutional state of affairs” created by judgment T-025 of 2004, that alleviates the burden of proof of the victims, and serves as a catalyst to promote new genderbased mechanisms of reparations.
Barling, J; Rogers, A G; Kelloway, E K
The authors developed and tested a structural model predicting personal and organizational consequences of workplace violence and sexual harassment for health care professionals who work inside their client's home. The model suggests that workplace violence and sexual harassment predict fear of their recurrence in the workplace, which in turn predicts negative mood (anxiety and anger) and perceptions of injustice. In turn, fear, negative mood, and perceived injustice predict lower affective commitment and enhanced withdrawal intentions, poor interpersonal job performance, greater neglect, and cognitive difficulties. The results supported the model and showed that the associations of workplace violence and sexual harassment with organizational and personal outcomes are indirect, mediated by fear and negative mood. Conceptual implications for understanding sexual harassment and workplace violence, and future research directions, are suggested.
most pervasive and unreported type of gender-based violence ... Ineffective laws offer limited or no protection to victims, with ... India: With support from IDRC, Peace and Equality ... 21 schools to raise awareness of child sexual abuse,.
Bonomi, Amy; Nichols, Emily; Kammes, Rebecca; Green, Troye
We address questions about (1) how college women with a disability experience sexual violence (SV) and intimate partner violence (IPV) across partners, including disability-specific abuse and (2) how SV/IPV impacts psychological, behavioral, physical, and academic life domains. Twenty-seven female college students (mean age, 21.2; 66.6% white; 66.6% heterosexual) were randomly sampled from university registrar records. To be eligible for the study, students had to have at least one experience of SV/IPV since age 18 and a disability (88.8% reported one or more mental health conditions; 11.1% reported other conditions, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder; with the majority of women indicating their disability preceded SV/IPV victimization). Using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's definitions of SV/IPV as guides, clinically trained master's level interviewers conducted semistructured interviews to ascertain SV/IPV patterns across students' three most recent relationships and related life impacts. SV/IPV was pervasive in college women with a disability, within hookup settings and/or recurring SV/IPV with a long-term partner. For some women, SV spanned multiple abusive partners. For women in relationships marked by chronic abuse, in addition to SV, the relationship dynamic included disability-specific abuse, social isolation, threats/intimidation, and technology-related abuse. For women experiencing SV events within hookup settings, alcohol was a common facilitator, with some abusers using a disability to manipulate a sexual connection. All but one participant reported exacerbated adverse mental health consequences (e.g., depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, suicidal ideation/attempts, stress) after victimization. These adverse mental health consequences coincided with adverse behavioral (e.g., becoming less social, avoiding usual study lounge areas on campus), physical (e.g., problems sleeping, bruising, pregnancy
Full Text Available Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2011 within Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital in Lomé. HIV-infected women attending HIV care and uninfected women attending postnatal care and/or children immunization visits were interviewed. Intimate partner physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors were assessed using an adapted version of the WHO Multi-country study on Women's Health and Life Events questionnaire. Results: Overall, 150 HIV-uninfected and 304 HIV-infected women accepted to be interviewed. The prevalence rates of lifetime physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women were significantly higher than among uninfected women (63.1 vs. 39.3%, p<0.01 and 69.7 vs. 35.3%, p<0.01, respectively. Forty-two percent of the women reported having ever had physical injuries as a consequence of intimate partner violence. Among injured women, only one-third had ever disclosed real causes of injuries to medical staff and none of them had been referred to local organizations to receive appropriate psychological support. Regardless of HIV status and after adjustment on potential confounders, the risk of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was strongly and significantly associated with male partner multi-partnership and early start of sexual life. Among uninfected women, physical violence was significantly associated with gender submissive
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0374 TITLE: Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Casey T...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Strength at Home Couples Program to Prevent Military Partner Violence 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM...7 9. Appendices…………………………………………………………………………………..7 1 Annual Report for Period: Sep 30, 2016 to Sept 29, 2017 Strength at Home
Merrill, Katherine G; Merrill, Jamison C; Hershow, Rebecca B; Barkley, Chris; Rakosa, Boitumelo; DeCelles, Jeff; Harrison, Abigail
Grassroot Soccer developed SKILLZ Street-a soccer-based life skills program with a supplementary SMS platform-to support adolescent girls at risk for HIV, violence, and sexual and reproductive health challenges. We conducted a mixed-methods assessment of preliminary outcomes and implementation processes in three primary schools in Soweto, South Africa, from August to December 2013. Quantitative methods included participant attendance and SMS platform usage tracking, pre/post questionnaires, and structured observation. Qualitative data were collected from program participants, parents, teachers, and a social worker during 6 focus group discussions and 4 in-depth interviews. Of 394 participants enrolled, 97% (n = 382) graduated, and 217 unique users accessed the SMS platform. Questionnaires completed by 213 participants (mean age: 11.9, SD: 3.02 years) alongside qualitative findings showed modest improvements in participants' perceptions of power in relationships and gender equity, self-esteem, self-efficacy to avoid unwanted sex, communication with others about HIV and sex, and HIV-related knowledge and stigma. The coach-participant relationship, safe space, and integration of soccer were raised as key intervention components. Implementation challenges were faced around delivery of soccer-based activities. Findings highlight the relevance and importance of programs like SKILLZ Street in addressing challenges facing adolescent girls in South African townships. Recommendations for future programs are provided. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Williams, D J; Donnelly, P D
The paper provides a review of some of the thoughts, ideas, and opinions that pervade the public health literature concerning how to classify or conceptualise violence. It is argued that violence transcends classic distinctions between communicable and non-communicable diseases, distinguishes itself from the discipline of injury control, and is influenced by wider, social determinants. Through a discussion of these varied perspectives it is concluded that a fourth revolution in public health is needed - a 'change in scope' revolution - that recognizes the influence of social justice, economics, and globalization in the aetiology of premature death and ill health, into which violence fits. However, rather than be shackled by debates of definition or classification, it is important that public health acknowledges the role it can play in preventing violence through policy and practice, and takes unified action. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coyle, Karin K.; Guinosso, Stephanie A.; Glassman, Jill R.; Anderson, Pamela M.; Wilson, Helen W.
This article examines the relationship between exposure to violence, fear of exposure to violence, and sexual risk among a sample of urban middle school youth. The sample included 911 seventh-grade students who completed self-report surveys. Approximately 20% of the sample reported at least one direct threat or injury with a weapon in the past 3…
Miller, Shari; Williams, Jason; Cutbush, Stacey; Gibbs, Deborah; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Jones, Sarah
Although there is growing recognition of the problem of dating violence, little is known about how it unfolds among young adolescents who are just beginning to date. This study examined classes (subgroups) and transitions between classes over three time points based on dating violence, bullying, and sexual harassment perpetration and victimization…
The purpose of the present study was to explore and comprehend sexual violence against children in Indonesia using the phenomenological method. The study was conducted in Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam and West Java Provinces. In-depth interviews were carried out with several informants ranging from government officials, women activists, teachers, and community leaders. Results showed that sexual violence against children was actually perpetrated by the person closest to the victims. The perpetrato...
Courey, Tamra J.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Draucker, Claire B.; Strickland, Karen B.
Background Individuals who experience sexual violence often seek services in a variety of healthcare settings. Although research indicates that survivors often report that interactions with healthcare professionals are distressing, little is known about what renders these encounters helpful or hurtful. Objective The purpose of this study was to use Hildegard Peplau’s (1952) conceptualization of nurses’ helping roles (i.e., stranger, resource person, teacher, leadership, surrogate, counselor, technical expert) in nurse-client interactions to explore how survivors of sexual violence perceive their encounters with healthcare professionals. Study Design Content analysis was conducted on the transcripts of 60 minimally structured interviews in which participants discussed their experiences of sexual violence. Results The results revealed that the helping roles of counselor and technical expert, as identified by Peplau, were most important to survivors of sexual violence. Regardless of role, participants perceived healthcare professionals to be helpful when they exhibited interpersonal sensitivity, especially in regards to the participants’ experiences with violence. Conclusions The findings indicate that healthcare professionals need to maintain an attentive and compassion stance when working with survivors of sexual violence. Those who serve in a counselor role need to create an atmosphere of trust so that clients may explore in depth how violence has affected their lives. PMID:21665762
The issue of physical and sexual abuse of children in Kenya is recognised as a highly prevalent and significant problem, occurring within a framework of social values that contribute to the exploitation of women and children. In order to understand the risk and protective factors for children who experience physical and sexual abuse, the cultural context must be taken into consideration. This paper will argue that patriarchy and traditional values underlie the norms and behaviours of parents and communities interacting with children. These values can be protective, eg the value placed on family structure; however, the traditional value-system justifies harsh physical punishment as a means of disciplining children. While systems exist to prevent abuse, these often disenfranchise the poor, who are then left to seek traditional means of support (eg out-of-court agreements and settlements). A culture of silence also prevents many children from reporting abuse. The paper argues that efforts must be made to gain a better understanding of the prevalence of child maltreatment in Kenya so that targeted services can be developed to reduce it, taking into consideration and overcoming negative cultural factors through the implementation of educational programmes and anti-oppressive practice. It is hoped that this paper will enable community practitioners and health visitors in the UK to provide better support to Kenyan children who are at risk of experiencing physical and sexual violence.
Full Text Available Recent studies show that Alberta has the fifth highest rate of police reported intimate partner violence and the second highest rate of self reported spousal violence in Canada, and despite a 2.3 percent decline over the last decade, the province’s rate of self-reported domestic violence has stubbornly remained among the highest in Canada; rates of violence against women alone are 2.3 percentage points higher than the national average. In fact, every hour of every day, a woman in Alberta will undergo some form of interpersonal violence from an ex-partner or ex-spouse. Besides the devastating toll that domestic violence has on victims and their families, the ongoing cost to Albertans is significant. In the past five years alone it is estimated that over $600 million will have been spent on the provision of a few basic health and non health supports and that the majority of this cost ($521 million is coming out of the pockets of Albertans in the form of tax dollars directed at the provision of services. Fortunately, investment in quality prevention and intervention initiatives can be very cost effective, returning as much as $20 for every dollar invested. Recent research on preventative programming in the context of domestic violence shows promising results in reducing incidents of self-reported domestic violence. The economic analysis of this preventative programming suggests that the benefits of providing the various types of programming outweighed the costs by as much as 6:1. The potential cost savings for the Alberta context are significant; the implementation of these preventative programs has been estimated to be approximately $9.6 million while generating net cost-benefits of over $54 million. Domestic violence is a persistent blight, and continues to have a significant impact on individuals and families in Alberta, but potent tools exist to fight it. This brief paper offers a cogent summary of its costs, and the benefits that could be
Freire, Kimberley E.; Zakocs, Ronda; Le, Brenda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn
Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been recognized as a public health problem since the late 20th century. To spur IPV prevention efforts nationwide, the DELTA PREP Project selected 19 state domestic violence coalitions to build organizational prevention capacity and catalyze IPV primary prevention strategies within their states.…
Schmitz K Peter
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC. Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area.
Steiner, Birthe; Benner, Marie T; Sondorp, Egbert; Schmitz, K Peter; Mesmer, Ursula; Rosenberger, Sandrine
Background Despite international acknowledgement of the linkages between sexual violence and conflict, reliable data on its prevalence, the circumstances, characteristics of perpetrators, and physical or mental health impacts is rare. Among the conflicts that have been associated with widespread sexual violence has been the one in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Methods From 2003 till to date Malteser International has run a medico-social support programme for rape survivors in South Kivu province, DRC. In the context of this programme, a host of data was collected. We present these data and discuss the findings within the frame of available literature. Results Malteser International registered 20,517 female rape survivors in the three year period 2005–2007. Women of all ages have been targeted by sexual violence and only few of those – and many of them only after several years – sought medical care and psychological help. Sexual violence in the DRC frequently led to social, especially familial, exclusion. Members of military and paramilitary groups were identified as the main perpetrators of sexual violence. Conclusion We have documented that in the DRC conflict sexual violence has been – and continues to be – highly prevalent in a wide area in the East of the country. Humanitarian programming in this field is challenging due to the multiple needs of rape survivors. The easily accessible, integrated medical and psycho-social care that the programme offered apparently responded to the needs of many rape survivors in this area. PMID:19284879
Jamali, Safieh; Javadpour, Shohreh
Sexuality is an integral part of a woman's life. A variety of factors can affect a woman's sexuality, among them physical disorders, social-religious beliefs, age, psychological factors, depression, mental tension, disbelief, an unfulfilling relationship with one's spouse and emotional and physical violence. The present study aimed to explore the rate of domestic violence against women and its impact on women's sexuality. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 813 women referring to the gynaecology clinics of Jahrom, Iran, from April to October 2015. Data were collected using a demographics questionnaire, a violence questionnaire and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The collected data were analysed using Student's t-test and logistic regression. The prevalence of violence was found to be 43.2%. Also, there was a significant relationship between violence and age (OR=1.33 95% CI=2.22-7.95, pviolence was found to increase by 3.1 times with an increase in the length of marriage (OR=3.1595% CI=1.42-4.12, pviolence significantly correlated with women's education level (OR=11.75 95% CI=2.15-64.12, p=0.002) and their husband's education level (OR=0.194, 95%CI=0.329-0.919, p=0.02). The results showed that the sexual function mean score of non-abused women and abused women were 17.74±8.82 and 14.59±10.63, respectively. However, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding the domains of sexual function (pviolence is rather high and that can increase the risk of sexual dysfunction. Thus, routine screening for violence and sexual dysfunction is recommended for early detection of violence and sexual dysfunction.
Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Bacallao, Martica; Brown, Shelli; Bower, Meredith; Zimmerman, Marc
The purpose of the Youth Violence Prevention Centers (YVPC) Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to reduce youth violence in defined high-risk communities through the implementation and evaluation of comprehensive, evidence based prevention strategies. Within this common framework, each YVPC varies in its structure and methods, however all engage communities in multiple ways. We explore aspects of community engagement employed by three centers that operate in very different contexts: a rural county in North Carolina; a suburban area of Denver, Colorado; and an urban setting in Flint, Michigan. While previous research has addressed theories supporting community involvement in youth violence prevention, there has been less attention to the implementation challenges of achieving and sustaining participation. In three case examples, we describe the foci and methods for community engagement in diverse YVPC sites and detail the barriers and facilitating factors that have influenced implementation. Just as intervention programs may need to be adapted in order to meet the needs of specific populations, methods of community engagement must be tailored to the context in which they occur. We discuss case examples of community engagement in areas with varying geographies, histories, and racial and ethnic compositions. Each setting presents distinct challenges and opportunities for conducting collaborative violence prevention initiatives and for adapting engagement methods to diverse communities. Although approaches may vary depending upon local contexts, there are certain principles that appear to be common across cultures and geography: trust, transparency, communication, commitment. We also discuss the importance of flexibility in community engagement efforts.
Mahendra, Reshma R; Roehler, Douglas R; Degutis, Linda C
Injuries and violence impact millions across the globe each year. For the past 20 years, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has assembled the largest cadre of injury and violence prevention experts in the world to reduce the burden of injuries and violence domestically and to inform global injury and violence prevention efforts. This article focuses on NCIPC's global injury and violence prevention work that involves: increasing awareness of the preventability of injury and violence, partnerships to promote injury research and best practices; establishing standards and guidance for data collection; building capacity through training and mentoring; and supporting evidence-based strategies. To decrease the global burden, the authors propose priority setting to maximize the development and sustainability of financial and human resources for injury and violence prevention. The authors call for increased capacity and resources for global injury and violence prevention. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Alegría-Flores, Kei; Raker, Kelli; Pleasants, Robert K; Weaver, Mark A; Weinberger, Morris
Sexual assault, stalking, dating violence, and intimate partner violence, herein collectively termed interpersonal violence (IV), are public health problems affecting 20% to 25% of female college students. Currently, One Act is one of the few IV prevention training programs at universities that teach students bystander skills to intervene in low- and high-risk IV situations. The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate One Act's effects on date rape attitudes and behaviors, and bystanders' confidence, willingness to help, and behavior, and 2) to compare the effects on bystander skills between One Act and Helping Advocates for Violence Ending Now (HAVEN), an IV response training program with similar participants. Data were collected over 2 years, before and after One Act and HAVEN trainings. We measured outcomes with four scales: College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors, Bystander Confidence, Willingness to Help, and Bystander Behavior. The analysis compared within- and between-group mean differences in scale scores pre- and post-trainings using linear mixed models. One Act showed improvements for date rape attitudes and behaviors (p trainings' effects on bystander willingness to help and behavior had similar patterns but were not statistically significant. We found a larger positive impact on bystander confidence among students who participated in the bystander prevention training compared with the response training. Further research is needed to improve the measures for bystander behavior and measure the bystander trainings' larger impact on the community. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Introduction: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a widespread social structural problem that affects a great proportion of Ecuadorian women. IPV is a sexually, psychologically, or physically coercive act against an adult or adolescent woman by a current or former intimate partner. Not-for-profit groups in Ecuador report that 70% of women experience 1 of the forms of IPV sometime during their lifetime, but population-based surveys suggest that 41% of Ecuadorian women are exposed to emotional violence, 31% physical violence, and 12% sexual violence by their spouse or partner over their lifetime. Despite the high prevalence, the response of the Ecuadorian government has been insufficient to reduce the number of victims and to provide adequate legal and health services for the prevention and treatment of IPV. Given the power of economic data to influence policy making, the goal of this study is to produce the first estimate of the economic impact of IPV in Ecuador and to identify the policy paths in which these estimates would have the greatest impact for Ecuador.Methods: Using a bottom-up method for estimating the economic burden of IPV and a national prevalence of IPV based on a population-based survey in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 United States (U.S. currency rate. Results: Based on a prevalence of 255,267 women who were victims of IPV in the 2003–2004 year, the total economic burden is estimated at approximately $109 million adjusted to the 2012 the U.S. currency rate. The largest cost category contributing to the economic burden was the costs of healthcare services to treat injuries associated with IPV events.Conclusion: The asymmetry between the economic burden of IPV and the amount of government resources devoted to IPV prevention efforts suggests the need for a greater role to be played by the government and other factors in society in the area of IPV
Catherine L Ward, ProfPhD
disorder 2·81, 1·65–4·78; depression 3·43, 2·26–5·19; anxiety 2·48, 1·61–3·81. Interpretation: Sexual violence is widespread among both girls and boys, and is associated with serious health problems. Associated factors require multisectoral responses to prevent sexual violence or mitigate consequences. Funding: UBS Optimus Foundation.
Al-Quaiz, Al-Joharah M; Raheel, Hafsa M
To determine the frequency, experiences and correlates of sexual violence among female adolescents in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2 schools in Riyadh city for adolescent females starting from January 2008 for 3 months. Five classes with 25 students in each were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary grade of each school. Four hundred and nineteen students were included. A self-answering questionnaire was distributed and collected after 15 minutes by 3 research assistants. Forty-two adolescent students (10%) were exposed to sexual violence. Only 31% of the students were taught how to react to sexual violence. Students whose order was > or = 5th among siblings and who had unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were more exposed to sexual violence (chi2=4.02, p=0.044, chi2=4.24, p=0.039). Being > or = 5th in order among siblings and having unsupportive parents in discussing sexual issues were correlates for exposure to sexual violence.
Turchik, Jessica A; Hebenstreit, Claire L; Judson, Stephanie S
Although the majority of adulthood sexual violence involves a male perpetrator and a female victim, there is also substantial evidence that members of both genders can be victims and perpetrators of sexual violence. As an alternative to viewing sexual violence within gender-specific terms, we advocate for the use of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual aggression that takes into account the factors that contribute to sexual victimization of, and victimization by, both men and women. The goal of the current review is to examine the need and importance of a gender inclusive conceptualization of sexual violence and to discuss how compatible our current theories are with this conceptualization. First, we examine evidence of how a gender-specific conceptualization of sexual violence aids in obscuring assault experiences that are not male to female and how this impacts victims of such violence. We specifically discuss this impact regarding research, law, public awareness, advocacy, and available victim treatment and resources. Next, we provide an overview of a number of major sexual violence theories that are relevant for adult perpetrators and adult victims, including neurobiological and integrated biological theories, evolutionary psychology theory, routine activity theory, feminist theory, social learning and related theories, typology approaches, and integrated theories. We critically examine these theories' applicability to thinking about sexual violence through a gender inclusive lens. Finally, we discuss further directions for research, clinical interventions, and advocacy in this area. Specifically, we encourage sexual violence researchers and clinicians to identify and utilize appropriate theoretical frameworks and to apply these frameworks in ways that incorporate a full range of sexual violence. © The Author(s) 2015.
Olver, Mark E; Mundt, James C; Thornton, David; Beggs Christofferson, Sarah M; Kingston, Drew A; Sowden, Justina N; Nicholaichuk, Terry P; Gordon, Audrey; Wong, Stephen C P
The present study sought to develop updated risk categories and recidivism estimates for the Violence Risk Scale-Sexual Offense version (VRS-SO; Wong, Olver, Nicholaichuk, & Gordon, 2003-2017), a sexual offender risk assessment and treatment planning tool. The overarching purpose was to increase the clarity and accuracy of communicating risk assessment information that includes a systematic incorporation of new information (i.e., change) to modify risk estimates. Four treated samples of sexual offenders with VRS-SO pretreatment, posttreatment, and Static-99R ratings were combined with a minimum follow-up period of 10-years postrelease (N = 913). Logistic regression was used to model 5- and 10-year sexual and violent (including sexual) recidivism estimates across 6 different regression models employing specific risk and change score information from the VRS-SO and/or Static-99R. A rationale is presented for clinical applications of select models and the necessity of controlling for baseline risk when utilizing change information across repeated assessments. Information concerning relative risk (percentiles) and absolute risk (recidivism estimates) is integrated with common risk assessment language guidelines to generate new risk categories for the VRS-SO. Guidelines for model selection and forensic clinical application of the risk estimates are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Soon Ki Kim
Full Text Available School bullying has become a major social problem in Korea after the emergence of media reports on children who committed suicide after being victimized by bullies. In this article, we review the characteristics of bullying, and investigate the role of the pediatrician in the prevention of and intervention against bullying and school violence. Bullying can take on many forms such as physical threat, verbal humiliation, malicious rumors, and social ostracism. The prevalence of bullying in various countries is approximately 10% to 20%. In Korea, the prevalence of school violence is similar but seems to be more intense because of the highly competitive environment. From our review of literature, we found that children who were bullied had a significantly higher risk of developing psychosomatic and psychosocial problems such as headache, abdominal pain, anxiety, and depression than those who were not bullied. Hence, it is important for health practitioners to detect these signs in a child who was bullied by questioning and examining the child, and to determine whether bullying plays a contributing role when a child exhibits such signs. Pediatricians can play an important role in the prevention of or intervention against school violence along with school authorities, parents, and community leaders. Moreover, guidelines to prevent school violence, such as the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program, KiVa of the Finish Ministry of Education, and Connected Kids: Safe, Strong, Secure of the American Academy Pediatrics, should be implemented.
Crawford, Diane Lynn
This case study was initiated to explore how 6 fourth-grade student mediators implemented an inner-city elementary school's violence prevention program based on peer mediation in the context of psychosocial theory. The participants were trained in conflict resolution to intervene with disputants who experienced unresolved disagreements. To…
Barnes, Tia Navelene; Leite, Walter; Smith, Stephen W.
Violence prevention programs are commonplace in today's schools, though reviews of the literature reveal mixed empirical findings on their effectiveness. Often, these programs include a variety of components such as social skills training, student mentoring, and activities designed to build a sense of school community that have not been tested for…
IDRC's efforts in negotiation and coalition building contributed to a high-level dialogue that engaged high-level officials and reaffirmed their commitment to preventing violence particularly among youth in Central America. At a meeting held at the Earth University in Costa Rica´s Limon Province in early February, Luis Fallas, ...
Michau, Lori; Horn, Jessica; Bank, Amy; Dutt, Mallika; Zimmerman, Cathy
This Series paper describes programming to prevent violence against women and girls, and emphasises the importance of systematic, sustained programming across the social ecology (ie, the delicate equilibrium of interacting social, institutional, cultural, and political contexts of people's lives) to transform gender-power inequalities. Effective prevention policy and programming is founded on five core principles: first, analysis and actions to prevent violence across the social ecology (individual, interpersonal, community, and societal); second, intervention designs based on an intersectional gender-power analysis; third, theory-informed models developed on the basis of evidence; fourth, sustained investment in multisector interventions; and finally, aspirational programming that promotes personal and collective thought, and enables activism on women's and girls' rights to violence-free lives. Prevention programming of the future will depend on all of us having a vision of, and a commitment to, gender equality to make violence-free lives for women and girls a reality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the experience of networks for the protection of people exposed to situations of violence or prevention networks. It is based on the concept created by Castells, who defines the information age. This study is part of the investigation "Successful experiences in the prevention of violence", carried out by the Latin-American Center for Studies on Violence Jorge Careli/ENSP-IFF/Fiocruz, in cooperation with the Secretariat for Health Survey of the Ministry of Health. The article analyzes the possibilities and limitations in the construction of networks for the prevention of violence, seeking to understand the sense of actions and movements carried out in networks. The method we used is a case study of two network initiatives in the Southern region of the country. In terms of results, in face of the difficulties of working in networks, we found it to be necessary: to break with sectorial and vertical actions; to promote constant communication and interchange of information; to permanently train the professionals and persons involved in the network, incorporating them into the protective and preventive actions; and to promote the participation of wide social sectors. In conclusion, one can affirm that the construction of a protection network involves complex steps, looking to the same problem with new eyes and a new vision for planting solutions.
Bruening, Rebecca A; Strazza, Karen; Nocera, Maryalice; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Casteel, Carri
Worksite wellness, safety, and violence prevention programs have low penetration among small, independent businesses. This study examined barriers and strategies influencing small business participation in workplace violence prevention programs (WVPPs). A semistructured interview guide was used in 32 telephone interviews. The study took place at the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center. Participating were a purposive sample of 32 representatives of small business-serving organizations (e.g., business membership organizations, regulatory agencies, and economic development organizations) selected for their experience with small businesses. This study was designed to inform improved dissemination of Crime Free Business (CFB), a WVPP for small, independent retail businesses. Thematic qualitative data analysis was used to identify key barriers and strategies for promoting programs and services to small businesses. Three key factors that influence small business engagement emerged from the analysis: (1) small businesses' limited time and resources, (2) low salience of workplace violence, (3) influence of informal networks and source credibility. Identified strategies include designing low-cost and convenient programs, crafting effective messages, partnering with influential organizations and individuals, and conducting outreach through informal networks. Workplace violence prevention and public health practitioners may increase small business participation in programs by reducing time and resource demands, addressing small business concerns, enlisting support from influential individuals and groups, and emphasizing business benefits of participating in the program.
Yavuzer, Yasemin; Gundogdu, Rezzan
It is generally acknowledged that teachers play an important role in preventing or reducing violence in schools. The objectives of this study were: (a) to identify teachers' responsibilities in terms of preventing violence among school children and (b) to solicit teachers' views as what they have been doing in preventing violence. Sample for the…
Platt, Vanessa Borges; Back, Isabela de Carlos; Hauschild, Daniela Barbieri; Guedert, Jucélia Maria
The scope of this study was to identify the characteristics of sexual abuse against children including the profiles of the victims and the perpetrators, and associated factors notified in a health service of reference with the database of the Brazilian Case Registry Database, in a city in the south of Brazil. Categorical variables are presented in prevalence with 95% confidence intervals. There were 489 notifications from 2008 to 2014 of confirmed or suspected child sexual abuse. The majority was related to female victims, but the repeated abuse was reported mainly with male victims. In most cases, the abuse took place at the victims' or perpetrators' homes and the main perpetrators of abuse were male and acquainted with the victims. Twelve victims have contracted sexually transmitted infections; pregnancies were six, five of them legally terminated. This study highlights that the child sexual abuse profiles were similar in almost all of Brazilian regions, showing that it is possible to have a coordinated national action to prevent this offence.
Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann; Andersen, Lars Peter; Hogh, Annie
This longitudinal study investigates the relationship between prevention behaviors, that is, enacted violence prevention policies, and exposure to workplace violence and threats across four different high risk work sectors: psychiatry, special schools, eldercare, and the prison and probation services. Logistic regression analysis of a 1-year follow-up sample of 3.016 employees from these four sectors shows that prevention behaviors are significantly and negatively associated with self-reported exposure to workplace violence and threats-in the prison and probation services, eldercare, and in psychiatry, while no significant associations are found for special schools. The results therefore show clear sector differences with regard to the preventive effect of violence prevention behaviors. Furthermore, this multisector comparison suggests that prevention behaviors are more effective in relation to a moderate frequency of violence and threats, and that only top management prevention behavior can prevent very frequent incidents (odds ratio [ OR] = 0.58). This study contributes to the literature by use of a longitudinal design and acceptable response rates, while also simultaneously investigating several high risk sectors. The results imply that when managing workplace violence in high risk areas of human service work, there should be emphasis on the use of violence prevention behaviors from top management, supervisor, and among coworkers. However, type of sector and the frequency of workplace violence should be analyzed to evaluate the potential impact of prevention behaviors.
Whitehill, Jennifer M; Webster, Daniel W; Frattaroli, Shannon; Parker, Elizabeth M
Cities are increasingly adopting CeaseFire, an evidence-based public health program that uses specialized outreach workers, called violence interrupters (VIs), to mediate potentially violent conflicts before they lead to a shooting. Prior research has linked conflict mediation with program-related reductions in homicides, but the specific conflict mediation practices used by effective programs to prevent imminent gun violence have not been identified. We conducted case studies of CeaseFire programs in two inner cities using qualitative data from focus groups with 24 VIs and interviews with eight program managers. Study sites were purposively sampled to represent programs with more than 1 year of implementation and evidence of program effectiveness. Staff with more than 6 months of job experience were recruited for participation. Successful mediation efforts were built on trust and respect between VIs and the community, especially high-risk individuals. In conflict mediation, immediate priorities included separating the potential shooter from the intended victim and from peers who may encourage violence, followed by persuading the parties to resolve the conflict peacefully. Tactics for brokering peace included arranging the return of stolen property and emphasizing negative consequences of violence such as jail, death, or increased police attention. Utilizing these approaches, VIs are capable of preventing gun violence and interrupting cycles of retaliation.
Schroll, Anne-Mette; Tabor, Ann; Kjaergaard, Hanne
To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history.......To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history....
Draper, Jordan Leigh
Nearly 20% of college females and 6% of college males will experience a form of sexual assault while enrolled in a college or university (Krebs, Lindquist, Warner, Fisher, & Martin, 2007). Sexual violence is not a new issue within college environments; however, it is rapidly gaining media attention based on victim testimonials and additional…
Parkes, Jenny; Heslop, Jo; Januario, Francisco; Oando, Samwel; Sabaa, Susan
This paper interrogates the influence of a tradition-modernity dichotomy on perspectives and practices on sexual violence and sexual relationships involving girls in three districts of Kenya, Ghana and Mozambique. Through deploying an analytical framework of positioning within multiple discursive sites, we argue that although the dichotomy…
Snyder, Jamie A.; Scherer, Heidi L.; Fisher, Bonnie S.
Researchers have shown that college students are at an increased risk of experiencing interpersonal violence (IV). One factor that appears to play a role in shaping their likelihood of IV is sexual orientation. However, little is known about this relationship and how IV risk varies across categories of sexual orientation. Utilizing a sample of…
Choudhary, Ekta; Coben, Jeffrey; Bossarte, Robert M.
In the United States, an estimated three million men are victims of sexual violence each year, yet the majority of existing studies have evaluated the consequences and characteristics of victimization among women alone. The result has been a gap in the existing literature examining the physical and psychological consequences of sexual assault…
Phipps, Alison; Ringrose, Jessica; Renold, Emma; Jackson, Carolyn
Introduction to Special Issue of Journal of Gender Studies entitled Rape culture, lad culture and everyday sexism: Researching, conceptualizing and politicizing new mediations of gender and sexual violence.
Kutsa, Oksana; Marcus, Ruthanne; Bojko, Martha J; Zelenev, Alexei; Mazhnaya, Alyona; Dvoriak, Sergii; Filippovych, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L
Ukraine's volatile HIV epidemic, one of the largest in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, remains concentrated in people who inject drugs (PWID). HIV prevalence is high (21.3% to 41.8%) among the estimated 310,000 PWID. Opioid agonist therapy (OAT) is the most cost-effective HIV prevention strategy there, yet OAT services are hampered by negative attitudes and frequent harassment of OAT clients and site personnel by law enforcement. This paper examines the various types of police violence that Ukrainian PWID experience and factors associated with the different types of violence, as well as the possible implications of police harassment on OAT retention. In 2014 to 2015, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in five Ukrainian cities with 1613 PWID currently, previously and never on OAT, using a combination of respondent-driven sampling, as well as random sampling. We analysed correlates of police violence by multiple factors, including by gender, and their effects on duration of OAT retention. Self-reported physical and sexual violence by police were the two primary outcomes, while retention on OAT was used as a secondary outcome. Overall, 1033 (64.0%) PWID reported being physically assaulted by police, which was positively correlated with currently or previously being on OAT (69.1% vs. 60.2%; pmen experiencing significantly more physical violence, while women experienced more sexual violence (65.9% vs. 42.6%; psexual assault by police and fewer non-fatal overdoses. Police violence is a frequent experience among PWID in Ukraine, particularly for those accessing OAT, an evidence-based primary and secondary HIV prevention strategy. Police violence experiences, however, were different for men and women, and interventions with police that address these sexual differences and focus on non-violent interactions with PWID to improve access and retention on OAT are crucial for improving HIV prevention and treatment goals for Ukraine.
Wong, Janet Yuen-Ha; Choi, Edmond Pui-Hang; Lo, Herman Hay-Ming; Wong, Wendy; Chio, Jasmine Hin-Man; Choi, Anna Wai-Man; Fong, Daniel Yee-Tak
Theories explaining the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health have focused on heterosexual relationships. It is unclear whether mental health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people are due to IPV or factors related to sexual orientation. The present study aimed to investigate pathways of how sexual orientation influenced quality of life and mental health. The present cross-sectional study was conducted in 1076 young adults in a university population (934 heterosexual and 142 sexual minority groups). Structural equation modelling was used to examine the pathways of sexual orientation, dating violence, sexual orientation concealment, quality of life and mental health (perceived stress, anxiety and depression). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, quality of life in sexual minority people was poorer [estimate -2.82, 95 % confidence interval (CI) -4.77 to -0.86, p = 0.005], and stress (estimate 2.77, 95 % CI 1.64-3.92, p violence and sexual orientation concealment were mediators, with the models showing a good fit. Our study has progressed investigation of the link between sexual orientation and quality of life and mental health in the Chinese context. It has helped identify health disparities between heterosexual and sexual minority people and determined specific factors affecting their quality of life and mental health.
... victims of sexual assault. The ASD(HA) shall direct that all sexual assault patients be given priority, so... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Office of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 103 [DoD-2008-OS-0124; 0790-AI37] Sexual... Program on prevention, response, and oversight to sexual assault. It is DoD policy to establish a culture...
Alemayehu, Mussie; Yohannes, Gebregizabeher; Damte, Ashenafi; Fantahun, Atsede; Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Tsegay, Resom; Goldberger, Adina; Yebyo, Henock
Gender-based violence is a natural outgrowth of the stigma and discrimination experienced by commercial sex workers (CSWs) across the globe. In light of this, the current study aimed to describe the prevalence and character of sexual violence, as well as any risk factors for violence, experienced by CSWs in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle City in April 2013. 250 CSWs were selected for participation using simple random sampling. Data were collected via a questionnaire instrument. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS 20 for Windows. The overall prevalence of sexual violence among CSWs was 75.6 %. Basic literacy [(AOR = 5.3, 95 % of CI (1.15-25.20)], completion of only elementary school [AOR = 6.9, 95 % of CI (1.55-31.25)], completion of only high school [AOR = 7.9, 95 % of CI (1.65-38.16)], being married [(AOR = 3.8, 95 % CI (1.34-11.09)], engaging in sex work for 1-4 years [(AOR = 5.3, 95 % CI(1.7-16.2)] and drug use [AOR = 5.3, 95 % of CI (1.78-16.21)] were all significant risk factors for sexual violence. CSWs with lower monthly income were also more likely to experience sexual violence; monthly income of 51.2-101.9 USD yielded AOR = 2.4 (95 % CI 1.12-5.37) and monthly income of 102.2-153.1 USD yielded AOR = 7.9 (95 % CI 2.46-25.58), compared to CSWs earning 153.2 USD or more. The prevalence of sexual violence among CSWs is high. Lower educational attainment, being married, lower monthly income, drug use, and shorter duration of sex work are all risk factors for sexual violence.
Henriksen, L; Schei, B; Vangen, S; Lukasse, M
This study aimed to explore the association between sexual violence and mode of delivery. National cohort study. Women presenting for routine ultrasound examinations were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 1999 and 2008. A total of 74,059 pregnant women. Sexual violence was self-reported during pregnancy using postal questionnaires. Mode of delivery, other maternal birth outcomes and covariates were retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Risk estimations were performed using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Mode of delivery and selected maternal birth outcomes. Of 74,059 women, 18.4% reported a history of sexual violence. A total of 10% had an operative vaginal birth, 4.9% had elective caesarean section and 8.6% had an emergency caesarean section. Severe sexual violence (rape) was associated with elective caesarean section, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.56 (95% CI 1.18-2.05) for nulliparous women and 1.37 (1.06-1.76) for multiparous women. Those exposed to moderate sexual violence had a higher risk of emergency caesarean section, AOR 1.31 (1.07-1.60) and 1.41 (1.08-1.84) for nulliparous and multiparous women, respectively. No association was found between sexual violence and operative vaginal birth, except for a lower risk among multiparous women reporting mild sexual violence, AOR 0.73 (0.60-0.89). Analysis of other maternal outcomes showed a reduced risk of episiotomy for women reporting rape and a higher frequency of induced labour. Women with a history of rape had higher odds of elective caesarean section and induction and significantly fewer episiotomies. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Lundberg, Patric; Nakasujja, Noeline; Musisi, Seggane; Thorson, Anna Ekéus; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Allebeck, Peter
We investigated prevalence of past-year sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure in persons with severe mental illness (SMI) in Uganda, and compared results to general population estimates. We also investigated whether persons with SMI reporting sexual risk behavior and sexual violence exposure were more likely to be HIV-infected. We included 602 persons consecutively discharged from Butabika Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, February to April 2010. We asked about past-year number of sexual partners and condom use. We assessed sexual violence with the World Health Organization Violence Against Women Instrument. We performed HIV testing. We used data from 2011 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey for comparison. Women with SMI had more sexual risk behavior and more sexual violence exposure than women in the general population. We found no difference in sexual risk behavior in men. Sexual risk behavior was associated with HIV infection in men, but not women. Sexual violence exposure was not associated with HIV infection in women. Findings suggest that SMI exacerbates Ugandan women's sexual vulnerability. Public health practitioners, policymakers, and legislators should act to protect health and rights of women with SMI in resource-poor settings.
Teitelman, Anne M.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Morales-Aleman, Mercedes M.; Sullivan, Cris M.
This study examined the association between sexual relationship power, intimate partner violence, and condom use among African American and Hispanic urban girls. In this sample of 56 sexually active girls, 50% did not use condoms consistently and therefore were at higher risk for acquiring HIV or sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Teens who experienced more intimate partner violence had a significantly higher likelihood of inconsistent condom use and therefore a greater risk for HIV/STDs. Girls' sense of sexual control in their relationships was not directly associated with inconsistent condom use but was inversely related to verbal and emotional abuse. Interventions aimed at reducing HIV/STD risk for adolescent girls need to address patterns of dominance and control in adolescent relationships as well as multiple forms of partner violence. This suggests the need for multilevel intervention approaches that promote girls' agency and multiple ways to keep girls safe from perpetrators of partner abuse. PMID:18349344
Despite half a century of research on both sexual violence and elder abuse, the intersection between the two remains largely unexplored. Using theoretical lenses of feminist criminology and critical feminist gerontology, this article explores the intersection between age and sexual violence drawing on interviews with 23 practitioners supporting older survivors (aged 60 and over). They reported physical and emotional effects of sexual violence leading to limited lifestyles, disengagement from social networks, and reliance on pathogenic coping strategies. Provision of effective support was complicated by challenges associated with aging bodies and the social stigma associated with both sexual victimhood and older age. Additional challenges lay in supporting older male survivors and those living with dementia. The article ends by discussing implications for practice and an agenda for future research.
Eisenman, David P; Flavahan, Louise
This paper asks what programmes and policies for preventing violent extremism (also called 'countering violent extremism', or CVE) can learn from the public health violence prevention field. The general answer is that addressing violent extremism within the wider domain of public health violence prevention connects the effort to a relevant field of research, evidence-based policy and programming, and a broader population reach. This answer is reached by examining conceptual alignments between the two fields at both the case-level and the theoretical level. To address extremist violence within the wider reach of violence prevention, having a shared model is seen as a first step. The World Health Organization uses the social-ecological framework for assessing the risk and protective factors for violence and developing effective public-health based programmes. This study illustrates how this model has been used for gang violence prevention and explores overlaps between gang violence prevention and preventing violent extremism. Finally, it provides policy and programme recommendations to align CVE with public health violence prevention.
Nydegger, Liesl A; DiFranceisco, Wayne; Quinn, Katherine; Dickson-Gomez, Julia
Unequal gender norms and age-disparate sexual relationships can lead to power imbalances and are also associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), sexual coercion and violence, and sexual risk behaviors. The present study examined these variables from both victim and perpetrator perspectives among adolescent gang members. Age-disparate sexual relationships were defined as sex partners 5 or more years older among female participants and 5 or more years younger among male participants. Participants were recruited from a mid-sized Midwestern city and completed a 60-90-min audio computer-assisted self-interview in a community-based setting. Participants in this study included 107 female gang members (68 % African-American, 19 % Latina; mean age, 17.6) and 169 male gang members (62 % African-American, 28 % Latino; mean age, 17.7). As hypothesized, endorsing unequal gender norms toward women was significantly related to IPV victimization among female participants and perpetration among male participants, and engagement in group sex in the past month among both female and male participants (ps sexual relationships were significantly more likely to have experienced more IPV and report being raped and males gang members who had age-disparate sexual relationships were significantly more likely to perpetrate IPV in the past year and perpetrate rape (ps sexual relationships were also significantly related to being gang raped among female gang members and participating in a gang rape among male gang members, and engaging in group sex among both female and male gang members (ps sexual relationships were more likely to have been pregnant (ps sexual coercion/violence. Early intervention will also be necessary as these adolescent gang members are already engaged in extremely high-risk, coercive, and violent behaviors.
Kristin L Dunkle
-perpetrators (aOR = 3.58; 95% CI 1.17-10.9.In this sample, one in 20 men (5.4% reported lifetime consensual sexual contact with a man, while about one in ten (9.6% reported experience of male-on-male sexual violence victimization. Men who reported having had sex with men were more likely to be HIV+, as were men who reported perpetrating sexual violence towards other men. Whilst there was no direct measure of male-female concurrency (having overlapping sexual relationships with men and women, the data suggest that this may have been common. These findings suggest that HIV prevention messages regarding male-male sex in South Africa should be mainstreamed with prevention messages for the general population, and sexual health interventions and HIV prevention interventions for South African men should explicitly address male-on-male sexual violence.
Dunkle, Kristin L.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Murdock, Daniel W.; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert
were more likely to be HIV+ than non-perpetrators (aOR = 3.58; 95% CI 1.17–10.9). Conclusions In this sample, one in 20 men (5.4%) reported lifetime consensual sexual contact with a man, while about one in ten (9.6%) reported experience of male-on-male sexual violence victimization. Men who reported having had sex with men were more likely to be HIV+, as were men who reported perpetrating sexual violence towards other men. Whilst there was no direct measure of male–female concurrency (having overlapping sexual relationships with men and women), the data suggest that this may have been common. These findings suggest that HIV prevention messages regarding male–male sex in South Africa should be mainstreamed with prevention messages for the general population, and sexual health interventions and HIV prevention interventions for South African men should explicitly address male-on-male sexual violence. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23853554
Jaime, Maria Catrina D; McCauley, Heather L; Tancredi, Daniel J; Decker, Michele R; Silverman, Jay G; O'Connor, Brian; Miller, Elizabeth
Teen dating violence and sexual violence are severe public health problems. Abusive behaviors within the context of dating or romantic relationships are associated with adverse health outcomes. Promoting positive bystander intervention and increasing knowledge of abusive behaviors are promising strategies for preventing dating and sexual violence. Coaching Boys Into Men (CBIM) is an evidence-based, athletic coach-delivered dating violence prevention program that has been shown to increase positive bystander behaviors and reduce abuse perpetration among high school male athletes. Identifying specific barriers and facilitators based on the coaches' experiences with program delivery combined with the coaches' and athletes' program perceptions may help optimize future CBIM implementation and sustainability. Semi-structured interviews with coaches (n = 36) explored the implementers' perspectives on strategies that worked well and potential barriers to program implementation. Ten focus groups with male athletes (n = 39) assessed their experiences with CBIM and the suitability of having their coaches deliver this program. Coaches described using the CBIM training cards and integrating program delivery during practice. Athletes reported coaches routinely delivering the CBIM program and adding their own personal stories or examples to the discussions. Key facilitators to program implementation include support from the violence prevention advocate, the ease of integrating CBIM into the sports season, and using the program materials. Barriers to implementation included finding sufficient time for the program, dynamics of delivering sensitive program content, and participant constraints. Coaches and athletes alike found the program feasible and acceptable to implement within the sports setting. Both coaches and athletes offered insights on the implementation and the feasibility and acceptability of CBIM within school-based athletic programs. These experiences by
Frey, Lisa L; Beesley, Denise; Abbott, Deah; Kendrick, Elizabeth
There is little research related to sexual assault and domestic violence advocates' experiences, with the bulk of the literature focused on stressors and systemic barriers that negatively impact efforts to assist survivors. However, advocates participating in these studies have also emphasized the positive impact they experience consequent to their work. This study explores the positive impact. Vicarious resilience, personal trauma experiences, peer relational quality, and perceived organizational support in advocates (n = 222) are examined. Also, overlap among the conceptual components of vicarious resilience is explored. The first set of multiple regressions showed that personal trauma experiences and peer relational health predicted compassion satisfaction and vicarious posttraumatic growth, with organizational support predicting only compassion satisfaction. The second set of multiple regressions showed that (a) there was significant shared variance between vicarious posttraumatic growth and compassion satisfaction; (b) after accounting for vicarious posttraumatic growth, organizational support accounted for significant variance in compassion satisfaction; and (c) after accounting for compassion satisfaction, peer relational health accounted for significant variance in vicarious posttraumatic growth. Results suggest that it may be more meaningful to conceptualize advocates' personal growth related to their work through the lens of a multidimensional construct such as vicarious resilience. Organizational strategies promoting vicarious resilience (e.g., shared organizational power, training components) are offered, and the value to trauma-informed care of fostering advocates' vicarious resilience is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Godier, Lauren; Fossey, Matt
Despite media interest in alleged sexual violence and harassment in the UK military, there remains a paucity of UK-based peer-reviewed research in this area. Ministry of Defence and service-specific reports support the suggestion that UK service personnel may be at risk of experiencing sexual harassment. These reports however highlight a reluctance by service personnel to report sexual harassment through official channels. In this article, we discuss the paucity of UK-based research pertainin...
... violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... 2016. National Domestic Violence Hotline website. What is domestic violence? www.thehotline.org/is-this-abuse/abuse-defined . Accessed July 10, 2016.
Full Text Available Amid unprecedented growth in access to information communication technologies (ICTs, particularly in the developing world, how can international actors, governments, and civil society organizations leverage ICTs and the data they generate to more effectively prevent violence and conflict? New research shows that there is huge potential for innovative technologies to inform conflict prevention efforts, particularly when technology is used to help information flow horizontally between citizens and when it is integrated into existing civil society initiatives.1 However, new technologies are not a panacea for preventing and reducing violence and conflict. In fact, failure to consider the possible knock-on effects of applying a specific technology can lead to fatal outcomes in violent settings. In addition, employing new technologies for conflict prevention can produce very different results depending on the context in which they are applied and whether or not those using the technology take that context into account. This is particularly true in light of the dramatic changes underway in the landscapes of violence and conflict on a global level. As such, instead of focusing on supply-driven technical fixes, those undertaking prevention initiatives should let the context inform what kind of technology is needed and what kind of approach will work best.
Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A; Stein, Nan D
We examine whether the Shifting Boundaries (SB) intervention, a primary intervention to prevent youth dating violence and sexual harassment (DV/H), is differentially effective for girls compared with boys or for youth with a history of DV/H experiences. We randomly assigned SB to 30 public middle schools in New York City, enrolling 117 sixth and seventh grade classes to receive a classroom, building, combined, or neither intervention. The SB classroom intervention included six sessions emphasizing the laws/consequences of DV/H, establishing boundaries and safe relationships. The SB schoolwide/building intervention included the use of school-based restraining orders, greater faculty/security presence in unsafe "hot spots" mapped by students, and posters to increase DV/H awareness and reporting. Student surveys were implemented at baseline, immediately after intervention, and 6 months after intervention. At 6 months after intervention, the SB building-level intervention was associated with significant reductions in the frequency of sexual harassment (SH) perpetration and victimization; the prevalence and frequency of sexual dating violence victimization; and the frequency of total dating violence victimization and perpetration. We also had one anomalous finding that the interventions were associated with an increase in the prevalence of SH victimization. These results were consistent for girls and boys, and those with or without a history of DV/H, with the one exception for those exposed to the SB building condition who had earlier reported perpetrating SH had a significantly lower frequency of perpetrating SH at the follow-up than those without such a history. SB can provide effective universal prevention of middle school DV/H experiences, regardless of students' prior exposure histories, and for boys and girls. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Powers, Ráchael A; Leili, Jennifer
This study is an exploratory analysis of how bar staff perceive their role in preventing sexual harassment and assault. In particular, through qualitative focus group interviews, this study explores bar staff's attitudes surrounding sexual harassment/assault, how they currently handle these situations, and their opinions regarding programs and policies that currently mandate responsibility. Six major themes emerged including their hesitation to discuss sexual violence, their unique position as a service provider, their lack of knowledge (but eagerness to learn), and their reliance on stereotypical scenarios of sexual violence and interventions. These findings are situated in a framework for understanding barriers to bystander intervention and implications for community-based bystander programs are discussed.
Ohlert, Jeannine; Seidler, Corinna; Rau, Thea; Fegert, Jörg; Allroggen, Marc
Research on sexual violence victims and perpetrators indicates that victims in general are found to report higher levels of psychopathological symptoms, especially internalizing behavior, whereas perpetrators often show externalizing behavior. Little is known, however, about the psychopathology of perpetrators of sexual violence who have also experienced sexual victimization (victim-perpetrators). Thus, the aim of the current study was to examine this group within a sample of adolescents living in residential care or federal boarding schools. Participants reported their lifetime experience with sexual violence (both as victim and perpetrator) and completed the Youth Self Report. Results indicate that all three groups of adolescents with sexual violence experience report higher total problem scores than adolescents without this experience. Victim-perpetrators show results more similar to those of perpetrators only than those of victims only. The discussion deals with the implications of our findings for the treatment of victims of sexual violence.
Hébert, Martine; Moreau, Catherine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is identified as a significant risk factor for later victimization in the context of adult intimate relationships, but less is known about the risk associated with CSA in early romantic relationships. This paper aims to document the association between CSA and teen dating victimization in a large representative sample of Quebec high-school students. As part of the Youths’ Romantic Relationships Project, 8,194 teens completed measures on CSA and psychological, physical and sexual dating violence. After controlling for other interpersonal traumas, results show that CSA contributed to all three forms of dating victimization among both boys and girls. The heightened risk of revictimization appears to be stronger for male victims of CSA. Intervention and prevention efforts are clearly needed to reduce the vulnerability of male and female victims of sexual abuse who are entering the crucial phase of adolescence and first romantic relationships. PMID:29308104
Concha-Eastman, A; Guerrero, R
Violence prevention policies should be based on information, follow-up, research, and analysis, all of which increase the chances of success and make it easier to evaluate interventions. This implies, in turn, that there is a need to create surveillance, research, and prevention models for violence within the sphere of public health and epidemiology, a task that constitutes an integral part of the Pan American Health Organization's Regional Plan of Action Health and Violence. This article describes the objectives of epidemiologic surveillance systems and explains their purpose and scope, along with the barriers that stand in the way of their implementation. It also examines a number of variables and their definitions, the types of analyses and reports that should be generated, and the decisions that can be made on the basis of these reports. Finally, it discusses ethical criteria and describes the experiences of the program known as Desarrollo, Seguridad y Paz (DESEPAZ) in Cali and Santa Fe de Bogota, Colombia, where an epidemiologic surveillance system against violence has been implemented.
Pyra, Maria; Weber, Kathleen; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; Murchison, Lynn; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Cohen, Mardge H
Sexual minority women with and at-risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may face increased risks of violence. To understand the relationship between sexual minority status and violence; and how high-risk sex and substance use mediate that relationship among women with and at-risk for HIV. Longitudinal study of 1,235 HIV infected and 508 uninfected women of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) cohort, from New York City, NY, Chicago, IL, Washington D.C., and San Francisco, CA, 1994-2012. Primary exposures are sexual identity (heterosexual, bisexual, lesbian/gay) and sexual behavior (male, female, or male & female partners). Primary outcomes are sexual abuse, intimate partner violence (IPV) and physical violence; high-risk sex and substance use were examined as mediators. Bisexual women were at increased odds for sexual abuse [aOR 1.56 (1.00, 2.44)], IPV [aOR 1.50 (1.08, 2.09)], and physical violence [aOR 1.77 (1.33, 2.37)] compared to heterosexual women. In a separate analysis, women who reported sex with men and women (WSMW) had increased odds for sexual abuse [aOR 1.65 (0.99, 2.77], IPV [aOR 1.50 (1.09, 2.06)] and physical violence [aOR 2.24 (1.69, 2.98)] compared to women having sex only with men (WSM). Using indirect effects, multiple sex partners, cocaine and marijuana were significant mediators for most forms of abuse. Transactional sex was only a mediator for bisexual women. Women who reported sex only with women (WSW) had lower odds of sexual abuse [aOR 0.23 (0.06, 0.89)] and physical violence [aOR 0.42 (0.21, 0.85)] compared to WSM. Women who identify as bisexual or report both male and female sex partners are most vulnerable to violence; multiple recent sex partners, transactional sex and some types of substance use mediate this relationship. Acknowledging sexual identity and behavior, while addressing substance use and high-risk sex in clinical and psychosocial settings, may help reduce violence exposure among women with and at-risk for HIV.
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Grinnell-Davis, Claudette; Clark, Trenette T; Quinn, Camille R; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R
This study explored the relationship between the involvement of biological fathers and the sexual risk behaviors and dating violence/victimization and/or perpetration of adolescent girls. The data used in this cross-sectional analysis were drawn from the second wave of the public release of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Only adolescents who reported their biological sex as female, reported a history of being sexually active, and reported having a romantic partner in the previous 18 months were selected (N = 879). This study focused on overall positive sexual behaviors and use of contraception. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to best utilize capacity for dealing with latent variables and to test for possible mediation effects. The analysis demonstrated main effects of dating violence and father involvement on sexual behaviors. The more dating violence an adolescent girl experiences, the less likely she is to engage in healthy sexual behaviors. Likewise, the more involvement the biological father has in a woman's life, the more likely she is to engage in positive sexual behaviors. Perceived father involvement was associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls. Dating violence was directly associated with risky sexual behaviors among sexually experienced adolescent girls, particularly non-White girls. Future studies should use longitudinal models and test theoretically and empirically guided potential mediators. Future studies should also consider father figures such as step-fathers and grandfathers in addition to biological fathers, as having a father figure may be a stronger predictor of adolescent sexual behaviors than having a biological connection. © The Author(s) 2014.
Römkens, R.; Lünnemann, K.
The call for preventive interventions to curb domestic violence is becoming stronger. The barring order has been launched as an innovative approach to preventing domestic violence. It allows the police to temporarily bar the perpetrator of domestic violence from entering his or her home, as a way to
Their research looked at the root causes and impacts of violence against women and also assessed the effectiveness of existing strategies to prevent and combat gender-based violence. Their work has identified key strategies to strengthen civil society and public organizations engaged in preventing violence against ...
... Public Health Research on the Causes and Prevention of Gun Violence Memorandum for the Secretary of Health and Human Services In addition to being a law enforcement challenge, gun violence is also a... violence and the successful efforts in place for preventing the misuse of firearms. Taking these steps will...
Thaíse Campos Mondin
Full Text Available Abstract This article seeks to analyze the association between sexual violence, manic and depressive episodes, and suicide risk among young adults. This is a cross-sectional population-based study carried out with young people between 18 and 24 years of age in a town in southern Brazil. The sample was selected through clusters. The prevalence of sexual violence, manic, depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk were evaluated, as well as the association between them. The chi-square test and Poisson regression were used for statistical analysis. The study sample comprised 1,560 subjects. Among these, 3.1% had suffered sexual violence at some point in their life. The prevalence of depressive, mixed episodes, and (hypomanic episodes were 10%, 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Suicide risk had a prevalence of 8.6% in the total sample. Young people who have suffered sexual violence are more likely to be subject to mood changes or suicide risk than those who have not (p < 0.05, except for the occurrence of (hypomanic episodes. These results revealed a strong association between sexual violence and depressive and mixed episodes and suicide risk.
Go, Vivian F.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K.; Salter, Megan L.; Mehta, Shruti; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D.
With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women s risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations between sexual violence and HIV infection in India underscore the importance of understanding determinants of forced sex. A probability survey was conducted from June 2003 to August 2007 in Chennai, India among alcohol venue (“wine shops”) patrons to estimate the prevalence of sexual violence and to identify risk factors associated with perpetrating forced sex. Among 1499 men, 28.5% reported forced sex with at least one partner in the past 3 months. In multivariate analysis, earning income for less than 12 months a year, visiting the wine shop with friends, STD symptoms, perpetration of physical violence, and number of sexual partners were statistically significantly associated with perpetrating forced sex. Men who reported having 3 or more close friends were less likely to perpetrate violence. HIV interventions that facilitate formal groups that foster positive social support and address a range of HIV risk behaviors including sexually and physically abusive behaviors are recommended to reduce sexual violence. PMID:20692757
Sexual violence in armed conflict has traditionally received poor attention until recent years. It has been the "least condemned of war crimes" although, with the inception of the International Criminal Court and various other international courts and tribunals, convictions of high-profile aggressors are increasing. Only recently Charles Taylor, the President of Liberia, was convicted of war crimes and crimes against humanity which included rape and sexual slavery. He was sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. Is prosecution of these crimes sufficient to minimise sexual violence in war? That seems unlikely given the potential for such violence to be a cheap and effective strategy to terrorise a civilian population and "ethnically cleanse" the newly won territory. However, there is a remarkable variation in the levels of sexual violence in armed conflicts. Some, such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, have extremely low levels, whereas in Bosnia and many African states the prevalence of sexual violence is at epidemic levels. The reasons for such differences are many, however, some precipitating factors may be improved by strong military discipline, improved gender balance in armed forces, better political awareness by combatants of the aims of a campaign and pre-deployment ethical training.
The study of lethal violence and the study of sexual violence in war have mainly been two distinctive research fields within the literature on civilian victimization. Researchers and academics have tended to isolate these two types of violence, and chosen to focus either on the study of lethal violence or the study of war related sexual violence. Consequently, we have little knowledge about how these two types of violence relate to each other during war. One of the main focuses and questions ...
Remschmidt, H; Schmidt, M H; Strunk, P
Violence in families is rather frequent. Different forms of violent acts can be distinguished: violence between partners, violence between parents and children, violence among siblings, and violence against elder family members. This report gives an overview--with the emphasis on violence in families--of the work of the "Violence Commission" of the Federal Government. This commission worked out proposals for intervention in the case of intrafamiliar violence as well as for prevention. Two proposals of the commission are explained in detail: (1) Rejection of violence and prohibition of corporal punishment in education and (2) punishability of conjugal violation.
Erwin, Elizabeth Hite; Meyer, Aleta; McClain, Natalie
Auditing is an effective tool for articulating the trustworthiness and credibility of qualitative research. However, little information exists on how to conduct an audit. In this article, the authors illustrate their use of an audit team to explore the methods and preliminary findings of a study aimed at identifying the relevant and challenging problems experienced by urban teenagers. This study was the first in a series of studies to improve the ecological validity of violence prevention programs for high-risk urban teenagers, titled Identifying Essential Skills for Violence Prevention. The five phases of this audit were engaging the auditor, becoming familiar with the study, discussing methods and determining strengths and limitations, articulating audit findings, and planning subsequent research. Positioning the audit before producing final results allows researchers to address many study limitations, uncover potential sources of bias in the thematic structure, and systematically plan subsequent steps in an emerging design.
Aug 3, 2016 ... ... and reintegration have minimized their chances of relapsing into a life of crime. ... implementation of crime and violence prevention initiatives in the two communities. ... Using psychology to reduce violence in South Africa.
Zweig, Janine M.; Yahner, Jennifer; Dank, Meredith; Lachman, Pamela
Background: We examined whether substance use, psychosocial adjustment, and sexual experiences vary for teen dating violence victims by the type of violence in their relationships. We compared dating youth who reported no victimization in their relationships to those who reported being victims of intimate terrorism (dating violence involving one…
Alys M. Willman; Crystal Corman
Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is the most prevalent form of gender inequality. More than one third of the women in the world have experienced some form of gender based violence. The impacts of such violence extend far beyond the individual survivors, affecting households and communities, and spanning across generations. SGBV is widely recognized as a development constraint that f...
Schroll, Anne-Mette; Tabor, Ann; Kjaergaard, Hanne
To estimate the prevalence of self-reported lifetime violence and to assess whether women exposed to any physical violence or sexual violence (SEV) had a higher risk of having fear of childbirth (FOC) before, during or after delivery compared with women without such history....
Breiding, Matthew J.; Smith, Sharon G.
Objectives. To examine the relative prevalence of recent (past 12 months) penetrative and nonpenetrative sexual violence comparing men and women with and without a disability. Methods. Data are from the 2010 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a national telephone survey of US adults, and includes an expansive measure of sexual violence victimization. A total of 9086 women and 7421 men completed the telephone survey in 2010. Results. Compared with persons without a disability, persons with a disability were at increased risk for recent rape for women (adjusted odds ratio = 3.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.6, 6.7), and being made to penetrate a perpetrator for men (adjusted odds ratio = 4.2; 95% confidence interval = 1.6, 10.8). An estimated 39% of women raped in the 12 months preceding the survey had a disability at the time of the rape. For women and men, having a disability was associated with an increased risk of sexual coercion and noncontact unwanted sexual experiences. Conclusions. In this nationally representative sample, men and women with a disability were at increased risk for recent sexual violence, compared to those without a disability. PMID:26890182
Full Text Available Legal consciousness scholars identify the ways in which law is referenced to authorize, define and evaluate behaviors and choices that occur far outside any formal legal framework. They define legality as the “meanings, sources of authority, and cultural practices that are commonly recognized as legal, regardless of who employs them or for what ends.” We use the idea of legality to argue that, in matters of sexual assault and rape, the limits of the law extend beyond the courtroom. Rather than simply influencing or guiding only those who are willing to consult the law in their efforts to seek justice, laws and legal discourse have the potential to frame and constrain any attempt to discuss experiences of sexual violence. #MeToo and other forms of “consciousness-raising” for sexual violence highlight the limiting effects of law and legal discourse on public discussion of sexual violence. We find that, paradoxically, in the case of sexual violence law has the capacity to undermine the goals and benefits of consciousness-raising approaches, privatizing the experience of sexual assault and silencing its victims.
Harris, Christine R
The specific innate modular theory of jealousy hypothesizes that natural selection shaped sexual jealousy as a mechanism to prevent cuckoldry, and emotional jealousy as a mechanism to prevent resource loss. Therefore, men should be primarily jealous over a mate's sexual infidelity and women over a mate's emotional infidelity. Five lines of evidence have been offered as support: self-report responses, psychophysiological data, domestic violence (including spousal abuse and homicide), and morbid jealousy cases. This article reviews each line of evidence and finds only one hypothetical measure consistent with the hypothesis. This, however, is contradicted by a variety of other measures (including reported reactions to real infidelity). A meta-analysis of jealousy-inspired homicides, taking into account base rates for murder, found no evidence that jealousy disproportionately motivates men to kill. The findings are discussed from a social-cognitive theoretical perspective.
Hackman, Christine L.; Pember, Sarah E.; Wilkerson, Amanda H.; Burton, Wanda; Usdan, Stuart L.
Sexual violence is a significant public health issue on US college campuses. This qualitative study aimed to better understand college student perceptions of sexual violence and bystander intervention. Gendered group and individual interviews were conducted with male (n = 3) and female (n = 12) undergraduates. Eight major themes emerged which…
Garrity, Mary Kate
This social constructivist/constructionist research explores changes in female therapists' intimate relationships after they began working with survivors of female sexual violence. Discourse analysis found that working with survivors shifted participants' initially naive understanding of female sexual violence, as they developed a critical…
Scriver, Stacey; Kennedy, Kieran M.
Sexual violence is a serious and prevalent violation that is experienced by as many as one in three people worldwide. Professionals working in areas of health, social work, law, policy-development and other fields engage with survivors of sexual violence. Their knowledge of this issue is an important determinant in how they react towards survivors…
Holmes, Scott; Flood, Michael
This report examines the role of workplaces, and men in workplaces in particular, in preventing men's violence against women. The report begins by noting that men's violence against women is a widespread social problem which requires urgent action. It highlights the need for preventative measures oriented to changing the social and structural conditions at the root of this violence, including through settings such as workplaces. Men's violence against women is a workplace issue. As well as be...
José Wilson de Lima; Maria de Fátima Pereira Alberto; Viviane Martinho dos Santos; Kahyna Leite Brito; Suzany Ludimila Gadelha e Silva
This article has as objectives to characterize the cases of sexual violence against children and adolescents found in the records of complaints, notices and prosecutions at the Child and Youth Court in the county of João Pessoa and to analyze the risks to the victims of such violence regarding the decisions, procedures and prosecutions that do not guarantee the protection and enforcement of fundamental rights. The instrument used to collect data was a research protocol analyzed by frequency a...
Overstreet, Nicole M.; Willie, Tiara C.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Sullivan, Tami P.
BACKGROUND Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. METHODS The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 HIV-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. FINDINGS Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. CONCLUSION Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women’s sexual health outcomes are discussed. PMID:25498762
Overstreet, Nicole M; Willie, Tiara C; Hellmuth, Julianne C; Sullivan, Tami P
Research has examined how physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization increases sexual risk behavior, yet research is lacking on 1) the effect of psychological IPV on sexual risk behavior and 2) factors through which psychological IPV may be linked to sexual risk behavior. The current study examined the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior controlling for other forms of IPV (i.e., physical and sexual) in a sample of 186 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative community women currently experiencing IPV. Further, this study examined the potential mediating effects of four posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity clusters (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) on this relationship. Results revealed that greater severity of psychological IPV was uniquely and directly related to greater sexual risk behavior. Additionally, of the four PTSD symptom severity clusters, only avoidance symptom severity mediated the relationship between psychological IPV and sexual risk behavior. Implications for addressing psychological IPV and PTSD to improve women's sexual health outcomes are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Delziovo, Carmem Regina; Coelho, Elza Berger Salema; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Lindner, Sheila Rubia
This is a study on sexual violence against women in the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina notified to the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) in the period 20082013. It aimed to estimate pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) resulting from sexual violence and to test the association between pregnancy, STIs and care provided in health services. In total, 1,230 pregnancy notifications and 1.316 STI notifications were analyzed. Variables were age, schooling, time to receive care, STI prophylaxis, emergency contraception, number of perpetrators and recurrent violence, which were analyzed using proportions and 95% confidence intervals. Associations were tested by adjusted and non-adjusted logistic regression with values expressed in odds ratio. The occurrence of pregnancy was 7.6%. Receiving care within 72 hours and emergency contraception were protective factors. The occurrence of STIs was 3.5%. Care within 72 hours and prophylaxis did not result in lower proportions of STIs. Further studies are required regarding this issue.
Full Text Available This paper reflects on the significance of the legal treatment of sexual violence in contexts of armed conflict. What are the physical and emotional effects of the widespread use of rape as a weapon of war? In what way are women objectified and how are the implications of this projected into the social reference group? In order to answer these questions, first, a review is made of the international standards of legal protection against sexual violence. Then two case studies are analysed: Sepur Zarco in Guatemala and Manta and Vilca in Peru. In these cases,for the first time, national legal systems, based on international humanitarian law, have established a legal basis to punish sexual violence crimes within armed conflict contexts as crimes against humanity.
Salazar, Laura F; Swartout, Kevin M; Swahn, Monica H; Bellis, Alexandra L; Carney, Jhetari; Vagi, Kevin J; Lokey, Colby
Sexual violence (SV) perpetration on college campuses is a serious and prevalent public health issue in the U.S. In response, incoming male freshmen are mandated to receive SV prevention programming. To provide a more effective response, however, we need to understand the SV behaviors of male freshmen before they arrive on campus and the associated factors that contribute to risk and that afford protection, areas that have received limited attention. Male freshmen (N = 1,133) across 30 selected 4-year colleges and universities throughout the state of Georgia were recruited for a longitudinal study on SV perpetration. Levels of precollege SV as well as a range of covariates were assessed at baseline. Self-reported SV perpetrators were compared with nonperpetrators on demographic and hypothesized covariates deemed either risk or protective; then risk and protective models were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Weighted analyses revealed that 19.3% self-reported perpetrating SV before college. Before starting college, young men who reported more sexual media consumption, heavy episodic drinking, hypermasculine beliefs, and peers who endorsed SV were more likely to have a history of SV perpetration at college matriculation. Alternatively, men with more knowledge of effective sexual consent and stronger family functioning were less likely to arrive to college with an SV perpetration history. A significant proportion of incoming male freshmen have perpetrated SV previously. Colleges and universities need to assess incoming freshmen for risk behaviors and negative beliefs and to offer both primary and secondary preventions to more effectively reduce further perpetration. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Powell, Anastasia; Henry, Nicola
Online forms of sexual harassment and abuse as experienced by adults represent an emerging yet under-researched set of behaviors, such that very few studies have sought to estimate the extent of the problem. This article presents the results of an online survey of 2,956 Australian adult (aged 18 to 54 years) experiences of technology-facilitated sexual violence (TFSV) victimization. The prevalence of TFSV was analyzed in relation to a 21-item scale developed in accordance with prior conceptual research identifying multiple dimensions of TFSV including digital sexual harassment, image-based sexual abuse, sexual aggression and/or coercion, and, gender and/or sexuality-based harassment (including virtual sexual violence). Results revealed significant differences in lifetime TFSV victimization for younger (18-24) and non-heterosexual identifying adults. Lifetime TFSV victimization for men and women was not significantly different, though women were more likely to report sexual harassment victimization and men were more likely to report victimization through the distribution of non-consensual images, as well as gender and/or sexuality-based harassment. The authors conclude that although women and men report experiencing similar overall prevalence of TFSV victimization, the nature and impacts of those experiences differ in particular gendered ways that reflect broader patterns in both gender relations and "offline" sexual harassment.
Lanza, Marilyn; Ridenour, Marilyn; Hendricks, Scott; Rierdan, Jill; Zeiss, Robert; Schmidt, Satu; Lovelace, Jeff; Amandus, Harlan
The Violence Prevention Community Meeting (VPCM) is a specialized form of community meeting in which avoiding violence and promoting non-violent problem solving and interpersonal civility are focal points. A nationwide study to assess the VPCM as an effective intervention to reduce workplace violence was undertaken. Seven acute locked psychiatric units of the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) throughout the United States participated in the study. All patients and all staff on the seven in-patient locked psychiatry units participated in the intervention (VPCM) or as a control (treatment as usual). The study was 21weeks at each site. The three time periods were pre-treatment weeks 1-3, treatment weeks 4-18, and post-treatment weeks 19-21. The VPCM was conducted during the treatment weeks. Overall rates of aggression declined by 0.6% (95% CI: -5.6%, 6.5%; nonsignificant) per week in the intervention hospitals and by 5.1% (95% CI: 0.4%, 9.6%; significant) per week for the control hospitals. Aggression decreased for both the intervention and control hospitals which could be due to enrollment in a research study and thus being more aware of their ability to address workplace violence at their site. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Sheehan, K; DiCara, J A; LeBailly, S; Christoffel, K K
This study assessed the effectiveness of an inner-city peer-mentoring program in modifying the attitudes and behaviors involving violence of preadolescent mentees. In a case-matched cohort study involving 7- to 13-year-old children, 50 children enrolled in peer mentoring (case subjects) were compared with 75 control subjects. Case subjects were involved before enrollment in the community program in which the intervention occurred; control subjects lived in the same housing project and were matched with case subjects on age, sex, and census tract. A total of 19 community adolescents mentored the case subjects by designing and presenting violence prevention lessons. Two reliable self-report scales, Determining our Viewpoints of Violent Events and Normative Beliefs About Aggression Scale, were used to measure attitudinal change. Teachers completed the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist to assess changes in behavior. At baseline, the survey scores of the case and control subjects were not different. After the intervention period, the case scores indicated less support for violence than the control scores. Case behavior scores did not change, but control behavior scores worsened. The data suggest that peer mentoring for younger children may be an important component of efforts to reduce youth violence. A larger multisite trial is warranted.
Aline Riboli Marasca
Full Text Available Violence in the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents is a theme that has been highlighted by the literature as a result of its high rates of prevalence. It has different characteristics, while many factors are shown to be associated with its occurrence. The present study investigated the affective-sexual relationships of adolescents, focusing on the experiences as perpetrators and victims of different types of violence between partners. We conducted a quantitative study with a descriptive, comparative and correlational design, with 124 heterosexual adolescents, aged 15 to 18 years (M = 15.94, SD = 0.65. As measurement instruments we used a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Family Background Questionnaire (FBQ, and the Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (CADRI. The results showed percentages of violence that ranged from 14.7% for relational abuse committed to 97% for verbal/emotional violence suffered. We identified significant gender differences in the dimensions of threatening behavior (t = -3.172, p = 0.002 and physical violence (t = -3.037, p = 0.003 perpetrated by the participant, indicating that it is the girls who report that they practice this type of violence more often. No significant correlation was observed between experiences of violence in the family of origin and in the relationship with the partner (p > 0.05. However, there was an association between the occurrence of violence in the relationships of the adolescents and the presence of violence in the affective-sexual relationships of friends (p < 0.05. We highlight the importance of expanding the field of theory regarding this phenomenon, in order to assist with future interventions.
Kozak, Rebecca Shoaf; Gushwa, Melinda; Cadet, Tamara J
Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a major public health issue with significant short- and long-term consequences. However, little contemporary research has examined the relationship between CSA and delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. Children who have been sexually abused experience a unique form of victimization compared to children who have endured other forms of maltreatment, as CSA can result in feelings of shame, powerlessness and boundary violations. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of CSA on delinquent and violent behavior in adolescence. We examined self-report data at the age 18 interview from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) on measures of sexual abuse experience, and engagement in delinquent and violent behavior in the past year. All participants reported either a history of maltreatment or were identified at-risk based on demographic risk factors. Participants included 368 males and 445 females who self-reported experiences of CSA and delinquent and violent behavior (N = 813). Findings indicated that, when controlling for gender and race, the odds of engagement in delinquent and violent behavior for those who have experienced CSA are 1.7 times higher than for those who have not. Additionally, female victims of CSA were .52 times less likely to engage in violent and delinquent behavior compared to their male counterparts. Further efforts are needed to examine the effects of CSA on violent and delinquent behavior to better guide treatment efforts that prevent juvenile justice involvement.